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IP UNIVERSITATEA DE STAT DE MEDICINĂ ŞI FARMACIE

„Nicolae Testemiţanu”

РАБОЧАЯ ТЕТРАДЬ
ПО АНАЛИТИЧЕСКОЙ ХИМИИ
(КАЧЕСТВЕННЫЙ ХИМИЧЕСКИЙ АНАЛИЗ)

для студентов II курса,


ФАРМАЦЕВТИЧЕСКОГО ФАКУЛЬТЕТА

ФАМИЛИЯ, ИМЯ ………………………………………............


ГРУППА …………………………………………….......................

2021
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ЛАБОРАТОРНАЯ РАБОТА №1

ПРАВИЛА РАБОТЫ В ХИМИЧЕСКОЙ ЛАБОРАТОРИИ. ОСНОВНЫЕ ПРОЦЕССЫ, ИСПОЛЬЗУЕМЫЕ В


КАЧЕСТВЕННОМ ХИМИЧЕСКОМ АНАЛИЗЕ.

ПРАВИЛА РАБОТЫ В ХИМИЧЕСКОЙ ЛАБОРАТОРИИ

 Работать одному в лаборатории категорически запрещается, так как при возникновении несчастного случая некому будет оказать помощь
пострадавшему и ликвидировать последствия аварии.
 Перед выполнением работы необходимо ознакомиться с её описанием и продумать все действия, которые необходимо будет выполнить.
Если при выполнении работы используются приборы и установки, то следует изучить их устройство и правила работы с ними.
 Во время работы в лаборатории необходимо соблюдать чистоту, тишину, порядок и правила техники безопасности. На лабораторном столе
могут находиться только те вещества и предметы, которые необходимы для выполнения работы.
 В химической лаборатории можно работать только в специальном халате. Халат должен быть застёгнут на все пуговицы. Длинные волосы
необходимо убрать в пучок или иным способом.
 Работы с токсичными, легковоспламеняющимися или горючими веществами необходимо проводить только в вытяжном шкафу с
включённой вытяжкой.
 В лаборатории категорически запрещается хранить продукты питания и принимать пищу.
 При выполнении опытов необходимо использовать только целую и чистую лабораторную посуду.
 На любой посуде, в которой хранятся реактивы, должны быть этикетки с указанием названия веществ.
 Вещества не должны попадать на кожу лица и рук, так как они могут вызвать раздражение кожи и слизистых оболочек.
 Твёрдые химические реактивы можно брать только шпателем или пинцетом. Категорически запрещается брать реактивы руками!
 Работу с кислотами, твёрдыми щелочами, едкими и токсичными веществами следует проводить только в защитных очках и перчатках. При
растворении твёрдых щелочей в воде необходимо добавлять щёлочь небольшими порциями в воду, избегая перегревания раствора.
Разбавление кислот или щелочей необходимо производить в жаростойкой посуде.
 При разбавлении концентрированных кислот и щелочей необходимо небольшими порциями при постоянном перемешивании приливать
кислоту (или концентрированный раствор щёлочи) в воду, а не наоборот. Растворение кислот и щелочей в воде сопровождается
выделением большого количества теплоты, что может привести к закипанию смеси, её разбрызгиванию и попаданию в глаза, на лицо и
руки.
 Жидкие химические вещества следует переливать, пользуясь воронкой. Склянку, из которой переливают жидкость, необходимо держать
этикеткой к руке, чтобы не испортить надпись на ней.
 Категорически запрещается набирать жидкости в пипетки ртом. Для набора жидкости в пипетку используется специальная груша.
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 Неизрасходованные реактивы нельзя высыпать или выливать обратно в сосуды, из которых они были взяты.
 Нельзя бросать в раковину фильтровальную бумагу, вату, стекла от разбитой посуды.
 Нельзя зажигать спиртовку от другой спиртовки, так как спирт может пролиться и загореться, что приведёт к возникновению пожара.
Нельзя задувать пламя спиртовки. Чтобы погасить пламя, спиртовку следует закрыть колпачком.
 При нагревании растворов и веществ в пробирке необходимо использовать держатель. Пробирку следует заполнять не более чем на
половину её объёма. Прежде чем приступить к нагреванию содержимого пробирки, её следует равномерно прогреть в пламени спиртовки.
Во время нагревания жидких и твёрдых веществ в пробирках и колбах нельзя направлять отверстия сосудов на себя и на соседей, так как
может произойти внезапный выброс вещества. Нельзя наклоняться над сосудом, в котором происходит нагревание или кипение жидкости.
 Легковоспламеняющиеся и горючие жидкости категорически нельзя нагревать на открытом пламени, так как это может привести к пожару.
 Вещества в лаборатории категорически запрещается пробовать на вкус. Для определения запаха вещества нужно ладонью руки сделать
движение от отверстия сосуда к носу и осторожно вдохнуть.
 При ожоге кислотой необходимо немедленно промыть пораженное место большим количеством воды, а затем двухпроцентным раствором
соды.
 При ожоге щёлочью необходимо длительное промывание поражённого места под струёй воды, а затем однопроцентным раствором борной
или уксусной кислоты.
 При ожоге глаз кислотой или щёлочью необходимо немедленно промыть глаза водой в течение длительного времени и в случае
необходимости обратиться к врачу.
 После завершения работы необходимо привести рабочее место в порядок, использованную лабораторную посуду следует помыть!

С правилами работы в химической лаборатории ознакомлен(а):

Имя ………………………………………............
Группа ……………………………………………....
Дата ……………………………………………....

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АНАЛИТИЧЕСКИЕ РЕАКЦИИ И РЕАКТИВЫ

Аналитическими реакциями называются ….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………


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Аналитический эффект (сигнал) реакции это ...………………………………………………………………………………………………………
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Реакции обнаружения - ……………………………………..……………………………………………………………………………………………


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a) Общие реакции …………………………………………………………………………...……………………………………………………………..


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Пример:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
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b) Избирательные реакции ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…..


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Пример:…………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………..
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c) Специфические реакции ...……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………....


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Групповой реактив - ….……………….………………………………...………………………………………………………………………………..


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Фармакопейные реакции это …………………………………………………….………………………………………...……………………………


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По способу выполнения аналитические реакции можно разделить на две большие группы:

• реакции, проводимые по «сухому» пути


………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Пример:……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
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• реакции, проводимые по «мокрому» пути

Примеры:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
.
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По логике проведения выделяют систематический и дробный качественный химический анализ:


.………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Дробный анализ -………………………..……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
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Систематический анализ -………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
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ЛАБОРАТОРНАЯ РАБОТА №2

АНАЛИЗ КАТИОНОВ ПЕРВОЙ АНАЛИТИЧЕСКОЙ ГРУППЫ

1. Характеристика катионов I аналитической группы


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Реакции обнаружения

УРАВНЕНИЕ РЕАКЦИИ УСЛОВИЯ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ АНАЛИТИЧЕСКИЙ


КАТИОН РЕАКТИВ
(в ионной форме!) РЕАКЦИИ ЭФФЕКТ

K+
……………..
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K+
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K+
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K+
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УРАВНЕНИЕ РЕАКЦИИ УСЛОВИЯ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ АНАЛИТИЧЕСКИЙ
КАТИОН РЕАКТИВ
(в ионной форме!) РЕАКЦИИ ЭФФЕКТ

Na+
…………………………
………………………….

Na+
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...............................

Li+ …………………………
………………………….

Li+ …………………………
………………………….

NaF

…………………………
Li+
………………………….

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УРАВНЕНИЕ РЕАКЦИИ УСЛОВИЯ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ АНАЛИТИЧЕСКИЙ
КАТИОН РЕАКТИВ
(в ионной форме!) РЕАКЦИИ ЭФФЕКТ

NH4+
……………..
………………

NH4+
…………………
………………….

Реакции окрашивания пламени:

K+ - .................................................................................................................................

Na+ - .................................................................................................................................

Li+ - .................................................................................................................................

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Анализ смеси катионов I аналитической группы
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ВЫВОД: ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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ЛАБОРАТОРНАЯ РАБОТА №3

АНАЛИЗ КАТИОНОВ II АНАЛИТИЧЕСКОЙ ГРУППЫ

1. Характеристика катионов II аналитической группы


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Продукты общих и избирательных реакций катионов II аналитической группы

РЕАКТИВЫ Ag+ Hg22+ Pb2+

HCl

NaOH

H2S

NH3 (изб.)

KI

K2CrO4

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Реакции обнаружения

УРАВНЕНИЕ РЕАКЦИИ УСЛОВИЯ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ АНАЛИТИЧЕСКИЙ


КАТИОН РЕАКТИВ
(в ионной форме!) РЕАКЦИИ ЭФФЕКТ

Ag+
……………………….

Ag+
……………………….

Ag+
……………………………..

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УРАВНЕНИЕ РЕАКЦИИ УСЛОВИЯ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ АНАЛИТИЧЕСКИЙ
КАТИОН РЕАКТИВ
(в ионной форме!) РЕАКЦИИ ЭФФЕКТ

Hg22+
……………………….

Hg22+
……………………….

Hg22+ ……………………………..

Hg22+
……………………………..

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УРАВНЕНИЕ РЕАКЦИИ УСЛОВИЯ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ АНАЛИТИЧЕСКИЙ
КАТИОН РЕАКТИВ
(в ионной форме!) РЕАКЦИИ ЭФФЕКТ

Pb2+
……………………….

Pb2+
……………………….

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Анализ смеси катионов II аналитической группы
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ВЫВОД: ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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АНАЛИЗ КАТИОНОВ III АНАЛИТИЧЕСКОЙ ГРУППЫ

1. Характеристика катионов III аналитической группы


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Продукты общих реакций катионов III аналитической группы

РЕАКТИВЫ Ba2+ Ca2+

H2SO4

(NH4)2C2O4

Na2CO3 или

(NH4)2CO3

Na2HPO4

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Реакции обнаружения
УСЛОВИЯ
УРАВНЕНИЕ РЕАКЦИИ АНАЛИТИЧЕСКИЙ
КАТИОН РЕАКТИВ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ
(в ионной форме!) ЭФФЕКТ
РЕАКЦИИ

Ba2+
……………………….

Ba2+
……………………….

Ca2+
……………………………..

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УСЛОВИЯ
УРАВНЕНИЕ РЕАКЦИИ АНАЛИТИЧЕСКИЙ
КАТИОН РЕАКТИВ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ
(в ионной форме!) ЭФФЕКТ
РЕАКЦИИ

Ca2+
…………………
………………….

Ca2+
……………………….

Реакция окрашивания пламени:

Ca2+ - .................................................................................................................................

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Анализ смеси катионов III аналитической группы
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ВЫВОД: ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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ЛАБОРАТОРНАЯ РАБОТА № 4

АНАЛИЗ СМЕСИ КАТИОНОВ I - III АНАЛИТИЧЕСКИХ ГРУПП

1. Предварительные испытания:
a) .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

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b) .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

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c) .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

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d) .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

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24
2. Систематический анализ смеси катионов I – III аналитических групп
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25
ЛАБОРАТОРНАЯ РАБОТА № 5

АНАЛИЗ КАТИОНОВ IV АНАЛИТИЧЕСКОЙ ГРУППЫ

1. Характеристика катионов IV аналитической группы:


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26
Продукты общих и избирательных реакций катионов IV аналитической группы

РЕАКТИВЫ Al3+ Cr3+ Zn2+ As(III) As(V)

NaOH

(1:1)

NaOH

(избыток)

NH3

(избыток)

H2S

Na2CO3

Na2HPO4

27
Реакции обнаружения

УРАВНЕНИЕ РЕАКЦИИ УСЛОВИЯ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ АНАЛИТИЧЕСКИЙ


КАТИОН РЕАКТИВ
(в ионной форме!) РЕАКЦИИ ЭФФЕКТ

Co(NO3)2
Al3+
……………………….

Al3+

……………………….

NaOH + NH4Cl

Al3+ ……………………………..

Al3+

..................................

28
УРАВНЕНИЕ РЕАКЦИИ УСЛОВИЯ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ АНАЛИТИЧЕСКИЙ
КАТИОН РЕАКТИВ
(в ионной форме!) РЕАКЦИИ ЭФФЕКТ

Zn2+
…………………
………………….

Zn2+
……………………….

Co(NO3)2

Zn2+ ……………………….

Реакция окисления
Cr3+
Cr(III) до H2Cr2O6

29
УРАВНЕНИЕ РЕАКЦИИ УСЛОВИЯ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ АНАЛИТИЧЕСКИЙ
КАТИОН РЕАКТИВ
(в ионной форме!) РЕАКЦИИ ЭФФЕКТ

As(III)
………………….

As(III)
……………………….

Zn

As(III) ……………………….

I2

As(III) ……………………….

30
УРАВНЕНИЕ РЕАКЦИИ УСЛОВИЯ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ АНАЛИТИЧЕСКИЙ
КАТИОН РЕАКТИВ
(в ионной форме!) РЕАКЦИИ ЭФФЕКТ

As(V)
………………….

As(V)
……………………….

Zn

As(V) ……………………….

As(V) ……………………….

31
Анализ смеси катионов IV аналитической группы
........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

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ВЫВОД: ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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32
ЛАБОРАТОРНАЯ РАБОТА № 6

АНАЛИЗ КАТИОНОВ V АНАЛИТИЧЕСКОЙ ГРУППЫ

1. Характеристика катионов V аналитической группы:


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33
Продукты общих и избирательных реакций катионов V аналитической группы

РЕАКТИВЫ
Fe2+ Fe3+ Mn2+ Mg2+ Bi3+

NaOH

NaOH + H2O2

NH3

H2S

Na2CO3

Na2HPO4

34
Реакции обнаружения

УРАВНЕНИЕ РЕАКЦИИ УСЛОВИЯ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ АНАЛИТИЧЕСКИЙ


КАТИОН РЕАКТИВ
(в ионной форме!) РЕАКЦИИ ЭФФЕКТ

Fe2+
……………………….

Fe2+
……………………….

Fe2+

……………………………..

35
УРАВНЕНИЕ РЕАКЦИИ УСЛОВИЯ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ АНАЛИТИЧЕСКИЙ
КАТИОН РЕАКТИВ
(в ионной форме!) РЕАКЦИИ ЭФФЕКТ

Fe3+
…………………
………………….

KSCN

Fe3+ ……………………….

PbO2

Mn2+ ……………………….

NaBiO3

Mn2+ ……………………….

36
УРАВНЕНИЕ РЕАКЦИИ УСЛОВИЯ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ АНАЛИТИЧЕСКИЙ
КАТИОН РЕАКТИВ
(в ионной форме!) РЕАКЦИИ ЭФФЕКТ

Bi3+
………………….

Bi3+
……………………….

Bi3+ KI

……………………….

Bi3+ ……………………….

37
УРАВНЕНИЕ РЕАКЦИИ УСЛОВИЯ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ АНАЛИТИЧЕСКИЙ
КАТИОН РЕАКТИВ
(в ионной форме!) РЕАКЦИИ ЭФФЕКТ

Mg2+ Na2HPO4

……………………….

Mg2+

..................................

38
Анализ смеси катионов V аналитической группы
........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

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ВЫВОД: ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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39
ЛАБОРАТОРНАЯ РАБОТА № 7

АНАЛИЗ КАТИОНОВ VI АНАЛИТИЧЕСКОЙ ГРУППЫ

1. Характеристика катионов VI аналитической группы:


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40
Продукты общих и избирательных реакций катионов VI аналитической группы

РЕАКТИВЫ
Cu2+ Hg2+ Co2+ Ni2+

NaOH

NH3 (разб.)

NH3 (конц.)

NH3 (конц.) +
NH4Cl

H2 S

Na2CO3

41
Реакции обнаружения

УРАВНЕНИЕ РЕАКЦИИ УСЛОВИЯ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ АНАЛИТИЧЕСКИЙ


КАТИОН РЕАКТИВ
(в ионной форме!) РЕАКЦИИ ЭФФЕКТ

Cu2+
……………………….

Fe
Cu2+
……………………….

Cu2+
……………………………..

Cu2+
…………………

KI
Cu2+
……………………….

42
УСЛОВИЯ
УРАВНЕНИЕ РЕАКЦИИ АНАЛИТИЧЕСКИЙ
КАТИОН РЕАКТИВ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ
(в ионной форме!) ЭФФЕКТ
РЕАКЦИИ

Hg2+
……………………….

KI
Hg2+
……………………….

Hg2+
……………………………..

Hg2+
…………………

Hg2+

……………………….

43
УРАВНЕНИЕ РЕАКЦИИ УСЛОВИЯ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ АНАЛИТИЧЕСКИЙ
КАТИОН РЕАКТИВ
(в ионной форме!) РЕАКЦИИ ЭФФЕКТ

Co2+ NH4SCN

……………………….

Co2+ Zn(NO3)2

……………………….

Co2+

………………..…….

………………………

44
УРАВНЕНИЕ РЕАКЦИИ УСЛОВИЯ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ АНАЛИТИЧЕСКИЙ
КАТИОН РЕАКТИВ
(в ионной форме!) РЕАКЦИИ ЭФФЕКТ

Ni2+
……………………….

Ni2+

………………………….

…………………………..

45
Анализ смеси катионов VI аналитической группы
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ВЫВОД: ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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46
ЛАБОРАТОРНАЯ РАБОТА № 8

АНАЛИЗ СМЕСИ КАТИОНОВ IV - VI АНАЛИТИЧЕСКИХ ГРУПП

1. Предварительные испытания:
a) ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

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b) ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

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c) .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

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d) .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

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47
2. Систематический анализ катионов IV – VI аналитических групп
........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

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48
ЛАБОРАТОРНАЯ РАБОТА №9

АНАЛИЗ АНИОНОВ ПЕРВОЙ АНАЛИТИЧЕСКОЙ ГРУППЫ

1. Характеристика анионов
...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

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...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

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49
Реакции обнаружения анионов первой аналитической группы
УРАВНЕНИЕ РЕАКЦИИ УСЛОВИЯ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ АНАЛИТИЧЕСКИЙ
АНИОН РЕАКТИВ
(в ионной форме!) РЕАКЦИИ ЭФФЕКТ

……………..
...............

................

…………………
……………

……………
……………………….

……………………….

...............

................
……………………….

……………

……………
……………………….
50
УРАВНЕНИЕ РЕАКЦИИ УСЛОВИЯ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ АНАЛИТИЧЕСКИЙ
АНИОН РЕАКТИВ
(в ионной форме!) РЕАКЦИИ ЭФФЕКТ

……………………….

………………………...

...............

................ …………………………

……………

……………

…………………………

51
УРАВНЕНИЕ РЕАКЦИИ УСЛОВИЯ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ АНАЛИТИЧЕСКИЙ
АНИОН РЕАКТИВ
(в ионной форме!) РЕАКЦИИ ЭФФЕКТ

............... ……………..

................

……………
…………………
……………

............... …………………

................

……………

…………… …………………

52
УРАВНЕНИЕ РЕАКЦИИ УСЛОВИЯ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ АНАЛИТИЧЕСКИЙ
АНИОН РЕАКТИВ
(в ионной форме!) РЕАКЦИИ ЭФФЕКТ

……………..
...............

................

……………
…………………
……………

...............

................

…………………

……………

……………

53
Анализ смеси анионов
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ВЫВОД: ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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54
ЛАБОРАТОРНАЯ РАБОТА №10

АНАЛИЗ АНИОНОВ II - III АНАЛИТИЧЕСКИХ ГРУПП

1. Характеристика анионов
...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

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55
Реакции обнаружения анионов II аналитической группы
УРАВНЕНИЕ РЕАКЦИИ УСЛОВИЯ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ АНАЛИТИЧЕСКИЙ
АНИОН РЕАКТИВ
(в ионной форме!) РЕАКЦИИ ЭФФЕКТ

……………..
...............

................

…………………

……………

……………
……………………….

……………..

...............

................

……………………….

……………

……………
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УРАВНЕНИЕ РЕАКЦИИ УСЛОВИЯ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ АНАЛИТИЧЕСКИЙ
АНИОН РЕАКТИВ
(в ионной форме!) РЕАКЦИИ ЭФФЕКТ

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УРАВНЕНИЕ РЕАКЦИИ УСЛОВИЯ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ АНАЛИТИЧЕСКИЙ
АНИОН РЕАКТИВ
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Реакции обнаружения анионов III аналитической группы
УРАВНЕНИЕ РЕАКЦИИ УСЛОВИЯ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ АНАЛИТИЧЕСКИЙ
АНИОН РЕАКТИВ
(в ионной форме!) РЕАКЦИИ ЭФФЕКТ

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УРАВНЕНИЕ РЕАКЦИИ УСЛОВИЯ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ АНАЛИТИЧЕСКИЙ
АНИОН РЕАКТИВ
(в ионной форме!) РЕАКЦИИ ЭФФЕКТ

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УРАВНЕНИЕ РЕАКЦИИ УСЛОВИЯ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ АНАЛИТИЧЕСКИЙ
АНИОН РЕАКТИВ
(в ионной форме!) РЕАКЦИИ ЭФФЕКТ

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Анализ смеси анионов
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ЛАБОРАТОРНАЯ РАБОТА №11

АНАЛИЗ СМЕСИ АНИОНОВ I - III АНАЛИТИЧЕСКИХ ГРУПП

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ЛАБОРАТОРНАЯ РАБОТА №12

АНАЛИЗ СУХОГО ЛЕКАРСТВЕННОГО ВЕЩЕСТВА

Получите у преподавателя вещество для анализа. Исследуемый образец делят на три части: одна из них служит для обнаружения
катионов, другая – анионов, третья используется при предварительных испытаниях и частично сохраняется для того, чтобы в
случае необходимости проверить результаты анализа.

Список неорганических лекарственных препаратов, которые могут входить в состав исследуемых образцов
NaCl KBr MgSO4
NaNO2 K2CO3 MgCl2
NaBr CH3COOK MgCO3
Na2SO4 NH4Cl CaCl2
Na2S2O3 NH4Br CaCO3
KCl (NH4)2SO4 FeSO4
KI ZnSO4 BaSO4

Прежде чем приступить к систематическому анализу образца, целесообразно с отдельными порциями его проделать ряд
предварительных испытаний. Они дают некоторые ориентировочные сведения, полезные при выборе наиболее рационального
способа переведения образца в раствор или облегчающие выполнение анализа.

Предварительные испытания

1. Визуальное исследование образца (органолептический анализ). Рассмотрите внимательно анализируемый образец:

Цвет ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Форма и величина частиц ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
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2. Действие кислот на сухое вещество

A. Исследование с разбавленной серной кислотой. Небольшое количество вещества поместите в чистую пробирку, и
добавьте несколько капель разбавленной серной кислоты. Какие явления вы наблюдаете? На основании этого испытания
сделайте соответствующие выводы.
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B. Исследование с концентрированной серной кислотой. Небольшое количество вещества поместите в чистую пробирку, и
добавьте несколько капель концентрированной серной кислоты. Какие явления вы наблюдаете? На основании этого
испытания сделайте соответствующие выводы.
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Систематический анализ

1. Обнаружение катионов

Прежде всего, отдельными пробами с небольшими порциями вещества подбирают подходящий растворитель и, переведя вещество в
раствор, анализируют его на катионы.

А. Действие различных растворителей. Подбор растворителя начинают с испытания растворимости вещества в воде.
Если в воде оно не растворяется, исследуют его отношение к кислотам, а затем к щелочам.
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В. Переведение вещества в раствор. Подобрав растворитель, готовят раствор, используя предназначенную для анализа
катионов порцию.
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С. Исследование действием карбоната натрия. К 3-4 каплям анализируемого раствора прибавляют такой же объём
раствора Na2CO3. Образование осадка указывает на присутствие катионов II-VI аналитических групп. Если же осадок не
образуется, то делают вывод об отсутствии катионов этих групп.
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D. Систематический анализ катионов.
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2. Обнаружение анионов

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