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Министерство науки и высшего образования

Российской Федерации
КУБАНСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

Т.Ф. ЛИМАРЕВА, Н.Б. ШЕРШНЕВА

ПPAКТИЧЕСКИЙ КУРС
АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА
Учебное пособие

Краснодар
2021

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УДК 811.111(075.8)
ББК 81.432.1я73
Л 58

Рецензенты:
Кандидат филологических наук, доцент
Л.Г. Березовская
Кандидат педагогических наук, доцент
М.А. Бодоньи

Лимарева, Т.Ф., Шершнева, Н.Б.


Л 58 Практический курс английского языка: учеб. пособие /
Т.Ф. Лимарева, Н.Б. Шершнева. – Краснодар: Кубанский
гос. ун-т, 2021. – 369 с. – 500 экз.
ISBN 978-5-8209-1858-2

Включает аутентичные тексты различных жанров из


англоязычных источников и оригинальные упражнения на
развитие навыков устной и письменной речи. Композиционно
состоит из пяти уроков, лексического и грамматического блоков.
Адресуется студентам, обучающимся по программам
бакалавриата направления 44.03.05 Педагогическое образование с
двумя профилями подготовки: Английский язык, Немецкий язык,
и учащимся в педагогических вузах.

УДК 811.111(075.8)
ББК 81.432.1я73

ISBN 978-5-8209-1858-2 © Кубанский государственный


университет, 2021
© Лимарева Т.Ф., Шершнева Н.Б.,
2021

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ВВЕДЕНИЕ

Данное учебное пособие предназначено для студентов


старших курсов факультета РГФ, обучающихся по Федеральному
государственному образовательному стандарту 44.03.05
Педагогическое образование с двумя профилями подготовки:
Английский язык, Немецкий язык.
Пособие составлено в соответствии с программой курса
«Практический курс английского языка», разработанной на
кафедре английской филологии факультета РГФ, и нацелено на
реализацию установки программы бакалавриата – комплексное
овладение лингвострановедческими знаниями как общего
характера, так и профессионально ориентированными, а также
основными навыками и умениями речевой деятельности в
повседневно-обиходной, профессиональной, научной,
общественно-политической и других сферах общения.
Практической целью обучения английскому языку является
формирование иноязычной коммуникативной компетенции для
преподавания английского языка и для межличностного общения.
Для достижения этой цели в пособие включены
аутентичные тексты различных жанров из англоязычных
источников, оригинальные лексико-грамматические упражнения,
способствующие глубокому пониманию и критическому
осмыслению материала.
Грамматический блок представляет собой обзор
грамматического материала, изученного на предыдущих курсах,
и призван сделать работу над грамматическим оформлением речи
(устной и письменной) активным, интерактивным, приносящим
удовольствие процессом.
Упражнения лексического блока предусматривают
тщательную работу со словом и его значением в лучших
традициях русской лингвистической школы В. Д. Аракина.
Приложение включает богатый материал для подготовки к
экзаменам, как курсовым, так и выпускным.
Данное учебное пособие предоставляет широкие
возможности для реализации компетентностного и личностно-
деятельностного подхода к обучению и предусматривает такие

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формы работы, как деловые и ролевые игры, разбор конкретных
ситуаций, дискуссии и работа над проектами научно-
исследовательского характера.
В целом материал, включенный в пособие, способствует
формированию и развитию: а) поликультурной языковой
личности, способной осуществлять продуктивное общение с
носителями других культур; б) способностей студентов
осуществлять различные виды деятельности, используя
английский язык; в) когнитивных способностей студентов;
г) готовности их к саморазвитию и самообразованию, а также
повышению творческого потенциала личности к осуществлению
своих профессиональных обязанностей.
Учебное пособие прошло апробацию на 4–5-м курсах
факультета РГФ, направление 44.03.05 Педагогическое
образование с двумя профилями подготовки: Английский язык,
Немецкий язык, и на факультете истории, социологии и
международных отношений.

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UNIT 1

SOCIAL RELATIONS

1.1. ENGLISH AS A GLOBAL LANGUAGE

1.1.1. LEAD-IN

How important is learning English nowadays?


As a language learner, what do you enjoy about learning
English? What do you find difficult?
When you use English, do you think in your own language and
translate your thoughts into English?
Would anyone be able
to speak English fluently and
accurately simply by
learning its rules?
When you are using
your first language, do you
use English words like
email, the Internet, CD, etc.,
or do you use their
alternatives in your own language?
Which languages do you predict will be the most used in fifty
years from now?
David Crystal is one of the world’s leading experts on
languages. Listen to Crystal’s podcast on the disappearance and
preservation of languages: http://vimeo.com/6677955. What are
Crystal’s main arguments?
What evidence have you got from your local communities that
certain languages are dying out? Alternatively, what are local
communities doing to preserve their languages?

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1.1.2. READING

AS ENGLISH’S DOMINANCE CONTINUES,


LINGUISTS SEE FEW THREATS TO ITS RULE

Riding the crest of globalization and technology, English


dominates the world as no language ever has, and some linguists now
say it may never be dethroned as the king of languages.
Others see pitfalls, but the factors they cite only underscore the
grip English has on the world: such cataclysms as nuclear war or
climate change or the eventual perfection of a translation machine that
world would make a common language unnecessary.
Some insist that linguistic evolution will continue to take its
course over the centuries and that English could eventually die as a
common language as Latin did, or Phoenician or Sanskrit or Sogdian
before it.
“If you stay in the mind-set of 15th-century Europe, the future of
Latin is extremely bright”, said Nicholas Ostler, the author of a
language history called Empires of the Word who is writing a history
of Latin. “If you stay in the mind-set of the 20th-century world, the
future of English is extremely bright”.
That scepticism seems to be a minority view. Such specialists on
the English language as David Crystal, author of English as a Global
Language, say the world has changed so drastically that history is no
longer a guide.
“This is the first time we actually have a language spoken
genuinely globally by every
country in the world”, he said.
“There are no precedents to help
us see what will happen”.
John McWhorter, a linguist
at the Manhattan Institute, a
research group in New York, and
the author of a history of
language called The Power of
Babel was more unequivocal.

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“English is dominant in a way
that no other language has ever been
before”, he said. “It is vastly unclear
to me what actual mechanism could
uproot English given conditions as
they are”.
As a new millennium begins,
scholars say that about one-fourth of
the world’s population can
communicate to some degree in
English. It is the common language in
almost every endeavour, from science
to air traffic control. It has consolidated its dominance as the language
of the Internet, where 80 percent of the world’s electronically stored
information is in English according to David Graddol, a linguist and
researcher.
Seth Mydans [20]

Ex. 1. Answer the following questions.


А. Which three occurrences, as mentioned in the text, will make
it unnecessary for human beings to communicate using one language?
B. Name at least three languages which are no longer spoken.
C. According to the text, what does the sentence “If you stay in
the mind-set of the 20th-century world, the future of English is
extremely bright” imply about the future of English?
D. On the other hand, why might it be difficult to predict the
future of the English language?

Ex. 2. Below are selected words from the text. In each case
choose the word or phrase from the options provided that could
best replace the word given:
1) dethroned; 6) precedents;
a) undone; a) better examples;
b) replaced; b) other examples;
c) withdrawn; c) later examples;
d) moved away; d) earlier examples;
2) underscore; 7) unequivocal;

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a) write; a) certain;
b) weaken; b) opinionated;
c) emphasize; c) quoted;
d) narrate; d) angry;
3) cataclysms; 8) uproot;
a) stories; a) spread;
b) events; b) replace;
c) accidents; c) defeat;
d) disasters; d) transport;
4) continue to take its course; 9) endeavour;
a) change direction; a) work;
b) slow down; b) activity;
c) accelerate; c) difficulty;
d) carry on; d) attempt;
5) scepticism; 10) consolidated;
a) anger; a) changed;
b) optimism; b) held;
c) doubt; c) made stronger;
d) certainty; d) developed.

Ex. 3. From statements A to I select the four that are true


according to the text above.
A. Latin, like English, has dominated the world.
B. It is predicted that English will not remain a lingua franca.
C. Latin was the lingua franca in the 15th century.
D. English was a dominant language in the 20th century.
E. Many linguists believe English will ultimately die.
F. Some linguists believe we cannot predict the future of
English based on history.
G. The use of English as a global language is unprecedented.
H. Almost 25% of the world’s population can communicate in
English to an extent.
I. A small percentage of electronic information is in English.

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Ex. 4. Translate the following sentences using phrases from
the text.
A. На протяжении целого века развитие английского языка
шло своим чередом, и сейчас он приобрел статус всеобщего
языка.
B. Благодаря процессу глобализации и развитию технологий
английский не может быть «свергнут с престола» каким-либо
другим языком.
C. Лингвисты и другие исследователи часто обращаются к
надежным книжным источникам, чтобы развеять свои
сомнения.
D. Исследовательская группа из Нью-Йорка в своѐм
последнем выступлении постаралась подчеркнуть закрепленное в
мире господство английского языка.
E. Это заявление студентов было совершенно неясно членам
комиссии.
F. Современный склад мышления позволяет всем людям, не
только лингвистам, общаться на английском в любой точке
земного шара.
G. В результате коренных изменений в социальной жизни
люди больше подвержены скептицизму.
H. Такие международные языки, как английский,
китайский, русский и испанский имеют благоприятную
перспективу развития.
I. Хотя можно предсказать потенциальную безупречность
переводческих машин в будущем, это не значит, что профессии
устных и письменных переводчиков станут ненужными.
J. До английского языком международного общения был
латинский.

Ex. 5. Explain what is meant using phrases from the text:


1) an assemblage of scientists;
2) to be removed from a powerful position;
3) of uncertain, doubtful nature;
4) to occupy a superior position all over the world;
5) to alter radically;
6) to go on to follow one’s natural progression or development

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7) a language spoken across the globe;
8) to be totally uncertain;
9) an opinion belonged to the smaller in number groups;
10) not now as formerly.

1.1.3. SPEAKING

Work in pairs. Imagine that you are a linguist researching the


impact of English.
1. In class, discuss and design a questionnaire to find out as
much as possible about the impact of English in your country: in
government, in education, in the media, in popular culture and on the
Internet. Conclude by imagining how English will affect the country
and its national language 20 years from now.
2. Imagine that you are taking part in a debate about the future
of English and other languages:
a) group 1 argues that English will remain the lingua franca;
b) group 2 argues that modern variations of English (Hinglish,
Chinglish, etc.) will replace the English language.

1.1.4. WRITING

THE PERSONAL RESPONSE

Based on the following stimulus, give a personal response and


justify it. Write between 150–250 words.
“Riding the crest of globalization and technology, English
dominates the world as no other language ever has, and some
linguists now say it may never be dethroned as the king of
languages”.
1. Do you agree with the statement? Are you unsure? Do you
prefer to analyze the arguments before you mention your opinion?
Start by deciding on an approach from the ones listed below.
2. Divide your response into a series of supporting points. Each
of these points should help you to prove your argument. Each point
will focus on a single idea that supports your approach. You should
express each point clearly in a topic sentence, which can be at the

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beginning or end of a paragraph. You should use details and specific
examples to make your ideas clear and convincing. Make sure that
each paragraph has a topic sentence, supporting examples and
explanation.
3. Having decided on an approach, plan your response.
4. Write your personal response.

TIPS

Here are three different approaches for tackling the personal


response.
I. The “one-sided” approach.
Either support or attack the main idea in the stimulus text. Give
reasons for each point you make. Do not include the other side of the
argument. Write a strong conclusion about what should be done.
II. The “balanced but undecided” approach.
There is no single right answer to a problem. Give both sides of
the argument. State that both sides have equally valid arguments.
Alternatively, show how both sides have weak arguments. Give
reasons for supporting or criticizing each point of view. Conclude by
saying that the different sides should recognize that each has valid
points and they need further discussion.
III. The “analytical” approach.
Evaluate the arguments in the stimulus text. Put your arguments
in order of strength. You can start with the weakest and finish with the
strongest or the other way round. Explain why some points in your
analysis are stronger than others. Which arguments are better
supported by examples? Conclude by stating which ideas you would
support and which you would not.

1.2. CULTURAL IDENTITY

1.2.1. LEAD-IN

Third Culture Kids are defined in the following article as


“Children who accompany their parents into another culture”. Do you
think this definition applies to you, or your friends and classmates?

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In what ways do you
think that students who have
lived abroad are different from
those who have lived all their
lives in one country?
If you were living in a
different culture, what do you
think the most exciting parts of
the experience would be?
Which aspects of life abroad
would be the most difficult to deal with?
It is sometimes said that “Home is where the heart is”. Is it
possible for home to be a foreign country?
What kinds of problems do you think Third Culture Kids might
face when they return to their home country?

1.2.2. READING

THIRD CULTURE KIDS

As more cities and companies become increasingly international,


there is a growing number of children that are creating their own sub-
culture. Often referred to as TCKs (Third Culture Kids) or Global
Nomads, these students have a tremendous impact on the global
community. They are raised in the margin of mosaic and learn to
balance worlds from within.
So who are these Third Culture Kids? They are not a new
phenomenon. As one looks back over history, there is a realisation
that certain groups of people have led highly mobile lives, a key factor
in describing TCKs. They often relocate to new homes and countries.
They are exposed to new cultures and to other people in the
community who also move constantly.
Dr. Ruth Useem was the first person to coin the phrase Third
Culture Kid. Dr. Useem’s study of Americans living in India led her to
define TCKs as “Children whose parents work abroad to live”
(Useem, 1960). More recently, she redefined TCKs as “Children who
accompany their parents into another culture” (Useem, 1970).

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David C. Pollock and his co-
author Ruth Van Recken,
describe a TCK as “a
person who has spent a
significant part of their
developmental years
outside the parents’ culture.
The TCK builds
relationships to all of the cultures, while not having full ownership of
any. Although elements from each culture are assimilated into the
TCK’s life experience, the sense of belonging is in relationship to
others of a similar background” (Pollock & Van Reken, 1999). TCKs
represent many countries and cultures. Their numbers extend into the
hundreds of thousands and are increasing. Ease of travel and constant
relocation of people through multinational companies and global links
contribute to this trend.
The question “Who am I?” is frequently asked by TCKs. They
have accumulated a host of cultural identities, lived in many countries
and have been introduced to a variety of global people. They are not
the culture of their parents. TCKs position themselves by integrating a
huge pool of values, norms, behaviours, beliefs, mannerisms and
thoughts in order to identify self.
As you enter into the world of TCKs, one might suspect they are
no different. But it is clear, after spending only a short time with them,
that they bring a deep knowledge from within and a special ability to
compare international and local issues. They are the future cross-
culturalists and hopefully future politicians, diplomats, multinationals,
government employees and educators. TCKs have a deep
understanding of human rights.
They certainly encounter a different lifestyle compared to their
mono-cultural peers but we can draw on their global and professional
lives. So, whatever one chooses to label the international students as –
TCKs, Global Nomads, Expatriates or Global Souls – we will reap
unbelievable rewards and a true sense of satisfaction.
Lesley Lewis [11 р. 147]

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Ex. 1. Answer the following questions.
A. What reason is given for the growing number of TCKs?
B. Find two reasons why TCKs are different from other
children.
C. Dr. Ruth Useem has given two definitions of TCKs. In what
way is the second definition different from the first?
D. According to researchers Pollock and Van Reken, with whom
are TCKs likely to form friendships?
E. According to the writer, what advantages do TCKs have in
terms of knowledge of the world?
F. Although it is not expressly stated, why are these children
called Third Culture Kids? What are the three cultures to which they
belong?

Ex. 2. Find the word in the column on the right that could
meaningfully replace each of the words on the left:
a) sub-culture; 1) combine;
b) phenomenon; 2) find their place;
c) relocate; 3) social nomads;
d) exposed; 4) occurrence;
e) assimilated; 5) lost over time;
f) accumulated; 6) shown;
g) position themselves; 7) people of the same age;
h) integrating; 8) absorbed;
i) cross-culturalists; 9) including;
j) peers; 10) move home;
11) of the same period;
12) insignificant;
13) collected;
14) added to;
15) social trend.

Ex. 3. Scan the text to find whether the following sentences


are true or false. Justify each answer with a relevant quotation
from the text.
A. Third Culture Kids is a new social trend.
B. TCKs tend to live outside their own place while growing up.

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C. TCKs can have contact with several different cultures.
D. Some TCKs have identity problems.
E. Some TCKs tend to be very fixed in their views.

Ex. 4. Write the meaning of the following phrases and then


use them in sentences to describe Third Culture Kids:
a) a Global Nomad;
b) raised on the margin of mosaic;
c) to coin a phrase;
d) a host of cultural identities.

Ex. 5. Draw a chart and sort the sentences numbered 1–30


below into three categories:
A. Those that describe advantages for TCKs.
B. Those that describe challenges facing TCKs.
C. Those that define and describe TCKs.

1. A crisis of identity – “Who am I?”


2. A life filled with high mobility – TCKs know an airport
better than most people.
3. They adapt quickly to unfamiliar countries and people.
4. They converse well with adults.
5. They are culturally astute, cross-culturally enriched, and less
prejudiced.
6. They have difficulty with commitment to people, places,
schools, or school systems as these constantly change.
7. They are educational achievers – a high percentage will
attend university and obtain advanced degrees.
8. They establish relationships quickly, they cut through many
of the initial levels of diffidence when forming relationships.
9. They are excellent observers of other people.
10. They feel different from others, which is difficult in forming
peer relationships.
11. They live more in the present, more for the moment.
12. Loss of relationships, loss of community or school is equal
to a loss of their world.

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13. They make great culture bridges – they have multiple frames
of reference.
14. They are more mature in their social skills.
15. They are more welcoming of newcomers into a community.
16. TCKs often become too observant and sensitive.
17. They are politically astute – TCKs tend to read the
newspaper and watch the news more often than other children.
18. A feeling of powerlessness that they have no control over
events and that these are often taken out of their hands anyway by the
inevitability of the move.
19. They prefer to socialize with other TCKs as they enter
adulthood and often become expatriates themselves.
20. A privileged lifestyle – their socio-economic lifestyle tends
to be at a higher standard due to the advantages of relocations or the
expatriate status offered by some companies (for example they have
access to helpers, drivers, club memberships, and money).
21. They have problems with decision making.
22. Rootlessness and restlessness can be a problem.
23. They speak more than one language often they speak three
or four. English may be one language they function in, but they can
think and feel in several.
24. The elusive concept: “Where is home?”
25. The frequent necessity of changing countries and homes.
26. The sense of belonging everywhere and nowhere.
27. They are great debaters. They are often aware of the
background of political decisions and implications for the people
concerned.
28. Travelling is a way of life – many holidays are taken outside
the home country.
29. An uncertain cultural identity.
30. When returning to their “passport” country, they are
misunderstood by their fellow countrymen.

Ex. 6. Translate the following sentences using phrases from


the text.
A. Дети третьей культуры провели значительную часть
периода взросления в других странах и культурах.

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B. Такие дети растут в очень мобильном многокультурном
сообществе, в котором частые переезды являются нормой.
C. Эти дети ощущают свое отличие от других, и это
становится частью их идентичности.
D. Дети третьей культуры становятся успешными
актерами, политиками, журналистами, спортсменами и
президентами (среди них, например, Барак Обама, рожденный на
Гавайях и выросший в Индонезии и США).
E. Хотя элементы одной культуры часто усваиваются
другой культурой, важно помнить о своих этнических корнях.
F. Знание ценностей, норм поведения, верований и манер
разных культур делает тебя настоящим «кочевником» мира.
G. Путешествия и постоянная смена местожительства
способствуют самопознанию.
H. Те, кто привык к комфорту, вряд ли поймут романтику
кочевого образа жизни.
I. Хотя люди принадлежат к разным субкультурам, такое
явление, как универсальная культура, позволяет им усваивать
ценности и традиции друг друга.
J. Несмотря на огромные преимущества образа жизни детей
третьей культуры, есть и оборотная сторона медали – чувство
отсутствия корней, сложность проживания длительное время на
одном месте и отсутствие полной принадлежности к какой-либо
культуре.

Ex. 7. Explain what is meant using phrases from the text:


1) to bring into or maintain in a state of equilibrium;
2) characterized by single, homogeneous culture without
diversity;
3) someone who lives in a foreign country;
4) the people or nations of the world;
5) characteristic of or associated with universal/particular
locality;
6) a lot of, many of;
7) to find one’s place in a group or community;
8) a member of a tribe that travels from place to place instead of
living in one place all the time;

17
9) to be absorbed into something (when a person or thing joins a
group);
10) to reposition or move someone or something in or at
something;
11) to lead an active lifestyle;
12) worldwide connections.

1.2.3. SPEAKING

1. Debate.
The 44th president of the US Barack Obama could be described
as the world’s most powerful TCK. Is it true to say that the advantages
of growing up in different cultures and coming from different
heritages are far greater than the disadvantages? Debate this issue.
REMEMBER:
Preparation is necessary for such a discussion.
Choose someone to “chair” the discussion.
Have two teams each speaking for opposite sides of the debate.
Each team will need to plan together how to structure the
discussion.
Decide how to begin and wrap up the discussion.
Ensure that everyone gets a chance to speak.
Give each person a point to argue.
Allow enough time to have an open debate once everyone has
made their prepared point.
Decide how to prevent one person from dominating the
discussion.
2. Imagine a television programme about globalization and its
effect on children. Organize a panel discussion in which members of
your class play the roles of experts discussing the issue of Third
Culture Kids.
Pick a question, such as “TCKs: Global Nomads or Cultural
Krankensteins?”
Your panel could include the following:
 an expert on TCKs, such as the writer of the text above;
 an international school counselor;
 a parent of TCKs;
18
 a TCK currently studying for the Bachelor’s Diploma and
who has had very positive experiences;
 a TCK currently studying for the Bachelor’s Diploma and
who has had much less positive experiences;
 an adult TCK.
Each role player makes notes on their character. A moderator
introduces the programme, asks a series of questions and moderates
prepared questions from the rest of the class who can act as audience.
Finally, the moderator should bring the discussion to a close.

1.2.4. WRITING

SET OF INSTRUCTIONS OR GUIDELINES

A set of instructions can give step-by-step guidance on how to


do something. Sentences are usually chronologically ordered so the
reader begins at the start of the process and finishes up at the end. As a
result of following all the instructions, the reader is able to complete
an action, for example putting together a piece of furniture from a kit.
Such instructions are sometimes accompanied by visuals.
However, some instructions take the form of advice. These tend
to be much less systematically ordered and are more personal in style
and address.

Problem Advice
The sense of
belonging
everywhere and
nowhere

Look again at the list of challenges facing Third Culture Kids in


the text. Write down the challenges you consider the greatest for

19
TCKs. What advice would you give for each problem? Write up your
answers in the form of a set of instructions to TCKs who are about to
return to their passport countries for university regarding how to
handle their return. The table below will help you to organize your
ideas. Use the concepts and vocabulary items you have learned in this
chapter.
Once you have completed your notes put the sentences into a
logical order. This can be done by grouping the ideas into subtopics
each dealing with a different aspect of return. This new focus will give
your readers coherent guidelines than a set of random points.

THE PERSONAL RESPONSE


Based on the following stimulus, give a personal response and
justify it. Write a speech using 150 to 250 words.
“Some Third Culture Kids have nothing beyond their passports
to connect them with their home country. TCKs lose and gain from the
fact that they grow up outside their passport country”.
Before you start writing ask yourself the following questions.
What is your immediate reaction to the statement?
What will be the thesis you will prove?
Does this thesis require a one-sided or a balanced answer?
Who will be the audience you will be addressing?
What points will you make and what factual evidence can you
find to support each point?
What connective vocabulary will you use to make sure that your
ideas flow?
Given your audience, how will you conclude?

1.3. GENDER STEREOTYPES

1.3.1. LEAD-IN

What stereotypical gender roles exist in your culture?


How, in your opinion, can stereotypes be broken?
Do you think traumatic incidents, such as wars, leave an
everlasting impact on human relationships? How? Why?

20
1.3.2. READING

WHAT ARE GENDER ROLES AND STEREOTYPES?

Most of us grow up assuming that gender roles and stereotypes


are natural ways of being or behaving, [a] but/and/so/still we
generally don’t question
them. From the day we are
born we receive messages
about male and female
gender roles. We learn about
them [b] of/by/from/through
a number of ways.
A good example of
stereotyping gender roles is
to think about how babies are colour coded, girls in pink and boys in
blue for example. The kinds of toys that little girls receive give
messages about feminine traits such as dolls, dress ups and fairies.
The kinds of toys that little boys receive give messages about
masculinity, for example cars, trucks and building blocks.
Messages about gender roles and stereotypes can come from
many sources, such as TV, magazines, books, marketing, sports, radio,
fashion, commercial advertising, the Internet, fairytales and toys.
Culture is a contributing factor [с] for/to/of/towards giving rules
about social norms and behaviour. Society is another factor [d]
as/though/due to/which society validates gender roles and
stereotypes, encouraging us to “fit in” to the dominant culture.
Gender roles and stereotypes have a history steeped in tradition
through religious, political, legal and economic systems. For example,
it wasn’t [e] since/until/by/till the war brought about a shortage in
male workers that women were encouraged to step outside the
traditional housewife role to work.
Gender roles and stereotypes can place restrictions on our human
rights. If you think of a fundamental right, such as the right to
employment, or to earn money, the traditional stereotype of women as
housewives has placed restrictions and expectations on what a woman
is socially and economically capable of doing.

21
Statistics show that 95% of domestic violence involves a male
perpetrator and a female
victim. The other 5% includes
same-sex relationships or a
female perpetrator [f]
to/of/out/or a male victim.
Gender roles and
stereotypes can cause
problems in relationships as
they set [g] up/out/from/off
inequality between males and
females. Boys are not born to be violent, or have unhealthy attitudes
towards girls. These attitudes and behaviours are learned stereotypes
of what society thinks it means to act and behave like a man.
Inequality between a male and female in a relationship can be
problematic [h] unless/even when/if/while gender roles and
stereotypes are present. If a couple in a relationship have bought into
gender roles and stereotypes, they may not have the skills to create a
fair and equitable relationship. He might act controlling. She might
behave passively, always putting his wishes first. This relationship has
a basis for an unequal balance of power.
We all have a choice about how we act and behave. We can
behave like the stereotypes and act out gender roles in relationships,
which can lead to unhappiness and possibly violence. [i] In the
end/What’s more/On the other hand/In fact, we can challenge them
to have healthier and meaningful relationships based on equality and
respect.
[11 p. 214]

Ex. 1. For each of the gaps marked [a]–[i] in the text, choose
one word or phrase from the options provided that renders each
sentence meaningful.

22
Ex. 2. Based on the information in the text, match the first
part on the sentence with the appropriate ending on the right:
a) People do not argue with 1) what the society validates
gender roles as stereotypical ways of
acting and behaving like a
man.
b) Cars and trucks 2) due to male labor shortage
after the war.
c) Gender roles are promoted 3) cause inequality in
relationships.
d) The stereotypical 4) send messages of
“housewife” role changed stereotypical roles of men.
e) Men’s violence is a result 5) are formed by stepping
of outside the roles set by
society.
f) Gender roles and 6) TV, magazines and
stereotypes commercial advertising.
g) Healthy relationships 7) as a means to fit into a
society.
8) reflect the influence of a
dominant culture.
9) because they grow up
considering them fixed
standards.
10) limits women from
revealing what they can really
do.

Ex. 3. Find words from the text that are similar in meaning
to the following:
a) believing;
b) qualities;
c) authorizes;
d) scarcity;
e) primary;
f) executor;
g) even-handed.

23
Ex. 4. Translate the following sentences using phrases from
the text.
A. Сегодня Верховный Суд поставил точку на попытках
некоторых политических сил подвергнуть сомнению
легитимность нынешней власти.
B. Существует ряд способов, с помощью которых можно
выделить различные типы личностей, а также измерить силу
какой-либо характерной черты поведения, типичной для данного
индивида.
C. Недостаток сна может быть фактором, способствующим
развитию ожирения, показало исследование, результаты которого
опубликованы в журнале SLEEP.
D. Сначала он вынужден был признать, что прежнее
завещание пропало из его канцелярии, а потом он объявил
действительным второе завещание!
E. Тибетский буддизм, уходящий корнями в традиции
монастыря-университета Наланда, – самое полное направление в
буддизме из существующих на сегодняшний день.
F. При взвешивании тела указатель динамометра вышел за
пределы шкалы.
G. Пытаясь остановить нарушителя, сотрудники полиции
попытались перекрыть улицу, однако водитель резко изменил
направление движения.
H. Учѐные-психологи показали, что гендерное неравенство
в современном мире проявляется прежде всего в социальном
плане.
I. В семье обязательно кто-то должен быть главнее или всѐ
же равноправные отношения возможны?
J. Несмотря на неравные силы, в первые два дня греки
отбивали атаки персов в ущелье Фермопилы, но на третий день в
битве произошел перелом.

1.3.3. SPEAKING

1) In pairs, create a sketch presenting a conversation taking


place between males and females about their responsibilities, the

24
stereotypes associated with their roles, and the difficulties or
restrictions they face in society.
2) Each gender should support their argument with adequate and
convincing justifications.
3) Remember to focus on Anglophone cultures.

1.3.4. WRITING

THE PERSONAL RESPONSE


Based on the following stimulus, give a personal response and
justify it, using 150–200 words. Choose any text type you have
studied so far.
“I‟m not convinced that what are traditionally considered to be
male energies or qualities or female energies or qualities really have
as much to do with gender as many people think they do”.
Andrew Cohen

1.4. EDUCATION

1.4.1. LEAD-IN

Is education restricted to the


knowledge one gains at school?
What impact does
subsidized training have on the
prosperity of the society?
Do you think studying
should be for pleasure or as a
means to get ahead in life?
Is the problem of school dropouts urgent for your culture?
In his letter to Thomas Green in 1789, George Washington
wrote: “Refrain from drink which is the source of evil – and the ruin
of half the workmen in this Country”. How true or untrue are
Washington’s words today?

25
1.4.2. READING

MITIGATE CRIME, POVERTY ANG DRUG USE


THROUGH EDUCATION

Rocco Basile is a gentleman from Brooklyn, New York who has


impressed me with regard to his beliefs about how we can all help to
make adjustments in our globe these days by means of training.
Rocco Basile mentioned one thing that Gandhi thought: True
education consists in drawing the best out of yourself. What much
better guide can there be than the book of humanity (Mahatma
K. Gandhi)
“My education taught me to be sympathetic to the desires of
others and helped me recognize how that can alter the world. Like
Gandhi said it is crucial for us to be the adjustments we want to see in
the earth”, said Rocco Basile.
The US Department of Schooling (ED) tagline states,
“Promoting academic excellence for all Americans”. This
organization was founded in 1980 and its mission is “to advertise
college student achievement and preparation for worldwide
competitiveness by fostering educational excellence and making
certain equal accessibility”.
Some 500 ED employees and 0,5
billion spending budget devoted to
creating policies on federal monetary
assist in training as well as distributing
and monitoring the funds, collecting
information on America’s universities
and disseminating studies which focus
national attention on essential academic
problems, prohibiting discrimination and
guaranteeing equal entry to training. For
instance, in Brooklyn, New York, gang violence is just a daily
occurrence. There are 17 thousand youngster abuse instances in this
local community that have been documented. One in each and every
household lives beneath the poverty line. There is a 48% dropout rate
among high school students, so out of the 30 thousand students, 15

26
thousand are dropouts. Medications, disorder, gang violence, and
crime lead to about a thousand fatalities annually. Many men and
women have realized that the solution is schooling.
“I really feel my education has authorized me to understand the
constructive results it had on my lifestyle. I was educated, and as a
result, I was ready to read a lot of guides from every single culture and
religion, which inspired me to make positive adjustments”, Basile
said. “It has provided me the intuition to see how good adjustment
circulates back into my existence”.
What transpires to people in society that don’t invest in
education? Does it make a difference to the total social structure and
ultimately influence our economic climate? William Schweke, writer
of a book entitled “Wise Funds: Schooling and Financial
Development” believes that prevention is almost often less expensive
than remedy. He states that if we do not make investments now, we
most definitely will shell out later, and discusses the social costs of
inadequate academic and workforce planning possibilities believing
that by growing earnings, education can decrease social costs.
Schweke notes that
there is a powerful
relationship among very low
fundamental capabilities and
welfare dependency. Sixty
per cent of out-of-wedlock
birth between 19 to 23-year-
olds are to individuals who
score in the lowest twenty
per cent on fundamental
capabilities tests. About 82%
of all Americans in prison are substantial college dropouts. Sadly, he
also factors out that the United States spends practically ten times
more than Western European countries on protection providers,
arrests, incarceration and parole, while those countries devote similar
quantities on subsidized employment and training.
Many men and women think that educating our youth is the
response that will break the cycle of poverty, crime and medication.
“Educating our youth is the foundation for prosperity… Financial

27
problems, in flip, exacerbate social difficulties such as crime, drug
abuse, gangs, reliance on government help, and loved ones break-ups
to ameliorate these weaknesses in the social material, public money
that may well in any other case go toward productive investment are
invested rather on crime management, drug treatment and earning
assist programs”, says Schweke. “Education positively has an effect
on earning distribution”.
There are hundreds of men and women in need of intervention,
children in need of education, and families in need of counseling and
hope, and Children of the City is an organization generating a big
difference. Founded in 1981, the volunteer-based organization mostly
connects men and women in need with fundamental providers,
educational and employment coaching, wellbeing treatment,
counseling, and numerous other personal growth possibilities. People
like Rocco Basile are operating via organizations like this.
Kristin Gabriel [23]

Ex. 1. Find a word in the right-hand columns that could


meaningfully replace each of the words on the left:
1) sympathetic; a) adverse; m) gains;
2) alter; b) affecting; n) happens;
3) fostering; c) answer; o) imprisonment;
4) devoted; d) change; p) improve;
5) disseminating; e) circulating; q) insensitive;
6) fatalities; f) collecting; r) losses;
7) constructive; g) cure; s) making;
8) transpires; h) dedicated; t) positive;
9) remedy; i) emerges; u) prohibit;
10) incarceration; j) encouraging; v) promoting;
11) ameliorate; k) faithful; w) understanding.
12) generating; l) freedom;

Ex. 2. Answer the following questions.


1. What is Rocco Basil’s life philosophy? Whose philosophy is
Rocco Basil’s originally?
2. According to Ghandi, what do people need to do in order to
change the world?

28
3. By distributing studies to the general public, what does the
US Department of Schooling aim to achieve?
4. Quote the phrase that describes the frequency of gang
violence in the city of New York.
5. List two main societal problems in New York as mentioned
in the text.
6. What effect has Rocco’s education had on his life?
7. According to the text, how does lack of education affect the
American economy?
8. How is a significant portion of public money currently spent
in the US?
9. What do Children of the City do?

Ex. 3. From statements 1–10, select the five that are true
according to the text.
1. In order to alter the world, we need to teach people how to
understand others.
2. Promoting mediocrity is one of the aims of the US
Department of Schooling.
3. Around one-fifth of New Yorkers live above the poverty line.
4. Almost half of the students in NY are dropouts.
5. To improve the future, Americans need to believe that
prevention is better than cure.
6. People should rely on the government to provide help.
7. Collectively, European countries spend more than the Unites
States on crime-related issues.
8. Monetary problems aggravate social problems.
9. Teaching people how to earn their living will reduce societal
problems.
10. Hope is one of the needs of many people in NY.

Ex. 4. Translate the following sentences using phrases from


the text.
A. Животным, которые не смогли приспособиться к
окружающей среде, грозит вымирание.
B. Чтобы воспитать хорошего человека, необходимо
вложить в ребенка все лучшее, что у вас есть.

29
C. «Если хочешь, чтобы мир изменился, сам стань этим
изменением» (М. Ганди).
D. Рекламный слоган фильма «Маска» – “From Zero to
Hero”.
E. Наказанием за это преступление является пожизненное
заключение без права на условно-досрочное освобождение.
F. За последний год зарегистрировано более 100 случаев
жестокого обращения с животными.
G. Что ожидает молодых людей, которые бросают
школу? – Депрессия, наркотики, преступления.
H. Предупреждение – лучшее лечение.
I. В истории Европы внебрачные дети, чьи родители не
состояли в законном браке, не имели права наследовать
имущество родителей.
J. Финансовые трудности усугубляют социальные
проблемы.
K. Зависимость пенсионеров от социального обеспечения в
нашей стране предельно высока.
L. Употребление марихуаны в Грузии остается уголовным
преступлением, но не будет караться лишением свободы,
сообщил председатель юридического комитета парламента.

1.4.3. SPEAKING

1. Imagine setting up an after-school English as a second or


foreign language programme for teenagers either in Lagos or
Brooklyn. What topic would you teach on your course? For example,
would you teach only grammar, spelling, and vocabulary? Give
reasons.
2. What kind of problems might you have teaching the learners?
How would you help them to solve their learning difficulties?
3. In groups, choose a song which explores an important social
issue in an English-speaking country, for example:
 parent/child relationship;
 drug abuse or addiction;
 driving under the influence of alcohol;
 growing up;
30
 teenagers problems;
 ethnicity;
 peer or parental pressure;
 divorce;
 abortion.
Read the lyrics of the song carefully to identify the angle from
which the problem is projected.
Enact a short sketch which clarifies the problem as presented in
the song.

1.4.4. WRITING

THE PERSONAL RESPONSE


Based on the following stimulus, give a personal response and
justify it, using 150–200 words.
“My education taught me to be sympathetic to the desires of
others and helped me recognize how that can alter the world”.
Read a classmate’s personal response. What do you like about
your classmate’s personal response? Why? What do you not like?
Why?
In writing, tell your classmates how they can improve their
personal response.

31
UNIT 2

CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS

2.1. SCHOOL UNIFORMS

2.1.1. LEAD-IN

Did you wear school uniform? Did you like it? Why? If your
school did not have a uniform, would you prefer one?
What, in your opinion, is the relationship between uniform and
individuality? Can someone wear a uniform and still be themselves?
Do you think wearing uniform is a cultural issue? Why?
Is it essential that certain social or professional groups wear
uniform? Why?

2.1.2. READING

UNIFORMS

1. USA: Why schools should maintain the use of school uniforms


in Arkansas
The question of whether students should wear school uniforms
has raged on for quite a while. Some people argue that it doesn’t help
to stop indiscipline in schools. However, many schools all over the
world are adopting school uniforms and for good reasons too.
School uniforms are a perfect way to identify students within the
school compound. This increases the safety of students since any

32
intruder would stand out. Uniforms also reduce the occurrences of
theft of clothing items. It is common to hear of a child being beaten
and having their shoes or other clothing taken away from them. This
kind of violence is checked by the use of school uniforms.
School uniforms are a perfect way to promote equality among
the students. In some schools, you will find the affluent coming to
school in expensive clothes and clothing accessories. School uniforms
make all students dress the same and remove this bias. This then
creates an opportunity for the students to form friendships that
overlook their backgrounds.
It is cheaper for you to buy school uniform for your child than it
is to buy branded clothing. This is an advantage to parents who may
not have access to money to buy new clothes for their children every
new season or term.
School uniforms also provide an atmosphere where the students
are not distracted from their studies. In other schools, provocative
dressing and the concern about fashion creates a distraction during
class.
Most opponents to the idea of school uniforms argue that it
affects the individual expression of the child. They claim that the
choice of what to wear falls on the students and their parents and
should not be decided by the school’s administration. These people
should look at the benefits of school uniforms and realize that they
outweigh the issue of individuality. There are other ways of self-
expression other than expression through fashion. The advantages of
school uniforms have prompted many schools to adopt them rather
than a casual dress code. These
schools do realize the positive
influence that school uniforms
can be.
School uniforms bring a
sense of identity to the students.
Just as is the case in sports,
school uniforms provide students
with pride especially when they
perform well. Public schools have already started introducing school
uniforms in America so as to improve the safety and discipline of the

33
students. It is time for parents, too, to support the move by
encouraging more schools to adopt the school uniform policy.

2. South Africa: Unique vs. Uniform


A few years ago I wrote an article on simplifying school
uniforms and got this response from a fan: “Mr. Potterton, I read
everything you write and I must say this is the biggest load of rubbish
you have ever written”.
The school uniform topic is one of those debates that generate a
lot of heat and no one seems able to approach the topic with a cool
head.
The school uniform has its roots in English public schools 300
years ago when it was an indicator of social standing both inside and
outside school. They became mandatory by the mid-20th century in
England and were generally abandoned in the 1960s and 1970s.
Now uniforms are once again an indicator of social attitudes.
Since the uniform’s origins in England, the idea has been taken to
bizarre extremes around the world; one posh school in Johannesburg
has 80 different coloured ties.
Most people argue that a uniform gives learners a sense of
belonging. It makes everyone equal and prevents children from being
made fun of because of what they wear. One of the strongest
arguments put forward is that wearing school uniforms improves
behavior and instills a sense of pride in the school. School uniforms
are also thought to improve student attendance. Another argument is
that uniforms are practical and made to last and that in the long run it
works out cheaper than ordinary clothes.
A few sociologists believe that those who wear school uniforms
perform better academically in school. They argue that learners are
often so focused on their wardrobe that it distracts them from their
school work. However, there is no data to prove that uniforms are
conducive to learning and can improve students’ performance.
My own argument is that ties, acrylic jerseys and Teflon-coated
blazers are uncomfortable and not very warm in winter. Uniforms are
expensive and don’t last. They also stifle individuality. We already
know that learners who are forced to wear uniforms will find other
ways to express themselves, possibly through the inappropriate use of

34
make-up, piercings or jewelry. Schools spend a lot of time and energy
on getting learners to wear their uniforms properly. Untucked shirts,
loosened ties, missing belts, unbuttoned blazers and other
infringements keep teachers very busy enforcing a uniform dress code.
This can affect teaching and learning time.
So what are the
real motives behind
this uniform craze?
The industry is
essentially a money-
making one. British
research shows that
the 145-year-old
company, Trutex,
supplies 1 000 schools
and sells around 2.5 million garments each year. Do the maths. Here
in South Africa the average uniform in a middle-income school costs
around R9000. If you have 400 learners buying uniforms, you’re
looking at a total of R3.6 million being spent on looking alike.
I am not calling for the complete abolition of uniforms. Heaven
forbid – I don’t want staunch supporters coming after me. I’m calling
for the simplification of uniforms, a project also espoused by the
previous minister of education. We need to do away with those
expensive blazers, the tracksuits with the unique school designs and
colours, as well as socks with stripes that cost 10 times more than
plain grey socks.
If schools want a unique identity, they ought to have iron-on
badges that parents can affix to shirts and other items of clothing. We
already have some reputable chain stores selling high-quality school
clothing made right here in South Africa.
Also, if schools want their children to wear uniforms they should
establish a fund to provide assistance to poorer families.
Mark Potterton [23]

Ex. 1. Find the six arguments in favour of school uniform in


the first text.

35
Ex. 2. Read the second text. How does Mark Potterton refute
the arguments you identified in question 1? Write them down.
List any points that Potterton makes which are not explored in the
first text.

Ex. 3. Copy the table below and write all the arguments in
favour of school uniform and all the arguments against it as
outlined in the texts.

Arguments for school uniform Mark Potterton’s


counter-arguments

Ex. 4. Translate the following sentences using phrases from


the text.
A. Споры вокруг этого вопроса бушуют несколько дней.
B. Благодаря школьной форме можно с легкостью
вычислить незваных гостей, которые будут выделяться среди
учащихся.
C. Один из значительных плюсов школьной формы
заключается в том, что она делает всех учеников равными, и это
позволяет им устанавливать дружеские отношения, в которых
социальный статус не играет никакой роли.
D. Противники школьной формы утверждают, что она
мешает самовыражению учащихся.

36
E. Кроме того, школьная форма способствует развитию
чувства самосознания у учащихся, и в результате все больше
школ стремятся принять политику единой школьной формы.
F. Тема «Школьная форма: за и против» порождает вокруг
себя много жарких споров.
G. В Великобритании школьная форма впервые появилась
во времена правления короля Генриха VIII (1509–1547) и тогда
уже являлась показателем социального положения.
H. Можно с уверенностью сказать, что школьная форма
создает ощущение принадлежности у учащихся и, как следствие,
прививает чувство гордости за свое учебное заведение.
I. По мнению социологов, учащиеся, от которых требуют
носить школьную форму, добиваются больших успехов в учебе,
поскольку они не так сосредоточены на проблеме, что надеть в
школу.
J. Помимо того что школьная форма часто бывает неудобна
и непрактична, она также подавляет индивидуальность
учащегося.

2.1.3. SPEAKING

1. Read the summaries of the arguments in favour of and


against school uniforms.

Summary: Arguments in favour of school uniforms

In some countries almost all schools impose a school uniform.


Students need to dress appropriately depending on the culture in
which they go to school.
Schools do not want their students to turn up in clothes that are
too short or wearing clothes with inappropriate language or insignia,
such as gang colours.
It may be easier to have a uniform than to list and enforce what
students can and cannot wear.
Some families cannot afford to spend much on fashionable
clothes and teenage fashions.

37
Peer pressure can lead families to spend money that they cannot
afford on teenagers’ clothes.
The wearing of a school uniform prevents the formation of
cliques who are defined by their clothes and appearance.
The wearing of school uniforms helps to create a sense of group
identity and a school spirit.
If everyone’s uniform is identical, intruders and outsiders can be
more readily identified.
Students on field trips and out of school are more easily
identified.
Wearing school uniforms helps students realize people’s talents
are not defined by the clothes they wear.
It removes the feeling of envy and jealousy among peers.
Students are less likely to be mocked at for their appearance.
It helps impose obedience to school rules, improves attendance
and makes students take school seriously.
A uniform helps students achieve better academically. Students
focus more on their education rather than on their appearance.
Consequently, uniforms decrease social clashes in the schools.

Summary: Arguments against school uniforms

Uniforms interfere with students’ freedom of self-expression.


Students should be free to create their own sense of identity so
that they feel unique and distinctive.
Students who are forced to wear school uniforms may develop
extreme tastes in clothes out of school.
Uniforms are an unnecessary expense.
Uniforms are an unfair use of power by schools.
Teenagers form cliques whether they wear a uniform or not.
Students can still express unpopular or inappropriate views in
ways other than clothing.
School uniforms can be ugly and/or unflattering and no good for
students’ self-image.
Wearing school uniforms will prevent students from developing
a good dress sense.

38
Wearing school uniforms may give students the false message
that conformity is a way to prevent conflict.
Uniforms are associated with the military and the police and
schools should not be seen in the same light.
School uniforms prove to be ineffectual and futile once the pupil
is out of school.
This uneasiness at having to wear uniform might reflect
unfavourably upon academic performance of the student.
Students wearing school uniforms can be easily identified and
bullied out of school.

DISCUSSION

Group the arguments into categories in a table like the one


below.

Categories of Arguments for Arguments Are the


argument keeping school against school arguments used
uniform uniform based on: logic,
sense perception,
language or
emotion?
Academic
Behavioural
Cultural
Economic
Personal
Social
Other

Which arguments are the most convincing? Why?


Can you add any arguments to the list?
Do you agree with your school’s policy on uniform? Why? On
which ways of knowing (logic, sense perception, language or
emotion) would you base your arguments?

39
2. DRESS CODE

The school uniform debate has been ranging in the UK and


elsewhere for a good number of years. However, rarely do we notice
people arguing the necessity of a medical practitioner’s lab coat or a
nurse’s uniform. Why do you think this is the case?
Can school uniforms be replaced by dress codes? Is this applied
anywhere in the English-speaking world? If so, where? Why?
Do uniforms and dress codes reinforce some positive and/or
negative stereotypes? Why?

3. Speak on the history of school uniforms in the UK/Russia.

4. In groups, design a uniform which reflects your school’s


vision. The uniform should be comfortable to wear, trendy and
appealing to all students. It should also be acceptable in the culture in
which you live.

2.1.4. WRITING

You are taking part in a school debate on the importance (or


lack) of school uniform. Write an introduction to the debate in which
you state your point of view (either for or against school uniform).
Write between 250 and 400 words.

REMEMBER

The opening speech, or debate’s introduction, allows each


speaker to express their ideas without being interrupted. In addition, it
gives the speaker the chance to connect with the audience. However,
just like presentations, the time is limited. Therefore, your
introduction has to be interesting, precise and concise.

40
2.2. DRESS CODES

2.2.1. LEAD-IN

What is a dress code?


Where are dress codes adhere to? Why?
Are people obliged to wear specific items of clothing to work,
weddings, funerals, and certain cultural festivities?
Are there any general dress codes in workplaces where you
live? Do you think dress codes are effective?
In which other walks of life are dress codes important?
What are the dress codes of young people in Russia?
What do dress codes tell us about a culture?
What prohibitions are there on certain dress codes in different
countries/your country? Why do these prohibitions exist?

2.2.2. READING

CUSTOMS AND DRESS CODES IN THE WORKPLACE

Are dress codes in the workplace important?


[1]
It’s a very interesting question. If you sit to discuss about dress
codes you might end up in a debate. Creating a dress code for a
workplace can be a tricky thing. Fashion is the word of the day and
in such an atmosphere dress codes can certainly be a [a]!

41
[2]
It’s very important to maintain dress codes in an office. Young
boys and girls often dress
shabbily without
bothering what the world
has to say. A [b] dress
code can keep them
under control and
maintain a decent image
in public.
If no dress codes
are maintained in a workplace, then anyone will wear anything of
their choice. This will distract other employees and have a [c]
impact on their performance. If a colleague proves to be a
distraction, the other employees will have a hard time concentrating
on their work. Dress codes have to be reasonable, depending on the
type of work.
[3]
It’s very important that employees sign in neat for work. They
might [d] casual or formal business attire, but this is something that
will vary greatly from setting to setting.
Some things that are completely
[e] dress codes are:
– clothing which has [f] or foul
language;
– tank tops, muscle shirts or
halter tops;
– wearing [g] jeans and tops;
– hats or caps;
– wearing sweatpants or [h]
suits.
[4]
Dress codes have to be
reasonable depending on the type of work. At the time of developing a
dress code the employer should [i] that they are:
– job related;
– not treating one sex less favorably than the other;

42
– not treating one race less favorably than the other.
It’s very important that the employer [j] these dress codes to the
employees to follow.
[28]

Ex. 1. Read the text and choose an appropriate heading from


the list below for each of the paragraphs numbered [1]–[4].
A. What are dress codes?
B. Are dress codes important?
C. What things should employees avoid?
D. Why are dress codes debatable?
E. What things should employers keep in mind when deciding a
dress code?
F. Dress codes for women.
G. Why are dress codes implemented?
H. What to communicate?
I. Dress codes for employees.

Ex. 2. Which words go in the gaps [a]–[j] in the text? Choose


the correct word or phrase for each gap from the list below.

abusive helping hand ensure


against in favour of give in
communicate opt for hard
evidence
communication to start with sweaty
compulsory severe torn
enforce sweat minor

Ex. 3. Translate the following sentences using phrases from


the text.
A. Термин «дресс-код» используется для обозначения
регламента в одежде, который показывает принадлежность
человека к определенной профессиональной группе.
B. В организациях особое внимание уделяется форме
одежды во время важных событий, на успех которых может
повлиять внешний вид сотрудников.
43
C. В зависимости от ситуации, сотрудники могут выбрать
либо повседневную одежду, либо деловой костюм.
D. Разумеется, дресс-код должен быть обусловлен типом
работы.
E. Отсутствие дресс-кода будет отвлекать сотрудников и
негативно сказываться на качестве их работы.
F. Важно, чтобы сотрудники приходили на работу
аккуратно одетыми.
G. Топы разных видов, мужские майки без рукавов, шорты,
спортивные костюмы, а также одежда с неприличными
надписями неприемлемы для офиса.
H. Сегодня среди молодых людей наблюдается тенденция
одеваться небрежно, не заботясь о мнении окружающих.
I. Дресс-код корректирует стиль одежды молодых людей,
он также помогает сохранить образ приличного человека в
обществе.
J. Наказание за детские проступки – вопрос достаточно
неоднозначный.

2.2.3. SPEAKING

1. Describe the photograph, reflecting on an Anglophone


culture. In pairs, produce a suitable caption that links the photograph
with the topic of dress codes. Prepare a 5-minute presentation and
deliver it to your classmates.
2. Choose three corporations in your own town or area and
investigate the purpose or effectiveness of any dress codes they have
in place. You may need to familiarize yourself with the nature of work
and the atmosphere.

2.2.4. WRITING

PROPOSAL

Imagine that you are to propose to the principal of your school a


dress code to be used by all teachers. Write your proposal in 250–400
words.

44
A PROPOSAL is:
– formal;
– informative;
– impersonal;
– written to provide suggestions or plans;
– precise;
– developed using headings and sub-headings;
– written to gain approval or to persuade the recipient to take
action.
YOU SHOULD:
a) state the aim of the proposal in the introduction;
b) clarify each of the aspects, suggestions, or points under a
separate heading or sub-heading;
c) conclude with a general comment, opinion, or assessment.
Before you start, ask yourself again:
– to WHOM am I writing;
– WHAT am I writing;
– WHY am I writing.

2.3. TATTOOS

2.3.1. LEAD-IN

How much do you think tattoos


reflect cultural values and beliefs?
Should tattoos and piercings be
prohibited in work places?
How would discrimination
against tattooed and pierced
individuals be minimized?
How do people in your own
country react to tattooed individuals?
In your opinion, are tattoos and
piercings considered part of the
cultural tradition of a country?

45
2.3.2. READING

THE CULTURAL SIGNIFICANCE OF TATTOOS

For many people tattoos are marks of machismo – a form of


expression for sailors, bikers and convicts with little significance
outside of those subcultures. [a] Furthermore / On the contrary /
Although / On the other hand, tattoos are often symbolic of rich
cultural histories.
In many cases, tattoos are a way to place protective or
therapeutic symbols permanently on the body. Polynesian cultures
have developed elaborate geometric tattoos over thousands of years.
After British explorer James Cook’s expedition to Tahiti in
1769, the marks became fashionable in Europe. [b] Because of / So /
For / As a result, European men in dangerous professions, in
particular sailors and coal
miners, have tattooed
anchors or miner’s lamps on
their forearms for protection
[c] by / for / until / since the
late 18th century. The
tradition of tattooing a loved
one’s name also developed
during this time.
In other cultures,
tattoos mark people as a part of specific social, political or religious
groups. In the Maori culture of New Zealand, the head is considered
the most important part of the body. The face is embellished with
elaborate tattoos, which serve as marks of high status. Each tattoo
design is unique to the individual [d] due to / yet / as / but it conveys
specific information about that person’s social status, ancestry and
skills. Men are given tattoos at various stages in their lives, and the
decorations are designed to enhance their features and make them
more attractive to potential wives. [e] Although / Hence / In spite of /
As a result Maori women are also tattooed on their faces, the
markings are concentrated around the mouth. The Maori believe

46
tattoos around the mouth and chin prevent the skin becoming wrinkled
and keep them young.
[f] Differently / On the other hand / Similarly / What’s more,
there are countless meanings behind traditional Native American
tattoos, but most tattoos were a symbol of a warrior’s status within a
tribe. It was also common for a tribe to give tattoos to those who had
proficiency in using the symbol that was tattooed upon their body. [g]
As a result / Still / For example / Such, warriors often had tattoos of
weaponry, while women were given tattoos of various labor tools.
Although Europeans have had the names of loved ones tattooed onto
their skin for centuries, Native Americans generally wore their own
names.
Various groups throughout Africa employ tattoos as cultural
symbols. Berber tribes in Algeria, Tunisia and Lybia tattoo fine dots
on the faces of women after they give birth to a male heir. Women [h]
also / yet / still / hence tattoo their faces, hands, and ankles with
symbols marking their ethnic identity. In Egypt, members of Christian
Copts sect bear small
crosses on their inner
forearms. The elaborate
facial tattoos of Wodaabe,
nomadic herders and
traders in western Africa,
carry various meanings.
Wodaabe women dot their
temples, cheeks and lips
with geometric tattoos to
ward off evil spirits. Men
and women use black henna as a temporary tattoo covering entire
hands, forearm, feet and shins during weddings, baptism, and special
holidays.
At times, tattoos are a form of artistic expression. Modern
Japanese tattoos are considered fully realized works of art. The highly
skilled tattooists of Samoa consider tattooing both a craft and a
spiritual awakening. They create their art with the same tools as were
used prior to the invention of modern tattooing equipment. This

47
process is seen as a spiritual journey, a strongly psychological
experience that will change their lives forever.
In North America, the cultural status of tattooing has steadily
evolved over the past thirty years, from a rebellious, anti-social
activity in the 1960s to a mainstream means of asserting one’s identity
in the 1990s. [i] Due to / In spite of / Although / Because tattooing is
simply a trendy fashion statement for many, others choose tattooing as
a way of honoring their cultural, ethnic or religious heritage. Tattoos
often represent both fashion and cultural significance, as in the
increasing popularity of Americanized geometric tribal tattoos.
Deon Melchior [23]

Ex. 1. For each of the gaps marked [a]–[i] in the text, choose
one word or phrase from the options that renders the sentence
meaningful.

Ex. 2. Copy and complete the following table using


information from the text.

Target Tattoo Design Significance


Culture/Group
European sailors
and miners
Facial tattoos High status
Maori women Tattoos around the mouth
Dotted temples/cheeks/lips

Ex. 3. Answer the following questions.


A. What is the widespread notion about tattoos given in the first
paragraph?
B. What is the opposing point the writer presents?
C. What does the uniqueness of Maori tattoo design reveal?
D. Find a word which means “prospective”.
E. Why were Native American women given tattoos of labour
tools?
F. How has the cultural status of tattoos changed in North
America?
48
G. One aspect that tattoos may reflect is an individual’s “social
status”. Mention FOUR other aspects that such designs mirror.

Ex. 4. Choose the correct answer from a, b, c, or d:


1. Elaborate means:
a) enigmatic;
b) pertinent;
c) intricate;
d) scriptable.
2. Nomadic means:
a) settled;
b) wandering;
c) primitive;
d) ancient.
3. Ward off is closest in meaning to:
a) prevent;
b) desert;
c) isolate;
d) attract.

Ex. 5. Copy and complete the following table by indicating to


whom or to what the word indicated refers.

In the phrase The word/s Refer/s to


…miner’s lamps on Their
their forearms…
…developed during This time
this time.
…and make them Them
more attractive…
…becoming wrinkled Them
and keep them young.
…tattooed onto their Their
skin…
They create their art They
with the same tools…

49
Ex. 6. Translate the following sentences using phrases from
the text.
A. Для многих людей наличие татуировки – это не только
форма самовыражения, но и признак мужественности.
B. Сложные геометрические татуировки впервые были
использованы в полинезийской культуре тысячи лет назад.
C. Высокий социальный статус в культуре маори Новой
Зеландии воплощается в сложной татуировке, которая украшает
лицо человека, поскольку голова в этой культуре считается самой
важной частью тела.
D. Татуировки часто являются символом богатой
культурной истории, и поэтому каждый человек обладает
уникальным дизайном татуировки, которая содержит
информацию о социальном статусе, происхождении и навыках
ее обладателя.
E. Маори верят, что татуировки, нанесенные вокруг рта и на
подбородке женщин, предотвращают старение кожи и
появление морщин.
F. Мужчины, как правило, носили татуировки с
изображением оружия, тогда как женщины – разнообразных
орудий труда.
G. Еще одним примером татуировки как показателя
социального статуса являются рисунки в виде мелких точек,
которые наносятся на лица женщин и свидетельствуют о
рождении наследника мужского пола.
H. Татуировки определяют не только этническую, но также
и религиозную идентичность как, например, в христианской
секте коптов, которые носят маленькие изображения крестов на
внутренней стороне предплечья.
I. Во многих народах и культурах татуировки служат в
качестве защитных и лечебных символов, поэтому люди наносят
их на тело, чтобы отвести от себя злых духов.
J. Сегодня процесс нанесения татуировки стал одним из
видов художественного самовыражения, который, к примеру, в
современной Японии воспринимается как духовный путь и
важный психологический опыт. Для достижения подобного
эффекта мастера в процессе работы сознательно отказываются от

50
современного оборудования для нанесения татуировок и
используют старинные инструменты.

2.3.3. SPEAKING

1. In groups of three, describe a photograph of a tattooed


person. Think of a caption, and then discuss your reflections.
2. Find out more about a subculture or culture to whom tattoos
are significant. Remember to focus on English-speaking countries.
3. Discuss your findings with other members in your group.
Remember to comment on how tattoos reflect the following in your
chosen culture or subculture:
– religion;
– ethnicity;
– art or fashion;
– social status;
– culture.

2.3.4. WRITING

THE PERSONAL RESPONSE


You are participating in a debate on the notion:
“Tattoos go beyond art and fashion; they reflect deep-rooted
cultural and ethnic heritage”.
Write the text of your opening speech using 250–400 words.

LETTER OF COMPLAINT
The purpose of the following exercise is to practice linking
words in context and to examine how a letter of complaint is
structured. When writing a letter of complaint, think about the
following:
– paragraph outline;
– tone;
– register;
– expressions used.
Linking words glue parts of the text together and help others
follow your ideas. They are used to:

51
– join words and phrases;
– connect sentences;
– link paragraphs;
– develop ideas methodically;
– provide coherence and cohesion.

Read the following letter and fill in the spaces marked [a]–[l]
with the correct word or phrase from the box below.

because despite furthermore but


therefore although during when
in fact as well as in particular due to
despite the to start with not only … but otherwise
fact that also

Dear Mr. Pearce,


I am writing to complain about unacceptable treatment that I
received at school last week [a] the new Vice Principal’s
dissatisfaction with my tattoos and piercings.
[b], Mr. Timms criticized me in a general morning meeting and
mentioned that a teacher should set a good example for their students.
[c], he warned me personally that I should hide or remove these
tattoos and piercings to guarantee the renewal of my contract.
[d] I refused to comply, he decided to write to the local school
board, questioning my qualification and the values of the school
should I pursue teaching. [e] the board ignoring his letter and
emphasizing my qualifications [f] my diligence, Mr. Timms kept on
harassing me on a daily basis.
[g] I have been working here for the past seven years, this issue
has never been brought up before. [h], none of my students or parents
have revealed any negative reaction to such tattoos.
[i] has Mr. Timms demoralized me, [j] he questioned my
professionalism and integrity as a teacher. My tattoos and piercings
have unique cultural significance, and [k] I should not be judged or
humiliated based on them. Mr. Timms’ reaction is totally
unacceptable.

52
I strongly hope that the school board formally support me again
by taking serious action against Mr. Timms, who also needs to express
his apology for the humiliation and damage caused. [l], I will have no
alternative [m] carry the issue further.
I look forward to hearing from you as soon as possible, and I
hope you will take my comments into consideration.
Yours sincerely,
C.P.

WRITING A LETTER OF COMPLAINT


1. State reason for writing.
2. State the complaint and give:
– justifications;
– examples;
– clarifications.
3. Suggest what should be done.
4. Include closing remarks.

2.4. APPEARANCE DISCRIMINATION

2.4.1. LEAD-IN

In your opinion, can tattoo and piercing discrimination be


considered equal to any other kind of discrimination?
Does an employer have any right not to hire a person because of
their tattoos and piercings?
Do tattoos and piercings have any impact on the working process
in the workplace?
Would you prefer to cooperate with tattooed and pierced
individuals or not? Why?
If you were to run your own company, would you prohibit
tattoos and piercings in the workplace? Why or why not?

53
2.4.2. READING

TATTOOS AND PIERCINGS CAUSE DISRIMINATION


IN THE WORKPLACE

THE MEDIA, fashion industry, and Hollywood [a] have / has /


is / are played a major role in manipulating society to believe in what
is acceptable or not. What to wear, what not to wear. If red is in
season for the fashion world, it [b] will / would / would have / will
not clutter the shelves of most department stores, minimizing the
color choices. For those of us not wanting any of the colors the season
brings, we have to search elsewhere, making our lives more difficult.
Why make it hard?
A few of us still hold [c] in / on / on to / to our unique style and
individuality, but, when the next rave is to be rail thin, many people
will purge unwanted food to get into that size zero. If a celebrity
sports a tattoo, then it becomes the latest fad and everyone wants one.
Our western culture has turned into a [d] clan / herd / school / flock
of zombies just wanting for someone else to decide our fate, forgetting
we do have a mind and style of our own, but fearful of just being
ourselves because of society’s judgment that can prevent us from
getting that certain career or promotion.
Society has labeled tattooed and pierced individuals as misfits,
lazy, uneducated, and ungodly. What makes a piercing on the
face/body any different than piercing through the ear lobes? Who
makes this decision? Again, society has told us that it’s okay to have
our ear lobes pierced, [e] so / but / for / thus to pierce anywhere else
on the body is unthinkable.

54
We have to remember
that people with tattoos and
piercings are also
HUMAN, just as intelligent
(or not) as you and I. Some
have good intentions and
some don’t. The only
difference is how they
choose to express
themselves. I call it unique
and experimental. These body modifications are accepted in other
parts of the world and have been around for many centuries. In some
Indian tribes, a man or woman with tattoos [f] are / is / is being / are
being believed to possess maturity and strength. If they didn’t have it,
then they [g] weren’t / aren’t / wasn’t / isn’t as strong or considered
wise.
Today, tattoos have become more of an art form than anything,
but some still get them [h] despite / since / due to, / as their culture or
religion. If a woman with tattoos on her face [i] will step / steps /
stepped / has stepped into a room for a job interview and was
rejected because of her tattoos, that would be deemed as
discrimination. Her interviewer wouldn’t know if it’s cultural or
religious. Either way, employers should never ask what someone’s
religion, age, or sexual orientation is. It’s just as true with people who
have tattoos and/or body piercings. It could very well be that it’s just
part of their culture. It’s not
for us to judge and use it
against them.
Everyone should have
the same equal opportunities.
Discrimination keeps us
shallow, and closed-minded,
with an inability to see the
person for who they are
because we are distracted [j]
from/ with / by / off an

55
appearance we are not familiar with. We are to look at a person’s
heart, mind, and soul before having any opinions.
As far as employers go, they need to focus on the resume or how
the employee is holding up at their new position. The company I work
for caused a little bit of conversation when the dress code was
explained in detail. No scuffs on shoes, no hair accessories, acceptable
make-up/nail polish, limited jewelry, hide tattoos, appropriate nail
length, etc. I work for the apartment industry and I’ve always had
positive responses when people saw my tattoos, [k] and / for / as /
but I guess the company is fearful of losing clients because of our
appearance, whether it were my tattoo or someone’s unacceptable
nails.
In a perfect world, companies would hire employees based on
education, experience, work ethic,
cleanliness, characteristics, and reputation.
In a perfect world, people will see through
someone’s physical appearance directly to
their heart. [l] In fact / Fortunately /
Unfortunately / Therefore, our world is
not perfect. People will always be judged
on their appearance, regardless of who they
are [m] from / in / on / by the inside.
Companies will continue to reject
many people who are highly qualified
based on their looks, tattoos/piercings.
Maybe this will change sometime soon, but
for now, keep in mind that appearances are
deceiving, so no one has the right to make the call as to who is a good
or bad individual. That has to be proven in time.
[11, p.192]

Ex. 1. For each of the gaps labeled [a]–[m] in the text, choose
a word or phrase from the options provided that renders the
sentence meaningful. Be prepared to justify your choices.

56
Ex. 2. From statements A to I, select the four that are true
according to the text.
A. Fashion helps us choose the colors that best suit us.
B. According to the writer, Westerners have unique styles but
are indecisive.
C. Body modifications restrict job opportunities.
D. Individuals with tattoos and piercings are not as intelligent as
others.
E. According to the article, people are judged by the society
despite their unique abilities.
F. The writer has always been criticized for her tattoos.
G. The writer is aware that a change of attitude requires time.
H. Body modifications result from the constant judgments made
by society.
I. Tattoos and piercings divert employers from their employees’
qualifications.

Ex. 3. Answer the following questions.


A. What is the message of the article?
B. What is the comparison presented in “when the next rave is to
be rail thin, people will purge unwanted food to get into that size
zero”? What does the writer imply?
C. How are tattooed and pierced people stereotyped? How does
the writer refute this notion?
D. What are the two supporting details that the writer presents to
prove discrimination in the work place is unacceptable?
E. What purpose does capitalizing the word “HUMAN” serve?
F. What do the following words mean:
– fad;
– misfits.

Ex. 4. Translate the following sentences using phrases from


the text.
A. Это новая фишка – икра и попкорн.
B. Если какой-то цвет оказывается модным, все полки в
торговых центрах завалены вещами именно этого цвета.

57
C. Чрезмерная худоба не в моде: поклонники в восторге
от новых форм А. Решетниковой.
D. Современное общество зомбировано – люди
превратились в рабов вещей.
E. Дискриминация по внешности – это стереотипы,
предрассудки относительно людей, чья внешность не отвечает
культурно-социальным нормам того или иного общества.
F. Недавно в России был организован марш
татуированных людей. Приверженцы тату-культуры требовали
прекращения дискриминации людей с татуировками при приеме
на работу
G. Несмотря на растущую популярность татуировок и
других модификаций тела, многие наниматели продолжают
считать боди арт неприемлемым на рабочем месте. По данным
исследовательского центра Superjob.ru 15% кадровиков
отказывали кандидатам в приеме на работу из-за красовавшихся
на их теле татуировок.
H. В нашей компании недавно был введен строгий дресс-
код, который требует от сотрудников прятать татуировки, носить
умеренный макияж, короткие ногти и т.д., вероятно, потому, что
компания опасается, что внешность сотрудников отпугнет
клиентов. Но законно ли это?
I. Когда ты в последний раз видел врача с татуировками?
Адвоката с голубыми волосами? Или учителя с пирсингом на
губах? Вероятнее всего, никогда.
J. Помните, что внешность обманчива, и только время
сможет показать, кто хороший человек, а кто нет.

2.4.3. SPEAKING

Speak on the following.


To what extent does membership of a cultural group affect how
we come to gain knowledge about other groups?
Some groups who use tattoos extensively can seem very alien to
social groups who do not use them. How can we understand such
cultures? To what extent is it possible to understand different cultures

58
if we are outside them? Or can we only understand cultures that we
belong to?
What are the differences between knowing a culture, knowing
about a culture and knowing a person from that culture?

2.4.4. WRITING

THE PERSONAL RESPONSE


Split into two groups.
Group 1
After reading the article, you decide to write a letter to the editor
in which you agree or disagree with Z. Dewara’s viewpoint about
tattoos and piercings in the work place. Write 250–400 words.

REMEMBER
Letter to the Editor
Uses formal register and style.
Written to express a point of view, list arguments supporting this
opinion and reject those against it.
May end by restating the writer’s opinion or by offering
suggestions for action.
Such letters are similar to opinion essays, but in the format of a
letter.
How to write?
1. Start by stating purpose. Refer to article, issue, date, writer,
and title of the article. State the issue or topic and whether you
approve or disapprove.
2. Support your argument. Give examples, clarifications, and
details.
3. Refute any counter-arguments.
4. Provide suggestions or solutions to solve/handle the problem
or topic.
5. Include closing remarks.

59
Group 2
After reading the article, you decide to write a letter to
Z. Dewara in which you agree or disagree with her views about tattoos
and piercings in the work place. Write 250–400 words.

REMEMBER
Letter giving an opinion
Use a semi-formal to formal register.
Decide what your stand is (approve or disapprove of Dewara’s
opinion).
Provide justifications and supporting details.
Tone should be respectful and friendly even if you disagree with
Dewara.
How to write?
1. Start with opening greetings.
2. State purpose, refer to article, title, newspaper issue, date, etc.
3. State opinion.
4. Support your argument.
5. Refute Dewara’s argument (if needed).
6. Include closing remarks.
You may wish to consult the following e-learning sources:
– www.letterwritingguide.com;
– www.usingenglish.com/resources/letter-writing.php;
– www.nald.ca/library/academic/english/writing/letters/module9.pdf;
– www.goodletterwriting.co.uk;
– http://owl.english.purdue.edu.

60
UNIT 3

LEISURE

3.1. FESTIVALS

3.1.1. LEAD-IN

What images come to your mind when you read about


international festivals?
How important are festivals and fairs?
Describe a significant festival or fair held in your own culture.
To what degree do you think book festivals encourage people
and children in particular, to read.

3.1.2. READING

INTERNATIONAL YOUTH FESTIVALS

Aberdeen’s Homecoming Tartan Day

Join us in our celebration of Homecoming – the 250th


anniversary of the birth of Robert Burns, Scotland’s national Poet.
Aberdeen will come alive on Sunday 2 August with a dazzling
Tartan Day festival of parades, markets, concerts and historical events.

61
Everyone can take part in the diversity of Scottish culture and heritage
with walking tours, concerts and music workshops. Aberdeen’s
Homecoming Tartan Day will be a day of fun for all the family – the
highlight, a spectacular parade down Union Street with pipe bands,
celebrities and the youth festival performers.
Homecoming parade.
Beating retreat.
Aberdeen country fair.
Tolbooth tours.
Tartan at the terrace concert.
Ancestral tourism day.
Wallace 700th celebration.
Festival in the city.
Gordon Highlanders
International Beating
Retreat celebrates the global
footprint of the world-famous
Gordon Highlanders and its
overseas affiliations. Aberdeen
City Council in partnership
with the Gordon Highlanders
Museum will present a
spectacular Gordon
Highlanders International
Beating Retreat on Union
Terrace at 4pm on Sunday 2 August.
Pipe band members from Canada, Australia, South Africa and
Europe will return to the
homeland of the Gordons –
back to their Scottish roots –
to join forces for the first
international reunion of its
kind.
Distinguished as one of
the finest regiments in the
British army, the name of the
Gordon Highlanders spans 200

62
years of world-history and lives on through the soldiers of the
Highlanders, 4th Battalion the Royal Regiment of Scotland.
Beating Retreat dates back to the 17th century and is the
traditional way soldiers are ordered to return to Barracks.

Aberdeen International Youth Festival. Festival in the City

AIYF is a leading world youth arts event attracting around 1000


talented young performers and artists from the UK and abroad.
“Festival in the city” will spread across 10 city centre stages
showcasing the festival’s international talent alongside local young
performers in the streets and shopping centres. The jam-packed
schedule includes a full range of entertainment suitable for all the
family, drummers, traditional music, songs, exotic dance and street
theatre.
Come along and experience the colour, music and festival buzz
for free!
Share the excitement – see something new!

Ex. 1. Read the flyer and answer the following questions.


A. What is the aim of the flyer?
B. Having examined the text, what do you believe to be the
important details that should be provided when designing any festival
flyer?
C. Mention four activities that Aberdeen’s Homecoming Tartan
Day includes.
D. What do “Homecoming” and “Beating Retreat” traditionally
represent?

63
Ex. 2. The statements below are either true or false. Choose
the correct response, and then justify it by quoting a relevant
phrase from the text.
A. Aberdeen’s Homecoming Tartan Day activities target the
youth.
B. The Gordons are originally from Scotland.
C. The “Gordon Highlanders” is a newfound name.
D. The Aberdeen International Youth Festival attracts local
performers and artists.

Ex. 3. For each of the following words from the text, choose
the word from the table which is closest in meaning:
a) dazzling;
b) diversity;
c) affiliations;
d) spans;
e) exotic.

associations binds extraordinary


variety detachments mysterious
astounding relates extends across

Ex. 4. Complete the following sentences using the words


from the box.

Aberdeen affiliations jam-packed dazzling


footprint spectacular (2) drummers buzz

1. “Festival in the city” will spread across 10 city centre stages


showcasing the festival’s international talent alongside local young
performers in the streets and shopping centres. The … schedule
includes a full range of entertainment suitable for all the family, …
traditional music, song, exotic dance and street theatre.
2. Come along and experience the colour, music and festival …
for free! Share the excitement – see something new!
3. Join us in our celebration of Homecoming – the 250th
Anniversary of the birth of Robert Burns, Scotland’s national poet. …
64
will come alive on Sunday 2 August with a … Tartan Day festival of
parades, markets, concerts and historical events
4. Aberdeen’s Homecoming Tartan Day will be a day of fun for
all the family – the highlight, a … parade down Union Street with pipe
bands, celebrities and the youth festival performers.
5. Celebrating the global … of the world-famous Gordon
Highlanders and its overseas …
6. Aberdeen City Council in partnership with The Gordon
Highlanders Museum will present a … Gordon Highlanders
International Beating Retreat on Union Terrace at 4pm on Sunday 2
August.

Ex. 5. Match the words on the left with the words on the
right (according to the given text):
1) International Beating; a) regiments;
2) Overseas; b) of any belief;
3) jam-packed; c) Tartan Day festival;
4) Aberdeen’s Homecoming; d) footprint;
5) the global; e) retreat;
6) one of the finest; f) Tartan;
7) a dazzling; g) countries;
8) mockery; h) schedule;
9) Anglophone; i) affiliation.

Ex. 6. Translate the following sentences into English.

A. Выступление оркестра Гордонских хайлендеров пройдет а


Абердине 2 августа. Впервые вместе выступят волынщики и
барабанщики из разных уголков земного шара.
B. Плотный график фестиваля включает полный спектр
развлечений, для всей семьи: барабанщиков, традиционную
музыку, песни, экзотические танцы и уличный театр.
C. Бывший солдат Билл Смит (ныне смотритель музея
Гордонского хайлендеровского полка) поделился своими
воспоминаниями.
D. Маленький, сонный городок оживает во время
ежегодного парада волынщиков.

65
E. Все шотландские кильты имеют тартан. Тартан – это
клетчатый узор из горизонтальных, вертикальных и
диагональных полос. Цвет и узор тартана уникальны для каждого
клана.
F. Какая разница между значениями слов “heritage” и
“legacy”?
G. Первое, что его поразило, было невообразимое
количество продуктов.
H. М-р Китинг просто завораживал студентов своим
отношением к литературе и жизни вообще.
I. Углеродный след – это количество углекислого газа,
выбрасываемого в атмосферу в результате какой-либо
деятельности.
J. По данным ООН сейчас средняя продолжительность
жизни в мире составляет 69 лет для мужчин и 74 года для
женщин.

Ex. 7. Solve the crossword.

4 8

13 14
3
5 12
9
6 11
10

7 15

16

66
Across:
2) a mark made by a foot or shoe;
3) when someone laughs at someone or something in an unkind
way;
7) performed by a single person telling jokes and funny stories
on stage;
9) someone who plays a drum;
10) the period of time that something exists or happens;
13) physically unable to talk;
15) to hurt one’s feelings, treat unfair;
16) the buildings, paintings, customs, etc. which are important in
a culture or society because they have existed for a long time.

Down:
1) a thin book with pictures and information, usually advertising
something;
4) a small piece of paper advertising a business, show, event,
etc.;
5) very surprising;
6) relating directly to a subject;
8) a large group of soldiers;
11) a very thin book with a paper cover that gives information
about;
12) the point where an electric current enters or leaves
something such as a battery (= object which provides electricity);
13) extremely good and exciting;
14) a feeling of excitement, energy, or pleasure.

3.1.3. SPEAKING

1. Certain festivals encourage understanding and appreciation


for different cultures, while celebrating local heritage and cultural
expressions. Reflect on this statement and search for at least two
festivals in two different Anglophone cultures that fulfill such a
mission statement (London Book Fair, Cape Town Jazz Festival,

67
Toronto International Film Festival, etc.). Find a photograph to
present your chosen fair or festival.
2. Peruse the FSA International Heritage Festival website and
choose one of the most appealing activities involved. Justify your
choice.
3. Pair work. Make up and act out a dialogue about festivals
using the vocabulary.
4. Comment on one of the quotes:
5. Our heritage and ideals, our code and standards – the things
we live by and teach our children – are preserved or diminished by
how freely we exchange ideas and feelings.(Walt Disney)
6. You don’t stumble upon your heritage. It’s there, just waiting
to be explored and shared. (Robbie Robertson)
7. It is not the honor that you take with you, but the heritage you
leave behind. (Branch Rickey)

3.1.4. WRITING

Match the words on the left with the words on the right:
1) brochure; a) a small piece of paper advertising a
business, show, event, etc.;
2) pamphlet; b) a thin book with pictures and
information, usually advertising sth.;
3) flyer; c) a very thin book with a paper cover
that gives information about sth.
Copy the diagram below and fill the circles with features of a
brochure, a pamphlet and a flyer. Similarities between them should
be written where the circles overlap. Think of the following:
– communicative purposes;
– language;
– target audience;
– register;
– layout.

68
Brochure

Flyer

Write a flyer (250–300 words) about the chosen fair or


festival. Before you start writing, ask yourself.
What is your intended goal?
Who is your audience?
How will your audience respond to your massage?
What are your audience’s needs?
REMEMBER
Address your audience directly and clearly.
Take readers straight to important information.
Provide an eye-catching title.
Use headings, sub-headings, bullets and numbers to highlight
key information.
Divide into manageable sections or paragraphs.
Keep language simple and straightforward.
Include contact information.

3.2. TRAVELLING

3.2.1. LEAD-IN

How do you spend your leisure time?


When you go on holidays, what determines where you want to
spend your holiday? What do you look for? What do you avoid?

69
What is the difference between a journey, a trip, and a
holiday?
How does tourism affect a country both positively and
negatively?
How do natural disasters affect tourism in the short term and in
the longer term?
Henry Miller once said: “One’s destination is not a place, but a
new way of seeing things”. Do you agree? How is this quote related to
travelling and to life in general?

3.2.2. READING

TRAVEL AND RECREATION

Wildlife safaris in India. Tips from the expert

1. Taking a jungle safari is an exhilarating experience if done


properly. To fully enjoy and experience nature, the visitor needs to be
extremely sensitive to their surroundings and display a large measure
of patience and self-discipline.

2. India has more than five hundred national parks and wildlife
sanctuaries and more than half of them have adequate infrastructure
for the tourist. For those willing to put up with a certain amount of
physical discomfort, the sky is the limit.
3. A safari can be best described as a sojourn into the wild and
there are many ways to do so. Most parks offer jeep rides into the park

70
and these are one of the best ways to see the park. The advantage of a
jeep ride is that one is able to cover a lot of ground in the shortest
possible time, thus maximizing one’s chances of seeing wildlife.
However, most jeep safaris turn out to be just mindless driving in the
forest. One needs to stop every now and then, especially near
ecological features that attract
game, like waterholes, etc. A
discerning guide is necessary on
any safari and they should not be
pressured to show animals, as no
one is a magician able to conjure
up game. Sounds play an
important role, and one must be
willing to stop and spend time
listening.
4. An elephant safari is probably the best way to get up close and
personal with nature and in certain habitats, such as the tall elephant
grass habitats, it is the only way to go about. The advantages of
elephants are that wildlife accepts them as animals and does not
associate them with an alien presence. The other advantage is that
there is no noise pollution and one can get to listen to the jungle
sounds, which are usually drowned out in the roar of a jeep engine.
The elephant also gives you a vantage point and visibility is much
improved, adding to the overall experience.
5. Trekking in protected areas is discouraged and rightly so. The
average tourist does not possess the skills required to survive in the
forest and is thus most vulnerable while on foot. Fitness levels and the
ability to climb trees play an important role in escaping danger while
on foot, and as these are hard to assess, it is best to avoid going into
the forest on foot.
6. Water-based safaris are on offer in certain parks that have
large water bodies within them. A boat safari can be quite an
enjoyable experience at the right time of the year and is certainly the
most comfortable and relaxing way to do a safari. For the avid bird
watcher, a boat is one of the best ways to get close to certain species
of birds.

71
7. A machan, or a hide, situated close to a waterhole during the
heat of summer is probably the best way to view game. However, this
demands a lot of patience. Most parks have machans built close to
waterholes and with prior permission one can get to use them. Make
sure to check on the availability of these before you visit a park the
next time.
8. To derive
maximum pleasure from a
safari, one must go properly
prepared. A pair of good
binoculars is the most
important piece of
equipment to carry on
safari. A pair of 8X
magnification is [a] for the
mammals but for watching birds a 10X magnification is required to
bring out details of [b] for correct identification. One should carry a
pair that has an adequate diameter of lens as it helps in capturing more
light.
9. A good camera is an asset to jog your memory later, however,
one should not get [c] with taking the perfect picture, as the effort
tends to distract from the experience. Large and cumbersome lenses
add to the discomfort, and it is best to restrict your photography when
using hides or machans. Most resorts allow photographers to hire
jeeps for their exclusive use for an extra charge, and if photography is
your purpose, it is
recommended that you do
so. A good field guide that
is easy to carry can be
invaluable asset.
10. Dress for
comfort. Cotton fabrics in
neutral or dull colours are
most suitable. Avoid
synthetic fabrics and those
made of vinyl as they
reflect UV light that is

72
visible to animals. Use detergents that do not contain brighteners for
the same reason. A wide brimmed hat is useful in summer and dark
glasses are a strict no-no.
11. Smells play an important role in the wild; therefore, do not
use strong deodorants and avoid insect [d] and sunscreens that have
powerful scents.
12. Your behavior and [e] are extremely important. Do not get
excited on seeing wildlife, take care to speak in hushed tones and do
not make any sudden or violent gestures. Try not to break the profile
of the jeep by standing up.
13. Leave the forest as you find it. Do not [f]; it can be fatal for
wildlife. Resist the temptation to pluck flowers and fruit. Do not leave
anything behind and do not take anything away except [g].
14. In addition, give yourself time. Nature cannot be hurried. She
does not respond to deadlines. If you wish to get a better
understanding, you must be prepared to be patient. The more time you
spend, the better your chances of seeing wildlife. The more time you
spend watching wildlife, the more you learn about it.
15. [h] follow the local rules that may vary from place to place
and listen to your guide. In the forest, they are also your minder and
teacher. Respect them
and respect wildlife.
Wildlife can be
dangerous and therefore
it is best to avoid cheap
thrills. Do not under any
circumstances encroach
upon an animal’s private
space – it can be fatal.
16. If you strictly observe these guidelines, you can have one of
the most [i], experiences of your life. A word of caution – wildlife
safaris can be highly addictive!
Vikram Nanjappa [23]

73
Ex. 1. For spaces [a]–[i], choose one word or phrase from the
options below which renders each sentence meaningful.

awarding litter plumes


blasé memories repellents
clutter memoirs restraints
gestures nods rewarding
inappropriate obsessed strictly
leniently plumage suitable

REMEMBER
Re-read the sentence around the missing word. Can you work
out the missing word from the context of the sentences around it?
Look at each potential answer. Is it a verb, noun, adjective, or
adverb? Do some words have more than one function? How does this
information help you find the correct answer?

Ex. 2. Answer the following questions.


A. Give a drawback to Indian national parks and wildlife safaris.
B. Which sense is important if you want to observe animals in
their natural environment?
C. Which phrase in paragraph 5 shows that the author supports
forbidding walking in protected areas?
D. Which skill plays a crucial role in a tourist’s ability to survive
in a forest?
E. Which bird is best watched from a machan?
F. Which attribute should a tourist possess to watch birds?
G. What should a tourist do to ensure their ability to use a
machan?
H. Which piece of equipment is most important to enjoy a
safary?
I. In “as the effort tends” (paragraph 9), to what does “the
effort” refer?
J. What type of guide is recommended by the author?
K. Based on your understanding of paragraph 14, explain
“Nature cannot be hurried. She does not respond to deadlines” in your
own words.
74
Ex. 3. Read the text and in the table below outline the
advantages and disadvantages (where necessary) of the following.

Advantages Disadvantages
Jeep rides
Elephant safaris
Boat safaris
Trekking
Using a machan

Ex. 4. Complete the following sentences.


A. To fully enjoy nature, one should … and …
B. In paragraph 3, another word for “vacation” is …
C. In paragraph 3, another word for “perceptive” is …
D. In paragraph 4, another word for “foreign” is …
E. Another word given in the text for “machan” is …
F. In paragraph 9, another word for “sidetrack” is …

Ex. 5. Complete the following sentences using the words


from the box.

sojourn machans sanctuaries trekking


lenses binoculars sensitive pollution

A. A safari can be best described as a … into the wild and there


are many ways to do so.
B. … in protected areas is discouraged and rightly so.
C. Large and cumbersome … add to the discomfort, and it is
best to restrict your photography when using hides or ... .
D. A pair of good … is the most important piece of equipment to
carry on safari.
E. India has more than five hundred national parks and wildlife
… and more than half of them have adequate infrastructure for the
tourist.
F. To fully enjoy and experience nature, the visitor needs to be
extremely … to his surroundings and display a large measure of
patience and self-discipline.
75
G. The other advantage is that there is no noise … and one can
get to listen to the jungle sounds, which are usually drowned out in the
roar of a jeep engine.

Ex. 6. Match the words on the left with the words on the
right (according to the given text):
1) vantage; a) lenses;
2) relaxing; b) driving;
3) noise; c) way;
4) extremely; d) asset;
5) invaluable; e) deodorants;
6) cumbersome; f) game;
7) conjure up; g) fabrics;
8) strong; h) sensitive;
9) cotton; i) point;
10) mindless; j) pollution.

Ex. 7. Translate the following sentences into English.


A. В Индии существует более пятисот национальных парков
и заповедников живой природы, и большая половина из них
имеет необходимую для туризма инфраструктуру.
B. На сафари необходимо строго соблюдать правила,
которые помогут снизить риск сомнительных острых ощущений.
C. Помните, что гид – не волшебник и не может показать
вам животных по взмаху волшебной палочки.
D. Ни при каких обстоятельствах не подходите слишком
близко к животным, это может быть смертельно опасно.
E. Бинокль для сафари играет огромную роль: он помогает
рассмотреть животных достаточно подробно.
F. Среднестатистический турист не обладает навыками,
необходимыми для выживания в лесу и, таким образом, крайне
уязвим.
G. Запахи играют важную роль в дикой природе; не
используйте дезодоранты, средства от насекомых и
солнцезащитные кремы, так как они имеют сильный запах.
H. Чем больше времени вы проводите, наблюдая за дикой
природой, тем больше вы узнаете о ней.

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I. Наблюдение за дикой природой требует терпения и
дисциплины, не смейтесь, не говорите слишком громко и не
делайте резких движений.
J. Детергент (лат. detergeo – «стираю») – это вещество
(порошок или жидкость), помогающее отмывать что-либо от
грязи. Существует три вида моющих средств: мыло, стиральный
порошок и шампуни.

Ex. 8. Solve the crossword.


Across:
3) a strong feeling of excitement and pleasure;
7) easy to hurt or attack physically or emotionally;
9) to think about someone or something all the time;
10) a substance that protects your skin in the sun;
11) to cover a surface, or to fill a place with things that are not
tidy or well organized;
13) a platform erected in a tree, used originally for hunting large
animals and now for watching animals in wildlife reserves;
18) not as severe or strong in punishment or judgment as would
be expected.
Down:
1) a small pool of water in a dry area where animals go to drink;
2) to make a loud, deep sound;
4) something that causes a lot of harm or damage;
5) very interested and enthusiastic;
6) strange and not familiar;
8) skill, or quality which is useful or helps you to succeed;
10) a short period when a person stays in a particular place;
11) large and difficult to move or use;
12) a curved piece of glass in cameras, glasses, and scientific
equipment used for looking at things;
14) a large feather, often worn for decoration;
15) a place that provides protection;
16) extremely unpleasant;
17) to be officially connected to, or a member of, a larger
organization;

77
19) able to understand what people are feeling and deal with
them in a way that does not upset them.

14
12
4 8
2
1
6 9

3 11
5 16 17

7
10 15 19

18

13

3.2.3. SPEAKING

1. Comment on one of the quotes.


A. Today the world is a big jungle (Roberto Cavalli).
B. In the social jungle of human existence, there is no feeling of
being alive without a sense of identity (Erik Erikson).
C. If we had paid no more attention to our plants than we have
to our children, we would now be living in a jungle of weed (Luther
Burbank).
2. Choose a book about travelling and present it to your group-
mates.
3. Pair work. Make up and act out a dialogue about your last
journey.

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3.2.4. WRITING

LETTER OF APPLICATION
1. A travel course combines traditional learning with travelling
and aims to enrich students’ educational experiences through
travelling. One of your local universities decided to offer summer
travel courses in biology, economics, history, and English. In pairs
write a brochure in which you encourage students to enroll in the
summer travel courses and describe the benefits they will gain from
taking part in these courses.
2. Exchange your brochure with another pair. Read the brochure
and then individually write an application letter to the university in
which you describe why you want to take part in one of the travel
courses described in your classmates’ brochure.
Before you write your letter, do a basic electronic search to find
out which phrases, sentences, and expressions are usually included in
a letter of application. Organize your findings into a table like this
one:
Beginning Body End

A letter of application is usually written when you apply for a


job or a course. The register used in a letter of application is formal
and a university application letter is structured as follows.
Begin by clearly stating your reason for writing: mention the
course you are applying for and where you have learned about it.
In the body of the letter, explain your interests and your
qualifications. Why have you chosen this course and this university?
What benefit can the university gain from your enrolment?
Conclude the letter by mentioning how you will apply the
knowledge you gain from the course in your future life. Remember to
include information about where and when you can be reached and an
invitation for the university to request further information if needed.

79
3.3. HAZARDS OF LEISURE

3.3.1. LEAD-IN

How has the tourism industry changed in the last few decades?
Have new forms of tourism evolved? Have some vanished?
What is the difference between a traveller and a tourist?
What dangers face travelers and tourists?
What should be done to ensure the safety of travellers and
tourists?
Which sports are associated with travel? Give examples and
reasons.
Are some sports considered dangerous? Which ones? Why?

3.3.2. READING

RECREATIONAL DANGERS

Australian snorkeler snatched by shark

A snorkeler [1] to have been snatched by a shark as he [2] last


weekend with his son at a beach south of Perth. Witnesses reported
seeing a dorsal fin and thrashing in the water before the sea turned
red and the man vanished at the scene on Australia‟s west coast.
Father of three Brian Guest, 51, who [3] for many years for the
protection of sharks, was looking for crabs yesterday morning with his
24 [a] year-old son
when he [4] about
30 metres from the
shore.
Luke Tubbs told
how a witness ran to
his house in shock
and screaming for
help [b] “He just

80
saw a big splash and then the shark roll over in the water with the guy
and then [he saw] no body or anything. [c]
Daniel Guest, who [5] six metres away at the Port Kennedy
beach, heard his father’s screams but did not see the attack. He [6] to
shore when he saw blood in the water. His father’s shredded wetsuit
was found later, and aerial searches spotted a five-metre great white
shark, swimming in the area.
In Sydney, some hours later, a kayaker survived a terrifying
ordeal after [7] from his craft by a great white shark. The encounter,
endured by 29-year-old Steve Kulcsar, occurred less than a mile off
Australia’s east coast, at Long Reef, and [8] by a fisherman in a small
boat nearby. The video
footage apparently showed
the shark circling Kulcsar
after bumping him off his
kayak.
Kulcsar said [d] “I
knew it was there, but my
first thought was to just
get back in the kayak as
quick as possible”.
For 10 minutes the
shark is seen lurking
around him and two other kayakers before losing interest and
swimming away.
The two great white encounters sparked panic and closed a
number of beaches across Australia.
Bondi beach [9] yesterday after a shark was spotted close to
shore. Swimmers were also evacuated from a Queensland holiday
island after sharks were spotted in waist-deep water.
During an aerial search on the West Australian coastline for
Guest’s body, sharks were spotted, forcing the closure of two beaches.
The attack on Guest was the second by sharks in Australia this
year. A 16-year-old surfer, Peter Edmonds, died after being attacked
by a shark near Byron bay, on the New South Wales coast, in April.

81
On average there are 15 shark attacks a year in Australia [e] with
about one death each year. Swimmers [10] more likely to die of a
lightning strike than be taken by a great white shark.
Yesterday Daniel Guest recalled how his father had spoken of
the risks of sharks and how he had loved and respected the ocean
environment. [f]
Brian Guest wrote on the Western Angler website forum in 2014
[g] “I have always had an understanding with my wife that if a shark
or ocean accident caused my death then so be it, at least it was doing
what I wanted. Every surfer [h] fisherman and diver has far more
chance of being killed by bees, drunk drivers, teenage car thieves and
lightning. Every death is a tragedy – regardless of the cause – but we
have no greater claim to use of this earth than any of the other
creatures [we] share it with”.
His son said he viewed his father’s death as a random event that
should not make people fear the water [i] he said he would eventually
go back into the sea [j] “When I’m ready… I’ll do that”.
Ellen Conolly [19]

Ex. 1. For the gaps [a]–[j] in the text, choose the appropriate
punctuation mark from those below which renders the sentence
meaningful:
,/./;/:/-/!/?/“

REMEMBER
A dash is a mark of separation stronger than a comma, less
formal than a colon, and more relaxed than parentheses.
e.g. There are four things a successful teacher should have:
patience, passion, organization and knowledge.
The only thing his mom could do – if she could do anything at
all – was to wait for Tom to come back.
My sister, who lives in New York, has bought a new car.
Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) was an Italian Renaissance
painter, sculptor, and architect.

82
Ex. 2. Choose the verb from the table below which best fits
each of the gaps [1]–[10] in the text.

are filmed having knocked was closed


being knocked had attacked is believed was filmed
believes had campaigned raced was racing
campaigned had swum swam was swimming
closed has been was attacked was
swimming

Ex. 3. Answer the following questions.


Which main tense is used in the news report?
Which point of view is used in the news report?
How long are the paragraphs? Why?
Does the reporter use direct and indirect quotes? Give examples.

Ex. 4. The news report Australian snorkeler snatched by


shark appeared in a mainstream newspaper. In pairs,
electronically search for the similarities and differences between
mainstream and tabloid news reports. Write your findings in a
table like the one below.

Similarities Differences
Mainstream – –
– –
– –
– –
Tabloid – –
– –
– –
– –

83
Ex. 5. Match the words on the left with the words on the
right (according to the given text):

1) protection; a) around;
2) an aerial; b) search;
3) screaming; c) occurred;
4) shredded; d) footage;
5) spotted; e) panic;
6) survived; f) the ordeal;
7) the encounter; g) in waist-deep water;
8) video; h) of sharks;
9) lurking; i) for help;
10) sparked; j) wetsuit.

Ex. 6. Translate the following sentences.


A. Одно из прозвищ Маргарет Тэтчер, премьер-министра
Великобритании в 1979–1990-е гг., было «похитительница
молока», так как она отменила традиционно бесплатное молоко
детям в школах.
B. Городское население стремится проводить отдых на
природе и в сельской местности.
C. Катаясь на американских горках, они вопили от ужаса и
восторга.
D. Антенна – это устройство для излучения или приема
электромагнитных волн.
E. Случайность – это нечто непредсказуемое. Например, вы
не можете предсказать вероятность того, что ваш сосед упадет с
лестницы в ближайшие 10 лет.
F. Уже полчаса я пытаюсь разбудить Тайлера. Это поистине
мука, и я абсолютно измотан.
G. Измельчитель – это канцелярское оборудование для
безопасного и надежного уничтожения документов.
H. «Контакты с представителями неземных цивилизаций»
(«Близкие контакты третьей степени») – американский научно-
фантастический фильм 1977 года, автор сценария и режиссер
Стивен Спилберг. Фильм был номинирован на 8 премий
«Оскара», но получил только одну за особые достижения.

84
I. Было достигнуто общее согласие в отношении того, что
акты терроризма не должны иметь никакого оправдания, каковы
бы ни были их причины и мотивы и кто бы их ни совершал.
J. По данным ежегодного Доклада о глобальном гендерном
разрыве женщины в среднем получают значительно меньшую
заработную плату, чем мужчины.

Ex. 7. Solve the crossword.


Across:
1) a person who uses a snorkel for swimming;
2) the sound of something falling into or moving in water;
3) remaining hidden so as to wait in ambush;
4) happening in the air;
5) to excite the curiosity or attention of sb.;
6) to make it easier for someone to do something;
7) to continue to exist, especially in a difficult or
dangerous situation;
8) of a very great size or force, much bigger than average;
9) to suffer something difficult or unpleasant in a patient way;
10) a long narrow strip cut or torn off;
11) to see or notice something or someone, especially
suddenly;
12) an offensive against an enemy (using weapons);
13) a person who sees an event happening, especially a crime
or an accident;
14) to happen, especially unexpectedly;
15) a vehicle for travelling on water or through the air.
Down:
16) the activity or sport of travelling in a low-to-the-water,
canoe-like boat;
17) a minor short-term fight;
18) the land along the edge of a body of water;
19) a period of leisure and recreation, esp. one spent away
from home or in travelling;
20) a sudden flash of light in the sky during a storm;
21) someone who steals another person’s property, esp. by
stealth and without using force or threat of violence (plural);

85
22) part of a cinema or TV film recording of a particular event.

18 19
2

1 16 3

20
4
12 5
17
13 6
22

14 7
21 11
8
15

10

3.3.3. SPEAKING

1. Many incidents involving “killer beasts” have been made into


horror films. Go online and find some examples of films which
emphasize how dangerous leisure activities can be.
2. Many travel websites highlight the importance of
immunization before one travels to a new country. Why do you think
this is the case? What other precautions should one consider before
travelling?
3. Another recreational activity is playing computer games.
Find examples in the English-speaking media of the effects of video
gaming. Is the issue fairly presented? What benefits are gained from
playing computer games? What are the drawbacks?
4. Hooliganism is a negative, disruptive behavior that is
associated with sports fans. What are the origins of hooliganism? How

86
are hooligans and hooliganism in British society portrayed in the
media?
5. What is graffiti? Is graffiti an act of vandalism or a form of art?
6. Look into the work of some famous street artists like Banksy.
Is there a specific message the artist tries to get across through his art?

3.3.4. WRITING

NEWS REPORT

Choose a set of key words from the options below to plan a


newsworthy story. Choose when, where, how, and to who, the story
happened and plan the remainder of the story based on the rules you
learned in this unit for writing a news report. Do not forget to decide
whether your news report will appear in a mainstream newspaper or a
tabloid.

1 suicide skyscraper love


2 fatalities safari elephants
3 demonstrations green vacationing university students
4 wedding celebrities Hawaii
5 football match Australia riot

REMEMBER
A news report presents newsworthy information. It is “designed”
in a way which will make it possible for the reader to gain the
essential information even though the whole report may not be read.
This is why a news report presents information chronologically in the
following manner:
– headline;
– the lead paragraph: Who? What? When? Where? Why?;
– explanatory paragraphs: further details including statements
and direct quotes;
– final paragraphs: similar incidents, least important
information, etc.

87
3.4. ECOTOURISM

3.4.1. LEAD-IN

What is ecotourism?
What, in your opinion, are the characteristics of a responsible
traveler? What are the characteristics of the irresponsible traveler or
tourist?
Sustainability is defined as the “conservation of an ecologic
balance by avoiding depletion of natural resources” (Oxford
Dictionaries Online). What do you think the relationship between
ecotourism and sustainability is?
How can ecotourism be promoted in your country?

3.4.2. READING

RESPONSIBLE TRAVELLING

Eco-friendly vacationing

A green vacation is more than just an idea these days, now it’s a
whole industry. Just type “green vacation” into a search engine and
peruse thousands of links to companies offering eco-friendly vacations
neatly packaged and ready to go. But you don’t need to buy into a
marketing ploy in order to have an environmentally friendly vacation.
Instead, use common sense and make extra effort to be an eco-friendly
traveller. To get you started, here are ten tips you can use the next
time you go on vacation.

88
[1]

All of those three day weekends really make your carbon


footprint skyrocket. With shorter vacations you produce more CO2
because you travel more. If you think about it, this is really neither
relaxing nor eco-friendly. Instead of travelling often, for short periods
of time, lump your vacation time together and take life slow for a
while. This way you’ll come back truly relaxed, and you’ll have
wasted far less fuel.

[2]

Part of green vacationing is learning to buy credits to offset your


carbon footprint. When you travel, you produce CO2, and the Earth
needs trees to transform that CO2 into oxygen for us humans. When
you buy carbon credits, you basically fund the purchase of those trees.
Many travel sites now conveniently allow you to buy carbon credits
on their sites.

[3]

The less weight a plane has to carry into the air, the less fuel it
will use. This is the reason why many airliners have started charging
for bags over a certain weight. Do your pocketbook and the
environment a favor by packing only what you need. Chances are you
can wash your clothes wherever you are going, and you’ll have more
room for souvenirs on the way back.
[4]

A train produces one


third of the emissions a plane
does, and half that of a car.
Train travel is truly the choice
method of transportation for
green vacationing. The US is

89
currently lacking in fast train services, but Europe and New Zealand
both have lovely trains that get you to your destination on time and in
comfort.

[5]

Of course, you don’t have to fly halfway around the world to


have a vacation. Why not enjoy the wonders around you? Camping is
a great way to have a green vacation and to enjoy the outdoors as well.

[6]

Before you leave for your destination, check out the public
transportation options available. Urban areas usually have a bus or
train system that you can buy a pass for. It may seem daunting and
scary at first, but by using public
transportation you’ll really get a
taste of local life.

[7]

Many large chains are now


offering green vacationers the
chance to opt for a hybrid rental
car. Not only will you save gas money while on vacation, but you’ll
also greatly reduce your carbon emissions. Can’t get a hybrid? Do the
next best thing and go for an economy sized car. Not only will it cost
you less, it will also use less fuel than its luxury counterparts.

[8]

In the US eco-friendly hotels are either marked with the Green


Seal or are LEED certified by the US Green Building Council. Don’t
fall for any “ecotourism” labels, only the hotels that have these
approvals are the real deal. In Canada, look for hotels marked by the
Green Leaf Eco-Rating Program.

90
[9]

In most hotels, the staff will wash your sheets and any towels
left on the floor on a daily basis, eating up enormous amounts of
electricity and water. To have a green vacation, forgo the extra
washing, hang your towels up and ask the staff to wash your sheets
when you leave.

[10]

Some people think that they need to see every tourist attraction
within a hundred miles when they go on vacation. Instead of driving
everywhere and seeing everything, why not take it slow? Plan a few
activities interspersed throughout you vacation in the local area, and
then leave the rest of the days open for
exploration and relaxation. If you push
yourself too hard, you won’t feel like
you had a vacation at all.
A green vacation can not only
save the environment but also your
pocketbook and perhaps your
sanity. Next time you travel,
remember these handy tips, and
you’ll have helped contribute to a
healthier world.

Ex. 1. The paragraph headings have been removed from the


text. Choose the heading below which best describes each of the
paragraphs [1]–[10].
A. Consider buying a different car.
B. Make sure you know how much CO2 you produce.
C. Buy credits to offset your carbon emissions.
D. Don’t travel by plane.
E. Consider staying local.
F. Don’t have your hotel launder you towels or linens daily.
G. Keep your sheets clean.
H. Look for appropriate hotels.

91
I. If you must rent a car look into a hybrid.
J. Look for hotels with the green seal.
K. Take one suitcase.
L. Pack light.
M. Be slow.
N. Slow down.
O. Don’t travel a lot.
P. Take fewer, longer trips.
Q. Choose a better means of transport.
R. Take the train.
S. Walk.
T. Use public transport when possible.

Ex. 2. To whom or to what do the following words and


phrases refer:
a) it (para 1);
b) this (para 1);
c) those (para 2);
d) that (para 4);
e) it (para 7);
f) these approvals (para 8).

Ex. 3. Re-read the text. Identify the tips the author gives on
having an eco-friendly vacation. Using the ideas in the text and
your own words, make up a short set of instructions on “How to
have an eco-friendly holiday”.

Ex. 4. Answer the following questions.


How do you understand the term “green vacation”?
What does the author offer to do to be “an eco-friendly
traveler”?
What does the author of the article say about weekend
travelling?
What did many airlines start extra charging their passengers for?
What is the current situation with fast train services in the
world?
What are pros and cons of a public transport pass?

92
What option do travelers have to greatly reduce their carbon
emissions?
What ecolabels of hotels are reliable?
How can you reduce your carbon footprint staying at the hotel?
What alternative to “culture vulturing” does the author suggest?

Ex. 5. Match the words on the left with the words on the
right (according to the given text).

1) a search a) your carbon footprint


2) a marketing b) together
3) to peruse c) engine
4) to skyrocket/offset d) carbon credits
5) to lump e) ploy
6) to buy f) a favour
7) to do g) a hybrid car
8) to opt for h) links
9) luxury i) labels
10) to fall for j) counterparts

Ex. 6. Translate the following sentences.


A. Данные о «зеленых» технологиях и экологичных
энергетических услугах, включенные в отчет, позволяют оценить
масштабы изменений в работе предприятия.
B. Это лишь маркетинговый ход для резкого повышения
стоимости зерна.
C. Для того чтобы уменьшить загрязняющие выбросы
предприятия, необходимо подсчитать его углеродный след.
D. Новый поисковый сервер позволяет оперативно находить
требуемую ссылку в каталоге.
E. Технические задачи, связанные с подготовкой выборов,
были очень сложными.
F. Если она изначально решила не торопиться, то у тебя
точно проблемы.
G. Эта ракушка в 3000 раз прочнее своего геологического
аналога.

93
H. Часто книгу не надо просматривать, чтобы знать ее
содержание – достаточно одного заглавия.
I. Как эти люди остаются в здравом уме, выше моего
понимания.
J. В рамках данного проекта государства Карибского
бассейна приняли обязательства отказаться от прежней
практики утилизации отходов.

Ex. 7. Solve the crossword.


Across:
1) the activity of staying in a tent for a holiday;
3) measurement of the amount of carbon dioxide that an activity
produces (2 words);
4) an amount of gas, heat, light, etc. that is sent out;
6) the business of organizing holidays to places of natural beauty
in a way that helps local people and does not damage the environment;
8) a holiday from work, especially when you are travelling away
from home;
10) a person who leads an itinerant lifestyle;
14) the life-supporting component of the air;
15) something that is done or said in order to get an advantage,
often dishonestly;
16) the state of having a healthy mind and not being mentally
ill;
17) having an obligation to do sth, or having control and
authority over sth or sb, as part of one’s job;
18) a pleasant feeling of being relaxed;
19) a substance that is used to provide heat or power, usually by
being burned;
20) the air, water, and land in or on which people, animals, and
plants live.
Down:
2) the activity of moving people or goods from one place to
another;
5) a thing that is kept as a reminder of a person, place or event;
7) relating or restricting to a particular area or one’s
neighborhood;

94
9) the activity of searching and finding out about something;
11) a wallet, purse or handbag, financial resources;
12) designed to have little or no damaging effect on the
environment;
13) the state of being able to proceed with sth without difficulty.

9 5
12 11 6
14
7 19
16
2
10 3

13 1

16

17

18
20

3.4.3. SPEAKING

1. Welcome to responsible-travel.org

In an age where the opportunity to travel has never been so easy,


international travel is no longer a luxury.
Tourism is now the world’s fastest growing industry. With this
proliferation of travel comes a heavy responsibility on all travelers to
ensure that the heritage and environment of those nations we seek to
explore do not disintegrate under the rapid influx of new visitors.

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Tourism accounts for over six percent of the world’s gross
national product, providing up to ten percent of the world’s total
employment. Yet the vast majority of tourists come from only 20
predominantly Western countries.
No longer the preserve of the elite, since the 1960s, tourism as
an international industry hasn’t looked back thanks to the package
holiday and dropping flight prices. Today few areas are beyond the
reach of the average Western citizen.
Travel as a lifestyle, to a greater extent, has led to the
commodification of many areas of the world, creating a hyper-reality
of very real destinations with equally real fragile environments,
cultures, and economies.
There is an argument that to not travel is the most responsible
form of travel. Guaranteed minimum impact.
Responsible-travel.org disagrees. Travel is all the enlightenment,
life changing clichés it promises to be.
In 1967, International Year of the Tourist, the United Nations
recognized that tourism is “a basic and most desirable human activity,
deserving the praise and encouragement of all peoples and all
governments”. We agree.
Quite simply, if you do travel, be aware that the choices we
make while away do have an impact.
Please browse the advice and articles herein, and stay a
responsible traveller.
With the opportunity to travel, however, comes a new
responsibility to all travelers to ensure that their activities do not upset
or destroy the very cultures and environments we choose to visit.
The message above appears on responsible-travel.org homepage.
The message highlights several issues that people need to take into
consideration when travelling. Peruse websites like
www.resposibletravel.com, www.sustainabletravelinternational.org,
www.ecotourismcesd.org or any other website which aims to help
people become responsible travelers. Do all those sites highlight the
same issues?
Synthesize the information available on the site you examined
above and give your own definition of a responsible traveller.
2. Enact the interview you prepared in WRITING section.

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3.4.4. WRITING

INTERVIEW

1. Imagine that you have just interviewed the person who


provided the tips how leisure activities can shape one’s personality
more than academic studies. Write the transcript of the interview.
2. Exchange your transcript with the person sitting next to you.
Write an article that would be published in your local newspaper
based on your classmate’s interview transcript.

REMEMBER

Writing an interview is not easy. The interview should be well


structured and coherent. The questions and answers used in an
interview should help the reader understand the topic and should not
leave them wondering if they have missed something.
When writing an interview, you have to remember that it is
essentially a dialogue. This does not mean that you have to stick
strictly to the question and answer format. Your ability appropriately
to use cohesive devices, inject humour into the dialogue and make it
read as authentic an interview as possible determines your mark.
Sometimes, you may not be asked to write an interview but to
embed it in a magazine article. Such a task requires that you use the
format of the magazine article. However, you need to remember that
unlike regular articles, this one is based on the interview; therefore,
the information you present summarizes the interview to an extent and
focuses on its most important parts. The use of direct quotes in those
parts is essential.
3. Choose one of the people below and interview them. Your
interview should focus on this person’s interests and how this person
spends their leisure time.
Dean
Deputy-dean
Teacher
Parent
Classmate

97
Local policeman
Doctor
Local politician
4. Write an article based on the interview to be published in your
university newspaper.
5. Share your article with your classmates. Which article do you
think best fulfilled the requirements of a newspaper article based on
an interview? Why?

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UNIT 4

HEALTH

4.1. WELLBEING

4.1.1. LEAD-IN

What is considered healthy in your culture?


What effect can daily practices, beliefs, societal norms have on
people’s mental health?
Can you mention any ways you know to maintain positive
mental health?
How is beauty defined in your culture?
In your opinion, what are beauty standards and do we need any?

4.1.2. READING

MENTAL HEALTH
Ladies and Gentlemen of the class of '97

Wear Sunscreen

If I could offer you only one tip for the future, sunscreen would
be it. The long-term benefits of sunscreen have been proved by

99
scientists, whereas the rest of my advice has no basis more reliable
than my own [1] experience. I will dispense this advice now.
Enjoy the power and beauty
of your youth. Oh, never mind. You
will not understand the power and
beauty of your youth until they’ve
[2]. But trust me, in 20 years, you’ll
look back at photos of yourself and
[3] in a way you can’t grasp now
how much possibility lay before
you and how fabulous you really looked. You were not as fat as you
imagined.
Don’t worry about the future. Or worry, but know that worrying
is as [4] as trying to solve an algebra equation by chewing bubble
gum. The real troubles in your life are apt to be things that never
crossed your worried mind, the kind that [5] you at 4 p.m. on some
idle Tuesday. Do one thing every day that scares you.
Sing.
Don’t be [6] with other people’s hearts. Don’t put up with people
who are reckless with yours.
Floss.
Don’t waste your time on jealousy. Sometimes you’re ahead,
sometimes you’re behind. The race is long and, in the end, it’s only
with yourself.
Remember compliments you receive. Forget the insults. If you
succeed in doing this, tell me how.
Keep your old love letters. Throw away your old bank
statements.
Stretch.
Don’t feel guilty if you don’t know what you want to do with
your life. The most interesting people I know didn’t know at 22 what
they wanted to do with their lives.
Some of the most interesting 40-year-
olds I know still don’t.
Get plenty of calcium. Be kind to
your knees. You’ll miss them when
they’re gone.

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Maybe you’ll marry, maybe you won’t. Maybe you’ll have
children, maybe you won’t. Maybe you’ll divorce at 40, maybe you’ll
dance the funky chicken on your 75th wedding anniversary. Whatever
you do, don’t congratulate yourself too much, or [7] yourself either.
Your choices are half chance. So are everybody else’s.
Enjoy your body. Use it every way you can. Don’t be afraid of it
or of what other people think of it. It’s the greatest [8] you’ll ever
own.
Dance, even if you have nowhere to do it but your living room.
Read the directions, even if you don’t follow them.
Do not read beauty magazines. They will only make you feel [9].
Get to know your parents. You never know when they’ll be gone
for good. Be nice to your siblings. They’re your best link to your past
and the people most likely to stick with you in the future.
Understand that friends
come and go, but with a precious
few you should hold on. Work
hard to bridge the gaps in
geography and lifestyle because
the older you get, the more you
need the people who knew you
when you were young.
Live in New York City
once, but leave before it makes you hard. Live in Northern California
once, but leave before it makes you soft.
Travel.
Accept certain [10] truths: Prices will rise. Politicians will
philander. You, too, will get old. And when you do, you’ll fantasize
that when you were young, prices were reasonable, politicians were
noble and children respected their elders.
Respect your elders.
Don’t expect anyone else to support you. Maybe you’ll have a
trust fund. Maybe you’ll have a wealthy spouse. But you never know
when either one might run out.
Don’t mess too much with your hair or by the time you’re 40 it
will look 85.

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Be careful whose advice you buy, but be patient with those who
supply it. Advice is a form of nostalgia. Dispensing it is a way of
fishing the past from the disposal, wiping it off, painting over the ugly
parts and recycling it for more than it’s worth.
But trust me on the sunscreen.
Mary Schmich [26]

Ex. 1. Choose from the options below the word which best
fits in each of the gaps [1]–[10] in the text. Be prepared to defend
your choice:

1) meandering; successful; bad;


2) greyed; faded; disappeared;
3) recall; remind; think;
4) possible; good; effective;
5) blindside; hit; slapped;
6) irresponsible; careless; reckless;
7) blame; berate; praise;
8) machine; instrument; tool;
9) bad; down; ugly;
10) challengeable; inalienable; controversial.

Ex. 2. List the pieces of advice that are given in the text in
relation to:
– physical health;
– relationships;
– mental health;
– lifestyle.

Ex. 3. In pairs, discuss the pieces of advice you listed in Ex. 2.


Do you think the author’s message is clear? Why? Why not?

Ex. 4. Explain the analogy in “Advice is a form of nostalgia.


Dispensing it is a way of fishing the past from the disposal, wiping
it off, painting over the ugly parts and recycling it for more than
it’s worth” in your own words.

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Ex. 5. Answer the following questions.
Which type of text is used?
Who is the audience?
What is the context (occasion, situation, etc.)?
What contributes to the humorous effect of the text?

Ex. 6. Work in pairs. Add another part to the text in which


you:
– introduce a topic which has not been broached in the original
text;
– do not use any examples similar to those used in the text;
– use at least one analogy;
– emulate (copy) the author’s style in terms of use of language
and use of rhetorical devices.
Share your contribution with your classmates. Which of these
additional parts do you think best fits in the text? Why?

Ex. 7. Fill in the gaps with the defined word in the correct
form.
1. They hoped to (to copy sth achieved by someone else and try
to do it as well as they can) the success of other software companies.
2. At some point we’ve got to discuss money but I don’t know
how to (to begin discussing sth difficult) the subject with him.
3. Hikers can (to follow a route that is not straight or direct)
along the path next to the river for several miles.
4. There’s a vending machine on the platform that (to give out
things, esp. products, services or amounts of money) snacks.
5. The recession (to surprise someone, usually with harmful
results) a lot of lawyers who had previously taken for granted their
comfortable income.
6. There’s a video of some primary school kids teaching their
teacher how to do the (a dance that involves swinging your arms in
front of and behind your body in the opposite direction to your hips. It
started on the internet and is especially popular with young people).
7. The snake gave me a real (to feel frightened, or to cause
someone to be frightened)!

103
8. She drinks a lot less now, to the (a helpful or good effect, or
sth intended to help) of her health as a whole. (formal)
9. Doctors are often (to criticize or speak in an angry manner to
someone) for being poor communicators, particularly when they have
to give patients bad news.
10. Jenny grew (a feeling of pleasure and also slight sadness
when you think about things that happened in the past) for home on
Thanksgiving Day.

Ex. 8. Translate the following sentences using phrases from


the text.
A. «Носите защитный крем» – это эссе, написанное в
качестве гипотетической вступительной речи обозревателя Мэри
Шмих, опубликованное в Chicago Tribune.
B. Эссе, в котором автор дает различные советы о том, как
жить счастливо и избежать разочарований, получило широкое
распространение в Интернету. Авторство речи часто ошибочно
приписывают писателю Курту Воннегуту, когда он выступал в
Массачусетском технологическом институте.
C. В юности мы зачастую не сразу осознаем, сколько
возможностей открывается перед нами.
D. Решение алгебраических уравнений заняло у нее больше
времени, чем она ожидала.
E. Вы склонны делать поспешные выводы о вещах, которые
никогда не пришли бы мне в голову.
F. Не пренебрегайте чувствами людей, и не стоит терпеть
людей, которые пренебрегают вашими.
G. Банковская выписка – это сводка финансовых операций,
которые произошли за определенный период на банковском
счете, принадлежащем лицу или бизнесу в финансовом
учреждении.
H. Чем бы вы ни занимались дальше в жизни, не слишком
хвалите себя, но и не ругайте.
I. Помни, друзья приходят и уходят, но держись за самых
близких. Постарайся, чтобы расстояния и разный образ жизни не
мешали общению – чем старше мы становимся, тем больше нам
нужны люди, знавшие нас в молодости.

104
J. Для меня совершенно очевидно, что, имея даже
незначительный шанс, молодежь обладает огромным
потенциалом строить свою собственную жизнь.

4.1.3. SPEAKING

DISCUSS THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS

[1]
A. Mental health denotes emotional and cognitive well-being.
What affects mental health? Who is considered mentally “unhealthy”?
B. Anxiety disorders, mood disorders and Schizophrenia
disorders are examples of mental health problems or illnesses. Peruse
sources which discuss such problems in an Anglophone culture. How
are they dealt with? Which institutions, be they public or private, help
in solving mental health problems?
[2]
A. The text highlights important concepts in people’s lives, one
of which is the concept of human beauty. How does the speaker
describe human beauty?
B. Choose one of the concepts of human beauty which are
mentioned in the text. Search for a photograph which exemplifies this
concept and prepare a one-minute presentation on the photograph.
Present your chosen concept to your classmates.

REMEMBER

The art of presentation, just like writing, revolves around being


clear and succinct. Therefore, when you prepare for your presentation,
you need to organize your ideas in a coherent manner. Your
presentation also needs to be well mapped.
Plan your presentation just like you plan your writing. Make sure
that your ideas are well expressed and that you include examples or
justifications for your opinion. Clearly mark your introduction and
your conclusion using discourse markers (“in addition”, “however”,
“therefore”, etc.). Do not overuse those markers though.

105
4.1.4. WRITING

THE PERSONAL RESPONSE

Holden Caulfield, a character in The Catcher in the Rye by J.D.


Salinger, is an adolescent who finds it difficult to “come of age” and
to accept how hypocritical people are. The novel was published in
1951. Find more about Holden Caulfield’s problems in The Catcher in
the Rye and compare them to the problems adolescents face in an
Anglophone culture today.
“Should society interfere to ensure that all adolescents are
mentally healthy or are the problems they face part of growing up?”
Write an essay using 250–400 words.

4.2. EATING HABITS

4.2.1. LEAD-IN

How are eating disorders perceived in your culture?


Why do people develop eating disorders?
Are eating disorders linked to our perception of beauty? How?
“Becoming the new
feminine ideal requires
just the right combination
of insecurity, exercise,
bulimia and surgery”
(G.B. Trudeau). Do you
agree?
In your opinion, do
men suffer from eating
disorders as well as
women?

106
4.2.2. READING

EATING DISORDERS

Manorexia
Men with Eating Disorders on the Rise

When we think about eating disorders we rarely picture men


starving or purging themselves to be thin, but a 2014 Harvard
University study revealed that men account for 25 per cent of people
suffering from anorexia or bulimia. That’s more than double the
previously reported statistics of 1 in 10, proving that manorexia, or
men with eating disorders, is on the rise and much more common than
most people think.

Why the Huge Increase?

No one knows for sure why the numbers have increased so


much, but several factors could be to blame. For one, men may finally
be feeling the pressure of physical perfection that women have been
dealing with for decades. With every image of a waif-thin female in
the media is an equally unattainable image of a man sporting chiseled
abs and a super-lean physique. Even if they don’t want to admit it,
some men feel pressure either from within or from society to achieve
the same lean, muscular look.
This leads to the second
contributing factor, which is
that more and more men are
finally opening up about
their struggle with physical
perfection. Women have
been discussing their body-
image issues for years, but
men are often too
embarrassed to admit they suffer from similar issues and therefore
rarely seek treatment or help of any kind. As more men come forward

107
and are properly diagnosed, the statistics of men with eating disorders
will inevitably rise.
Finally, another big reason the numbers are increasing is that
men are finally being properly diagnosed. A huge obstacle for doctors
has been that the symptoms of eating disorders among men are
slightly different than for women, which are so well known by now
that it can be fairly easy to diagnose women. Since the symptoms
doctors measure eating disorders by aren’t tailored to men, many slip
through the diagnostic crack. In addition, many men might not even
realize they have an eating disorder because they don’t fit the
stereotypical symptoms and so they think they are simply engaging in
“normal” male activities.

What are the Causes of Manorexia


and Other Eating Disorders in Men?

While it’s true that men develop eating disorders for the same
reasons women will – genetics, low self-esteem, trauma, and cultural
influences – many develop symptoms that are motivated by different
emotional factors and are thus harder to diagnose.

Thin vs. Muscular

It can be easier to
diagnose females with eating
disorders because their
obsession with weight results in
recognizable symptoms such as
not eating, purging, and
dramatic weight loss. With men
it’s a different story. Men’s
obsession with weight usually manifests itself in “normal male
behavior” such as excessive exercise and steroid use. Instead of
striving to be super thin, men will often strive to appear lean and
muscular by dramatically decreasing their percentage of body fat.
Losing weight and trying to bulk up are not bad goals, but they
become unhealthy behaviors once it turns into a desire for physical

108
perfection. This preoccupation with perfection is a big indicator of
body dysmorphic disorder, one of the leading causes of eating
disorders.

The Fat Kid and the Athlete

Certain risk factors for developing an eating disorder are specific


to men. Men who were teased as children for being overweight and
athletes who must maintain a certain weight for enhanced
performance are more at risk for developing eating disorders. Dieting
is often the primary trigger and symptoms usually develop later in life
than they do for women.

Getting Help

Men face unique self-esteem and emotional issues that require


specific treatment for an eating disorder. Luckily, treatment tailored to
men exists. By finding a treatment facility dedicated to your specific
needs, your chances of recovery will be very high.
Casa Palmera [23]

Ex. 1. Using your own words, answer the following questions.


1
A. What is manorexia? In 50 words, summarize the reasons why
manorexia is on the rise.
B. Why is it difficult to identify manorexics?
What does the text say about overweight children and athletes in
relation to eating disorders?
2
A. State what the main purpose of the article is;
B. Write down the headline the article uses. What is the article
about? Is This clarified in the headline? How effective do you think
the headline is?
C. Mark the beginning and end of the following: introduction,
main body and conclusion.
D. Discuss why the writer uses subheadings in the body of the
article. How is this related to the purpose of the article?

109
E. Write down the general ideas which are used to support the
writer’s thesis statement.
F. Identify the examples or explanations the writer uses to
strengthen his or her argument.

Ex. 2. Find words or phrases in the text, which are similar in


meaning to:
a) vomiting;
b) out of reach;
c) clear cut;
d) body;
e) necessarily;
f) impediment;
g) customized;
h) conventional;
i) fixation (find 2 words);
j) making every effort;
k) increase in size;
l) sign;
m) better;
n) prompt (v);
o) distinctive.

Ex. 3. Fill in the gaps with the defined word in the correct
form.
1. According to
official (information based
on a study of the number of
times sth happens or is
present, or other numerical
facts) the Japanese work
longer hours than workers
in most other industrialized
countries.
2. He did a lot of exercise to build up his (muscles in the
abdomen) (informal)

110
3. I used to hate being (to laugh at sb or say unkind things about
them, either because you are joking or because you want to upset that
person) about my red hair when I was at school.
4. These scandals will not (to improve the quality, amount, or
strength of sth) the organization’s reputation.
5. We have (to give sth, especially money, in order to provide or
achieve sth together with other people) all our working lives to
pension schemes and national insurance, expecting a reasonable state
pension on retirement.
6. His campaign for fathers’ rights has become an (the control
of one’s thoughts or a continuous, powerful idea or feeling, or the idea
or feeling itself).
7. Some patients are less (feeling ashamed or shy) and more
willing to reveal information while communicating online rather than
in person.
8. The analysis was especially (to adjust sth to suit a particular
need or situation) to take care of prepositional usage.
9. Ultra violet-B radiation (to cause sth to start) the skin to
produce vitamin D.
10. In his quest for physical (the state of being complete and
correct in every way), he spends hours in the gym.

Ex. 4. Translate the following sentences using phrases from


the text.
A. Анорексия – это психическое расстройство, вызванное
искаженным представлением образа собственного тела и
нарушением пищевого поведения.
B. Симптомы анорексии – резкая потеря веса,
панический страх полноты, повышенный интерес к теме
собственного веса.
C. К сожалению, проблема анорексии перестала быть
сугубо женской, и процент мужчин, страдающих этим
заболеванием неумолимо растет. Мужчинам по сравнению с
женщинами труднее признаваться в том, что они также
стремятся к физическому совершенству.

111
D. Если женщины стремятся похудеть, то одержимость
идеальной мускулатурой у мужчин проявляется в чрезмерных
физических нагрузках и приеме стероидов.
E. Не обязательно читать Men’s Health, чтобы заметить:
мужчин, держащих себя в идеальной физической форме,
становится все больше.
F. Не всегда удается диагностировать анорексию у
мужчин, поскольку симптомы расстройства пищевого поведения
у мужчин не соответствуют типичным симптомам анорексии.
G. Более сложными для диагноза являются симптомы,
вызванные различными эмоциональными факторами.
H. Мужчины стремятся к более подтянутой и
мускулистой фигуре, путем резкого снижения процента жира в
организме.
I. Дисморфофобия – это психическое расстройство, при
котором человек чрезмерно обеспокоен своим телом и
критически относится к своей внешности.
J. Первичным импульсом для развития расстройств
пищевого поведения также может послужить соблюдение
строгой диеты.

4.2.3. SPEAKING

DISCUSS THE FOLLOWING

What does this section on health tell us about the relationship


between perception, culture, reality and truth?
Is it likely that different cultures have the same concepts of
beauty?
There is a proverb in English: “Beauty is in the eye of the
beholder”.
What do you think the proverb means? Justify your answer by
giving examples.
In your opinion, are men and women “beautiful” in the same
ways?
What makes a beautiful man?
What makes a beautiful woman?

112
“The Ugly Duchess”, panted by Flemish artist Massys in 1513,
is on display in the National Gallery in London. What does the
painting reveal about human beauty?
Anorexia and manorexia are only two examples of the eating
disorders affecting people worldwide. Do some research about eating
disorders in an Anglophone country. What does the data reveal?
Peruse other sources and find examples of how the media can
help adolescents overcome developing a negative body image in an
Anglophone culture. Think in terms of advertisements, TV shows,
radio shows, films, songs, etc.

4.2.4. WRITING

ARTICLE

Write an article (150–250 words) for a student’s magazine on the


topic
“Society should spread awareness about the danger of obesity”.

REMEMBER

Articles are written for a variety of purpose. They usually aim to


inform, persuade or entertain the reader. The aim of the article
determines the style that writers use to achieve their aim. Articles, like
essays, opinion columns, etc., follow a certain structure: an eye-
catching title (headline), an introduction, a main body and a
conclusion.
One very important feature in articles is that the writer’s voice is
always “heard”. The writer applies their personal touch and style
when writing an article. Look at the mindmap below and find
examples in the text of each of the elements listed in the mindmap.
You may not find examples of all of them.
Direct quotes
1
2
3

113
Facts
1
2
3
Rhetorical questions
1
2
3
Description
1
2
3
Imagery
1
2
3
Narrative voice
1
2
3
Anecdotes
1
2
3
Emotive language
1
2
3

4.3. ALTERNATIVE VS TRADITIONAL MEDICINE

4.3.1. LEAD-IN

How is traditional medicine perceived in your culture?


Should traditional medicine practices be regarded as effective as
science-based medicine?

114
When do people
resort to alternative
medicine? What does this
show about the relationship
between science and belief?
What do you think
“old wives’ tales” are?
Share a couple of old
wives’ tales in your culture
with your classmates.

4.3.2. READING

YOU TOO CAN BE A MEDICAL PRACTITIONER

Simply register with the School of Old Wives’ Traditional


Medicine and we’ll give you a big impressive certificate.
Do you remember the traditional way to treat burns? Or what [a]
happens / would happen / should happen to your face if the wind
changed? If you think you can answer questions, why [b] not / do not
/ won’t become a registered practitioner of Old Wives’ Traditional
Medicine?

Tomorrow at 11.30 am [c] below / inside / outside the


Department of Health in London, a new professional registration
scheme for practitioners in the medical tradition of Old Wives’ Tales
[d] is launched / will be launched / have been launched. A group of

115
junior medics and scientists from the Voice of Young Science (VoYS)
network [e] will form / formed / will have formed the new VoYS
School of Old Wives’ Traditional Medicine. They will hand out
diplomas for people to practice Old Wives’ Traditional Medicine,
registering members of the public who [f] have correctly answered /
can correctly answer / will correctly answer questions about
traditional cures and advice. The assessment is free of charge and
absolutely no medical training or understanding of human psychology
[g] are required / is required / will have been required.
Hang on a moment. Surely it is better to stop people practicing
medicine that isn’t evidence-based rather than encourage it? Well,
according to the Department of Health, to be worthy of a professional
registration scheme all that really matters is for practitioners [h] to be
following / to have followed / who have followed traditional
methods. In a Department of Health steering committee report, and a
later consultation to [i] look on / look at / look into how the
government should regulate traditional medicine practitioners, a
professional registration scheme was proposed.
Just like the VoYS scheme, it would register practitioners for
everything [j] including / especially / except whether a practitioner
has medical training or whether the field is based on proper evidence.
The VoYS School of Old Wives’ Traditional Medicine is delighted
with this proposed scheme, as it flatters practitioners just for following
traditional methods, and does away with the need for any of that
difficult medical training. And while Trading Standards and other
schemes already regulate practitioners for standards of hygiene,
English fluency and criminal
records, a Department of
Health stamp of approval is
far more glamorous.
But hang on a minute.
What if you want little Johnny
to be treated by someone with
professional medical training?
Could that lump that’s
appeared on the side of his

116
face be indicative of something more serious than the wind changing
while he pulled a face?
Sense about Science and a group of professional societies
including the Academy of Royal Medical Colleges, the Royal College
of Pathologists and the Institute of Biomedical Sciences are [k] not /
somewhat / indeed concerned about the risks of misdiagnosis,
dangerous drug interactions and the problems of blurring the line
between what is and what is not medicine.
But the new scheme has the Department of Health’s approval, [l]
so / and / however there can’t be anything to worry about, can there?
And as the previous health minister Andy Burnham said: “I believe
that the introduction of such a register will increase public protection,
[m] additionally / as / but without the full trappings of professional
recognition [n] whom / which / who are applied to practitioners or
orthodox healthcare”.
Dr. Tom Dolphin, deputy chairman of the British Medical
Association’s junior doctors committee, [o] agrees / states / objects:
“Providing regulation that looks like the kind of regulation that real
medicine gets adds an undeserved veneer of respectability to
essentially unproven therapies … If they are proper treatments then
they will be covered as being on a par with actual medical practice”.
What a spoilsport. The Department of Health has reassured us,
though, that a professional registration scheme that doesn’t check for
evidence or medical training is the right thing to do.
Come and show the Department of Health your enthusiasm for
more registration schemes that don’t require medical training. Take
the test tomorrow, 8 September, between 11.30 and 12.30 at the
Department of Health on Whitehall to see if you too can get a diploma
in the medical tradition of Old Wives’ Tales.
Julia Wilson [11, p. 224]

Ex. 1. For each of the gaps marked [a]–[o] in the text, choose
one word or phrase from the options provided that renders the
sentence meaningful.

117
Ex. 2. Answer the following questions.
What are the Old Wives’ Traditional Medicine registration
requirements?
What is not a requirement for becoming an Old Wives’
Traditional Medicine practitioner?
Why is the proposed Department of Health scheme well received
by the Voice of Young Science?
“Does away with” is closest in meaning to:
– eliminate;
– need;
– exhaust.
What advantage does a Department of Health scheme hold over
Trading Standards and other schemes?
Give three concerns professionals have regarding the new
scheme.
Quote a phrase from the text which proves that the author is
supportive of the new scheme.
What form of writing do you think the text belongs to?

Ex. 3. Fill in the gaps with the defined word/phrase in the


correct form.
1. Parts of Glasgow are (the same as) the worst areas of London
and Liverpool for burglaries.
2. “What a (a killjoy)!” Molinary said when Kate was out of
earshot.
3. To prevent the spread of harmful bacteria, everyone should
understand the basics of good food (the degree to which people keep
themselves or their environment clean, especially to prevent disease).
4. If Elise (to wait for a short time) a little longer she’d certainly
have got the promotion (informal).
5. She was a London-based (someone involved in a skilled job
or activity) of traditional Chinese medicine before she entered politics.
6. He worked to promote programs to (the process of making a
person healthy again, esp. by giving treatment, or a treatment that
causes a disease to go away) America’s social and economic ills.
7. The word (the science or study of the mind and behaviour)
rhymes with gerontology.

118
8. Health and safety inspectors carried out a risk (the act of
deciding the amount, value, quality or importance of sth) of the
premises.
9. Unfortunately, early results of the experiment were extremely
(to help someone to feel confident and able to do sth).
10. Modern luxury ships are a pale imitation of the (the special
exciting and attractive quality of a person, place or activity) ocean
liners of the early days.

Ex. 4. Match the words on the left with the words on the
right (according to the given text) and make up sentences of your
own.
1) a steering; a) on proper evidence;
2) a stamp; b) the line between;
3) a criminal; c) healthcare;
4) orthodox; d) of misdiagnosis;
5) a risk; e) of charge;
6) to blur; f) record;
7) based; g) report;
8) evidence-based; h) of approval;
9) a veneer; i) medicine;
10) free. j) of respectability.

A. Недавнее исследование показало, что каждый год в


американских больницах от 40 до 80 тысяч пациентов умирают
от неправильных диагнозов.
B. Сколько кусков сахара ты кладешь в кофе?
C. Минздрав одобрил идею запрета кальянов в кафе,
сославшись на научные исследования об опасности курения
кальяна для человека.
D. С точки зрения экономики сегодня ЕС находится на
одном уровне с США.
E. На заседании было решено, что представленные
документы содержат требуемые доказательства.

119
4.3.3. SPEAKING
DISCUS THE FOLLOWING
1. The World Health Organization states that people depend on
alternative medicine for primary health care in many countries. Do
some research and determine whether this statement applies to any
Commonwealth nations.
2. Yoga and acupuncture are two alternative medicine
practices. Can you list other practices? Which, do you think, are used
the most in Anglophone countries?
3. Look at some sources to find a relationship between lack of
good health care and people’s use of alternative medicine in
Anglophone countries. What does this reveal about the role of
governments and access to scientific-based health care? Do you think
people will shun alternative medicine if they get such access?
4. Naturopathy is a form of alternative medicine that relies on
the healing power of nature. Find more information about naturopathy
and determine whether this form of medicine positively affects
incurable diseases. What does this reveal about the relationship
between the illness and the mind?
5. What is the placebo effect? How is it related to alternative
medicine?
6. Sicko (2007) is a documentary that focuses on what the
Health Maintenance Organizations in the US lack in comparison to
other countries. Watch the film and note down how it presents the
HMOs, their strengths and their weaknesses. What, in your opinion,
does the US government need to do to improve its public health
services?
7. What can you say about Health Maintenance Organizations
in Russia?

4.3.4. WRITING
BLOG ENTRY
A personal blog entry is a type of website, usually written by an
individual with regular entries of commentary, descriptions of events,

120
or other material. Its conventions are similar to the diary entry or the
magazine article, depending on its topic, audience, and level of
formality. Entries are often displayed in reverse chronological order.
The personal blog is an ongoing diary or commentary by an
individual. It often becomes more than a way just to communicate: it
becomes a way to reflect on life. Unlike a diary entry, it may contain
explanatory words or phrases.
Re-read the text and:
1) quote the words which clarify the author’s attitude to the
topic she writes about;
2) write down whom you think the intended audience of the text
is;
3) find examples of the elements below:
– description;
– fact;
– narrative voice;
– direct quotes;
– emotive language;
– rhetorical questions.

Imagine that you have visited an alternative medicine


practitioner and decided it is an experience worth blogging about.
Write a personal blog entry in which you reflect on the visit.

4.4. HEALTH CARE PRACTICES

4.4.1. LEAD-IN

In your opinion, do
complementary and
alternative medicines
gain popularity nowadays
or is it just “relic of the
past”?
Do you believe that
complementary

121
medicines can really help people suffering from health conditions?
Do you think complementary medicines have any scientific
base?
Are alternative medicine, complementary medicine, and
traditional medicine synonyms? If not, how do they differ?

4.4.2. READING

IN FAVOR OF COMPLEMENTARY MEDICINE

Most people thought complementary and alternative medicines


were to fade back into New Age mysticism. In 1986 they were
described as a “passing fashion”, but nowadays these [a] methods /
ideas / descriptions are still increasing in popularity. One in five
adults in Britain has used complementary medicine in the past year
and the [b] infinite / vast / reasonable majority claim an
improvement. Surely thousands of people who use these therapies
again and again are not just [c] applauding / guiding / deluding
themselves.
Practitioners of complementary medicines are not trying to con
people – patients are not deceived that a therapy will definitely work.
But the fact is, numerous
clinical trials have shown that
certain complementary
treatments can be [d]
effective / preventative /
suitable for all these health
problems.
I’m sure every single
person reading suffers from,
or knows somebody who
suffers from health
conditions, which could be [e] deteriorated / stabilized / improved
by using complementary medicines. Clinical tests have shown that
things like acupuncture osteopathy, chiropractic and herbal medicine

122
can really make a difference and now these are being [f] used /
practiced / sold within the NHS alongside traditional medicine.
It’s true, some of the wackier therapies seem a bit dubious, but a
Government report on complementary medicine said – “mechanisms
of action are of secondary importance to efficacy” i.e. the fact that a
treatment works is more important than how it works.
Sometimes a mechanism exists but we have yet to find it; an
example of this is acupuncture.
The traditional explanation was
that it worked by affecting
energy meridians. This
completely contradicts scientific
understanding and so
acupuncture was [g] rejected /
accepted / opposed by the
mainstream. But as the benefits
of acupuncture became clear, research was done, and another quite
likely reason has emerged – the effect on the central nervous system
and stimulation of endorphin receptors. So if a mechanism for a
treatment hasn’t been found, maybe it just hasn’t been found yet.
Some people argue that the effects of complementary medicine
are just the placebo effect. But the statement “just the placebo effect”
is a [h] conceptualization / contradiction / confirmation in terms,
because the placebo effect is a very powerful medicine. If everyone
reading this article were suffering from a migraine and X gave you all
a sugar pill and told you that it was just a sugar pill but it might help
you, statistically, one
third of you would still
feel [i] worse / well /
better after taking it.
Even if every single
complementary medicine
were proved to be “just
the placebo effect”, they
would still help people
and so would still be a [j]
formal / official /

123
legitimate form of treatment. Fundamentally, if it’s known to be safe,
it would be against clinical freedom to prevent patients from having
access to such therapies. Complementary medicine has worked for
thousands of people. Established doctors have seen its effect and
decided to integrate it into the NHS to improve orthodox medicine.
I believe it would be stupid to ignore such approaches when they
can really help people.
Lucie Potter [23]

Ex. 1. For each of the gaps marked [a]–[j] in the text, choose
a word from the options provided which renders the sentence
meaningful.

Ex. 2. Answer the following questions.


What does the author mean by “were to fade back into New Age
mysticism”?
Which medical system do the majority of the UK inhabitants
resort to?
According to the author, what could be effective in treating
health problems?
What effective alternative medicine treatments are mentioned in
the text? Give three.
What does “maybe it just hasn’t been found yet” imply?
According to the author, what should happen if a complementary
medicine treatments is proved to be safe?

Ex. 3. Based on the information in the text, match the first


part of the sentence with the appropriate ending.
a) In the 1980s, many people thought…
b) Alternative medicine patients naturally…
c) The government believes that the mechanism with which a
treatment works…
d) The author believes the placebo effect…
e) According to the article, NHS adopted alternative medicine
because…

124
1) …believe a therapy will work.
2) …comes second to the placebo effect.
3) …is a treatment on its own.
4) …do not question the suitability of a certain therapy.
5) …treats people better than mainstream medicine.
6) …it is thought beneficial in the development of mainstream
medicine.
7) …alternative medicine’s boom was temporary.
8) …comes second to its effectiveness.
9) …its effect surpassed that of mainstream medicine.
10) …alternative medicine was there to stay.

Ex. 4. Fill in the gaps with the defined word in the correct
form.
A. When an older person’s condition (to become worse), the
helpers often had to provide more support.
B. (Considered traditional, normal, and acceptable by most
people) economic theory has failed to explain the role of technological
change in society.
C. Alternative medicine has only just started to (to get sth that is
useful, that gives you an advantage, or that is in some way positive,
especially over a period of time) respectability in our society.
D. They recently ran a series of tests to measure the (the ability,
especially of a medicine or a method of achieving sth, to produce the
intended result) of the drug.
E. He’s (to fool yourself into believing sth is true because you
want it to be true, when it is actually not true) himself if he thinks he’s
going to get that promotion.
F. Perhaps the lax enforcement of (precautionary) measures is
the source of embarrassment.
G. Doctors have a succinct phrase for relatively harmless
medicine – (a substance that is not medicine, but that is given to
someone who is told that it is a medicine).
H. It’s very difficult to (to mix with and join society or a group
of people, often changing to suit their way of life, habits, and customs)
yourself into a society whose culture is so different from your own.

125
I. My family and my job both play an important part in my life,
fulfilling separate but (useful or attractive together) needs.
J. (Allowed by law) refugees should be treated with
compassion.

Ex. 5. Translate the following sentences using phrases from


the text.
A. Комплементарная медицина объединяет методы
альтернативной и традиционной медицины.
B. Цель нетрадиционной медицины – лечение всего
организма, а не отдельных симптомов болезни.
C. Нетрадиционная медицина / альтернативная медицина /
парамедицина включает в себя такие методы лечения болезней,
как иглоукалывание, мануальная терапия, фитотерапия,
массаж, йога и др., эффективность и безопасность которых не
была научно доказана.
D. Врачи, практикующие нетрадиционную медицину, вовсе
не пытаются обмануть людей.
E. Считается, что иглоукалывание возникло еще до нашей
эры в Китае. Эффективность лечения объяснялась тем, что иглы
воздействуют на энергетические меридианы.
F. Иглоукалывание объявили лженаукой, так как теории и
практики традиционной китайской медицины не основаны на
научном знании, и акупунктуру назвали безумной идеей.
G. Мануальная терапия – это форма альтернативной
медицины, которая занимается диагностикой и лечением опорно-
двигательного аппарата, особенно позвоночника.
H. Фитотерапия – это изучение ботаники и использование
лекарственных растений.
I. Термин «эффект плацебо» введен в научный оборот
американским врачом Генри Бичером в 1955 г.
J. У него развивается туберкулез, а это значит, что
состояние его легких будет постепенно ухудшаться.

126
4.4.3. SPEAKING

Act as a teacher and choose a photograph relevant to the Health


topic. Prepare a list of discussion points or questions you would like to
ask your groupmates. Make sure your discussion points and questions
are relevant to Health and aim to help students explore the topic in
detail and focus on the Anglophone culture.

4.4.4. WRITING

BALANCED ESSAY

The balanced essay begins by introducing the topic and proceeds


to stating both sides of an argument before it concludes with the
author’s opinion.
You can approach writing the body of the balanced essay as
follows:
AABB = at least two paragraphs in which you state your
argument/s for, followed by two paragraphs in which you state your
argument/s against the topic.
ABAB = one paragraph for, followed by one against, then
another paragraph for, following by one against.
It is for utmost importance to use a number of cohesive devices
in an essay. The following linking words, when used appropriately,
are considered effective:
– to add: and, furthermore, in addition, what is more, to add,
moreover, etc.;
– to contrast: but, although, though, despite, in spite of, however,
nevertheless, yet, whereas, while, etc.;
– to give a reason: because, since, as, due to, owing to, because
of, etc.;
– to give a result: therefore, consequently, so as a result, etc.;
– to show sequence: firstly, secondly, finally, lastly, last but not
least, the former, the latter, etc.;
– to summarize or conclude: to sum up, in conclusion, in brief,
in summary, in a nutshell, in short, to conclude, etc.

127
Re-read In Favour of Complementary Medicine and follow
the steps below to produce a balanced essay.
1. What is the attitude of the authors towards alternative or
complementary medicine? Quote at least three phrases from the text
which justify your answer.
2. Summarize the main ideas the author provides to clarify their
opinion and the examples, justifications, anecdotes, or explanations
they use to validate their arguments. Be precise and concise.
3. Now combine the author’s arguments into a balanced essay.
Write between 250 and 400 words.

128
UNIT 5

LITERATURE

5.1. TEXT TYPES

5.1.1. LEAD-IN

Look at the definitions of genre, style, register in a dictionary.


What are literary features of a short story?
What imagery on the lexical, syntactical and phonetic levels are
you familiar with?

5.1.2. READING

GRANDMA MAKES MEATBALLS

On Grandparents’ Day at my school


we had an international food fest. My
teacher, Mrs. Hodges, said it was a great
opportunity to encourage peace and
understanding among the different
cultures in our community.
My grandma cooked my favourite
food: meatballs.
But when we arrived at school
Luca’s grandma had cooked his favourite
meatballs too, and so had Amber’s
granddad, and so had Clara’s grandma,
and so had Kerem’s grandma.
In fact, all the grandparents had
cooked meatballs to share for lunch!
When Mrs. Hodges found out she said, “Oh well then, who likes
meatballs, class?” And we all put up our hands.
The cooking pots were all laid out on the table ready for the
adults to serve us and then the lids were lifted. That’s when we

129
noticed that [1] they all had meaty-looking balls inside, the colours
and smells were very different.
Luca’s grandmother, who was standing beside her pot, [2] Mrs.
Hodges on the shoulder and said, “Mrs. Hodges, you must try my
meatballs. It’s [3] special Italian recipe. I use my own homemade
tomato sauce”.
But [4] Mrs. Hodges had finished eating them Amber’s
grandfather went up to Mrs. Hodges nodding his head, saying, “No,
no, Mrs. Hodges, you must try [5] of my meatballs”. And he scooped
some [6] her plate with a little rice. “I make the best meatballs. It’s a
special Indian recipe. It’s vegetarian with mint and yoghurt”.
But before Mrs. Hodges had finished eating them, my
grandmother went up to Mrs. Hodges and clicked her tongue saying,
“No, no, Mrs. Hodges, you must try some of my meatballs”. And she
scooped some onto her plate. “I make the best meatballs. It’s a special
Greek recipe. I boil the meatballs and then make an egg and lemon
sauce”.
But before Mrs. Hodges had finished, Clara’s grandmother went
up to Mrs. Hodges and waved her hands, saying “No, no, Mrs.
Hodges, you must try some of my meatballs”. And she scooped some
onto her plate. “We call them the Lion’s Head and the shredded
cabbage is the main. I make the best meatballs. It’s a special Chinese
recipe”.
Mrs. Hodges was being jostled around the table, tasting a little of
the meatballs from each of the grandparents who were competing
loudly with each other. She tried Turkish meatballs, Swedish
meatballs, Indonesian
meatballs, Lebanese
meatballs, Mexican
meatballs, South African
meatballs; indeed,
different versions of
meatballs from all
around the world. But
just when she thought
she could not take one
more bite, she noticed

130
that though the children were happily tasting each other’s meatballs,
the grandparents were looking angrily at one another. Some were
glaring, or had turned away and many were refusing to talk.
I followed Mrs. Hodges’ alarmed look around the room and knew
just what to do, so I went up to her, “Excuse me, Mrs. Hodges”, and
whispered in her ear. Mrs. Hodges addressed the assembly while Kerem
and I raced into Mrs. Hodges’ office to raid her Christmas stash.
“Well everybody, thank you so much for sharing your favourite
food, meatballs, with us today. It’s fair to say that when it comes to
cooking, and especially cooking meatballs, you all like to do it
wonderfully differently. But as Alexander has reminded me, there is
one thing when it comes to food that we all have in common: We all
love CHOCOLATE!” Everybody cheered and then the grandparents
chatted while Kerem and I handed around the chocolates.
Iona Massey [27]

Ex. 1. Choose from the options below the word which best
fits in each of the gaps [1]–[6] in the text.
1. a) because;
b) although;
c) however;
d) by;
e) where.
2. What did Luca’s grandmother do to get the teacher’s
attention? She…
a) topped;
b) tipped;
c) hopped;
d) tapped.
3. a) a;
b) an;
c) the;
d) – .
4. a) as;
b) by;
c) during;
d) before.

131
5. a) some;
b) any;
c) one;
d) other.
6. a) at;
b) in;
c) onto;
d) on.

Ex. 2. Multiple choice.


1. What purpose does the action of putting up a hand serve in
the text?
a) to express disagreement;
b) to answer “yes” or “I” by raising a hand;
c) to insult someone by pointing;
d) to shake hands with each other.
2. When Mrs. Hodges “was being jostled”, what was done to
her? She was…
a) punished and shoved;
b) politely encouraged;
c) violently attacked;
d) invited to skip and dance.
3. Choose the expression which here means the same as “when
it comes to”:
a) without;
b) upon arrival;
c) the achievement of;
d) undoubtedly;
e) as regards;
f) unlike;
g) differing.
4. What does “addressing the assembly” mean?
a) saying sth to a group of people;
b) writing the address of an organization;
c) speaking publicly to a group of people;
d) speaking directly to sb.

132
Ex. 3. Answer the following questions.
1. Based on the title, what do you expect from the text?
2. What text type do you think it is? Make a list of the
conventions that are associated with this text type.
3. Whose voice do we hear? Who tells the story? What
information is given about the narrator?
4. What reason is given for the “international food fest”? What
does it suggest about the setting of the story?
5. What does the narrator discover upon arriving at the school?
6. Who is going to serve the food? Who is going to eat the
food?
7. How is the dish cooked by Amber’s grandfather different
from the Luca’s grandmother’s meatballs?
8. Who gets to taste the meatballs first?
9. What can clicking a tongue communicate in your culture?
What do you think it means in this text?
10. Find the words showing each grandparent’s physical actions.
What do they have in common? How are they different from each
other? Which ones are commonly used in your culture?
11. What expression is used here to show that the teacher felt full
after the food she had tasted?
12. Why did Mrs. Hodges look alarmed?
13. Why did the narrator and Kerem go to Mrs. Hodges’ office?
Find the word that reveals how fast they left.
14. Who is Alexander?
15. What effect does chocolate have in the story? Why does
Mrs. Hodges give everyone chocolate?
16. Did the text live up to your expectations? Why?
17. Look at the list of conventions you made for question 2.
Which ones apply to this text? If needed, amend your list.
18. This story won a Special Prize in the category of Story for
Children in a short story competition. In your opinion, what makes it a
good story for children? Can adults enjoy it, too?

133
Ex. 4. Translate the following sentences using phrases from
the text.
A. В итоговом заявлении саммита G7 отмечены две цели: не
допустить, чтобы у Ирана было ядерное оружие, и
содействовать миру и стабильности в регионе.
B. Ученик нехотя поднял руку, так как не был уверен, что
его ответ правильный.
C. Дайте мне три шарика мороженого: ванильного,
клубничного и шоколадного.
D. Овощерезка – это обязательная вещь на каждой кухне.
E. Некоторые слепые люди способны к эхолокации как
летучие мыши – во время ходьбы они прищелкивают языком и
могут оценить расстояние до предмета.
F. Отчего у женщины может быть свирепый взгляд? – Когда
ей предложили разделить счет в ресторане.
G. Тесс, услышав, о чем говорили в передней, бросила на
меня обеспокоенный взгляд.
H. В интервью президент Федерации хоккея России (ФХР)
Владислав Третьяк поделился своими впечатлениями от
последнего матча между командами Швейцарии и России.
I. Заначка (прост.) – это что-либо прибереженное про
запас, обычно спрятанное в потайном месте.
J. Столичные библиотеки начали раздавать
невостребованные книги всем желающим, посмотреть список
можно на сайте городской библиотечной системы.

5.1.3. SPEAKING

1. Summarize the story Grandma Makes Meatballs:


a) in fewer than 100 words;
b) in fewer than 10 statements.
2. What is the aim of the imagery the author resorts to in the
story?
3. What does the author want to say with this short story?

134
5.1.4. WRITING

Write an essay on the following topic: Reading literature will


help students broaden their vocabulary and use language creatively.
Write 250–300 words.

5.2. TEXT FEATURES

5.2.1. LEAD-IN

What thoughts are raised by the title?


What do you expect the
story is about? Why?
Look at the definitions of
theme, connotations, literary
features in a dictionary. What do
they tell you about literary works
in general? How are they used in
your first language?

5.2.2. READING

THE CHASE

“This one might be trouble”.


She heard one of them say this, only ten or so metres away in the
darkness. Even over her fear, the sheer naked terror of being hunted,
she felt a shiver of excitement, of something like triumph, when she
realised they were talking about her. Yes, she thought, she would be
trouble, she already was trouble. And they were worried too; the
hunters experienced their own fears during the chase. Well, at least
one of them did. The man who’d spoken was Jasken; Veppers’
principal bodyguard and chief of security. Jasken. Of course, who
else?

135
“You think so ... do you?” said a second man. That was Veppers
himself. It felt as though something curdled inside her when she heard
his deep, perfectly modulated
voice, right now attenuated to
something just above a
whisper. “But then ... they’re
all trouble”. He sounded out of
breath. “Can’t you see...
anything with those?” He must
be talking about Jasken’s
Enhancing Oculenses; a
fabulously expensive piece of hardware like heavyduty sunglasses.
They turned night to day, made heat visible and could see radio
waves, allegedly. Jasken tended to wear them all the time, which she
had always thought was just showing off, or betrayed some deep
insecurity. Wonderful though they might be, they had yet to deliver
her into Veppers’ exquisitely manicured hands.
She was standing, flattened, against a flat scenery. In the gloom,
a moment before she had spread herself against the enormous
backdrop, she had been able to make out that it was just a painted
canvas with great sweeps of dark and light paint, but she had been too
close to it to see what it actually portrayed. She angled her head out a
little and risked a quick look down and to the left, to where the two
men were, standing on a gantry cantilevered out from the side of the
fly tower’s north wall. She glimpsed a pair of shadowy figures, one
holding something that might have been a rifle. She couldn’t be sure.
Unlike Jasken, she had only her own eyes to see with.
She brought her head
back in again, quickly but
smoothly, scared that she
might be seen, and tried to
breathe deeply, evenly,
silently. She twisted her neck
this way and that, clenched
and unclenched her fists,
flexed her already aching legs.
She was standing on a narrow

136
wooden ledge at the bottom of the flat. It was slightly narrower than
her shoes; she had to keep her feet splayed, toes pointing outwards in
opposite directions, to stop herself from falling. Beneath, unseen in
the darkness, the wide rear stage of the opera house was twenty metres
further down. If she fell, there were probably other cross-gantries or
scenery towers in the way for her to hit on the way down.
Above her, unseen in the gloom, was the rest of the fly tower
and the gigantic carousel that sat over the rear of the opera house’s
stage and stored all the multifarious sets its elaborate productions
required. She started to edge very slowly along the ledge, away from
where the two men stood on the wall gantry. Her left heel still hurt
where she’d dug out a tracer device, days earlier.
“Sulbazghi?” she heard Veppers say, voice low. He and Jasken
had been talking quietly to each other; now they were probably using
a radio or something similar. She didn’t hear any answer from
Dr. Sulbazghi; probably Jasken was wearing an earpiece. Maybe
Veppers too, though he rarely carried a phone or any other comms
gear.
Veppers, Jasken and Dr. S. She wondered how many were
chasing her as well as these three. Veppers had guards to command, a
whole retinue of servants, aides, helpers and other employees who
might be pressed into service to help in a pursuit like this. The opera
house’s own security would help too, if called on; the place belonged
to Veppers, after all. And no doubt Veppers’ good friend, the city
Chief of Police would lend any forces requested of him, in the highly
unlikely event Veppers couldn’t muster enough of his own. She kept
on sliding her way along the ledge.
Iain M. Banks [29]

Ex. 1. Answer the following questions.


1. Who says the first line? To what or whom does “this one”
refer?
2. The first paragraph mentions hunters. What or who are they
trying to catch?

137
3. What feelings are mentioned in the first paragraph? Write the
words you find in the text in the table below, and tick the correct box
to imply whether they have positive, neutral or negative connotations.
4. How does the narrator react to hearing Veppers’ voice?
5. How do we know that the narrator knows Jasken and
Veppers? Find the details in the text which reveal she is familiar with
them.
6. What are the Oculenses used for? Why is Jasken wearing
them now?
7. Where is the narrator? What is she trying to do?
8. Why are the narrator’s legs aching?
9. Sketch a picture showing the location and position of the
narrator and her pursuers. Compare your picture to your classmates’
pictures. What similarities and differences are there? Why?
10. Why can’t the narrator run?
11. Why does the narrator feel pain in her left heel?
12. Why can’t the narrator hear Dr. Sulbazghi’s voice?
13. What technology are the characters using in the story?
14. Where and when do you think the story takes place? Why?
15. Why is the narrator not named in the text? How does this
affect the reader’s role and stance?
16. Whose side would you take – the hunters’ or the narrator’s?
17. How do you think the story continues?

Word showing Positive Neutral Negative


a feeling

Ex. 2. For each of the words or phrases below, find a word


or phrase in the text that has a similar meaning:
a) absolutely;
b) weakened;
c) get thicker;
138
d) increase, strengthen;
e) powerful;
f) presumably;
g) boasting;
h) wide apart;
i) varied;
j) complicated.

Ex. 3. Match the phrase halves:


1) wearing; a) insecurity;
2) perfectly; b) hardware;
3) fabulously; c) gear;
4) a piece of; d) requested;
5) out of; e) an earpiece;
6) betrayed; f) into service;
7) a retinue of; g) aides;
8) pressed; h) breath;
9) forces; i) modulated
10) comms; j) expensive.

Ex. 4. Translate the following sentences using phrases from


the text.
A. Футболиста сопровождал его личный телохранитель,
который не позволял настойчивым болельщикам приблизиться к
аргентинцу.
B. От этих слов у нее кровь стыла в жилах.
C. Ему как специалисту было абсолютно ясно, что такое
поведение пациента выдает глубоко спрятанное чувство
незащищенности.
D. Механическое оборудование: колосники сцены,
траверсы, поворотные механизмы, переходные мостики –
является неотъемлемой составляющей любого театрального
действа.
E. Пятый, если слышишь, похоже, у нас испортилась связь.

139
F. «Мобилизоваться» означает предпринять большие
усилия, обычно при подготовке к какому-либо событию.
G. Как ты понимаешь пословицу «Короля делает свита»?
H. Дай антоним глагола «усилить». – «Ослабить».
I. Открытая неприязнь к женщинам, которую он проявил
в своем выступлении, была поистине удивительна.
J. Несмотря на свою многогранную деятельность, он не
чувствовал удовлетворения от жизни.

5.2.3. SPEAKING

1. Speak about the author Iain M. Banks and his Culture series.
2. What do you see as the most important points in the story?
Why? What does the author want to say with this short story?
3. Summarize the story:
– in fewer than 100 words;
– in fewer than 10 statements.

5.2.4. WRITING

1. Write down your version of the events before and after the
given excerpt of the science fiction story.
2. Write a short story based on the premise that humans from
Earth have colonized Mars.

REMEMBER

The elements of a short story include:


– limited number of characters;
– succinctly described setting;
–1–2 plot conflicts;
– one point of view;
– one tense throughout the story;
– strong beginning and end;
– clear point or theme.
Write about 350–500 words.

140
5.3. NARRATIVE MODES

5.3.1. LEAD-IN

How is stream of consciousness/


interior monologue/ inner monologue/
soliloquy used to present thinking “on
the page”?
How do language registers
(formal, neutral and informal) differ
from each other? What is the
difference between register and
jargon?
Look at the definitions of
toponym, allusion, quotation in a dictionary. Why does the author
resort to these features?

5.3.2. READING

NOT YET, JAYETTE

This happened to me in LA once. Honestly. I was standing at a


hamburger kiosk on Echo Park eating a chilé-dog. This guy in a dark
green Lincoln pulls up at the kerb in front of me and leans out of the
window.
“Hey”, he asks me, “do you know the way to San Jose?”
Well, that threw me, I had to admit it. In fact I almost told him.
Then I got wise.
“Don’t tell me”, I say. “Let me guess. You’re going back to find
some peace of mind”.
I only tell you this to give you some idea of what the city is like.
It’s full of jokers. And that guy, even though I’d figured him, still bad-
mouthed me before he drove away. That’s the kind of place it is. I’m
just telling you so you know my day is for real.

141
Most mornings, early, I down to the beach at Santa Monica to try
and meet Christopher Isherwood. A guy I know told me he likes to
walk his dog down there
before the beach freaks
and the surfers show up.
I haven’t seen him yet
but I’ve grown to like
my mornings on the
beach. The sea has that
oily sheen to it, like an
empty swimming pool.
The funny thing is,
though, the Pacific
Ocean nearly always looks cold. One morning someone was swinging
on the bars, up and down, flinging himself about as if he was made of
rubber. It was beautiful, and boy was he built. It’s wonderful to me
what the human body can achieve if you treat it right. I like to keep in
shape. I work out. So most days I hang around waiting to see if
Christopher’s going to show then I go jogging. I head south; down
from the pier to Pacific Ocean Park. I’ve got to know some of the
bums that live around the beach, the junkies and derelicts.
“Hi Charlie”, they shout when they see me jogging by.
There’s a cafe in Venice where I eat breakfast. A girl works
there most mornings, thin, bottle-blonde, kind of tired-looking. I’m
pretty sure she’s on something heavy. So that doesn’t make her
anything special
but she can’t be
more than
eighteen. She
knows my name,
I don’t know
how, I never told
her. Anyway each morning when she brings me my coffee and
doughnut she says, “Hi, there, Charlie. Lucked-out yet?”
I just smile and say, “Not yet, Jayette”.
Jayette’s the name she’s got sewn across her top. I’m not sure I
like the way she speaks to me – I don’t exactly know what she’s

142
referring to. But seeing how she knows my name I think it must be my
career she’s talking about. Because I used to be a star, well, a TV star
anyway. Between the ages of nine and eleven I earned twelve
thousand dollars a week. Perhaps you remember the show, a TV soap
opera called “The Scrantons”. I was the little brother, Chuck. For two
years I was a star. I got the whole treatment: my own trailer,
chauffeured limousines, private tutors. Trouble was my puberty came
too early. Suddenly I was like a teenage gatecrasher at a kids’ party.
My voice went, I got zits all over my chin, fluff on my lip. It spoilt
everything. Within a month the scenario for my contractual deal was
drawn up. I think it was pneumonia, or maybe an accident with the
thresher. I can’t really remember, I don’t like to look back on those
final days.
Though I must confess it was fun meeting all the stars. The big
ones: Jeanne Lamont, Eddy Cornelle, Mary and Marvin Keen – you
remember them. One of the most bizarre features of my life since I left
the studio is that nowadays I never see stars anymore. Isn’t that
ridiculous? Someone like me who worked with them who practically
lives in Hollywood? Somehow I never get to see the stars any more. I
just miss them.
“Oh, he left five
minutes ago, bub”, or
“Oh, no, I think she’s on
location in Europe, she
hasn’t been here for
weeks”. The same old
story.
I think that’s what
Jayette’s referring to
when she asks if I’ve
lucked-out. She knows
I’m still hanging in there, waiting. I mean, I’ve kept on my own agent.
The way I see it is that once you’ve been in front of the cameras
something’s going to keep driving you until you get back. I know it’ll
happen to me again one day, I just have this feeling inside. After
breakfast I jog back up the beach to where I left the car. One morning
I got to thinking about Jayette. What does she think when she sees me

143
now and remembers me from the days of “The Scrantons”? It seems to
me that everybody in their life is at least two people. Once when
you’re a child and once when you’re an adult. It’s the saddest thing. I
don’t just mean that you see things differently when you’re a child –
that’s something else again – what’s sad is that you can’t seem to keep
the personality. I know I’m not the same person any more as young
Chuck Scranton was, and I find that depressing. I could meet little
Charlie on the beach today and say, “Look, there goes a sharp kid”.
And never recognize him if you see what I mean. It’s a shame.
I don’t like the jog back so much, as all the people are coming
out. Lying around, surfing, cruising, shooting up, tricking. Hell, the
things I’ve seen on that sand. I could tell you a few stories. Sometimes
I like to go down to El Segundo or Redondo beach just to feel normal.
I usually park the car on Santa Monica Palisades. I tidy up,
change into my clothes and shave. I have a small battery-powered
electric razor that I use. Then I have a beer, wander around, buy a
newspaper. Mostly I then drive north to Malibu. There’s a place I
know where you can get a fair view of a longish stretch of the beach.
It’s almost impossible to get down there in summer; they don’t like
strangers. So I pull off the highway and climb this small dune-hill. I
have a pair of opera glasses of my aunt’s that I use to see better – my
eyesight’s not too hot. I spotted Rod Steiger one day, and Jane Fonda.
I think but I can’t be sure, the glasses tend to fuzz everything a bit
over four hundred yards. Anyway I like the quiet on that dune, it’s
restful.
I have been down on to Malibu beach, but only in the winter
season. The houses are all shut up but you can still get the feel of it.
Some people were having a bar-b-q one day. It looked good. They had
a fire going on a big porch that jutted out high over the sand. They
waved and shouted when I went past.
Lunch is bad. The worst part of the day for me because I have to
go home. I live with my aunt. I call her my aunt though I’m not
related to her at all. She was my mother’s companion. I believe that’s
the right word – until my mother stuffed her face with a gross of
Seconal one afternoon in a motel at Corona del Mar. I was fifteen then
and Vanessa – my “aunt” – became some kind of legal guardian to me
and had control of all the money I’d made from “The Scrantons”.

144
Well, she bought an apartment in Beverly Glen because she liked the
address. Man, was she swallowed by the realtor. They build these tiny
apartment blocks on cliff-faces of bug-name canyons just so you can
say you live off Mulholland Drive or in Bel Air. It’s a load. I’d rather
live in Watts or on Imperial highway. I practically have to rope-up and
wear crampons to get to my front door. And it’s mine. I paid for it.
Maybe that’s why Vanessa never leaves her bed. It’s just too
much effort getting in and out of the house. She just stays in bed all

day and eats, watches TV and feeds her two dogs. I only go in there
for lunch; it’s my only “family” ritual. I take a glass of milk and a
salad sandwich but she phones out for pizza and enchiladas and
burgers – any kind she can smear over her face and down her front.
She’s really grown fat in the ten years since my mother bombed out.
But she still sits up in bed with those hairy yipping dogs under her
armpits, and she’s got her top and bottom false eyelashes, her
hairpiece and purple lipstick on. I say nothing usually. For someone
who never gets out she sure can talk a lot. She wears these tacky satin
and lace peignoirs, show half her chest. Her arms look like a couple of
Indian clubs rolling around under the shimmer. It’s unfair I suppose,
but when I drive back into the foothills I like to think I’m going to
have a luncheon date with... with someone like Grace Kelly – as was –
or maybe Alexis Smith. I don’t know. I wouldn’t mind a meal and a
civilized conversation with some nice people like that. But lunch with
Vanessa? Thanks for nothing, pal. God, you can keep it. She’s a real
klutz. I’m sure Grace and Alexis would never let themselves get that
way – you know, like Vanessa’s always dropping tacos down her
cleavage or smearing mustard on her chins.
I always get depressed after lunch. It figures, I hear you say. I go
to my room and sometimes I have a drink (I don’t smoke, so dope’s

145
out). Other days I play my guitar or else work on my screenplay. It’s
called “Walk. Don’t Walk”. I get a lot of good ideas after lunch for
some reason. That’s when I got the idea for my screenplay. It just
came to me. I remembered how I’d been stuck one day at the corner
Arteria Boulevard and Normandie Avenue. There was a pile of traffic
and the pedestrian signs were going berserk. “Walk” would come on
so I’d start across. Two seconds later “Don’t Walk” so I go back.
Then on comes “Walk” again. This went on for ten minutes: “Walk.
Don’t Walk. Walk. Don’t Walk”. I was practically out of my box. Bin
what really stunned me was the way I just stayed there and obeyed the
goddam machine for so long – I never even thought about going it
alone. Then one afternoon after lunch it came to me that it was a neat
image of life; just the right kind of metaphor for the whole can of
worms. The final scene of this movie is going to be a slow crane shot
away from this malfunctioning traffic sign going “Walk. Don’t Walk”.
Then the camera pulls further up and away in a helicopter and you see
that in fact the whole city is fouled up because of this one sign
flashing. They don’t know what to do; the programming’s gone
wrong. It’s a great final scene. Only problem is I’m having some
difficulty writing my way towards it. Still, it’ll come, I guess.
In the late afternoon I go to work. I work at the Beverly Hills
Hotel. Vanessa’s brother-in-law got me the job. I park cars. I keep
hoping I’m going to park
the car of someone really
important. Frank – that’s
Vanessa’s brother-in
law – will say to me,
“Give this one a shine-up,
Charlie, it belongs to so-
and-so, he produced this
film”, or “That guy’s the
money behind X’s new
movie”, or “Look out,
he’s Senior Vice-President of Something incorporated”. I say big deal.
These guys hand me the keys they all look like bank clerks. If that’s
the movies nowadays I’m not so sure I want back in.

146
Afternoons are quiet at the hotel so I catch up on my reading.
I’m reading Camus at the moment but I think I’ve learnt all I can from
him so I’m going on to Jung. I don’t know too much about Jung but
I’m told he was really into astrology which has always been a pet
interest of mine. One thing I will say for quitting the movies when I
did means that I didn’t miss out on my education. I hear that some of
these stars today are really dumb; you know, they’ve got their brains
in the neck and points south.
After work I drive back down to the Santa Monica pier and think
about what I’m going to do all night. The Santa Monica pier is a kind
of special place for me: it’s the last place I saw my wife and son I got
married at seventeen and was divorced by twenty two, though we
were apart for a couple of years before that. Her name was Harriet. It
was okay for a while but I don’t think she liked Vanessa. Anyway, get
this. She left me for a guy who was the assistant manager in the credit
collection department of a large mail order firm. I couldn’t believe it
when she told me. I said to her when she moved out that it had to be
the world’s most boring job and did she know what she was getting
into? I mean, what sort of person do you have to be to take on that
kind of work? The bad thing was she took my son Skiff with her. It’s a
dumb name I know, but at the time he was born all the kids were
being called things like Sky and Saffron and Powie, and I was really
sold on sailing. I hope he doesn’t hold it against me.
The divorce was messy and she got custody, though I’ll never
understand why. She had left some clothes at the house and wanted
them back so she suggested we meet at the end of the Santa Monica
pier for some reason. I didn’t mind, it was the impetuous side to her
nature that first attracted me. I handed the clothes over. She was a bit
tense Skiff was running about; he didn’t seem to know who I was. She
was smoking a lot; those long thin menthol cigarettes. I really didn’t
say anything much at all, asked how she was, what school Skiff was
going to. Then she just burst out, “Take a good look, Charlie, then
don’t come near us ever again!” Her exact words. Then they went
away.
So I go down to the end of the pier most nights and look out at
the ocean and count the planes going in to land at LA International and
try to work things out. Just the other evening I wandered up the beach

147
a way and this thin-faced man with short grey hair came up to me and
said, “Jordan, is that you?” And when he saw he’d made a mistake he
smiled a nice smile, apologized and walked off. It was only this
morning that I thought it might have been Christopher Isherwood
himself. The more I think about it the more convinced I become. What
a perfect opportunity and I had to go and miss it. As I say; “Walk.
Don’t Walk”. That’s the bottom line.
I suppose I must have been preoccupied. The pier brings back all
these memories like some private video-loop, and my head gets to feel
like it’s full of birds all flapping around trying to get out. And also
things haven’t been so good lately. On Friday Frank told me not to
bother showing up at the hotel next week, I can’t seem to make any
headway with the screenplay and for the last three nights Vanessa’s
tried to climb into my bed.
Well, tonight I think I’ll drive to this small bar I know on Sunset.
Nothing too great, a little dark. They do a nice white wine with peach
slices in it, and I hear tell that Bobby de Niro sometimes shows up for
a drink.
William Boyd [29]

Ex. 1. Answer the following questions.


A. Where does the story take place?
B. When does the story take place? How do you know?
C. Who do you think Christopher Isherwood is, and why does
the narrator want to meet him?
D. At the beginning of the story, what does the narrator say
about himself? At what point does the reader find out the narrator’s
name?
E. How does the narrator describe the girl who works at the cafe
in Venice? Look at the adjectives used and discuss their connotations:
do they present her in a positive light? Why? Would all readers
worldwide have the same opinion?
F. The narrator says, “I’m pretty sure she is on something
heavy. So that doesn’t make her anything special but she can’t be
more than eighteen”. What does this suggest about the girl? What does
this suggest about the narrator? What does this suggest about the
setting of the story?

148
G. After the short dialogue with Jayette, the narrator describes
his career. Does this change the way you see him? Why?
H. What interpretation of Jayette’s question does the narrator
offer?
I. How much interaction does the narrator have with other
people? What conclusion can you draw?
J. What is the relationship between the narrator and Vanessa
like? How does he describe her? What feelings are mentioned? What
does he mean by saying “She’s a real klutz”?
K. Talking about his screenplay, what does the narrator see as a
metaphor for his life?
L. Where does the narrator work in the afternoons? How does
he feel about it?
M. Well into the story and after listing mundane events, the
narrator reveals why Santa Monica is a special place for him. What
happened there?
N. How did the narrator feel about the reasons his wife had for
leaving him?
O. Why does the narrator go to Santa Monica pier?
P. “I suppose I must have been preoccupied” is how the narrator
explains why he misses an important opportunity. Find another phrase
in the story suggesting that the narrator is unable to take an active role
in his own life.
Q. At the end of the story, what three factors does the narrator
list as causing him problems? What do these factors foreshadow?
R. In what mood does the narrator conclude his story?

Ex. 2. Appreciating literary features.


A. Read the opening paragraph. How does the narrator create a
connection between himself and the audience? What words or
expressions show he wants to convince his audience?
B. Why is the first paragraph written in the past tense, but the
rest of the story presented in the present tense?
C. The title of the story appears as the first line the narrator
speaks in a dialogue with Jayette. Find the other lines which mark
dialogue in the story. What conclusion can you make?

149
D. Why does the narrator mention meal times throughout the
story?
E. Three women are introduced in the story. What do they mean
to the narrator? What roles do they have in the narrator’s life?
F. The saddest thing, according to the narrator, is that “It seems
to me that everybody in their life is at least two people”. How does
Boyd’s short story either defend or oppose this claim?
G. At Santa Monica pier, the narrator is mistaken for somebody
called Jordan, probably by Christopher Isherwood. What does the
author seem to suggest? Why does he recite the name of his
screenplay in relation to possibly meeting Isherwood?

Ex. 3. Describe the narrator.


A. How does he spend his day? What objectives does he have
and does he succeed in his pursuits? Why?
B. Look up the following words in a dictionary and discuss their
meaning and connotations. To what degree do they fit the narrator’s
description?

strong obstinate vivacious bitter talented impetuous warm


honest broken ambitious withdrawn disillusioned normal sad

Ex. 4. For each of the words or phrases below, find a word or


phrase in the text that has a similar meaning:
a) detected;
b) robbed blind;
c) saw through;
d) very lucky;
e) pimples;
f) to blur;
g) stupid;
h) guardianship;
i) advance;
j) turn up.

150
Ex. 5. Match the phrase halves:

1) legal;
2) sold;
3) a gross of;
4) have;
5) get;
6) keep;
7) teenage;
8) bizarre;
9) sharp;
10) longish.

a) in shape;
b) gatecrasher;
c) Seconal;
d) on sailing;
e) a bar-b-q;
f) kid;
g) guardian;
h) a fair view;
i) stretch of the beach;
j) creature.

Ex. 6. Translate the following sentences using phrases from


the text.
A. Водитель затормозил у обочины и спросил у прохожего,
как проехать к школе.
B. Она обливает грязью всех, кто с ней не согласен.
C. Нефтяная пленка по данным, полученным со спутников,
покрывает более трети поверхности Мирового океана. На пляже
слонялось множество искателей острых ощущений и бродяг.
D. Рукоделие – шитье, вышивание, вязание – традиционно
считается уделом женщин.
E. Половое созревание – это процесс изменений в организме
подростка, вследствие которых он становится взрослым и
способным к продолжению рода.

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F. Незваный гость – это тот, кто приходит без
приглашения.
G. Электрику пришлось надеть кошки, чтобы взобраться на
электрический столб.
H. На одной из главных улиц города была огромная пробка
из-за поломки светофора.
I. Его считали сумасшедшим за то, что он всех прощал, не
держал ни на кого зла, не был жадным.

5.3.3. SPEAKING

DISCUSSION

Enumerate linguistic elements you found difficult to understand.


Make a list of literary features of the short story.
Make a list of names of real actors and actresses in the story.
Speak on Christopher Isherwood. Why did the author use the allusion?
Other allusions used by the author include Camus and Jung.
How do these affect the reader?

SUMMARY

What does the author want to say with this short story?
What do you see as the most important points in the story? Why?
Summarize the story
a) in fewer than 100 words;
b) in fewer than 10 statements.
Design a poster for the story.

5.3.4. WRITING

Imagine you are the agent who is helping Charlie find work as
an actor on TV. Write an email to a casting director introducing your
client. What roles do you think he would be best suited for?

152
5.4. TEXT INTERPRETATION

5.4.1. LEAD-IN

Read the text titled From Dark carefully.


Use your active reading skills to:
1) predict both the content and the conventions of the text;
2) reflect on your: comprehension of the text;
interpretation of the text;
3) keep an eye on: new vocabulary and structures;
how the text works as a whole;
literary features.

5.4.2. READING

FROM DARK

Already for two months the men had lived underground, unable
to tell day from night, working and sleeping in darkness; [1] that when
the cave-in occurred, preventing them from escape, nothing altered
for them. What had been black and shadow remained as it had been,
[2] did the heat, and the smell of rock.
Nine men remained in
a small chamber. They had
water and food, and
torchlight [3] the batteries
ran out. Four of them had
worked legally, before
losing their jobs, along with
50,000 others. They spoke of
their rescue [4] confidence and shared stories about their families,
their children. But the experienced ones, those who had mined the
abandoned shafts previously, remained silent, knowing that many
would have died in the collapse, and [5] those few who had escaped
would not go for help in fear of arrest. The syndicate bosses, they
knew, would do nothing. Fresh workers were easy enough to recruit.

153
Youngsters, fourteen,
fifteen, seventeen, watched the
two groups of men, trying to
gauge what their own reactions
should be. They had come down
the mines during the school
holidays, extending their
vacations so that they could
make money to take back to
their families. Underground they
suffered. Thoughts of soccer, of
girls and of the sky stayed with them. They missed home-cooking and
sweets. Hawkers, sent by the bosses, sold them food at prices too
frightening for them to say out loud. In the first week the boys
watched with fascination as the men pulled out bankrolls of hundreds
to buy a few beers. [6] soon, as their wages came and as the heat of
the place entered muscle and bone, they [7] bought beer unflinchingly.
Working naked in the heat, slamming their picks into rock,
bodies ached and changed. Muscles formed where none had been and
they watched each others’ frames spreading out thickening. In the
dark they had become men.
Karen Jennings [27]

Ex. 1. The text is missing some words. Choose from the list
below to fill the gaps [1]–[7]:
a) and;
b) but;
c) by;
d) that;
e) with;
f) so;
g) as;
h) too;
i) until;
j) then.

154
Ex. 2. For each of the following, find a word or expression
from the text that is similar in meaning:
a) not capable;
b) not allowing;
c) stayed;
d) together with;
e) being afraid of;
f) stretching;
g) great interest and curiosity;
h) hitting very hard;
i) become more solid.

Ex. 3. Use your own words to explain or give synonyms for


the following words from the text, give Russian equivalents:
a) cave-in;
b) abandon;
c) gauge;
d) hawker;
e) unflinchingly;
f) frame.

Ex. 4. Answer the following questions.


A. To what or whom does “they” refer in the second paragraph?
B. To what or whom does “their” refer in the third paragraph?
C. In the first paragraph, what senses are evoked in the
description of the cave? How does this affect the reader?
D. How do you interpret the title? Why is it From Dark and not
In Dark or Into Dark?

Ex. 5. Decide whether the following statements are true or


false and justify your answers with a relevant quotation from the
text.
A. The men had just started their work underground.
B. The strong lights were dimmed at night so the men could
sleep better.
C. The miners had something to eat and drink.
D. Most of the men had had legal jobs.

155
E. All the men preferred to be silent after the cave-in.
F. The experienced men were afraid no one would come to help
them.
G. The youngsters were working without pay.
H. The youngsters enjoyed working underground.
I. Food was sold at discount prices to teenage miners.
J. Physical work made the youngsters grow muscles.

Ex. 6. For the next three questions, choose the best option to
complete the sentence.
1. By revealing the experienced men’s thoughts, the narrator...
a) lightens the tone of the story;
b) increases the tension in the story;
c) attacks the class system and the arrogant new workers;
d) ridicules the naivety of the younger miners.
2. The youngsters missing soccer, girls, the sky above, home-
cooking and sweets…
a) emphasizes the difference between them and the rest of the
miners;
b) reveals how miserable life underground is and how miners
dream of a normal life;
c) proves they are desperate to become men;
d) is in contrast with their adult-like behaviour.
3. In this story, growing up...
a) is a happy event encouraged by peer support;
b) is only achieved through suffering and mental sacrifice;
c) is a brutal competition where only the strongest survive;
d) can be a mysterious and involuntary result of a twist of fate.

Ex. 7. Translate the following sentences using phrases from


the text.
A. Сотрудники правоохранительных органов
предотвратили побег из следственного изолятора.
B. Если спрос на данный товар возрастет, а предложение
останется неизменным, то цены и объемы продаж взлетят.
C. Во время полѐта у самолета неожиданно закончилось
топливо и остановились оба двигателя.

156
D. Специалист по трудоустройству – это человек, который
ищет подходящих кандидатов на рабочие места.
E. Вооруженные силы поклялись в непоколебимой верности
своей стране.
F. Как ты понимаешь значение выражения «прийти кому-
либо на помощь»? – Для меня это означает «не бросить в беде».
G. «Оставь надежду, всяк сюда входящий», итальянская
версия этой фразы встречается в «Божественной комедии» Данте
как надпись над вратами в ад.
H. Понаблюдай за его реакцией, когда ты напрямик
попросишь его одолжить тебе машину на пару дней.
I. У него были лишь смутные воспоминания о покойном
отце.
J. Шахтеры молчали – никто не хотел вспоминать, сколько
человек погибли в завалах за последние годы.

5.4.3. SPEAKING

Interpret the text. What does the author want to say with this
short story?
Speak on how the text contributes to “protest writing”.

5.4.4. WRITING

REVIEW
Write a short review of the book by Steve Moss The World‟s
Shortest Stories of Love and Death (1999) for a school English-
language magazine.
Use the beginning of the review that is given (these words will
not be counted):
The science fiction writer, Frederic Brown, is credited to write
the shortest story in the world in 1948, which he called “Knock”.
The story was this: “The last man on Earth sat alone in a room.
There was a knock on the door”. The story paved the way to a new
fashion of writing very short stories... (continue your review).
Use the information about the book below.
Compare the given text samples in your review.

157
Express your attitude to the book. Give recommendations to
the readers.
Write 250–300 words.

Information about the book

Steve Moss, an editor of the American magazine New Times,


started a competition called 55 Fiction (1987).
The competition still runs annually in New Times.
A literary work is considered 55 Fiction if it has:
1) fifty-five or fewer words;
2) a setting;
3) one or more characters;
4) some conflict;
5) a resolution.
The collection of the best stories was published by Steve Moss
in the book The World‟s Shortest Stories of Love and Death (1999).
Samples from the book
Gratitude (Andrew E. Hunt)
The street lights were a warm welcome from the oncoming
chill of darkness. The park bench’s curvature felt familiar under his
tired old spine.
The wool blanket from the Salvation Army was comfortable
around his shoulders and the pair of shoes he’d found in the
dumpster today fit perfectly. God, he thought, isn’t life grand.
Higher Education (Ron Bast)
“College was a breeze”, Jennings said, washing his grimy
hands. “With all those budget cuts, they couldn’t teach much. They
just gave us our grades and sent us on our way”.
“How did you learn?”
“We didn’t, but so what? Look at me now”.
A nurse opened the door.
“Dr. Jennings, you’re wanted in surgery”.

158
In the Garden (Hope A. Torres)
Standing there in the garden, she saw him running toward her.
“Tina! My flower! The love of my life!”
He’d said it at last.
“Oh, Tom!”
“Tina, my flower!”
“Oh, Tom! I love you, too!”
Tom reached her, knelt down, and quickly pushed her aside.
“My flower! You were standing on my prize-winning rose!”
The Search (Robert Tompkins)
Finally, in this remote village, his quest ended. There, by the
fire, sat Truth. Never had he seen an older, uglier woman. “Are you
truth?”
The wizened, wrinkled hag nodded.
“What message can I take from you to the world?” he pleaded.
She replied, spitting into the fire, “Tell them I am young and
beautiful”.

159
VOCABULARY BANK

UNIT 1

VOCABULARY NOTES

threat n
1) a statement of an intention to punish or hunt, e.g. Nobody is
afraid of your threats;
2) a sign or warning of coming trouble, danger, etc., e.g. There
was a threat of rain in the dark sky.
threaten vt/i
1) to give warning of, e.g. The clouds threatened rain;
2) to seem likely to come or occur, e.g. He was unconscious of
the danger that threatened him;
3) to use threats towards; to threaten to do sth., e.g. Andrew
threatened to report the incident to the authorities, to threaten sb. with
sth., e.g. The criminal threatened his enemy with death.
threatening adj
full of threat, as a threatening attitude (voice); to give smb. a
threatening look.
constant adj
1) going on all the time; frequently recurring, as constant
complaints, e.g. He suffered from constant sleeplessness;
2) firm, faithful, unchanging, as a constant friend, e.g. He has
been constant in his devotion to scientific studies, syn. permanent;
ant. temporary.
constantly adv
continuously, frequently, e.g. His name is constantly mentioned
in the gossip column.
select vt
to pick out, esp. for its superior qualities, as to select a gift (a
suitable person, the best samples, etc., e.g. They selected a site for the
monument, syn. choose, pick, e.g. The small girl chose the biggest
apple in the dish. I picked this way because it was the shortest.

160
selection n
choice; a collection of specially chosen examples, as natural
(artificial) selection, selections from Shakespeare (Russian composers,
etc.); poetry, prose selections; a good selection of paintings (goods,
etc.), e.g. This department store has a good selection of hats.
fit vi/t
1) to be the right shape or size (for); to be fit or suitable (for),
e.g. This coat does not fit me. This key doesn’t fit the lock;
2) to make suitable size, shape, condition, etc. (for), as to fit
oneself for one’s new duties; to fit a plank in a floor; to fit sth. on to
put on ( coat, etc.) in order to make it fit, e.g. I am going to the tailor’s
to have my coat fitted on; to fit in to occupy or have a suitable or right
position or relation, e.g. How will my arrangements for the holidays
fit in with yours?
fit adj
1) suitable or suited (for); good enough (for), e.g. The man is not
fit for the position. Do as you think fit. We must decide on a time and
place;
2) proper, right, e.g. He didn’t think fit to do what I suggested;
3) strong and well; in good health, e.g. I hope you are feeling
quite fit. He has been ill and is fit for nothing.
initial n usu. pl.
first letter of a person’s name.
initial adj.
coming at the beginning, as the initial advantage, attempt, stage,
step, symptoms e.g. His initial response to the question was “no”.
initiative n
1) (C) the first step in an undertaking, have / seize / lose / take
the initiative e.g. They have attempted to take the initiative in dealing
with the problem;
2) (U) the ability to use your judgment to make decisions as to
have / display / lack / show initiative e.g. He doesn’t have much
initiative. Act on your own initiative.
involve vt
1) to cause sb. or sth. to take part or to be mixed up (in trouble, a
difficult condition, etc.) e.g. Don’t involve me in your fights, please.
They are deeply involved in debt;

161
2) to have as a necessary result e.g. The new design is involving
me in a lot of extra work.
involvement n
the condition of being involved e.g. His involvement with that
woman brought him nothing but trouble.
involved adj
1) complicated in form, etc. e.g. It’s a very involved story and I
kept getting confused;
2) (of people) closely concerned in relationships and activities
with others, esp. in a personal relationship e.g. He’s deeply involved
with her and wants to get married.
value n
1) the worth of sth. in money as compared with other goods for
which it might be changed e.g. The value of the British pound is less
than it was 50 years ago. Jewels are articles of great value;
2) worth compared with the amount paid (often in the value for
money) e.g. If your coat wore out in less than a year it certainly
wasn’t good value; it was poor value for money;
3) the (degree of) usefulness of sth., esp. in comparison with
other things e.g. You’ll find this instrument of great value in making
certain kinds of measurement.
value vt
1) to calculate the value, price, or worth of e.g. He valued the
house and its contents as 42,000 pounds;
2) to consider sb. or sth. to be of great worth e.g. Young people
don’t always value the advice given them by their parents.
valuable adj
of great value or use, having value (ценный, драгоценный), as
a valuable book; valuable property, furniture, valuable advice,
initiative, information: The book didn’t cost much but it is very
valuable to me.
valued adj
regarded as of great value (уважаемый, достойный уважения;
такой, которым дорожат); as a valued possession, a valued friend
(servant, correspondent); valued advice, help.

162
invaluable adj
excessively valuable, as invaluable assistance, invaluable
treasure.
valueless adj
having no value, as valueless good e.g. You are too late with
your advice, it’s valueless now.
valuables n pl
Jewelry and other valuables are usually kept in a jewel-box.
include vt
to bring in, to regard as part of the whole e.g. This atlas contains
fifty maps, including six of North America. The price is ten dollars,
postage included;
ant. exclude (from)
1) to prevent sb. from getting in somewhere, as to exclude a
person from a membership of a society, immigrants from a country;
2) to prevent the chance of sth. arising, as to exclude all
possibility of doubt.
inclusion n
including or being included: The inclusion of several themes
made the novel much more interesting.
inclusive adj
including e.g. Russian students’ winter holidays last from 25 to
February 6 inclusive.
ant. exclusive (of people, societies, clubs, etc.). The exclusive
right of a company to print, publish and sell author’s book is known as
copyright.
preserve vt
1) to keep from spoiling, from decay, from risk of going bad (by
boiling, pickling, making into jam, etc.) as to preserve fruit, eggs,
milk, vegetables e.g. It’s easy to preserve vegetables in vinegar.
to preserve monuments to keep from harm e.g. The ancient
monument was preserved by the local people.
2) to keep up, as to preserve peace, to preserve one’s eyesight, to
preserve the memory of another, to preserve one’s looks, strength,
composure, to preserve appearances, silence, to preserve old customs,
a well-preserved old man. Don’t read in poor light if you want to

163
preserve your good eyesight. The leader’s main aim was to preserve
peace.
pure adj
1) unmixed with any other substance, as pure water, milk, gold,
wool e.g. My granny uses only pure wool when knitting cardigans for
little children;
2) morally clean, without evil or sin e.g. The new ruler of Wales
was to be pure and honest, speak no English and to have been born on
the Welsh soil;
3) mere, nothing but, as pure mischief; a pure waste of time;
laziness pure and simple e.g. I call it pure stupidity to go out in the
cold without a hat. What he said was the truth pure and simple.
purely adv
entirely; merely e.g. It’s purely a matter of taste.
purity n
the state or quality of being pure e.g. The purity of the mountain
air will do you a lot of good. The statue is a work of remarkable purity
of line.
purist n
a person who pays great attention to the correct use of words,
language, etc. e.g. A purist of the English language would never use
any Americanisms.
avoid vt
to keep away from, as to avoid a person, speaking to sb.,
meeting sb., mentioning sb., mistakes, bad company, a quarrel, an
argument, a scandal, a difficulty (difficulties), an attack, danger, evil,
a punishment, an accident, answering, etc. e.g. What have I done?
Why are you avoiding me? We only just avoided the accident. The
doctor told her to avoid fatty meat (eating much fat).
avoidable adj
that can be avoided e.g. I’m sure the quarrel was quite
avoidable, your interference spoiled everything.
ant. unavoidable e.g. The accident was unavoidable, the man
ran out into the street too suddenly for the driver to stop the car.

164
conceit n
too much pride in oneself e.g. Her self-passing letter seemed to
be motivated more by conceit than a desire to communicate. The
braggart’s letter was full of conceit.
conceited adj
full of conceit e.g. Many performers become conceited after only
modest success. The conceited man is rarely a happy man.
glare vi
1) to shine with a light so bright as to hurt the eyes. e.g. The sun
glared down on us all day. The frozen snow glared in the morning
sunlight. A single naked bulb glared pitilessly in the centre of the
room;
2) to stare angrily or fiercely e.g. He glared at me like a bull at a
red rag. A tiger glares at his prey.
glare n
1) a very bright light, so strong that it is unpleasant or blinding
e.g. The unshaded bulbs threw a yellow glare over the walls. We
shielded our eyes from the glare of the sun on the water. She hates the
glare of publicity;
2) an angry or fierce look or stare e.g. He looked at me with an
angry glare (gave me a glare) when I said he couldn’t be trusted with
the job.
glaring adj
1) unpleasantly bright e.g. The glaring headlights of a car
blinded me for a moment. There were glaring neon signs over the
building;
2) angry or fierce e.g. Her glaring eyes were suggestive of her
anger;
3) easily seen, obvious e.g. How could you overlook it? It is a
glaring mistake (error). There are several glaring defects in your plan.

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

Ex. 1. Translate the following sentences into Russian.


1. She was depressed, with tears threatening. 2. Knowing that
danger threatened, the sentry was on the alert. 3. As for this man, there
was no sign that the threats would come to anything. 4. Drunken

165
drivers pose a grave threat to road users. 5. The constant chatter of the
children prevented him from work. 6. His health was seriously
affected and he suffered from constant sleeplessness. 7. The crops are
high, they need constant care and the work is hard. 8. A series of
Italian views decked the walls, a connoisseur had selected them, they
were genuine and valuable. 9. The team was admirably selected.
10. Joan sat down at the piano to play a selection from a musical
comedy. 11. The dress they bought the next day fitted her slim body to
perfection. 12. And Ava, fitting her key into the lock got into the
room. 13. I’m... just me. And the thing about being me is that I’d fit
into the situation. 14. She also thought how well that part would fit
Maggie on the stage. 15. The jig-saw pieces were all fitting into place.
16. For the first time it struck him that the initials were his own. 17. I
can’t fit in with that theory of yours. 18. Ask him some questions and
see what group he’s fit for. 19. I’m always very fit, have never had
anything wrong with me in my life. 20. Initially she opposed the plan,
but later she changed her mind. 21. She worked her initials in red.
22. The young man after initial shyness turned into a considerable
social success. 23. I initialed the documents to show I approved of
them. 24. When she began the job she showed initiative and was
promoted to manager after a year. 25. 1 shouldn’t always have to tell
you what to do, use your initiative for once! 26. We don’t know the
extent of his involvement in the affair. 27. Fagin and his friends
involved Oliver in a robbery. 28. He had been taught that modern
physics involved the manipulation of minute quantities of matter.
29. The accident involved two cars and a lorry. 30. She didn’t feel like
getting involved in a long argument on the phone so she hung up.
31. Soames’ most valued possession – his daughter – was of medium
height and colour, with short, dark-chestnut hair. 32. A thing not being
valuable or having no commercial value cannot be costly; nevertheless
it may be precious to us on account of the giver. 33. You should have
learned to value other people’s time. 34. I will say it to John, his
services to us are invaluable. 35. The value of life lies not in the length
of days, but in the use we make of them; a man may live long, yet get
little from life (M. Montaigne). 36. Though he prided himself on
trusting no one, he always accepted at face value any friendly gesture
that was offered to him. 37. A group of theatrical workers including

166
myself wrote an open letter to The Times. 38. My dear... I’ve been a
member of clubs which consisted exclusively of fools. 39. Naturally, I
don’t expect you to start dancing round with joy, but you might
preserve the decencies of debate. 40. Look at these old paintings!
They are in an excellent state of preservation. 41. To the pure all
things are pure. 42. We avoided riding through large cities on our trip.
43. One would admire his excellent qualities, but avoid his company.
44. You can hardly avoid wounding such persons at one time or
another, no matter how unintentionally. 45. They drove on, slowly,
gropingly, chattering meanwhile, avoiding the main street as far as
possible. 46. The man is too conceited to be likable. 47. The world
tolerates conceit from those who are successful, but not from anybody
else. (M. Twain). 48. “Without wishing to sound conceited, I’m
clearly the best salesman in the company”, he bragged. 49. The
conceit of this man is incredible. 50. The glare of the sun on the water
made him blink. 51. The report is full of glaring faults. 52. She
continued to glare at Ellery with an unwavering glassiness.

Ex. 2. Give English equivalents to the following phrases.


Угроза катастрофы, угрожающий голос, угроза
немедленного наказания.
Постоянная работа; постоянный успех; постоянные
головные боли.
Выбрать новогодний подарок; отобрать лучших
исполнителей; иметь широкий ассортимент чего-л.
Примерять; подогнать половицу; совпадать с; делай, как
считаешь нужным.
Начальная стадия; ранние симптомы заболевания;
одинаковые инициалы; первоначальное преимущество; брать на
себя инициативу в чѐм-л.; сделать по собственной инициативе;
проявить инициативу; инициативный человек.
Влечь за собой расходы; втянуть кого-л. в неприятности;
быть втянутым во что-л.; затрагивать чьи-л. права; ввести кого-л.
в большие расходы.
Ценная вещь; ценная инициатива; ценные сведения;
неоценимая помощь; представлять большую ценность;
моральные ценности; оценить что-либо в...

167
Внести в список; включить пункт в повестку дня; исключить
всякие сомнения; не пропускать свет в комнату; до воскресенья
включительно; с 5 по 10 включительно; за исключением пункта
5; избранное общество; шикарный магазин; колледж для
избранных; особые права.
Хранить овощи; консервировать фрукты; сохранять мир;
сохранить силы; хранить молчание; охранять традиции; оберегать
свое доброе имя; сохранить красоту; сохранить зрение; хранить
память о ком-л. (чѐм-л.).
Натуральное молоко; чистая кожа; чистая шерсть; чистая
наука; по чистой случайности; чистейший вздор; чистое
совпадение.
Избегать старых друзей, дурной компании, ошибок, какой-л.
пищи, ссоры, неприятностей, трудностей; избегать обращаться к
кому-л., упоминать о чѐм-л., ездить куда-л.
Самодовольный вид; быть о себе высокого мнения; полный
самодовольства.
Ослепительно сверкать на солнце; бросать свирепые
(сердитые) взгляды на кого-л.; яркий свет лампочки;
ослепительный блеск льда; яркий свет рекламы; вопиющая
ошибка; бросающийся в глаза дефект; слепящий свет фар
автомобиля; горящие от гнева глаза.

Ex. 3. Translate the following sentences into English.


1. «Во всяком случае ты мог бы обойтись без угроз, –
сказала Джун, – угрозами ты ничего не добьешься». 2. Никто,
кроме руководителя экспедиции, не отдавал себе отчета в том,
какая опасность грозит им, если пурга не стихнет к утру.
3. Непрерывная болтовня детей раздражала старушку. 4. Как я
устала от твоих постоянных жалоб! 5. Человеку очень важно,
чтобы рядом был верный друг. 6. У нас не хватит времени, чтобы
выбрать хороший подарок к Новому году. 7. Товары были
выставлены таким образом, чтобы покупатели могли выбирать
то, что им нравится. 8. Он говорил медленно, останавливаясь
время от времени, тщательно подбирая нужные слова. 9. Руфь
отрезала кусок серебряной бумаги по размеру книги и стала
заворачивать ее. 10. У нее не было платья, подходящего к

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случаю. 11. Погода такая плохая, что не подходит для прогулок.
12. Том очень общителен и может приноровиться к любой
компании. 13. Ее черные волосы гармонировали с ее круглым
лицом и раскосыми глазами. 14. Она отправилась примерять
новое платье и вернется нескоро. 15. Он имел обыкновение
говорить, что первоначальная стадия в работе самая главная.
16. В скандале были замешаны известные политики, и это
вызвало правительственный кризис. 17. На вашем месте, будучи
директором школы, я бы больше привлекала родителей к
решению всяких проблем. 18. Вы оказали мне неоценимую
услугу. 19. Я ценю ваше мнение больше, чем чье-либо другое.
20. Ценность некоторых вещей не может быть измерена
деньгами. 21. Конгресс продлится еще три дня, включая
воскресенье. 22. Члены этой комиссии пользовались особыми
правами. 23. Вы уверены, что в список внесены все фамилии?
Давайте проверим еще раз, чтобы не было никаких сомнений.
24. Старые картины в этой коллекции находятся в прекрасном
состоянии. 25. Дарти удивительно хорошо сохранился для своих
шестидесяти двух лет. 26. Не верьте ей. Все, что она сказала, –
чистейший вымысел. 27. Студентка говорила медленно, стараясь
избегать даже небольших ошибок. 28. Было совершенно
очевидно, что Мария старалась избегать старых друзей.
29. Казалось, ничто не могло прям предотвратить
надвигающуюся опасность. 30. Ее очень расстроило, что Чарльз
так доверял Джону, этому самонадеянному ловкачу. 31. Никому
не нравятся люди с самомнением. 32. Эту грубую ошибку
(бросающуюся в глаза) нельзя было не заметить.
33. Оскорбленный юноша свирепо посмотрел на своего обидчика.

UNIT 2

VOCABULARY NOTES

maintain v
1) keep in a certain state, position, or activity;
2) make something continue, to make something continue in the

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same way or at the same standard as before e.g. Officers maintain
contact with young people when they have left school;
3) level/rate, to make a level or rate of activity, movement etc.
stay the same e.g. This is the most efficient way to build up and
maintain a reasonable level of physical fitness;
4) say, to strongly express your belief that something is true;
syn.: claim, e.g. Critics maintain that these reforms will lead to a
decline in educational standards;
maintain your innocence say that you did not commit a crime
e.g. He maintained his innocence and said the allegations were
“ridiculous”;
5) look after something, to keep a machine, building etc. in good
condition by checking and repairing it regularly e.g. The report found
that safety equipment had been very poorly maintained;
6) provide money/food, to provide someone with the things they
need, such as money or food;
syn.: provide for, e.g. How can you maintain a family on $900 a
month?
item n
1) a single thing, especially one thing in a list, group, or set of
things, e.g. He opened the cardboard box and took out each item. The
store is having a sale on furniture and household items;
item on the agenda/list/menu e.g. We went on to the next item
on the agenda;
item of clothing/furniture/jewellery a single piece of clothing,
furniture, jewellery etc., e.g. The original 1965 bottle is now a
collector’s item (one of a set of objects people like to collect because
they are interesting or valuable);
2) a single, usually short, piece of news in a newspaper or
magazine, or on television, e.g. I also saw that news item in the
Sunday Times;
3) be an item (inf.) if two people are an item, they are having a
romantic or sexual relationship.
overlook v
1) to not notice something, or not see how important it is;
syn.: miss, e.g. It is easy to overlook a small detail like that.
Nobody could overlook the fact that box office sales were down;

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2) to forgive someone’s mistake, bad behaviour etc. and take no
action e.g. She found him entertaining enough to overlook his faults;
3) if a house, room etc. overlooks something, it has a view of it,
usually from above e.g. Our room overlooks the ocean.
decent adj
1) of a good enough standard or quality e.g. Don’t you have a
decent jacket? A house with a decent-sized yard. Their in-flight
magazine is halfway decent;
2) following moral standards that are acceptable to society;
decent citizens/people/folk etc. e.g. The majority of residents
here are decent citizens. Paul visited the local bars more frequently
than was decent for a senior lecturer. The chairman did the decent
thing (=did what people thought he ought to) and resigned;
3) treating people in a fair and kind way e.g. I decided her father
was a decent guy after all. It was decent of you to show up today;
4) wearing enough clothes so that you do not show too much of
your body, used humorously e.g. Are you decent? Can I come in?
marking n
1) things painted or written on something, especially something
such as an aircraft, road, vehicle etc., e.g. The marking on the road is
unclear. We noticed strange markings on the walls of the cave;
2) the coloured patterns and shapes on an animal’s fur, on leaves
etc. e.g. This dolphin is noted for its distinctive black and white
markings. Can you see these vivid markings of the angelfish?;
3) the activity of checking students’ written work (British
English);
syn.: grading (American English), e.g. the setting and marking of
exams; I have to do a lot of marking tonight.
promote v
1) to help something to develop or increase e.g. a meeting to
promote trade between Taiwan and the U.K.; Fertilizer promotes leaf
growth;
syn.: encourage.
promote somebody to something to give someone a better, more
responsible job in a company e.g. Helen was promoted to senior
manager;
ant.: demote;

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2) to help sell a new product, film etc. by offering it at a reduced
price or by advertising it e.g. She’s in London to promote her new
book;
syn.: sell;
3) if a sports team is promoted, they play in a better group of
teams the next year e.g. They have been promoted to the First
Division;
ant.: relegate;
4) to try to persuade people to support or use something e.g.
John Major promoted the idea of a classless society;
5) to be responsible for arranging a large public event such as a
concert or a sports game;
syn.: arrange.
express v
1) to tell or show what you are feeling or thinking by using
words, looks, or actions;
express your views/opinions e.g. Bill’s not afraid to express his
opinions. Parents have expressed their concerns about their children’s
safety. She expressed an interest in seeing York;
express something in/by/through something e.g. Express your
reasons for applying in simple terms;
express sympathy/fear/anger etc. e.g. She doesn’t express her
emotions as much as he does;
express thanks/gratitude (for something) (to somebody) thank
someone in a speech or by writing a letter e.g. Finally, I’d like to
express my sincere thanks to all those who have helped today;
express doubts/reservations e.g. The USA expressed
reservations before agreeing to sign the agreement. Many people have
expressed their opposition to the proposals
express yourself say what you think or feel e.g. Young children
often have difficulty expressing themselves. He first learnt to express
himself through movement at his dance classes. Words can’t express
(it is impossible to describe) how angry we felt;
2) to show or describe a particular feeling e.g. Many of Munch’s
paintings express a deep feeling of despair;
3) something expresses itself, becomes noticeable e.g. Religious
faith expresses itself in a variety of ways;

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4) technical to change an amount or quantity into a different
form, especially in mathematics e.g. Express three-quarters as a
decimal. The value of the coffee becomes significantly higher when
expressed in foreign currency.
discrimination n
1) the practice of treating one person or group differently from
another in an unfair way e.g. laws to prevent discrimination;
discrimination against e.g. widespread discrimination against
older people in the job market;
discrimination in favour of e.g. discrimination in favour of
university graduates;
racial/sex/religious etc. discrimination treating someone
unfairly because of their race, sex etc.;
2) the ability to recognize the difference between two or more
things, especially the difference in their quality e.g. shape
discrimination.
acceptable adj
1) good enough to be used for a particular purpose or to be
considered satisfactory;
acceptable to e.g. an agreement which is acceptable to all sides;
Students who achieve an acceptable standard will progress to degree
studies. How do we reach an acceptable level of data security?;
2) behaviour which is considered to be morally or socially good
enough e.g. Alcohol is not an acceptable way out of your problems.
Here, the students set the standards for acceptable behavior;
acceptable (for somebody) to do something e.g. It is not socially
acceptable for parents to leave children unattended at that age. It is
perfectly acceptable to sample the food before you buy.

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

Ex. 1. Translate the following sentences into Russian.


1. Children must be taught to maintain our national heritage.
2. The museum curator maintained the ancient manuscripts. 3. He
maintains the shop when I am gone. 4. The money will maintain our
good cause. 5. He maintained that he was the victim of a crime. 6. He

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maintained it was too late to intervene in the war. 7. [They] soon
began seeing each other... and were an item for a year and a half
(Peter J. Boyer). 8. He noticed an item in the New York Times. 9. She
had several items on her shopping list. 10. Some governors can veto
line items in their state budgets. 11. The most valuable item on show
will be a Picasso. 12. I hadn’t realized Tina and Jim were an item.
13. We overlooked the valley from the cliff. 14. The tower overlooks
the sea. 15. Even the editor overlooked this error. 16. I’ll overlook that
remark if you leave now. 17. Nearby there is a village with a decent
pub. 18. They got married after a decent interval. 19. Most people
around here are decent folk. 20. She wanted to marry a decent man.
21. Marking of many insects is of a great biological value – thanks to
it they become invisible. 22. And that red dot is a marking on the
government-issue film. 23. His country will do everything possible to
promote peace. 24. He has announced a full British tour to promote
his new album. 25. I was promoted to editor and then editorial
director. 26. The painting expresses the rage of war victims. 27. All
the mice in the study expressed the defect. 28. Words can’t express
how I love you. 29. He praised our taste and discrimination. 30. Here
are some measures to counteract racial discrimination. 31. The
restaurant was acceptable but did not live up to its reputation. 32. That
kind of behavior is not socially acceptable.

Ex. 2. Give English equivalents to the following phrases.


Поддерживать порядок; сохранять дружеские отношения;
поддерживать здоровье; сохранить высокий уровень образования;
поддерживать высокое качество продукта; критики утверждают;
заявить о своей невиновности; вести бюджет; содержать семью,
для поддержания жизни необходима пища.
Достать предметы из коробки; предметы домашнего
обихода; следующий пункт в списке; предмет одежды/школьной
формы; коллекционный предмет; новостная статья; они –
великолепная пара.
Проглядеть ошибки в сочинении; упускать из виду детали
договора; не учитывать мнение меньшинства; нельзя закрывать
глаза на это; комната с видом на море; не замечать недостатки.
Приличные брюки; порядочные люди; пристойное

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поведение на мероприятии; единственное приличное заведение в
городе.
Разметка на дороге; таинственные метки на стене;
любопытная расцветка у птицы; агрессивный окрас; оценивание
самостоятельной работы студентов.
Стимулировать рост продаж; способствовать повышению
качества образования; продвигать по службе; выдвигать
собственную идею по улучшению экологической ситуации в
стране; организовать мероприятие; рекламировать новую линию
одежды.
Выразить свои взгляды на проблему; изъявить интерес в
данной сфере; высказать свои соображения; объяснить причины;
выразить искреннюю благодарность; словами не описать нашу
радость; выражение лица говорит само за себя; перевести три
четверти в десятичную дробь.
Дискриминация в пользу выпускников высших учебных
заведений; дискриминация в отношении пожилых людей;
различение (предметов) по форме.
Договор, приемлемый для обеих сторон; недопустимый
способ решения проблемы.

Ex. 3. Translate the following sentences into English.


1. Когда мой отец отлучается на некоторое время, я остаюсь
дома, чтобы поддерживать порядок в нашем магазине. 2. Вам
нужно бережнее относиться к себе и следить за своим здоровьем.
3. Несмотря на то, что мой брат заявил о своей невиновности в
суде, ему никто не поверил. 4. Критики все как один утверждают,
что лучшей книги, чем эта, свет еще не видывал. 5. Несмотря на
неудачи и тягости жизни, Анне удается содержать семью. 6. Он
положил чемодан на стол, открыл его и неспеша извлек
несколько предметов. 7. В нашем магазине вы можете выбрать на
свой вкус самые изысканные предметы мебели и домашнего
обихода по низкой цене. 8. Я читал об этом происшествии вчера в
новостной статье. 9. Я так рада за Мэри и Джона! Мне кажется,
они будут замечательной парой. 10. Пиджак является таким же
предметом школьной формы, как брюки и рубашка. Вы обязаны
носить его вместе с остальной формой. 11. Я была слишком

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уставшей вчера вечером, поэтому решила отложить проверку
сочинений на завтра, чтобы не пропустить ни одной ошибки.
12. Она не желала ссориться, поэтому предпочла закрыть глаза на
его грубые и жестокие слова. 13. Комната для гостей в доме
мистера Линвхана выходила окнами на море. 14. Вы относитесь к
нему слишком мягко и совершенно не учитываете мое мнение по
поводу его поведения. 15. По мнению мистера Харрисона, его
сын мог бы надеть на торжество кое-что более приличное.
16. Каждый в нашем городе считает себя порядочным и
ответственным человеком. 17. Читая книгу, она то и дело
оставляла пометки на полях. 18. Преподаватель оценил работу
студентов на протяжение всего семестра. 19. Наша реклама
поощряет выбор людей, сделанный в пользу натуральной
продукции. 20. Я проработал на этой должности около четырех
лет, после чего получил повышение по службе. 21. Она устроила
грандиозную пресс-конференцию, чтобы прорекламировать свою
новую линию декоративной косметики. 22. Наша семья выражает
вам искреннюю благодарность за теплый прием и прекрасный
ужин. 23. Не бойтесь интересоваться, высказывать свое мнение и
задавать вопросы! 24. Его взгляд не выражал ничего кроме
отчаяния и разочарования. 25. Как вы думаете, что хотел сказать
автор данного рассказа? 26. В этом фильме поднимается
достаточно серьезная тема расовой дискриминации, а также
обсуждаются пути решения данной проблемы. 27. Меня очень
радует ваша разборчивость в вине. 28. Такое обращение с теми,
кто слабее вас, просто недопустимо! 29. Мои характеристики
показались им достаточно приемлемыми для должности
спортивного тренера.

UNIT 3

VOCABULARY NOTES

temper n
1) a disposition, as a person of even (pleasant, fiery, etc.)
temper; to have an even (sweet, uncertain, quick, etc.) temper; hot-
tempered, good-tempered, bad-tempered;

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2) a mood, as to be in a good (bad, forgiving, calm, friendly)
temper.
Note: When the word is used without an adjective, the meaning
is always “an angry state of mind”.
to lose one’s temper, to control (to keep) one’s temper, to get
(to fly) into a temper about sth., to be in a temper, e.g. I was
surprised but I didn’t lose my temper. There is nothing to fly into a
temper about. Joseph saw that she was fighting to keep her temper.
waste vt/i
1) to use without a good purpose or result; to spend uselessly, as
to waste one’s time (energy, money, work), e.g. All his efforts were
wasted;
2) to lose strength by degrees, e.g. He was wasting away.
waste n
unprofitable use, useless remains of sth. e.g. It’s a waste of time
to wait any longer. There is too much waste in the house; to lay waste
to ravage, to destroy, as to lay waste a country, a city, a village.
waste adj
useless, unwanted; thrown away, as waste paper, a waste paper
basket, waste effort.
wasteful adj
using or spending too much or uselessly, as a wasteful man,
wasteful habits, wasteful process.
level adj
1) having a flat, horizontal surface, as level road, level ground;
to make a surface level;
2) even, well-balanced, steady, as to speak in a level voice, e.g.
He has a level head (he is level-headed). syn. flat.
level vt
1) to make level or flat, as to level a building (a village, a city) to
the ground, e.g. The German fascists leveled many villages to the
ground;
2) to bring to a horizontal position; to raise and aim, e.g. The
hunter leveled his gun at the beast.
scream vt/t
1) (of human beings, birds and animals) to give a loud, sharp
cry, esp. of pain or strong emotion; (of human beings) to say in a shrill

177
loud voice, as to scream in anger, to scream with laughter, e.g. The
baby screamed all night. This parrot screams but does not talk;
2) (of wind, machines, etc.) to make a long shrill noise, e.g. The
jets screamed overhead.
scream n
a loud, shrill, piercing cry, expressing pain, fear, anger, etc., e.g.
The sound of the screams was loud enough for him; a (perfect) scream
(colloq.) a person or thing that is very funny or ridiculous, e.g.
“Reginald, you are now the head of the family”. – “I know”, I said.
“Isn’t it a scream?”
contribute vt/t
1) to give money, supply help, etc. to a common cause, e.g. The
development of friendly ties with other countries contributes to mutual
understanding of their peoples. Good health contributes to a person’s
success in work;
2) to write articles or other material for newspapers, magazines,
etc., as to contribute articles to a wall-newspaper, to contribute a poem
to a magazine.
contribution n
the act of contributing; that which is contributed, e.g.
Montmorency brought a dead water-rat as his contribution to the
dinner.
stir vt/i
1) (vt) to move around, esp. with a spoon; mix thoroughly, as to
stir tea (coffee, porridge);
2) (vt) to cause to move, e.g. The wind stirred the leaves; not to
stir a finger to make no effort to help, e.g. What kind of friend is he?
He wouldn’t stir a finger to help me; not to stir an eyelid to show no
surprise of alarm, e.g. It’s amazing how calmly Ruth took the news:
she didn’t stir an eyelid;
3) (vt) to move, to be in motion, e.g. It was so still, not a leaf
stirred. Nobody stirred in the house.
fail vt/t
1) not to succeed, e.g. My attempt has failed. I tried to convince
him, but failed. The maize failed that year;
2) not to pass, as to fail in mathematics, in an exam;

178
3) to break down; to die away, to let down, e.g. His courage
failed him. His heart failed him. His sight (health) was beginning to
fail him. I’ll never fail you. Words failed me;
4) to neglect, omit, e.g. He never fails to write to his mother.
Don’t fail to let me know. I fail to see your meaning. I could not fail to
perceive who she was.
failure n
1) lack of success, e.g. Success came after many failures. His
efforts ended in failure;
2) a person who fails, e.g. She was a complete failure as an
actress.
track n
1) a mark left by someone or sth. that has passed, as the tracks of
an animal (a car); to leave tracks, to follow the tracks of; tracks in the
snow (in the sand); to be on the track of smb. to be in pursuit of sb.,
e.g. The police were on the track of the thief; to cover up one’s tracks
to conceal one’s movements, e.g. The man was sure he has covered up
his tracks;
2) a path, a narrow rough road, as a track through a forest (a
field); a narrow, hardly visible track; the beaten track the usual way
of doing things, e.g. Andrew was not a person to follow the beaten
track; to keep (lose) track of to keep in (lose) touch with, e.g. You
should keep track of current events;
3) a set of rails on which trains run, as a single (double) track.
outline n
1) lines showing shapes of boundary, as an outline map (of
Africa, Europe, etc.); the outline (outlines) of a building (trees,
mountains), e.g. Lanny could hardly make out the outlines of the big
house in the dark;
2) a general statement of the chief points of sth., as an outline of
a composition (a lecture, a book); in outline – done roughly, told
briefly, e.g. Bosinney showed Soames the design of the house in
outline. I can tell you the article in outline.
outline vt
to give the main points of, as to outline a certain historical
period. (events, etc.); to stand out against sth., e.g. She was outlined
against the sky.

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exchange n
giving one thing and receiving another in its place, e.g. That was
a fair exchange. There was an exchange of notes between the two
countries. Our flat was small so we got an exchange; in exchange, e.g.
You’ve lost my book, so I’ll take yours in exchange.
to get (give) sth. in exchange (for sth.). Roberta expected to get
Fred’s obedience in exchange for all her care. They were given a
better flat in exchange for their old one.
exchange vt
to give one thing and receive another thing for it, as to exchange
glances (views, classes, greeting, opinions, prisoners, etc.), e.g.: As
the coat was a bad fit, he decided to exchange it. Let’s exchange seats.
to exchange words (blows) to quarrel, to fight e.g. The boys
exchanged blows and went their ways;
syn. swap/swop (inf.): I want to sit where you are sitting. Shall
we swap round?
object n
1) (C) a material thing: What is that dark object over there?;
2) (C) slightly fml. Something or someone which causes
particular feelings or actions, as an object of pity / admiration /
embarrassment / ridicule e.g. She became an object of ridicule among
the other pupils;
3) (C) purpose or reason for doing something e.g. The object of
her visit was not clear.
object vi
to say that you are against something because it is unfair and
morally wrong e.g. They want to sell the car, and naturally he objects.
I object to the whole thing on principle.
objection n
(C) a statement or feeling of dislike, disapproval or opposition,
as brush aside / have / raise / voice / withdraw objections e.g. Her
objection to / against the plan is based on incorrect facts. Have you
any objections to his coming?
objective n
(C) a concrete and clearly formulated purpose, e.g. His main /
primary objective now is simply to stay in power.

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objective adj
not influenced by personal feelings, fair as objective assessment
/ report / facts e.g. The writer tried to be as objective as possible in
evaluating his latest work.
ground n
1) (C) a piece of land for a special use, as a football ground,
playground, parade ground, training ground, sports ground;
2) (C) reason or cause or argument as on grounds of/on the
ground that / on the grounds of e.g. She’s suing the company on the
grounds of unfair dismissal. Do you have any ground for suspecting
them?
cover much/a lot of ground
1) to travel a certain distance;
2) to deal with many different subjects e.g. I’ll try to cover all
the ground in a short speech of half an hour.
suit someone down to the ground (informal) to be just what one
wants or likes, e.g. The house will suit us down to the ground.
grounds n
gardens and land surrounding or attached to a house or
institution e.g. The college grounds were beautifully planted.
groundless adj
(of feeling, ideas) without base or good reason as groundless
fears/worries.
well-grounded adj
based on fact, e.g. The claim must be well-grounded on fact.
suggest vt
1) to cause to come to the mind e.g. The open window
suggested that somebody else had got into the house;
2) to bring itself to the mind e.g. An idea suggested itself. Harry
has bad manners. Lack of proper home training suggests itself;
3) to give signs (of), e.g. Her expression suggested anger / (that)
she was angry.
suggestion n
a slight sign: Her face held a suggestion of anger.
clear vt/i
1) to cause to become clear e.g. After the storm the sky cleared.
He cleared his throat;

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2) to (cause to) go away e.g. Soldiers! Clear the people away
from the palace gates;
3) to remove, take away, get rid of, e.g. Whose job is it to clear
snow from the road?;
4) to free from blame (a person wrongly thought to have done
sth. wrong) e.g. The judge cleared the prisoner of any crime and set
him free.
clear adj
1) bright, free from anything that darkens, as clear sky, clear
eyes;
2) certain, confident e.g. She seems quite clear about her plans;
3) free from guilt or blame, untroubled, as a clear conscience,
clear of guilt;
4) open, free from blocks, danger or obstructions, as a clear road,
clear view e.g. The road’s clear of snow now.
the coast is clear (infml) all danger has gone e.g. When the coast
was clear the two thieves escaped.
store vt
1) to make up and keep a supply of, as to store food in the
cupboard;
2) to keep in a special place (warehouse), as to store one’s
furniture;
3) to fill with supplies, as to store one’s cupboard with food;
4) to put away for future use, as to store one’s winter clothes e.g.
Where do you store your fur coat for the summer?
store n
1) a supply for future use e.g. This animal makes a store of nuts
for the winter;
2) a place for keeping things e.g. My food store is in the kitchen.
in store
1) kept ready (for future use), as to keep a few pounds in store
for rainy day;
2) about to happen e.g. Who knows what is in store for us?
set much (great, small, little) store by sth., sb. to feel to be of
(the) stated amount of importance e.g. He sets great store by his
sister’s ability.

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storehouse n (used lit. and fig.) e.g. The storehouse was a large
grey building stuffed with any kind of furniture. He is a storehouse of
information.
addict n
a person who is unable to free himself from a harmful habit, as a
drug addict, a TV addict, a coffee addict.
addicted (to) adj
in need or in the habit of having e.g. She’s addicted to reading
detective stories.
addiction n
the state of being addicted or an example of this e.g. Does he
have any other addictions besides smoking?
addictive adj
causing addiction, habit-forming e.g. Drinking coffee or eating
chocolate can be addictive.
fuss (often about) vi
to get nervous or excited e.g. He fussed continually. Don’t fuss
over the children so much! She fussed about, scarcely able to hide her
impatience.
fuss n
unnecessary or irritating activity, especially in small matters e.g.
Why make a fuss!
to make a fuss about (over) sth. to show too much anxiety or
nervousness about sth e.g. Why make all that fuss about trifles?
to make a fuss of sb. to pay all sorts of little attentions to a
person e.g. They made a fuss of their guest, eager to please him.
fussy adj
paying too much attention to little, unimportant things e.g. The
old lady was fussy, nothing seemed to satisfy her. She’s a fussy
housewife.
to be fussy about sth. e.g. Should we be fussy about our clothes
or food?
urgent adj
1) pressing, very important, requiring immediate action or
attention, as to be in urgent need of sth.; urgent repairs; an urgent call
(letter, business, telegram, etc.) e.g. What are the urgent issues of the
day? The matter is urgent;

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2) earnest and persistent in making a demand, as an urgent
creditor e.g. The girl’s urgent entreaties had their effect.
urge vt
to ask earnestly, to plead with, to recommend strongly e.g. We
urged him to go. All his friends are urging him to join in.
urgency n
the need for haste or immediate action e.g. It’s a matter of great
urgency.

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

Ex. 1. Translate the following sentences into Russian.


1. Old Mrs. Ramage seems to take pleasure in showing her
temper. 2. Linda went dead white with temper and disappointment.
3. Samuel had completely got over his bad temper. 4. In all sorts of
political situations he had learned to keep his temper, to take
advantage of men who lost theirs. 5. Her temper was beginning to rise
again at the thought that this rude and impertinent man had heard
everything. 6. Consumption is a wasting disease. 7. Turn the water off,
don’t let it waste. 8. Many houses are being built on waste land
outside the city. 9. Waste not, want not. (proverb). 10. I can’t shut the
window from ground level. 11. At this elevation of more than a mile
above sea level, Mrs. Adrian found it difficult to maintain a rapid
pace. 12. The road ran straight for a long way through level fields.
13. And then his level mind turned and tried to see her point of view.
14. Her voice was level, dispirited and showed no interest. 15. The
truth screamed in their faces and they did not see it. 16. Somewhere
across the lake sounded the thin scream of a woman. 17. Mildred
stopped screaming as quickly as she started. 18. The excellent
conditions provided for the experiment contributed greatly to its
success. 19. Her honesty contributed to the general regard for her
good sense. 20. His melancholy was comparable with Bracey’s, no
doubt contributing to their mutual understanding. 21. A sheep dog
stirred in the shade and opened a cautious eye as he passed. 22. He
poured out coffee for us both and began stirring his slowly,
thoughtfully. 23. It was a summer morning full of stir and life. 24. He
hurried to Mr. Dombey’s room, stirred the fire, put the chair ready.

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25. For long times he settled down, and in those times he would not
stir a finger to lift a guinea a yard off. 26. Washington was humming
with excitement like a stirred wasps’ nest. 27. His reputation had been
built on the fact that he often succeeded where other doctors had
failed. 28. He had never known fear and could not recall a time when
his nerves had failed him. 29. He held out his hand, and for a moment
speech failed him. Then he rose to the occasion. “Pleased to meet
you”, said Mr. Burt. 30. He tried jokes, but John failed to manage
even a routine smile. 31. Do you think I’m a failure as a writer? –
Failure’s a thing you measure at the end of a life. You haven’t failed
yet – not till you give writing up or die. 32. The path turned to a rocky
track which brought them out on the main road. 33. How much do you
know of your friend Pyle? – Not very much. Our tracks cross, that’s
all. 34. To say that he had hidden his tracks would be untrue. He had
made no tracks to hide. 35. We saw the outlines of the tower in the
distance. 36. The old oak-tree was beautifully outlined against the blue
sky. 37. And in a few simple words he outlined Ann’s appeal to him.
38. For a long time there was silence. When Andrew and Ben did
speak again, it was merely to exchange war experiences. 39. Steve
exchanged the house in the suburbs of London for a flat in a smart
neighborhood. 40. “I hardly know her, really”, said Cherry. “Just
exchanged a few conventional remarks at one time or another”. 41. I
have no objection to this information being made publicly available.
42. She objects to muddy shoes in the house. 43. All our objectives
were won. 44. For a millionaire like him, money is no object.
45. Don’t mention his health: it’s forbidden ground. 46. Once we’d
found some common ground we got on very well together. 47. It is
said that the business of words in prose is primarily to state; in poetry
not only to state but also (and sometimes primarily) to suggest.
48. White gloves to the elbow suggested a Royal Garden party. 49. He
spoke German without any suggestion of French accent. 50. My
doubts on that point, if I had any, were soon cleared. 51. We think, we
may as well give up the flat and store our things, we’ll be gone for the
summer. 52. The future didn’t seem to hold so many fears in store.
53. He is a TV addict. 54. Susan was afraid of becoming addicted to
tranquillizers. 55. Drug addiction is a plague of the 20th century.
56. The problem with video games is that they are addictive. 57. She

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must be very nervous, she fusses about all the time. 58. I bet it was
Bassington who went to that doctor and made all that fuss about
having cancer. 59. “I really don’t see what you’re making such a fuss
about”, said Larry coldly. 60. Why fuss so much about this trip? The
things are already packed, the accounts paid. 61. She doesn’t see her
grandchildren very often so she tends to make a real fuss of them
when she does. 62. While the New Yorker can appreciate the beauties
of nature where he can forget the urgent problems of the day, he
seems to be unaffected by the joys of country life. 63. The expedition
was in urgent need of supplies. 64. Everything urgent had been dealt
with by her efficient secretary. 65. Old Jolyon could hardly resist
June’s urgent requests.

Ex. 2. Give English equivalents to the following phrases.


Владеть собой, необузданный нрав, вспыльчивый характер,
быть в хорошем настроении, быть раздраженным, вспылить.
Чахнуть, опустошать, пустырь, попусту тратить слова,
транжира.
Выше (ниже) уровня моря, ровная дорога. У него спокойный
(уравновешенный) характер; нацеливать ружье, сравнять с
землей.
Вопить от боли, умирать со смеху. Вот умора! Я кричу изо
всех сил. Выла сирена.
Внести свой вклад в…, денежное пожертвование, научный
вклад, статьи известных политических обозревателей, размер
взноса акционера. От каждого – по его способностям, каждому –
по его труду. Вкладом Монтморенси в ирландское рагу была
мертвая крыса.
Шуметь, разворошить прошлое, и пальцем не пошевелить,
чтобы что-то сделать, разжечь ненависть, заварить кашу, и глазом
не моргнуть.
Провалиться на экзамене, я не разочарую тебя. Учитель
«засыпал» студента. Если ты не пытаешься что-то предпринять,
ты всегда будешь терпеть неудачу. У меня нет слов, в крайнем
случае, неурожай, непременно.
Выслеживать, идти по горячему следу, заметать следы,
избитый путь; быть в курсе.

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Наброски бюджета, краткое содержание курса. Цель
доклада – дать общее представление о преимуществах здорового
образа жизни. На рисунке 4 в общем виде представлен
технологический процесс. Боссини показал Сомсу план дома в
общих чертах.
Обменять покупку, взамен, обмен пленными, обменяться
взглядом (мнениями), обмен информацией, поменяться местами
(разг.).
Возражать против плана; не одобрять чей-л. брак;
противиться переменам; объект насмешек, цель исследования,
объективная оценка. Я не возражаю против его участия в поездке.
Футбольное поле; запретная тема; стоять на своем;
устраивать во всех отношениях; чувствовать твердую почву под
ногами; затрагивать много вопросов; не иметь оснований
беспокоиться; необоснованные обвинения.
Наводить на мысль; предполагать, говорить само за себя.
Чистая совесть, на свежую голову, оправдать к-л.; все
спокойно.
Иметь про запас; запасать на зиму; отдавать (меха) на
хранение; снабдить экспедицию продуктами; придавать чему-л.
большое значение; склад; запасы оружия.
Наркоман; пристраститься к чему-л.; пагубная привычка,
вызывать привыкание.
Волноваться из-за пустяков; суетиться по дому; носиться с
кем-л. (чѐм-л.); привередливый больной; быть разборчивым
(привередливым) в еде; суматошный человек.
Крайняя необходимость; срочный ремонт; срочный вызов;
неотложное дело; насущная проблема; настойчивая просьба.

Ex. 3. Translate the following sentences into English.


1. У вашего дядюшки горячий нрав. Он не потерпит, чтобы
ему мешали. 2. Стелла, что с тобой? Ты не должна терять
самообладания, хотя ты и проигрываешь партию. Это смешно.
3. Уолтер взял себе за правило не принимать важных решений,
когда он раздражен. 4. Как обидно, что столько усилий потрачено
зря. 5. На мгновение я почувствовала себя неловко, я думала, что
он сейчас скажет мне, что я растрачиваю драгоценное время на

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болтовню по телефону. 6. «Некоторые люди смотрят
телепередачи часами, а, по-моему, это пустая трата времени, –
сказал Николай. – Для меня нет ничего лучше хорошей книги».
7. Хотя она и очень устала, ей было приятно сознавать, что день
не пропал даром. 8. Если мы найдем раненого в доме, я поверю,
что старик честен и говорил правду. 9. На мили и мили кругом
это было единственное плоское место. 10. Когда Анна начала
говорить, ее голос был спокойным и холодным. 11. Том выхватил
пистолет из его руки и прицелился в Сандерса.
12. Пронзительный крик совы достиг невероятно высокой ноты,
упал и затих в ночи. 13. Регулярная тренировка способствовала
его успеху на соревнованиях. 14. Он отказался дать стихи в нашу
стенгазету, а теперь уже нет времени просить кого-нибудь
другого сделать это. 15. Американский художник Рокуэлл Кент
пополнил коллекцию картин музея имени А.С. Пушкина своими
произведениями. 16. Ветра сосем не было, ни один листок не
шевелился. 17. Помешайте кашу, а то она подгорит. 18. Пока я не
могу сказать вам ничего определенного. Я наводил справки, но
потерпел неудачу. 19. Провал эксперимента не обескуражил его,
он был уверен, что рано или поздно добьется успеха. 20. Наш
поезд на пятом пути, пойдем скорее. 21. Проваливаясь в глубокий
снег, гончая шла по следу зайца. 22. Он не такой человек,
который пойдет по проторенному пути. 23. Я потеряла нить его
рассуждений и не могла понять, о чем он говорит. 24. За
железнодорожными путями было поле, которое простиралось до
самого горизонта. 25. Вот краткий план моего доклада. Может
быть, вы просмотрите его? 26. К сожалению, у меня нет этой
статьи с собою, но, если хотите, я могу рассказать вам вкратце ее
содержание. 27. Туристы любят обмениваться значками и
стараются получить в обмен что-нибудь новое. 28. В комнате
слышался страшный шум – это ссорились Даглас и Кен.
29. Американские колонисты выступали против политики
британского правительства увеличить налоги. 30. Он часто делал
свою сестру объектом насмешек. 31. Целью его звонка было
пригласить меня в гости. 32. Ваше мнение вполне обоснованное.
33. Предварительные переговоры послужили основой
последующего соглашения. 34. Несколько слов, случайно

188
оброненных им, наводили на мысль, что все сказанное было
чистейшей выдумкой. 35. Через несколько минут корабль должен
был пойти ко дну, и капитан приказал команде покинуть его.
36. У него всегда есть про запас всякие смешные истории и
анекдоты 37. С вами бесполезно спорить, вы все время меняете
свою позицию. 38. У него было какое-то тревожное
предчувствие, от которого он не мог отделаться, как ни старался.
39. Многие родители встревожены тем, что дети просто не могут
оторваться от телевизора. 40. Алкогольная зависимость – это
трагедия для семьи. 41. Мысли Джейн становились все
тревожнее, она ускорила шаг. 42. Столько было суеты в связи с
моим приездом, что я чувствовала себя просто неловко.
43. Пожалуйста, не поднимай шума, это просто царапина.
44. Неотложный вызов заставил врача отправиться к больному в
такую ночь. 45. Она попросила не беспокоить ее, если не будет
крайней необходимости. 46. У меня голова забита всякими
тревожными мыслями.

UNIT 4

VOCABULARY NOTES

1. mental adj
1) relating to the health or state of someone’s mind e.g. The
centre provides help for people suffering from mental illness. Stress
has an effect on both your physical and mental health;
2) relating to the mind and thinking, or happening only in the
mind e.g. a child’s mental development; You need to develop a
positive mental attitude;
mental picture/image a picture that you form in your mind e.g. I
tried to get a mental picture of him from her description;
make a mental note to make a special effort to remember
something e.g. Sarah made a mental note to ask Janine about it later;
mental block a difficulty in remembering something or in
understanding something e.g. I got a complete mental block as soon as
the interviewer asked me a question;

189
go mental
1) to get very angry;
2) to start behaving in an uncontrolled or excited way;
3) thinking or behaving in a way that seems crazy or strange e.g.
He must be mental!
grasp v
1) to take and hold something firmly e.g. I grasped his arm
firmly and led him away. Alan grasped the handle and pulled it;
syn.: grip
2) to completely understand a fact or an idea, especially a
complicated one e.g. At that time, we did not fully grasp the
significance of what had happened. Some people find the idea of
relativity difficult to grasp;
grasp an opportunity to eagerly and quickly use an opportunity
to do something e.g. She is ready to grasp any opportunity to expand
the business;
grasp the nettle to deal with an unpleasant situation firmly and
without delay e.g. We need to grasp the nettle of prison reform;
grasp at something to try to hold on to something e.g. His foot
slipped and he grasped at the top of the wall.
disorder n
1) a mental or physical illness which prevents part of your body
from working properly;
a disorder of the brain/liver/digestive system etc. e.g. He suffers
from a rare disorder of the liver;
a mental/psychiatric disorder e.g. people with mental disorders;
severe eating disorders such as bulimia and anorexia;
2) a situation in which a lot of people behave in an uncontrolled,
noisy, or violent way in public;
civil/public/crowd disorder e.g. A number of stadiums were
closed because of crowd disorder.
3) a situation in which things or people are very untidy or
disorganized;
ant.: order
in/into disorder e.g. Everything was in disorder, but nothing
seemed to be missing. His whole system was thrown into disorder.

190
starve v
1) to suffer or die because you do not have enough to eat e.g.
Thousands of people will starve if food doesn’t reach the city. They’ll
either die from the cold or starve to death (die from lack of food);
2) to prevent someone from having enough food to live e.g. The
poor dog looked like it had been starved;
be starving/be starved (American English) to be very hungry
e.g. You must be starving!;
starve somebody/something of something to not give something
that is needed e.g. The schools are starved of funding. The poor kid’s
just starved for attention;
starve somebody out to force someone to leave a place by
preventing them from getting food e.g. If we can’t blast them out,
we’ll starve them out!
contribute v
1) to give money, help, ideas etc to something that a lot of other
people are also involved in;
contribute to/towards e.g. City employees cannot contribute to
political campaigns;
contribute something to/towards something e.g. The volunteers
contribute their own time to the project.
2) to help to make something happen e.g. Stress is a contributing
factor in many illnesses;
contribute to e.g. Alcohol contributes to 100,000 deaths a year
in the US;
contribute substantially/significantly/greatly etc. to something
e.g. Enya’s success has contributed substantially to the current interest
in Celtic music;
3) to write articles, stories, poems etc for a newspaper or
magazine;
contribute to e.g. one of several authors contributing to the
book.
launch v
1) to start something, usually something big or important e.g.
The organization has launched a campaign to raise $150,000. The
Canadian police plan to launch an investigation into the deal;

191
launch an attack/assault/offensive e.g. The press launched a
vicious attack on the President. The book launched his career as a
novelist;
2) to make a new product, book etc. available for sale for the
first time e.g. The company hopes to launch the new drug by next
October;
3) to put a boat or ship into the water;
4) to send a weapon or spacecraft into the sky or into space e.g.
A test satellite was launched from Cape Canaveral;
5) to make a computer program start e.g. Double-click on an
icon to launch an application;
syn.: open
launch yourself forwards/up/from etc. to jump up and forwards
into the air with a lot of energy;
launch into something
1) to suddenly start a description or story, or suddenly start
criticizing something e.g. Nelson launched into a blistering criticism
of greedy lawyers;
2) to suddenly start doing something e.g. Don’t just launch into
exercise without warming up first.
treatment n
1) something that is done to cure someone who is injured or ill;
treatment of/for e.g. There have been great advances in the
treatment of cancer. The best treatment for a cold is to rest and drink
lots of fluids. She was given emergency treatment by paramedics;
get/receive treatment e.g. Some of the patients had to wait
weeks to get the treatment they needed. Michael responded well to
treatment (got better when he was treated);
2) a particular way of behaving towards someone or of dealing
with them;
treatment of e.g. Civil rights groups have complained about the
harsh treatment of prisoners;
special/preferential treatment when one person is treated better
than another e.g. The two young princes were not singled out for
special treatment at school. Just lately, Kyra has been giving me the
silent treatment (refusing to speak to me because she is angry with
me);

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3) a particular way of dealing with or talking about a subject e.g.
I didn’t think the film gave the issue serious treatment;
4) a process by which something is cleaned, protected etc e.g.
the treatment of polluted rivers.
alternative adj
1) an alternative idea, plan etc. is different from the one you
have and can be used instead e.g. alternative approaches to learning;
Have you any alternative suggestions? An alternative route is along
the Via Unione;
2) deliberately different from what is usual, expected, or
traditional;
alternative music/theatre etc. e.g. Tucson’s alternative radio
station; sources of alternative energy (energy produced by the sun,
wind etc. rather than by gas, coal etc); tolerance of alternative
lifestyles;
alternative medicine/therapies medical treatment that is not
based on the usual western methods e.g. Acupuncture is widely used
by practitioners of alternative medicine.

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

Ex. 1. Translate the following sentences into Russian.


1. This girl has inordinate mental powers. 2. She continued to
comfort herself with mental images of happy times past. 3. My brother
got mental when he saw the dent in his new car. 4. He seems to be
preoccupied with mental calculations right now. 5. This brilliant
doctor will monitor the mental development of children in the
hospital. 6. The elephant grasped the branch with its trunk. 7. He
grasped the opportunity to ask for a higher salary. 8. The Government
has not yet grasped the seriousness of the crisis. 9. My cousin has a
rare nerve disorder that can cause paralysis of the arms. 10. The
emergency room was in disorder. 11. He called upon the authorities to
stop public disorder. 12. Can’t we have supper now? I’m starving.
13. They were accused of starving prisoners. 14. The electricity
industry is not the only one to be starved of investment. 15. The
soldiers starved the town into submission. 16. Exercise contributes to

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better health. 17. They say they would like to contribute to charity.
18. I’ve been contributing to this paper for many years. 19. The police
have launched an investigation into the incident. 20. He launched
himself up into the air. 21. This morning’s launch of the space shuttle
Columbia has been delayed. 22. His success at the company launched
him on a brilliant career. 23. He suddenly launched into a description
of the movie since it was his favourite. 24. Many patients are not
getting the treatment they need. 25. Mary was shocked at his treatment
of her. 26. Your treatment of the subject is superficial. 27. There are
plenty of alternatives to conventional advertising. 28. The alternative
to staying in that dead-end job is to quit. 29. Several members of the
audience provided alternative views on the topic. 30. New treatments
may provide an alternative to painkillers. 31. Grunge started
percolating in the alternative music scene of Seattle. 32. How effective
is the alternative treatment?

Ex. 2. Give English equivalents to the following phrases.


Психическое заболевание, душевное/психическое здоровье,
умственное развитие, психологический настрой, мысленный
образ, отметить про себя, испытывать трудность при
понимании/восприятии, обезуметь от гнева.
Схватить за руку, крепко ухватиться за веревку, ухватить
суть/понять идею, понять необходимость преобразований,
воспользоваться шансом, взять быка за рога (решительно браться
за трудное дело).
Расстройство пищеварительной системы, страдать от
психического расстройства, вызвать гражданские беспорядки,
оставить комнату в беспорядке.
Умирать от голода, нуждаться во внимании, морить голодом,
отчаянно нуждаться в финансировании, взять измором.
Жертвовать своим временем, делать вклад в общее дело,
жертвовать деньги в благотворительность; фактор,
способствующий развитию бизнеса; писать статьи на
определенную тему для местной газеты.
Начать президентскую кампанию, нанести удар по репутации
мэра, запустить продукцию в продажу, запустить спутник на

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орбиту, запустить/открыть программу на компьютере, прыгнуть
высоко в воздух, пускаться в рассуждения, стартовая площадка.
Достойное и своевременное лечение, лечение простуды,
жестокое обращение с животными, она отказывалась с ним
разговаривать, выборочное/особое отношение, очистка
загрязненных рек.
Альтернативная идея, альтернативный способ/путь,
альтернативные источники энергии, альтернативная медицина.

Ex. 3. Translate the following sentences into English.


1. В нашем центре обеспечивают достойное и своевременное
лечение всем пациентам, страдающим психологическими
заболеваниями. 2. Чтобы получить хороший результат,
необходимо иметь позитивный психологический настрой. 3. Образ
девушки, о которой рассказал мой знакомый, преследовал меня
еще очень долго. 4. Преподаватель отметил про себя, что
языковой уровень его новой группы весьма неплох. 5. Я не уверен,
в чем причина, но последнее время мне очень трудно понять тебя.
6. Если он узнает, что ты натворил, он обезумеет от ярости. 7. У
Эдварда было мало времени, поэтому он быстро позавтракал,
схватил свой телефон и выбежал из дома. 8. Только полностью
прочитав книгу, я наконец понял, что хотел сказать автор. 9. После
долгой полосы неудач, она просто не могла не воспользоваться
возникшей возможностью. 10. Мой брат давно страдает от
расстройства печени. 11. Этот случай вызвал громкий резонанс в
обществе и стал причиной массовых беспорядков на улицах.
12. Кажется, он нисколько не беспокоится о чистоте, его комната
вечно в беспорядке. 13. В городе второй день голодают около ста
шахтеров-инвалидов труда, и они могут умереть с голоду. 14. Ты
так смотришь на еду, будто умираешь от голода. 15. Солдатам
было приказано взять жителей города измором.
16. Государственные служащие не могут участвовать в
политических кампаниях. 17. Выигранные деньги она решила
вложить в благотворительную деятельность. 18. Мне пришлось
пожертвовать своим временем для проекта, но я ни о чем не
жалею. 19. Ученые назвали фактор, способствующий ожирению.

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20. Какое-то время он писал статьи в этот журнал.
21. Министерством образования был запущен новый проект по
подготовке к государственным экзаменам. 22. Я был в ужасе,
когда свирепый зверь внезапно набросился на меня. 23. Мой
оппонент в споре решил перейти в наступление и стал требовать
доказательств. 24. Впервые экологически чистые продукты
поступили в продажу. 25. Сегодня утром стартовал космический
корабль «Союз». 26. Собравшиеся с восхищением наблюдали за
тем, как корабль спускают на воду. 27. Следуя указаниям
преподавателя, студенты запустили программу, дважды щелкнув
мышью. 28. Не обращая ни на кого внимания, мой приятель-
стоматолог пустился в рассуждения о том, как важно следить за
своими зубами. 29. На последней секунде российский бегун
вырвался вперед и первым пересек финиш. 30. Мы хотим
порекомендовать вам нашу клинику, в которой каждый пациент
получит достойное и своевременное лечение за приемлемую цену.
31. Есть ли какая-то современная альтернатива зелѐнки в лечении
ветряной оспы у детей? 32. С помощью телефона доверия каждый
ребенок может сообщить о жестоком обращении с ним.
33. Некоторым детям в группе необходимо обеспечить особое
отношение в силу их психологических особенностей. 34. В вашем
докладе тема экологии в нашей стране была недостаточно
раскрыта. 35. На наш взгляд, мы должны больше сил вкладывать в
защиту лесов и заповедников. 36. Нам нужны альтернативные
пути решения проблемы, иначе мы просто зайдем в тупик.
37. Почему ты так непримиримо относишься к людям, которые
имеют другую точку зрения? 38. Сегодня на занятии мы уделили
особое внимание видам альтернативных источников энергии и
выгодам их использования в современных условиях.
39. Нетрадиционную медицину называют альтернативной, если
она применяется вместо общепринятой медицины. 40. Сегодня
альтернативная медицина завоевывает все большую
популярность.

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UNIT 5
VOCABULARY NOTES
1. point n
1) the sharp end., tip, as the point of a pin (needle, knife, stick,
pen, pencil, weapon, tool, etc.);
2) a small dot or a full stop, as 4.6 (four point six); 3) the
essential thing, part, the most important thing in a speech, story,
action, etc., e.g. The point is that it is no ordinary case. I don’t see
your point. You’ve missed the whole point;
to the point relevant to the subject, as to come (to stick, to be) to
the point, e.g. I wish he would come to the point;
to speak (to stick, to keep, to be) to the point, e.g. Your answer
is not to the point; ant. to be off the point, e.g. Your answer is off the
point;
to make a point of doing sth. to regard sth. as essential, e.g. He
made a point of reading English every day;
4) a single item;
to agree (or disagree) on some points, e.g. We disagreed on
several points;
5) special quality, as one’s weak (strong) point, e.g. Singing is
not his strong point;
6) purpose use, e.g. What is your point in coming? There is no
(not much) point in doing that. His remarks lack point;
7) a precise or particular moment, as a turning point in one’s life,
e.g. At this point in his reflection he paused. When it came to the point
(when the moment for the action came), he refused to help;
to be on the point of dong sth. to be about to do sth. e.g. He was
on the point of leaving;
8) a stage of degree, as the boiling (freezing, melting) point;
9) a unit measuring gain or loss, e.g. He scored 23 points;
10) a position from which something is viewed, as a point of
view, e.g. My point of view is different.
point vt/i
1) to call attention to, e.g. He pointed to a large building;

197
2) to point out. to show, e.g. The teacher pointed out several
mistakes in the composition (to the student).
pointless adj
without aim or purpose, meaningless, as pointless questions,
remarks.
attend vt/i
1) fml to give one’s attention e.g. Are you attending to what is
being said?;
2) to be present at e.g. The meeting was well attended;
3) to provide help, esp. as a part of your job e.g. The president
always has his own doctor attending on him;
4) fml to result in, go to with e.g. Danger attended everything he
did.
attention n
1) (U) active focusing of the mind aspay attention to.
Attract/draw sb’s attention to e.g. He likes being the centre of
attention. Many countries are starting to turn their attention to new
forms of energy.
attentive adj
1) paying attention;
2) helpful and considerate, e.g. I had very attentive and caring
parents;
ant. inattentive He has been wholly inattentive to the needs of
his children.
attendant n
a person who looks after a place as a museum/cloak-room
attendant.
attendance n
(C, U) the act of being present e.g. Attendance at school is
demanded by law.
suspicion n
a feeling of doubt or distrust, as to arouse suspicion, e. g. His
manner aroused suspicion;
above suspicion, e.g. He is above suspicion;
on suspicion, e.g. He was arrested on suspicion of murder;
under suspicion, e. g. He is under suspicion.

198
suspicious adj
1) causing suspicion, e.g. A suspicious-looking man was seen in
the street;
2) feeling or showing suspicion, to be (to get, to feel) suspicious
of sb. about sth. e.g. The people were at first suspicious of the
newcomer.
suspect vt
1) to believe in the possible or probable guilt of sb.;
to suspect sb. of sth., e.g. He was suspected of theft;
2) to think likely, to suppose, e.g. I suspected that she was
insincere.
conscious adj
1) feeling, realizing, as to be conscious of one’s mistakes, guilt,
faults, danger, sb.’s presence, a pain, etc.;
syn. aware; ant. unconscious, unaware;
2) having the power to know that one can think and feel, e.g.
Man is a conscious being. He spoke with conscious superiority;
3) having possession of one’s senses, e.g. The old man was
conscious to the last;
ant. unconscious, e.g. She lay unconscious until the doctor gave
her an injection;
self-conscious too keenly aware of one’s own manners and
appearance, e.g. She is too self-conscious to feel at ease among
strangers;
consciousness n the state of being conscious;
to lose consciousness to faint, e.g. The blow caused him to lose
consciousness;
to recover (regain) consciousness to come to, e.g. He did not
recover (regain) consciousness until two hours after the accident.
interfere vi
1) to meddle, as to interfere in a matter (in an argument, in one’s
affairs);
2) to hinder, to bother, as to interfere with one’s independence,
e.g. Don’t interfere with me. Something always interferes. I hope I’m
not interfering?;
interfering adj meddling, trying to get involved in other people’s
affairs or to give them advice, as interfering people;

199
interference n interfering, e.g. He hated interference.
resist vt
1) to oppose, to use force against in order to prevent the advance
(of), as to resist the enemy (attack, authority, police), e.g. The man
was killed resisting arrest;
2) to try not to yield to, to keep oneself back from, as resist
temptation, e.g. He could resist no longer. She can’t resist chocolates
(to resist if often used in the negative). He couldn’t resist her
suggestion (will, charm, fascination), one cannot resist doing sth.; one
cannot keep from doing sth., e.g. She couldn’t resist making jokes
about his boldness.
resistance n
1) power of resisting, as to break down the energy’s resistance,
to make (offer) no (little) resistance;
2) opposing force, s wrinkle-resistance fabric, e.g. An aircraft
has to overcome the resistance of the air. She baked the pie in a heat-
resistant dish. The line of least resistance direction in which a force
meets least opposition, e.g. At the beginning of his career Andrew
Manson never followed the line of least resistance.
irresistible adj too strong, convincing, delightful, etc. to be
resisted, as irresistible desires (temptation, fascination), e.g. On this
hot day the sea was irresistible.
require vt
to ask for, to need, as to require extra help, e.g. The matter
requires great care. He did all that was required of him;
syn. demand (to ask with authority, to insist on having), e.g. The
policeman demanded his name. The strikers demanded immediate
payment.
requirement n
a thing required, as the requirements of the law, to meet the
requirements of people, e.g. What are the requirements for entering
this institute?
refer vt
1) to send, hand, take, hand over (to sb. or sth.), e.g. I was
referred to the manager;
2) to speak of, allude to; apply to, e.g. Don’t refer to this matter
again, please. Does that remark refer to me?;

200
3) to turn (to), go (to) for information, etc., e.g. The speaker
often referred to his notes.
reference n
1) (instance of) alluding, e.g. You should make reference to a
dictionary. The book is full of references and places that I know well;
2) a statement about a person’s character or abilities, e.g. The
clerk has excellent references from former employers;
3) a note, direction, telling where certain information may be
found, e.g. He dislikes history books that are crowded with references
to earlier authorities.
admit vt/i
1) to allow a person to enter, e.g. The woman opened the door
and admitted me into the house. Children are not admitted;
2) to accept as a member of, as to be admitted to an institute
(school, party), e.g. Only one hundred boys are admitted to the school
every year;
3) to have enough space for, e.g. The theatre admits only 200
persons;
4) to acknowledge, confess, accept as true, as to admit one’s
mistake (fault, that one’s wrong), e.g. You must admit that the task is
difficult;
ant. deny, e.g. I deny that the statement is true.
admission n
1) allowing to come, go in, being admitted, as admission is free,
admission by ticket, price of admission to an institute (partly), e.g.
Admission to the school is by examination only;
2) statement admitting sth., as an admission of guilt, e.g. The
accused refused to make an admission of his guilt.
effort n
trying hard, as a heroic (tremendous, last, strong, great,
desperate, etc.) effort; continued (constant, vain) efforts, e.g. It was
such an effort to get up on those dark winter mornings.
to do sth. with an effort (without an effort), e.g. He collected
himself with an effort. He lifted the box without effort;
to make an (every, no) effort, e.g. I will make every (no) effort
to help him;

201
to cost sb. much effort to do sth., e.g. It cost me much effort of
will to give up tobacco;
to spare no effort(s), e.g. The police promised to spare no
effort(s) in their search/searching for the missing child.
paint n
e.g. Constable sometimes used a palette knife to apply the paint
instead of a brush.
paint v
1) to put paint on, e.g. They painted the door white;
2) to make a picture by using paint, as to paint from nature, e.g.
Ceremonial portraits were painted according to the formula. Turner
excelled in painting marine subjects;
3) to describe vividly in words. e.g. You are painting the
situation too dark.
painter n
an artist, as painter of battle-pieces, genre painter, landscape
painter, portrait painter.
painting
1) the act, art or occupation of laying on colours, e.g. Painting
has become his world;
2) a painted picture, as an oil paintings, still life paintings, a
collection of paintings, an exquisite piece of painting, e.g. An oil-
painting caught and held him… he forgot his awkward walk and came
closer to the painting, very close;
syn. canvas, e.g. The beauty faded out of the canvas.
doubt vt/i
to be uncertain; as to doubt the truth of sth. (the facts, sb.’s
ability to do sth., etc.), e.g. Do you doubt his honesty?;
to doubt if (whether) sth. is correct (true, wrong, sb. will do
sth.), e.g. I doubt whether he will come.
not to doubt that, e.g. I don’t doubt that he will come.
doubtful adj
uncertain; not definite, hesitating, e.g. The weather looks very
doubtful. He’s a doubtful character; to be (feel) doubtful as to, e.g.
I’m doubtful as to what I ought to do.

202
regular adj
1) unchanging, usual, habitual, as regular habits; to keep regular
hours, e.g. He has no regular work;
2) following, or arranged according to a rule, a plan, or definite
order; harmonious, as regular features, a regular figure;
3) properly qualifies; recognized, trained, as a regular doctor; the
regular army;
4) (colloq.) through; complete, as a regular rascal.
regularly adv
1) in a regular manner, as a garden regularly laid out;
2) at regular intervals, constantly; habitually, e.g. He was
practicing regularly for the last two weeks.
mess n (rarely pl)
a state of confusion, dirt or disorder; to be in a mess, e.g. The
room was in a mess, to make a mess of sth. to do it badly, e.g. You’ve
made a mess of the job, to get into a mess to get into trouble or into a
dirty state, e.g. You’ll get into a mess if you are not more careful.
confide vi/t
1) to feel trust in sb., e.g. I can confide in him;
2) to tell secrets to, e.g. He confided his troubles (secret, plans,
fears) to me.
confidence n
1) strong trust, e.g. I have no confidence in such people (in his
ability, in his opinion). He enjoys everybody’s confidence. What she
says does not inspire confidence. I shan’t betray your confidence. She
took me into her confidence;
2) assurance, belief that one is right or that one will succeed, e.g.
He has too much confidence in himself (self-confidence). His lack of
confidence is most annoying. His comforting words gave me
confidence;
3) secret which is confided to sb. (often in pl.), e.g. I listened to
the girl’s confidence with a mixed feeling or pity and disapproval.
confident adj
1) sure, e.g. We were not confident of success;
2) showing confidence, as a confident manner, smile, voice,
tone.

203
confidential adj
private or secret, as confidential information, matter,
correspondence, voice, etc.
start v
1) to begin to move; to set out; to begin a journey, as to start
early (late, at 6 p. m., etc.); to start on a trip (a journey, an excursion)
for the mountains;
2) to begin to do sth., as to start work (business, conversation);
to start working, running, crying;
3) to cause, to enable, to begin, e.g. How did the war (the fire,
the quarrel) start?;
4) to set going, as to start a car (a motor, e newspaper);
5) to make a sudden movement (from pain, shock, etc.), e.g. He
started at the noise.
starting-point n a place at which a start is made, e.g. The
incident turned out to be a starting point that set everything afloat.
start n
1) the act of starting, as the start of a race; a journey’s start, e.g.
That gave her a start in life;
from the start from the very beginning, e.g. Everything went
wrong from the start;
from start to finish, e.g. This is the whole story from start to
finish;
2) a sudden movement caused by pain (shock, etc.), e.g. He
sprang up (awoke) with a start. You gave me a start, I must say; by fits
and starts irregularly, e.g. Research work cannot be done by fits and
starts.
drop vt/i
1) to allow to fall, as to drop a glass (a handkerchief, etc.); to
drop bombs; to drop a letter in a pillar-box (a coin in a slot);
2) to give up, to stop doing sth., as to drop one’s work (studies, a
habit); to drop smoking, e.g. Let’s drop the argument (the subject);
3) (used with many different meanings) as to drop a subject; to
drop a person at some place; to drop a line; to drop (sb.) a hint (on
sth.); to drop one’s voice (eyes); to drop one’s friends; to drop anchor;
4) to fall to the ground, to the floor, into sth., as to drop with
fatigue; to drop into a chair; to drop on (to) one’s knees; to drop dead;

204
leaves (apples, blossoms) drop, e.g. It was so quiet, you might have
heard a pin drop;
5) to become less or smaller or weaker, as the temperature, the
wind, one’s voice, prices may drop;
to drop in to see sb. at some place, e.g. Several friends dropped
in to tea;
to drop off
1) to go away, become fewer, as one’s friends (customers, the
doctor’s practice) may drop off;
2) to fall asleep, e.g. He dropped off during the performance;
to drop behind to fall behind, e.g. The two girls dropped behind
the rest of the party.
drop n
1) a small round portion of liquid, a small quantity of liquid, as
drops of water (perspiration, rain, etc); to drink sth. to the last drop,
take ten drops a day;
2) sudden fall, as a sudden (unexpected, sharp, slight) drop in
prices (temperature, etc.).

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

Ex. 1. Translate the following sentences into Russian.


1. No sooner had they sat down to table, than he went straight to
the point. 2. Myra watched us both tensely, but I knew that however
hard she listened, she was bound to miss the point. 3. I have made a
point of travelling with a large sack filled to the brim with books to
suit every possible occasion and every mood. 4. “There is no point in
carrying your troubles home with you. You’re supposed to leave them
in the office”, said Tom. 5. What one would do theoretically is not
always what one will do when it comes to the point. 6. I woke up to
find the hands of my clock pointing to eight o’clock. 7. I’m having
trouble paying attention – I have a thing or two on my mind. 8. 1 had
very attentive and loving patents. 9. After an hour my attention started
to wander. 10. There’s no point in your coming to my classes if you’re
not going to attend to what I say. 11. The day he first drifted into their
crowded busy rooms, they all suspected him of being a spy. 12. I am
now pretty sure that my first suspicion is justified. 13. The door was

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unlocked from inside and George peered out suspiciously. 14. I
suspected at once that his unfortunate brother had been causing
trouble again. 15. In that remote village people were suspicious of
strangers. 16. Dick in an unconscious gesture, ran his hand over his
hair and adjusted the scarf. 17. Jane was rather conscious of her age
and conscious of having put her first youth behind her. 18. For the
first time she was conscious of a second self, whose existence she had
not suspected. 19. She was never at a loss for something to say, never
conscious of groping around for a topic. 20. There was no noise, no
effort, no consciousness in anything he did; but in everything an
indescribable lightness, which was so graceful. 21. You ought to know
me well enough by now to know that I would never let sentiment
interfere with business. 22. Evidently his little adventure had not
interfered with either his spirits or his appetite. 23. Old Thomas had
never interfered to the smallest degree in the affairs of others.
24. Don’t you realize that any interference at this stage can be
extremely dangerous? 25. For centuries the atom resisted all attempts
to discover the secret of its structure. 26. My heart still resisted what
my head was telling me. 27. They caught him by the wrist and led
him; he went without resistance. 28. It was years since any woman
had spoken to him in that way; Mr. Honey was irresistibly reminded
of his dead wife. 29. It requires the feminine temperament to repeat
the same thing three times with unabated zest. 30. Truly this is all
Becky asked of a man, all she required, that he’d have the power to
make her laugh. 31. I should have remembered that when one is going
to lead an entirely new life, one requires regular and wholesome
meals. 32. He replied to the telegram he had received that he required
no help. 33. It gave Austin pleasure to read and memorize the great
speeches whether they were required in the course or not. 34. Does he
know what is required of him? 35. He didn’t refer to documents, but
answered out of his head. 36. He always referred to her father as
Dr. Lambert. 37. I felt a certain shyness at referring to matters which
were no concern of mine. 38. I murmured something polite that might
equally have referred to her last remark or to the garden itself. 39. She
made no reference to our conversation of the night before. 40. She
seemed to be working in a reference library. 41. Excellent references,
that’s all we need. 42. Mary’s attitude was one of frank admission

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penitence. 43. Mrs. Turton was the only visitor admitted to the
sickroom. 44. Some British Universities lowered their standards of
entry in some subjects in order to admit more students. 45. The very
idea to be admitted to such company was exciting to me. 46. You’re
afraid that if you admit the truth, I’ll think you were mixed up in this
with Wegler. 47. Our new theatres can admit a great number of
people. 48. But Auntie Marne was never one to admit defeat. 49. He
smiled at her unconscious admission that she would have been happy
without Charles. 50. With an almost visible effort the young man
regained his control. 51. He made an effort to rise but his legs
wouldn’t support him. 52. With a strong mental effort Sir Lawrence
tried to place himself in a like dilemma. 53. It was a strange situation,
and very different from any romantic picture which his fancy might
have painted. 54. 1 have little doubt that he will be as popular as he
deserves here. 55. Doubtless, by this time, they are well on their way
in quite another direction. 56. All this doubt and uncertainty made her
very unhappy. 57. I doubt if he is going to get away with it. 58. Do
you have regular hours? – I work when Doc works. 59. Dave... is
always urging me to take a regular job. 65. He rather liked her severe
regular features. 60. What brings you here? You’re not one of our
regulars? 61. He felt that he was beginning to clear up the mess into
which his life had fallen. 62. I’ve never seen so much mess and
disorder anywhere. 63. It’s true that I had a country walk on Thursday
and came home in a dreadful mess. 64. “I saw my father today. I
hoped he’d give me a last chance and haul me out of the mess for the
time being”, said Ben. 65. Confide in me, and all will be well. 66. He
had to make sure that she would not be likely to confide the whole
story to Gervase, which she might do. 67. Kayerts was moved almost
to tears by Wallace’s kindness. He would, he said, by doing his best,
try to justify his confidence. 68. Doubtless he realized that something
was in the wind, but I did not think it necessary to take him fully into
my confidence. 69. He inspired universal confidence and had an iron
nerve. 70. Turning towards her he saw a glimmer of understanding
come into her eyes, and he quickly smiled to give her confidence.
71. It had become his second nature to listen to confidences and not to
offer them. 72. Mr. Pyne, what I am about to tell you is in the strictest
confidence! You do understand that, don’t you? 73. During the war

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Bret was sure she had never worried about him, she was perfectly
confident of his coming back unhurt. Her confident letters had made
him lonely. 74. He hurried up the basement stair and out of the house,
and started running along the street. 75. He started the motor and the
boat swung away from the dock. 76. Everyone assumed from the start,
just as I did myself, that Gilbey was a writer. 77. I told him the whole
story from start to finish. 78. Finally, with a start, he aroused himself
from his reverie. 79. I noticed he’d dropped his Yorkshire accent.
80. He had developed the habit of dropping in on her sometimes
during the week to discuss the latest news. 81. “You can drop me at
Darlinghurt if you don’t mind”. Magda pulled the car abruptly.

Ex. 2. Give English equivalents to the following phrases.


Упустить самое главное; говорить по существу; взять за
правило что-л. делать.
Уделять внимание; следить за воспитанием своих детей;
ухаживать за больным; присутствовать на лекциях; посещение
школы обязательно; обращать внимание на…; привлечь чье-л.
внимание к…; внимательно относиться к кому-л.; все его
действия связаны с риском.
По подозрению; подозревать в воровстве; вне подозрения;
подозрительный человек.
Прийти в сознание.
Вмешиваться в чужие дела; не мешай мне.
Линия наименьшего сопротивления; не поддаться
искушению; неотразимое очарование; отразить нападение.
Удовлетворять потребности; спрос и предложение;
бастующие потребовали немедленно выплатить им зарплату.
Рекомендация; справочник; отсылать к кому-л.; ссылка.
Принять в члены; принять в институт; признавать;
признаться в ошибке; вход по билетам; входная плата; подавать
заявление о приеме в институт; признание своей вины.
Сделать большое усилие; приложить все силы.
Написать картину; писать с натуры; натюрморт.
Сомневаться в чьей-л. искренности.
Правильные черты лица; постоянная работа.
Попасть в беду; быть замешанным в каком-л. деле.

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Довериться кому-л.; доверить (рассказать) что-л. кому-л.;
пользоваться доверием; внушать доверие; быть уверенным в
успехе.
Отправляться на экскурсию в горы; пуститься бежать;
затеять ссору; с начала до конца; с самого начала, урывками.
Валиться с ног от усталости; зайти к кому-л. домой; резкое
понижение температуры.

Ex. 3. Translate the following sentences into English.


1. Извините меня, но я не могу уделить вам много времени.
Переходите, пожалуйста, сразу к сути дела. 2. Том вздохнул с
облегчением. «Никак не думал, что мы придем к соглашению по
всем пунктам», – сказал он. 3. Боюсь, что мало смысла чинить эти
старые туфли, они от этого лучше не станут. 4. Когда дошло до
дела, Руфь и пальцем не пошевелила, чтобы помочь нам. 5. Мне
бы хотелось указать вам на некоторые слабые места в вашей
статье. 6. Именно он обратил мое внимание на эту картину. 7. Не
обращайте внимания на то, что он говорит. 8. Разве у тебя есть
какие-либо основания подозревать меня во лжи? 9. Когда Клайда
арестовали по подозрению в убийстве, он все еще надеялся, что
сумеет скрыть свое страшное преступление. 10. Вахтер уверял,
что он не видел никаких подозрительных субъектов. 11. Грей
знал, что пройдут месяцы, прежде чем возникнут какие-либо
подозрения. 12. Может быть, он и хороший специалист, но его
манера говорить с сознанием собственного превосходства крайне
неприятна. 13. Не чувствуя нависшей над ними опасности,
геологи продолжали свой трудный путь. 14. Доктор наклонился
над лежащим без сознания больным. Через некоторое время
больной пришел в себя, открыл глаза и спросил: «Где я?»
15. Врач сказал, что у нее нет ничего серьезного, должно быть,
она потеряла сознание из-за духоты. 16. Мы не должны
допускать, чтобы развлечения мешали работе. 17. У меня было
сильное желание сказать ей, чтобы она не вмешивалась в мои
дела. 18. К сожалению, твоя старшая сестра всегда вмешивается в
наши споры. 19. Я поеду в деревню завтра, если мне ничто не
помешает. 20. Это нарушает мои планы. 21. Отряд отразил атаку,
но еще не добился превосходства над противником. 22. Враг уже

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не мог оказывать сопротивление. 23. Современные самолеты
легко преодолевают сопротивление воздуха. 24. Боль была такой
сильной, что больной не мог удержаться, чтобы не закричать.
25. Осталось только одно письмо, но оно не требует ответа.
26. Следует заблаговременно узнать, что требуется для
поступления в этот институт. 27. Если бы вы сделали все, что от
вас требуется, вы бы не оказались сейчас в затруднительном
положении. 28. В своем докладе ученый ссылался на последние
эксперименты. 29. Она предъявила отличные рекомендации.
30. Меня отослали к редактору, так как у него были все
справочники. 31. Я поспрашиваю, но, по-моему, он не ссылался
на ваши письма. 32. Она слишком горда, чтобы принять от нас
деньги, но признаться в этом не хочет. 33. Сколько студентов
было принято в институт в этом году? 34. Нас не пустили в зал,
потому что спектакль уже начался. 35. Не забудь, что сегодня
вход в клуб по билетам. 36. Стадион вмещает тринадцать тысяч
зрителей. 37. Незнакомец вытащил из кармана предмет
величиной со спичечный коробок. 38. Усилием воли Эндрю взял
себя в руки. 39. Не отчаивайтесь, ваши старания будут
вознаграждены. 40. Мне не стоило большого труда уговорить его
сотрудничать в нашей газете. 41. Никогда бы не поверил, что эта
картина написана художником-любителем. 42. Хотя Дирк Стрѐв
сам был плохим художником, он обладал тонким
художественным вкусом, и ходить с ним на выставки было одно
удовольствие. 43. Сюжет картины очень прост. На ней изображен
мальчик-пастух на фоне вечернего неба. 44. Carpe diem! Не
может быть сомнения в том, что мы должны воспользоваться
моментом. 45. Джемма сомневалась, что листовки могут
принести пользу. 46. У меня нет ни малейшего сомнения, что он
просто пытается выманить у вас эту ценную книгу. 47. Вы зашли
слишком далеко, вы сомневаетесь в честности вашего старого
друга. 48. Не сомневаюсь, что она постарается устроить сцену.
49. Он всегда вел размеренную жизнь и редко ездил в город.
50. Почему бы тебе не найти постоянную работу? 51. В комнате
Джона был ужасный беспорядок, но когда сестра
воспользовалась его отсутствием и прибрала там немного, он
очень рассердился и сказал, что теперь он не может ничего там

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найти. 52. Вы опять испортили всю работу. Неужели вам не
стыдно так безразлично ко всему относиться? 53. Она спутала все
мои планы, заставив меня прождать ее четыре часа. 54. Она
никому не доверяла своих планов. Это был вопрос, который она
должна была решить сама. 55. Если бы вы полностью доверились
мне, может быть, и можно было бы избежать этой неприятности.
56. С самого начала Великой Отечественной войны, даже в самые
тяжелые дни, люди твердо верили в победу. 57. Я полностью
согласна с вами, что он внушает доверие, но не в этом дело; дело
в том, что я просто недостаточно хорошо его знаю, чтобы
просить о помощи. 58. При малейшем шуме Кейт вздрагивала и
смотрела на часы, но время, казалось, остановилось. 59. Это
очень милые люди. Я с самого начала чувствовала себя у них как
дома. 60. В дверь постучали. Майкл вздрогнул и проснулся.
61. Фашисты сбрасывали бомбы на города и села, никого не
щадя. 62. Ваш приятель придет сегодня? – Может быть, но
попозже. 63. Накапайте десять капель этого лекарства в стакан
теплой воды и прополощите горло. Это вам поможет.
64. Черкните мне пару строк, когда приедете.

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GRAMMAR BANK

1. THE CONTINUOUS ASPECT

An aspect is a way we look at something. With verb forms, there


are three aspects: simple, continuous and perfect. The simple aspect
emphasises that an action is complete. The perfect aspect emphasises
that an action is completed before another time. The continuous aspect
focuses on the action and its duration (how long it lasts), rather than
the result. It is used to show that an activity is temporary and its
duration is limited.
In contrast to the continuous aspect, we usually use simple
tenses to talk about facts, permanent situations, finished actions and
habits. Some verbs – called state verbs – are not usually used in the
continuous, e.g. verbs that describe personal feelings (love, prefer),
the senses (hear, smell) and thoughts (believe, understand).
Use the continuous aspect to talk about:
– actions that we see happening over a period of time;
They‟ve been waiting here for an hour;
– actions in progress when another thing happens;
John was crying when l arrived;
– temporary or incomplete situations;
He‟s living with his parents until he can find a house;
– repeated actions (that may be annoying);
She‟s always playing her music loudly;
– situations in the process of changing.
The economy is getting worse;
– plans (often using the past continuous);
I was thinking of going home this weekend;
– tentative ideas (to avoid being too direct with a request);
I was wondering if I could borrow some money;
– actions in progress at a particular time;
Everyone seems to be working at the moment.

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Practice

1.1. Which of the underlined verbs are better in the


continuous form? Change them as necessary.
1. The photocopier doesn‟t work at the moment, but the
engineer will fix it this afternoon.
2. You can’t go to the cinema because you haven‟t finished
your homework.
3. I had a great time at the party when my dad arrived and
dragged me home!
4. The postal worker weighs the package right now.
5. That’s a tricky question and I don‟t know the answer.
6. I looked through my old papers and I found this letter from
you.
7. Can you turn down the volume? I talk on the phone.
8. I didn‟t hear the doorbell so carried on watching TV.
9. She has studied all morning.
10. I live in Krakow, but I do a course in Warsaw this summer

1.2. Complete the questions. Use the correct continuous form


of the verb in brackets where possible. Which sentences need a
simple form?
1. A: ________________________ (cry)?
B: Because I just fell off my bike and it hurts!
2. A: _________________________ (work) there before they
fired him?
B: About twenty years. He was devastated.
3. A: __________________________ (do) since you graduated?
B: I’ve mainly been looking for jobs, but no luck so far.
4. A: __________________________ (live) in Madrid?
B: Twenty-seven years. I moved here when I was twenty.
5. A: __________________________ (talk) to when I saw you
earlier?
B: Oh, she’s an old schoolmate.
6. A: __________________________ (want) to be when you
were a child?
B: A fireman. I loved the uniform!

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7. A: __________________________ (wait) long?
В: About an hour. The hospital is always busy on Saturday.
8. A: __________________________ (not finish) your degree?
B: Because I ran out of money and couldn’t pay the tuition fees.

2. DESCRIBING HABITS

Use will to describe present habits and behaviour (both good and
bad).
She‟ll tell you everything she has done during the day, even if
you‟re not interested.
He‟ll always bring me flowers.
Use present continuous + always, keeps + -ing and will keep +
ing in the same way. This often implies annoyance.
He‟s always telling me what to do.
She keeps texting me.
They will keep nagging me to go and visit them. Use would to
describe past habits and behaviour (both good and bad).
My parents wouldn’t drive me to parties on Saturday nights.
They would make me stay at home.
Note: We can only use will/would to describe habits, not states.
He would get angry very easily. (NOT He would be angry very
easily.)
Use past continuous + always, kept + -ing and would keep + -ing
n the same way.
They were always complaining.
We kept asking for a refund, but we were ignored.
He would keep going on about his brother. It drove me mad.
Use keep on to emphasise that the action is repeated frequently.
Sorry, I keep on forgetting your name!
Use tend to to describe typical states.
She tends to shout a lot.
My parents tended to be very laid-back.

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Spoken grammar

Will and would may be stressed to emphasise the annoyance at a


habit.
He will turn up late.
They wouldn‟t listen to me.

Other expressions

I‟m inclined to.../ I have an inclination to…


l tend to.../ I have a tendency to…
I‟m prone to…
I‟ll spend hours.../ I‟d spend hours
As a rule, l…
Nine times out of ten, I…
Andy is inclined to act first and think later.
I‟m prone to falling asleep in front of the TV in the evenings.
He has a tendency to be very critical, and this makes him
unpopular with colleagues.

Practice

2.1. Add will/won’t/ would/ wouldn’t to the sentences in the


correct place.
1. On Sunday mornings, I get up early and go for a run along
the river before anyone else is awake.
2. I sometimes wait for hours before the bus arrives.
3. My mother-in-law always bake a cake for us when we visit.
4. He keep bothering me for my telephone number, but I don’t
want to give it to him.
5. The children stop fighting. It’s driving me crazy.
6. She spend the first half an hour chatting before she even
starts work.
7. My parents take us on camping holidays in the rain. We hated
it.
8. My grandfather shout, or tell you off. He was a very gentle
man.

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2.2. Complete the sentences using the prompts in brackets.
1. The drug _________ headaches if used for prolonged
periods (tendency/cause).
2. He ___________ paintings which cost far too much money
(inclined/buy).
3. We’re ___________ about politics at the dinner table
(prone/argue).
4. I ___________ whether or not I’ve been given the job
(keep/wonder).
5. She’s __________ a fuss about the way I dress
(always/make).
6. They ___________ at cards, so I decided not to play with
them (kept/cheat).
7. As _______, I ________ a lot of herbs and spices in my
cooking (rule/not use).
8. My father _________ me back a present from his travels
(would always/bring).

3. THE PERFECT ASPECT

The perfect aspect looks back from one time to another and
emphasises that an action is completed before another time. In some
cases, the exact time may be unimportant or unknown. Sometimes the
event is incomplete. It started in the past and is still relevant now.

Present perfect

Use the present perfect to look back from now to a time before
now.
I‟ve been here since June.
Use the present perfect continuous to focus on the length of time
the action takes.
She‟s been waiting for hours.

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Past perfect

Use the past perfect to look back from a time in the past to a
time before that.
I had to go back because I‟d forgotten my passport.
Use the past perfect continuous to focus on the length of time the
action takes.
She‟d been doing the same job for fifteen years.

Future perfect

Use the future perfect to look back from a time in the future to a
time before that.
By next week we will have finished the project.
Note: We also use will have + past participle to make
predictions about the present or the future.
Don‟t call the house, she‟ll I have left for work by now.
Use the future perfect continuous to focus on the length of time
the action takes.
In 2020, I‟ll have been living here for fifty years.

Perfect infinitive

Use the perfect infinitive after verbs like seem and appear to
look back to a previous time period.
He seems to have forgotten us.
It can be used with different time periods.
It‟s great to have finished my exams.
He said he was sorry to have missed your party.
We hope to have done the work by 5.00.

Practice

3.1. Underline the correct alternatives.


1. UNICEF will have provided/has been providing/is provided
humanitarian assistance to developing countries since 1946.

217
2. My family will have lived/ has lived/had been living in that
house for over 100 years by the time we were forced to move.
3. Next year, it had been/will have been/has been twenty years
since we met.
4. They have closed/have been closing/will have closed that
shop because it wasn’t making money.
5. Judging by the state of the garden, she will have abandoned/
had been abandoning/ appeared to have abandoned her home.
6. By 2018, Tom will have been running/has been running/is to
have run the company for twenty years.

3.2. Complete speaker B’s responses using the prompts. Use


perfect tenses.
1. A: Is the protest still going on?
B: Yes. The workers/ march /since 8.00 this morning.
2. A: Why did you shout at the students at the end of class?
B: They/ talk throughout the whole lesson.
3. A: Eliana is the most experienced person in the office, isn’t
she?
B: Yes. This time next year she/ work/ here/ for forty years.
4. A: Do you think they’ll be at the airport now?
B: Yes. It’s 8.00. They/ arrive/ by now.
5. A: Why is he losing so badly?
B: He/ seems/ forget/ how to play!
6. A: I hear Mary lost her job because the company went
bankrupt.
B: That’s right. She/ only/ work there for two months when
the company closed.

4. FUTURE FORMS

be going to
Use be going to + infinitive:
– to express personal intention. The action has been considered
in advance and some plans have already been made;
We „re going to stay with John next summer;
– to make a prediction based on present evidence;

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I think she‟s going to fall! (She is off balance.)
will
Use will:
– to make predictions. We‟ll win the Cup this year;
– talk about future facts. He‟ll start school next year;
We often use will with adverbs of probability.
I‟ll probably see you tomorrow.
We also use will for decisions made at the moment of speaking.
I think I‟ll have a nap.

Present continuous

Use the present continuous to talk about a pre-arranged action in


the future. Be going to is for intentions, while the present continuous
is for planned events or arrangements for a specific time.
I‟m visiting Sheila on Sunday.

Present simple

Use the present simple to talk about fixed future events in timetables
or programmes.
My train arrives at 5.00.

Future continuous

Use the future continuous:


– to talk about an action that will be in progress at some time in
the future;
This time next week I‟ll be lying on a beach;
– to make a deduction about the future based on normal practice;
I expect the Smiths will be having their annual party soon;
– to talk about something that will happen as part of the normal
course of events, not because you planned it;
I‟ll be seeing Jackie at college, so I‟ll give her the note.

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Future perfect and future perfect continuous

Use the future perfect to talk about a future event which will be
finished at a certain point in the future. Use the future perfect
continuous to talk about the length of an action as seen from a
moment in the future.
The builders will have finished our house by January.
By 2018, I‟ll have been studying French for twenty years.

Modal verbs

Could, might and may are also used to make predictions. They
have similar meanings, but may is more formal.
be to
Use be + to + infinitive to describe official plans and
arrangements.
The company is to provide insurance for all of its workers.
be due to
Use be due to + infinitive to describe a formal arrangement.
The plane is due to land at 6.00.

Practice

4.1. There are ten words missing from the speech. Complete
it by adding the missing words.
“Yesterday we announced that we are merge with Jonas Inc.
We are due do this in May, so today I’m going speak about the
company’s history and the decision to merge. This time next year, the
company will have building houses for twenty-five years. By January,
we will built more than 100,000 homes, and I hope that we’ll still be
houses in 2050. Although we be discussing the new situation with you
individually, we are sure your jobs will secure. Through this merger,
we be expanding and so we will be moving into unknown markets. By
February, we will sent you a document about the company’s plans.
For now, I promise there will be opportunities for all”.

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4.2. Complete the second sentence so it has the same
meaning as the first. Use the words in brackets and a future form.
1. It’s our twentieth wedding anniversary tomorrow.
(married) By tomorrow, we will _________________.
2. The arrival time for the London-Brussels flight is 2.00.
(at) The London-Brussels flight _________________.
3. The government will pass a law prohibiting guns.
(is) The government __________________________.
4. I work in the same office as John, so I can speak to him.
(seeing) I’ll ________________________________.
5. We arrived here in July five years ago.
(living) By July, we’ll _________________________.
6. The committee has scheduled a meeting with the owners.
(due) The committee is ________________________.
7. Roger always puts up his Christmas decorations in
November.
(putting) I imagine Roger will __________________.
8. My son celebrates his eighteenth birthday next March.
(old) My son ________________________________.

5. FUTURE IN THE PAST

Sometimes when we’re talking about the past, we want to


mention something that was in the future at that time. To do this, use
future structures but make the verb forms past, e. g. is going to → was
going to
I was going to help you, but I didn‟t have time.
present continuous→ past continuous
They were hoping to have a picnic, but it rained all weekend.
will→ would*
I arrived in Recife, where I would spend ten years of my life.*
*This is a different use from would for repeated actions in the
past. Compare:
At sixteen, I got a job at Limo Company, where I would later
become CEO. (future in the past)
For years, I would go running at 5.00 a.m. every morning.
(repeated actions in the past)

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We can also use was/were to + infinitive and was/were to have +
past participle. These are quite literary and more commonly found in
writing than in speech. The expression was to have is usually used
when the plan did not become a reality.
They told me I was to give a speech the following day.
I was to have taken a job with my father‟s company, but it went
bankrupt.

Other expressions to talk about the future in the past

To describe a plan that did not become reality, use:


– was/were supposed to;
I was supposed to go to Nick‟s house, but my car broke down;
– meant to;
I meant to mention the cost of tickets, but I forgot (active);
We were meant to check in an hour ago! (passive)
For events that very nearly happened, use:
– was/were on the verge of + gerund;
She was on the verge of giving up her dream when she received
a letter from an agent;
– was/were on the point of + gerund;
They were on the point of leaving when the boss arrived;
– was/were about to + infinitive.
Hi! I was about to text you!

Practice

5.1. Match the sentence halves.


1. I was supposed to…
2. The three musicians were going…
3. At the time, I didn’t know that…
4. Paul was on the verge of…
5. Honestly, I was…
6. You were about to…
A. …I would never see her again.
B. …planning to help you in the garden, but I got backache.
C. …giving up when he saw the top of the mountain.

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D. …to be the greatest band in history.
E. …make the biggest mistake of your life.
F. …call home, but I forgot.

5.2. Find and correct the seven mistakes in sentences 1–10.


1. We are about to ascend the mountain when snow started to
fall.
2. Just as Clancy was on the point of escaping, a guard entered
the hallway.
3. Melissa meant tell you about the dinner invitation, but she
forgot.
4. We were to had taken the 6.02 train to Manchester, but it was
cancelled.
5. She got sick when she was on a verge of becoming a
superstar.
6. He was going to stay with his brothers for a while before
emigrating.
7. Thompson then travelled to Bali, where he will later meet his
sixth wife.
8. I was but hoping to work with Donna again, but she left the
company.
9. It was to have been a surprise party, but she found out
about it.
10. I was to meeting Daley and his gang in the subway at
midnight.

6. CONDITIONALS AND REGRETS

The most common conditional sentences refer to permanent facts


(zero conditional), future possibility (first conditional) or imaginary
situations (second conditional).

Third conditional

Use to talk about something that could have happened, but


didn’t, or should not have happened, but did.

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If I hadn’t eaten that shellfish, I would have been fine.
Other forms with a third conditional meaning

Supposing you‟d met the President, what would you have said?
Imagine you‟d missed the flight, what would you have done?
In more formal contexts, it is possible to replace if by inverting
the subject and had.
Had I known her, I would have said hello.
Or replace if with but for + noun (+ gerund)
But for Wilkinson‟s heroics, they would have lost the match.

Mixed conditional

Use to say how, if something had been different in the past, the
present or future would be different.
If she‟d listened to me, she wouldn’t be in debt now.

Regrets

Use regret + gerund, if only + past perfect or wish + past perfect


to say we want something in the past to have been different.
I regret going out last night. lf only I hadn’t left the oven on. He
wishes he‟d gone to university.
Use if only + past simple or wish + past simple to say we want
something to be different now.
If only we had some matches! I wish you were here.
Note: After if, if only and wish, we often use were instead of
was. Were is considered more correct in formal English, although was
is often used in spoken English.
Use if only + would or wish + would to show we are annoyed
something now.
If only you‟d be more sensible! I wish you would be quiet!

Practice

6.1. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the


verbs below. Use the negative form where necessary.

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take over know be spend find cause stay pull die become
tell arrive win listen call cook
1. If you to my advice, you in such a terrible
situation now.
2. I regret a manager so young: I wish I more
time in the industry first.
3. We your house if we you on the mobile.
4. Imagine if Donner Textiles Ltd the company, it
all kinds of problems.
5. Had they us about that hotel, we
there now, instead of in this dump!
6. But for the emergency services so quickly, many
more people _______in the fire.
7. If I she didn’t eat wheat, I pasta.
8. It’s such a shame: had she a muscle, she
the race.

6.2. Rewrite the sentences using the word(s) in brackets.


1. We gambled on red. We lost.
(If/ won) ___________________________________
2. They only asked him to the party because he’s famous.
(wouldn’t) __________________________________
3. The boys feel bad about borrowing your car.
(regret) _____________________________
4. She didn’t know you were a vegetarian! She bought fish!
(Had)______________________________________
5. I forgot my keys. Now we’re locked out!
(If only/wouldn’t) ____________________________
6. l’m working in a boring, low-paid job, I shouldn’t have
dropped out of university.
(If) _______________________________________
7. Ahmed is sorry he didn’t speak to you before you left
(wishes) ____________________________________
8. He had an injury. We would have won otherwise.
(But for) ____________________________________

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7. VERB PATTERNS

I. Verb + -ing

Many verbs can be followed by a verb in the -ing form. Some


of these verbs are related in meaning: like, dislike, adore, love, detest,
can‟t bear/stand. Some can also be followed by the infinitive, but the
meaning may change.
We regret to inform you … (We are sorry before we speak.)
He regrets telling her … (He is sorry after he speaks.)
Prepositions are followed by an -ing form.
Are you still interested in buying the property?
-ing forms when they function as nouns (gerunds) are often the
subject of a sentence.
Smoking is bad for you.

II. Infinitive with to

Use an infinitive with to:


– after certain verbs including appear, decide, fail, offer, refuse,
wish. Verbs with a future meaning (hope, expect, promise, etc.) are
often followed by the infinitive;
They hoped to negotiate a better deal;
– after certain verb + object combinations, e.g. advise, allow,
ask, cause, encourage, forbid;
The police asked everyone to remain calm;
– with some nouns, often as part of semi-fixed phrases (lt‟s time
to …, etc.);
– after most adjectives;
I was happy to help.

III. Passive infinitive/-ing form

Use the passive -ing form (being done) to describe actions


which are done to the subject.
I hate being told what to do.

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Use the passive infinitive (to be done) after some verbs
(especially reporting verbs).
He was considered to be the right person for the job.

IV. Perfect infinitive or -ing form

Use the perfect -ing form (having done) or the perfect infinitive
(to have done) to emphasise when one action happened before
another.
She mentioned having seen him leave.
They seem to have solved the problem.
After verbs of preference (would like / love/ hate/ prefer/
rather) we can use the perfect infinitive to talk about an action in the
past.
We would hate to have lost the match.

V. Negative infinitive or -ing form

Not + infinitive and Not + -ing are also important.


It‟s quite common not to understand at first.
Not understanding is quite common.
Infinitives can be the subject of a sentence.
To learn is important.
Not to thank her would be impolite.

Practice

7.1. Underline the correct alternatives.


1. We all know how important make/making/to make a good
first impression is. We’ve heard the statistics: when you meet
someone for the first time, only seven percent of their impression is
based on what you say, thirty-eight percent on how you say it, and a
massive fifty-five percent on your appearance and manner. So, it’s
vital not underestimate/underestimating/to underestimate the
importance of choosing your clothes carefully when you go to that
key meeting or job interview. This is your opportunity
impress/impressing/to impress. On walk/walking/to walk into the

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room, most people are likely to have form/to have forming/to have
formed an opinion of your character based on your appearance in less
than three seconds. It’s difficult say/saying/to say why people insist
on judge/judging/to judge by appearances, even when we know that
it’s so unreliable do/doing/to do this. Even in courtrooms, juries and
judges appear give/giving/to give lighter sentences to people who are
well-dressed.

7.2. Find and correct the six mistakes in sentences 1–8.


1. I can’t bear seeing people smoke in cars.
2. I don’t know why you waste all your time sit in front of
the computer.
3. Cooder was encouraged play the guitar by his father.
4. They hoped meet up with some of the stars after the show.
5. They were rumoured to have get married in secret.
6. I gave up the idea of go into politics when l was in my
thirties.
7. We were tempted ask if we could stay the night, but we
thought it might seem rude.
8. I would prefer to have seen it for myself.

8. NOUN PHRASES

A noun phrase is a group of words which function as a unit to


describe the noun. Information can be added before or after the noun
to add further information about it.

Before the noun (pre-modification)

Compound nouns are formed when another noun is added to


help describe the noun head. These can be written as two words, with
a hyphen, or as one word.
coffee cup build-up fingerprint
Compound adjectives can be used for measurement
expressions. Plural expressions become singular.
A forty-five-minute journey (it takes forty-five minutes)

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Adverb + adjective combinations can be used to give more
information about the noun.
an amazingly simple process

After the noun (post-modification)

Prepositional phrases can be used to help modify the noun the


light from the setting sun;
a suggestion for how to arrange the meeting.
Participle clauses also give more description people rushing in
and out of their offices.
Relative clauses can also be used to modify the noun phrase the
man spotted in the restaurant
Sometimes, the relative clause can be rewritten as a noun
phrase research that has been conducted recently → recent research.
Adjectives before a noun need to be in a specific order.

Determiner Value Size Age Shape Colour OriginMaterial Compound Noun


Two Lovely Small Old Oval Black French Leather Biker Vases
My Shabby Silver Ear Jacket
Some Rings

8.1. Make one sentence by adding the information in brackets to


the noun phrase. Pay attention to word order.
1. I like coffee (black/ strong/ small cups/ of freshly-ground).
______________________________________
2. He bought the house (by the river/ little/ pretty).
______________________________________
3. She made cakes (with strawberries and fresh cream on top /
delicious / dark chocolate / two).
______________________________________
4. He smokes cigars (which Juan gives him / hugely expensive/
Cuban/ those/ enormous).
______________________________________
5. They carried the bags (ridiculously heavy/ massive pile of /
all the way up seven flights of stairs)
______________________________________

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6. It was a dog (incredibly smelly hairy /guard/ but rather
friendly). ______________________________________

8.2. Rewrite the sentences to make one sentence with a


complex noun phrase.
1. I went to the shop. It sold shoes. It was advertised on
television.
I went __________________________________
2. The man was old. He was walking with a stick.
He was _______________________________________
3. We ate the cakes. They were home-made. They were
absolutely delicious. We were sitting in the sunshine.
We ate ____________________________________
4. They rented a house. It was nice. It was near the airport. It
had a swimming pool.
They rented ______________________________________
5. We went to a restaurant. It was big. It was a pizza restaurant.
It was on the outskirts of town. It was run by two Italian brothers.
They were called Gino and Rino.
We went ___________________________________

9. RELATIVE CLAUSES

Defining relative clauses

Defining relative clauses give essential information about a


noun. Compare.
1. My uncle, who lives in New York, is coming to Oxford.
2. My uncle who lives in New York is coming to Oxford.
In sentence 1, who lives in New York is a non-defining relative
clause. It gives extra non-essential information about the uncle. In
sentence 2, it is a defining relative clause. The speaker has more than
one uncle so she identifies which uncle she is talking about.
In defining relative clauses, we can omit the relative pronoun if
it is the object of the verb.
I‟ve eaten the cake (which) I made yesterday.

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Non-defining relative clauses

Non-defining relative clauses give extra information about a


noun. Use a comma before and after the relative clause.
That project, which I started years ago, still isn‟t finished.

Relative pronouns

Use: who for people, which for things/groups of people, where


for places, whose for possessions belonging to people and things. That
can replace any pronoun except whose in defining relative clauses.
Use a relative pronoun after some of, all of, a few of, none of.
She has four sisters, none of whom are married.

Fixed prepositional phrases and relative clauses

There are a number of fixed phrases which use a preposition in


non-defining relative clause.
The company ran out of money, at which point l quit my job.
He may work late, in which case I‟ll get home first.
We watched the final, the result of which was never in doubt.
In informal sentences, the preposition stays with the verb. In
formal sentences we put the preposition before the relative pronoun.
Compare:
He completed the book which he‟d been working on (informal).
He completed the book on which he‟d been working (formal).

Practice

9.1. Complete the sentences with one word in each gap.


In my early twenties, (1) when I was a student, I used to hang
out in a few places, none (2) ____________which were exactly posh.
There was one seedy dive called Schubert’s, (3) ___________ an
acquaintance of mine. (4) _________ name I’ve forgotten, played the
piano. But my favourite haunt, (5) ____________ which I remember
everything including the decor (a Matisse poster (6) __________
edges were peeling off the wall), was Johnny Bee’s Café. The table

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(7) _______ regularly sat faced a window from (8) _________ you
could see the street. I must have gone to Johnny Bee’s every day until
l graduated, by which (9) ________ I was virtually living there. Most
of the dissertation (10) which I was working was conceived in
Johnny Bee’s. I went back last year and saw the same people, none of
(11) had changed except for a few grey hairs.

9.2. Complete the second sentence so it has a similar meaning


to the first. Use the word in brackets.
1. There were lots of children there and all of them sang really
well. (whom)
There were lots of children there, ____________________
2. When the fire alarm went off, the lesson ended. (point)
The fire alarm went off,____________________
3. We stayed in that woman’s house. (house)
That’s the woman __________________________
4. Clare’s the person l learnt the most from. (whom)
The person __________________________
5. If you get a scholarship, you won’t need to pay. (case)
You may get a scholarship, in ____________________
6 There are two photocopiers in the office, which are both out
of order. (of)
There are two photocopiers in the office._________________

10. CONCESSION CLAUSES

Use concession clauses to give information that contrasts with


the information in the main clause.
The clauses can be introduced with conjunctions such as
although, however, even though, etc.
Although he was a good linguist, he took five years to learn
Mandarin.
We can also use while and whilst (formal) to replace although.
While / Whilst I‟d like to be with you, I have to attend a meeting.
Use much as to replace although with verbs for like and hate to
talk about strong feelings.

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Much as we appreciate your efforts, sadly we won‟t be able to
use the report.
Use adjective/ adverb + as/ though + subject + verb clause for
emphatic sentences.
Hard as we tried, we failed to get hold of anybody.
Difficult though it was, we eventually secured the premises.
Use however/ whatever/ wherever, etc. to express the idea of “no
matter what/who/ where”, etc.
Whatever he says, I'm going anyway.
Use in spite of and despite + noun phrase/ -ing form to express
contrast.
In spite of the fact that we had no ID on us, the porter let us in.
Despite feeling awful, we stayed until the end.
Note: Sentences using in spite of, despite are not concession
clauses, as the linker is not followed by a verb clause, but is followed
by a noun/-ing form.
We can use adverbs and adverbial phrases to introduce contrast.
We were exhausted but we carried on all the same.
We were exhausted. Nevertheless, we carried on.

Practice

10.1. Complete the sentences with the words in the box.

however despite although as


whenever whereas matter spite

1. American cars are generally too large for the Japanese


market, _________Japanese cars are popular in the USA.
2. Hard_________ she tried, she couldn’t get the door to
open.
3. No _________how difficult it is, I’m determined to do
my best.
4. They explained that we could leave _________ we
wanted to.
5. She went to Spain _________ the fact that her doctor had
told her to rest.

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6. We went out in _________ of the rain.
7. I really want the car, _________ much it costs.
8. We decided to take the room, ________we knew we
couldn’t really afford the rent.

10.2. Rewrite the sentences using the words in brackets.


Write one or two sentences.
1. I spend much too much time on the internet. I know that it’s
bad for me.
(Despite) ___________________________________.
2. My grandmother is still fully independent. She is nearly
ninety-six years old.
(Even though) ______________________________.
3. He’s an excellent manager. He can be a bit scary to work
for.
( ...although... ) _____________________________.
4. They tried hard. They couldn’t persuade him to give up his
work.
(Hard as) ___________________________________.
5. I understand how difficult the situation is. I’m afraid I can’t
help.
(Whilst) ____________________________________.
6. He’s very charming. I wouldn’t trust him at all.
( ... However, ... ) ____________________________.

11. PARTICIPLE CLAUSES

Participle clauses are used to make our writing and speaking


more economical, efficient and, sometimes, more elegant. They can
also be used to add information about reason, condition and result.

Past participles

Past participle clauses have a passive meaning. Use past


participles to add extra information. They sometimes serve the same
purpose as adjectives (describing a noun).

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Loved by everyone, Don was a wonderful character (describes
Don).
Exhausted from her efforts, she struggled on (describes “she”).

Present participles

Present participle clauses have an active meaning. Use present


participles (-ing form):
– as reduced relative clauses. Here the present participle serves
the same purpose as an adjective;
The woman who is smiling in the photo is my grandmother. –
The woman smiling in the photo is my grandmother; I smelt the bread
that was burning. – I smelt the burning bread;
– as adverbial clauses (like adverbs): expressing manner,
conditions, cause, result, etc. This is especially common in formal or
literary texts. To make the negative, use not before the present
participle.
Moving silently, the lion follows its prey.
Lying face down in the sand, he looked like some strange sea
beast.
Not being qualified, she couldn‟t work there.
There was a fire, resulting in serious damage.
having + past participle
Having + past participle is used:
– to show the cause of a second action;
Having won every competition, he decided to retire;
– to show a sequence of actions;
Having made breakfast, she sat down and read the paper.

Practice

11.1. Complete the pairs of sentences using the same verb,


once as a present participle and once as a past participle.
1. A. _______ as much noise as she could, Lola attracted the
attention of the rescuers.
B. _______ in China, this new gadget will be cheap and
efficient.

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2. A. ________ he had six months to live, he shocked everyone
by living another twenty years.
B. _________ his staff he was visiting a client, Jones
disappeared with all the company’s money.
3. A. __________ for her ticket, she suddenly realised she had
never been to a theatre before.
B. _________ by the hour, the employees rarely worked at the
weekend.
4. A. Many of the clothes _________ by famous people are kept
in the museum.
B. All participants _________ a badge will receive a free meal.
5. A. In my opinion, it’s one of the best books ever _________.
B. _________ on his blog today, Mick Davies says the
economic crisis is over.

11.2. Find and correct five mistakes in the text.


Arming with nothing but a donated caravan, a solar laptop and
toothpaste made from crushed cuttlefish bones, Mark Boyle lives
without cash. Having graduate in economics, he was a food company
manager. One afternoon while to discuss the world’s problems with a
friend, he decided to act on Gandhi’s words: “Be the change you want
to see in the world”. Giving a caravan by a stranger, he moved out of
his home. A friend donated a bike and he got himself a stove and
began his new life. He now lives off the land, cycles everywhere and
writes a blog. Is it true freedom? Asking what he misses about his old
life, he says stress, traffic, bank statements and utility bills. He’s
joking.

12. INTRODUCTORY IT

Use it as an “empty” subject to introduce or identify something


later in the phrase.
“What‟s the problem?”–“It’s nothing. It’s just that I‟m worried
about work”.
Use it + be to talk about:
– weather;
It’s a bit chilly for this time of year;

236
– time/dates;
It’s about half past two;
– situations;
It’s a very peaceful place;
– distance;
It’s about thirty kilometres away.
Use it before some phrases to describe probability.
It looks as though we‟re going to lose.
Use it before some phrases to report events.
It would appear that they have left without us.
Use it as an “empty” object after certain verbs to introduce a
clause.
(subject + verb + it + complement + infinitive/clause)
I‟d appreciate it if...
I find it impossible to...

Other common expressions with it

it + be + adjective
It‟s hard to know if...
It‟s easy to believe that...
it + verb phrase
It always amazes me that...
It looks/seems as if...
it in the middle of the phrase
I‟ll leave it to you to decide...
I find it easy to...

Fixed expressions

It‟s no wonder/no coincidence that...


It‟s considered rude to...
It‟s pointless/ no use + -ing...

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Practice

12.1. Add it/it’s in the correct place(s) in sentences 1–8.


1. I can’t stand when all does is rain for days on end.
2. I’d appreciate if you could give me a little more notice next
time.
3. No use just standing there. You’d better get on with it.
4. I find hard to believe that the summer is here already.
5. Appears that the police have video footage of the incident.
6. Pointless arguing with her when she’s in that kind of state.
7. I’ll leave to the others to decide what time we should meet.
8. I’ve always made clear that my family has to take priority
over my work.

12.2. Complete the second sentence so it has a similar


meaning to the first. Use three to six words including the word
in brackets.
1. Don’t cry about the situation now. It won’t help.
(pointless) It’s _______________ about the situation now.
2. Being trustworthy is vital in this profession
(essential) It’s _________________ in this profession.
3. He appears to have misplaced his keys.
(seems) It __________________ his keys.
4. We need to be hospitable to them as they were welcoming
to us.
(owe) We ____________ hospitable as they were welcoming
to us.
5. I am not surprised by her lack of enthusiasm as she has
heard the talk before.
(wonder) It’s ____________ when she had heard the talk
before.
6. It’s easy for me to keep abreast of the latest news online.
(find) I _____________ of the latest news online.

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13. CLEFT SENTENCES

Cleft means “divided”. In cleft sentences, one sentence is


divided into two parts, each with its own verb. This adds emphasis
to part of the sentence.
John loves Mary. (one verb)
It‟s Mary that John loves. (two verbs, emphasises Mary)
The following structures are commonly used to begin cleft
sentences.

It + ... What + ...


It was a... who... What I like about... is
It was in.., that... What they didn’t realise was...
Other structures
The person who...
The place that...
The thing that... is / was...
Something that... is/was...
The reason why... is / was...
The only thing that... is / was...
All that I would... is / was...

We can use Wh- words with cleft sentences. To emphasise the


action, we use a form of do.
Jane invested well. – What Jane did was invest well.

Emphasizing with what, all and it.

To emphasise an action or series of actions, we can use


sentences beginning with What.
He dropped the vase. – What happened was (that) he dropped
the vase.
We can use Wh-clauses as introductory phrases.
What I would like to know is where the money went.
We can use all instead of what.
All I‟d like to say is that the company appreciates your work.
Use It + be + that/who to emphasise parts of a sentence.
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Karin left her bag on the train. – It was Karin who left her
bag on the train (Karin – not Fatima).
It was her bag that Karin left on the train (not her umbrella).
It‟s because you have such a good sense of humour that I
enjoy your company (emphasising reason).
It was only yesterday that I discovered the documents were
missing (emphasising time).
It was by chance that they met in Paris. (emphasising
prepositional phrase).

Practice

13.1. Complete the second sentence so it has a similar


meaning to the first. Use the word in brackets.
1. He lost his job because he kept breaking the rules.
(reason) The _________________ kept breaking the rules.
2. He only realised who she was when he left the theatre.
(recognised) It was only_____________________ her.
3. I want to persuade them to come with us.
(do) What I _____________ to come with us.
4. The thing that concerns me is whether she will have enough
money.
(worry) All ___________________whether she will have
enough money.
5. They have such a fantastic range of spices.
(amazing) What is _____________________such a fantastic
range of spices.

13.2. Rewrite the sentences in three different ways using


the prompts. You may need to change some words.
1. Elections have given these people their first real opportunity
to decide who will govern them.
A. What elections have done is ____________.
B. The thing that _______________________.
C. It’s the elections _____________________.
2. Heavy snow and severe weather caused widespread
disruption to the country’s airports, roads and rail systems.

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A. It was the airports ____________________.
B. It was heavy snow ____________________.
C. What caused disruption ________________.
3. Hundreds of students marched through the city centre to
protest against the new laws.
A. What caused students _________________.
B. The reason hundreds of ________________.
C. What happened was __________________.

14. MODAL VERBS AND PHRASES

Use modal verbs and phrases to express degrees of obligation or


whether or not something is necessary, desirable, permitted forbidden.
Modals are also used to refer to people’s abilities.
have to, must, should, ought to, had better for obligation
We ought to set the alarm for an hour earlier. Had better is
stronger than ought to and implies a warning.
We‟d better leave now. We don‟t want to be late.
Use need for talking about obligation or lack of it.
We needed to ask for directions. (If we had done this, we
wouldn’t be lost.)
Notice the difference between didn’t need to and needn’t have.
We didn’t need to ask for directions. (We had a map.)
We needn’t have asked for directions. (We asked for directions,
but it was unnecessary as we found a map.)
Use can, (be) allowed to, (be) supposed to, (be) permitted to for
talking about what is permissible/possible.
We couldn’t leave the premises after 6pm. (It wasn’t allowed.)
Be supposed to implies that someone expects you to do this.
(maybe it’s a rule). We can use this when we don’t obey the rule.
We‟re supposed to leave the key on the desk when we finish.
(But we may not, we may take it with us.).
Other phrases which can be used with modal meaning: (be)
allowed, (be) permissible; (be) forbidden, (be) banned; (be/ feel)
compelled, (be) compulsory, (be) forced to, (be) obligatory; have the
courage to, dare to.

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They were forced to wear army uniform. (Army uniform was
compulsory.)
We weren’t allowed to contact the teachers. (It wasn’t
permissible to contact them.)

Practice

14.1. Complete the second sentence so it has a similar


meaning to the first. Use the word in brackets.
1. We couldn’t bring our own food to school.
(allow) We weren’t ________________________
2. I wish I hadn’t told him that I cheated in the exam. (should)
I _________________________
3. Turn your mobile phones off. They are not allowed in the
cinema. (better) You’d ____________________________
4. You must hand this work in first thing in the morning.
(have) You ________________________
5. I didn’t have the courage to tell them the truth. (dare) I
didn’t ___________________________
6. They aren’t allowed to have their lights on after 10 p.m.
(supposed) They’re _______________________

14.2. Find and correct the mistakes in sentences 1–8. There is


one mistake in each sentence.
1. You didn’t need rush. There’s another five minutes before the
film starts.
2. We’d better to leave plenty of time to get to the airport in
case of heavy traffic.
3. You didn’t have got to buy a present. That’s very kind of
you.
4. You should don’t drive a car if you’re tired
5. We didn’t had to stop at all on the way.
6. They were supposed deliver the furniture today.
7. You ought to trying this programme – it’s very good.
8. You shouldn’t to talk to people like that. It’s rude.

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15. THE PASSIVE

Use the passive to sound objective and impersonal. The passive


is common in formal writing. e.g. academic writing and news reports.
Use the passive to emphasise the important information at the
beginning of the sentence.
Penicillin was discovered by Fleming. (The most important point
is the invention of penicillin.)
Use the passive if who performs the action is unknown or
unimportant. The emphasis is on the action itself.
The museum was built in the seventeenth century. (We aren’t
interested in who built it.)
Use the passive to show that we are not certain.
It is believed that this ancient society used aspirin. (There is no
proof. It’s just a theory.)
Use the passive to distance ourselves from a statement.
It‟s said that it‟s unlucky to walk under a ladder. (The speaker
might not believe this.)
The passive is often used in formal English to describe rules,
processes or procedures.
Membership cards must be shown at the door before entry.
It is common to use the passive with an infinitive or with to
have + past participle.
She was thought to be the best swimmer in the city.
He is known to have been present during the crimes.
We can use a causative form with a passive meaning. The form
is have/get + object + past participle.
She had her car broken into.
He got his teeth removed.

Spoken grammar

Get is more informal than have.


A spoken form of the causative have is common in the US.
I had the mechanic fix my car.

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Practice

15.1. Complete the second sentence so it has a similar


meaning to the first. Use the passive or causative and the word in
brackets.
1. Police are investigating the case.
(being) The ___________________________
2. The university lets you borrow a car for official business.
(allowed) You _________________________
3. They are delivering Mike’s washing machine today.
(having) Mike ______________________
4. Some people say the tradition began in the nineteenth
century.
(claimed) It _________________________
5. There’s a possibility someone recognised Wilhelm.
(might) Wilhelm _____________________
6. She instructed the players to stretch before the game.
(had) She ___________________________
7. Someone is checking in our luggage right now.
(being) Our _________________________
8. The researchers have only tested the product on volunteers.
(been) The _____________________________

15.2. Rewrite the underlined phrases in the passive. Omit the


“doer” of the action.
(1) They say that the world’s greatest keepers of secrets are
spies. While this may be true, there is another secret connected to
spies that is less well known. They are a huge problem for their
employers. Why? Like most workers, spies retire when they get old.
However, unlike most workers, spies retain numerous high level
secrets. (2) They need to keep these secrets even after the spies retire.
So (3) what can the authorities do with retired ex-spies? In the 1960s,
(4) they considered brainwashing. But (5) they discovered that
brainwashing didn’t work. They also tried hypnotism, in the hope that
(6) they could erase certain memories from the mind. But it turned out
to be impossible to erase some memories and not others, e.g. the

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names of your family members and your street address. So what did
they do in the end? We don’t know, of course. It’s a secret.
1__________________ 4__________________
2__________________ 5__________________
3__________________ 6__________________

16. ELLIPSIS AND SUBSTITUTION ELLIPSIS

Sometimes words which we might expect to be present from a


grammatical point of view are left out because we can understand the
meaning from the context (the preceding or following text). Often the
words which are left out are auxiliary verbs, modal verbs or subjects.
She immediately got up and (she) left the room. (subject)
Should we wait for a while or (should we) phone him
straightaway? (modal verb)
They have finished lunch and (they have) gone for a coffee.
(subject + auxiliary verb)
It is possible to leave out repeated verb phrases or adjectives and
just repeat the auxiliary or modal verb.
Marisa has never tried Asian cooking, but I have (tried Asian
cooking).
Harry always thinks he‟s right about things, but he isn‟t (always
right about things).
I thought we‟d be able to finish this before Monday, but we can‟t
(finish this before Monday).

Spoken grammar

Ellipsis is very common in spoken English as the situational


context is usually very clear between the speakers.
Didn‟t know you were going. (I didn‟t know...) Sounds good to
me. (That/What you‟ve just suggested sounds good.)
This means that some common phrases are often shortened.
Did you have a nice weekend? → Nice weekend?
I suppose so. → Suppose so.
It‟s nice to meet you. → Nice to meet you.

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Substitution

Instead of repeating a word/phrase, they are sometimes replaced


with a substitute word/phrase. Determiners (many, a little, some, etc.),
so, do and not are all used for this.
A:Do you know a lot of the people coming tonight?
B: Not many.
A: What do of think of this dress?
B: Actually, I prefer the other one.
A: Do you think they‟ll be here soon?
B: I expect so. (so= them to be here soon)
A: Who ate all the chocolate biscuits - you?
B: No, Max did. (did =ate all the chocolate biscuits)
A: Will you have to pay a fine?
B: I hope not (not= I won‟t have to pay a fine)

Practice

16.1. Complete the sentences with words in the box.

mine so one there do some ones not

1. This jacket is in a terrible state. I need to buy a new


_________________.
2. Louise loves Italian food, and I _________________ too.
3. A: Is it safe to come out?
B: I think ___________.
4. They’ll probably lose the match, but I hope _______.
5. These batteries are too small. I need those __________ over
there.
6. I’ve been to the Seychelles. We went on holiday
_____________.
7. A: Is that your car?
B: No, _____________ is parked across the road.
8. A: Do you know where all the tools are?
B: There are ____________ in the garage.

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16.2. Decide which words can be omitted in sentences 1–8.
1. I’m not sure if they’ve finished, but I think they have
finished.
2. We could have met them later, but I didn’t want to meet them
later.
3. Do you want a coffee? I’ve just made some coffee.
4. I’d be happy to help if you need me to help.
5. A: What time were we supposed to arrive?
B: We were supposed to arrive at six.
6. Erica had ice cream for dessert and Bill had chocolate cake.
7. They’ll be here soon, but I don’t know exactly when they’ll
be here.
8. A: Have you got the time?
B: The time is half past two.

17. VERB TENSES FOR UNREAL SITUATIONS

After some expressions, we use past tenses to describe unreal or


imaginary situations. These ideas may refer to the past, present or
future.

It’s time

Use it‟s time + past simple to say that something is not


happening but it should be.
It’s time you went home.
We can also use it‟s high time + past simple or it‟s about time +
past simple. These are more emphatic than it‟s time.
It’s high time she left her boyfriend!
It‟s about time you found a job!
what if /suppose/supposing
Use what if/suppose/supposing + past simple to ask about
imaginary situations and their consequences in the present or future.
These are similar to second conditional questions.
What if you missed the plane?
Suppose you got injured, what would the coach say?
Supposing they gave you the prize, how would you feel?

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We can also use these expressions with the past perfect. This is
similar to the third conditional.
What if you‟d failed your exam last week, what would you have
done?

Would rather/ would sooner

Use would rather/ would sooner + past simple to describe


preferences.
I‟d rather you didn’t play football inside.
I‟d sooner they gave me a cheque than a watch when I retire.
If the person expressing the preference is also the subject of the
preference, use the infinitive (not the past tense).
I‟d rather go to Madagascar than Hawaii.
I‟d sooner eat bread than cake.

As if/ as though

Use as if/as though + past simple to say that appearance is


different from reality
She treats me as if I had a disease. (The speaker knows he
doesn’t have a disease.)
They use this place as though it was a playground. (It isn’t a
playground.)
Use the present simple/present perfect with these expressions
when the situation may be true.
He acts as if he knows what he‟s doing. (Maybe he knows what
he’s doing.)
You look as though you haven’t slept for days. (Maybe she
hasn’t slept for days.)

Practice

17.1. Cross out the incorrect alternative.


1. I’d prefer/sooner/rather we went somewhere picturesque
than stay here.

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2. He scores goals as if/as were/as though it was the easiest
thing in the world.
3. What if/Suppose/How about that half-baked idea became a
reality?
4. It’s the/high/about time she started living up to her name.
5. She’d rather/want that/sooner they came up with some ideas
than just criticise.
6. Supposing/Rather/Suppose your career went downhill, what
would you do?
7. Isn’t it one time/time/about time you took her feelings into
consideration, too?
8. In meetings, I’m treated as if/ as though/as I was an idiot.

17.2. Rewrite the sentences using the words in brackets and


the past simple.
1. You really should speak to your mother.
(high time) ______________________________
2. What would happen if I pressed this button?
(Suppose)_______________________________
3. The way they treat that girl, you’d think she was a princess.
(As though) _____________________________
4. Given the choice, I would learn Chinese instead of German.
(Sooner) __________________________
5. Imagine a volcanic eruption in a densely populated area.
(What if)________________________
6. She ought to stop smoking now.
(About time) ____________________________
7. Anyone would think they own the place, the way they
behave.
(as if) ___________________________________
8. I don’t want you to go there.
(rather)__________________________________

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18. ADVERBIALS

Adverbs or adverbial phrases give us information or detail about


how, when, why, how often, where, etc., something happens. They
can be single words or groups of words.

Adverbials of manner

These describe how something happens.


He left the room quietly.
She spoke in a soft voice.

Adverbials of time

These describe when something happened.


In 2008, the government was overthrown.
We saw him yesterday.

Adverbials of frequency

These describe how often something happened.


We must have gone there pretty much every day for fifteen
years.
I often blog about this topic.
Adverbials of probability
These describe how probable or improbable something is.
He is right, without a doubt.
She is undoubtedly right.
Adverbials of purpose
These describe the reason behind/for an action.
They play chess to work on their strategic thinking skills.
She apologised for being so insensitive.

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Comment adverbials
These describe someone’s viewpoint.
The clothes in that shop are ridiculously expensive.
Adverbs and adverbial phrases usually go at the end of a
sentence in the following order: how, where, when.
Adverbials of purpose generally come last.
They wondered aimlessly (how) around the park (where) at the
end of the concert (when) in search of the keys (purpose).
Some adverbials can go at the start of the sentence for emphasis.
On the radio, they played his music all day long.
Adverbs/Adverbials of frequency usually go before the main
verb (or after the verb to be/auxiliary verb).
Our paths have frequently crossed.
Practice
18.1. Choose the correct option (a, b or c) to complete the
text.
The £40 Art Collection
Tom Alexander, began (1) ________ collecting British Modern
art after moving to the Isle of Arran, UK in 1947. Having
(2) _______established a shop (3) ________ with his brother in the
village of Brodick, he joined the Officers Emergency Army Reserve
in order to do something “public spirited”. (4)________, the Officers
Emergency Army Reserve paid him an (5) _________ sum of
money – around £40. With the encouragement of his wife Catherine,
he decided to use this money to buy one work of art per year.
Alexander had acquired an interest in avant-garde British art after
purchasing his first piece in 1943 and visited the Tate and National
Gallery (6) ____________. In a fashion that would be impossible
today, Alexander wrote (7) ____________ to artists whose work he
liked and asked them to send him a piece of their own choosing. Many
famous artists (8) __________ responded to Tom Alexander’s direct
and eloquent approach, often enjoying the idea of having works on
Arran. The exhibition includes examples of correspondence Alexander
had (9)________.

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1. a) often; 2. a) clearly; 3. a) regularly;
b) obviously; b) successfully; b) frequently;
c) here; c) there; c) everywhere;
d) to his surprise; d) surprised; d) for a surprise;
e) per year; e) per month; e) annual;
f) always; f) whenever; f) impossibly;
g) straight; possible; g) directly;
h) generously; g) immediately; h) used to;
i) obviously. h) often; i) with the artists.
i) usually.

18.2. Put the phrases in the correct order to make sentences.


There may be more than one possible order.
1. I / just grab / if / at lunchtime /I’m in a hurry / quickly / a
sandwich / to eat.
2. generally / sit / too tired to talk /in front of the television / in
the evenings / my husband and I.
3. to reduce the number / carefully plan / in English / I / always
/ of mistakes / anything I write.
4. in front of / too much time / I / the computer / consistently
/spend / unfortunately.
5. enjoyed each other’s company /online / for a while / they met
/and.
6. about six months ago / painting /I / took up / to help me relax.
7. when I left this morning / my things/ I left / on the kitchen
table.
8. have more time / probably / I’ll /when my exams are finished
/ to see my friends.

19. INVERSION

Inversion is when we put an auxiliary verb before the subject of


a clause.
I never saw such a wonderful sight again.

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Auxiliary + subject+ clause

Never again did I see such a wonderful sight.


Inversion is common in written formal texts, but it is also used in
informal spoken English to add dramatic effect or emphasis.
No way would I ever go on a trip like that! (There is no
way/chance that would ever go on a trip like that.)
Not in a million years would I agree to cross Africa on a
motorbike!

Negative adverbials

In formal English, it is common to use inversion after negative


adverbial expressions and restrictive words such as only, never, hardly
and little.
At no time did they stop to think about the consequences.
Not until the ambulance arrived did we realise how serious it
was.
Hardly had the film begun when she fell sound asleep in her
chair.
Never before/ Rarely/Seldom had I seen such landscapes.
Little did they realise how stupid they had been.
No sooner had they opened the packet than the biscuits were
finished.
No longer will we accept these poor conditions.
Only then did they see what a fantastic chance they‟d been
offered.
Only now that am pregnant has he finally agreed to stop riding
his motorbike.
Not only did they leave their families for more two months, but
they also travelled to some of the dangerous places on the plane.
Under no circumstances/ On no account should you leave the
bike unattended.
Scarcely had they left the room than people started talking about
them.

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Conditional clauses

In formal English, inversion can be used with conditional


sentences.
If we had known how much it was going to cost, we would never
have chosen it
Had we known how much it was going to cost, we would never
have chosen it.
If you were to have approached from the other direction, you
might have seen the signs.
Were you to have approached from the other direction you
might have seen the signs.

Practice

19.1. Match the sentence halves.


1. No sooner had I reached the door…
2. Little did I know what…
3. At no time did she…
4. Only after the film had started…
5. Scarcely had I walked in through the door…
6. Had I suspected that he was untrustworthy…
A. …admit that it was her own mistake.
B. …I obviously wouldn’t have given him the package.
C. …than realised I had left my keys inside.
D. …did I realise that I’d seen it before.
E. …surprises they had in store for me.
F. …when the phone rang.

19.2. Find and correct the five mistakes in sentences 1–8.


1. Seldom have I seen him looking so miserable.
2. Not only have they decided to move cities, but they are
leaving the US altogether.
3. Under no circumstances you should leave the office.
4. We had known there would be a water shortage, we would
have been more prepared.
5. Only later she realised her mistake.

254
6. Had he invited us, we would have been delighted to accept.
7. At no time did she consider giving up her campaign.
8. Were they to apologised more quickly, I might have forgiven
them.

20. COMPARATIVE STRUCTURES MODIFIERS


Structures Big difference Small difference
modifiers
Formal Considerably, Marginally, fractionally
infinitely, decidedly,
significantly
Neutral Much, far, a lot, a Slightly, a bit, a little,
good deal barely any
Informal Miles, way, loads –

Their technology was considerably more advanced than ours.


We‟re way better than you at football (spoken English)!
Modifiers with as + as
We also use modifiers to give more detail about as + adjective +
as statements.
To show a big difference, use nothing like, or nowhere near.
He‟s nothing like as obstinate as his brother.
She‟s nowhere near as good as me at chess.
To show a small difference use almost or nearly.
He‟s almost as neurotic as me.
To emphasise no difference use just or every bit.
I‟m just as clever as you.
We‟re every bit as good as our competitors.
Double comparatives
Use double comparatives with the to say that one situation leads
to another.
The bigger the lie, the more people believe it.
The more you read, the more you‟ll learn.

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Progressive comparatives
Use the progressive comparative form to say something is
escalating. Use the comparative word twice (separated by and) to
emphasise the adjective.
House prices are getting lower and lower.

Practice

20.1. Complete the sentences with a suitable word.


1. She’s nothing _______________ as intelligent as her
father.
2. We are ________________ lot stronger than them.
3. I’m ________________ any bigger now than I was aged
twelve.
4. This tastes a good ______________ better than it did
yesterday.
5. He’s ________________ bit as famous as his mother.
6. Some sprinters just get faster and _______________ as
they get older.
7. The closer you come, _______________ more dangerous
it’ll be.
8. I’m nowhere _______________ as ambitious as my
brother.

20.2. Put the underlined words in the correct order to


complete the text.
For footballer Tiago Manuel Dias Correia, better known as
Bébé, life (1) better better just and gets. He is (2) as near as nowhere
famous Cristiano Ronaldo, but his story (3) bit remarkable every as is.
In (4) than little year a more, from living in a shelter for young people
in Lisbon, Bébé is on the brink of stardom. He was playing for the
CAIS Association in the 2009 European Street Football Festival in
Bosnia when he joked with his team-mates that one day he (5) greater
far would than be Ronaldo. While he still has a long way to go before
he achieves that, he has just (6) deal closer a good come. During the
tournament in Bosnia, Bébé was the best player, but according to the

256
director of Bebe’s team, he was (7) like nothing hero flamboyant his
as as, Ronaldo. “He was a very simple sort of guy who did not have
much. But in terms of ability, he was the team. But he did not try to
keep the ball. He involved the others”. After the tournament, he was
signed by Estrela Amadora, a Portuguese club. Then he moved on to a
club called Vitoria. After he had impressed in a pre-season game,
suddenly Manchester United came calling. In August 2010 the British
club signed him for a reported 7.4 million, (8) more than money
considerably he would have expected to see in his lifetime. “I had the
dream of playing for a major club, said Bébe, and that dream has
come true”.

1 5
2 6
3 7
4 8

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TEXT BOOKLET

EXAM PRACTICE 1

Text 1
Education for Life

Only a few weeks left, and then Karen’s accent would be gone
for good. She could hardly wait. She had not enjoyed lessons at
school, had not done well in her exams, but each class that she took
with Mrs. Melrose excited her more and more: never, she told her
tutor, had she learned so much so quickly. Before the first lesson,
Mrs. Melrose had made Karen read out a passage from a book, and
had recorded her on a cassette as she spoke, which Mrs. Melrose
promised to play back at the end of the course. “You won’t believe
what you hear, Karen!” she had said. “You won’t recognise your own
voice”.
Already, Karen laughed when she remembered the way she used
to speak; now, in the audition waiting rooms, she heard the other girls
rehearse their lines – “Treat yer “ands, vis win’ah to rose’ip
“andtream” – “Give “er somefink special, vis Moverink Sundee” –
and she had to hide her smile behind her script. Courage rose in her
chest, warm and bright, swelling through her throat and out into her
voice: “Treat your hands, this winter…”
With each word she perfected, Karen felt a piece of her old life
fall away. Soon, there would be nothing left of the foolish girl she had
been, just a trail of dropped consonants and languid diphthongs drying
up and disappearing in her wake. Walking, she felt taller, her eyes
further from the ground; in the mirror she tilted her head upwards, and
practised a smile a mile wide.
“Practise, always practise”, Mrs Melrose said, so Karen spoke
whenever she was alone, narrating each action, enunciating each
thought. “I am making my breakfast”, she said in the kitchenette,
“Strawbry – strawberry jam, and a nice cup of tea”. Surely, the offers
from the auditions would start arriving soon: she dreaded leaving her
flat in case the telephone should ring, and in the evenings she kept the
volume on her radio down low, the telephone within an arm’s quick
258
reach. She read the news with the newsreader, a beat behind: “Good
evening”. “Good evening”. “This is the BBC”. “This is the BBC”.
Who knew where advertisements on the radio could lead?
Television commercials, a small part in an afternoon drama, and why
stop there? Karen from the terrace was gone. Karen who had failed
her exams; Karen, guaranteed fodder for the typing pool or the factory
floor had lost her voice: no one could hear her any more. Karen from
the secondary modern, who had saved her paper-round pennies for
cheap Rimmel lipsticks that her mother forbade her to wear: she was
no more than the flick of a ghost in the mirror, a slip of the tongue.
Now, what money Karen had went to Mrs. Melrose, and was money
well spent.
One day, she thought, decades from now, a plaque would be
nailed to Lite front of her parents’ house, on the authority of the
Greater London Council, and her granddaughters would he
photographed in Dior beneath it: “Karen Driscoll, loved by millions,
never lived here”.
Anna Lewis [27]

Text 2
Waiting for the Plane

It’s the third time now that the plane has gone around and
Maggie is feeling her initial euphoria at hearing its engine slowly
draining from her heart. Her patient moans softly on the stretcher and
Maggie reflexively mumbles some words of comfort, then slumps
back against the side of the troopie that doubles as an ambulance. She
is so very, very tired and feels something close to hatred towards this
lady on the stretcher, this lady who will not leave the drunken husband
who beats her and so gets beaten up again tonight, and then comes to
Maggie for help with long lacerations down her arms, a broken leg
with bones poking out through the skin, puffy lips and her right eye
swollen shut, smelling of alcohol and piss, moaning and crying,
“Sister, Sister…” And Maggie, who pulls herself out of bed and
inserts intravenous lines, cleans and sutures and above all waits for the
plane to get there, can remember a time when her heart would have

259
ached for this pitiful woman, but instead all she can feel is cold fury at
being woken.
She tries to feel guilty for this but she cannot even summon the
self-discipline to chide herself.
“I am tired and burnt out”, she thinks, as she sags against the
troopie and watches the coldly burning stars. High above, the tiny
plane attempts a fourth approach at the dirt airstrip. The electric lights
will not come on and Jack the policeman is driving manically between
the 44 gallon drums that line the airstrip, trying to light the back-up
flares before the plane gets too low on fuel and turns back to the city
and civilization and drags the last of its hope and light away with it.
It’s strange but all that Maggie can remember when she leaves
the desert is how beautiful it is. How the colours at dawn and dusk
glow in mauve and pastel and how, at night, one can’t watch the stars
and almost hear the earth turning. And when she is away all she
remembers of the people are the women who take her digging for
yams and laugh hysterically at her attempts to catch goanna; the
children who cry out, “Sister, Sister” and want hugs from her as she
passes. “Funny”, she thinks, when she’s away the flies that gather at
their snotty noses and weepy eyes are a reason for her to return and to
help them, rather than a reminder of her futility.
Right now, though, anxiously waiting as Jack struggles to fight
another flare, Maggie hates the community. Hates the sounds of
people drinking and fighting that she can hear in the distance (for
there’s money and alcohol in the community tonight) and she hates
the desert too, with its huge, imprisoning remoteness.
A memory comes into her head: many years ago, on a holiday in
the north of England, she stood atop Hadrian’s Wall and stared out
across the soft green and grey landscape that was once the outer
boundary of the civilized world. She has a sudden surge of empathy
tor the Roman soldiers who would have been stationed along the wall
because the desert and the woman muttering on the stretcher and the
distant yells from the community are all alien, The only link with her
world is the Royal Flying Doctor plane and even this seems like it is
going to desert her.
But possibly not. Jack is gunning the engine of his land cruiser
as he roars down the runway towards the last fare and Maggie can just

260
make out his silhouette in the headlights of the car as he jumps out and
reaches into the drum. With a whoosh, the flare catches and Maggie’s
satellite phone rings – the flight sister tells her that, yes, they’ll be able
to come in now. Although she finds him unbearably pompous, Maggie
wants to hug Jack as he drives over and jumps out of the cab, stinking
of kerosene. Instead she smiles and thanks him and together they
watch the plane descend and come to a rapid stop on the short runway.
The door opens and the flight sister emerges with a torch that catches
the dust hanging in the air. The patient is loaded onto the plane and
there are congratulations from the flight sister to Maggie for managing
until they arrived.
Then the plane turns and takes off again, Jack drives off to break
up a fight in the community and only Maggie is left by the runway
where she stands, leaning against the troopie, and listening to the last
throb of the aeroplane’s engines as it disappears into the black night.
Stephanie Davis [22]

Text 3
Shades of Dreaming

Ibrahim arrived in Australia by plane on his 9th birthday. At his


new school he settled quietly into the class, one of many students who
spoke something other than English at home. At the first lunchtime the
other kids asked him “Can you play Cricket?”, and Ibrahim learnt to
speak a foreign language through the playground rules of sport.
While adjusting to school was smooth, he still struggled within
himself. Years ago, a drought of happiness had dried up Ibrahim’s
dreams, and he settled into his new country having only ever
slumbered in black inky nothingness.
He asked himself, “What is a dream? Is it real? Is it a place?
What colour is it?”
The sedate pace of the back of the class and of lunchtime balls
thwacked for six-and-out eventually restored something to him. A
year after he arrived in Australia, on Ibrahim’s 10th birthday, he
started to dream. He dreamt of riding an aeroplane like a skateboard in
the sky, rolling off cloud banks, sliding off skyscrapers. Ibrahim

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dreamt of spin bowling googlys and yelling “howzaaaaaat!!!!” with
one finger raised in appeal.
When Ibrahim woke from a dream it would remain with him.
Chunks of fragmented feeling that dissipated as he grasped at them,
like smoke from a campfire or bubbles in the bath.
Ibrahim asked his sister “What do you dream of?”
She looked at him over her corn flakes. “I dream of floating in
cool water, looking at stars. Sometimes, I dream of Mum”.
Ibrahim hated the pain that subject raised, and asked his sister
instead “What are dreams?”
“I don’t know. But now, sometimes I dream in Arabic and
sometimes in English. When I wake up I don’t remember which
language it was. Just the feeling of it”.
With the nocturnal tap flowing again, previously buried
memories surfaced. Ibrahim’s dreams became laced in fear or soaked
in longing: lingering nightmares of hard faces and enforced silences.
He dreamt of a song that he couldn’t quite remember, that was tinged
with the smell of rose water and coffee.
Ibrahim asked his father. “Papa, do you dream?”
“Dreams are for nothing. Craziness inside your head”. Ibrahim’s
father grumbled rather than spoke, his voice low to the ground like the
yellow cab he drove.
“What is a dream, Papa?”
“It distracts from the pain of everyday. Your mother would say –
“dreams are for doing” – but she dreamed of changing things back
home, not of coming to this place where they look at your university
degrees and tell you to go back to driving taxis, or back to your
bloody country”.
“What colour do you dream in?”
Ibrahim’s father looked him in the eye, “My dreams are black
with two pinpoints of white. You and your sister”.
Two days after his birthday, he spoke to his Grandfather late at
night, their voices echoing around the computer headphones like
marbles in a jar.
“Grandad, what are dreams?” Ibrahim asked.
Grandad lived far away, but loved Ibrahim and took his
questions seriously. “Some people say dreams are nothing important.

262
Others say dreams are messages from God. Some others again say
dreams are just your subconscious thoughts, real events jumbled into
fantasy”.
“Do you dream in colour, or in black and white?”
“My dreams are as bright as the full moon, as silky as the
blackest night, all wrapped in Christmas paper”. “Do you think Papa
dreams?”
“Everyone dreams, my child. But the question is not whether
people dream or not. The question is whether someone dreams with
their eyes open or with their eyes shut”.
Benjamin Rogers [27]

Text 4
The Perfect Peppersoup

An old man in a faded yellow shirt sat in a windowless room on


a raised concrete form, the only source of heat came from somewhere
beneath the plastic mattress and the scratchy blanket the blank faced
police woman had handed him after taking his thumb prints and
swabbing his mouth. He heard voices and a metallic clang as the cell
door swung open.
At the front desk a harassed looking sergeant handed the old
man back his belongings, his threadbare cap and the Seiko that had
stopped working the day his beloved Evelyn died. The policeman
dramatically held the blue plastic bag at an arm’s length to the old
man who took it and made sure its contents were intact: the goat meat,
palm oil, leaves and spices. He ignored the bemused expression on the
officer’s face and signed the document declaring he had been returned
the possessions they had taken off him the night before.
No one spoke to him as he shuffled towards the exit.
“Mr Easy-nwa?” He stopped and prayed to the God who now
took care of Evelyn to please take him far away from this unhappy
place of expressionless faces, clipped accents and people who did not
even attempt to pronounce his name right.
“Ezenwa”. He said and looked at a woman with tangerine lips,
her name tag said Jessica Harlow, Social Services. “A bit far from

263
home”, she said as she drove fast and with confidence the way Evelyn
used to. He wondered if she meant the 50 miles from Toxteth or the
50,000 miles from Enugu. He did not bother replying as this woman
had plenty to say about the weather, bad drivers, her daughter’s school
play…
At last she drew up outside the block of flats where he lived.
“Got here in the end”, her cheery tone subsided as she added
seriously, “Really Mr. Easy-nwa, if you keep getting lost, we will
have to consider moving you into a home”.
“No need, I was not lost”, he answered with equal sobriety. He
carefully rolled up the sleeves of the oversize bomber jacket he wore
and turned on the tap to wash his hands, relieved the pipes were not
frozen. In a clean saucepan he placed the chopped pieces of goat meat.
The herbs and spices that had taken him three months to track down,
the uziza seeds had taken him into the heart of Granby Market in
Liverpool, his nchanwu leaves down a shady back alley in
Manchester, and yesterday, among other food items, the finest goat
meat from a Sierra Leonean Butcher in Birmingham. That had taken
some time, so much he missed the last train and when the police found
him shivering outside the locked up station, so cold he couldn’t
answer loudly enough the pink faced burly copper who yelled in his
face, “What’s your name, sir?” spraying his face with AZ spittle as he
did so, leaving them with no choice but to frisk an exhausted,
hypothermic old black man and finding him in possession of
mysterious condiments including a bag of dried bitter-leaf which
could of course be mistaken for anything which resulted in him
getting read his rights and charged with… possession???
He lifted the lid of the bubbling broth, the room was suffused
with the rich and spicy aroma of his culinary effort. He served two
bowls, taking the chipped one and placing the other opposite where
Evelyn would have sat. He would tell her about his adventure, it was
their anniversary and this was the perfect pepper soup to celebrate.
Ken Onyia [27]

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Discussion

1. Possible aspects to discuss.

Education for Life


Educational system
Language and cultural identity, or self-identity
Linguistic dominance
Social behaviours and stances
Taboos versus what is socially acceptable

Waiting for the Plane


Drug abuse
Health services
Hygiene
Illnesses, symptoms of good/ill health
Mental health

Shades of Dreaming
Globalization
International economy
Migration (rural-urban, or international)
Racism, prejudice, discrimination

The Perfect Peppersoup


Beliefs, values, and norms
Culinary heritage
How culture is learned
Intercultural assimilation
Migration
Verbal and non-verbal communication
2. Compare how each story gives an insight into the character of
the protagonist and their method of dealing with a specific issue. How
successful are they at tackling the problems they are faced with? Use
the chart below to make judgments and comparisons between the
characters and their situations.

265
The title of What What To what extent do
the story and information is problems do the characters use
the name of given on the the – language
the background of characters – logic
protagonist the protagonist, encounter? – emotions
and what can be – sense perception
deduced about to solve the issues
his or her they are dealing
Education for character? with?
Life Karen
Driscoll
Waiting for the
Plane
Maggie
Shades of
Dreaming
Ibrahim
The Perfect
Peppersoup
Mr. Ezenwa

As a result of this analysis, is it possible to say which characters


make the wisest decisions and which ones make the worst decisions?
3. All the four stories involve descriptions of social issues such
as health, migration, education, and language. Two of the stories
communicate the need to uphold the rights of various groups in
society, and the other two stories deal with human rights. Think of
social issues in your own community that need highlighting. Write
your own short story to illustrate the social issue of your choice.
Set up a short story reading group or a “Literature Café” to
present, share, and discuss fiction in English. Explore original,
creative writing by students or selected texts from the Anglophone
world which will promote togetherness within your school
community.
Design posters which marry fiction with visual arts and show
them around. Could images and words brighten up a dull corner? Can

266
an uplifting poem elevate a corridor? Will the cafeteria become more
inspiring with a well-chosen quotation?

Developing writing skills

Here are some writing exercises based on the short stories you
have read.

Education for Life


An advertisement for Mrs. Melrose’s language classes.
Karen’s letter of application to the BBC to become a radio
announcer.
An interview with Karen once she has become a celebrity.
Karen’s diary entry from the time she failed to find a glamorous
job.

Waiting for the Plane


Jack’s police report on the disturbances in the community or
report of the arrest of the injured woman’s husband.
Maggie’s diary entry of the events of the night in the story.
A magazine feature article on the Flying Doctor service in
Australia.
A brochure for holidays in the Australian desert and outback.

Shades of Dreaming
A letter from the father to a relative in the homeland retelling the
family’s escape from political oppression and their arrival in
Australia.
A school report for Ibrahim in which each of his teachers
comment on his progress and his English skills.
A letter from the grandfather to Ibrahim offering him advice on
how to settle in his adopted country and retain his identity, culture,
and language.
Ibrahim’s blog entry about his dreams and their meaning.

267
The Perfect Peppersoup
A newspaper report under the headline “Elderly man arrested for
drugs possession released without charge”.
Social worker Jessica Harlow’s official report on Mr.Ezenwa
and her recommendations.
Mr. Ezenwa’s instructions to fellow countrymen for sourcing
and preparing Nigerian peppersoup in the United Kingdom.
A police report on Mr. Ezenwa’s arrest and subsequent release.

EXAM PRACTICE 2

Text 1

Educating Dads May Help Protect Babies from Abuse


A new study paints a heartbreaking portrait of babies who die
from child abuse – and suggests new ways to protect children

A study published online in Pediatrics proved that more than half


of the babies and toddlers studied showed signs of previous abuse.
The study included data from five states and seven cities.
Babies this age, who are vulnerable in so many ways, are also
among the most likely of all children to be victims of homicide, the
study says.
More than 2,400 children under 2 were murdered in the USA
from 2001 to 2005, almost twice the number killed in car accidents,
the study says. Children this age account for about half of all
homicides of children under 14. The murder rate for babies this age –
6 per 100,000 children – is 10 times higher than the rate for children
aged 7 to 8 years, and even higher than the rate for 15-and 16-year-
old, the study says.
In the study, the largest number of babies died after being shaken
to death, often because of crying. Many of these deaths may be
preventable, because evidence suggests that the perpetrators act out of
frustration and ignorance rather than a desire to harm, says co-author
Takeo Fujiwara of Harvard School of Public Health.
The study also shows that child advocates need to do a better job
of educating men about ways to cope with crying, says Carole Jenny,

268
a spokeswoman for the American Academy of Pediatrics on child
abuse. More than 70% of perpetrators of the study were male. That’s
striking, given that women often spend more time with infants, says
co-author Catherine Barber.
There’s no national system to educate parents about shaken baby
syndrome before they leave the hospital, Jenny says. Although 14
states require that new parents receive information before leaving the
hospital, states rarely provide money to fund these programs, says
Philip Scribano, medical director of The Center for Child and Family
Advocacy at the Ohio state University College of Medicine.
Although home visiting and hospital-based educational programs
have had some success, many efforts fail to include fathers, he says.
“The message to fathers should be, “Don’t shake a baby”, says
Jenny, who notes that for every baby that dies from being shaken,
seven or eight suffer brain damage, blindness or other injuries. “If you
get angry, put the baby down and ask for help”.
Liz Szabo [21]

Ex. 1. Answer the following questions.


1. Which online magazine published the study results about child
abuse?
2. Which word in para 2 is similar in meaning to “defenseless”?
3. According to the study, what is the most common reason for
babies’ homicide?
4. What two types of programmes can be used to educate parents
about the Shaken Baby Syndrome?
5. Apart from death, what other two damages result from
shaking babies when crying?

Ex. 2. From statements A to J select the four that are true


according to the text.
A. The new study highlights some protective measures against
child abuse.
B. Toddlers are more likely to be killed than babies.
C. Violent homicides in the US resulted in as many death rates
as those caused by car accidents.
D. 2-year-olds murder rates exceed those of 8-year-old ones.

269
E. Many baby homicides are premeditated.
F. More needs to be done to help parents deal with crying babies.
G. Educational programs are financed by the government.
H. Fathers are usually excluded from educational programmes.
I. Women spend less quality time with their children compared
to fathers.
J. Fathers are advised to seek help when they get frustrated with
crying babies.

Ex. 3. Choose the correct answer.


The main purpose of the article is to:
a) criticize the existing educational programmes.
b) raise awareness about babies’ homicides.
c) present statistics about the new study.
d) teach fathers how to deal with crying babies.

Text 2

Harp Seals on Thin Ice after 32 Years of Warming


Warming in the North Atlantic over the last 32 years has
significantly reduced winter sea ice cover in harp seal breeding
grounds, resulting in sharply higher death rates among seal pups in
recent years, according to a new Duke University-led study.
“The kind of mortality we’re seeing in eastern Canada is
dramatic. Entire year-classes may be disappearing from the population
in low ice years – essentially all of the pups die”, said David W,
Johnston, research scientist at the Duke University Marine Lab. “It
calls into question the resilience of the population”.
The study, recently published in the peer-reviewed journal PLUS
ONE, is the first to show that seasonal sea ice cover in all four harp
seal breeding regions in the North Atlantic has declined by up to 6
percent a decade since 1979, when satellite records of ice conditions
in the region began.
Harp seals rely on stable winter sea ice as safe places to give
birth and nurse their young until the pups can swim and hunt on their
own. Female seals typically seek out the thickest, oldest ice packs in

270
sub-Arctic waters each February and March, and have adapted to the
spring melt by developing unusually short, 12-day nursing periods.
“As a species, they’re well suited to deal with natural short-term
shifts in climate, but our research suggests they may not be well
adapted to absorb the effects of short-term variability combined with
longer-term climate change and other human influences such as
hunting and by-catch”, Johnston said.
Analysis of older data revealed that North Atlantic Oscillation-
related changes in seasonal ice cover may have contributed to major
declines in seal populations on the east coast of Canada from 1950 to
1972, and to a period of steady recovery from 1973 to 2000.
“This clearly shows that harp seal populations across the
Atlantic fluctuate pretty much in synch with NAO trends and
associated winter ice conditions”, Johnston said. “But there’s a caveat.
Regardless of NAO conditions, our models show that sea ice cover in
all harp seal breeding regions in the North Atlantic have been
declining by as much as 6 percent a decade over the study period. The
losses in bad years outweigh the gains in good years”.
A key unanswered question, he added, is whether seals will be
able to respond to the long-term trend by moving to other, more stable
ice habitats.
Recent reports that some harp seals are whelping in new
breeding grounds off East Greenland indicate some shifting may be
taking place, but thousands still return each year to traditional
breeding grounds in the Gulf of St. Lawrence or along the Front, off
Newfoundland, regardless of ice conditions.
“There’s only so much ice out there, and declines in the quantity
and quality of it across the region, coupled with the earlier arrival of
spring ice breakup, is literally leaving these populations on thin ice”,
Johnston said. “It may take years of good ice and steady population
gains to make up for the heavy losses sustained during the recent
string of bad ice years in eastern Canada”.
[23]
Ex. 1. Answer the following questions.
1. What is the main purpose of the study led by Duke
University?

271
2. According to the article, what is the suitable environment to
breed young harp seals?

Ex. 2. Complete the following table by indicating to whom or


to what the word/s underlined refer/s.

In the phrase The word/s Refer/s to

Example: ...resilience of the The Seal pups


population population
1. …ice conditions in the region... The region
2. ...and nurse their young… Their
3. 6 percent a decade over the study The study
period. period
4. A key unanswered question, he He
added…
5. There’s only so much ice out There
there...

Ex. 3. The sentences below are either true or false. Tick the
correct response and then justify it with a relevant brief quotation
from the text.
Example. Numbers of seal pups in the North Atlantic have
notably dropped off. – True.
Justification: ...sharply higher death rate…
1. Studying ice covers in the North Atlantic has been in progress
since the 19th century.
2. Female harp seals breed throughout the year.
3. Harp seals are known for their ability to cope with all types of
climate.
4. The North Atlantic is still sought by seals for breeding despite
the warming.
5. There is no hope of recovering the original ice quantities and
numbers of seals in the North Atlantic.

272
Text 3
The Storyteller

“Once upon a time”, began the bachelor, “there was a little girl
called Bertha, who was extra-ordinarily good”. The children’s
momentarily-aroused interest began at once to flicker; all stories
seemed dreadfully alike, no matter who told them. “She did all that
she was told, she was always truthful, she kept her clothes clean, ate
milk puddings as though they were jam tarts, learned her lessons
perfectly, and was polite in her manners”.
“Was she pretty?” asked the bigger of the small girls. “Not as
pretty as any of you”, said the bachelor, “but she was horribly good”.
There was a wave of reaction in favour of the story; the word
“horrible” in connection with goodness was a novelty that
commended itself. It seemed to introduce a ring of truth that was
absent from the aunt’s tales of infant life.
“She was so good”, continued the bachelor, “that she won
several medals for goodness, which she always wore, pinned on to her
dress. There was a medal for obedience, another medal for
punctuality, and a third for good behaviour. They were large metal
medals and they clicked against one another as she walked. No other
child in the town where she lived had as many as three medals, so
everybody knew that she must be an extra good child”. “Horribly
good”, quoted Cyril.
“Everybody talked about her goodness, and the Prince of the
country got to hear about it, and he said that as she was so very good
she might be allowed once a week to walk in his park, which was just
outside the town. It was a beautiful park, and no children were ever
allowed in it, so it was great honour for Bertha to be allowed to go
there”.
“Were there any sheep in the park?” demanded Cyril, “No”, said
the bachelor, “there were no sheep”. “Why weren’t there any sheep?”
came the inevitable question arising out of that answer. The aunt
permitted herself a smile, which might almost have been described as
a grin, “There were no sheep in the park”, said the bachelor, “because
the Prince’s mother had once had a dream that her son would either be
killed by a sheep or else by a clock falling on him. For that reason the

273
Prince never kept a sheep in his park or a clock in his palace”. The
aunt suppressed a gasp of admiration. “Was the Prince killed by a
sheep or by a clock?” asked Cyril. “He is still alive, so we can’t tell
whether the dream will come true”, said the bachelor unconcernedly;
“anyway, there were no sheep in the park, but there were lots of little
pigs running all over the place”.
“What colour were they?” “Black with white faces, white with
black spots, black all over, grey with white patches, and some were
white all over”. The storyteller paused to let a full idea of the park’s
treasures sink into the children’s imaginations; then he resumed:
“Bertha was rather sorry to find that there were no flowers in the park.
She had promised her aunts, with tears in her eyes, that she would not
pick any of the kind Prince’s flowers, and she had meant to keep her
promise, so of course it made her feel silly to find that there were no
flowers to pick”.
“Why weren’t there any flowers?” “Because the pigs had eaten
them all”, said the bachelor promptly. “The gardeners had told the
Prince that you couldn’t have pigs and flowers, so he decided to have
pigs and no flowers”. There was a murmur of approval at the
excellence of the Prince’s decision; so many people would have
decided the other way. “There were lots of other delightful things in
the park. There were ponds with gold and blue and green fish in them,
and trees with beautiful parrots that said clever things at a moment’s
notice, and humming birds that hummed all the popular tunes of the
day. Bertha walked up and down and enjoyed herself immensely, and
thought to herself: “If I were not so extraordinarily good, I should not
have been allowed to come into this beautiful park and enjoy all that
there is to be seen in it”, and her three medals clinked against one
another as she walked and helped to remind her how very good she
really was. Just then an enormous wolf came prowling into the park to
see if it could catch a fat little pig for its supper”.
“What colour was it?” asked the children, amid an immediate
quickening of interest. “Mud-colour all over, with a black tongue and
pale grey eyes that gleamed with unspeakable ferocity. The first thing
that he saw in the park was Bertha; her pinafore was so spotlessly
white and clean that it could be seen from a great distance. Bertha saw
the wolf and saw that it was stealing towards her, and she began to

274
wish that she had never been allowed to come into the park. She ran as
hard as she could, and the wolf came after her with huge leaps and
bounds. She managed to reach a shrubbery of myrtle bushes and she
hid herself in one of the thickest of the bushes. The wolf came sniffing
among the branches, its black tongue lolling out of its mouth and its
pale grey eyes glaring with rage. Bertha was terribly frightened, and
thought to herself: “If had not been so extraordinarily good, I should
have been safe in the town at this moment”. However, the scent of the
myrtle was so strong that the wolf could not sniff out where Bertha
was hiding, and the bushes were so thick that he might have hunted
about in them for a long time without catching sight of her, so he
thought he might as well go off and catch a little pig instead. Bertha
was trembling very much at having the wolf prowling and sniffing so
near her, and as she trembled, the medal for obedience clinked against
the medals for good conduct and punctuality. The wolf was just
moving away when he heard the sound of the medals clinking and
stopped to listen; they clinked again in a bush quite near him. He
dashed into the bush, his pale grey eyes gleaming with ferocity and
triumph, and dragged Bertha out and devoured her to the last morsel.
All that was left of her were her shoes, bits of clothing, and the three
medals for goodness”.
“Were any of the little pigs killed?” “No, they all escaped”.
“The story began badly”, said the smaller of the small girls, “but
it had a beautiful ending”. “It is the most beautiful story that I ever
heard”, said the bigger of the small girls with immense decision. “It is
the only beautiful story I have ever heard”, said Cyril.
A dissentient opinion came from the aunt. “You have
undermined the effect of years of careful teaching”. “At any rate”, said
the bachelor, collecting his belongings preparatory to leaving the
carriage, “I kept them quiet for ten minutes, which was more than you
were able to do”.
Saki (H.H. Munro) [21]

Ex. 1. Answer the following questions.


1. What is the children’s first reaction to the bachelor’s story?
2. What clue gives the children the impression that the
bachelor’s story will be different from others?

275
3. Why does the aunt suppress a gasp of admiration?
4. “Momentarily-aroused interest” suggests how appealing the
bachelor’s story is to the children. Find two other phrases that reflect
the story’s positive impact on the children.

Ex. 2. Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d.


1. The aunt’s smile implies that she:
a) is impressed with the bachelor’s techniques;
b) feels pleased the bachelor is trapped;
c) knows the answer to the children’s question;
d) is happy the girls are obedient.

2. What originally attracts the wolf to Bertha is:


a) the clinking of the medals against one another;
b) her obvious fear and trembling;
c) her extraordinary virtues;
d) her physical appearance.
3. “But it had a beautiful ending” suggests that:
a) happy endings are boring;
b) the ending of the story reflects reality to the children;
c) the children are ill-behaved;
d) being horribly good is undesirable.

4. What does the aunt mean by saying “You have undermined


the effect of years of careful teaching”:
a) the bachelor’s story carries an inappropriate message;
b) she cannot control the children the way the bachelor does;
c) the bachelor is a better storyteller than her;
d) the children will never listen to her stories.

5. The aunt can be best described as:


a) rude;
b) cynical;
c) arrogant;
d) aggressive.

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6. From the story one concludes that being “Horribly good”
means:
a) Bertha is rewarded for her goodness;
b) Bertha’s goodness betrays her;
c) Bertha’s virtues are superficial;
d) Bertha dies due to her inattentiveness.

Text 4

Illegal South African Rhino Killings Hit Record High

The illegal slaughter of rhinos in South Africa surged to a record


high last year with final death toll of 4.48, official figures show.
The total, representing one rhino lost nearly every 20 hours,
marked a significant increase in 2010 and suggested the country was
still losing its war against poachers. Two suspected poachers were
killed in a shootout at the world renowned Kruger National Park on
Wednesday night after the gruesome discovery of eight rhino
carcasses – an unprecedented one-day toll.
There has been a steady increase in rhino deaths through
poaching in recent years, in 2010, the number killed was 333; in 2007,
it was just 13.
Campaigners warn that, if the trend continues, the animal’s
future could be in jeopardy. The 2011 toll includes 19 critically
endangered black rhinos, of which fewer than 5,000 remain in the
wild.
Andrew McVey, Species Programme Manager at WW-FUK,
said: “if left unchecked, poaching gangs could put the survival of
these iconic species in jeopardy”. The carnage is driven by increased
demand for rhino horn in Asia, particularly Vietnam, where it carries
prestige as a luxury item, a post-partying cleanser and – based on
false science – a cure for cancer.
Poaching gangs have become increasingly sophisticated, using
helicopters, silent tranquilisers, body armour, night-vision equipment
and mercenaries experienced in rhino tracking. There are rumours of
collusion by some park rangers and owners seeking to cash in.

277
The rise continues unabated, despite increased law enforcement
efforts. South African officials made 232 poaching-related arrests in
2011, compared to 165 the previous year. Sentences imposed for rhino
crimes have also increased, with poachers and horn smugglers
receiving as long as 16 years in prison.
Dr Momé du Plessis, chief executive of WW-UK South Africa,
said: “Rhino poaching is being conducted by sophisticated
international criminal syndicates that smuggle horns to Asia”. Rhinos
in other African and Asian range countries are also being (x). In
October, WWF announced the [1] of rhinos in Vietnam. The last
Javan rhino in the country was killed by poachers and its horn
removed.
More than half of South Africa’s rhino deaths – 252 – last year
occurred in Keuger Park, which attracts millions of tourists every
year. There is no sign of respite so far in 2012.
Rangers found eight rhino carcasses with their horns missing in
two sections of Kruger Park on Tuesday, South African National
Parks (SANParks) said. In a follow-up anti-poaching operation on
Wednesday night, field rangers came [2] contact with a group of
suspected poachers.
There was a shootout between the rangers and poachers, leaving
two suspected poachers [3] wounded. Both were from neighbouring
Mozambique, something they have in common with many poachers
motivated by an apparent chance to [4] poverty. A .375 rifle and other
hunting equipment were discovered at the scene, SANParks said.
Meanwhile, debate rages in South Africa over how to curb the
trend, with some calling for the trade in rhino horn to be [5]. A
wildlife agency’s decision to sanction the hunting of R1m (£81,000)
white rhino bull has also divided experts this week.
Reynold Thakhuli, a spokesman for SANParks, said: “The 2011
total is an all-time high. We are very concerned and quite
disappointed. We are drawing up plans for the year to deal with this
problem once and for all”.
[23]

278
Ex. 1. Answer the following questions.
1. Which sentence proves that South Africa cannot control
slaughter?
2. Why is the toll mentioned in para 2 considered unparalleled?
3. Rhino horns are considered prestigious. Find two other
reasons why they are of importance.
4. Mention two methods used by poachers to hunt rhinos.

Ex. 2. From the list below choose the word which best fits
each numbered gap. Do not use any word more than once.

slaughter targeted recovery legalized success


with fatally
extinction accidentally eradicate prohibited into escape

Example (x): targeted


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Ex. 3. Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d.


1) The word “respite” is closest in meaning to:
a) intensity;
b) interval;
c) resolution;
d) anticipation.

2. The article suggests that:


a) strict laws will contribute to ending rhino poaching;
b) rhino poaching will disappear shortly;
c) rhino poaching continues to be a major problem;
d) nothing can be done to stop poachers.

279
EXAM PRACTICE 3

Text 1

Ecotourism Australia Launches 2011/12


Green Travel Guide
“Ecotourism Australia celebrates its 20th Birthday this year, and
this year’s Green Travel Guide Australia is a tribute to the growth of
responsible and sustainable tourism in Australia”, Ms Kym Cheatham,
CEO of Ecotourism Australia said. “The 2011/2012 Green Travel
Guide Australia features over 1,000 Australian tourism experiences
that offer responsible, ethical and sustainable tourism experiences”.
The Green Travel Guide Australia 2011/2012 also features the
newly launch Eco Lodges of Australia brand, a marketing initiative of
Advanced Ecotourism Certified accommodation experience in
Australia.
“Australia is globally recognised for outstanding ecotourism
experiences. Eco Lodges of Australia offers the ECO-conscious
traveller responsible, ethical and sustainable ECO experiences in
Australia’s most amazing natural locations”, Ms Cheatham said.
The Green Travel Guide Australia 2011/2012 also highlights
tourism operators who have been ECO certified for 10 years or more,
under the logo of the Green Travel Leaders of Australia.
Ms Kym Cheatham said, “Long before most people were
thinking about green issues, these businesses saw the importance of
creating minimal impact experiences by linking conservation and
tourism, and ensuring they behaved in a responsible, ethical and
sustainable way”.
The Green Travel Guide is the definitive consumer and industry
guide to the best in [X] responsible tourism experiences in Australia.
It is available in [1] number of hard copies and [2], which sees nearly
8,000 copies downloaded every year.
Ecotourism Australia is celebrating its 20th year this year and its
[3] programs were announced by the Federal Tourism Minister as one
of the first to be included in the [4] formed National Accreditation
framework, TQUAL on 2 April 2011. Ecotourism Australia

280
introduced the world first ECO certification program in 1996 and now
has more than 1,000 tourism products certified [5] their programs.
[www.travelweekly.asia]

Ex. 1. Answer the following questions.


1. On which occasion is the Green Travel Guide Australia
published?
2. Why are the 1,000 tourism experiences highlighted in the
Green Travel Guide Australia?
3. According to the text, what is Australia reputable for?
4. Which phrase is in para 5 similar in meaning to “least
effective”?

Ex. 2. Which words go in the gaps [1]–[5]? Choose the words


from the list and write them below.

certification by limited online ethically through

recent figures authorization environmentally plenty newly

Example: [X] environmentally.

Ex. 3. Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d.


The purpose of the article is to:
a) highlight the extraordinary natural locations in Australia;
b) promote the newly founded Ecotourism Australia company;
c) promote the recently Issued Green Travel Guide Australia;
d) raise awareness about responsible and ethical tourism.

Text 2

My Relationship with my Parents

I truly value my relationship with my parents. The role of my


parents and my siblings in my life can hardly ever be overstated. To
begin with, I should state that my parents have always provided me

281
with support. Their opinion has always played a significant role in my
decision making process. Whenever I had a problematic situation over
the course of my life, I would necessarily talk to my parents about an
issue that generated a seemingly irresolvable dilemma. I could go talk
to my father about almost anything. When I was in high school and
actually all my way through college, my parents used to give me
valuable advice as to what kind of men I should choose for
relationships, what classes I should take and what clothes I should put
on. They always taught me something, I cannot say that I necessarily
followed their advice. The ultimate source that I always refer to when
I have to make an important decision is my own brain. I believe that I
am smart enough as well as experienced enough to make my own
decisions. However, it is always important to consult my parents
simply because they might give me a different perspective that I
would never think of on my own. Even though their opinion might not
be exactly what I am looking for at a particular point in my life, their
contribution is extremely valuable. It is hard to explain, but sometimes
when I get in a really complex position I feel that I know the answer
to a question that torments me. I go talk to my parents, anyway most
of the time I am totally positive that I will not take their advice and
that my own decision is the one that I will take eventually, but it is just
important for me to have my parents hear my story and contribute to
my decision. In other words, there are times when I need someone to
talk to. My parents and my siblings are the only people that I will
select for that role.
My parents and siblings provide a great deal of moral support at
times of trouble. However, the role of those people in my life is not
confined to comforting me when I cannot find a way out of a complex
situation. My relationship with my brother and sister is somewhat
different. Of course, my brother and sister support me a lot in almost
any situation, and I am sure that they are the people that I can count on
in case I have a dilemma to deal with. However, there has always been
tremendous competition among us in the family. It was always vital
for me to outdo my siblings in almost every aspect of life. Back when
I was a high school student, I felt like I needed to pick better grades in
all the classes that we took together. When it was time for me to pick a
university to apply to, I always had to know what schools my brother

282
and sister applied to so that I could apply to a better one. That ultimate
desire to be the best in the family has always dominated my
personality.
At this point I cannot say for sure whether it is a good or bad
thing. Sometimes I happened to excel in something and that brought
me enormous satisfaction. Other times I would sustain a considerable
failure and that would just devastate me completely. Nevertheless,
now that I can take a look back at my entire life and consciously
evaluate everything I ever did, I can confidently state that I would not
have accomplished most of the things that I have ever done in my life
had I not had my siblings. They were the source of my energy and my
drive, which motivated and inspired me to persevere and keep going
even when a situation was bleak and hopeless. My brother and sister
are the people that I have to thank for almost everything that I have
achieved over the course of my life. I did not realize that when I was
younger. Now I can clearly see their role in my life.
Tim Johnson [22]

Ex. 1. From statements A to H, select the three that are true


according to the text.
A. The writer highly regards her family’s role in her life.
B. There are no restrictions to what the writer would discuss
with her parents.
C. The writer has never failed to follow her parents’ advice.
D. The writer is fully confident of her ability to make the right
decisions.
E. One reason why the writer resorts to her parents is their
ability to make her look at things differently.
F. According to the writer, siblings are less important to consult
than parents.
G. The only time the writer seeks help is upon facing unsolvable
dilemmas.
H. The on-going competition between the writer and her siblings
has always led her to success.

283
Ex. 2. Answer the following questions.
1. Which phrase in para 1 is similar in meaning to “not
exaggerated”?
2. What does the word “it” refer to in “whether it is a good or
bad thing”?
3. Find a sentence in para 2 that reveals the writer owes who she
is now to her siblings.

Ex. 3. Find the word in the right-hand column that could


meaningfully replace each of the words on the left.
1. Generated A. Gigantic
2. Torments B. Mysterious
3. Tremendous C. Depressing
4. Sustain D. Tortures
5. Bleak E. Create
F. Caused
G.Remarkable
H. Founded
I. Regrets
J. Maintain

Text 3
Overrun by Nature!

Over the last century, there have been several waves of disaster
movies pitting mankind against all sorts of natural forces, aliens, and
even giant worms living under the Earth’s surface. With only so many
ways to end the world, disaster movies tend to explore similar themes
and they tend to arrive in waves on the heels of real-life disasters. One
of the most prominent themes in disaster movies is man vs. nature.
The totally awesome power of tsunamis, earthquakes, and tornadoes
to not only endanger but completely overrun and eradicate civilization
fascinates us collectively.
As the threat of some sort of legitimate Earth-ending natural
disaster becomes more real, natural disaster movies give us something
important. They give us a way to conceive of, and face the possibility

284
of, such realities in the safety of a movie theater or living room.
Natural and all disaster movies give us a cathartic chance to confront
harsh realities.
So in light of the Tsunami in Japan, and the soon to arrive next
wave of disaster movies, here are my completely unscientific and
biased top man versus nature movies of the last 20 years.
The Day After Tomorrow
This movie places a simple father/son narrative in the middle of
a cataclysmic super freeze that hits the entire Northern Hemisphere.
This was the first serious disaster movie released after 9/11, receiving
a lot of conflicted reviews due to the generous destruction scenes set
in New York. What redeems this movie, for the naysayers, is the fact
that those scenes are treated with a lot of sincerity and sensibility.
There is something very knowing in the message of this movie.
The Perfect Storm
One of the best ways to dramatize the man vs. nature struggle is
to make us care about both the man and the natural event. The Perfect
Storm pits George Clooney and Mark Walhberg against some epic
waves. This movie is a little slow to launch, with fishermen down on
their luck, looking for a good catch, but as the storm systems come
together, so does the movie.
Armageddon/Deep Impact
While no two movies about a life threatening asteroid hitting the
earth could be more different, in my mind Armageddon and Deep
Impact are essentially the same movies, just packaged differently for
different audiences. Both movies are indulgent, Armageddon because
of the overblown and over-the-top aspect to pretty much everything,
and Deep Impact because of how long and drawn out it is. With these
two, which both came out in 1998, you get both sides of the coin.
Armageddon, whose action takes place over 18 days, gives you the
shoot from the hip, Hail-Mary, “Oh my god what are we going to do?”
feelings of sudden doom. Deep Impact, which follows a wider cast
over a much longer period of time, lets you experience more of not
“What are we going to do?” but “How are we going to deal?”
Greg Jensen [24]

285
Ex. 1. Decide whether the sentences below are true or false.
Justify it with a relevant brief quotation from the text.
1. Man’s struggle with nature has been notably tackled in
movies.
2. The dangers of natural disasters on civilization are far from
reality.
3. Disaster movies aim to distract our attention from the severe
effects of natural disasters.
4. The Day After Tomorrow was received with a unanimous
positive reaction.
5. What characterizes The Perfect Storm is the quick pace of
even maintained throughout.
6. Deep Impact tackles possible means to deal with natural
disasters.

Ex. 2. Answer the following questions.


1. According to information given mention two disasters
threatening the existence of humankind.
2. Which phrase in para 3 proves the writer’s subjectivity in the
text?

Ex. 3. Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d.


1. The word “prominent” is closest in meaning to:
a) thrilling;
b) realistic;
c) well-known;
d) recurrent.

2. The word “conceive” is closest in meaning to:


a) envision;
b) handle;
c) solve;
d) replace.

3. The Day After Tomorrow:


a) is based on 9/11 events;

286
b) includes unrealistic destruction scenes;
c) follows a simple, predictable line of events;
d) is considered an authentic representation of a disaster.

4. It can be inferred that Deep Impact and Armageddon:


a) present different natural disasters;
b) complement each other;
c) are considered the best disaster movies;
d) fail to convince the different audiences targeted.

5. In general, the writer believes that disaster movies are:


a) overrated;
b) misleading;
c) unrealistic;
d) significant.

Text 4

6 Tips for Creating “Sticky” Social Relationships

Every day, around 30 new people follow me on Twitter. Then


around the exact same number of people usually “un-follow” me.
They’re apparently upset that I haven’t blindly reciprocated their
“friendship” despite the fact that they’ve never even said “hi” or
interacted with me. They’re so obsessed with the numbers’ game that
they don’t seem to understand the most basic social networking
principle, where you have to be sociable and personally interact with
people before you win their trust and friendship.
Social relationships evaporate quickly. Personal interaction is the
“glue” that holds them together. Take a moment to think of the
“people online you actually care about”. Usually, the important folks
are those who have taken time to personally interact with you or
acknowledged you (recently). These are people you’re willing to help
out and stand up for. When you’re under pressure or pressed for time,
the people who haven’t interacted with you become second-class

287
“nobodies” who are incredibly easy to ignore and forget... no matter
how cool or famous they are.
Here are 6 tips for cultivating authentic, long- term, “sticky”
personal connections ) and maintaining them:
[1]
1. Don’t just blindly add people without interacting with them. A
quick, personalized friend request note that says “We met last week at
the Social Media Meet up, enjoyed discussing design with you. Let’s
keep in touch?” is enough to make a strong personal impression. Then
most people will take a moment to check you out or take your request
seriously.
2. Leave a quick comment on friends’ blogs every time you stop
by.
If you’re already wasting two minutes to check out a blog post,
why not go all the way and take another 30 seconds to leave a quick
comment? This will transform you from an anonymous nobody to a
friend and supporter, who is a valuable and unforgettable part of their
online social community.
[2]
3. Don’t be totally self-centered. Link out to what other people
have to say about topics 50 you’re interested in. Re-tweet content you
feel is worth sharing or endorsing. Forgetting to do this is the online
equivalent of going to a cocktail party and launching into an endless
monologue about yourself.
[3]
4. The deeper you get into the social web, the more
“requests”will start to show up in your inbox. Try to get back to
everyone who sends you a heartfelt request.
5. Never pitch someone [a] getting to know them.
An essential, but widely [b] marketing principle is to give before
you try and get. At the very least, before you pitch same one with a [c]
that will benefit you – you need to take a few minutes and get to know
(about) the person you’re asking.
6. Be grateful and explicitly thank people.
When someone does something for you like promotes your
content or links to you – don’t forget to thank them! A little

288
recognition creates a powerful [d] for more positive action – and it
goes a long way [e] making sure that person doesn’t forget you.

[4]
If you want to build a potent, responsive social network, the
most important thing is to be social and show that you’re a real
human. Communicate, comment, and show concern and care for
people – and pace yourself to keep doing it. It’s not easy, but it’s the
only way to build real trust and long-term social [f].
Brett Borders [6]

Ex. 1. Match the headings with the paragraphs in the text.


1. A It’s a jungle out there. Be human.
2. B Respond to everyone who reaches out. Don’t drop the ball
3. C It’s difficult out there. Never give up.
4. D Make a strong impact to let people remember you.
E Invite friends to follow you and comment on your blogs.
F Send a quick personal note every time you follow/fan/
friend.
G Re-tweet, link to and talk about what other people have to
say.
H Accept all the requests you receive. Don’t ignore any.
I Have an open mind when dealing with them.

Ex. 2. The sentences below are either true or false.


1. The people un-following the writer have been unsociable.
2. The writer responds to any person’s tweet by following them.
3. You can remain acknowledged even if you fail to interact
with others.
4. Personalizing request notes is usually unproductive.
5. Posting frequent comments makes you an asset in a virtual
environment.
6. By isolating yourself from others, you end up having a small
number of followers.

Ex. 3. Which words go in the gaps [a]–[f]? Choose the words


from the list and write them below.

289
before proposal reinforce- capital interaction without
ment
recognized post overlooked relationship For towards

A_____________________________ .
B_____________________________ .
C_____________________________ .
D_____________________________ .
E_____________________________ .
F_____________________________ .

EXAM PRACTICE 4

Text 1
Playing Football for Hope

Sixteen-year-old Neo Malema and his brothers and sister live


with their grandmother in the impoverished Alexandra Township in
Johannesburg. Despite his poor background, Malema dreams of
playing football one day for the country’s national squad, Belana
Bafana, Football for Hope, a Non-Governmental Organization (NGO)
that aims to take children from disadvantaged communities around the
world and develop them into future leaders for their communities, has
given him the chance to realise his dreams.
“Football for Hope has changed my life. I used to be so naughty,
I would wander around playing football in the streets. One day a
coach found me and put me in his team. I have been playing for four
years. Now I know that if you work hard, you can achieve your
dreams”, Malema said.
Malema and eight other young football players are part of Team
Alexandra, which will represent South Africa at the FIFA Football for
Hope festival in Alexandra.
The Football for Hope initiative was established in 2009 by
FIFA and Streetfootballworld to use football as a tool for enhancing
global peace and social development. The movement relies on the

290
universal appeal of football to achieve its mission, and so far 1.5
million youngsters have benefited from the programme.
Speaking at the official opening launch of the event in
Alexandra, managing director of Streetfootbalhworld said that the aim
of the event was to encourage young people to take responsibility for
their own lives. “The participants were chosen to show the world that
they are young leaders so that when they are talking about themselves
and where they are going, you yourself become inspired”, he said.
Thirty-two teams from disadvantaged communities from all over
the world will participate in the exciting event. The delegates come
from over 40 countries and some teams comprise of players from
more than one country. But each of the 12-minute games will be
played without official referees. So all disagreements will be resolved
through dialogue, a method which organisers hope will enhance
mutual understanding and personal development in the young players.
The players will also participate in activities which promote the
exchange of ideas and life experiences, including talks on issues like
HIV/AIDS and football coaching workshops.
Also speaking at the launch, the chief executive of the local
organising committee for the FIFA 2010 World Cup said that the
upcoming World Cup was not only about the famous football stars
that are coming to South Africa for the event but also about the
youngsters participating in the Football for Hope Festival. “It is a
World Cup of hope, a World Cup of change, a World Cup of
opportunity, a World Cup that focuses on the young people and their
ambitions and their dreams”, he said.
Malema has a passion for soccer and helping other
disadvantaged youths. He hopes to one day manage an organisation
like Football for Hope. “Football has brought me back to the right
path; it taught me that when you work hard, you will definitely
achieve your dreams”, said Malema.
Zukiswa Zimela [27]

Ex. 1. Answer the following questions.


1. What is South Africa’s national football team called?
2. What helped Neo Malema fulfill his ambition of playing
football?

291
3. What is Malema’s next big endeavour?
4. Which phrase in para 6 is similar in meaning to “include”?
5. Which two social and personal areas are improved through the
use of dialogue during games?

Ex. 2. From statements A–J, select the four that are true
according to text.
A. Football for Hope targets young men from all social
backgrounds.
B. Malema believes that perseverance leads to success.
C. Football for Hope’s mission statement reflects the necessity to
spread peace worldwide.
D. Participants from underprivileged communities in 40
countries will participate in the Alexandra Festival.
E. Each game during the Hope Festival in Alexandra lasts for
less than 15 minutes.
F. During the games, referees will be consulted to settle
disagreements.
G. Young men’s participation is restricted to football games
during the festival.
H. Some teams might represent a variety of geographical
locations.
I. Malema’s future plan is to help young people achieve what he
himself has managed to fulfill.
J. Football for Hope mainly prepares young people to become
legendary football players.

Text 2
The Social Network

By now you know there’s a movie about the “origins” of


Facebook. It’s called The Social Network. I saw it a few days ago. It
is the best movie I have ever seen.
Pause to digest that. I’m not saying you’ll like it as much as I do.
Art is personal. And you might wonder how I can put one movie

292
above all others, even on my own – personal list. Actually, I couldn’t
do that until I saw this movie. It grabbed me in the first minute, and
hasn’t released me yet, several days later. It’s actually getting better as
it ages in my mind.
To begin, I appreciate the movie for what it did not do. It did not
rely on special effects in a way that was obvious to the viewer. It
wasn’t in 3D. There was no violence. There was no car chase scene. If
you make a list of all the elements that can make a movie predictable
and lame, this movie had none. That’s at least partly because the story
is inspired by reality.
If you have ever studied the art of script writing, you might
know that movie studios expect scripts to fit a fairly specific sort of
formula. For example, you have an “event” that changes someone’s
life early in the movie, you have the so-called “third act” where things
appear impossible to fix, and your main character needs to “change”
as a result of their experiences. There are a number of other story
requirements, but you get the idea. Normally, a writer pushes these
must-do elements right in your face. For example, how many movies
open with loved ones dying?
The Social Network hits all of the required story elements, but
with a subtlety that can only come from reality plus extraordinary
writing skill. It was only after the movie was over that I realized all of
the elements were in place. Normally, the writer’s craft is so obvious
that it buries the art. When the art buries the craft, you have something
special.
Speaking of reality, the fact that much of the story is real – it’s
not clear how much – added the extra level of fascination to put it over
the top for me. I enjoy non-fiction more than fiction, and this had just
the right mix of both.
The movie’s writer, Aaron Sorkin, is one of the best writers of
this era. And he’s at the top of his game with this movie. If you can
find an online betting site that takes bets on who will win the
Academy Award for Best Writer, this is easy money. And I say that
without even seeing the other movies that will get nominated. If
you’re one of the other contenders, you’re feeling pretty bad that your
movie came out in Sorkin’s year.

293
There has been much curiosity about the degree to which the
story is accurate, and how the main character, Facebook founder,
Mark Zuckerberg, feels about his portrayal. Apparently, some
moviegoers feel the script treats Zuckerberg poorly. I didn’t see it that
way. All l saw was massive respect from a genius in one field (Sorkin)
to a genius in another. The story was as close to self-love as you can
get. As written, the Zuckerberg character does change, a little, but he
does so in a context of changing the social fabric of the entire world. It
is almost as if the world was broken, and Zuckerberg fixed it, like a
super hero with a hoodie. He can’t be too unhappy about that.
Someone once told me that when a movie works, you believe all
of the elements were excellent at the same time even if that wasn’t
true. I suspect the writing elevated the other elements in this case, but
even so, the directing, casting, and acting came across as superb. Place
your second bet for an Academy Award on the casting director.
Scott Adams [22]

Ex. 1. Answer the following questions.


1. Which phrase in para 2 proves that the writer of the review is
still influenced by the movie?
2. According to the writer, what makes a film predictable? Give
two reasons.
3. What contributes to the subtlety of The Social Network?

Ex. 2. Complete the following sentences with information


from the text.
Any other Oscar nominee would feel insecure because…
The highest debate about The Social Network revolves around…
Who is the second genius referred to by “to a genius in another”?

Ex. 3. Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d.


1. What mostly fascinates the review writer about The Social
Network is that it:
a) is based on a true story;
b) includes all the must-do elements required;
c) mixes reality with fiction;
d) won two Academy Awards.

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2. What Zuckerberg “can’t be too unhappy” about is:
a) not being portrayed poorly in the movie;
b) how accurate his character’s depiction in the movie is;
c) the money gained upon releasing the movie;
d) his ability to make a change in the world.

3. The word “elevated” is closest in meaning to:


a) exceeded;
b) raised;
c) promoted;
d) demeaned.

Text 3

Help Your Children Feel Special

Do you ever wonder, “Will my children suffer because they have


a working mother? Will they be deprived?” The answer: That [1] and
what you do.
Let’s begin with your beliefs. It is a myth that children who have
a working mom are automatically more deprived than children who
have a stay-at-home mom. Many stay-at-home moms are just as busy
as you are. However, children usually adopt the attitudes of their
parents – [2] in areas of weakness. If you are feeling guilty and fearful
that your children will be deprived, chances are they will feel
deprived. They may develop a victim mentality, or they may play on
your guilt for special privileges. On the other hand, if you have an
optimistic, courageous attitude, your children will be influenced and
will learn from you.
Give up the belief that you have to make it up to your child for
being a working mother. Present your circumstances with a positive
attitude:
“[3], and we are going to benefit from how it is”.
The greatest gift you can give your children is to [4] no matter
what your circumstances – and all circumstances, no matter how
difficult, offer opportunities to learn and grow. [5] of your present

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opportunities as a working mom to help your children feel special.
Following are five possibilities.
Take time for hugs. No matter how busy you are, there is always
time for a three-second hug. That is a substantial hug that can lift
spirits and change attitudes – yours and your child’s. Sometimes a hug
can be the most effective method to stop misbehavior. Try it the next
time you are feeling frazzled or your child is whining and see for
yourself. Give hugs in the morning, right after work, several during
the evening, a longer one just before bed. You will both feel very
special.
Hold weekly family meetings. Twenty to thirty minutes a week
is a small investment of time with huge payoffs. Children feel very
special when they are listened to, taken seriously and have their
thoughts and ideas validated. That is the immediate payoff. The neat
future payoff is that you can solve many daily hassles during a family
meeting. Your kids can help you create morning and bedtime routines
and come up with creative ways for handling chores. It is amazing
how much more willing children are to follow rules and plans they
have helped create. The long-term payoff is that children learn
important life skills such as communication skills and problem-
solving skills. Think of the benefits to their future jobs and
relationships. It takes much less time to hold weekly family meetings
where children learn to cooperate and solve problems than the time it
takes to nag, lecture, and scold. During busy times, parents often find
relief or create a diversion from a problem by simply inviting the child
to put the problem on the family meeting agenda. Everyone learns to
trust that a respectful solution will be found soon.
Ask for help. Children need to feel needed. It is much different
when you ask for help in an inviting manner instead of lecturing and
scolding. “I would appreciate anything you can do to spruce up the
family room before dinner” usually invites much more cooperation
than, “How many times have I told you not to leave all your stuff all
over the family room!” Children feel special when they are helping.
They don’t feel special when they are being scolded and put down.
When you run a short errand in the car, ask one of your children
to ride along – just so you can spend as much time as possible
together. You might make a big deal of this by creating a chart during

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a family meeting so you can check whose turn it is. During these rides
be a closet listener (don’t ask questions). You may be surprised at how
much your children may open up and start talking when there is no
“inquisition” that invites them to clam up. Simply let them know how
glad you are to have a few minutes to be with them, and share special
moments from your own life or day. Kids feel special when you share
yourself.
Helping your child feel special is a matter of planning and habit,
not a lack of time. The fringe benefit of making it a habit to help your
child feel special is that you will feel like a special mom or dad.
Dr Jane Nelson [11]

Ex. 1. Which phrases go in the numbered gaps [1]–[5]?


Choose the phrase from [a]–[j]:
a) have a hopeful outlook on life;
b) focus on how you can make the best;
c) and rebel against you;
d) depends on what you believe;
e) we have so many choices;
f) give no attention to;
g) determines how they will behave;
h) this is how it is;
i) or learn to manipulate;
j) have an open mind when dealing with them.

Ex. 2. Find the appropriate advice given in the text for each
of the following.
1. End misconduct.
2. Work out regular annoyances.
3. Focus on finding a solution.
4. Develop collaboration.

Ex. 3. Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d.


1. Children are more at ease when:
a) somebody tells them what to do;

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b) they are given total freedom to run daily chores;
c) they listen to someone, instructions;
d) someone listens to them in an attentive manner.

2. The text implies that parents who fail to make their children
feel special:
a) are constantly busy;
b) do not adopt a habitual pattern;
c) reject the suggestions made.
d) have not felt special themselves.

Ex. 4. Find the word in the right-hand column that could


meaningfully replace one of the words on the left.
1. Lift A. Annoyed
2. Frazzled B. Suggested
3. Validated C. Chore
4. Scolding D. Improve
5. Errand E. Rebuking
F. Fatigued
G. Edge
H. Raise
I. Yelling
J. Approved

Text 4

The Freedom Fighter

No one wore yellow. She had asked, with a quote under her
picture in the play program two, maybe three years earlier, that
everyone wear yellow to her funeral. No one did.
There was no doubt she would have left in the summer, probably
right before the turn to autumn. I thought of a hand-painted 1965
Volkswagen Split Window Van careening through heavy turns
surrounded by the divinely painted autumn leaves in a thousand and

298
one New England towns, and it was clear she intended to leave in late
summer.
I don’t like talking about someone in the past tense, no matter
how appropriate, but with the wake two days after I got home, and the
funeral the following morning, I couldn’t understand how the girl kept
such a complete record of her life. She had made the transition from is
to was better than anyone I ever knew. A diary of her day-to-day life,
a schedule updated weekly, a list of goals (short term and long term,
with labels for each), and one very detailed itinerary complete with
globes, charts, and maps, all left behind. And they really were the
best-laid plans.
So, on that morning, I sat between my mother and father, next to
her mother and father while our parish’s priest spoke about the only
thing that Brienne Allison Hale still does in the present tense. Here
lies Brienne Allison Hale: daughter, sister, and neighbor. Two
speeches later, “here lies” her first boyfriend on how they broke up
amicably and how he will always remember her. He somehow forgot
to mention the fights they had, and how I could hear her crying on the
phone from across her yard.
Every time Brie had an important phone call to make, she’d
climb up the rotted and waterlogged boards to the tree house her father
built her after she was first diagnosed. Somehow, this is not included
in her first boyfriend’s speech. Or anyone else’s.
I can’t pretend that I was the shoulder she would cry on, but that
tree house is only four or five non-noise canceling feet from my
bedroom window, so I guess I’m the shoulder she cried near.
I wasn’t close to her like her ex-boyfriend was close to her. Or
like her brother DJ was close to her. Or a few of her friends from
school. But we did talk, hell, we talked a lot, mostly through the four
or five non-noise canceling feet between her safety tree and my
windowsill. There’s something I can’t just let go about firing
questions and opinions into the dark to have them returned from
summer-wet, hunter green tree branches. And we had our summers,
the most notable of which culminating in a poorly executed, half
spontaneous kiss from my lips to hers. And we had our winters. Like
when we didn’t talk about those summer nights.

299
But we weren’t like that. Well, we weren’t some unfulfilled
romance. We were not star-crossed lovers who just couldn’t get the
timing right: we were friends who stumbled through the “convenience
meets attraction” phase of adolescence. We were great friends, though
that never seemed to extend outside our yards. It’s not that we ignored
each other in school, we just ran in different circles, my circle being
slightly smaller. I guess our relationship needs clarification: we were
friends and neighbors, not lovers and “best friends forever”, and I
guess we were most of the former and a mix of the latter if the latter
was ever more appropriate than the former.
Sean Gilpatrick [22]

Ex. 1. Answer the following questions.


What does the comparison given in para 2 actually refer to?
Based on the information given in paras 1–5, what are the two
things everyone failed to do for Brie?

Ex. 2. Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d.


1. “There was no doubt she would have left in the summer”
suggests that:
a) Brie prefers summer to other seasons;
b) Brie chose summer to end her life;
c) everyone knew Brie was dying;
d) Brie told everyone she was dying.

2. Judging by the description of the diary, Brie seems to be:


a) artistic;
b) paranoid;
c) omniscient;
d) organized.

3. From the text, one understands that Brie’s death is attributed


to:
a) the falling off the tree house;
b) having suffered from a fatal disease;
c) her first boyfriend’s maltreatment;
d) her having isolated herself for a long time.

300
4. The word “amicably” is closest in meaning to:
a) agreeably;
b) violently;
c) justifiably;
d) abruptly.

5. Brie and the writer:


a) always hesitated to speak to each other;
b) fell in love during the summer;
c) attended the same school;
d) were best friends.

6. The word “culminating” is closest in meaning to:


a) excluding;
b) proving;
c) strengthening;
d) concluding.

Ex. 3. Complete the following table by indicating to whom or


to what the words underlined refer.

In the phrase The word/s Refer/s to


Example: So, on that morning.... That The morning of
morning her funeral
1 ... she’d climb up the rotted and She
waterlogged boards ...

2 But we did talk... We


3 ...to have them returned from Them
summer-wet...
4 ... though that never seemed to That
extend...
5 ...it the latter was ever more The latter
appropriate...

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KEY ANSWERS

UNIT 1

1.1.2. Reading

Ex. 2
1) D; 2) C; 3) D; 4) D; 5) C; 6) D; 7) A; 8) C; 9) B; 10) C.

Ex. 3
A, F, G, H.

Ex. 4
A. Over the whole century the English language has continued
to take its course and now has gained the status of a global language.
B. Riding the crest of globalization and technology, English
cannot be dethroned by any other language.
C. Linguists and other researchers often refer to unequivocal
sources to uproot all their doubts.
D. A research group from New York in its last report tried to
underscore the grip English had on the world.
E. The students’ statement was vastly unclear to the members of
the committee.
F. Today’s mind-set allows all people not only linguists, to
communicate in English genuinely globally by every country in the
world.
G. Due to the drastic changes in life, people seem to be more
sceptical.
H. The future of such global languages as English, Chinese,
Russian and Spanish is extremely bright.
I. Although the eventual perfection of a translation machine can
be predicted in the future, translators and interpreters will be still in
demand.
J. Before English, Latin used to be the lingua franca.

Ex. 5
1) a research group;
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2) to be dethroned;
3) equivocal;
4) to dominate the world;
5) to change drastically;
6) to continue to take its course;
7) a global language;
8) to be vastly unclear;
9) a minority view;
10) as no one has ever been before.

1.2.2. Reading

Ex. 2
a) 15; b) 4; c) 10; d) 6; e) 8; f) 13; g) 2; h) 9; i) 3; j) 7.

Ex. 3
A. False (So who are these Third Culture Kids? They are not a
new phenomenon).
B. True (David C. Pollock and his co-author Ruth Van Recken,
describe a TCK as “a person who has spent a significant part of his or
her developmental years outside the parents’ culture”).
C. True (They have accumulated a host of cultural identities,
lived in many countries and have been introduced to a variety of
global people).
D. True (The question “Who am I?” is frequently asked by
TCKs).
E. False (TCKs position themselves by integrating a huge pool
of values, norms, behaviours, beliefs, mannerisms and thoughts in
order to identify self.).

Ex. 4
a) a person who lives a mobile and international lifestyle;
b) brought up in a multicultural society;
c) to compose an original group of words;
d) a lot of, mane cultures.

303
Ex. 5
Advantages: 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 13, 14, 15, 20, 23, 27.
Challenges: 1, 6, 10, 12, 16, 18, 21, 22, 24, 25, 26, 29, 30.
Descriptions: 2, 11, 17, 19, 28.

Ex. 6
A. TCKs have spent a significant part of their developmental
years outside the parents’ country and culture.
B. Such children are raised in a highly mobile multicultural
community where constant relocations are common.
C. These children feel their difference which becomes a part of
their identity.
D. Third culture kids become successful actors, politicians,
journalists, sportsmen and presidents (among them, for example,
Barack Obama, born in Hawaii and raised in Indonesia and the USA).
E. Although elements of one culture are assimilated by another
culture, it is very important to remember about ethnic roots.
F. Possessing a huge pool of values, norms, behaviours, beliefs
and mannerisms will make you a genuine “nomad” of the world.
G. Ease of travel and constant relocation are very beneficial to
identifying self.
H. Those used to comfort will hardly consider the romantic
appeal of a highly mobile life.
I. Though people belong to different sub-cultures, such
phenomenon as the third culture helps them accumulate values and
traditions of each other.
J. Besides huge advantages of the TCKs’ lifestyle there is a
downside: lack of roots, problems with staying a long time at one
place and not having full ownership of any particular culture.

Ex. 7
1) to balance;
2) monocultural;
3) expatriant;
4) global people;
5) international and local issues;
6) host;

304
7) to assimilate;
8) nomad;
9) to integrate;
10) to relocate;
11) to move constantly;
12) global links.

1.3.2. Reading

Ex. 1
a) so; b) through; c) to; d) as; e) until; f) or; g) up; h) while; i) on
the other hand.

Ex. 2
a) 9; b) 4; c) 7; d) 2; e) 1; f) 3, 8; g) 5.

Ex. 3
a) assuming;
b) traits;
c) validates;
d) shortage;
e) fundamental;
f) perpetrator;
g) equitable.

Ex. 4
A. Today the Supreme Court has drawn a line under the attempts
of some political forces to question the legitimacy of the current
authority.
B. There’s a number of ways with the help of which one can
distinguish between various types of personality and also to measure
the power of any characteristic traits of behaviour typical of the given
individual.
C. The lack of sleep can be a contributing factor to causing
obesity, says the research published in the SLEEP Magazine.
D. At first he had to admit that his previous will had disappeared
from his office, and then he validated the second one!

305
E. Tibetan Buddhism steeped in the traditions of Nalanda
monastery-university is the most complete form of Buddhism among
the currently existing ones.
F. While weighing the body, the pointer of the dynamometer
stepped outside the scale.
G. Trying to stop the perpetrator, police officers tried to block
off the street, but the driver abruptly changed the direction.
H. Psychologists have proved that gender inequality in the
modern society is manifested, first and foremost, in the social sphere.
I. Must there be a boss in the family or are equitable
relationships possible?
J. Despite the unequal balance of power, the Greeks fought off
the Persian attacks in the pass of Thermopylae during the first two
days, but on the third day the battle was broken.

1.4.2. Reading

Ex. 1
1) w; 2) d; 3) j; 4) h; 5) e; 6) r; 7) t; 8) n; 9) g; 10) o; 11) p; 12) s.

Ex. 3
1, 4, 5, 8, 9.

Ex. 4
A. Animals that couldn’t adjust to the environment are
endangered.
B. In order to bring up a good person, you have to draw the best
out of yourself for the child.
C. “Be the adjustment you want to see in the world” M. Gandhi.
D. The tagline of the film The Mask is From Zero to Hero.
E. The punishment for the crime is life imprisonment without
parole.
F. Last year there were documented more than 100 animal abuse
instances.
G. What transpires to college dropouts? – Depression, drug
abuse and crime.
H. Prevention is better than cure.

306
I. In the history of Europe out-of-wedlock kids (children whose
parents were not legally married) had no right to inherit their parents’
property.
J. Financial difficulties exacerbate social problems.
K. The Welfare dependency of retired people in the country is
exceedingly high.
L. Taking marijuana is still a crime in Georgia, but it is not
going to be punished with incarceration, says the chair of the Legal
Committee of the Parliament.

UNIT 2

2.1.2. Reading

Ex. 3
Arguments for school uniform Mark Potterton’s
counter-arguments
It increases the safety of Uniforms are uncomfortable and
students since any intruder not very warm in winter.
would stand out.
It reduces the occurrences of Uniforms are expensive and don’t
theft of clothing items. last.
It reduces bulling among the It also stifles individuality.
children.
It is cheaper to buy school Pupils may try express themselves
uniform for child than it is to through the inappropriate use of
buy branded clothing. make-up, piercings or jewelry.
School uniforms bring a sense Too much attention to the uniform
of identity to the students. can influence the teaching and
learning time.

Ex. 4
A. The debates on this issue have raged for several days.
B. School uniform makes it easy to identify intruders who will
stand out among students.

307
C. One of the significant advantages of school uniform is that it
makes all students equal and creates an opportunity for the students to
form friendships that overlook their backgrounds.
D. Most opponents to the idea of school uniforms argue that it
affects the individual expression of the child.
E. Moreover, school uniforms bring a sense of identity to
students and as a result, more schools are seeking to adopt uniform
school policy.
F. “The school uniform: pros and cons” topic generates a lot of
heated debates.
G. In Great Britain school uniform first appeared during the
reign of Henry VIII (1509–1547) and was already an indicator of
social standing.
H. It is safe to say that school uniform gives students a sense of
belonging and, as a result, instills a sense of pride in the school.
I. According to sociologists, students who are required to wear
school uniforms perform better academically in school, because they
are not focused on their wardrobe.
J. In addition to the fact that school uniforms are often
uncomfortable, they also stifle the student’s personality.

2.2.2. Reading

Ex. 1
1 – D; 2 – G; 3 – C; 4 – E.

Ex. 2
a) hard evidence;
b) compulsory;
c) severe;
d) opt for;
e) against;
f) abusive;
g) torn;
h) sweat;
i) ensure;
j) enforce.

308
Ex. 3
A. The term “dress code” is used to define a set of rules with
regards to clothing which is an indication of a professional group.
B. At the workplace the employees’ clothing is paid special
attention to during certain occasions the success of which may depend
on it.
C. Depending on the situation, employees might opt for casual
or formal business attire.
D. It goes without saying that a dress code has to be reasonable
depending on the type of work.
E. The lack of a dress code would distract employees and have a
severe impact on their performance.
F. It’s important that employees sign in neat for work.
G. Tank or halter tops, muscle shirts, shorts, sweat suits or
clothing with foul language are completely against dress code in the
office.
H. Today there is a tendency among young people to dress
shabbily without bothering what the world has to say.
I. The dress code corrects the style of dress of young people
and it also helps maintain a decent image in public.
J. Punishing children for mischievous behaviour is a pretty
tricky thing.

2.3.2. Reading

Ex. 1
a) on the contrary;
b) as a result;
c) since;
d) as;
e) although;
f) similarly;
g) for example;
h) also;
i) although.

309
Ex. 2
Target Culture/Group Tattoo Design Significance
European sailors and Anchors or
Protection
miners miner’s lamps
Social status, ancestry
Maori men Facial tattoos
and skills
Preventing the skin
Tattoos around
Maori women becoming wrinkled and
the mouth
keep them young
Berber tribes in
Dotted temples/ Birth to a male heir,
Algeria, Tunisia and
cheeks/ lips ethnic identity
Lybia

Ex. 4
1) c; 2) b; 3) a.

Ex. 5
In the phrase The word/s Refer/s to
…miner’s lamps on their European sailors and
Their
forearms… miners
…developed during this
This time 18th century
time.
…and make them more
Them Maori men
attractive…
…becoming wrinkled
Them Maori women
and keep them young.
…tattooed onto their
Their Europeans
skin…
They create their art with
They Tattooists of Samoa
the same tools…

Ex. 6
A. For many people, having a tattoo is not only a form of self-
expression, but also a mark of machismo.
B. Elaborated tattoos were first used in Polynesian culture
thousands of years ago.

310
C. In the Maori culture of New Zealand, the high social status is
embodied in the elaborate tattoo that embellished the face, as the
human head in this culture is considered the most important part of the
body.
D. Tattoos are often a symbol of a rich cultural history, and
therefore each person has a unique tattoo design that conveys
information about the social status, origin and skills of its owner.
E. According to Maori, tattoos around the mouth and chin of
women prevent skin aging and wrinkles.
F. Men generally wore tattoos of weaponry, while women wore
tattoos of labor tools.
G. Another example of tattooing as an indicator of social status
is small dots on women’s faces that mark the birth of a male heir.
H. Tattoos determine not only ethnic, but also religious identity
as, for example, in the Christian Copts sect, who bear small crosses on
the inner side of the forearms.
I. In many peoples and cultures, tattoos are defined as
protective and healing symbols, so people apply them to their body to
ward off evil spirits.
J. Today, tattooing has become a form of artistic expression,
which, for example, in modern Japan is perceived as a spiritual path
and an important psychological experience. To achieve this effect, the
masters in the process deliberately abandon modern equipment for
tattooing and use those tools that were invented earlier.

2.3.4. WRITING

2) LETTER OF COMPLAINT
a) in particular;
b) in fact;
c) to start with;
d) when;
e) despite;
f) as well as;
g) although;
h) furthermore;
i) not only…;

311
j) …but also;
k) therefore;
l) otherwise;
m) but.

2.4.2. Reading

Ex. 1
a) have;
b) will;
c) onto;
d) herd;
e) but;
f) are;
g) weren’t;
h) due to;
i) stepped;
j) by;
k) but;
l) unfortunately;
m) on.

Ex. 2
C, E, G, I.

Ex. 3
F. “Fad” – an intense and widely shared enthusiasm for
something, especially one that is short-lived;
“misfits” – a person whose behavior or attitude sets them apart
from others in an uncomfortably conspicuous way.

Ex. 4
A. It’s a new “fad” caviar and popcorn.
B. If some color is in season, it will clutter the shelves of most
department stores.
C. To be rail thin is out of fashion. A. Reshetnikova’s fans rave
about her new image.

312
D. Modern society has turned into a herd of zombies – humans
are enslaved by material things.
E. Appearance discrimination is defined as stereotypes and
prejudices against people whose physical appearance doesn’t fit the
cultural or social norms of the given society.
F. Recently a march of tattooed people has been organized in
Russia. The participants demanded that discrimination against tattoos
in employment should be stopped.
G. Despite the growing popularity of tattoos many bosses still
think body art /body modifications is unacceptable at work. According
to the findings of the research centre Superjob.ru 15% of HR
managers turned down job candidates sporting tattoos.
H. Recently a strict dress code has been imposed in our
company. It requires employees to hide tattoos, to wear reasonable
make up and nail length, etc. Probably, the company is fearful of
losing clients because of our appearance. But is it legitimate?
I. When was the last time you saw a doctor with tattoos? What
about a lawyer with blue hair? Maybe a teacher with lip piercing?
Chances are, you have never come across any of the above.
J. Keep in mind that appearances are deceiving and only time
can prove who is a good person and who is not.

UNIT 3

3.1.2. Reading

Ex. 2.
a) F; b) T; c) F; d) F.

Ex. 3
a) astounding;
b) variety;
c) detachment;
d) extends across;
e) extraordinary.

313
Ex. 4
1. Jam-packed, drummers.
2. Buzz, dazzling.
3. Aberdeen.
4. Spectacular.
5. Footprint, affiliations.
6. Spectacular.

Ex. 5
1) e; 2) i; 3) h; 4) f; 5) d; 6) a; 7) c; 8) b; 9) g.

Ex. 6
A. Gordon Highlanders International Beating Retreat will take
place in Aberdeen on 2 August. Pipe band members and drummers
from all over the world will join forces for the first international
reunion of its kind.
B. The jam-packed schedule includes a full range of
entertainment suitable for the whole family, drummers, traditional
music, songs, exotic dance and street theatre.
C. The former soldier Bill Smith (a curator of the Gordon
Highlanders Museum in Aberdeen) shared his memories.
D. The sleepy little town comes alive during the annual pipe
parade.
E. All Scottish kilts have tartan. Tartan is a check pattern of
horizontal, vertical and diagonal stripes. The pattern and the colour are
unique for each clan.
F. What is the difference between “heritage” and “legacy”?
G. The first thing that struck him was a dazzling array of
products.
H. Mr. Keating just dazzled students with his attitude towards
literature and life in general.
I. The carbon footprint is the amount of carbon dioxide ejected
to the atmosphere as a result of any activity.
J. According to the UN now the average life span amounts to 69
years for men and 74 years for women.

314
Ex. 7
Across:
2) footprint;
3) mockery;
7) stand-up;
9) drummer;
10) span;
13) dumb;
15) wrong;
16) heritage.
Down:
1) brochure;
4) flyer;
5) astounding;
6) quotation;
8) regiment;
11) pamphlet;
12) electrode;
13) dazzling;
14) buzz.

3.1.4. Writing
1) b; 2) c; 3) a.

3.2.2. Reading

Ex. 1
a) suitable;
b) plumage;
c) obsessed;
d) repellents;
e) gestures;
f) clutter;
g) litter;
h) strictly;
i) rewarding.

315
Ex. 4
A. Be extremely sensitive to their surroundings, display a large
measure of patience and self-discipline.
B. Sojourn.
C. Discerning.
D. Alien.
E. Hide.
F. To distract.
Ex. 5
A. Sojourn.
B. Trekking.
C. Lenses, machans.
D. Binoculars.
E. Sanctuaries.
F. Sensitive.
G. Pollution.
Ex. 6
1) i; 2) c; 3) j; 4) h; 5) d; 6) a; 7) f; 8) e; 9) g; 10) b.
Ex. 7
A. India has more than five hundred wildlife sanctuaries and
more than half of them have adequate infrastructure for the tourist.
B. It is important to strictly observe the guidelines to avoid
cheap thrills.
C. Keep in mind that the guide is not a magician able to conjure
up game.
D. Do not under any circumstances encroach upon an animal’s
private space – it can be fatal.
E. A pair of good binoculars is a most important piece of
equipment to carry on safari. They help bring out details of wildlife.
F. The average tourist does not possess the skills required to
survive in the forest and is thus most vulnerable.
G. Smells play an important role in the wild; therefore, avoid
strong deodorants, insect repellents and sunscreens that have powerful
scents.

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H. The more time you spend watching wildlife, the more you
learn about it.
I. Watching wildlife requires patience and discipline, so take
care not to laugh, to speak in hushed tones and do not make any
sudden or violent gestures
J. Detergent (Lat. detergeo – wash) is a substance (a powder or
a liquid) for removing dirt from clothes, dishes, etc. There are three
types of detergents: soap, washing powder and shampoo.
Ex. 8
Across:
3) hrill;
7) vulnerable;
9) obsessed;
10) sunscreen;
11) clutter;
13) machan;
18) lenient.
Down:
1) waterhole;
2) roar;
4) disaster;
5) avid;
6) alien;
8) asset;
10) sojourn;
11) cumbersome;
12) lens;
14) plume;
15) sanctuary;
16) repellent;
17) affiliation;
19) sensitive.
3.3.2. Reading
Ex. 1
a) ); b) .; c) “; d) :; e) ,; f) !; g) :; h) ,; i) ;; j) ,.

317
Ex. 2
1) is believed;
2) was swimming;
3) had campaigned;
4) was attacked;
5) was;
6) raced;
7) being knocked;
8) was filmed;
9) was closed;
10) are.

Ex. 5
1) h; 2) b; 3) i; 4) j; 5) g; 6) f; 7) c; 8) d; 9) a; 10) e.

Ex. 6
A. Margaret Thatcher, prime minister of Great Britain in 1979–
1990, had a nickname “Milk Snatcher” because she cancelled
traditionally free milk for schoolchildren.
B. The urban population seeks opportunities for recreation in the
nature and rural areas.
C. While the roller coaster ride they screamed with terror and
joy.
D. An aerial is a device that transmits or receives
electromagnetic waves.
E. A random event is something unpredictable. For example,
you can’t predict the probability of your neighbour falling down the
stairs in the next ten years.
F. I’ve been trying to wake Tyler up for half an hour. This is an
ordeal and I’m completely exhausted.
G. A shredder is an office works for safe and confidential
destruction of documents.
H. “Close Encounters of the Third Kind” is a 1977 American
science fiction film written and directed by Steven Spielberg. The film
was nominated for 8 Oscars, but its only win was a Special
Achievement Award.

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I. There was general agreement that acts of terrorism could
never be justified, regardless of the cause, motive or perpetrator.
J. According to the annual report on GGG (Global Gender Gap)
women on average earn much less than men.

Ex. 7
Across:
1) snorkeler;
2) splash;
3) lurking;
4) aerial;
5) interest;
6) help;
7) survive;
8) giant;
9) endure;
10) shred;
11) spot;
12) attack;
13) witness;
14) occur;
15) craft.

Down:
16) kayaking;
17) encounter;
18) shore;
19) holiday;
20) lightning;
21) thieves;
22) footage.

3.4.2. Reading

Ex. 1
1. P
2. C

319
3. L
4. R
5. E
6. T
7. I
8. H
9. F
10. N

Ex. 2
a) a green vacation;
b) three day weekends;
c) trees which transform CO2 into oxygen for humans;
d) emissions;
e) an economy sized car;
f) the US eco-friendly hotels either marked with the Green Seal
or LEED certified by the US Green Building Council.

Ex. 5
1) c; 2) e; 3) h; 4) a; 5) b; 6) d; 7) f; 8) g; 9) j; 10) i.

Ex. 6
A. Data on green technologies and eco-friendly energy services
interspersed through the report provide a glimpse of the change in the
work of the enterprise.
B. I hear it’s just a marketing ploy to skyrocket the cost of grain.
C. To offset the emissions of the enterprise we must quantify
its carbon footprint.
D. The new search engine allows finding the required link in the
catalogue efficiently.
E. The technical challenges for preparing the elections
were daunting.
F. If she wanted to take it slow at the start, then you really have
got problems.
G. This shell is 3,000 times tougher than its
geological counterpart.

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H. There’s often no need to peruse a book to know its contents –
the title is enough.
I. How these people maintain their sanity is beyond me.
J. Under the project, the Caribbean States pledged to forgo the
previous practice of waste disposal.

Ex. 7
Across:
1) camping;
3) carbon Footprint;
4) emission;
6) ecotourism;
8) vacation;
10) traveller;
14) oxygen;
15) ploy;
16) sanity;
17) responsible;
18) comfort;
19) fuel;
20) environment.
Down:
2) transportation;
5) souvenir;
7) local;
9) exploration;
11) pocketbook;
12) ecofriendly;
13) convenience.

UNIT 4

4.1.2. Reading

Ex. 1
1) meandering;
2) faded;

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3) recall;
4) effective;
5) blindside;
6) reckless;
7) berate;
8) instrument;
9) ugly;
10) inalienable.

Ex. 7
1) emulate;
2) broach;
3) meander;
4) dispenses;
5) blindsided;
6) floss;
7) scare;
8) benefit;
9) berated;
10) nostalgic.

Ex. 8
A. “Wear Sunscreen” is an essay written as a hypothetical
commencement speech by columnist Mary Schmich, originally
published in the Chicago Tribune.
B. The essay, giving various pieces of advice on how to live a
happier life and avoid common frustrations, spread massively via viral
email. It is often erroneously described as given by author Kurt
Vonnerurt at MIT.
C. In the youth you often can’t grasp how much possibility lies
before you.
D. Solving algebra equations took her much longer than she
expected.
E. You are apt to jump at the conclusions that would never cross
my mind.
F. Don’t be reckless with other people’s hearts. Don’t put up
with people who are reckless with yours.

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G. A bank statement is a summary of financial transactions
which have occurred over a given period on a bank account held by a
person or business with a financial institution.
H. Whatever you do in future, don’t congratulate yourself too
much, or berate yourself either.
I. Understand that friends come and go, but with a precious few
you should hold on. Work hard to bridge the gaps in geography and
lifestyle because the older you get, the more you need the people who
knew you when you were young.
J. It is clear for me that, when given half a chance, young
people have a tremendous capacity to shape their own existence.

4.2.2. Reading

Ex. 2
a) purging;
b) unattainable;
c) chiseled;
d) physique;
e) inevitably;
f) obstacle;
g) tailor;
h) stereotypical;
i) obsession, preoccupation;
j) strive;
k) on the increase;
l) indicator;
m) enhance;
n) trigger;
o) unique.

Ex. 3
1. Statistics.
2. Abs.
3. Teased.
4. Enhance.
5. Contributed.

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6. Obsession.
7. Embarrassed.
8. Tailored.
9. Triggers.
10. Perfection.

Ex. 4
A. Anorexia is a mental disorder triggered by a negative body
image and an eating disorder.
B. The symptoms of anorexia are dramatic weight loss, fear of
obesity, obsession with one’s weight.
C. Unfortunately, anorexia is no longer an exclusively female
issue, the per cent of men struggling with this disorder is on the rise.
It’s more difficult for men to admit their preoccupation with physical
perfection.
D. If women strive to be super thin, men’s obsession with
weight usually manifests itself in excessive exercise and steroid use.
E. You don’t need to read Men’s Health to see that the number
of men sporting chiseled abs and a super-lean physique is on the rise.
F. Men are not properly diagnosed because the symptoms of
eating disorders among men are slightly different than among women
and don’t fit the stereotypical pattern.
G. Symptoms motivated by different emotional factors are
harder to diagnose.
H. Men often strive to achieve a lean and muscular look by
dramatically decreasing percentage of their body fat.
I. Body dysmorphic disorder is a mental disorder characterized
by the obsessive idea that one’s body or appearance is severely
flawed.
J. Dieting may also be the primary cause of eating disorders.

4.3.2. Reading

Ex. 1
a) would happen;
b) not;
c) outside;

324
d) will be launched;
e) will form;
f) can correctly answer;
g) is required;
h) to be following;
i) look into;
j) except;
k) indeed;
l) so;
m) but;
n) which;
o) objects.

Ex. 3
1) on a par with.
2) spoilsport.
3) hygiene.
4) had hung on.
5) practitioner.
6) cure.
7) psychology.
8) assessment.
9) discouraging.
10) glamorous.

Ex. 4
1) g
2) h
3) f
4) c
5) d
6) b
7) a
8) i
9) j
10) e

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Ex. 5
A. “The Old Wives’ Tales”, a novel by a famous British writer
Arnold Bennett, is about lives of Baines sisters and people around
them.
B. Frogs won’t give you warts. That’s just an оld wives’ tale.
C. Stop arguing! Don’t be such a spoilsport!
D. Could these symptoms be indicative of something more
serious than cold?
E. According to some critics in Game of Thrones the line
between Good and Evil is deliberately blurred – violence is shown as
norm.
F. Between 40,000 and 80,000 deaths in United States hospitals
each year are related to misdiagnosis, according to a new study.
G. How many lumps of sugar do you take in your coffee?
H. The Department of Health put a stamp of approval on the ban
of hitting the water pipe in cafes, citing recent scientific findings.
I. In terms of economic output, today’s EU is on par with the
US.
J. The committee considered the submitted documents to
provide the proper evidence.

4.4.2. Reading

Ex. 1
a) methods;
b) vast;
c) deluding;
d) effective;
e) improved;
f) practiced;
g) rejected;
h) contradiction;
i) better;
j) legitimate.

Ex. 3
a) 7;

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b) 1;
c) 8;
d) 3;
e) 6.

Ex. 4
A. Deteriorates.
B. Orthodox.
C. Gain.
D. Efficacy.
E. Deluding.
F. Preventative.
G. Placebo.
H. Integrate.
I. Complementary.
J. Legitimate.

Ex. 5
A. If alternative methods of treatment are used in combination
with traditional forms, such medicine is called complementary.
B. Complementary medicine aims to treat the whole person, not
just the symptoms of disease.
C. Complementary medicine includes such techniques as
acupuncture, chiropractic, herbal medicine, massage, yoga and other
methods whose efficacy and safety wasn’t scientifically proven.
D. Practitioners of complementary medicines are not trying to
con people.
E. Acupuncture is believed to have originated around 100 BC in
China. The traditional explanation of its effectiveness was that it
worked by affecting energy meridians.
F. Acupuncture was called a pseudoscience because theories
and practices of traditional Chinese medicine are not based on
scientific knowledge and it was characterized as wacky.
G. Chiropractic is a form of alternative medicine concerned with
the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the musculoskeletal
system, especially the spine.

327
H. Herbal medicine (also Herbalism) is the study of botany and
use of medical plants.
I. The “placebo effect” term was introduced into scientific
circulation by American doctor Henry Beecher in 1955.
J. He is developing TB, which means his lungs will gradually
deteriorate.

UNIT 5

5.1.2. Reading

Ex. 1
1) b; 2) d; 3) a; 4) d; 5) a; 6) c.

Ex. 2
1) b; 2) a; 3) e; 4) c.

Ex. 4
A. The concluding communique of the G7 summit focuses on
two issues: not to allow Iran to get a nuclear weapon and to encourage
peace and understanding in the world.
B. The pupil reluctantly put up his hand as he was not sure his
answer was correct.
C. Give me three scoops of ice-cream: vanilla, strawberry and
chocolate.
D. A vegetable shredder is a must-have on every kitchen.
E. Some blind people can echolocate like bats, clicking their
tongues while walking helps them understand the environment around
them.
F. When could a woman glare? When she is offered to go Dutch
in the restaurant.
G. Having overheard what was said in the hall, Tess gave me an
alarmed look.
H. In the interview president of Russian Hockey Federation
Vladislav Tretyak shared his impressions about the recent match
between Russian and Swiss teams.

328
I. Stash (informal) means a store or supply of something,
typically one that is kept hidden or secret.
J. Moscow libraries started to hand around unwanted books as
you can see the list on the website of the city library system.

5.2.2. Reading

Ex. 2
a) sheer; b) attenuated; c) curdle; d) enhance; e) heavy duty;
f) allegedly; g) showing off; h) splayed; i) multifarious; j) elaborate.

Ex. 3
1 ) e; 2 ) i; 3 ) j; 4 ) b; 5 ) h; 6 ) a; 7 ) g; 8 ) f; 9 ) d; 10 ) c.

Ex. 4
A. The footballer was accompanied by his bodyguard who
didn’t allow any persistent fans to approach the Argentinean.
B. These words made her blood curdle.
C. It was obvious to him as a specialist that the behaviour of the
patient betrayed his deep insecurity.
D. Mechanical equipment such as fly towers, gantries, carousels
and ledges – is an integral part of any stage performance.
E. Five, if you can hear me, I think the comms are
malfunctioning.
F. “Muster your forces” means to make great arrangements and
efforts, usually to prepare for an event.
G. What do you think the proverb “It’s the retinue that makes
the king” means?
H. Give antonym to the verb “enhance”. – “Abate”.
I. The naked misogyny he displayed in his speech was truly
astounding.
J. No matter how multifarious his activities were he didn’t feel
satisfied with his life.

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5.3.2. Reading

Ex. 4
a) spotted;
b) swallowed;
c) figured;
d) lucked-out;
e) zits;
f) fuzz;
g) dumb;
h) custody;
i) make headway;
j) show up.

Ex. 5
1) g; 2) d; 3) c; 4) e; 5) h; 6) a; 7) b; 8) j; 9) f; 10) i.

Ex. 6
A. The driver pulled up at the curb and asked the pedestrian for
directions to the school building.
B. She bad-mouths everybody who disagrees with her.
C. According to satellite data an oily sheen coats more than a
third of the World ocean.
D. A lot of junkies and derelicts were bumming around the
beach.
E. Needlework – sewing, embroidering and knitting – is
traditionally believed to be a female domain.
F. Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a
child’s body matures into an adult body capable of sexual
reproduction.
G. A gatecrasher is a person who attends some event without
being invited.
H. The electrician had to wear crampons to climb the pole.
I. One of the main routes in the center of the city was fouled up
because of the traffic lights malfunction.
J. He was thought a freak – he forgave everybody, didn’t hold
much against anybody, wasn’t tight-fisted.

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5.4.2. Reading

Ex. 1
1) f; 2) g; 3) i; 4) e; 5) d; 6) b; 7) h.

Ex. 2
a) unable;
b) preventing;
c) remained;
d) along with;
e) in fear of;
f) extending;
g) with fascination;
h) slamming;
i) thicken.

Ex. 3
A. A collapse into a hollow area below, as of a physical
construction or formation; обвал, обрушение.
B. Cease to support or look after; give up completely;
покинуть, бросить.
C. Estimate, determine, measure; оценить, измерить.
D. A person who travels around selling goods; trader, dealer,
vendor; уличный торговец, лоточник.
E. Not flinching, unshrinking, unintimidated; не дрогнув, без
колебаний.
F. The structure or physique of a human body; скелет,
телосложение.

Ex. 6
1) b; 2) a; 3) b.

Ex.7
A. Police authorities prevented a break-out from the detention
center.
B. If the demand for the goods increases and the supply remains
the same/doesn’t alter, the price and sales will soar.

331
C. During the flight the plane unexpectedly ran out of fuel and
its both engines stopped.
D. A head hunter is a person who looks for suitable recruits to
fill business positions.
E. The armed forces pledged their unflinching support and
loyalty to the country.
F. How do you understand the expression “to come to one’s
rescue”? – For me it is synonymous with “not to leave in the lurch”.
G. “Abandon hope, all ye who enter here”, the Italian version of
this phrase appears in Dante’s Divine Comedy as the inscription on
the entrance to Hell.
H. Just gauge his reaction when you flat-out ask him if you
could borrow his car for a couple of days.
I. He had only dim memories of his late father.
J. The miners were silent – nobody wanted to recollect how
many people had died in cave-ins recently.

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VOCABULARY BANK
UNIT 1
Ex. 1
1. Она была подавлена, ей все время хотелось заплакать/она
все время была на грани слез. 2. Зная о грозящей опасности,
часовой был начеку. 3. Что до этого человека, не было никаких
признаков того, что его угрозы как-то осуществятся. 4. Пьяные
водители представляют серьезную опасность для участников
дорожного движения. 5. Постоянная болтовня детей мешала ему
работать. 6. Его здоровье серьезно ухудшилось, и он страдал от
постоянной бессонницы. 7. Посевы уже взошли, им нужна
постоянная забота, а это тяжелый труд. 8. Стены были украшены
итальянскими пейзажами, их явно выбирал знаток, и все они
были подлинными и ценными. 9. Команда была прекрасно
подобрана. 10. Джоан села за фортепиано и начала играть
наиболее интересные отрывки из музыкальной комедии.
11. Платье, которое они купили на следующий день, идеально
сидело на ее стройной фигуре. 12. И Эйва, вставив ключ в
замочную скважину, вошла в комнату. 13. Я... это просто я. И
главное во мне то, что я смогу приспособиться к любой ситуации.
14. И еще она подумала о том, как хорошо эта роль подойдет
Мэгги на сцене. 15. Все кусочки головоломки вставали на место.
16. Ему впервые пришло в голову, что это были его собственные
инициалы. 17. Наши мнения не сходятся. 18. Задайте ему
несколько вопросов и посмотрите, какая группа ему больше
подходит. 19. Я всегда нахожусь в отличной форме, никогда в
жизни не болел. 20. Сначала она была против этого плана, но
затем передумала. 21. Она выводила свои инициалы красными
чернилами. 22. Молодой человек, поборов свою стеснительность,
имел большой успех в общении с людьми. 23. В качестве
одобрения этих документов, я поставил на них свои инициалы.
24. Когда она начала работать, она активно проявляла
инициативу, и через год ее повысили до менеджера. 25. Я не
должен все время говорить тебе, что делать, хоть раз прояви
инициативу! 26. Мы не знаем, какую роль он играл в этой афере.

333
27. Фэгин и его друзья втянули Оливера в ограбление. 28. Его
учили, что современная физика подразумевает управление
мельчайшими частицами материи. 29. Участники ДТП – две
машины и грузовик. 30. Ей не хотелось длинных споров по
телефону, поэтому она повесила трубку. 31. Самое ценное, что
было у Соумса – его дочь – была среднего роста и внешности, с
короткими, темно-каштановыми волосами. 32. Вещь, не будучи
ценной или не имеющая коммерческой ценности, не может быть
дорогостоящей, тем не менее она может быть дорога нам в
память о том, кто подарил ее. 33. Вам следовало бы научиться
ценить время других людей. 34. Я скажу об этом Джону, его
услуги бесценны для нас. 35. Ценность жизни заключается не в
продолжительности дней, а в том, как мы их используем; человек
может жить долго, но мало получить от жизни (М. Монтень).
36. Хотя он гордился тем, что никому не доверяет, он всегда
принимал за чистую монету любой дружеский жест,
проявленный по отношению к нему. 37. Группа театральных
деятелей, и я в том числе, написали открытое письмо в «Таймс».
38. «Моя дорогая ... Я был членом клубов, которые состояли
исключительно из дураков». 39. Разумеется, я не ожидаю, что вы
будете танцевать от радости, но вы могли бы сохранить приличия
при обсуждении. 40. Посмотрите на эти старые картины! Они
находятся в отличной состоянии! 41. В чистоте всѐ чисто. 42. В
путешествии мы избегали проезжать через крупные города.
43. Можно было восхищаться его превосходными качествами, но
компании его избегали. 44. В какой-то момент вы наверняка
оскорбите таких людей, пусть и ненароком. 45. Они поехали
дальше, медленно, как бы на ощупь, болтая по дороге, стараясь,
насколько это возможно, не попасть на главную улицу. 46. Этот
человек слишком самоуверенный, чтобы нравиться другим
людям. 47. Общество прощает тщеславие успешным, но только
им (М. Твен). 48. «Не хочу показаться заносчивым, но я,
несомненно, лучший продавец в компании», – хвастался он.
49. Самомнение этого человека невероятно. 50. Блики солнца на
воде заставили его сощуриться. 51. В докладе полно грубых
ошибок. 52. Она пристально смотрела на Эллери остекленевшим
взглядом.

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Ex. 2
A threat of a catastrophe, a threatening voice, a threat of an
immediate punishment.
Constant job, constant success, constant headaches.
To select a New Year gift, to select the best performers, to have
a vast selection of something.
To fit sth on, to fit a plank in a floor, to fit in with, do as you
think fit.
Initial stage, initial symptoms of a disease, the same initials,
initial advantage, to take the initiative in something, to act on one’s
own initiative, to take the initiative, man of initiative.
To involve expenses; to involve sb in trouble; to be involved in
sth; to involve one’s rights; to involve sb in heavy expenses;
A valuable thing; a valuable initiative; valuable information; an
invaluable help; to be of great value/valued; moral values; to value sth
at…
To include into a list; to include an item on the agenda; to
exclude all doubt; to exclude the light from the room; Sunday
inclusive; from 5 to 10 inclusive; item 5 excluded; an exclusive
society; an exclusive shop; an exclusive college; exclusive privileges.
To preserve vegetables; to preserve fruit; to preserve peace; to
preserve strength; to preserve silence; to preserve traditions; to
preserve one’s reputation; to preserve one’s beauty; to preserve one’s
eyesight; to preserve the memory of sb/sth.
Pure milk; pure skin; pure wool; pure science; by pure accident;
pure nonsense; pure coincidence.
To avoid the old friends, a bad company, mistakes, some food, a
row, trouble, difficulties; to avoid applying to sb, mentioning sth,
going somewhere.
A conceited look; to have a great conceit of oneself;
conceited/full of conceit.
To glare in the sunshine; to glare at sb; lamp glare; ice glare;
glaring neon signs; glaring error / mistake; a glaring defect; glaring
headlights of a car; glaring eyes.

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Ex. 3
1. “Anyway, you might have done without threats”, said June.
“Threats won’t get you anywhere”. 2. Only the leader of the
expedition was aware of the danger threatening them if the snowstorm
did not abate by the morning. 3. The constant chatter of the children
annoyed the old woman. 4. How tired I am of your constant
complaints! 5. It’s very important for a person to have a constant
friend close by. 6. We won’t have enough time to select a good New
Year gift. 7. The goods were displayed for the customers to be able to
select what they liked. 8. He was speaking slowly, pausing from time
to time to carefully select the necessary words. 9. Ruth cut off a piece
of silver paper fitting the size of the book and began to wrap it.
10. She didn’t have a dress suitable for the occasion. 11. The weather
is so bad that it does not fit for a walk. 12. Tom is a good mixer and
can fit in with any company. 13. Her black hair fitted her round face
and slanting eyes. 14. She has gone to fit on a new dress and it will
take her ages. 15. He used to say that the initial stage of work is the
most important one. 16. Well-known politicians were involved in the
scandal and it caused a cabinet crisis.17. If I were a headmaster like
you, I would get parents deeper involved in solution of any problems.
18. You rendered me an invaluable service. 19. I value your opinion
more than anyone else’s. 20. The value of some things can’t be
measured by money. 21. The congress will last another 3 days,
Sunday included. 22. These members of the committee enjoyed
exclusive rights. 23. Are you sure all the surnames are included in the
list? Let’s check it again to exclude any doubts. 24. The old pictures in
the collection are perfectly preserved. 25. Darty is wonderfully well
preserved taking into account he is sixty two now. 26. Don’t take her
words at their face value. Everything she said was pure fiction.
27. The student was speaking slowly trying to avoid even slight
mistakes. 28. It was obvious that Mary tried to avoid her old friends.
29. The imminent danger seemed unavoidable. 30. She was really
upset because Charles had a great trust to John, this conceited
trickster. 31. Nobody likes conceited people. 32. This glaring mistake
couldn’t be overlooked. 33. The humiliated boy glared at his offender.

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UNIT 2
Ex. 1
1. Детей необходимо учить сохранять наше национальное
наследие. 2. Куратор музея хранил древние манускрипты. 3. Он
присматривает за магазином, когда меня нет. 4. Эти деньги
пойдут на благое дело. 5. Он утверждал, что стал жертвой
преступления. 6. Он утверждал, что слишком поздно вступать в
войну. 7. Вскоре они начали встречаться, и их отношения
длились полтора года. 8. Он увидел заметку в New York Times.
9. В ее списке покупок было несколько пунктов. 10. Некоторые
губернаторы могут наложить вето на статьи расходов в бюджете
своего штата. 11. Самым ценным экспонатом выставки будет
картина Пикассо. 12. Я не сразу понял, что Тина и Джим
встречаются. 13. Мы смотрели на долину со скалы. 14. С башни
открывается вид на море. 15. Даже редактор пропустил эту
ошибку. 16. Я закрою глаза на это замечание, если вы сейчас
уйдете. 17. Недалеко есть деревня с приличным пабом. 18. Они
долго встречались, прежде чем поженились. 19. В основном,
здесь порядочные люди. 20. Она хотела выйти замуж за
достойного человека. 21. Окраска многих насекомых имеет
огромное биологическое значение – благодаря ей они становятся
незаметными. 22. Эта красная точка – маркировка на фильме о
государственных проблемах. 23. Его страна сделает все
возможное, чтобы укрепить мир. 24. Он объявил турне по всей
Британии для рекламы своего нового альбома. 25. Меня
повысили до редактора, а затем и до главного редактора
издательства. 26. Картина выражает ярость жертв войны. 27. У
всех подопытных мышей выявили этот дефект. 28. Невозможно
выразить словами, как сильно я люблю тебя. 29. Он похвалил
наш вкус и разборчивость. 30. Вот некоторые меры по борьбе с
расовой дискриминацией. 31. Ресторан оказался приемлемым, но
не оправдал своей репутации. 32. Такое поведение неприемлемо в
обществе.

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Ex. 2
To maintain order; to maintain friendly relations; to maintain
health; to maintain a high educational level; to maintain a high quality
of the product; critics maintain that…; to maintain one’s innocence; to
maintain budget; to maintain a family, food is necessary to maintain
life.
To take items out of the box; household items; the next item in a
list; an item of clothing/school uniform; a collector’s item; a news
item; they are an item.
To overlook mistakes in an essay; to overlook details of the
contract; to overlook the opinion of the minority; you can’t overlook
it; the room overlooks the sea; to overlook one’s faults.
Decent trousers; decent people/folk; decent behaviour; the only
decent place in the city.
Marking on the road; mysterious markings on the wall; a bird
with curious markings; aggressive markings; marking students’
individual work.
To promote sales growth; to promote the quality of education; to
promote sb on the career ladder; to promote one’s idea on improving
the ecological situation in the country; to promote an event; to
promote a new clothes brand.
To express one’s views on the problem; to express one’s interest
in this area; to express one’s concern; to express the reasons; to
express a sincere gratitude; we can’t express our happiness; the face
expresses itself; to express three-quarters as a decimal.
Discrimination in favour of university graduates; discrimination
against older people; shape discrimination.
An agreement acceptable to both sides; the unacceptable way to
solve the problem.

Ex.3
1. When my father is away for a while, I stay home to maintain
order in our store. 2. You should take care of yourself and maintain
your health. 3. Even though my brother maintained his innocence, no
one believed him. 4. Critics unanimously maintain that the world has
never seen before a better book. 5. Despite the failures and hardships
of life, Anna is able to maintain her family. 6. He put the suitcase on

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the table, opened it, and slowly removed a few items. 7. In our store
you can choose the most exquisite furniture and household items to
your liking at a low price. 8. I read about the incident in a news item
yesterday. 9. I’m so happy for Mary and John! I think they will make
a great item. 10. A jacket is just another item of school uniform like
trousers or a shirt. You don’t have to wear it with the rest of the
uniform. 11. I was too tired last night, so I decided to postpone
checking students’ essays till tomorrow not to overlook a single
mistake. 12. She did not want to quarrel, so she chose to overlook his
harsh and cruel words. 13. The guestroom in Mr. Linvhan’s house
overlooked the sea. 14. You think too decent of him and do overlook
my opinion about his behaviour. 15. According to Mr. Harrison, his
son might have worn something more decent to the celebration.
16. Everyone in our city considers themselves decent and responsible
people. 17. While reading the book, she kept leaving markings on the
margin. 18. The teacher marked the work of the students throughout
the term. 19. Our advertising promotes people to choose natural
products. 20. I had been working in this position for about four years,
and then I was promoted. 21. She organized a grand press conference
to promote her new line of makeup. 22. Our family would like to
express our sincere gratitude for your warm welcome and a wonderful
dinner. 23. Don’t be afraid to take an interest, express your opinion
and ask questions! 24. His gaze expressed nothing but despair and
disappointment. 25. What do you think the author of this story wanted
to express? 26. This film raises a rather serious topic of racial
discrimination, and discusses ways to solve this problem. 27. I praise
your wine discrimination. 28. Such treatment of those who are weaker
than you is absolutely unacceptable! 29. They seemed to consider my
qualifications quite acceptable for the position of a coach.
UNIT 3
Ex. 1
1. Кажется, старая Мисс Рэм получает удовольствие,
показывая свой характер. 2. Линда побелела от злости и
разочарования. 3. Сэмуэль полностью обуздал свой скверный
характер. 4. В разного рода политических ситуациях он научился

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держать себя в руках и использовать в своих интересах людей,
которым это не удавалось. 5. Она снова начинала злиться при
мысли, что этот грубый и невоспитанный человек все слышал.
6. Туберкулез легких – это изнуряющая болезнь. 7. Закрой кран –
не трать воду. 8. Многие дома строят на пустырях за чертой
города. 9. Кто попусту не тратит, тому всегда хватает. 10. Я не
могу дотянуться до окна, чтобы закрыть его. 11. На высоте более
мили над уровнем моря миссис Эдриан не могла идти в прежнем
темпе. 12. Дорога шла по прямой далеко через равнину. 13. Затем
он поразмыслил и постарался понять ее точку зрения. 14. Ее
голос был спокойным, равнодушным, в нем не было интереса.
15. Правда была написана на их лицах, но они этого не понимали.
16. Где-то на противоположном берегу реки послышался слабый
женский крик. 17. Милдред перестала кричать так же внезапно,
как и начала. 18. Успеху эксперимента в значительной мере
способствовали замечательные условия, созданные для его
проведения. 19. По общему мнению, ее честность
свидетельствовала о ее здравомыслии. 20. Его меланхолия,
схожая с состоянием Брэйси, несомненно, укрепляла их
взаимопонимание. 21. Овчарка зашевелилась в тени и
настороженно приоткрыла глаза, когда он проходил мимо. 22. Он
налил нам обоим кофе и начал медленно и задумчиво его
помешивать. 23. Это было летнее утро, наполненное движением
жизни. 24. Он поспешил в комнату мистера Домби, помешал угли
в камине и подготовил стул. 25. По долгу он сидел без движения,
не желая и пальцем пошевелить. 26. Вашингтон оживленно гудел,
как потревоженный улей. 27. Он построил свою репутацию на
том, что преуспевал там, где другие врачи не справлялись.
28. Ему был не ведом страх, и он не припоминал, чтобы его
когда-либо подводили нервы. 29. Мистер Берт протянул руку и
на какое-то мгновение замолчал, затем, справившись с собой,
сказал: «Рад познакомиться». 30. Он попробовал пошутить, но
Джон в ответ даже не улыбнулся. 31. Ты думаешь я плохой
писатель? – Неудачи нужно подсчитывать в конце жизни. Ты не
можешь быть неудачником, пока не бросил писать или не умер.
32. Дорога сменилась каменистой тропой, которая вывела их на
основную дорогу. 33. Ты хорошо знаешь своего друга Пайла? –

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Не очень. Наши пути пересекались и все. 34. Сказать, что он
замел следы, было бы неправдой. Он их вообще не оставил.
35. Вдалеке мы рассмотрели очертания башни. 36. Старый дуб
красиво вырисовывался на фоне голубого неба. 37. В нескольких
словах он рассказал, чем ему нравится Анна. 38. Долгое время
было тихо. Когда же Эндрю и Бэн вновь заговорили, то просто
обменялись своим военным опытом. 39. Стив поменял дом в
пригороде Лондона на квартиру в модном районе города. 40. «Я
едва знаю еѐ, правда», – сказал Черри. – Мы просто пару раз
обменялись ничего не значащими фразами». 41. Я не возражаю
против размещения данной информации в общедоступном
режиме. 42. Она не разрешает ходить в грязной обуви в доме.
43. Все наши цели были достигнуты. 44. Для такого миллионера,
как он, деньги не имеют значения. 45. Не говори о его здоровье –
это запретная тема. 46. Когда мы нашли общие интересы, мы
хорошо поладили друг с другом. 47. Говорят, что задача прозы
прежде всего повествовать, а задача поэзии не только
повествовать, но и (а иногда прежде всего) предполагать. 48. По
тому, что на ней были надеты белые перчатки до локтя, можно
было предположить, что в саду состоится королевский прием.
49. Он говорил по-немецки без всякого намека на французский
акцент. 50. Мои сомнения по этому поводу, если они и были,
вскоре развеялись. 51. Мы думаем, что можем оставить квартиру
и сдать наши вещи на хранение, пока уедем на лето. 52. Похоже,
что будущее уготовило нам не так уж много страхов. 53. Его не
оторвешь от телевизора. 54. Сьюзан боялась пристраститься к
успокоительным. 55. Наркотическая зависимость – чума XX века.
56. Проблема видеоигр в том, что они вызывают зависимость.
57. Она должно быть нервничает, она все время суетится.
58. Держу пари, что это Бассингтон пришел к врачу и устроил
всю эту шумиху по поводу болезни раком. 59. «Я искренне не
понимаю, из-за чего ты так переживаешь», – сказал Ларри
равнодушно. 60. К чему столько беспокойства об этой поездке?
Вещи уже собраны, а счета оплачены. 61. Она не часто видит
своих внуков, поэтому при встрече не отходит от них ни на шаг.
62. Хотя житель Нью-Йорка может наслаждаться красотой
природы, где он может забыть о повседневных неотложных

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проблемах, прелести сельской жизни, кажется, не впечатляют
его. 63. Экспедиция остро нуждалась в поставках
продовольствия, медикаментов и снаряжения. 64. Еѐ
квалифицированный секретарь занимался всей срочной
информацией. 65. Старый Джолион не мог устоять перед
настойчивыми просьбами Джун.

Ex. 2
To control your temper, a fiery temper, a hot temper, to be in a
good temper, to have a quick temper, to lose one’s temper, to be in a
temper.
To waste away, to lay waste away, waste land, waste one’s
words, a wasteful man.
Above (below) sea level, a level ground. He has a level head; to
level the gun, to level to the ground.
To scream of pain, to scream with laughter. It’s a scream! I
scream at the top of my voice. The horn was screaming.
To make one’s contribution to something, a monetary
contribution, a scientific contribution, contributions from well-known
political columnists, a shareholder’s contribution. From each
according to their ability, to each ) according to their contribution.
Montmorency brought a dead water-rat as his contribution to the Irish
stew.
To make a stir, to stir the past, not to stir a finger to do sth, to stir
up hatred, to stir up trouble, not to stir an eyelid.
To fail an exam, I won’t fail you. The teacher failed the student.
If you don’t try you will always fail. Words fail me. If all else fails,
without fail.
To be on the track of sb, be hot on the track, to cover up one’s
tracks, the beaten track; to keep track of.
Budget outline, the course outline. The objective of the report is
to give you an outline of the benefits of the healthy way of life. Figure
4 outlines the technique. Bosinney showed Soames the design of the
house in outline.
To exchange a purchase, in exchange, to exchange prisoners, to
exchange glances (views), exchange of information, to swap places
(col.).

342
To object to/against the plan, to object to one’s marriage, to
object to changes, an object of ridicule, the objective of the
investigation, an objective assessment. I don’t object to his going on
the trip.
Football ground, forbidden ground, stand one’s ground, suit
down to the ground, feel solid ground under your feet, cover much/a
lot of ground, have no ground for worrying, groundless accusations.
Suggest an idea, suggest sth, suggest oneself.
A clear conscience, with a clear head, to clear sb. The coast is
clear.
Have in store, keep in store for the winter, to render furs for
store, to store food for expedition, set much store by sth, storehouse,
weapon stores.
A drug addict, to get addicted to, addiction, be addictive.
Fuss about, to be fussy about the house, make a fuss of sb/sth, a
fussy patient, to be fussy about food, a fussy man.
A matter of great urgency, urgent repair, urgent call, urgent
business, urgent issue, urgent entreaty.

Ex. 3
1. Your uncle has a hot temper. He cannot stand to be disturbed.
2. Stella, what’s wrong? Don’t lose your temper even if you lose the
game. It is ridiculous. 3. Walter got into the habit of avoiding
decisions when in a temper. 4. It’s a pity that so many efforts were
wasted. 5. For a moment, I felt embarrassed. I expected he would say I
was wasting precious time idle-talking. 6. “Some people spend hours
watching TV, that is a waste of time”, said Nicholas – As for me, a
good book is the best alternative. 7. Although she was very tired, she
recognized with pleasure that the day hadn’t been wasted. 8. The
enemy laid the village waste. / leveled the village to the ground 9. For
miles away, it was the only level place. 10. When Ann started to talk
her voice was level and cold. 11. Tom grabbed the gun from his arms
and leveled it at Sanders. 12. An owl’s scream reached the highest
pitch then plummeted and trailed off in the night. 13. Regular works
out contributed to his success at competitions. 14. He refused to
contribute his poems to our wall-newspaper and now there is no time
left to ask someone else to do it. 15. American artist Rockwell Kent

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contributed to the collection of paintings of the Pushkin Museum.
16. There was no wind at all, not a leaf stirred. 17. Stir the porridge, or
it will burn. 18. I can’t tell you anything definite yet. I made inquiries,
but failed. 19. The failed experiment did not discouraged him, he was
sure that sooner or later he would succeed. 20. Our train is on the fifth
track, let’s hurry up. 21. Sinking into the deep snow, the hound was on
the track of a hare. 22. He’s not the kind of man to go down the beaten
track. 23. I lost track of his argumentation and couldn’t understand his
idea. 24. He was sure that he had covered up his tracks. 25. Here is the
outline of my report. Could you look through it? 26. Unfortunately, I
don’t have the article with me, but I can tell you its content in outline
if you like. 27. Tourists like to exchange badges and try to get
something new. 28. There was a strange noise in the room – it was
Ken objecting to Duglas’ plan. 29. American colonists objected to the
policy of the British government. 30. He used to render his sister as an
object of ridicule. 31. The objective of his investigation was to prove
the validity of the theory. 32. Your opinion is quite objective.
33. Preliminary negotiations served as the ground for a subsequent
agreement. 34. It was he who drew my attention to this picture.
35. Don’t pay attention to what he is saying. 36. A few words he
dropped by chance suggested that everything he had said was pure
fiction. 37. Recent research of the University of Aberdeen scientists
has unveiled new evidence suggesting a possibility of life on Mars.
38. He always has jokes and funny stories in store. 39. There is no use
arguing with you, you are constantly changing your point of view.
40. Fussy eaters are very selective about what they eat. 41. Jane’s
thoughts were becoming fussier and she quickened her pace. 42. He
had a fussy anticipation he couldn’t get rid of. 43. Lots of parents
make a fuss about their children’s addiction to television.
44. Alcoholic addiction is a tragedy for a family. 45. Every time the
question of promotion came up, Smythe was always overlooked.
46. There was so much fuss about my arrival that I felt a bit
embarrassed. 47. Please don’t make a fuss, it’s just a scratch. 48. An
urgent call forced the physician to go to the patient at midnight.
49. She asked not to disturb her unless it was a matter of great
urgency. 50. My head is full of fussy thoughts.

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UNIT 4
Ex. 1
1. У этой девочки неординарные умственные способности.
2. Она продолжала тешить себя воспоминаниями о счастливом
прошлом. 3. Мой брат был вне себя, увидев вмятину на своей
новой машине. 4. Кажется, он был озабочен вычислениями в уме.
5. Этот великолепный доктор будет следить за умственным
развитием детей в больнице. 6. Слон схватил ветку хоботом.
7. Он ухватился за возможность попросить добавку к зарплате.
8. Правительство еще не осознало всей серьезности кризиса. 9. У
моего двоюродного брата редкое психическое расстройство,
которое может спровоцировать паралич рук. 10. В отделении
неотложной помощи был беспорядок. 11. Он призывал власти
положить конец гражданским беспорядкам. 12. А сейчас мы не
можем пообедать? Я умираю с голоду. 13. Их обвинили в том,
что они морили голодом заключенных. 14. Электроэнергетика –
это не единственная отрасль, которой не хватает инвестиций.
15. Солдаты взяли город измором. 16. Физические упражнения
способствуют укреплению здоровья. 17. Они сказали, что хотят
сделать пожертвования на благотворительность. 18. Я
сотрудничаю с этой газетой много лет. 19. Полиция начала
расследование инцидента. 20. Он взмыл в воздух. 21. Сегодня
утром запуск космического корабля «Колумбия» был отложен.
22. Его успех в компании способствовал блестящей карьере.
23. Он тут же начал пересказывать содержание фильма, так как
он был его любимым. 24. Многие пациенты не получают
должного лечения. 25. Мария была шокирована его отношением
к ней. 26. Ты относишься к предмету поверхностно.
27. Существует множество альтернатив обычной рекламе.
28. Вместо того, чтобы оставаться на этой бесперспективной
работе, можно уволиться. 29. Некоторые из присутствующих
высказали альтернативную точку зрения на эту проблему.
30. Новые методы лечения могут представить альтернативу
обезболивающему средству. 31. Гранч начал проникать в
альтернативную музыкальную среду Сиэтла. 32. Насколько
эффективно это нетрадиционное лечение?

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Ex. 2
Mental disease, mental health, mental development, mental
attitude, mental image, mental to make a mental note, to have/get a
mental block, to go mental;
To grasp one’s arm, to grasp a rope, to grasp an idea, to grasp the
necessity of a reform, to grasp a chance, to grasp the nettle;
Disorder of the digestive system, to suffer from a mental
disorder, to cause a civil disorder, to leave a room in disorder;
To starve, to starve for attention, to starve sb, to be starved of
investment, to starves out;
To contribute one’s time, to contribute to the cause, to contribute
to charity, a contributing factor, to contribute to the local paper;
To launch a presidential campaign, to launch a vicious attack on
the mayor’s image, to launch a product, to launch a satellite into the
orbit, to launch an application, to launch oneself forwards/up/from, to
launch into sth, a launchpad;
A worthy and timely treatment, a treatment for a cold, cruel
treatment of animals, she was giving him the silent treatment, a
special/preferential treatment, the treatment of polluted rivers;
An alternative idea, an alternative way, sources of alternative
energy, alternative medicine/therapies.

Ex. 3
1. Our centre provides an adequate and early help for people
suffering from mental illness. 2. To obtain a good result you need to
develop a positive mental attitude. 3. The mental picture of the girl my
friend told me about haunted me for a long time. 4. The teacher made
a mental note that the language level of his new students is rather
high. 5. I’m not sure why, but lately I’ve got a mental block
understanding you. 6. If he finds out what you did, he’ll go mental.
7. Edward was pressed for time, so he quickly had breakfast, grasped
the phone and ran out of the house. 8. Only after reading the book
over did I grasp the author’s message. 9. After a long streak of bad
luck, she couldn’t help grasping the opportunity. 10. My brother has
been suffering from a disorder of the liver. 11. The event caused a
huge public outcry and contributed to civil disorder. 12. He doesn’t
seem to care at all about keeping his room clean, it is always in

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disorder. 13. About a hundred disabled miners have been on hunger
strike for two days and they are starving. 14. You are looking at the
food as if you have been starving all day. 15. The soldiers were
ordered to starve the residents into submission. 16. Government
employees cannot contribute to political campaigns. 17. She decided
to contribute the money she’d won to charity. 18. I had to contribute
my own time to the project, but I have no regrets. 19. Scientists have
named a contributing factor to obesity. 20. For some time he
contributed to the magazine. 21. The Ministry of Education has
launched a new project to prepare for state exams. 22. I was terrified
when the ferocious animal suddenly launched itself at me. 23. My
opponent in the dispute suddenly launched into offensive and
demanded proofs. 24. It’s the first time eco-products have been
launched. 25. This morning the spacecraft “Soyuz” has been launched.
26. The congregation were watching with admiration the ship launch.
27. Following the teacher’s instructions the students made a double-
click on the icon to launch the application. 28. Paying no attention to
anybody, my friend, a dentist, launched into discussing how important
it is to take care of your teeth. 29. At the last second, the Russian
runner launched himself and crossed the finish line first. 30. We
would like to recommend our clinic to you where each patient will
receive an adequate and timely treatment at a reasonable price. 31. Is
there any modern alternative to the brilliant green when treating
children from chickenpox? 32. Through helpline every child can
report cruel treatment of him. 33. Some children in the group should
be given a special treatment because of their mental features. 34. In
your report the topic of ecology in our country wasn’t sufficiently
covered. 35. In our opinion, we have to contribute more effort in the
protection of forests and nature reserves. 36. We need alternative ways
of tackling the problem, otherwise we will end up in the dead-end.
37. Why do you have such an implacable treatment of people who
have a different point of view? 38. Today in class we paid special
attention to the types of alternative sources of energy and to their
benefits in the contemporary world. 39. Non-traditional medicine is
called alternative, as it is used instead of the conventional medicine.
40. Today alternative medicine is gaining increasing popularity.

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UNIT 5
Ex. 1
1. Едва они сели за стол, как он сразу перешѐл к делу.
2. Майра пристально наблюдала за нами, но я знал, что как бы
внимательно она не слушала, она, наверняка, упустит суть
разговора. 3. Я взял за правило путешествовать с большим
мешком, до краѐв набитым книгами, которые бы подходили под
любую ситуацию и настроение. 4. «Бессмысленно нести все свои
тревоги домой. Тебе нужно оставить их в офисе», – сказал Том.
5. То, что можно сделать в теории, не всегда получится
осуществить, когда дело доходит до практики. 6. Я проснулся и
увидел, что стрелки часов показывают восемь. 7. Мне трудно
сосредоточится, я думаю сразу о нескольких вещах. 8. У меня
были очень заботливые и любящие родители. 9. Спустя час у
меня ослабло внимание. 10. Нет смысла приходить на мои
занятия, если ты меня не слушаешь. 11. В первый же день, когда
он спокойно вошѐл в эти тесные, полные шума комнаты, его
приняли за шпиона. 12. Теперь я точно уверен, что мои первые
подозрения были оправданы. 13. Дверь открылась изнутри, и из
подозрительно выглянул Джордж. 14. Я сразу заподозрил, что его
неудачливый брат опять доставляет проблемы. 15. В той
отдалѐнной деревне жители с подозрением относились к
чужакам. 16. Дик непроизвольным движением провѐл рукой по
волосам и поправил шарф. 17. Джейн прекрасно осознавала свой
возраст и понимала, что ее молодость осталась позади.
18. Впервые она осознала присутствие второго я, о
существовании которого она даже не подозревала. 19. Ей всегда
было что сказать, и она никогда не задумывалась, что сказать.
20. В его действиях не было никакой суеты, усилий, напряжения,
лишь неописуемая легкость, которая была так изящна. 21. Ты уже
должен достаточно хорошо меня знать и понимать, что я никогда
не дам чувствам помешать делу. 22. Судя по всему, его
небольшое приключение никак не сказалось ни на его
настроении, ни на аппетите. 23. Старик Том никогда и ни в какой
мере не вмешивался в чужие дела. 24. Разве ты не понимаешь,
что любое вмешательство на данном этапе может быть крайне

348
опасным? 25. Долгое время атом противился всем попыткам
раскрыть секреты его структуры. 26. Моѐ сердце все ещѐ
противилось тому, что говорил мне разум. 27. Они поймали его за
руку и увели, он шѐл не сопротивляясь. 28. Прошло много лет с
тех пор, как женщина говорила с ним подобным образом.
Мистеру Хани не удалось избежать воспоминания о своей
покойной жене. 29. Нужно быть женщиной, чтобы три раза
подряд делать одно и то же с неугасающим пылом. 30. На самом
деле, всѐ, что Беки было нужно от мужчины, всѐ, чего она
требовала, так это суметь рассмешить еѐ. 31. Мне следовало бы
помнить, что, прежде чем начать новую жизнь, нужно хорошо и
регулярно питаться. 32. Он ответил на полученную телеграмму,
что не нуждается в помощи. 33. Остину доставляло удовольствие
читать и заучивать выступления великих людей, независимо от
того, требовалось ли это по программе или нет. 34. Он знает, что
от него требуется? 35. Он не заглянул в документы и ответил по
памяти. 36. Он всегда называл еѐ отца доктором Ламбертом. 37. Я
всегда испытывал некую застенчивость, когда речь заходила о
делах, которые меня не касались. 38. Я пробормотал нечто
вежливое, что можно было расценить как ответ на еѐ последнее
замечание о саде. 39. Она не упомянула о нашей беседе,
состоявшейся накануне ночью. 40. Кажется, она работала в
справочной библиотеке. 41. Все, что нам нужно, – это хорошие
рекомендации. 42. Поведение Мэри выражало искреннее
раскаяние и признание вины. 43. Миссис Тѐртон была
единственной, кому разрешили посетить палату больных.
44. Некоторые английские университеты снизили требования к
поступлению по отдельным предметам, чтобы принять больше
студентов. 45. Сама идея быть принятым в такую компанию
будоражила меня. 46. Ты боишься, что, если признаешь правду, я
посчитаю, что ты был замешан в этом вместе с Веглером.
47. Наши новые театры могут принять большое число зрителей.
48. Но тѐтушка Марне была не из тех, кто признаѐт свое
поражение. 49. Он улыбнулся, когда она нечаянно призналась,
что была бы счастлива без Чарльза. 50. С почти физическим
усилием молодой человек взял себя в руки. 51. Он попытался
встать, но ноги не держали его. 52. Приложив немалые

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умственные усилия, сэр Лоренс попытался поставить перед собой
похожую дилемму. 52. Ситуация была странной и сильно
отличалась от всех тех романтических картин, которые
представлялись ему в воображении. 53. Не сомневаюсь, здесь он
станет известным, как того и заслуживает. 54. Сейчас уже не
было никаких сомнений, что все они пошли в совершенно другом
направлении. 55. Все эти сомнения и неизвестность сильно еѐ
расстраивали. 56. Сомневаюсь, что ему это сойдѐт с рук. 57. У
тебя есть рабочий график? – Я работаю тогда, когда работает
доктор. 58. Дейв… все время уговаривает меня найти постоянную
работу. 59. Ему даже нравились еѐ строгие, правильные черты.
60. Что вас сюда привело? Вы же не из наших постоянных
клиентов? 61. Он почувствовал, что начинает выбираться из той
дыры, какой стала его жизнь. 63. Я ещѐ никогда и нигде не видел
такого беспорядка. 64. Я действительно отправился на
загородную прогулку в четверг и вернулся ужасно грязный.
65. «Сегодня я виделся с отцом. Я надеялся, он даст мне
последний шанс и вытащит меня из груды проблем хотя бы на
время», – сказал Бен. 66. Доверься мне, и всѐ будет хорошо.
67. Он должен был удостовериться, что она, как этого можно
было ожидать, не поделится этой историей с Жервазе. 68. Каерц
был тронут чуть ли не до слѐз добротой Уоллеса. Он сказал, что
постарается изо всех сил оправдать его доверие. 69. Он,
несомненно, почуял неладное, но я решил, что ему нельзя
полностью доверять. 70. Он всем внушал доверие и обладал
железными нервами. 71. Повернувшись к ней, он увидел искру
понимания в еѐ глазах, и сразу улыбнулся, чтобы придать ей
уверенности. 72. Для него стало обыденным делом выслушивать
секреты других, но никогда не открываться самому. 73. Мистер
Пайн, то, что я собираюсь рассказать вам, не подлежит
разглашению! Вы же понимаете, так ведь? 74. Во время войны
Брет уверил себя в мысли, что она не волновалась за него и была
убеждена, что он вернѐтся домой невредимым. Еѐ полные
уверенности письма вызывали в нѐм чувство одиночества.
75. Взбежав по подвальной лестнице, он вышел из дома и
помчался по улице. 76. Он запустил двигатель, и лодка отошла от
причала. 77. Все, включая меня, с самого начала предположили,

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что Гилби писатель. 78. Я рассказал ему всю историю от начала
до конца. 79. Он вздрогнул и наконец очнулся от своих грѐз. 80. Я
заметил, что у него исчез йоркширский акцент. 81. У него вошло
в привычку заскакивать к ней иногда посреди недели, чтобы
обсудить последние новости. 82. «Высадите меня в
Дарлингхерте, если можно». Магда резко остановила машину.

Ex. 2
To miss the point, to keep/stick/speak to the point, to make a
point of doing sth;
To attend to, to attend to the needs of children, to attend to the
sick, to attend lectures, attendance of school is compulsory, to pay
attention to, attract/draw sb’s attention to, to be attentive to sb, danger
attended everything he did;
On suspicion, to suspect sb of sth, above suspicion, a suspicious-
looking man;
To recover/regain consciousness;
To interfere in sb’s business, don’t interfere with me;
The line of least resistance, to resist temptation, irresistible
fascination, to resist the attack;
To meet the requirements, supply and demand, The strikers
demanded immediate payment.
A reference, a reference book, to refer to sb, reference;
To admit, to be admitted to the institute, to admit, to admit one’s
mistake, admission by ticket, admission fee, to apply for admission,
admission of one’s guilt;
To make every effort, to spare no effort;
To paint a picture, to paint from nature, a still life painting;
To doubt sb’s honesty;
Regular features, regular work;
To get into a mess, you should have seen the mess;
To confide in sb, to confide sth to sb, to enjoy everybody’s
confidence, to inspire confidence, to be confident of success;
To start a trip to the mountains, to start running, to start a
quarrel, from start to finish, from the start, by fits and starts;
To drop with fatigue, to drop in, a drop in temperature.

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Ex. 3
1. I’m sorry, I can’t attend to you for long. Just speak to the
point, please. 2. Tom gave a sigh of relief: “I would never have
thought that we would agree on all the points” he said. 3. I’m afraid
there is no point mending these shoes, they won’t get any better.
4. When it came to the point, Ruf didn’t even bother to help us. 5. I’d
like to point out some weak points in your article. 6. It was he who
attracted my attention to the painting. 7. Don’t pay attention to what
he’s saying. 8. Do you have any ground to suspect me of lies?
9. When Clyde was arrested on suspicion of murder, he still hoped
that he would manage to conceal his terrible crime. 10. The door man
assured us that he hadn’t seen anybody suspicious looking. 11. Gray
knew that it would be months before any suspicions arose. 12. He may
be an efficient specialist, but his habit of speaking with conscious
superiority is obnoxious. 13. Unconscious of the danger at hand, the
geologists went on their difficult path. 14. The doctor bent over the
unconscious patient. After a while the patient regained his
consciousness and asked: “Where am I?” 15. The doctor said there
was nothing serious with her and she lost consciousness because it
was so stuffy there. 16. We mustn’t allow amusements to interfere
with our job. 17. I had a strong desire to tell her not to interfere in my
affairs. 18. Unfortunately, your elder sister always interferes in our
disputes. 19. I’ll go to the country tomorrow if nothing interferes.
20. It interferes with my plans. 21. The squad resisted the attack but
hadn’t gained an advantage yet. 22. The enemy could resist no longer.
23. Modern planes can easily overcome the air resistance. 24. The
pain was overbearing and the patient couldn’t resist screaming.
25. There is one letter left but it doesn’t require an answer. 26. It’s
better to find out in advance what the entrance requirements to this
university are. 27. Had you done everything required, you wouldn’t be
in such a mess now. 28. In his report the scientist referred to the latest
experiments. 29. She showed an excellent reference. 30. They sent me
to the editor saying that he had all the reference books. 31. I’ll ask
around but it seems to me, he didn’t refer to your letters. 32. She’s too
proud to take our money, but she won’t admit it. 33. How many
students have been admitted to the institute this year? 34. We were not
admitted into the hall as the performance had already started.

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35. Remember, today admission to the club is by ticket. 36. The
stadium admits thirteen thousand spectators. 37. The stranger took out
an item which size would admit nothing more than matches. 38. With
an effort Andrew collected himself. 39. Don’t get discouraged, your
efforts will be rewarded. 40. It didn’t cost me much effort to persuade
him to work in our newspaper. 41. I would never have thought this
picture was painted by an amateur. 42. Although Dirk Strove was a
bad painter himself, he had a fine artistic taste and attending
exhibitions with him was a rare treat. 43. The subject of the picture is
very simple. It portrays a boy shepherd on the background of an
evening sky. 44. Carpe diem! There is no doubt that we need to seize
the moment. 45. Jemma doubted that leaflets could be of any use. 46. I
don’t have the slightest doubt that he is just trying to defraud us of this
valuable book. 47. You went too far by doubting the honesty of the
old friend. 48. I have no doubt she will try to throw a scene. 49. He
always had a regular life and rarely went to the city. 50. Why don’t
you find a regular job? 51. John’s room was in a terrible mess but
when his sister took advantage of his absence to tidy it up a bit, he got
very angry and said that he couldn’t find anything there any longer.
52. Once again you’ve messed your work. Don’t you feel ashamed for
such a careless attitude towards everything? 53. She messed up all my
plans having made me wait for her for four hours. 54. She confided
her plans to no one. She had to deal with that point on her own.
55. Had you fully confided in me, we could have avoided that mess.
56. Since the beginning of the Great Patriotic War our people had
great confidence in the victory even in the direst times. 57. I quite
agree with you that he inspires confidence, but this is not the point, the
thing is that I just don’t know him well enough to ask for help.
58. Kate would start at the slightest noiseand look at the watch but the
time seemed to have stopped. 59. The people are really nice. From the
start I felt at home at their place. 60. Somebody knocked at the door.
Mike woke up with a start. 61. The Nazis dropped bombs on cities and
villages sparing no one. 62. Will your friend drop in today? Maybe he
will, but later. 63. Measure ten drops of this medicine into the glass of
warm water and gargle. You’ll get better. 64. Drop me a line or two
when you arrive.

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GRAMMAR BANK
1.1
1. …isn’t working. 2. …Correct. 3. …was having. 4. ….is
weighing. 5. …Correct. 6. …was looking. 7. …am talking.
8. …Correct. 9. …has been studying. 10. …am doing.
1.2
1. Why are you crying? 2. How long had he been working there
before they fired him? 3. What have you been doing since you
graduated? 4. How long have you been living in Madrid? 5. Who were
you talking to when I saw you earlier? 6. What did you want to be
when you were a child? 7. Have you been waiting long? 8. Why didn’t
you finish your degree?
6 and 8 have to use the simple form.
2.1
1. On Sunday mornings, I’ll/will get up early and go for a run
along the river before anyone else is awake. 2. I’ll/will sometimes
wait for hours before the bus arrives. 3. My mother-in-law will always
bake a cake for us when we visit. 4. He will keep bothering me for my
telephone number, but I don’t want to give it to him. 5. The children
won’t stop fighting. It’s driving me crazy. 6. She will spend the first
half an hour chatting before she even starts work. 7. My parents would
take us on camping holidays in the rain. We hated it. 8. My
grandfather wouldn’t shout, or tell you off. He was a very gentle man.
2.2
1. The drug has a tendency to cause headaches if used for
prolonged periods. 2. He is inclined to buy paintings which cost far
too much money. 3. We’re prone to arguing about politics at the
dinner table. 4. I keep wondering whether or not I’ve been given the
job. 5. She is always making a fuss about the way I dress. 6. They kept
cheating at cards, so I decided not to play with them. 7. As a rule, I
don’t use a lot of herbs and spices in my cooking. 8. My father would
always bring me back a present from his travels.
3.1
1. …has been providing. 2. …had been living. 3. …will have
been. 4. …have closed. 5. …appeared to have abandoned. 6. …will
have been running.

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3.2
1. The workers have been marching since 8.00 this morning.
2. They had been talking throughout the whole lesson.
3. Yes. This time next year she will have been working here for
forty years.
4. Yes. It’s 8.00. They will have arrived by now.
5. He seems to have forgotten how to play!
6. That’s right. She had only been working there for two months
when the company closed.
4.1
“Yesterday we announced that we are to merge with Jonas Inc.
We are due to do this in May, so today I’m going to speak about the
company’s history and the decision to merge. This time next year the
company will have been building houses for twenty-five years. By
January we will have built more than 100,000 homes, and I hope that
we’ll still be building houses in 2050. Although we will be discussing
the new situation with you individually, we are sure your jobs will be
secure. Through this merger, we will be expanding and so we will be
moving into unknown markets. By February, we will have sent you a
document about the company’s plans. For now, I promise there will be
opportunities for all”.
4.2
1. By tomorrow, we will have been married for twenty years.
2. The London-Brussels flight arrives at 2.00/is due to arrive at
2.00.
3. The government is to pass a law prohibiting guns.
4. I’ll be seeing John (in the office), so I can speak to him.
5. By July, we’ll have been living here for five years.
6. The committee is due to have a meeting with the owners.
7. I imagine Roger will be putting up his Christmas decorations
in November.
8. My son will be eighteen years old next March.
5.1
1 f); 2 d); 3 a); 4 с); 5 b); 6 e).
5.2
1. We were about to ascend the mountain when snow started to
fall. 2. Correct. 3. Melissa meant to tell you about the dinner

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invitation, but she forgot. 4. We were to have taken the 6.02 train to
Manchester, but it was cancelled. 5. She got sick when she was on the
verge of becoming a superstar. 6. Correct. 7. Thompson then travelled
to Bali, where he would later meet his sixth wife. 8. I was but hoping
to work with Donna again, but she left the company. 9. Correct. 10. I
was to meet Daley and his gang in the subway at midnight.
6.1
1) had listened, wouldn’t be; 2) becoming, had spent; 3) would
have found, had called; 4) had taken over, would have caused; 5) told,
would be staying; 6) arriving, would have died; 7) had known,
wouldn’t have cooked; 8) not pulled, would have won.
6.2
1. If we hadn’t gambled on red, we would have won. 2. They
wouldn’t have asked him to the party if he wasn’t/weren’t famous.
3. The boys regret borrowing your car. 4. Had she known you were a
vegetarian, she wouldn’t have bought fish. 5. If only I hadn’t forgotten
my keys, we wouldn’t be locked out! 6. If I hadn’t dropped out of
university, I wouldn’t be working in a boring, low-paid job. 7. Ahmed
wishes he had spoken to you before you left. 8. But for his injury, we
would have won.
7.1
1) making; 2) to underestimate; 3) to impress; 4) walking; 5) to
have formed; 6) to say; 7) judging; 8) to do; 9) to give.
7.2
1. Correct. 2. I don’t know why you waste all your time sitting in
front of the computer. 3. Cooder was encouraged to play the guitar by
his father. 4. They hoped to meet up with some of the stars after the
show. 5. They were rumoured to have got married in secret. 6. I gave
up the idea of going into politics when I was in my 30s. 7. We were
tempted to ask if we could stay the night, but we thought it might
seem rude. 8. Correct.
8.1
1. I like small cups of freshly-ground, strong, black coffee.
2. He bought the pretty little house by the river.
3. She made two delicious, dark chocolate cakes with
strawberries and fresh cream on top.

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4. He smokes those hugely expensive, enormous Cuban cigars,
which Juan gives him.
5. They carried the massive pile of ridiculously heavy bags all
the way up seven flights of stairs.
6. It was an incredibly smelly, hairy but rather friendly guard
dog.
8.2
1. I went to the shoe shop advertised on television.
2. He was an old man walking with a stick.
3. We ate the absolutely delicious, home-made cakes, sitting in
the sunshine.
4. They rented a nice house with a swimming pool near the
airport.
5. We went to a big pizza restaurant on the outskirts of town,
run by two Italian brothers called Gino and Rino.
9.1
2) of; 3) where; 4) whose; 5) about; 6) whose; 7) where;
8) which; 9) time; 10) on; 11) whom.
9.2
1. There were lots of children there, all of whom sang really
well.
2. The fire alarm went off, at which point the lesson ended.
3. That’s the woman whose house we stayed in.
4. The person from whom I learned the most is Clare.
6. You may get a scholarship, in which case you won’t need to
pay.
7. There are two photocopiers in the office, both of which are
out of order.
10.1
1) whereas; 2) as; 3) matter; 4) whenever; 5) despite; 6) spite;
7) however; 8) although.
10.2
1. Despite knowing that it’s bad for me, I spend too much time
on the Internet.
2. Even though she is nearly ninety-six years old, my
grandmother is still fully independent.

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3. He’s an excellent manager, although he can be a bit scary to
work for.
4. Hard as they tried, they couldn’t persuade him to give up his
work.
5. Whilst I understand how difficult the situation is, I’m afraid I
can’t help.
6. He’s very charming. However, I wouldn’t trust him at all.
11.1
1) a) Making; b) Made; 2) a) Told; b) Telling; 3) a) Paying;
b) Paid; 4) a) worn; b) wearing; 5) a) written; b) Writing.
11.2
Arming Armed, graduate graduated, to discuss discussing,
Giving Given, Asking Asked.
12.1
1. I can’t stand it when all it does is rain for days on end.
2. I’d appreciate it if you could give me a little more notice next
time.
3. It’s no use just standing there. You’d better get on with it.
4. I find it hard to believe that the summer is here already.
5. It appears that the police have video footage of the incident.
6. It’s pointless arguing with her when she’s in that kind of
state.
7. I’ll leave it to the others to decide what time we should meet.
8. I’ve always made it clear that my family has to take priority
over my work.
12.2
1. It’s pointless crying about the situation now.
2. It’s essential to be trustworthy in this profession.
3. It seems (that) he has misplaced his keys.
4. We owe it to them to be hospitable to them as they were
welcoming to us.
5. It’s no wonder she wasn’t very enthusiastic when she had
heard the talk before.
6. I find it easy to keep abreast of the latest news online.
13.1
1. The reason he lost his job was that he kept breaking the rules.
2. It was only when he left the theatre that he recognised her.

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3. What I want to do is persuade them to come with us.
4. All I worry about/I’m worried about is whether she will have
enough money.
5. What is amazing is that they have such a fantastic range of
spices.
13.2
1. A. What elections have done is give these people their first
real opportunity to decide who will govern them.
B. The thing that has given these people their first real
opportunity to decide who will govern them is the elections.
C. It’s the elections that have given these people their first real
opportunity to decide who will govern them.
2. A. It was the airports, roads and rail systems that suffered
widespread disruption due to the heavy snow and severe weather.
B. It was heavy snow and severe weather that caused widespread
disruption to the country’s airports, roads and rail systems.
C. What caused disruption to the country’s airports, roads and
rail systems was the heavy snow and severe weather.
3. A. What caused students to march through the city centre in
protest were the new laws.
B. The reason hundreds of students marched through the city
centre was to protest against the new laws.
C. What happened was hundreds of students marched through
the city centre to protest against the new laws.
14.1
1. We weren’t allowed to bring our own food to school.
2. I shouldn’t have told him that I cheated in the exam.
3. You’d better turn your mobiles off.
4. You have to hand this work in first thing in the morning.
5. I didn’t dare tell them the truth.
6. They’re not supposed to have their lights on after 10p.m.
14.2
1. You didn’t need to rush. There’s another five minutes before
the film starts.
2. We’d better leave plenty of time to get to the airport in case
of heavy traffic.
3. You didn’t have to buy a present. That’s very kind of you.

359
4. You shouldn’t drive a car if you’re tired.
5. We didn’t have to stop at all on the way.
6. They were supposed to deliver the furniture today.
7. You ought to try this programme – it’s very good.
8. You shouldn’t talk to people like that. It’s rude.
15.1
1. The case is being investigated by the police.
2. You are allowed to borrow a car for official business.
3. Mike is having his washing machine delivered today.
4. It is claimed (that) the tradition began in the nineteenth
century.
5. Wilhelm might have been recognised.
6. She had the players stretch before the game.
7. Our luggage is being checked in right now.
8. The product has only been tested on volunteers.

15.2
1) It is said; 2) These secrets need to be kept; 3) what can be
done; 4) brainwashing was considered; 5) it was discovered; 6) certain
memories could be erased.
16.1
1) one; 2) do; 3) so; 4) not; 5) ones; 6) there; 7) mine; 8) some.
16.2
1. (I’m) not sure (if) they’ve finished, but I think they have
(finished).
2. (We) could have met them later, but I didn’t want to (meet
them later).
3. (Do you) want a coffee? I’ve just made some (coffee).
4. I’d be happy to help if you need me to (help).
5. A: What time were we supposed to arrive?
B: (We were supposed to arrive) at six.
6. Erica had ice cream for dessert and Bill (had) chocolate cake.
7. They’ll be here soon, but I don’t know exactly when (they’ll
be here).
8. A: (Have you) got the time?
B: (The time is) half past two.

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17.1
Incorrect: 1) prefer; 2) as were; 3) How about; 4) the; 5) want
that; 6) Rather; 7) one time; 8) as.
17.2
1. It’s high time you spoke to your mother.
2. Suppose I pressed this button, what would happen?
3. They treat that girl as though she were a princess.
4. Given the choice, I’d sooner learn Chinese than German.
5. What if there were a volcanic eruption in a densely populated
area?
6. It’s about time she stopped smoking.
7. They behave as if they own/owned the place.
8. I’d rather you didn’t go there.
18.1
1 c); 2 b); 3 b); 4 a); 5 c); 6 b); 7 c); 8 a); 9 c).
18.2
1. I just grab a sandwich to eat quickly at lunchtime if I’m in a
hurry.
2. In the evenings my husband and I generally sit in front of the
television, too tired to talk.
3. I always carefully plan anything I write in English to reduce
the number of mistakes.
4. Unfortunately, I consistently spend too much time in front of
the computer.
5. They met online and enjoyed each other’s company for a
while.
6. I took up painting about six months ago to help me relax.
7. I left my things on the kitchen table when I left this morning.
8. I’ll probably have more time to see my friends when my
exams are finished.
19.1
1 c); 2 e); 3 a); 4 d); 5 f); 6 b).
19.2
1. Seldom have I seen him looking so miserable. 2. Correct.
3. Under no circumstances should you leave the office. 4. Had we
known there would be a water shortage, we would have been more
prepared. 5. Only later did she realise her mistake. 6. Correct.

361
7. Correct. 8. Were they to have apologised more quickly, I might
have forgiven them.
20.1
1) like; 2) a; 3) barely (or hardly); 4) deal; 5) every; 6) faster;
7) the; 8) near.
20.2
1) just gets better and better; 2) nowhere near as famous as; 3) is
every bit as remarkable; 4) little more than a year; 5) would be far
greater than; 6) come a good deal closer; 7) nothing like as flamboyant
as his hero; 8) considerably more money than.

362
TEXT BOOKLET

EXAM PRACTICE 2
Text 1. Educating dads may help protect babies from
abuse
Ex. 2. D, F, H, J.
Ex. 3. B
Text 2. Harp seals on thin ice after 32 years of warming
Ex. 2
7. The North Atlantic
8. Harp seals
9. Period from 1950 to 2000
10. W. Johnston
11. East Greenland / Gulf of St. Lawrence or off
Newfoundland
Ex. 3
1. False
2. False
3. False
4. True
5. False
Text 3. From The Storyteller by Saki
Ex. 2
1. B
2. D
3. B
4. A
5. C
6. B
Text 4. Illegal South African rhino killings hit record high
Ex. 2
1. Extinction
2. Into
3. Fatally
4. Escape
5. Legalized

363
Ex. 3
1) b
2) c

EXAM PRACTICE 3
Text 1. Eco-tourism Australia launches 2011/12 Green
Travel Guide
Ex. 2
1) limited;
2) online;
3) certification;
4) newly;
5) through.
Ex. 3 C.
Text 2. My relationship with my parents
Ex. 1. B, D, E
Ex. 3
1. F
2. D
3. A
4. J
5. C
Text 3. Overrun by nature!
Ex. 1
1. True
2. False
3. False
4. False
5. False
6. True
Ex. 3
1. c
2. a
3. d
4. b
5. d

364
Text 4. 6 tips for creating “sticky” social relationships
Ex. 1
1. F
2. G
3. B
4. A
Ex. 2
1. True
2. False
3. False
4. False
5. True
6. True
Ex. 3
1. Without
2. Overlooked
3. Proposal
4. Reinforcement
5. Towards
6. Capital

EXAM PRACTICE 4
Text 1. Playing football for hope
Ex. 2. B, E, H, I.
Text 2. The Social Network
Ex. 3
1. C
2. D
3. A
Text 3. Help your children feel special
Ex. 1
1. D
2. I
3. H
4. A
5. B

365
Ex. 3
1. D
2. B
Ex. 4
1. H
2. F
3. J
4. E
5. C
Text 4. The Freedom Fighter
Ex. 1
1. Brie is compared to an old Volkswagen Van staggering
because of her illness and trying to survive.
2. Wearing yellow to her funeral as she requested and
mentioning in the speeches the tree house her father built her.
Ex. 2
1. C
2. D
3. B
4. A
5. C
6. D
Ex. 3
1. Brie
2. The writer and Brie
3. The questions and opinions (fired into the dark)
4. Brie and the writer being great friends
5. Brie and the writer not being lovers and “best friends
forever”.

366
BIBLIOGRAPHY

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издательский центр ВЛАДОС, 2012.
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В. Д. Аракин [и др.] / под ред. В.Д. Аракина. 5-е изд., перераб. и
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студентов вузов / В.Д. Аракин [и др.] / под ред. В.Д. Аракина. 4-е
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Университетская книга, 2016.
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2013.
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J. Abu-Awad, T. Tempakka, K. Morley. Oxford University Press,
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11. Evans V., Edwards L. Upstream Advanced. Student’s
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Advanced. Cambridge University Press, 2012.

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14. Newbrook J., Wilson J. New Proficiency Gold, Teacher’s
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20. USA Today, 16 June, 2015.
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22. URL: http://www.articleclick.com
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27. URL: http://www.ipl.org
28. URL: http://www.shortstories.co.uk
29. URL: http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk
30. URL: http://www.thefreedictionary.com
31. URL: http://www.thefreethesaurus.com
32. URL: http://www.wikipedia.org
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36. URL: https://ru.depositphotos.com/stock-photos
37. URL: https://pxhere.com/es/photo

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CONTENTS

Introduction ……………………………………………………. 3
Unit 1. Social Relations ………………………………………… 5
Unit 2. Customs and Traditions ………………………………… 32
Unit 3. Leisure ………………………………………………….. 61
Unit 4. Health …………………………………………………... 99
Unit 5. Literature ………………………………………………. 129
Vocabulary Bank ……………………………………………… 160
Unit 1…………………………………………………………… 160
Unit 2 …………………………………………………………... 169
Unit 3 …………………………………………………………... 176
Unit 4 …………………………………………………………... 189
Unit 5 ………………………………………………………….. 197
Grammar Bank ………………………………………………… 212
Text Booklet …………………………………………………… 258
Exam practice 1………………………………………………… 258
Exam practice 2 ………………………………………………... 268
Exam practice 3 ……………………………………………….. 280
Exam practice 4 ………………………………………………... 290
Key Answers ……..……………………………………………. 302
Bibliography …………………………………………………… 367

369