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Main

M i Memory
M
Database Systems

Behnam Dezfouli

Fall 2006
M i M
Main Memory D
Database
t b

„ Using physical memory as primary storage


and p
probably
y a disk subsystem
y for backup
p

„ Primary copy lives permanently in Memory

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Main Memory Databases
Vs.
Disk Resident Databases

„ MMDB : the primary copy of data live permanently in


main
i memory
DRDB : the primary copy of data is permanently disk
resident

„ MMDB : there can be a backup copy, resident on disk


DRDB : data can be temporarily cached in main memory
for access speed up

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Main Memory Databases
Vs.
Disk Resident Databases (Differences)
… Access time of MMDB, orders of magnitude less than
for disks
… MMDB is normally volatile
„ Nonvolatile memory possible (at some cost)
… Disks have high fixed cost per access independent of
the amount of the retrieved data (Block Oriented)
… Sequential access is not important in MMDB, while is
important in DRDB
… MMDB data are more vulnerable to software errors,
since they can be directly accessed by the processor

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Why
y and when to use MMDB?

„ Motivations:
… Insome cases when DB is of limited size.
… Requirement of short Access/Response time and
better transaction throughput
… Applications handling high traffic of data, e.g. Router.
… Real-Time applications :
Telecommunication, Radar tracking

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Why and when to use MMDB?
„ When DB does not fit in memory:
„ There might be different classes of data (e
(e.g.,
g satellite
image data)
„ Hot data: frequently
q y access,, low volume
„ Cold data: accesses rarely, voluminous
„ So partition data into logical DBs
„ Possibility of Migration
„ In Telecommunication:
„ R ti ttable:
Routing bl H Hott C
Customer’s
t ’ ddata:
t C Cold
ld
„ Fast Path

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MMDB Vs. DRDB with a very large cache

„ Not taking full advantage of memory


… indexdesigned for disk access (B
(B-Tree)
Tree)
… Access through Buffer Manager

„ Better to use memory addresses


(optimization)

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Special hardware for nonvolatile
memory? Is that reliable?
„ Even if special hardware can enhance MM reliability (by UPS,
battery, error detection) , periodic backup is necessary
„ Several Factors:
1. MMDB is vulnerable due to direct access by processor,
content is lost if system crashes

2. If a single memory board fails, the entire machine must be


powered down , so loosing all data. Need to recent backup

3. Battery backed memory or UPS are active devices. Disks are


passive devices: Don’t have to do anything to remember data

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Concurrency
Co cu e cy Co
Control
to
„ Lock based, used in MMDB
„ Faster transaction completion, lock contentions may not
be as important as DRDB
„ Advantage of small lock granules is removed (contention)
„ If entire DB :
„ serial execution (desirable), like TPK in Princeton, but not
practical in long transactions
„ Less cache flushes

„ Conventional systems: hash table for locked objects


„ In MMDB: IMS uses two bits in each object

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Commit Processing
„ Necessary to have Backup and Log (in stable storage)
„ Before commit, activity records written to log
„ Ö Affects on response time and throughput (bottleneck log)
„ Solutions:
„ Small amount of stable main memory for log (special
processor), MARS and MM-DBMS
„ Pre-committing:
Pre committing: releasing locks as soon as log records are in
log, without waiting for propagation to disk
„ Group commit: reduce log bottleneck, single operation
commits multiple transactions

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MMDB Access Methods
„ Index structures like B-Trees designed for block oriented storage.
Not useful is MMDB.
„ Hashing:
… Fast lookup & updating
… Not as space efficient as a tree
„ MMDB trees need not to be short and bushy.

„ Trees such as T-Tree designed for MMDB.

… Index structures store pointers to indexed data, eliminates problem of


storing variable length fields in and index, so saves space

… Pointers are of fixed short lengths

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MMDB Data Representation

„ S
Space consuming
i d due tto d
duplicate
li t values
l (i
(in conventional
ti l systems)
t )

„ In a MMDB:
… Relational tuples can be represented as a set of pointers to data
values
… use of pointers is space efficient when large values appear
multiple times in the database
„ the actual value needs to only be stored once
… Pointers also simplify the handling of variable length fields since
variable length data can be represented using pointers into a
heap

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MMDB Query
y Processing
g

„ Query processing for DRDB focus on reducing disk access costs


„ Query processing techniques based on fast sequential access lose
that advantage

„ Query processing for MMDB must focus on reducing


processing costs
… Operation costs vary from system to system
… No general optimization technique

„ Example:
a p e jo
joining
g relations
e at o s R a
and
dSo
over
e a co
common
o att
attribute
bute

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Recovery
y
„ In MMDB:
„ Checkpointing and recovery are the only reasons to access to the
disk resident copy of DB

„ Application
pp cat o transactions
t a sact o s never
e e require
equ e access to ddisk
s resident
es de t data
„ Disk access can be tailored to suite the needs of checkpointing
alone
„ Disk I/O using
g very
y large
g block size

„ After failure:
„ restore data from disk resident backup
„ Update using the log
„ Load blocks of the DB “on demand”
„ Disk striping or disk arrays

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Application
pp Programming
g g Interface and
Protection
„ In conventional systems: application calls database system, giving the
object id and address of a private buffer in its address space
„ In MMDB: using the actual memory position of object
„ First time by relation name and primary key
„ S b
Subsequent t accesses by
b memory address
dd
„ Eliminates translation and buffer copying
„ Commits the system to leave the object in place

„ Potential problems:
„ Direct access causes unauthorized access
„ S t
System has
h no way off knowing
k i whath t has
h b bees modified
difi d

„ Solution: run transactions compiled by special DB system compiler

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Conclusion

„ Main Memory has short response time, and its decreasing cost
makes it affordable and suitable for real-time applications

„ as memory becomes cheaper, it becomes cost effective to keep


more and more data permanently in memory. This implies that
memory resident database systems will become more common in
the future

„ mechanisms
ec a s s and
a d opt
optimizations
at o s we
e have
a e discussed
d scussed in tthis
s pape
paper will
become commonplace

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