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Южный Федеральный Университет

Институт филологии, журналистики и межкультурной коммуникации

Белоусова Т.Ф.
Learning English Grammar.
Modal Verbs

Учебное пособие по практической грамматике английского языка


Южный Федеральный Университет
Институт филологии, журналистики и межкультурной коммуникации

Белоусова Т.Ф.
Learning English Grammar.
Modal Verbs

Учебное пособие по практической грамматике английского языка

Издательство:

Ростов-на-Дону
2019

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ФГАОУ ВО Южный Федеральный Университет
Институт филологии, журналистики и межкультурной коммуникации

Автор-составитель: кандидат педагогических наук, доцент кафедры


межкультурной коммуникации и методики преподавания иностранных
языков ЮФУ Белоусова Татьяна Федоровна.

Рецензенты:
• кандидат педагогических наук, доцент кафедры межкультурной
коммуникации и методики преподавания иностранных языков ЮФУ
Лубянова Марина Алексеевна
• кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры иностранных языков и
речевых коммуникаций РАНХиГС Попова Наталия Петровна

Белоусова Т.Ф. Learning English Grammar. Modal verbs. Учебное пособие по


практической грамматике английского языка. /Южный Федеральный
Университет – Ростов н/Д: Издательство … , 2019

Настоящее учебное пособие составлено в соответствии с учебно-


тематическим планом и предназначено для обеспечения учебно-
методического комплекса дисциплины «Практическая грамматика. Часть 2.»
Содержание пособия охватывает часть программы и предназначено для
развития иноязычной коммуникативной грамматической компетенции по
теме: «Modal Verbs in English». В данном учебном пособии представлен
теоретический материал и соответствующая ему система упражнений,
способствующих формированию у студентов практических умений
использования модальных глаголов в речи.
Пособие состоит из трех модулей, итогового теста, списка литературы и
ключей для самоконтроля.
Настоящее учебное пособие предназначено для студентов 2 курса языковых
вузов направления подготовки 44.03.05 (Педагогическое образование с двумя
профилями подготовки) .

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Contents

Module 1 .................................................................................................................... 5
English Modal Verbs. General notions of the modal verbs ................................... 5
Morphological Characteristics of English Modal Verbs ....................................... 5
Modal verb “Can”. Theoretical notes, the system of exercises ............................. 6
Modal verb “May” ............................................................................................... 15
Modal verb “Must” .............................................................................................. 24
The Final Test 1 ....................................................................................................... 34
Module 2 .................................................................................................................. 36
Modal verb “Have to” / “Have got to” ................................................................. 36
Modal verb “Be to” .............................................................................................. 44
Modal verb “Need” .............................................................................................. 53
Modal verb “Should” / “Ought to” ...................................................................... 63
The Final Test 2 ....................................................................................................... 71
Module 3 .................................................................................................................. 77
Modal verb “Will”................................................................................................ 77
Modal verb “Would” ............................................................................................ 86
Modal verb “Shall” .............................................................................................. 96
Modal verb “Dare” ............................................................................................. 102
The Final Test 3 ..................................................................................................... 108
The Final Test (Modules 1-3) .............................................................................. 114
Answer keys .......................................................................................................... 121
References ............................................................................................................. 125

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Module 1
English Modal Verbs.
General notions of the modal verbs
There is a group of verbs in English which are called modal verbs or modal
auxiliaries. They are called so because they are not complete, they cannot be used
alone in the sentence, they are always used with the notional verbs with which they
form compound verbal predicates.
Modals play a decisive role in English as they show the speaker’s attitude toward
the action or state indicated by the infinitive. Thus, modal verbs may show that the
action is viewed by the speaker as possible, impossible, probable, improbable,
obligatory, necessary, advisable, doubtful, desirable, understandable, prohibited,
requested, etc.
This or that meaning depends greatly on the communicative type of the sentence, on
the form of the infinitive, on the situation described in the sentence and on the
situation in which the sentence is uttered. Even intonation can sometimes change the
meaning of the modal verb. There are pure modal verbs which express only modal
meanings: can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, ought to, will, would.
There are also semi-modal verbs and phrases which can also function as notional
verbs: have to, be to, need, dare, be able to, had better, be going to.
Morphological Characteristics of English Modal Verbs
Modal verbs in English are also called defective because all of them lack some verbal
characteristics:
1. They don’t take the ending “s” for the 3-rd person singular in Present Simple.
She can speak English.
2. Questions, negatives, tags and short answers are made without “do”
- Can you swim?
- Yes, I can.
3. Modal verbs are followed by the bare infinitive of the notional verb (except
ought to) .
4. They do not have infinitives or participles and they do not normally have past
forms (though: can - could, may - might, will – would, shall – should)
5. Modal verbs have contracted affirmative and negative forms: ‘ll; ‘d; can’t;
mayn’t; mustn’t; haven’t; isn’t; needn’t; wouldn’t.
Some of them have peculiarities both in spelling and pronunciation:
cannot – can’t [ka:nt]
shall not – shan’t [~a:nt]
will not – [w0unt]

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Modal verb “Can”. Theoretical notes, the system of exercises
The modal verb “can’’ has two forms: can for the Present Tense and could for the
Past Tense.
The meanings of the modal verb “can”:
1. Physical or mental ability.
- to run - to dream
- to work - to think
- to train - to count
- to balance - to learn
- to dance - to compare
In this meaning it can be used only with the indefinite Infinitive.
• I could run very quickly when I was a child, but now I can’t.
Я мог очень быстро бегать, когда я был ребенком, а теперь не могу.
• We can do this exercise, it isn’t difficult.
Мы можем выполнить это упражнение, оно не трудное.
The modal phrase “be able to’’ is used to supply the missing future tense forms.
• We’ll be able to come earlier.
Мы сможем прийти пораньше.
But the same phrase “be able to” can be used in other tense forms as well. In this
case it differs in its meaning from the modal verb “can”. If “can” expresses
permanent ability, “be able to” expresses ability due to circumstances and it also
denote some achievement.
• I can translate from English, but I am not able to translate this text without
a dictionary.
Я умею переводить с английского, но я не могу перевести этот текст
без словаря.
• I was able to pass that exam with an excellent result.
Мне удалось сдать тот экзамен на отлично.
2. Possibility
In this meaning the verb “can” is used with the indefinite Infinitive.
a) General possibility. This refers to a theoretical possibility in general.

MIND! “can” is not used to talk about future possibilities.


It can get cold there at night, so take a jacket.
• We thought he could be busy and didn’t call him.
Вечерами там может
Мы думали, быть холодно,
он может поэтому
быть занят, возьми пиджак.
и не позвонили ему.

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b) Possibility due to circumstances.
• He can already be on his way home. He never stays in the office after 5.
Он уже может быть по пути домой. Он никогда не остается в офисе
после 5.
c) Possibility due to the existing laws, rules, regulations:
• Every citizen here can get medical treatment free of charge.
Любой житель может получить здесь бесплатное лечение.
3. Hypothetical possibility.
The form “could” is used here and with all forms of the infinitive.
• If I could be a little girl again.
Если бы я могла быть маленькой снова.
• You could have got a five if you had learnt the rule.
Ты смог бы получить пятерку, если бы выучил правило.
4. Permission
a) asking for b) granting c) denying
In this meaning “can” is used with the indefinite infinitive. Both “can” and “could”
are used to talk about what is normally allowed.
• Can I park my car here?
Можно здесь припарковаться?
• Yes, you can, it’s just here.
Да, это как раз здесь.
• No, you can’t. The parking is over there.
Нет, парковка вон там.
• We asked if we could play football there.
Мы спросили, можно ли там играть в футбол.
5. Prohibition.
In this meaning “can” is also used with indefinite infinitive and in negative
sentences. Prohibition here is determined by existing laws, rules, regulations.
• You cannot cross the street when the street light is red.
Нельзя переходить улицу на красный свет.
6. Requests, offers, instructions.
In these meanings “can” is used with the indefinite infinitive. “could” is more
polite.
• Request:
Can you help me?
Вы можете мне помочь?
• Could you call me a bit late?
Не могли бы вы позвонить мне попозже?

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• Offer:
Can \ Could I make coffee for you?
Сделать вам кофе?
• Instruction:
When you’ve finished the beds, you can clean up the kitchen.
Когда вы закончите убирать постели, можете убираться на кухне.
7. Criticism or reproach.
In this case only “could” is used to criticize people for not doing things.
• You could be more attentive.
Вы могли бы быть повнимательнее.
Indefinite infinitive is used to express reproach for a present situation.
• You could have come in time.
мог бы прийти вовремя.
Perfect infinitive here refers the reproach to the past.
8. Supposition implying surprise, doubt or incredulity in interrogative sentences
and almost assurance in negative statements.
In this meaning all the forms of the infinitive are used.
a) Surprise.
In this meaning “can” is translated into Russian as «неужели»
• Can he be a student?
Неужели он студент?
• Can he be working now?
Неужели он сейчас работает?
• Can he have already come?
Неужели он уже пришел?

MIND! If a notional verb doesn’t denote an action, but a state in the past,
the form “could + indefinite infinitive’’ is used.
• Could she be such a beauty in her youth?
Неужели она была такой красоткой в молодости?
• Can he have been speaking on the phone for half an hour?
Неужели он уже полчаса говорит по телефону?

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MIND! If there are two negations in the sentence, another model is used.
• Неужели он не студент?
Can it be that he is not a student?
• Неужели он не работает сейчас?
Can it be that he is not working now?
• Неужели он еще не пришел?
Can it be that he hasn’t come yet?
• Неужели она не была красавицей в молодости?
Can it be that she wasn’t a beauty in her youth?
• Неужели он и получаса не говорит по телефону?
Can it be that he hasn’t been speaking on the phone for half an hour yet.
b) Almost assurance.

In this meaning “can” is translated into Russian as “не может быть».


• He can’t be a student.
Не может быть, что он студент.
• He can’t be working now.
Не может быть, что он сейчас работает.
• He can’t have come yet.
Не может быть, что он уже пришел.
• She couldn’t be a beauty in her youth.
Не может быть, что она была красоткой в молодости.
• He can’t have already been speaking on the phone for half an hour.
Не может быть, что он говорит по телефону уже полчаса.
In case of two negations the models are such:
• It can’t be that he isn’t a student.
Не может быть, что он не студент.
• It can’t be that he isn’t working now.
Не может быть, что он не работает сейчас.
• It can’t be that he hasn’t come yet.
Не может быть, что он еще не пришел.
• It can’t be that she wasn’t a beauty in her youth.
Не может быть, что она не была красоткой в молодости.
• It can’t be that he hasn’t been speaking on the phone for half an hour yet.
Не может быть, что он не говорит по телефону еще полчаса.

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FORMS OF THE INFINITIVE
Tense, Aspect and Voice Active Passive
Indefinite (Simple) to do to be done
Continuous to be doing
Perfect to have done to have been done
Perfect Continuous to have been doing

1.Physical or mental ability. 5. Prohibition:


I can play basketball. You cannot smoke here.
I can speak English.

2. Possibility: 6. Requests, offers, instructions:

a) general: smoking many a) Can\Could you pass me the salt


cause cancer.
b) If you like, I can carry your bag.
b) due to circumstances: she
can be at home now. c) After reading the rule, you can do
c) due to exiting laws, rules: exercises.
you can enter if you have a
pass.
CAN 7. Criticism, reproach:
3. Hypothetical possibility:
a) I’m so tired. You could help me!
a) if I could be in Moscow
b ) You could have invited her to
now.
dinner.
b) if you had warned me, I
could have come earlier.

8. Supposition:
4. Permission:
a) surprise:
a) asking for: Can I ride the
Can he speak so rudely?
bike here?
Can it be that he speaks so rudely?
b) granting: Yes, you can.
b) almost assurance:
It’s just the bike path.
He can’t have hurt Ann.
c) denying: No, you can’t.
It can’t be that he has hurt Ann.
It’s the footpath.

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EXERCISES
Exercise 1. State the meaning of the modal verb “can”, translate the sentences:
1. Yesterday she was not well, she even couldn’t go out.
2. Can you translate this text without any dictionary?
3. Going out bareheaded can cause a serious disease.
4. You can drive fast if there are no speed limits.
5. You can take animals on board if you have a special permission.
6. If he saw her just once again, he would certainly ask her to forgive him.
7. My friend is not in the hotel now, can I leave a message for him?
8. You can leave a message for him, we have such a service.
9. You can’t leave luggage here as nobody will take care of it.
10.You can’t take medicines without the doctor’s prescription.
11.You cannot feed animals in the zoo.
12.Can you write this word for me, please?
13.You could have planted the tree in a more suitable place.
14.Can he be thinking of me now?
15.She can’t have left the door open.
Exercise 2. Use the proper form of the Infinitive.
1. Tell me, are you quite sure that these friends of yours can (to trust) ?
2. But can’t I (to meet) him somewhere in the hills?
3. All these outsiders – these pilgrims and mountaineers – could (to go) up and
speak to him, and he would lay his hand on their children’s hair.
4. There is some answer to you, but I cannot (to find) it.
5. What on earth induced her to behave as she did, I never could (to understand)
. She could (to marry) anybody she chose.
6. There was nothing that one could not (to do) with him. He could (to make) a
Titian or a toy.
7. “Can you (to remember) any great error that you committed in your early
days, Duchess?” he asked, looking at her across the table.
8. Kitty could not (to bring) herself to utter the question that trembled so horribly
on her lips.
9. Her pain was so great that she could (to scream) at the top of her voice. She
could not (to make out) why Charlie did not love her.
10.It couldn’t (to be) Walter that afternoon.
Exercise 3. Complete the following sentences using the modal verb “can
(could)”:
1. If you followed the doctor’s directions …
2. If he knew everything beforehand, …
3. If the boy had known about the thermometres …
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4. If the father had understood what was wrong with the boy, …
5. If you avoid complications, …
6. I would tell you the news if …
7. They would quarrel if …
8. You would have improved the situation if …
9. He would be in good condition, if …
10.He would go on foot, if …
11.If he had been in good condition, …
Exercise 4. Use can or be able to in the proper form in the following sentences.
1. He will … help you, if you ask him.
2. We … go now, if you are ready.
3. They … go for a walk yesterday because it was raining.
4. He … translate this text without a dictionary.
5. You … have dinner now, if you want.
6. We … see a lot of interesting things there.
7. She … make good progress, because she worked hard.
8. He … speak English last year, but he … now.
9. She … answer the questions, because she didn’t know the rules.
10.She … answer my question, but she didn’t.
Exercise 5. Translate the sentences into Russian:
1. No one can ever tell you when he is being serious and when he is joking.
2. The children cannot carry this box, it’s too heavy.
3. Some dogs can be very dangerous.
4. This old house can be quite cold, it’s winter now.
5. You can drive a car if you have your license.
6. Can the dog come into the house?
7. I’m sorry, but you can’t leave earlier.
8. Yes, you can take this chair, it’s vacant.
9. Nobody can smoke in the underground.
10.If he had looked through the article yesterday, he could have answered the
question.
11. “What can I do for you?” – he asked cordially.
12.I can help you with your homework, if you don’t mind.
13.Can he have pneumonia?
14.She can’t have stayed awake for the whole night.
15.Can it be that the students haven’t passed their exams yet.
Exercise 6. Translate the sentences into English, mind the meanings of the
modal verb “can”.
1. Моя младшая сестра умеет очень быстро скакать на прыгалке.
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2. Что вы можете сказать в свое оправдание?
3. От того, что вы пьете такую холодную воду, у вас может заболеть горло.
4. Сильный ветер может наделать много бед.
5. Вы сможете покататься на любом аттракционе, если заплатите за вход.
6. Если бы не ваш зонтик, я бы промокла до нитки. Дождь лил как из ведра.
7. Если вы будете принимать лекарство 3 раза в день, вы сможете
выздороветь гораздо быстрее.
8. Можно мне прямо сейчас забрать свое письмо?
9. Да, конечно, вы можете принимать лекарство после еды.
10.Нет, студентам не разрешают уносить книги из читального зала.
11.Во многих музеях запрещено фотографировать.
12.Не могли бы вы повторить это слово еще раз?
13.Я мог бы проводить тебя домой, на улице уже темно.
14.Ты мог бы одеться потеплее и не простудиться.
15.Можно было бы получше присматривать за детьми.
Exercise 7. Make the sentences negative:
Model: - He can’t be at home now.
- It cannot be that he isn’t at home now.
1. She can’t wear badly wrinkled clothes.
2. Look! He can’t be giggling.
3. They can’t be involved in a heated discussion.
4. He can’t have been waiting here for two hours.
5. You can’t be so active.
Model: - Can the alarm-clock be ringing now?
- Can it be that the alarm-clock is not ringing now?
1. Can she be so diligent?
2. Can he be waiting for me at the theatre?
3. Can he have dried his hands on the towel?
4. Can she have been speaking on the phone for half an hour?
5. Can these discomforts have spoilt your journey?
Exercise 8. Open the brackets using the appropriate form of the Infinitive.
1. It can’t (to hurt) you to swallow, your throat is all right.
2. She can’t (to come) today. It’s already late.
3. Can they (to miss) the train. They left the house very early.
4. Can he (to be) thinking of me now?
5. Can he (to go) to bed?
6. He can’t (to recover) so quickly.
7. How can he (to make) such a mistake?

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8. Can he (to wait) for Tom for half an hour?
9. She can’t (to work) only four hours a day.
10.They can’t (to invite) so many guests to their party.
11.Can he (to be) so polite and respectful?
12.He can’t (to return) by bus. No buses run here.
13.Can the students (to write) the composition for more than two hours?
14.He can’t (to walk) so many kilometers every day.
15.Can she really (to marry) him? She disliked him so much.
Exercise 9. Translate into English:
1. Неужели она была так напугана?
2. Неужели они были друзьями в детстве?
3. Неужели он был таким безответственным?
4. Неужели вопрос был действительно таким сложным?
5. Неужели они были так счастливы вместе?
6. Не может быть, чтобы они были родственниками.
7. Не может быть, чтобы он был членом вашей команды.
8. Не может быть, что она была такой знаменитой спортсменкой.
9. Не может быть, что официант был так груб с вами.
10.Не может быть, чтобы она была такой завистливой.
Exercise 10. Insert the proper verb
1. They spoke so quietly that we ... hear a word. (не могли)
2. He ... to help you if you don't tell him the truth. (не сможет)
3. He ... meet you yesterday as he was away on business. (не смог)
4. No one ... understand why he had let you down. (не мог)
5. If only this ... happen! (могло бы)
6. You ... the truth then. (мог бы сказать)
7. If you had told everything in time, I ... you. (смог бы помочь)
8. You ... him when he came. (мог бы встретить)
9. Can she ... about me now? (думать)
10. I can't believe. Can they ... for the exam for the second week? (готовятся)
11. Could he ... such a fever? (у него был)
12. Can it be that they ... for you anymore? (не ждут)
13. Can the child ... (все еще спит)
14. They ... use a dictionary during the test yesterday. (смогли)
15. Why you (не смогли) … to translate this article without a dictionary?
Exercise 11. Translate into English:
1. Они смогли написать тест без ошибок, т.к. им объяснили правило
раньше.
2. Когда ему подарят много денег, он сможет купить новый дом.
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3. Если бы ты видела его лицо, ты бы смогла понять, что я чувствовала.
4. В детстве он умел очень хорошо рассказывать сказки.
5. Сколько багажа можно провести с собой в самолет?
6. Вы можете взять этот словарь, никто им не пользуется.
7. Чем я могу быть вам полезен? Не могли бы вы подсказать мне, как
пройти к Большому театру?
8. Неужели ты не знаешь что нельзя переходить улицу на красный свет?
9. Не может быть, что он еще не перевел эту статью.
10. Не может быть, что он был тогда твоим другом.
11. Неужели она считает себя такой больной? Она выглядит совсем
неплохо.
12. Если бы им продиктовали новые слова, они смогли бы поработать с
ними дома.
13. Ты шел мимо магазина, мог бы и хлеба купить на ужин.
14. Неужели экзамены сдают с самого утра?
15. Неужели она и сейчас думает обо мне? Это уже слишком.
16. Не может быть, чтобы сейчас было лишь 3 часа. Да, у тебя часы
остановились.
17. Неужели ты думаешь, что она пошла бы тогда с нами в театр, если бы
нее было свободное время?
18. Если бы ей предложили тогда какую-нибудь работу, она смогла бы
свести концы с концами.
19. Не может быть, чтобы он не извинился перед нею. Не может быть,
чтобы он был так груб.
20. Не могу не думать, что он совершил такую серьезную ошибку.

Modal verb “May”


The modal verb “may” has two forms: “may” for present and “might” for the past.
This modal verb has the following meanings:
1. Permission. In this meaning “may” is used only with the indefinite infinitive.
There are different kinds of permission:
a) asking for permission
May I switch on TV?
Можно я включу телевизор?
b) granting permission
Yes, you may.
Да, можешь. (можно)
c) denying permission
No, you may not.
Нет, я не разрешаю.
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MIND! “CAN” also expresses the same meaning. The difference is that with
“may” it means that the speaker gives the permission, with “can” – the
circumstances.
• May I take the book?
Means that the book belongs to the speaker and it is he who either allows or not
to take it.
• Can I take the book?
Means that there are or there aren’t any circumstances preventing the person
The form
from taking “might” is used to express permission in clauses following the rule of
the book.
the sequence of tenses.
• She said that we might stay there for two days more. Она сказала, что нам
можно остаться еще на два дня.

MIND! Permission in the past is expressed by the verbs “to allow, to permit”.
• We were allowed to get up later than usual.
Нам разрешили встать позже, чем обычно.

2. Request.
Only indefinite infinitive is used in this meaning.
MIND! The modal verb “may’’ is used in this meaning in interrogative sentences
if the subject is the personal pronoun. -1-st person.
• May I ask you to help me?
Можно попросить вас помочь мне?
3. Offer.
“May” is also used in interrogative sentences with the indefinite infinitive and
with the personal pronoun 1-st person as the subject:
• May I help you?
Могу ли чем-нибудь помочь?
4. Suggestion.
In this meaning the form “might” is used with indefinite infinitive.
• We might see if Mike is free tomorrow.
Мы могли бы узнать, свободен ли Майк завтра.

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5. Prohibition.
In this meaning “may” is used in negative sentences.
• You may not go out alone.
Не смей выходить на улицу один.
6. Possibility.
In this meaning “may” refers to things that typically happen in certain situations:
• Drivers may feel tired if they don’t take breaks every two hours.
Водители могут почувствовать усталость, если не будут делать
остановки каждые два часа.
• These tablets may produce side effects if not taken in the correct dosage.
Эти таблетки могут оказывать побочные эффекты, если принимать их
в неправильной дозировке.

MIND! The form “might” is used according to the rule of sequence of tenses:
• He might fall ill as he got soaked wet in the rain.
Он мог заболеть, т.к промок насквозь под дождем.

7. Hypothetical possibility.
Only “might” is used to express hypothetical possibility. Both indefinite and perfect
infinitives can be used here. The indefinite infinitive refers the action to the present,
while the perfect infinitive refers the action to the past.
• If you went to bed for an hour, you might feel better.
Если бы ты поспал часок, тебе бы, наверное, было получше.
• If it hadn’t rained yesterday, we might have gone for a walk.
Если бы не дождь, мы бы, возможно, пошли погулять вчера.
8. Criticism, reproach.
Only “might” is used in this meaning and both – indefinite and perfect infinitives
are used. The speaker expresses his personal criticism and disappointment because
of something bad that someone has done.

MIND! When we talk about the present, indefinite infinitive is used.


• You might help me to carry this bag. You see I’m so tired.
Мог бы и помочь мне нести эту сумку. Видишь же, что я устала.
When we talk about the past, the perfect infinitive is used.
• You might have told me you were going to come late.
Мог бы сказать мне, что придёшь поздно.

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9. Supposition implying doubt or uncertainty.
The form “may” is used with all forms of the infinitive and is translated into Russian
as: возможно, наверное, может быть.
a) “You may think you’re very old”, he said.
«Может быть вы думаете, что вы очень старая», - сказал он.
She may and she may not prove to be a riddle to you.
Может быть, она окажется загадкой и для вас, а может быть и нет.

MIND! “not” which follows “may” is always strongly stressed.


a) She may be speaking on the phone now.
Наверное, она сейчас разговаривает по телефону.
b) My friend may have already returned.
Возможно, моя подруга уже вернулась.
c) They may have been writing the essay for more than an hour.

Наверное, они пишут сочинение уже больше часа.

MIND! In the past with the verbs of state the form “might” +simple infinitive
is used in the meaning of uncertainty.
He might be very disappointed when he got her letter.
Наверное, он был очень расстроенным, когда получил от нее
письмо.

MIND! Phrases “may\might as well” are translated as follows: также


можно, пожалуй, почему бы и не …, с таким же успехом, вполне
возможно.
I mean, I may as well go to London.
Я имею в виду, я могу также поехать и в Лондон.

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1) Permission 6) Possibility:
a) asking for: May I
You may get a bad mark if
come in?
you don’t read for your exam.
b) granting: - Yes, you
may.
c) Denying: - No, you
may not.

7) Hypothetical possibility:
2) Request: If you had taken the tablet,
you might have felt better.
May I trouble you for a
moment?

MAY
8) Reproach:
3) Offer:
You might have called me
May I carry your bag?

9) Supposition
4) Suggestion: a) He may be at home now.
I might find this information. b) He may be doing the sights
now.
c) He may have already left.
5) Prohibition:
d) He may have been doing
You may not behave like that. this exercise for an hour.

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EXERCISES
Exercise 1. State the meaning of the modal verb “may”, translate the sentences.
1. May I take your text book? I’ve left mine at home.
2. You may do this exercise orally, it’s not difficult.
3. May I talk to you now?
4. No, you may not play football here.
5. You may not go on to the next exercises until you are through with the previous.
6. There are clouds in the sky, it may rain.
7. If you were not so lightminded you might be more successful.
8. You were not so busy, you might have helped me.
9. She longed for a letter from him. It might contain an explanation of why he had
gone away.
10.You might have been run over by a car.
11.But of course, you may be mistaken.
12.The man might be there and see what was happening.
13.The main thing is to find out why he killed himself. It may all be terribly simple.
14.Look! They may be discussing something important, they are so excited!
15.She may not find it all that easy to get a job.
Exercise 2. Answer the questions according to the model:
- May I smoke here?
- Yes, you may. Everyone smokes here.
- No, you may not. Look at the sign “No smoking”
1. May we organize an amateur theatre at our institute?
2. May I take your apron to do the washing up?
3. May I invite my friend to our discussion?
4. May I park my car near your house for a couple of hours.
5. May your son go to the theatre with me?
6. May I go for a walk after classes?
7. May I play with your dog?
8. May I miss tomorrow’s lesson?
9. May we take this book for two weeks?
10.May I switch off the radio?
Exercise 3. Use “may” or “might”
1. We … do this exercise again.
2. She asked if the girl … take her to the museum.
3. He thought that he … have his photo taken on his way home.
4. Ann … watch TV only on Sundays.
5. He … bring his toys to the kindergarten.
6. Oliver asked if he … have another plate of gruel.
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7. The girl asked if she … take another apple.
8. … I take this bunch of keys?
9. She said that such expensive clothes … not be worn at her age.
10.… I join you in your trip to Moscow?
Exercise 4. Use “may”, “might” or “be allowed”.
1. He … take the dog on the train.
2. The teacher said we … ask questions at the end of the lesson.
3. Kids … not bring toys to school.
4. It was said to the children that they … play with matches.
5. You … take my umbrella, I don’t need it.
6. She … to begin working from Monday.
7. We … to use dictionaries doing the test.
8. Mother said her son … go to the zoo.
9. She … to settle the whole matter without consulting you.
10.I asked if I … bring my report on Thursday.
Exercise 5. Use “may’’ as prohibition. Translate the sentences.
1. Don’t be late. We’ll not wait for you.
2. Don’t put so much sugar in your tea, it’s harmful.
3. Don’t chat at the lessons.
4. Don’t leave without saying goodbye.
5. Don’t quarrel with your sister.
6. Don’t be so rude.
7. Don’t behave like that.
8. Don’t go out bareheaded.
9. Don’t play with the dog, it may bite you.
10.Don’t play computer for so long.
Exercise 6. Translate the sentences into Russian, state the meaning of the modal
verb “might”.
1. You might show to me how to do it. I haven’t the slightest idea.
2. You might help me to wash up. You see, how tired I am.
3. You might look after the children, you are free now.
4. You might go for bread, while I’m cooking dinner.
5. You might water the flowers. Look how busy I am.
6. You might have called me, I was waiting for you.
7. You might have invited me to the theatre too.
8. You might have warned me that you would not come.
9. You might have asked for my advice at least.
10.You might have supported me with this case.

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Exercise 7. Translate into English. Mind the modal verb “might” in the
meaning of criticism or reproach.
1. Ты мог бы рассказать мне это раньше. Почему ты этого не сделал?
2. Ты бы, по крайней мере, позвонила, что не придешь.
3. Ты мог бы принести мне цветы. Это был мой день рождения.
4. Можно было спросить у меня разрешение, если ты так хотел пойти
погулять.
5. Ты могла бы забрать ребенка из детского сада, у тебя вечер свободный, а я
буду занята.
6. Ты мог бы повести ребенка в зоопарк, у тебя ведь выходной, а я работаю.
7. Ты мог бы купить что-нибудь к ужину, ты будешь идти мимо магазина, а
мне далеко.
8. Ты мог бы вернуться и пораньше, не так уж ты и занят, как я.
9. Ты могла бы купить мне эту книгу! Ты знала, что она мне очень нужна.
10.Ты мог бы проводить больше времени со мной. Я ведь все время одна.
Exercise 8. Translate into Russian. State the meaning of the modal verb “may”.
1. I am not sure but he may be at home now.
2. Don’t leave, we may need your help.
3. He may be still working in the library, but I’m not sure.
4. They are in Moscow now. They may be doing the sights at the moment.
5. I’m not sure, but he may have left by the 7 o’clock train.
6. They may have quarreled and now they are in trouble.
7. He may have forgotten about your request.
8. She is so pale. She may have been suffering from some disease all this time.
9. She may have already been waiting for you for more than an hour.
10.They may have persuaded Nick to take part in the conference.
Exercise 9. Translate into English. Mind the modal verb “may” in the meaning
of uncertainty.
1. Сейчас на севере, возможно, идет снег.
2. У него в контрольной так много ошибок. Возможно, он был очень
невнимателен, когда выполнял ее.
3. Он снова отсутствовал на занятиях. Наверное, он заболел.
4. Вероятно, она забыла заплатить за квартиру, т.к ей пришел штраф.
5. Они не пришли к началу конференции. Возможно, они застряли в пробке.
6. Где мой паспорт? – Возможно, ты забыл его дома.
7. Возможно, в молодости она была красавицей, но сейчас о ней этого не
скажешь.
8. Наверное, он был очень несчастным, т.к его все бросили.
9. Где Аня? Я давно ее не видела. – Наверное, она все еще отдыхает на юге.

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10.Возможно, он ищет себе работу получше.
11.Может быть, он сейчас в отеле и ждет меня там.
12.Они, возможно, подумали, что мы не придём в такую погоду.
13.Наверное, он перепутал адрес, поэтому и не пришел.
14.Наверное, что-то случилось, она вся в слезах.
15.Возможно, она уже идет домой. Уже 6 часов.
Exercise 10. Open the brackets:
1. We (возможно) see a lot of sights if we went to London.
2. You (мог бы) call me, I was worrying.
3. He is absent. He (может быть) at work.
4. You (наверное заметили) that they repeated this word twice.
5. If you spoke a bit louder, they (возможно, услышали бы) you well.
6. She (наверное, была) a very talented actress.
7. I didn’t know about that. You (могла бы рассказать) me about it.
8. He is on his sick leave. He (возможно, заболел)
9. The truth (возможно) still come out.
10. You (мог бы рассказать) me how everything had happened.
11. (Не смей) eat ice-cream. You have a sore throat.
12.The teacher said that I (могу) bring the task later.
13.Where do you suppose he is now – he (наверное, уехал) to the country.
14.Though he repeated this word once again (наверное не разобрала) .
15.On the whole there was less said that (можно было ожидать)
Exercise 11. Translate into English.
1. Они, возможно, работают над этой же проблемой.
2. Ты не был так уж сильно занят. Мог бы и помочь мне.
3. Я подумал, что если его часы были там, то и деньги могли оказаться там
тоже.
4. Вы, возможно, слышали его имя. Могу я попросить вас произнести его.
5. Спроси его, можно ли нам осмотреть чердак.
6. Она, наверное, опоздает, т.к живет за городом.
7. Их, возможно, не было вчера в городе.
8. Я согласен, что разрешить ему поехать за границу, было ошибкой.
9. Я думала, что такая ситуация может вернуть его к работе.
10.Мне пришло в голову, что он втайне гордился сыном, хотя он, быть может,
и не знал этого.
11.Не смей дразнить собаку, она может тебя укусить.
12.Он не сказал ни слова, возможно, он забыл о своем обещании.
13.Наверное, они сейчас играют в футбол на спорт-площадке.
14.Когда я был маленький, мне можно было играть с игрушками моей сестры.
15.Он ничего нам не сообщил, но, наверное, он приедет 5-ти часовым поездом.
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16.Если бы он подготовился к контрольной, то не сделал бы столько ошибок.
17.Если бы они не поссорились, то сейчас она бы так не переживала.
18.Не смей врать! Это самое отвратительное дело.
19.А где Майк? Не знаю, но возможно, он все еще сдает экзамен.
20.Ты такая неосторожная. Ты же могла попасть под машину.

Modal verb “Must”


The modal verb “must” has only one form that refers to the present. The expressions
“to have to” and “to be obliged to” are used to supply the missing tense forms.
The modal verb “must” has the following meanings:
1. Obligation, duty, necessity implying no freedom of choice.
In this meaning “must” is used in statements, questions and negative sentences with
the indefinite infinitive. It is translated into Russian as “должен, обязан”.
• He must work. He must earn money.
Он должен работать. Он должен зарабатывать деньги.
• Children must not disobey their parents.
Дети должны слушаться своих родителей.
• Must I go there tomorrow?
Мне обязательно ехать туда завтра?
Mind! We already know that “to have to” is used to supply the missing past and
future tense forms.
• I felt that I had to take some urgent measures.
Я почувствовал, что я должен был принять срочные меры.
• We’ll have to look through the papers again.
Мы должны будем снова просмотреть документы.

But the thing is that “to have to” can be used in present as well. In this case the
difference is that “to have to” expresses necessity and obligation arising out of
circumstances, while “must” expresses obligation imposed by the speaker.
a) I have to leave as this is the last bus I can get home by.
Я должен идти, т.к это последний автобус, на котором я могу добраться
домой.
b) I must leave as I’ve fetched my mother’s keys and she won’t be able to get
home.

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Я должен идти, т.к я захватил мамины ключи, и она не сможет попасть
домой.
You should also remember that in the indirect speech “must” is replaced by “have
to” according to the rule of sequence of tenses.
• It was said to the students that they had to bring the books to the library by
the end of the week.
Студентам сказали, что они должны сдать книги в библиотеку к
концу недели.
The absence of necessity is expressed by “need not”.
• Must I do it just now? No, you needn’t.
Мне обязательно делать это сейчас? Нет, не надо.
2. Commands, orders.
In this meaning “must” is followed by the indefinite infinitive and doesn’t change
according to the rule of sequences of tenses.
• You must immediately go to bed.
Немедленно ложись спать.
• Mother said that I must immediately go to bed.
Мама сказала, чтобы я немедленно ложился спать.
3. Urgent and emphatic requests, invitations. Only the indefinite infinitive of the
notional verb is used.
• You must come and see our new garden.
Обязательно приходите взглянуть на наш новый сад
4. Prohibition.
In this meaning “must” is used in the negative sentences with the indefinite
infinitive. Prohibition here is rather a command or order not to do something.
• You must not speak so loud in the reading-hall.
Нельзя так громко разговаривать в читальном зале.
5. Supposition, bordering on assurance or almost a conviction.
In this meaning “must” is used in affirmative sentences with all forms of the
infinitive. It is translated into Russian as: должно быть…
• She must be at home now.
Должно быть, она дома.
• She must be speaking on the phone now.
Должно быть, сейчас она говорит по телефону.
• She must have already finished doing her homework.
Должно быть, она уже закончила делать уроки.

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• She must have been working in the garden since morning.
Должно быть, она с утра работает в саду.

MIND! 1) If the action of the notional verb refers to the future, modal words
and phrases are used instead of the modal verb “must”: evidently, to be sure,
to be likely, to be certain.
• He is likely to come to us in summer.
Должно быть, он приедет к нам летом.

2) “must” in this meaning is not used in negative sentences. There some ways to
express a negative action:
a) negative pronouns or negative prefixes
• He must be very impolite.
Должно быть, он очень невежлив.
• They must have misunderstood the rule.
Должно быть, они не поняли правило.
b) with the help of the verb “to fail”
• The student must have failed to do the test in the right way.
Должно быть, студенту не удалось правильно выполнить тест.
c) with the help of modal words: probably, evidently.
• Evidently, they haven’t come yet.
Должно быть, они еще не приехали.

MIND! The phrase “if you must” (если хотите, надо, необходимо) is used
when you allow something you don’t approve of.
• If you must know, I was at my mother’s.
Если тебе уж так надо знать, я была у мамы.

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1. Obligation, duty 3. Empathic requests and
implying no freedom of invitations.
choice.
You must visit us for dinner.
Children must obey their
parents.

4. Prohibition or rather a
command not to do smth.
2. Commands, orders. MUST You must not open the
You must come in time. door to a stranger.

5. Supposition, bordering on assurance:


a) They must be the freshers.
b) He is sure to be there in time.
c) He is not likely to come here tonight.
d) If you must talk, do it outside, please.

EXERCISES
Exercise 1. State the meanings of the modal verb “must”. Translate the
sentences into Russian.
1. The librarian says that we must return books on time.
2. I had to stay away from classes yesterday because I didn’t feel well.
3. Must I answer your question? Of course, you must.
4. Must I do this exercise in writing? No, you needn’t, you may do it orally.
5. You must obey the rules here.
6. You must go to the Dean’s office.
7. You must say good-bye when you leave the room.
8. The students mustn’t interrupt the teacher.
9. You mustn’t speak Russian at your English classes.
10.Yesterday I had to do three exercises.
11.She must be playing in the yard.
12.They must be great friends.
13.They must have already been doing their homework for 2 hours.
14.I’m sure to take part in the competition.

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15.The patient is sure to follow the doctor’s advice.
16.He must have never been there.
17.She must have failed to read this book.
18.The children must have disliked to get up early.
19.His parents must fail to know anything about his work.
20.He must do nothing to carry out his plan.
Exercise 2. Make up a list of things:
a) You must do today
b) You had to do yesterday
c) You’ll have to do tomorrow
Exercise 3. Answer the following questions:
a) expressing necessity or obligation
b) expressing absence of necessity
1. Must we attend the meeting?
2. Must we book the tickets in advance?
3. Must I return the books tomorrow?
4. Must we finish working on Friday?
5. Must I put on the uniform?
6. Must I ring him up immediately?
7. Must I do this exercise?
8. Must we begin classes so early?
9. Must we wait till the classes end?
10.Must I show my passport?
Exercise 4. Read the sentences which describe a situation. Use the verb “must”
and the appropriate form of the Infinitive in order to express your opinion
about what is said. Give as much different suggestions as you can.
Model: Peter looks very tired.
A) He must have worked a lot yesterday.
B) He must be working too hard.
C) He must be unwell.
D) He must have a rest.
1. Peter was late for the first lecture.
2. Peter is absent from the lesson.
3. Peter is sneezing and coughing.
4. She began to cry after she had read that letter.
5. He knows many things about England.
6. He knows every steer in Leningrad.
7. I invited Peter to call on us yesterday, but he didn’t come.

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8. I expected Peter to ring me up last night, but he didn’t.
9. I want to show you Peter’s photograph, but I can’t find it.
10.Peter was to take his examination in English yesterday. When he came home he
looked quite miserable.
11. In September many students of our group returned to Moscow healthy and
sunburnt.
12.I haven’t seen him in Moscow for a long time.
13.Peter and Ann had a quarrel yesterday. Today I see Peter with Ann again.
14.Peter looks dead tired and worn-out.
Exercise 5. Paraphrase orally and choose the right variant
1. I was obliged to take part in the discussion.
a) had to;
b) must;
c) should;
2. Will it be necessary for him to explain the matter to his parents?
a) must;
b) will … have to;
c) is to;
3. Is it necessary for him to work hard to catch up with the group?
a) should;
b) must;
c) does … have to;
4. We were forced to postpone our private conversation again.
a) had to;
b) were to;
c) must;
5. If you don’t do this work on time, I’ll be obliged to punish you.
a) have to;
b) be able;
c) must;
6. It’s rained a lot, so it wasn’t necessary for us to water the garden.
a) must not;
b) didn’t have to;
c) shouldn’t;
7. You are not obliged to knock before you come into my room.
a) don’t have to;
b) must not;
c) are not;
8. The gate was open so it wasn’t necessary for us to wait outside.
a) must not;
b) didn’t have to;
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c) weren’t to;
9. It’s free, you are not obliged to pay.
a) don’t have to;
b) must not;
c) aren’t to;
10. It’s Sunday tomorrow and you’ll not be obliged to get up early.
a) must not;
b) will not have to;
c) shouldn’t;
Exercise 6. Translate the following sentences into English:
1. Вы не должны забывать, что наш долг хорошо учиться.
2. Посетителям зоопарка запрещается кормить животных.
3. Вы должны переходить улицу только на зеленый сигнал светофора.
4. Что я должен сделать, чтобы избавиться от кашля? Бросить курить,
воздержаться от длительных прогулок, принимать 1 ст. ложку микстуры на
ночь.
5. Нельзя разговаривать с полным ртом.
6. Этот вопрос должен быть решен до начала собрания.
7. Мама сказала, что дети не должны смотреть телевизионную программу для
взрослых.
8. Тебе обязательно нужно ехать сегодня?
9. Учитель сказал, мы должны быть более активными на уроке.
10.Объявление гласило, что студенты должны сдать лабораторные работы не
позднее вторника.
11.Лене необходимо видеть его немедленно.
12.Ты болен, Гарри. Ты должен лежать в постели. Ты не должен мешать мне
заниматься домашними делами. Ты не должен вести себя как непослушный
мальчишка.
13.Не надо так думать. Глупо так думать о нем.
14.Доктор сказал, я должен выполнять все его указания и не должен забивать
голову тем, чего я не понимаю
Exercise 7. Translate the following sentences expressing supposition bordering
on assurance, almost a conviction:
1. Она очень бледна. Она, должно быть больна.
2. У тебя глаз красный и вспухший. Что-то, должно быть, попало в него.
3. Кто-то, должно быть, заходил в мое отсутствие. Я вижу записку на столе.
4. Никто, должно быть, не заметил его отсутствия.
5. Не беспокой его сейчас. Он, должно быть, обдумывает эту свою сложную
проблему.

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6. В его контрольной работе масса ошибок. Должно быть, ему не удалось
хорошо подготовиться к ней.
7. Он не звонил ей вчера. Он, должно быть, забыл о нашей договоренности.
8. Что с ним? Он так взволнован. Он, должно быть, получил какое-то
приятное известие.
9. В комнате нет света. Она, должно быть, спит.
10.Который сейчас час? Должно быть, сейчас около 5.
11.Где мы сейчас? Должно быть, подъезжаем к Москве.
12.Он, должно быть, добр по натуре.
13.Должно быть, опасно взбираться на эту гору. Она очень крутая.
14.Вероятно, вы уже догадались, что я об этом думаю.
15.Посмотри! Какие грязные улицы! Должно быть, ночью шел дождь.
16.В парке много луж. Должно быть, утром шел дождь.
17.Я здесь, по крайней мере, уже час, а он еще не пришел. Что-то, должно
быть, задержало его.
18.У двери стоит «скорая помощь». Вероятно, кто-то заболел.
19.Студенты получили очень низкие оценки на экзамене. Вероятно, она мало
работали в течение семестра.
20.Глеб очень хорошо говорит по-французски. Он, должно быть, много
работал над языком.
21.Он пишет карандашом. Вероятно, он забыл ручку дома.
22.Ему наверное, сейчас лет 40.
23.Давайте поспешим. Она, должно быть, ждет нас.
24.Неужели вы еще не закончили работу? Вы, вероятно, работаете уже больше
часа.
25.Какая скверная погода. Ты, должно быть, промок насквозь.
26.Ты, должно быть, очень устал. Ты выглядишь довольно утомленным.
27.Вы, вероятно, путешествуете месяц или больше.
28.Она, вероятно, беспокоится сейчас, так как мы ей не позвонили.
29.Она, должно быть, уже месяца два работает медсестрой.
30.Должно быть, сейчас около десяти. Совсем темно.
31.Вы, должно быть, слушаете эту запись больше часа.
32.Они, должно быть, сейчас готовятся к экзаменам.
33.Она, должно быть, очень беспокоилась вчера, так как не знала, где мы были.
Exercise 8. Translate the sentences into English:
1. Должно быть, он не умеет хорошо плавать.
2. Они, должно быть, не говорят по-английски.
3. Должно быть, спектакль им не понравится.
4. Они, должно быть, не встретили его на вокзале.
5. Кто этот человек? Новый президент компании. Не шути так.
- Я не шучу. Ты, должно быть, не читал газет.
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6. Должно быть, он не назвал моей фамилии по ошибке.
7. Должно быть, завтра их уже не будет в городе.
8. Должно быть, мое письмо не доставили вовремя.
9. Должно быть, им не объяснили правило.
10.Больной, должно быть, не последовал предписаниям врача.
11.Должно быть, они не поверили тебе.
12.Должно быть, этот вопрос не обсуждали, когда я пришла.
13.Должно быть, они совсем не устали после поездки.
14.Должно быть, она ничего не слышала о нем с прошлого года.
15.Я уже рассказывала вам об этом. Должно быть, вы не запомнили.
Exercise 9. Translate into English:
1. Должно быть, студенты будут писать эту контрольную на следующей
неделе.
2. Должно быть, она будет занята завтра. У нее много дел.
3. Должно быть, никто не будет против если мы поедем туда через неделю.
4. К концу недели, должно быть, пойдет дождь.
5. Очевидно, что он не сдаст экзамен, т.к он плохо работал в течение семестра.
6. Должно быть, его не будет на занятиях, он заболел.
7. Никто, должно быть, не заставит ее сказать правду.
8. Должно быть, они не будут обсуждать этот вопрос с вами.
9. Должно быть, он не приедет вовремя, он опоздал на поезд.
10.Дождь такой сильный, вы, должно быть, промолчите насквозь, если не
возьмете зонт.
Exercise 10. Translate into English:
1. Он, должно быть, хорошо говорит по-английски.
2. Он, должно быть, не знает французского.
3. Он, возможно, будет говорить по-английски хорошо через год-два.
4. Очевидно, он вас не узнает.
5. Неужели ей спектакль не понравился?
6. Она, должно быть, просто не понимает важности вопроса.
7. Делегация, должно быть, приедет завтра.
8. Возможно, они стояли на этом месте.
9. Очевидно, вы уже видели его портрет в газетах.
10.Она, должно быть, заметила вас.
11.Не могла она не заметить записку.
12.Она, должно быть, очень нервничала на экзамене и отвечала плохо.
13.Что-то возможно, помешало ей приехать вовремя.
14.Где я могу найти студентов 2 курса?
- они, должно быть, слушают записи в лаборатории.
- нет, они вероятно, сдают зачет по педагогике в 309-й.
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15.Кто-то забыл зонт. Это, вероятно, Кэт. Она очень рассеянная в последнее
время. Должно быть, она влюблена.
16.Поздно идти в кино. Все билеты, должно быть, уже проданы. Фильм имеет
успех.
17.Она, должно быть, превратилась в красивую девушку.
18.Он должен быть хорошим учителем.
19.Джон очень мрачен. Он, должно быть, отстает от группы и нервничает
20.Неужели вы обидели ее? Она недавно плакала.
21.Она, должно быть, заболела. Иначе, она бы уже пришла на занятия.
22.В окнах нет света. Должно быть, опять никого нет дома.
23.Неужели они говорили обо мне? Когда я подошла, они сразу замолчали.
24.Должно быть, она проводит там много времени.
25.Детей надо учить плавать как можно раньше.
26.Возможно, она сердита на вас, поэтому она не звонит и не заходит.
27.Я звонила вам вчера около шести, но никто не ответил.
- должно быть, я выходила за хлебом.
28.Он наверняка не знает о вашем отъезде, а то бы он пришел вас проводить.
Exercise 11. Translate into English, use “can”,”may”,”must”.
1. Не думаю, что в прошлом году он умел читать книги в оригинале.
2. Она не может попасть в дом, у нее нет ключей.
3. Не могли бы вы подвезти меня?
4. Нельзя заходить в кинотеатр без билета.
5. Не может быть, чтобы эта книга стоила так дорого.
6. Неужели он увлекается спортом в ущерб своему здоровью.
7. Не может быть, чтобы он не извинился перед ней.
8. Вы можете снять эту комнату на верхнем этаже.
9. Здесь можно говорить громко?
-Нет. Только шепотом.
10. Я был рад, что нам разрешили побыть там еще два дня.
11.Можно было предупредить меня об этом раньше.
12.Возможно, она сумела сдержать свое обещание.
13.Наверное, все еще идет дождь, небо затянуто облаками.
14.Посмотри, сколько луж на улице. Должно быть, всю ночь шел дождь.
15.Петров не пришел сегодня на занятия, должно быть, он заболел.
16.Вы могли бы предупредить меня, что это болезненный укол. Я бы отказался
от него.
17.Не может быть, чтобы он был здоров, он дрожит от холода.
18.Не выходите без головного убора, вы можете схватить воспаление легких.
19.Вы, должно быть, будете отличным художником. У вас великолепные
рисунки.
20.Неужели они живут в таких плохих условиях? Не могу не думать об этом.
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The Final Test 1
Can, may, must
Insert the proper verb
1. They spoke so quietly that we ... hear a word. (не могли)
2. He ... to help you if you don't tell him the truth. (не сможет)
3. He ... meet you yesterday as he was away on business. (не смог)
4. No one ... understand why he had let you down. (не мог)
5. If only this ... happen! (могло бы)
6. You ... the truth then. (мог бы сказать)
7. If you had told everything in time, I ... you. (смог бы помочь)
8. You ... him when he came. (мог бы встретить)
9. Can she ... about me now? (думать)
10.I can't believe. Can they ... for the exam for the second week? (готовятся)
11.Could he ... such a fever? (у него был)
12.Can it be that they ... for you anymore? (не ждут)
13.Can the child ... (все еще спит)
14.They ... use a dictionary during the test yesterday. (смогли)
15.There are a lot of clouds in the sky. It ... rain. (возможно)
16.He said we ... use his room. (могли)
17.We ... play football on the sportsground yesterday. (могли)
18.We ... a lot of sights if went go to London. (возможно, увидели бы)
19.You ... me, I was waiting. (мог бы позвонить)
20.He is absent. He ... at work. (может быть)
21.If you spoke a bit louder, they ... you well. (возможно, услышали бы)
22.You ... that they repeated this word twice. (возможно, заметили)
23.She ... very beautiful in her youth. (наверное была)
24.I didn't know about that. You ... me. (мог бы рассказать)
25.He is on his sick leave. He ... (возможно, заболел)
26.You ... worry too much about what I've just told you. (не должен)
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27.He ... a lot yesterday. (должно быть, работал)
28.Look! How hard he ... now. (должно быть, работает)
29.I am afraid I ... to both of you. (должен поговорить)
30.No doubt it ... very dull for you then after the sparkling dinner parties of London.
(должно быть, было)
31.Mary's eyes are red. She... (должно быть, плакала)
32.She … to understand you. (должно быть, не понимает)
33.They …to meet him at the station. (должно быть, не…)
34.He … to do well at school. (должно быть, не успевает)
35.The Parkers ... their plans for the holidays just now. (должно быть, обсуждают)
36.The truth ... still come out. (возможно)
37.I ... give you the book now, I don't need it any more. (могу)
38.People have umbrellas. It ... be raining outside. (должно быть)
39.If you brought the documents tomorrow, they be signed at once. (возможно)
40.… eat the ice-cream. You have a sore throat. (Не смей)
41.You … not smoke on board of the plane. (нельзя)
42.You ... me how everything had happened. (мог бы рассказать)
43.You ... after your neighbour's children. She always help you. (мог бы
присмотреть)
44.You ... the flowers. You have nothing to do. (мог бы полить)
45.You ... not forget that your duty is to study. (нельзя)
46.You ... play here. It's the street and it's dangerous. (нельзя)
47.The teacher said that I ... bring the task later. (можно)
48.I ... not be really happy if I didn't see him every day. He is absolutely necessary
to me. (смог бы)
49.Tomorrow we'll start working a bit earlier. You ... not be late. (нельзя)
50.Where is my mobile? – I … have left it at home. (должно быть) Can, may, must

35
Module 2
Modal verb “Have to” / “Have got to”
The verb “have to” belongs to a group of semi-modal verbs in English. It means that
on the one hand this verb is notional and on the other hand it is modal. So, “have to”
has a full morphological paradigm. It means:
• “have to” has the category of tense (has, had, will have) ;
• it has the category of person ( I/you/we/they have to, he/she/it has to) ;
• it has the category of number (He/she/it has to, we/you/they have to) ;
• it forms interrogatives and negatives with the help of the auxiliary verb “to do”:
- Do you have to get to the institute be bus?
- He doesn’t have to do this exercise.
The modal meanings of the verb “have to” are as follows:
1. Necessity or obligation arising out of circumstances (coming from outside) .
It corresponds to the Russian: должен, приходится, вынужден.
- I live very far from the University, so I have to (приходится) get up rather early.
- He has to (приходится) work six days a week to support his family.
- She often has to (приходится) go on business trips.

Mind!
The necessity or obligation expressed by the verb “have to” is usually habitual.

Necessity or obligation can also be expressed by “have got to”. It refers only to the
Present Tense.
I’ve lost the key, I can’t lock the door, so I have got to stay at home.

Mind!
“Have got to” denotes a particular situation.

In the Past Tense only “have to” is used and it indicates a fulfilled obligation:
• We had to do (пришлось) a lot of things during the week.
• Did you have to (пришлось) go home on foot yesterday because of the
traffic jam?

36
In the future an auxiliary “will” is used for all the persons:
• In a few years you’ll have to (придётся) make up your mind yourself.
In the meaning of necessity or obligation modal verb “have to” is close to that of the
modal verb “must”. The difference is that with “have to” the necessity arises out of
circumstances (from outside) while with “must” it comes from the person himself.
• I have to give up smoking (It’s • I have to keep late hours as I’ve
the doctor’s order) . got very much work to do.
• I must give up smoking (I want • I must keep late hours if I want
it myself) . to pass my exams successfully.
2. Absence of necessity in negative sentences. It corresponds to Russian: не
должен, не обязан, не надо.
- I don’t have (не обязан) to go to work on Saturday.
- I didn’t have (не надо было) to go to work last Saturday.
3. Instructions: how to do something.
- First you have to learn the rule and then do exercises.
- First you had to take your temperature and then take the pills.
4. Supposition (speculation, deduction - You are sure that something is
happening or will happen) .
- He has such a sophisticated car. He has to have a lot of money. (У него точно…)
- They’ve been together for ages. They have to get married at last. (должны)

1. Necessity or obligation:
a) habitual: 3. Instructions:
Do you have to wear a tie at First you have to mix flour
work? and butter.
b) particular:
I have got to work so much
today. Have to
Have got to

2. Absence of necessity: 4. Supposition (deduction):


I didn’t have to walk, I took Look at them. They have
a bus. to know something.

37
EXERCISES
Exercise 1. State the meaning of the modal verb “have to”, translate the
sentences.
1. We have to do this work rather often.
2. I’ve got to go. It’s late. I’ve got to phone.
3. Do you often have to work on Saturday?
4. Why have you got to leave now?
5. After twenty years he still had to read the instructions before making a call in a
public telephone booth.
6. He looked at the carpet while waiting for her answer and he had to wait some
time.
7. Did you have to go through this routine all over again?
8. Even if you work hard you’ll have to take much more pains to cope with this task.
9. What will you say if you have to finish this research instead of me?
10. I know it’s my turn to talk; you don’t have to tell me when to talk.
11. So I didn’t have to explain to my wife why I needed my passport.
12. First you have to ask for permission and only then come in.
13. First you have to consult the doctor and then take the pills.
14. He works so badly, he has to be fired.
15. She has so many pictures from different countries, she has to be fond of
travelling.

Exercise 2. Fill in the blanks with the verbs “to have to’ or ‘to have got to”.
1. She … to hitchhike back home as she has no money left.
2. Everyone … to pay taxes regularly or they will get into trouble.
3. You … to attend all the classes because you are a full time student.
4. She… to work after school because she needed money to go to college.
5. You … to change as there is no direct train.
6. I … to return home, it’s late, my Mum will punish me.
7. Mum’s favourite vase has been broken by my Dad. Now he … to buy a new one.
8. My boyfriend … to join the army after the University.
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9. First you … to apply the cream on your skin and then go sunbathing.
10. I (not) to attend PE classes as my arm was broken.
11. My younger brother didn’t know how to use the computer, so I … to help him.
12. I couldn’t find the necessary address so I … call the inquiry office.
13. I … to leave now. My grandmother is calling me.
14. He … to leave the house earlier today because of the traffic jam.
15. I … to consult the doctor, my knee aches badly.

Exercise 3. Turn the sentences into interrogative and negative.


1. I have to go shopping at least once a week.
2. You have to get a job because we are short for money.
3. The students have to practice more; otherwise they will fail at their exams.
4. The old man had to take some sleeping pills as he couldn’t fall asleep.
5. We had to book the tickets in advance because too many people travel in summer.
6. I have to work till late hours today.
7. For the next few weeks I had to stay in bed.
8. I have got to work very much now as I’ve got behind the group.
9. He has missed the train and now he has got to wait for another one.
10. We had to wait as the train was two hours late.
11. My friend is coming today and I have got to meet him at the station.
12. My Mum is ill and I have got to send for the doctor.
13. She has to work from 9 till 6 every time.”
14. I had to waste a lot of time running about the town looking for a room in a hotel.
15. We had to put off the meeting till Thursday.

Exercise 4. Fill in the gaps with the verbs “have to” or “must”
1. As I have no dishwasher I … to wash up myself.
2. I … call him immediately, I promised.
3. If you want to make progress, you … do more exercises.
4. I’d like to be a good teacher so I … take great pains to find the way through to my
students.
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5. I live far from the University so I … to get there by bus.
6. She … to wear glasses.
7. I have a very responsible task to speak at the meeting so I … to look through a lot
of reference material.
8. She lives alone and she … to do all housework herself.
9. You … not forget that your duty is to study well.
10. The doctor says that I … give up smoking as it’s really harmful for my health.
11. She is so nervous, she … immediately see her boyfriend.
12. I haven’t seen my friend for ages, I … write to her just now.
13. You have a high temperature, you … to send for the doctor.
14. My watch is slow, I … to take it to the watchmaker.
15. He is going to see the play but he … to buy the tickets beforehand.

Exercise 5. Complete the following sentences using the verb “have to” or “have
got to”
1. We’ve missed the last bus, so …
2. My friend is ill, so I…
3. I worked as a secretary, so …
4. My mum takes my younger sister to school, so …
5. My friend is in trouble, that’s why I think.
6. He looked so gloomy and disappointed that we decided …
7. … because otherwise you may fail at your exam.
8. … if you don’t want to lag behind.
9. The boss is out. I’m afraid you …
10. As there is no direct train, …
11. I knew all the news, that’s why …
12. I was in a great hurry and my friend gave me a lift, so …
13. He had a lot of supplementary ,materials, so…
14. He produced so much evidence that everybody …
15. If you want to join our club, you …

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Exercise 6. Correct the mistakes
1. First you have got to mix sugar and eggs.
2. I will have got to hurry not to miss the 7 o’clock train.
3. He hadn’t got to go to the library as he had the book at home.
4. I have to call my mum as I’ve left my keys at home.
5. We have to take a taxi as we could be late for the beginning of the concert.
6. He has such an expensive watch. He had to have a lot of money.
7. I’ve got to return home early each day because of my little daughter.
8. If you had warned me that you would come later, I wouldn’t have to worry.
9. The road is blocked, the bus will have got to go around.
10. Do you really have got to go on a business trip every single month?
11. She hadn’t got to tell us about her engagement. We had already noticed the ring.
12. He has to take a taxi to get to his office as his car has got broken.
13. First you have got to pour some oil into the saucepan.
14. There has got to be some kind of a clue that will help our investigation to go on.
15. She hadn’t got to cook supper as her mother had already cooked it.

Exercise 7. Translate the sentences into English.


1. Вам придётся выслушать меня, хотя вам и неприятны мои слова.
2. Я очень сожалею, что именно мне пришлось сообщить вам эту неприятную
новость.
3. Взгляните на этот разрушенный дом. Он точно очень древний.
4. У меня сейчас такая работа, что мне приходится поздно ложиться спать и
рано вставать.
5. Для начала надо подготовить все ингредиенты, а только потом начинать
готовить.
6. Так как я живу за городом, мне приходится ездить на работу электричкой.
7. Он ходит на массаж уже целую неделю, боль в спине точно должна пройти.
8. Нам не пришлось долго ждать ответа оператора, так как никто больше не
интересовался этим вопросом.

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9. Тебе не надо идти к врачу, так как температура уже спала.
10. Сначала надо растопить шоколад, а потом вмешивать масло.
11. Мне не придётся ему звонить, так как мы встретимся сегодня и всё
обговорим.
12. Вам пришлось звонить Нику, чтобы найти его дом?
13. Я знаю, что туда нет прямого поезда. Где же вам пришлось сделать
пересадку?
14. Она уже давно не ходит на занятия. У неё точно будут проблемы.
15. Мой сосед приходит домой очень поздно. Он наверняка работает, с утра
его нет.
16. Вчера было солнечно, снег растаял, и нам не пришлось убирать его.
17. Сделай все дела сегодня и тебе не придётся тратить время на них завтра.
18. Она так хорошо катается на сноуборде. Однозначно, она часто ездит в
горы.
19. Твоё предложение очень заманчивое, но я вынуждена отказаться.
20. Тебе действительно пришлось добираться туда пешком?

Exercise 8. Make up short dialogues using the modal verbs “have to” and “have
got to”
Model:
- What about going to the concert tonight?
- Oh, a very temping idea, but unfortunately I have got to refuse. I’ve got so much
work to do.
- But what have you got to do?
- First I …, then I … Besides I … and to crown it all I …
- Well then I’ll have to invite Ann as I’ve got an extra ticket.

Exercise 9. Use as many modal verbs as possible in the following story: The
Shirt
The Shirt
The king of an oriental country was rich and powerful, but he was not happy. He
therefore went to consult a wise old man on this subject. The old man said.

42
“Happiness is a very rare thing in this world, but I know the way to find it.”
“How shall I find it?” – asked the king.
“Oh, it is quite simple,” answered the old man, “you have only to put on the shirt of
a happy man.”
The king thanked the old man and began to look for the talisman. He visited most of
the capitals of the world, met kings, writers, professors, actors, doctors, and others,
but they were not happy.
At last he came back to the country.
One day he saw a poor peasant with a happy look on his face who was working in a
field and singing. He went up to the peasant and said: “My good fellow, are you
happy?”
“Quite happy”, - answered the peasant.
“Would you like to change places with a king?”
“Not for the world.”
“Well, then”, - said the king, - “sell me your shirt”.
“My shirt?” ,- answered the peasant in astonishment. «I have not got one.

Exercise 10. Fill in the blanks with the modal verbs can, may, must, have to.
A Dumb Wife
Once there was a man whose wife was dumb, and this made him very sad because
he loved her very much. After some time he went to see a doctor and said. «___ you
make my wife speak?» «Perhaps I ___ », said the doctor, «the operation is difficult,
but if I try, I'll do my best». «Of course, you ___ try», said the husband, «I'll bring
her tomorrow».
The next day the doctor made the operation and the dumb wife began to speak. She
spoke so much and so loudly that in a few hours her husband ran back to the doctor
and said, « ___ you make my wife dumb again?» «No», said the doctor, «there are
many ways to make a dumb woman speak, but no ways to make a woman stop
talking». «What ___ I do?» said the man», «I shall soon die if I ____ listen to her all
day long». «Well», said the doctor, «I ___ make her dumb, but I ___ make you deaf
and you will not ____ listen to her». «Very well», said the man, «you ___ do so. It
will be better than the other way».

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Modal verb “Be to”
This is also a semi-modal verb. Its modal meanings can be used in two tenses -
The Present Indefinite and the Past Indefinite Tenses. These modal meanings are:
1. Obligation or necessity arising out of plans or arrangements. In Russian it
corresponds to: должен, предстоит, договорились, такое расписание
(график) .
• We are to meet (должны) after classes (договорились) .
• They were to go abroad (должны были) for their honeymoon. (так решили)

Mind! The Present Indefinite Tense signifies an arrangement referring to the future
• When are you to go on a business trip?
• Когда тебе предстоит поехать в командировку?

Mind! In case if the plan or arrangement were not carried out the Perfect Infinitive is
used.
• They were to have answered our letter just last week, but they never did.
• Они должны были ответить на наше письмо еще на прошлой неделе, но
так и не ответили.
• We were to have met at 5, but something may have got in her way.
• Мы договорились встретиться в 5 часов, но, видимо, что-то ей помешало.

2. Orders or commands given either by the speaker (for example a parent) or


some official authority.
• You are to stay here (должен) until I return (Mother to her son) .
• The students are to return (должны) the books by the end of the year. (The
Headmaster to the students) .
3. Asking about a person`s order or wish. In this meaning the verb “to be” is
used only in interrogative sentences.
• Where am I to go after classes?
Куда я должен пойти после занятий?
• What am I to buy for lunch?
4. Strict prohibition. In this meaning the verb “to be” is used in negative
sentences.
• You are not to smoke in this room.
44
Нельзя курить в этой комнате.
• You are not to give up your studies.

5. Possibility. In this meaning the verb “to be” is followed by the simple passive
infinitive. In the negative sentence the verb “to be” denotes impossibility of
the action.
• My granny is always to be found in the garden.
Мою бабушку всегда можно найти в саду.
• There is nothing to be done under the circumstances.
Ничего невозможно сделать при данных обстоятельствах.
6. “Fate”, something thought of as unavoidable, destined to happen.
• Nobody could even imagine that we were not only to meet, but work together.
Никто и подумать не мог, что мы просто встретимся, но и будем работать
вместе.
• This song is to become a visit card of their group.
Этой песне суждено стать визитной карточкой их группы.

1. Obligation, necessity arising 4. Strict prohibition:


out of plans:
You are not to open the
The students are to come to the windows here.
conference at 2 o’clock.

2. Orders, commands: 5. Possibility or


You are to return the books
in time.
Be to impossibility:
Where is this picture to be
found?

3. Asking about person’s order or 6. “Fate”, something thought of


wish: as unavoidable, destined to
happen:
How many pages am I to write?
She is to become a musician.

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EXERCISES
Exercise 1. State the meaning of the verb “to be”, translate the sentences
1. They are to exchange their experience at the conference.
2. You are to observe traffic regulations.
3. He was to have spoken at the meeting but he fell ill.
4. This word is not to be found in a small dictionary.
5. We are to get a 10 percent wage rise in June.
6. I thought we were saying goodbye forever, but we were to meet again many years
later.
7. You are to do your homework before you watch TV.
8. This cover is not to be removed.
9. You are to go straight to your room. You are to say nothing of this to anyone.
10. We were to meet at the entrance of the theatre at a quarter to eight.
11. “Have you seen him?”
“No, he was to have met me here the next morning”.
12. For a long time neither of them was to be seen again.
13. I didn’t know at the time that she was to be my wife.
14. You are not to leave until it is said to you.
15. The teacher said that we were to hand in our compositions on Thursday.

Exercise 2. Paraphrase the following sentences to express obligation or


necessity.
1. The delegation is supposed to arrive at 5.
2. The teacher expects us to do such exercises in writing.
3. It is arranged that we should finish our work on Wednesday.
4. I expect you to explain everything to your parents.
5. They are supposed to discuss the project at the conference.
6. It is arranged that the children will visit the zoo at the weekend.
7. Everybody expects him to take part in the competitions and win the first prize.
8. They agreed to sign the contract as soon as the experiment was over.

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9. They planned to take their examinations earlier.
10. The mail was supposed to be delivered in the afternoon.
11. We agreed that the one who came first would reserve seats for the rest of us.
12. The teacher told us to hand our tests in at the end of the lesson.
13. I promised to arrive a day later as I still had a lot of work.
14. We agreed to go to the theatre on Saturday and he promised to buy the tickets.
15. You were supposed to revise grammar rules before writing a test.

Exercise 3. Change the following sentences and add some more context.
Model:
- He was to write a review to his fellow writer’s book.
- He was to have written a review to his fellow writer’s book, but he didn’t manage
to do it.
1. The students were to take their exams in June.
2. The train was to arrive in Rostov early in the morning.
3. The discussion of the new film was to begin at 2 o’clock.
4. We were to leave just immediately after the conference.
5. He was not to criticize this author’s book.
6. I was to meet my friend at the airport.
7. She was to translate the article for the next class.
8. We were to wait for her at the corner of the street.
9. We were not to miss the 7 o’clock train.
10. They were to meet as soon as they finished school.
11. He was to go on a business trip for a fortnight.
12. I knew that my favourite singer was to perform only one night.
13. A new camera was to be presented for me.
14. I was very nervous as I was to go by plane for the first time.
15. He was to call everybody and warn that the excursion would start from the
Houses of Parliament.

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Exercise 4. Use the required form of the infinitive after the verb “to be to”
1. This was the first time I made a journey that I was (make) hundreds of times
afterwards.
2. What is (become) of me?
3. At this boarding school the children are (go) to bed at 9 o’clock.
4. He is (stay) the night with us and tomorrow he sets off on his tour to Europe.
5. I am (start) on my new job on Monday.
6. My bike was under repair and I was (collect) it that afternoon.
7. When are you (go) on a business trip?
8. What conference are you (take) part in?
9. Who is (meet) you at the airport?
10. He was (get in touch) with the editor, but he failed as the telephone was out of
order.
11. He told me that I was not (repeat) what I had heard, but I didn’t obey.
12. He set off for the school where he was (write) examinations for entry to the
University.
13. He made all arrangements for the marriage, which was (take place) on the day
of his mother’s arrival.
14. He was (speak) at the conference but unfortunately he fell ill.
15. Everybody looked for Peter, but he was nowhere (find).

Exercise 5. Correct the errors, translate the sentences


1. This exercise is not done without a dictionary.
2. Shakespeare is not read in the original because his language is difficult to
understand.
3. We were to visit a new exhibition, but it wasn’t brought to our town.
4. They were to cook a holiday dinner, but they didn’t have some necessary
foodstuffs.
5. You have a headache. You are to have visited a doctor and he will help you.
6. How many exams were the students to have taken in the fourth term?
7. What were you to have prepared for today’s lesson?

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8. They expect the mail to deliver in the morning.
9. He was to have become my closest friend.
10. We wondered who was to have lived in the house we were building.
11. Nick and Peter were to meet after classes but suddenly Nick changed his mind.
12. He was to leave by the 7 o’clock train but something must have kept him.
13. The door was locked and I didn’t know how it was opened.
14. He was to take part in the competition but he had caught a cold.
15. He was to tell us where he was going but he forgot.

Exercise 6. Translate the following sentences using the verb “to be to”
1. Наше собрание будет на следующей неделе, и вам надо сделать на нём
доклад.
2. Мы должны подготовить пересказ текста к четвергу.
3. Поезд должен прибыть на главный вокзал ровно в 12 часов.
4. Он должен был приехать к выходным, как мы и договорились.
5. Студенты должны были закончить изучение этого модуля ещё в первом
семестре.
6. Ты, должно быть, не знаешь, что тебя должны встретить в аэропорту.
7. Почему ты сидишь в темноте? Мне включить телевизор?
8. Помните, вы не должны трогать бродячих собак.
9. Мы должны были сдавать экзамен в четверг, но расписание изменили.
10. Он должен был позвонить нам, но телефон не работал.
11. Неужели ты не можешь мне сказать, какое надо делать упражнение?
12. Немедленно закройте все окна, на улице сильный ветер.
13. Он должен был написать статью в газету, но не успел.
14. Неужели самолёт должен прилететь только вечером?
15. Ему никогда не было суждено вернуться в свой родной город.

Exercise 7. Translate the sentences into English, observing the meanings of the
verb “to be to”
a) An arrangement or a plan:
49
1.Сегодня наша команда по хоккею должна играть против команды Канады.
2. Мы договорились встретить рассвет вместе.
3. Она должна была прийти на его выступление, но задержалась на работе.
4. Молли должна была отправить вам письмо, но перепутала E –mail.
b) Official instructions, commands, orders
5. Надевайте бахилы при входе в кабинет.
6. Вы должны собрать необходимые средства до конца месяца.
7. Ты должна мыть окна только этим средством.
с) Asking about a person’s order or wish
8. Какие книги я должен прочитать, чтобы освоить этот материал?
9. Какие документы я должен подписать, чтобы поехать в командировку?
10. Сколько слов я должен написать в этом эссе?
d) Strict prohibition
11. Вам нельзя покидать город во время расследования.
12. Нельзя откладывать эту работу на завтра, ты не сможешь закончить всё
вовремя.
13. Келли, тебе нельзя поднимать ничего тяжёлого.
e) Possibility, impossibility
14.Где можно достать эту книгу?
15. Такую фотографию нельзя было найти ни в одном альбоме.
16. До этого города нельзя добраться ничем, кроме парохода.
f) Something destined to happen
17. Им никогда не суждено продолжить семейный бизнес.
18. Золушке суждено было поехать на бал и влюбиться в принца.
19. Она прекрасно говорит по-английски, и ей суждено быть переводчиком.

Exercise 8. Translate the sentences using either “be to” or “have to”
1. Он вынужден спешить, так как его самолёт улетает через два часа.
2. Если бы в доме жили, нам не пришлось бы его ремонтировать.

50
3. Поезд должен был прибыть через 10 минут, и платформа была полна
встречающих.
4. Ты должен был сказать всем, где нас найти.
5. Когда я должен вернуться?
6. Мне не пришлось нести все сумки самому.
7. В этот час Филиппа нигде нельзя было найти.
8. Вы должны были составить план вашего урока заранее, но, к сожалению, вы
этого не сделали.
9. Вам придётся согласиться с нашим решением, нравится оно вам или нет.
10. Мне не пришлось покупать словарь, такой был в нашей библиотеке.
11. Они договорились заниматься спортом на стадионе.
12. Боюсь, я должна уйти, так как меня уже ждут.
13. Что со мною будет? Мне придётся за всё ответить.
14. Я знала, что Пэт должна была прийти на вечеринку.
15. Он должен был подвинуться поближе, чтобы услышать её.

Exercise 9. Use as many modal verbs as possible in the story “The Doctor’s
Advice”
The Doctor’s Advice
Once and old gentleman went to see a doctor. The doctor examined him and
said: “Medicine won’t help you. You must have a complete rest. Go to a quiet
country place for a month, go to bed early, drink milk, walk a lot, and smoke just
one cigar a day.”
“Thank you very much,” said the old gentleman, “I shall do everything you
say.”
A month later the gentleman came to the doctor again. “How do you do!” said
the doctor, “I am very glad to see you. You look much younger.”
“Oh, doctor,” said the gentleman, “I feel quite well now. I had a good rest. I
went to bed early, I drank a lot of milk, I walked a lot. Your advice certainly helped
me. But you told me to smoke one cigar a day, and that one cigar a day almost killed
me at first. It’s no joke to start smoking at my age.”

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Exercise 10. Choose the proper modal verb:
1.My friend … come on Thursday. I know the date as it was an arrangement
a) must b) is to c) has to
2. You … to bother about the tickets. I had already bought them.
a) didn’t have to b) mustn’t c) might not
3. Something delayed them I’m sure. They … have arrived
a) must b) were to c) had to
4. The answer… to be found sooner or later.
a) is b) has c) must
5. Of course I … to look for her.
a) had b) was c) must
6. The key … nowhere to be found.
a) had b) was c) must
7. I …. to be the happiest man as she agreed to marry me.
a) was b) had c) must
8. Is the delegation … by the 10:30 train?
a) arrives b) to arrive c) to have arrived
9. The teacher said that we … to hand in our tests.
a) were b) had c) must
10. He was … at the meeting, but he fell ill.
a) to speak b) to have spoken c) to have speaking

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Modal verb “Need”
This is also a semi-modal verb, which means that it can be used as a notional and a
modal verb.
As a modal verb:
a) It has no ending “s” in the 3-d person singular;
b) Questions and negatives are made without “do”
The modal meanings of the verb “need” are as follows:
1. Absence of necessity (only in negative sentences). In Russian it corresponds
to: не надо, не нужно, нет необходимости.
Present:
• She needn’t reserve a table – there is plenty of room.
Ей не надо заказывать столик – свободных мест полно.
• You needn’t fill in a form.
Вам не надо заполнять бланк.
Such form (needn’t) is used to denote immediate necessities. But, if speak of a
general, habitual necessity then a notional verb “need to” is used.
• We do not need to go shopping.
Нам не надо ходить по магазинам.
• You don’t need to pay for emergency calls in most countries.
Во многих странах не нужно платить за экстренные вызовы.
Present forms are used when making decisions about the future.
• Tell her she doesn’t need to work.
Скажите ей, что ей не надо будет работать.
Past:
There are two ways of expressing absence of necessity in the past:
a) Needn’t + perfect infinitive
Which indicates that the action expressed by the infinitive was not necessary, but
the action was still carried out. It implies a waste of time or efforts and therefore is
translated as: зря, незачем, не к чему было.
• You needn’t have spent all the money. Now we’ve got nothing left.
Зря (не к чему было) ты потратил все деньги. Теперь у нас совсем ничего
нет
• We needn’t have waited for her because she never came again.

53
Зря мы ее прождали, т.к она всё равно не пришла.
b) Didn’t need to + simple infinitive
Which indicates that the action expressed be the infinitive was not necessary and it
was not carried out.
• She didn’t need to tell me about that because I already knew about everything.
Ей не нужно было это рассказывать мне, т.к. я уже обо всем знал.
• I didn’t need to clean the flat yesterday as my sister had already cleaned
everything.
Мне не надо было убирать квартиру вчера, т.к. моя сестра уже всё
убрала.
2. Asking for or granting permission – usually permission not to do something.
Only immediate necessities are meant. (Only in interrogative sentences)
In Russian it corresponds to: надо? нужно?
• -Need I go there? (hoping for a negative answer)
Надо мне туда идти?
-No, you needn’t.
Можно не идти.
• -Need we reserve rooms in the hotel?
Нужно ли нам забронировать места в гостинице?
-No, you needn’t.
Можно не бронировать.

MIND! The difference between need, needn’t and must, mustn’t is as follows:
Need denotes necessity
Must denotes obligation

Compare: a) You needn’t tell her this news, she already knows. Нет необходимости
сообщать ей эту новость. Она уже в курсе.
b) You mustn’t tell her this news. I don’t want her to know it. Вы не должны
сообщать ей эту новость. Я не хочу, чтобы она знала.

MIND! You should also remember, that there are some spoken patterns, which
contain the idea of necessity but are not directly connected with the verb “need”

These are impersonal sentences in Russian.


• Нужно предупредить его. It’s necessary to warn him.

54
• Не нужно звонить ей. It’s not necessary to call her.
• Нужно записать всё, что он сказал. There is a need to write down everything
he has said. (“need” is a noun here and is used with an article).

2. Asking for or granting


1. Absence of necessity: permission not to do something:
(only in negative - Need I do this exercise in
sentences) writing?
- No, you needn’t.

Need
(to)

Present: Past:
a) She needn’t answer right a) You needn’t have come so
now. early.
b) I don’t need to get to work b) I didn’t need to introduce
by bus. them to each other.

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EXERCISES
Need
Exercise 1. State the meaning of “need” or “need to”
1. You needn’t hurry, the train leaves at ten fifteen.
2. You needn’t tell me about the accident, I know all the details of it.
3. You needn’t lock the door, I shall come early.
4. You needn’t answer the question if you don’t know what to say.
5. He brought my book yesterday, so I didn’t need to worry.
6. They already knew everything, and we didn’t need to send a telegram to them.
7. I didn’t need to introduce them to each other, they knew each other well.
8. I don’t need to go shopping this is my wife’s duty.
9. Pupils don’t need to go to school on Sundays.
10. My friend doesn’t need to get to school by bus as he lives nearby.
11. You needn’t have spent so much money on this whatnot.
12. He needn’t have come to this party, he wasn’t invited.
13. You needn’t have worried on my account, I told you I could come home late.
14. You needn’t have waited for me for so long.
15. – Do you remember what you did when you were twenty-five?
-You needn’t have reminded me of that.
Exercise 2. Make up sentences and translate them into Russian.
He do so much
have waited
She needn’t worry for me
have worried
You wait the question
have answered
I answer about it

Exercise 3. Make up sentences, using these phrases to distinguish immediate


and habitual necessity.
Ходить в институт пешком, платить за квартиру, кормить собаку каждый час,
купить тетради, сложить вещи в чемодан, напечатать реферат, платить за
уроки, разговаривать по телефону, помыть посуду, заплатить за ужин , ехать в
командировку, написать слова в тетради, купить хлеб, оплачивать счета,
чинить машину, торопиться, ставить будильник.

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Exercise 4. Refer the following sentences to the past. Change the context.
1. You needn’t hurry, the train leaves at ten fifteen.
2. You needn’t tell me about the accident, I don’t like such stories.
3. You needn’t lock the door, I shall come back very soon.
4. We needn’t wait for him, he won’t go with us.
5. You needn’t worry on my account, I’ll call you by all means.
6. You needn’t hurry home, I can cook my breakfast myself.
7. You needn’t come up closer, it’s dangerous.
8. If you don’t like comedies, you needn’t watch this one.
9. We needn’t hurry, there’s still plenty of time.
10.He needn’t call her, he’s already spoken to her.
11.We needn’t discuss this problem now.
12.We needn’t buy bread for supper as there’s plenty at home.
13.You needn’t take her home, she lives nearby.
14.Look! They are talking to each other, you needn’t interfere.
15.You needn’t answer this question for me as I know the answer myself.
Exercise 5. Complete the sentences.
1. You don’t need to get up very early tomorrow because…
2. We needn’t wait for him, he …
3. You needn’t change for another line, you can …
4. You needn’t tell me about the film, I …
5. Tom needn’t buy this book, he …
6. You needn’t take me home, I …
7. He needn’t stay in the countryside as we …
8. He doesn’t need to pay the rent as …
9. I don’t need to get to my work by bus as I …
10.She doesn’t need to tidy, the flat everyday …
11.I needn’t fill in this form as …
12.She doesn’t need to go shopping because …
13.My friend doesn’t need to walk the dog as …
14.I needn’t book the room in the hotel because …
15.I don’t need to take the children from the kindergarten as …
Exercise 6. Open the brackets
1. You needn’t (to get up) so early I can cook my breakfast myself.
2. You needn’t (to wait) for them for two hours, they didn’t seem very eager to
join you in your trip.
3. They needn’t (to take) along so many clothes, it was quite warm.
4. I needn’t (to tell) him about that as he got so upset.
5. You needn’t (hurry up) , we still have plenty of time.

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6. You needn’t (to set up) the alarm clock for 6 o’clock, as I’ve already set it.
7. You needn’t (to worry) on my account I told you I could come home late.
8. You needn’t (to answer) the question if you don’t know what to say.
9. I needn’t (to buy) so much bread as we had a lot at home.
10.You needn’t (to tell) her all the truth, she didn’t believe a single word.
11.You needn’t (to inform) them about it now, I’ll do it in the evening.
12.They needn’t (to discuss) this problem, it’s so stupid.
13.We needn’t (to worry) , the exam was pretty easy.
14.They needn’t (to hurry) , the train was an hour late.
15.She needn’t (to wait) for the boss as the documents are already signed.
Exercise 7. Translate the sentences using the verb “need”
1. Зачем ты рассказываешь мне об этом? Мне совсем не надо знать ее
секреты.
2. Не надо спешить. До отхода поезда еще полчаса, и мы можем
перекусить.
3. Студентам не надо делать упражнения письменно, это устное задание.
4. Вам незачем обсуждать это сейчас. Неужели вы этого не понимаете?
5. Если тебе не хочется, то незачем ехать туда.
6. Вам не нужна виза, если вы едете в Турцию.
7. Мне не нужно было их знакомить, они давно знали друг друга.
8. Мне не надо было ничего объяснять, она все знала.
9. Ей не надо было готовить ужин, их пригласили в ресторан.
10.Зря ты так рано встал, ведь сегодня же воскресенье.
11.Зря ты набрала столько много книг, там есть библиотека.
12.Зря вы потратили на это столько усилий.
13.Нам обязательно писать упражнения? -Можно не писать, но слова
выучить надо.
14.Нужно ли мне поливать цветы? – Можно не поливать, собирается дождь.
15.Зря вы затопили камин, еще совсем тепло.
Exercise 8. Choose the right answer.
1. – Must we really tell her about this news?
– No, you … . I’m sure she knows about it.
a) mustn’t;
b) haven’t;
c) needn’t;
2. – Must I do this exercise in writing?
– No, you …

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a) needn’t;
b) mustn’t;
c) haven’t;
3. – Must she buy so many vegetables?
– No, she…
a) mustn’t;
b) needn’t;
c) haven’t;
4. You … , it was dangerous.
a) needn’t have gone;
b) needn’t go;
c) must not go;
5. You … everything yourself. We would have been glad to help you.
a) didn’t need to do;
b) needn’t have done;
c) didn’t have to do;
6. I … to him because the news was already known to him.
a) needn’t have written;
b) needn’t write;
c) didn’t need to write;
7. You …such a lot of flowers. We’ve already got more than necessary.
a) didn’t need to buy;
b) needn’t buy;
c) needn’t have bought;
8. I … them at all, they themselves knew what to do.
a) needn’t have helped;
b) needn’t help;
c) didn’t need to help;
9. She … the flowers, as it is going to rain.
a) needn’t water;
b) didn’t need to water;
c) needn’t have watered;
10. I …this film, it was a waste of time.
a) needn’t have seen;
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b) didn’t need to see;
c) needn’t see.
11. Не надо приносить учебники завтра.
a) needn’t;
b) won’t need;
c) don’t have to;
12. Детям не надо рано вставать, у них выходной.
a) needn’t;
b) don’t have to;
c) don’t need to;
13. Вам не надо следовать их примеру, это было бы глупо с вашей стороны.
a) don’t have to;
b) needn’t;
c) needn’t have;
14. Лагерь был очень близко, и все согласились, что не нужно брать машину.
a) needn’t;
b) didn’t need;
c) needn’t have;
15. Мне не надо было запирать дверь, кто-то уже запер её.
a) needn’t have;
b) needn’t;
c) didn’t need;
16. Зря мы вышли из дома так рано.
a) needn’t have;
b) didn’t need;
c) needn’t;
17. Зря она приготовила такой большой обед.
a) needn’t have;
b) didn’t need;
c) needn’t;
18. Зря мы сделали всю эту работу.
a) needn’t have;
b) didn’t need;
c) needn’t;

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19. Мне не надо было их знакомить, так как они хорошо знали друг друга.
a) needn’t have;
b) didn’t need;
c) needn’t;
20. Он был рад, что ему не надо было выполнять все эти упражнения.
a) needn’t have;
b) didn’t need;
c) needn’t;
Exercise 9. Translate the following sentences with modal verbs: must, have to,
be to, need in the meaning of necessity.
1. Мы должны были встретиться в 5, но она позвонила и сказала, что не
придет.
2. Я посмотрел на часы и подумал, что мне незачем торопиться, у меня много
времени.
3. Мне не пришлось долго ждать, она вскоре пришла.
4. Ты не должен мешать мне заниматься домашними делами.
5. Вы должны выполнять все указания врача и не забивать себе голову тем,
чего вы не понимаете.
6. Тебе обязательно нужно ехать сегодня? -Можно и не ехать.
7. Вам придется согласиться с нашим решением, нравится оно вам или нет.
8. Мне не нужно было покупать словарь, т.к. мой брат дал мне свой.
9. Он должен был выступить на конференции, но заболел.
10.Не стоит его ругать! Он не виноват.
11.Тогда мне уже не нужно было выполнять ничьи приказы, я уже был на
пенсии.
12.Мне срочно нужно отправить им СМС, они ждут от меня информацию.
13.Чтобы победить их, нам пришлось собирать целую армию.
14.Зря ты водил собаку на прогулку, папа утром гулял с ней целых полчаса.
15.Очень скоро тебе придется делать свой выбор.

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Ex. 10. Use as many modal verbs as possible in the story: “Aesop and
Traveller”.
Aesop was a very clever man who lived many hundreds of years ago in Greece. He
wrote many fine stories. He was well known as a man who was fond of jokes. One
day, as he was enjoying a walk, he met a traveller, who greeted him and said: "Kind
man, can you tell me how soon I shall get to town?" "Go," Aesop answered. "I know
I must go," protested the traveller, "but 1 should like you to tell me how soon I shall
get to town?"
"Go," Aesop said angrily.
This man must be mad," the traveller thought and went on.
After he had gone some distance, Aesop shouted after him: "You will get to town in
two hours." The traveller turned round in astonishment. "Why didn't you tell me that
before?" he asked. "How could I have told you that before?" answered Aesop. "I did
not know how fast you could walk."

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Modal verb “Should” / “Ought to”
These are pure modal verbs with one form. They are not changed in reported speech.
Should is always followed by the Infinitive without the particle “to”, while ought to
is always followed by this particle.
These two verbs are very close in meaning but still there are some differences.
Should is more frequent and is not so formal as ought to.
So, the modal meanings of these verbs are:
1. Obligation, duty (должен, должна, должны)
“Should” denotes obligation or duty which stands to reason or is a general fact (как
само собой разумеющееся) .
• Students should take their exams twice a year.
“Ought to” denotes a moral obligation or duty.
• Parents ought to take care of their children.
2. Advice, desire, ability (следует, желательно) and always shows some personal
interest.
• You should be more attentive.
3. Weakened prohibition (negative advice)
(не следует, нежелательно, не надо)
• You shouldn’t be so impatient.
4. Criticism of the past action.
Only Perfect Infinitive is used.
There are two ways of expressing it:
A) In statements “should” indicates that something desirable has not been done
(зря ... не...)
• You should have stayed at home.
Зря вы не остались дома.
• Mike should have seen Kate after classes.
Зря Майк не увиделся с Кейт после занятий.
B) In negative sentences “should” indicates, that something wrong has been done
(не следовало …)
• You shouldn’t have done this, it was stupid.

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Не следовало вам это делать, это было глупо.
• He shouldn’t have married a woman, who was 20 years younger than himself.
5. Probability ( something that can be naturally or logically expected. Should is used
here only with reference to the Present or Future.
• She is away but should be back tomorrow (I have some certain reasons to say
that)
• Henry should get there soon, he left home at 6.
6. Emotional colouring (С какой стати? Чего ради?)
• Give me a cigarett. - Why should I?
• Why should I talk to you at all?
С какой стати мне вообще с вами разговаривать?

1. a) Obligation, duty (a general 4. Criticism of the past action:


fact): a) you should have visited this
If you are ill, you should take museum.
medicines. b) you shouldn’t have
b) moral duty: promised this.
The young should respect the old.

Should 5. Probability (something


2. Advice, desire: naturally expected):
Ought to The concern should be
You should dress
warmer. fantastic.

3. Weakened prohibition: 6. Emotional colouring:


You shouldn’t waste so Why should I do it
much time. instead of him?

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EXERCISES
Should. Ought to
Exercise 1. State the meaning of the modal verbs “should”, “ought to”
1. – How can you know what his feelings are? – I should know, for he’s always
telling me about them.
2. I acted very wrongly indeed. I shouldn’t have let this relationship start.
3. Tea is between half-past five and six, and it should be ready now.
4. He couldn’t see anything. He thought that he should have brought a torch.
5. The doctor said that it was appendicitis and she should be operated on.
6. Well, I’m very glad to know at last what it was all about. You should have
told before.
7. Anything we can do to clear up this miserable affair should be done.
8. He’s very wicked of you. You should be ashamed of yourself.
9. He felt very low and I thought I ought to have done all I could to cheer him
up.
10. I can’t understand why you should do it.
11. He is at a loss, you ought to do smth for him.
12. You ought to be ashamed of yourself.
13. She should know English perfectly, she has been living in London for so long.
14. She shouldn’t have told you about this accident.
15. It’s high time to discuss the problem. – Why should I? - I’m not interested in
it.
Exercise 2. Make up sentences and translate them into Russian:
You tidy the room every day.
She wear jackets and ties in restaurant.
Officers keep their bags with them.
Men keep their money in the bank.
Drivers Should stop smoking as he has serious health problems.
Travelers have exams twice a year.
Children respect the old.
People Ought to have your hair cut at least once a month.
He report to the Commanding officer by midday.
Students check the tyres before they take the cars out.
The young obey their parents.

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Everybody be responsible in everything they do.
We help everybody who is in trouble

Exercise 3. Complete the sentences with your own ideas.


1. I think people should …
2. I don’t think students should …
3. I think children ought to …
4. Visitors always should …
5. All officers should …
6. I know that I should …
7. He should have …
8. It’s his fault he ought to have …
9. When he told that to me I should have …
10. Where is Phil? He should …
11. We are going on a trip. It should …
12. They are not home, they should …
13. You shouldn’t have …
14. I think I was wrong, I should have …
15. You are so tired. You should …

Exercise 4. Open the brackets using the appropriate form of the infinitive.
1. He should (to pass) the letter to her as the letter was addressed to her.
2. You should (to take) more exercise to improve your pronunciation.
3. You should (to phone) them at once. Now it’s late.
4. She shouldn’t (to wear) the coat. It’s warm today.
5. I shouldn’t (to say) that, I’m sure.
6. You should (to think) over this offer once more before rejecting it.
7. This question should (to settle) long ago.
8. You should (to devote) much time to your studies. They are very important.
9. This sofa should (to take) away from here. It’s too large for this room.
10. This work should (to praise). It’s valuable.
11. The question should (to settle) without delay.

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12. Where should people (to cross) the street?
13. You should (to spend) more time out-of-doors. You’ve already lost much
time.
14. Where should she (to go) if she wants to have her hair cut?
15. She should (to tell) about her letter. We wouldn’t have called her.

Exercise 5. Express certainty (something which can be naturally or logically


expected)
1. The weather will be good tomorrow.
2. He will be here by 9 o’clock.
3. The climate is very good here.
4. The sweater will look nice with your new jacket.
5. She will be very glad to see you.
6. The nights are cold there in the mountains.
7. The exhibition of young painters will be very interesting.
8. The soil is very rich here.
9. Her pronunciation is very good, she spends much time in the phonetic lab.
10. My friend speaks English so well, she has spent two years in Cambridge.
11. He will cope with his exam, he has been working so hard.
12. She is so pretty taking after her mother.
13. There will be a change of weather. The barometer is falling.
14. The concert of this singer promises to be something incredible.
15. We are going to have an unforgetful holiday this summer.

Exercise 6. Write sentences about three things that you should have done last
week, but didn’t, and three things that you shouldn’t have done but did.

Exercise 7. Choose the right answer:


1. Students … take their exams twice a year.
a) should;
b) ought to;
2.It’s too late, that’s why you … leave.
a) should;
b) ought to;

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3. This is an old man, so you … more polite.
a) should;
b) ought to;
4.Your friend is in hospital, so you … visit her.
a) should;
b) ought to;
5.Children … obey their parents.
a) should;
b) ought to;
6.No one … tell lies.
a) should;
b) ought to.
7.You have your exam on Wednesday. You should … the material thoroughly.
a) study;
b) have studied;
8.You are running the temperature. You should … the doctor.
a) consult;
b) have consulted;
9.We had no bread left. You should … to the baker’s.
a) go;
b) have gone;
10.You should … the instructions of your coach. You wouldn’t have lost the game.
a) follow;
b) have followed;
11.I should … this composition yesterday, but I was too busy.
a) write;
b) have written;
12.You should … our team play! You have missed a lot.
a) see;
b) have seen;
13.You shouldn’t … there long as it’s already late.
a) stay;
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b) have stayed;
14.You shouldn’t … English, she understood everything.
a) speak;
b) have spoken;
15.We’ve lost our way, we should … to the right.
a) turn;
b) have turned;
16.We should … that it was so grave.
a) guess;
b) have guessed;
17.You have poor results, you should … much more.
a) work;
b) have worked;
18.We oughtn’t to … so rude. It was impolite.
a) answer;
b) have answered;
19.You oughtn’t to … to help her. She is younger and weaker.
a) refuse;
b) have refused;
20.You should … this book last year.
a) read;
b) have read;
Exercise 8. Translate the following sentences:
1. Вы должны выключать свет, уходя из комнаты, если хотите сэкономить.
2. Люди должны спать минимум 8 часов в сутки.
3. Вы должны предупреждать свое начальство, что вы не выйдите на работу
п той или иной причине.
4. Вы должны проходить медицинское обследование раз в полгода.
5. Люди должны заботиться о природе, сохраняя все ее богатство.
6. Вы должны уважать своих родителей, ваше поведение недопустимо.
7. В каждой семье все должны поддерживать друг друга.
8. Тебе нежелательно так много курить. Надо беречь здоровье.
9. Не надо покупать фрукты здесь, за углом они гораздо дешевле.
10.Зря мы не поехали на том автобусе, он был последним.

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11.Зря ты не принял лекарство вчера перед сном, сейчас ты бы чувствовал себя
намного лучше.
12.Он скоро должен приехать, он же обещал.
13.Вы должны быть хорошей актрисой. Ваши спектакли всегда аншлаговые.
14.С какой стати я должна верить этим слухам?
15.Вам не следовало покупать машину 2 месяца назад. Сейчас она намного
дешевле.
Exercise 9. Fill in the blanks with the modal verbs: can, must, should, ought to,
have to.
A school report.
Father: Your school report says: “Latin: He ____ do better work than he does.”
Son: I do best I ___. He ____ not expect more.
Father: Your arithmetic: “He ___ to be higher in the class, but he is careless.”
Son: The teacher ___ not to set so much homework.
Father: French: “He really ___ be more attentive.”
Son: Yes, I ____ get promoted in French, so as to get away from Mr. Brown.
Father: My son, you ___ to work a great deal harder next term.
Son: ___ I really to learn French
Father: Yes, you ___. You simply ___ to pass your exams.
Son: I think that French people ___ to learn English than we ___ to learn French.
Exercise 10. Use as many modal verbs as possible in the following story:
Balzac as a Handwriting expert.
Balzac, the famous French writer, was a man of great talent. But he himself was
proud of his ability to tell a person’s character by his or her handwriting. He often
told his friend that he could tell anybody’s character exactly by his handwriting.
One day a woman friend brought him a young boy’s exercise book. She said that she
wanted to know what Balzac thought of the boy’s character.
Balzac studied the handwriting carefully for a few minutes. The woman, however,
told him that the boy was not her son and he might tell her the truth.
“All right,” said Balzac. “I shall tell you the truth.” And he said that the boy was a
bad, lazy fellow.
“it’s very strange,” said the woman smiling. “This is a page from your own exercise
book, which you used when you were a boy.”
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The Final Test 2
Have to, be to, need, should, ought to
Task 1. Paraphrase orally and choose the right variant.
1. I was obliged to take part in the discussion.
a) had to;
b) must;
c) should;
2. Will it be necessary for him to explain the matter to his parents?
a) must;
b) will … have to;
c) is to;
3. Is it necessary for him to work hard to catch up with the group?
a) should;
b) must;
c) does … have to;
4. We were forced to postpone our private conversation again.
a) had to;
b) were to;
c) must;
5. If you don’t do this work on time, I’ll be obliged to punish you.
a) have to;
b) be able;
c) must;
6. It’s rained a lot, so it wasn’t necessary for us to water the garden.
a) must not;
b) didn’t have to;
c) shouldn’t;
7. You are not obliged to knock before you come into my room.
a) don’t have to;
b) must not;
c) are not;
8. The gate was open so it wasn’t necessary for us to wait outside.
a) must not;

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b) didn’t have to;
c) weren’t to;
9. It’s free, you are not obliged to pay.
a) don’t have to;
b) must not;
c) aren’t to;
10. It’s Sunday tomorrow and you’ll not be obliged to get up early.
a) must not;
b) will not have to;
c) shouldn’t;

Task 2. Choose the right verb:


11. I … to see him tomorrow.
a) have to;
b) must;
c) am;
12.What … I to do now?
a) am;
b) must;
c) will;
13. You … not to communicate with anybody.
a) must;
b) are;
c) should;
14. She said that I … to leave the house.
a) was;
b) must;
c) should;
15. When … the conference to be held?
a) must;
b) has;
c) is;
16. He was … at the meeting, but he fell ill.
a) to have spoken;

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b) must have spoken;
c) to speak;
17. She was .. by the 7 o’clock train, but she didn’t come.
a) to have come;
b) to come;
c) to coming;
18. Her husband .. her at the airport at 2 o’clock.
a) was to met;
b) was to have met;
c) was to meet;
19. He … his report at the conference. It was arranged so.
a) was to make;
b) were;
c) could;
20. We … our work by Monday.
a) were to finish;
b) were to have finished;
c) must finish

Task 3. Choose the proper modal verb:


21.– Must we really tell her about this news?
– No, you … . I’m sure she knows about it.
a) mustn’t;
b) haven’t;
c) needn’t;
22.– Must I do this exercise in writing?
– No, you …
a) needn’t;
b) mustn’t;
c) haven’t;
23. – Must she buy so many vegetables?
– No, she…
a) mustn’t;
b) needn’t;

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c) haven’t;
24. You … , it was dangerous.
a) needn’t have gone;
b) needn’t go;
c) must not go;
25. You … everything yourself. We would have been glad to help you.
a) didn’t need to do;
b) needn’t have done;
c) didn’t have to do;
26. I … to him because the news was already known to him.
a) needn’t have written;
b) needn’t write;
c) didn’t need to write;
27. You …such a lot of flowers. We’ve already got more than necessary.
a) didn’t need to buy;
b) needn’t buy;
c) needn’t have bought;
28. I … them at all, they themselves knew what to do.
a) needn’t have helped;
b) needn’t help;
c) didn’t need to help;
29. She … the flowers, as it is going to rain.
a) needn’t water;
b) didn’t need to water;
c) needn’t have watered;
30. I …this film, it was a waste of time.
a) needn’t have seen;
b) didn’t need to see;
c) needn’t see.

Task 4. Choose “should” or “ought to”


31. Students … take their exams twice a year.
a) should;
b) ought to;

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32. It’s too late, that’s why you … leave.
a) should;
b) ought to;
33. This is an old man, so you … more polite.
a) should;
b) ought to;
34. Your friend is in hospital, so you … visit her.
a) should;
b) ought to;
35. Children … obey their parents.
a) should;
b) ought to;
36. No one … tell lies.
a) should;
b) ought to.

Task 5. Choose the right Infinitive


37. You have your exam on Wednesday. You should … the material thoroughly.
a) study;
b) have studied;
38. You are running the temperature. You should … the doctor.
a) consult;
b) have consulted;
39. We had no bread left. You should … to the baker’s.
a) go;
b) have gone;
40. You should … the instructions of your coach. You wouldn’t have lost the game.
a) follow;
b) have followed;
41. I should … this composition yesterday, but I was too busy.
a) write;
b) have written;

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42. You should … our team play! You have missed a lot.
a) see;
b) have seen;
43. You shouldn’t … there long as it’s already late.
a) stay;
b) have stayed;
44. You shouldn’t … English, she understood everything.
a) speak;
b) have spoken;
45. We’ve lost our way, we should … to the right.
a) turn;
b) have turned;
46. We should … that it was so grave.
a) guess;
b) have guessed;
47. You have poor results, you should … much more.
a) work;
b) have worked;
48. We oughtn’t to … so rude. It was impolite.
a) answer;
b) have answered;
49. You oughtn’t to … to help her. She is younger and weaker.
a) refuse;
b) have refused;
50. You should … this book last year.
a) read;
b) have read.

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Module 3
Modal verb “Will”
«Will» is hardly a pure modal verb as it generally combines the modal meaning with
the function of an auxiliary expressing futurity. As a modal verb it has the following
meanings:
1) Volition or willingness.
In Russian it corresponds to: хотеть, желать.
It is used with all persons but mostly with the first person.
• I will give you one more chance.
Хочу дать вам еще один шанс.
• There are a lot of advisers here who will help and guide you.
Здесь полно советчиков, которые хотят помочь и поруководить вами.

MIND!!! Very often «will» is used after the conjunction «if» in conditional sentences
where it retains its modal meaning of volition.
• You may laugh if you will but I was sure I should see her there.
Можете смеяться, если хотите, но я был уверен, что встречу её там.
• I'll be grateful if you will help me.
Я буду благодарен, если ты захочешь мне помочь.

2) Refusal (negative willingness)


In Russian it is translared as: не хотеть, не желать.
• She won't open the door.
Она не хочет открывать дверь.
• -Help me out, please!
-No, I won't.
- Помоги мне на улице! Выручи
- Не хочу.
3) Persistence or typical behaviour (referring to the present or to the future)
• She will just sit watching TV for hours.
Она часами сидит и смотрит TV.
• Her children will break everything they touch.
Её дети бьют всё, к чему прикасаются.

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00
MIND!!! Stressed «will» can be used to criticise people's typical behaviour.
•She 'will fall in love with the wrong people.
Она всегда влюбляется в кого не надо

4) Request, offer (in question)


• Will you send me the bill, please!
Пришлите счет, пожалуйста!
• Will you have some more potatoes?
Еще картошечки?
5) A firm intention (the speaker is definite about the fulfillment)
• I really will stop smoking.
Я точно брошу курить.
• I will definitely pay you back next week.
Я обязательно верну тебе деньги на следующей неделе.
6) Possibility (=can)
• This car will hold five people comfortably.
Эта машина легко вместит 5 человек.
7) Impossibility.
It is used (in negative sentences) if speaking about lifeless things when the speaker
is annoyed at something and speaks about a thing or a phenomenon of nature as if it
possessed a will of its own (there is an element of personification here)
• It's no use trying to open the door, it will not open.
Нечего стараться открыть эту дверь, она все равно не открывается.
• The car won't start.
Машина никак не заводится.
8) Certainty as logical deduction (the speaker expresses his personal attitude towards
present or future events.
Such phrases are usually used here:
✓ I think, suggest…
✓ It seems to me…
✓ I'm sure, I'm not sure…
✓ I doubt, I'm hesitating..
✓ I guess…
• There will be just what she wants.
Это, очевидно, то, чего она хочет.
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• This will be our train.
Это, наверняка, наш поезд.
• I really doubt he will come up with completing this task.
Я очень сомневаюсь, что он выполнит это задание.

1. Volition, willingness: 5. A firm intention:


a) I will work harder. Wait for me, I’ll go with you.
b) We will talk to him if he will
apologize.

2. Refusal (negative willingness): 6. Possibility:


She won’t speak to you. This hall will hold about
a hundred spectators.

Will
3. Persistence (typical 7. Impossibility:
behaviour): I took pains but the lock
She will be late as usual. won’t open.

4. Request, offer: 8. Certainty (logical deduction):


a) Will you call me tonight? I’m sure he will be his relative.
b) Will you have tea or coffee?

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EXERCISES
Will
Exercise 1. State the meaning of the verb “will”. Translate the sentences.
1. I won’t hear of “it’s raining” on your birthday.
2. I will have no one in my house about whom there is any scandal.
3. She won’t speak without the cash anyway, you bet.
4. I’ve already told you that I will not be called Mrs. B. It’s not dignified.
5. Madame! The bargain of a thousand pounds and I will place the letters in your
hands.
6. I can’t do a thing with him. He will smoke again and again.
7. Often, after dinner, he will settle down in an armchair to read the paper.
8. Will you come round tomorrow?
9. Come this way, will you?
10.I will work harder.
11.Wait for me, please I will go too.
12.We’ll buy the tickets if you will make supper after the show.
13.If there are two good TV shows, they will both be on at the same time.
14.The toilet in this room won’t stop running.
15.I know there is a theory that a book, if it is any good, will always find a publisher.
Exercise 2. Match the beginnings the ends together.
Model: I will drive if you will map-read.
I’ll forgive you you will pay her.
I’ll be grateful to you you will dry.
She will do you a favor she will explain what happened.
I’ll wash up you will help me.
We’ll talk to him you will not keep them busy.
You may leave you will but I’m against it.
The children will be naughty you will let me.
I am going to give you a big surprise you will meet me.
She will spend Christmas at home will apologize.
We could go for lunch together you will join her.

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Exercise 3. Fill in “will” + one of the given verbs.
1. … with us? – No, thank you, I must leave.
2. I … certainly … you tomorrow.
3. I … there after classes.
4. He’s no trouble. He … by himself for hours.
5. She’s nice, but she … about people behind their backs.
6. People … to you if you don’t lose your temper.
7. Your child … in front of the TV set for hours.
8. Give me your pen, please. Mine …
9. … us and go to admire the sea?
10. They … each time when the pond freezes.
11. He … one thing one minute and the opposite the next.
12. I … to my friends.
13. … you … me the salt please?
14. Each time when I tell him this funny story, he … with laughter.
15. I … not … what you ask me. I … not.
Verbs to choose: return, listen, do, dine, skate, sit, talk, call on, pass, go, play, write,
roar, join, tell.
Exercise 4. Express a request or offer using the suggested expressions.
1. To deliver the furniture;
2. To get the tickets;
3. To pass the bread;
4. To have another helping of salad;
5. To take one’s temperature;
6. To be quiet;
7. To have some more ice-cream;
8. To fetch the sugar from the kitchen;
9. To try on another suit;
10. To go to the chemist’s.
Exercise 5. Finish the sentences using the verb “will” in the meaning of
certainty. (logical deduction)
1. If anything goes wrong, …
2. If you don’t pronounce the words distinctly …
3. No matter how much you do, …
4. The one who snores …
5. If you don’t like rainy weather, …
6. If you don’t work hard …
7. Be careful crossing the street, otherwise …
8. Why not go and beg your pardon? She …
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9. If she doesn’t quit eating cakes, …
10. I seem to know this man. He …
11. If he is ill and must stay in bed, I will …
12. He is so stubborn, I’m sure he …
13. If you have known a person for a long time, …
14. When the weather changes for the better …
15. I don’t doubt, she …
Exercise 6. Make up short dialogues with the following statements.
1. No, I will never do that again.
2. I’m sorry that I was rude, but I couldn’t help and I will try to keep my temper.
3. I won’t let you assume any airs of superiority over me.
4. No, the knife won’t cut.
5. Yes, I will always come here on fine summer days.
6. Will you get me a glass of water?
7. I will never allow him to go there.
8. I will not do what you ask me. I will not.
9. I will help you if you will.
10. Will you have another cup of coffee?
Exercise 7. Choose the right variant
1. Can anybody help me? – I will.
a) Может кто-нибудь мне помочь? – Охотно.
b) Может кто-нибудь мне помочь? –Я могу.
2. Do give my love to Kate. – Surely I will.
a) Обязательно передай привет Кате. – С удовольствием.
b) Обязательно передай привет Кате. – Конечно, передам.
3. I will take care of the children.
a) Я с удовольствием позабочусь о детях.
b) Я обязательно позабочусь о детях.
4. I will make your excuses to her.
a) Я извинюсь за тебя перед ней.
b) Я готов извиниться за тебя перед ней.
5. I will not come each time you call me.
a) Я не приду, когда ты позовешь меня.
b) Я не хочу приходить каждый раз, когда ты меня позовешь.
6. I don’t know what to do with him, he will not obey me.

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a) Не знаю, что с ним делать, он не хочет меня слушаться.
b) Не знаю, что с ним делать, он не будет меня слушаться.
7. I tell her to learn more by heart, but she won’t.
a) Я говорю ей больше учить наизусть, но она не будет.
b) Я говорю ей больше учить наизусть, но она отказывается.
8. He won’t follow the doctor’s instructions.
a) Он не желает выполнять предписания врача.
b) Он не последует рекомендациям врача.
9. Can I have another pen? This won’t write.
a) Можно мне другую ручку. Эта не будет писать.
b) Можно мне другую ручку. Эта никак не пишет.
10. Children! Have you been playing with my umbrella? It won’t open.
a) Дети! Вы играли с моим зонтиком? Он никак не открывается.
b) Дети! Вы играли с моим зонтиком? Он не откроется.
11. I will let you know, so you can be there.
a) offer;
b) volition;
c) persistence;
12. I will go to the theatre if you will.
a) willingness;
b) offer;
c) possibility;
13. She’ll sit talking to herself for hours.
a) volition;
b) possibility;
c) persistence;
14. She will fall in love with the wrong people.
a) persistence;
b) willingness;
c) offer;
15. Will you have some more ice-cream?
a) possibility;
b) offer;
c) volition;

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16. I try but the pen won’t write.
a) impossibility;
b) persistence;
c) refusal;
17. He won’t eat anything for breakfast.
a) impossibility;
b) persistence;
c) refusal;
18. Come this way, will you?
a) offer;
b) request;
c) volition;
19. Help me out, please! – No, I won’t.
a) willingness;
b) persistence;
c) refusal;
20. There are advisers here who will help and guide you.
a) willingness;
b) persistence;
c) offer.
Exercise 8. Translate the following sentences into English:
1. Вы пообедаете с нами? – Нет, спасибо. Мне надо идти.
2. Он никогда не нарушает данных обещаний.
3. Он не желает прислушиваться к советам врача.
4. Если мы застрянем в автомобильной пробке, оставлю машину на улице и
поеду на метро.
5. Он никогда не соглашается со мной. Он такой.
6. Ты обещал помочь мне с моим игрушечным поездом. Он не работает.
7. Ну что мне делать с детьми? Они просто не желают меня слушаться.
8. Я хочу вернуться к своим друзьям. У нас много общего.
9. Я собираюсь поработать в саду. Ты мне поможешь?
10.Ну, пожалуйста, расскажите мне, что случись.
11.Я думаю, что я пойду и посмотрю телевизор, если вы извините меня.
12.После работы он обычно встречает ее на остановке.
13.Кто-то поднимается по лестнице. Да это же, Катя.
14.Он, как всегда, придумывает невероятные истории.
15.Что-то случилось с машиной? – Не знаю, но только она никак не заводится.

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Exercise 9. Fill in the gaps with the modal verbs. Translate the dialogue into
Russian. “A Pointless Argument”
Harry: Were you able to write that letter yesterday, Nora
Nora: Which letter do you mean
Harry: The one to the headmaster of Pete’s school, saying we want to take him away
on holiday a week before the end of the term.
Hora: Oh, no! I must write it tonight.
Harry: You ought to have written it yesterday, you know. We may have left it too
late.
Nora: But I thought you said I needn’t. Besides, don’t you think you’d better write
it, as Pete’s father
Harry: I’d rather not. You can write that kind of letter much better than I can, you
always could.
Nora: But, Harry, you could have spoken to the headmaster when you met him last
week. Then we needn’t have worried about writing that letter.
Harry: Yes, I know. And you could have written the letter yesterday as you had
promised you would.
Exercise 10. Use as many modal verbs as possible in the following story:
A Philosopher
Once a philosopher travelled down a river in a small boat. While he was crossing
the river he asked the boatman: Have you ever heard about Philosophy” “No,” - said
the boatman. “I have never heard about it. What is it” – “ I am sorry for you, indeed,”
replied the learned man, - “you have lost a quarter of your life as it’s a very
interesting science!” Several minutes later the Philosopher asked the boatman
another question: “did you hear about Astronomy, when you were at school” – “No,
I left the school many years ago and I have forgotten all about it”, was the answer.
To this the Philosopher answered that he was really sorry for the man, and he thought
that the boatman had lost a second quarter of his life.
Some minutes passed and the passenger again wondered if the man had ever heard
about Algebra. And the man had to admit that he had never known about it. “In that
case you certainly have lost a third quarter pf your life!”, said the scientist.
At that very moment the boat struck on a big stone. The boatman jumped and cried:
“have you ever learnt to swim” – “No,” was the answer. The boatman explained
sadly to philosopher that he was sure that he had lost his whole life as the boat was
sinking.

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Modal verb “Would”
This modal verb followed by the indefinite infinitive was originally the past tense of
«will», but it has acquired new shades of meaning. First let's consider the same (with
«will») meanings:
1. Volition or willingness in the past.
This willingness is of a general kind but not that of a particular past occasion.
• She would dust, iron, wash up but she didn't like doing windows.
Она с удовольствием вытирала пыль, гладила, мыла посуду, но не
любила мыть окна
• She would help you eagerly.
Она охотно помогaла вам.
But: She agreed to come and see me
2. Refusal (negative willingness) in the past.
Here «would not» can denote a refusal on a particular past occasion.
• I asked him very politely, but he wouldn't tell me.
Я попросил его очень вежливо, но он отказался рассказывать мне.
3. Persistence or typical behaviour.
• Sometimes he would bring me little presents without saying why.
Иногда он приносил мне маленькие подарочки, но не говорил,
почему.

Mind! If we talk about regular, important, habitual, customary behaviour then


«used to», not «would» is used.
• He used to play a lot of football.
Он, бывало, много играл в футбол.
• I used to smoke.
Я всегда курил
Stressed «would» can also be used to criticize a single past action.
• He would tell Mary about the party. -I didn't want to invite her.
Он, как всегда, рассказал Мэри о вечеринке. -Я не хотела её
приглашать.
4. Request, offer, invitation.
Here «would» is a softer form of will.
• Would you, please, show to me where the entrance here is?
Не могли бы вы показать мне, где здесь вход?

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• Would you like tea or would you prefer coffee?
Вам чаю или вы хотели бы кофе?
5. Impossibility to fulfill an action (about lifeless things)
• He tried hard, but the doors wouldn't open.
Он очень старался, но двери никак не открывались.
And 3 more meanings belonging only to would:
6. Advice.
• If I were you, I would call him immediately.
На твоем я бы немедленно ему позвонила.
7. Preference.
1) Referring to the present or future:
• I would rather (I'd rather) watch a movie tonight than learn English
grammar.
Я бы лучше посмотрела фильм сегодня вечером, чем учила
английскую грамматику.
• I'd rather be riding my bike than doing my homework.
Я бы сейчас лучше покатался на велосипеде, чем делал уроки.

Mind! After «would rather» the infinitive is used without the particle «to».

2) Referring to the past.


• Yesterday we went to the concert and it was O.K., but we'd rather have
gone to see our friends, we haven't seen them for ages.
Вчера мы ходили на концерт, и он был хорош, но все же было бы
лучше, если бы мы навестили друзей, мы не виделись целую вечность
• What would you have rather done yesterday?
Чему бы ты отдал предпочтение вчера?
So, to express preference in the past perfect infinitive is used without the particle
«to».
8. Emotional colouring.
In Russian it sounds as: и с чего это, с какой стати.
• Why would he tell me these words. I didn't deserve such a treatment!
И с чего бы он сказал мне такие слова. Я этого не заслужил!
• Why would he be so cruel towards you!
Как он мог быть так жесток по отношению к тебе!

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1. Volition, willingness in the past: 5. Impossibility:
She would help everybody He tried hard but the box wouldn’t
eagerly. open.

6. Advice:
2. Refusal (negative
willingness) in the past: If I were you, I would come
earlier.
He wouldn’t tell the truth.

Would
3. Persistence (typical
behavior) in the past: 7. Preference:

a) Sometimes he would a) I’d rather speak to her.


complaint of his wife. b) I’d rather have gone to
b) If I asked him, he would the concert.
spoil everything.

8. Emotional colouring:
4. Request, offer:
Why should he have
a) Would you help me such a present!
b) Would you have another
helping

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EXERCISES
Would
Exercise 1. State the meaning of the modal verb “would” in each sentence.
Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. Old Lady Bland argued with him, but he would not listen to the reason.
2. Each time we went out together he would show to me something new, something
interesting.
3. He had a wound that wouldn’t heal.
4. When he returned I repeated my offer of food, but he would take nothing.
5. He would smoke a pipe before going to bed.
6. He talked about his new car the whole evening. He would.
– Why don’t you want to stay another week in the country?
7. It would do you only good.
8. I have to come into town today and I was wondering if you would be able to meet
me for lunch.
9. We had an old car that wouldn’t start on cold morning unless we got out and
pushed it.
10.On Sundays when we were kids, mother would make pancakes for breakfast.
11.She was the sort of a girl any man might be glad to bring to a dance if she would
come.
12.Would you tell me how I can get to the university, please?
13.Would you like some milk shake or would you prefer the ice-cream?
14.I’d rather not deprive him of such pleasure.
15.I’d rather not have told him everything I told him yesterday.
Exercise 2. Make up sentences and translate them into Russian.
sit you about it if you forget
remind him fish and not try to fish herself
I find a bit of gardening
You get our life again
He would watch of staying to dinner
She do her that very evening
We would rather arrange another dentist for you in the future
They begin there with pleasure
not hear for hours on the shore and look at the sea
meet this book, cost what it may.

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Exercise 3. Make a statement about somebody refusing to act in in the past.
1. Mother - to stop worrying about Dad’s health.
2. He – to see a doctor about that pain.
3. She – to listen to the reason.
4. She – to hear of it.
5. She – to speak to him.
6. I – to forget about the incident.
7. The doctor – to allow him to play football.
8. The children – to go to bed.
9. The child – to drink hot milk.
10. She – to consult the dentist.
11. He – to give up smoking.
12. He – to go for bread.
13. The children – to stop playing football.
14. She – to dress up warmer.
15. She – to help mother about the house.

Exercise 4. Make up sentences with the verb “would” in the meaning of the
impossibility of the action.
1. The dress- to fit.
2. The pen – to write.
3. The words – to make sense.
4. The figures – to add.
5. The stain – to go out.
6. Her hair – to stay in place.
7. The folding chair – to fold.
8. The milk – to boil.
9. The rain – to stop.
10. The door – to open.
11. The car – to start.
12. The light – to switch on.
13. The wind – to stop blowing.
14. The suitcase – to close.
15. The kettle – to boil.

Exercise 5. Make up sentences with the verb “would” in the meaning of


persistence.
1. She – to wear her clothes like that.
2. He – to interfere in everybody’s affairs.
3. He – to stay late at the office.

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4. She – to waste money left and right.
5. He – to smoke cigarette after cigarette.
6. She – to drink a lot of too strong coffee.
7. He – to spend day after day lying on the sofa.
8. She – to object to everything.
9. They – to come again and again in spite of the difficulties.
10. He – to take great pains even when unnecessary.
11. She – to offer help again and again.
12. She – to do a lot of gardening.

Exercise 6. Say the following sentences in a more polite way.


1. Tell me the time, please!
2. Give me another cup of tea, please!
3. Pass round the sandwiches, please!
4. Stay with us over the weekend.
5. Paint the roof of the shed, please!
6. Hold this shelf steady, please!
7. Show our seats, please!
8. Keep an eye on my child, please.
9. Have another helping, please!
10. Exchange your opinions about the play, please!

Exercise 7. Finish the sentences:


1. I’d rather speak at the seminar than …
2. I’d rather tell her the truth than …
3. I’d rather be watching the film than …
4. I’d rather be walking about the town now than …
5. I’d rather buy my own house than …
6. I’d rather not have missed the classes than …
7. Yesterday we went to the zoo, but we’d rather have gone to park as …
8. I’d rather have gone to see my friend than …
9. I wish he’d rather not have left without my permission as …
10. I’d rather go on foot than …

Exercise 8. Insert the proper verb


1. He said he (охотно) do it for me.
a) would;
b) will;
c) should;

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2. I said I (с удовольствием) go to the museum too.
a) will;
b) would;
c) must;
3. She (постоянно) complain of his bad manners when they met.
a) would;
b) will;
c) should;
4. We lived by a lake and sometimes Dad… take us fishing.
a) will;
b) would;
c) had to;
5. On Sundays when we were kids, mother … make tasty pancakes for breakfast.
a) would;
b) should;
c) had to;
6. I … stay longer if they asked me to.
a) must;
b) would;
c) should;
7. My car … not start yesterday.
a) would;
b) should;
c) will;
8. … like some tea or coffee?
a) should;
b) would;
c) could;
9. She had a lot of money, but she … not lend us any.
a) would;
b) should;
c) must;
10. If I were you, I … buy this hat, I like the colour very much.
a) would;
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b) will;
c) should.
11. Он как всегда оставался в офисе допоздна.
a) will;
b) would;
c) had to;
12. Когда то я писал домой каждую неделю.
a) would;
b) should;
c) need;
13. Он, бывало, старался все сделать хорошо.
a) will;
b) would;
c) could;
14. Дождь никак не переставал.
a) shouldn`t;
b) won`t;
c) wouldn’t;
15. Заполните, пожалуйста, эту анкету.
a) would;
b) shall;
c) should;
16. Он все время мешал нам разговаривать.
a) had to;
b) should;
c) would;
17. Она никак не хотела говорить правду.
a) wouldn`t;
b) couldn`t;
c) won`t;
18. Не будете ли вы любезны немного подождать?
a) should;
b) would;
c) will;

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19. Дверь не открывалась поэтому они и начали беспокоиться.
a) wouldn`t;
b) couldn`t;
c) shouldn`t;
20. Старик, бывало, водил внуков в зоопарк.
a) will;
b) would;
c) should;

Exercise 9. Translate into English.


1. Ключ поворачивался, но дверь не открывалась.
2. Я скорее поеду поездом, чем полечу самолетом.
3. Не хотите ли вы поправить его?
4. Я сказал, что я помогу ему с удовольствием.
5. Он старался убедить меня, но и слушать его не хотел.
6. По вечерам она, бывало, часами гуляла по побережью.
7. Они, бывало, ходили на станцию пешком, когда погода была хорошая.
8. По воскресеньям она обычно садилась за пианино и пела нам.
9. Я скорее возьму носильщика, чем понесу багаж сама.
10.Не могли бы уточнить место и время нашей встречи?
11.Вчера было очень жарко, и я бы предпочла позагорать на пляж, чем сидеть
в душном офисе.
12.Всякий раз, когда ей удавалось скопить немного денег, она ездила в тур за
границу.
13.И с чего это она отказала мне, ведь она никогда и ни в чем мне не
отказывала.
14.Не желаете ли присоединиться к нам на эти выходные?
15.Мне совсем не хотелось идти с ними на эту скучную вечеринку.
16.Он попытался объясниться, но я и слушать не стал.
17.Он несколько раз чиркнул зажигалкой, но она все равно не сработала.
18.Вечера он, по большей части, проводил за игрой в шахматы.
19.Я хотел посмотреть выставку, но меня не впустили так как было уже
поздно.
20.Он чaсто засыпал с книжкой в руках и с очками на носу.

Exercise 10. Use either “would” or “used to”.


Mind! “would” refers only to actions. “used to” – to both, states and actions. “used
to” denotes past habits which are now finished.
1. Он, бывало, очень старался побеждать в соревнованиях.
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2. Раньше я много курил, но теперь бросил совсем.
3. Когда она стала старенькой, она обычно сидела в уголочке и часами
разговаривала сама с собой.
4. Когда я очень любила делать зарядку по утрам.
5. Раньше моя подруга была очень худой.
6. Он был очень хорошим мальчиком, но о себе говорил без перерыва.
7. Когда-то у меня был роскошный мерседес.
8. Раньше мы бы были близкими друзьями.
9. Как только речка замерзла, мы всегда ходили кататься на коньках.
10. Раньше она никогда не опаздывала, но сейчас ее всегда ждут.
11. Она все время совала свой нос в чужие дела.
12. Она постоянно была недовольна всем, что происходило вокруг.
13. Раньше он всегда бегал трусцой по утрам, но теперь он разленился и не
хочет заниматься здоровьем.
14. Когда-т мы много путешествовали, но теперь это слишком дорогое
удовольствие.
15. Раньше она писала много писем своим родным.

Exercise 11. Use as many modal verbs as possible in the story “The Unfortunate
Tandem”
The Unfortunate Tandem
It happened while Mr. Harris and his wife sitting on the tandem behind him were
cycling through Holland. The roads were stony and the bicycle often jumped. “Sit
tight,” said Harris to his wife, without turning his head, but Mrs. Harris thought he
had said “Jump down!”. Why had she thought he had said “Jump down”, neither of
them could explain later. Mrs. Harris jumped down while Harris went on thinking
that she was still sitting behind him. At first she thought he wanted simply to show
his skill and would return when he reached the hill. But when he passed the hill and
disappeared in the wood she begin to cry, as she had no money, and she did not know
Dutch. People thought she had lost something so they took her to the police station.
Meanwhile, Harris was cycling with great pleasure. But soon he began to feel that
something had gone wrong. He looked back, but saw nobody there. While he was
thinking how to find his wife he met some people who advised him to go to the
police. There he was asked when, where and why he had lost his wife and was
promised help. Their meeting was not a tender one, as Mrs. Harris said she had never
been so furious in her life.

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Modal verb “Shall”
«Shall» is not a purely modal verb as it combines its modal meaning with the
function of an auxiliary expressing futurity.
«Shall» has the following modal meanings:
1. Compulsion (in contracts or other legal documents) .
In Russian it is translated as: должен, обязан.
Shall in this meaning is often used with third-person subjects to refer to obligations
and duties.
• The hirer shall be responsible for maintenance of the vehicle.
Арендатор должен отвечать за сохранность автомобиля
• The plaintiff shall submit the application to the court.
Истец обязан подать заявление в суд.
2. Threat or warning.
Shall is used in the second and third persons. Here «shall» is not translated into
Russian, its meaning is rendered by imphatic intonation.
• That's the last time! she cried.
You shall never see me again.
Это конец! -закричала она.
Вы никогда меня больше не увидите.
• You shall be taught a lesson for your insolence!
Тебя проучат за твою наглость.
• He shall be punished for sure.
Его обязательнo накажут.
3. Promise.
Shall is also used with the second and third persons and with a weak stress.
• I shall make you happy, see if I don't. You shall do what you like, spend
what you like.
Я сделаю вас счастливой, вот увидите. Вы будете делать, что хотите,
тратить, сколько хотите.
• We shall fight to the last man!
Мы будем сражаться до последнего!
4.Suggestion, offer, asking for instructions.
«Shall» is used in interrogative sentences in the first and third persons
• Shall I shut the door?
(Do you want me to shut the door?)
Закрыть дверь?
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• Shall he go there?
(Do you want him to go there?)
Идти ему туда?
• Shall I make some sandwiches for you?
Мне сделать тебе бутерброды?

1. Compulsion
(in contracts or other legal
documents): 3. Promise:

In case of divorce, the spouses You shall have a new computer


shall share their possessions. game.

Shall

2. Threat or warning: 4. Suggestion, offer, asking for


a) You shall be punished for instructions:
your behavior. a) Shall I bring you a cup of tea
b) you shall never see me b) Shall we go fishing
again.
c) What shall I buy

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EXERCISES
Shall
Exercise 1. State the meaning of the verb “shall” and translate the sentences
into Russian.
1. The company’s president shall be re-elected every four years.
2. One of the Biblical commandments says: You shall not kill.
3. The tape shall not be exposed to the direct sunlight.
4. Samples shall not be cooled to less than minus 20 degrees Celsius.
5. That’s it! No more drink shall be drunk tonight.
6. You shan’t enter this room!
7. You shall regret of this neglect of your duty.
8. You shall go nowhere until you have done your homework.
9. The police shall take you up.
10.You shall go up and down and round the town in a taxi every day.
11.You shall have all the news I can send you.
12.You shall have an apple after dinner.
13.Shall I be the first to call him?
14.The situation is going out of control. Shall I call the police?
15.Do you think I shall be wearing these golden earrings with the chain?
Exercise 2. Paraphrase the following sentences using the verb “shall” to
express threat or warning.
1. I warn you that you will get into trouble if you don’t do this task.
2. He is very frightened. They threaten him and tell that they will find him.
3. I tell that I’ll punish you if you behave in such a way.
4. I’m a policeman and I have the right to fine you if you break the law.
5. Why not be more serious. You can have problems.
6. I tell that if you don’t hurry up, you are sure to be late.
7. You are so careless. Somebody will wind you round your little finger.
8. You miss so many classes. They can easily expel you.
9. The weather is getting worse and worse, you can get a cold.
10.I tell that if you don’t read for the exam, you may fail it.
11.I warn you that it is very serious. You should consult the doctor, otherwise, you
can have complications.
12.I tell that this news may frighten her.
13.Don’t forget that there will be very many people there and you may miss the train.
14.I warn you that you are sure to be very unhappy if you merry him.
15.I tell if you invite him to dinner I will not come for the world.

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Exercise 3. Respond to the following sentences with a promise.
Model: - I’ve lost my pen.
- Don’t worry. You shall get a new one.
1. I’ve lost my watch.
2. I’ve torn my shirt.
3. I’ve broken my favourite vase.
4. The flowers withered.
5. I have never been to Moscow.
6. I am sorry for not attending the gallery.
7. I am afraid, I’ll never see them again.
8. I’m so disappointed at this news.
9. I feel so bad. I doubt that I’ll get better soon.
10.Oh! I’m so nervous, I can miss the train.
11.Our friends are coming to dinner and I haven’t finished cooking.
12.We haven’t seen each other for ages. I’m afraid not to recognize him.
13.I’ve missed the film but I wanted to see it so much.
14.It’s getting colder and I didn’t take warm clothes.
15.I am to prepare a report but I don’t know what to start with.
Exercise 4. Complete the sentences about holiday plans. Use “Shall we…”
Model: - Where? - Where shall we go?
1. Seaside/mountains?
2. This country/abroad?
3. When?
4. How long for?
5. Fly/train/drive?
6. Hotel/camp?
7. Stay in one place/ travel around?
8. Take our granny?
9. Go with our friends?
10.What to do with our dog?
Exercise 5. Offer your help or a favour in the following situations using “shall”.
1. You friend has flu and is running a high temperature.
2. Your friend is preparing a report about London.
3. Your mother is going to fry potatoes.
4. Your father is going fishing.
5. Your granny is making a mixed salad.
6. Your mother is making coffee.
7. Your friends are going on a hike.
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8. Your friend wants to know about the great teachers of the past.
9. Your friend has no time to go to the shop.
10.Your sister is hungry but she is so tired to cook anything.
11.Your father has no time to pack his things.
12.Your younger brother has problems with mathematics.
13.Your collegues are going on a picnic.
14.Your friend can’t choose a place for summer holidays.
15.Your friend can’t find the necessary information for the report.
Exercise 6. Make up short dialogues using “shall” to express threat, warning,
promise, offer, or asking for instructions.
1. The child is so naughty.
2. Your son is so careless.
3. I see you for the first time here.
4. We were not invited.
5. You are not listening to me.
6. We have met so late.
7. We didn’t stop him at once.
8. You have missed the concert.
9. You have been so thoughtless.
10.They take such risks.
Exercise 7. Choose the proper verb to ask for instructions or advice and to make
offers and suggestions.
Exercise 8. Translate into English.
1. Эти детали должны быть включены в договор.
2. Производственные конфликты должны регулироваться администрацией.
3. Условия контракта должны быть выполнены как можно скорее.
4. Посетители должны написать негативный отзыв в книгу жалоб, если им не
понравилось обслуживание персонала.
5. Все документы должны содержать подпись директора.
6. Индикатор должен работать во всех диапазонах.
7. Вопрос о расходах должен рассматриваться в письменной форме в течение
4 недель после выхода приказа.
8. Участник голосования должен поднять руку.
9. Бывший землевладелец должен переоформить земельный участок на
нового покупателя не позднее указанной даты.
10.Коллекция старинных часов должна быть передана в местный музей
антиквариата.
11.Перевоз животных должен оплачиваться только в кассах.
12.Чтобы получить визу, турист должен заполнить необходимые документы.

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13.Согласно завещанию, дом должен перейти к внукам усопшего.
14.Этот указ должен быть подписан только президентом.
15.Электричество должно быть отключено во время пожара.
Exercise 9. Translate into English.
1. Преступника накажут за воровство.
2. Она должна заплатить штраф, если машина повреждена.
3. Я заберу твой телефон, если ты не будешь делать домашнее задание.
4. Она получит куклу на день рождения.
5. Когда я заработаю много денег, обещаю, мы все поедем отдыхать к морю.
6. Не беспокойся. Ты получишь все необходимое прямо перед отъездом.
7. Не расстраивайся, мы найдем какой-нибудь выход.
8. Без сомнения, он бросит курить, он обещал.
9. Не плачь. Вот увидишь, они вернутся.
10.Я уже сделала все, что вы просили. Что делать дальше?
11. В котором часу нам приходить, чтобы побеседовать с вами?
12.Кому мне сдавать сочинение?
13.Помочь тебе с уборкой?
14.Потанцуем?
15.Пообедаем в ресторане?
Exercise 10. Use as many modal verbs as possible in the following story.
Peter the Great
Peter the Great was one of the most famous tsars in Russian history. Although he
was often cruel, no one can deny that he changed his country’s future forever. Peter
was unique in many ways. He was six feet eight inches tall and very handsome. He
had a lot of energy and great physical strength. He sometimes had bad manners. But
he was very bright and he wanted to learn about everything. Peter wanted Russia to
as great as the European countries. He decided to go to Europe to learn everything
he could. His travels were a great success. Peter wanted everything to change – the
government, the military and religion. He built canals, factories, schools, hospitals
and museums. He changed the calendar and the alphabet. He developed a new
system of government and started Russia’s first newspaper. Peter continued to build
and modernize Russia right up to his death at the age of 53. Peter the Great’s force
and energy made his country into a modern power and made him into a legend.

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Modal verb “Dare”
This verb belongs to a group of semi-modal verbs of English. It means that it
considers the characteristics of a notion and a modal verbs. In both cases its meaning
is the same (осмелиться, решиться, набраться смелости)
As a notion verb it has the full morphological paradigm.
a) Tense forms
b) Infinitive with to
c) Interrogative with the auxiliary verbs
• I don’t dare to ask him about it.
• She won’t dare to deny her words.
Oна не решится отрицать свои слова
• Did you dare to tell him this news?
Вы решились сообщить ему эту новость?
As a modal verb it has only 2 forms:
a) Dare for the present for all persons.
b) Dare for the past
It is mostly used in interrogative and negative sentences
c) In the affirmative sentences it’s used in literature
In the spoken English it is used.
• She had the courage to make all words alone
Oна осмелилась выполнить всю работу самостоятельно)
Meanings:
1. To be brave enough to do smth.
• We daren’t interrupt him with questions.
Нам не хватает смелости прерывать его вопросами.
2. To do smth rude or shocking
• How dare you do that to people?
Kак ты смеешь так поступать с людьми?
• How dared he take this bag?
Kак он смеет брать эту сумку?
3. To challenge smb (подбить кого-то на что-то, держу пари, попробуй)
• I dare you to say this in his present.

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Ты попробуй сказать это в его присутствии.
4. Emotion coloring its used in such phrases as: how dare/ don’t you dare
• Its midnight don’t you dare call her.
Сейчас полночь, а ты даже и не думаешь ей звонить
5. Dare in expressions.
• I dare say
Осмелюсь сказать, заметить, пожалуй

1. To be brave enough to do 3. To challenge smb:


smth:
I dared him to swim over the river.
He didn’t dare to object.

Dare
4. Emotional colouring:
2. To do smth rude or shocking:
How dare you speak in such
Very often he dared shout at
a way!
everybody.

Dare in expressions:
Dare say! - this is the most beautiful place
in our city.

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EXERCISES
Dare
Exercise 1. State the meaning of the modal verb “dare”. Translate the
sentences.
1. My friend didn’t dare to neglect his duties.
2. You know how she feels about you. I expect she daren’t even think about you
now.
3. Don’t you dare to bite!
4. He dared scarcely think of the woman. He was afraid.
5. The girl sprung up. “How dare you ask me such a question. It’s interesting!”
6. You wouldn’t dare to do this!
7. You wouldn’t dare to jump over that stream.
8. I dare you to fight me, if you feel strong.
9. I dare you to leave every word from this lesson.
10. Don’t you dare coming here asking for help. I’m angry with you.
11. I dare say that English is a pretty easy language to learn.
12. How dare you borrow money! How dare you ask for more, you owe me so
much!
13. Nobody dared to ask him about it.
14. I’ll tell Dad! You wouldn’t dare!
15. She dared me to ask him out on a date. I did, and he said “yes”.
Exercise 2. Rewrite these sentences using “dare” or “dared”
1. I am not brave enough to speak to him about his daughter.
2. I challenge you to tell the teacher the truth.
3. The boys had no courage to wake his father.
4. How can you be so impudent as to go out by yourself after the orders I gave
you?
5. I challenge you to fight him.
6. I haven’t any courage to reproach her for it.
7. How could he venture to strike me when I was down?
8. I wanted to ask for some time but I had no courage.
9. He didn’t have any courage to dive from the springboard.
10. I suppose he will come later.
11. My friend didn’t have enough courage to remind me of my debt.
12. You are impudent enough to speak with your mother so rudely.
13. My boyfriend didn’t have enough courage to propose to me.
14. How can you be so impudent as to sneak into his house in his absence?
15. How could he venture to refuse to take part in our work?

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Exercise 3. Complete the following sentences:
1. I dare not speak at the meeting because …
2. He dare not swim across the river because …
3. I dare not go to school today after …
4. I dare not ring her up as …
5. I dare not wake him up now as …
6. At last he dared speak to her when …
7. I dared not interrupt him as …
8. He wouldn’t dare speak at the meeting because …
9. At last she dared explain everything as …
10. He never dared confess his love as …
11. How dare you neglect your duties, you …
12. How dare you be so impudent as to blame her, she …
13. How dare you complain of the service, this hotel …
14. Don’t you dare talk to me like that, I …
15. Don’t you dare come here again. Nobody …
Exercise 4. Make up short dialogues using the verb “dare” in different meaning.
Use the following phrases: to smoke, to miss classes, to take the sweets from the
box, to be so late, to tell the truth, to admit your guilt, to write a letter, to give flowers,
to be back in time, to go accompany the girl home, to jump from the roof, to spend
so much money, to cross the street in the wrong place, to leave without permission,
to break the law.
Model: - How dared you smoke here you can do it only in the smoking room.
- I’m terribly sorry, I didn’t see any notice.
Exercise 5. State the meaning of the verb “dare”
1.At last she dared to tell the truth.
a) be brave enough;
b) do smth rude;
c) emotional colouring;
2.I did not dare to ask him to call off his trip.
a) be brave enough;
b) do smth rude;
c) emotional colouring;
3.Who dares to jump over the stream?
a) be brave enough;
b) do smth shocking;

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c) emotional colouring;
4.She didn`t dare to leave the house without permission.
a) be brave enough;
b) do smth shocking;
c) emotional colouring;
5.If I were you I would never dare behave so bad.
a) be brave enough;
b) do smth shocking;
c) emotional colouring;
6.After such an accident he dared be so calm.
a) be brave enough;
b) do smth shocking;
c) emotional colouring;
7.He was quite an odd young man and sometimes he dared shout at everybody.
a) be brave enough;
b) do smth shocking;
c) emotional colouring;
8.How dare you come here again!
a) be brave enough;
b) do smth shocking;
c) emotional colouring;
9.How dare you talk to me like that!
a) be brave enough;
b) do smth shocking;
c) emotional colouring;
10.Don`t you dare spread rumours!
a) be brave enough;
b) do smth shocking;
c) emotional colouring.
Exercise 6. Translate into English
1. Не смей мне никогда лгать.
2. Она была так сердита, что никто не решился подойти к ней.
3. Он набрался наглости и позвонил ей.
4. Он никогда не решится сделать ей предложение.

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5. Как вы смеете разговаривать подобным образом?
6. Я бы никогда не решилась попробовать это блюдо.
7. Он был очень самоуверенным и осмелился возразить старику.
8. Не смей перебивать меня!
9. Решится ли она когда-нибудь сесть на диету?
10.Осмелюсь сказать, что вы не правы.
Exercise 6. Translate the sentences into English:
1. Как ты смеешь разговаривать со взрослыми таким образом?
2. У меня не хватает смелости поговорить с ней об этом.
3. И у тебя хватает наглости жаловаться на его отношение к тебе? На его
месте я бы разговаривал с тобой построже.
4. Как ты смеешь вмешиваться не в свое дело? Они старше тебя и
разберутся во всем сами.
5. У нее не хватает смелости прийти к вам и рассказать обо всем. Но я
уверен, что она ни в чем не виновата.
6. Гарри вчера встретил мистера Грина, но не посмел сказать ему, что мы
разбили автомобиль, который взяли у него на время.
7. Как он смеет так грубо говорить обо мне?
8. У меня не хватает смелости сказать ему, что я не поеду с ним.
9. Спорим, что ты не спрыгнешь с этой стены.
10. Он спровоцировал меня подать против него судебный иск. (to sue)
11. Посмеет ли он признать это?
12. И они смеют говорить, что мы поступили нечестно?
13. Он подстрекал меня перепрыгнуть через огонь.
14. Пусть кто-нибудь попробует доказать, что мое сообщение неточно.
15. Пожалуй, это самая вкусная еда, которую я когда-либо пробовал.

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The Final Test 3
Will, Would, Shall, Dare
Task 1. Choose the right variant
1. Can anybody help me? – I will.
a) Может кто-нибудь мне помочь? – Охотно.
b) Может кто-нибудь мне помочь? –Я могу.
2. Do give my love to Kate. – Surely I will.
a) Обязательно передай привет Кате. – С удовольствием.
b) Обязательно передай привет Кате. – Конечно, передам.
3. I will take care of the children.
a) Я с удовольствием позабочусь о детях.
b) Я обязательно позабочусь о детях.
4. I will make your excuses to her.
a) Я извинюсь за тебя перед ней.
b) Я готов извиниться за тебя перед ней.
5. I will not come each time you call me.
a) Я не приду, когда ты позовешь меня.
b) Я не хочу приходить каждый раз, когда ты меня позовешь.
6. I don’t know what to do with him, he will not obey me.
a) Не знаю, что с ним делать, он не хочет меня слушаться.
b) Не знаю, что с ним делать, он не будет меня слушаться.
7. I tell her to learn more by heart, but she won’t.
a) Я говорю ей больше учить наизусть, но она не будет.
b) Я говорю ей больше учить наизусть, но она отказывается.
8. He won’t follow the doctor’s instructions.
a) Он не желает выполнять предписания врача.
b) Он не последует рекомендациям врача.
9. Can I have another pen? This won’t write.
a) Можно мне другую ручку. Эта не будет писать.
b) Можно мне другую ручку. Эта никак не пишет.

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10. Children! Have you been playing with my umbrella? It won’t open.
a) Дети! Вы играли с моим зонтиком? Он никак не открывается.
b) Дети! Вы играли с моим зонтиком? Он не откроется.

Task 2. Insert the proper verb


11. He said he (охотно) do it for me.
a) would;
b) will;
c) should;
12. I said I (с удовольствием) go to the museum too.
a) will;
b) would;
c) must;
13. She (постоянно) complain of his bad manners when they met.
a) would;
b) will;
c) should;
14. We lived by a lake and sometimes Dad… take us fishing.
a) will;
b) would;
c) had to;
15. On Sundays when we were kids, mother … make tasty pancakes for breakfast.
a) would;
b) should;
c) had to;
16. I … stay longer if they asked me to.
a) must;
b) would;
c) should;
17. My car … not start yesterday.
a) would;
b) should;
c) will;

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18. … like some tea or coffee?
a) should;
b) would;
c) could;
19. She had a lot of money, but she … not lend us any.
a) would;
b) should;
c) must;
20. If I were you, I … buy this hat, I like the colour very much.
a) would;
b) will;
c) should.

Task 3. What modal verb would you choose if you translated these sentences?
21. Он как всегда оставался в офисе допоздна.
a) will;
b) would;
c) had to;
22. Когда то я писал домой каждую неделю.
a) would;
b) should;
c) need;
23. Он, бывало, старался все сделать хорошо.
a) will;
b) would;
c) could;
24. Дождь никак не переставал.
a) shouldn`t;
b) won`t;
c) wouldn’t;
25. Заполните, пожалуйста, эту анкету.
a) would;
b) shall;
c) should;

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26. Он все время мешал нам разговаривать.
a) had to;
b) should;
c) would;
27. Она никак не хотела говорить правду.
a) wouldn`t;
b) couldn`t;
c) won`t;
28. Не будете ли вы любезны немного подождать?
a) should;
b) would;
c) will;
29. Дверь не открывалась поэтому они и начали беспокоиться.
a) wouldn`t;
b) couldn`t;
c) shouldn`t;
30. Старик, бывало, водил внуков в зоопарк.
a) will;
b) would;
c) should;
Task 4. Choose the proper verb to ask for instructions or advice and to make
offers and suggestions
31. What on earth … we do?
a) shall;
b) will;
c) must;
32. What time … we come and see you?
a) can;
b) shall;
c) must;
33. … I carry your bag?
a) will;
b) would;
c) shall;

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34. … we go out for a meal?
a) can;
b) shall;
c) would;
35. … I dress up for the party?
a) shall;
b) could;
c) must;
36. … I accompany you to the British Museum?
a) can;
b) would;
c) shall;
37. Doctor! … I give up smoking?
a) shall;
b) need;
c) would;
38. We are leaving and what … we do with our dog?
a) will;
b) shall;
c) need;
39. What .. I say if the phone rings?
a) shall;
b) will;
c) must;
40. … we go to the seaside or to the mountains?
a) could;
b) shall;
c) will.
Task 5. State the meaning of the verb “dare”
41. At last she dared to tell the truth.
a) be brave enough;
b) do smth rude;
c) emotional colouring;

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42. I did not dare to ask him to call off his trip.
a) be brave enough;
b) do smth rude;
c) emotional colouring;
43. Who dares to jump over the stream?
a) be brave enough;
b) do smth shocking;
c) emotional colouring;
44. She didn`t dare to leave the house without permission.
a) be brave enough;
b) do smth shocking;
c) emotional colouring;
45. If I were you I would never dare behave so bad.
a) be brave enough;
b) do smth shocking;
c) emotional colouring;
46. After such an accident he dared be so calm.
a) be brave enough;
b) do smth shocking;
c) emotional colouring;
47. He was quite an odd young man and sometimes he dared shout at everybody.
a) be brave enough;
b) do smth shocking;
c) emotional colouring;
48. How dare you come here again!
a) be brave enough;
b) do smth shocking;
c) emotional colouring;
49. How dare you talk to me like that!
a) be brave enough;
b) do smth shocking;
c) emotional colouring;
50. Don`t you dare spread rumours!
a) be brave enough;
b) do smth shocking;
c) emotional colouring.

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The Final Test
(Modules 1-3)

1. Is this sentence right R or wrong W? if it’s wrong, correct it.


He could borrow my car if he’d asked.

2. Who is more likely to be going to Moscow tomorrow?


Ann: I may be going to Moscow tomorrow.
Pete: I might be going to Moscow tomorrow.
a) Ann
b) Pete
c) We don’t know
3. Are these company notices right R or wrong W?
a) All employees will complete weekly timesheets.
b) All employees must complete weekly timesheets.
4. A host is greeting his guests. Which is the best way to complete the
sentence
Thanks for coming, Mary. And you ______ Mary’s husband. I’ve heard a lot about
you.
a) are
b) should be
c) must be

5. Which verb means the same as don’t have to here


You don’t have to work tomorrow if you want to.
a) mustn’t
b) needn’t
c) shouldn’t
6. Right R or wrong W?
a) Can I ask you something? - Yes, of course you can.
b) Could I ask you something? – Yes, of course you could.
7. You could ask before you borrow my computer. Is this probably …
a) a suggestion
b) a request

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c) a criticism
8. Wouldn’t or couldn’t?
I asked her to meet me tonight, but …
a) she said she ____ as she had some extra work.
b) she said she ____ as she was still angry with me.
9. Which expression(s) can end the sentence: a, b or both?
She might have told me she was going to invite her friend.
a) I really can’t remember.
b) I’m so angry with her.
10.Right R or wrong W?
a) what would you like to eat?
b) what will you eat?
c) will you have some more cake ?
d) won’t you have some more cake?
11.Right R or wrong W?
a) will you come this way, please?
b) would you come this way, please?
c) come this way, would you?
12.Which verb form(s) can complete the sentence correctly?
She _____ in the meeting, but she wasn’t there.
a) should be
b) should have been
c) was supposed to be
13.Right R or wrong W?
a) it oughtn’t rain today.
b) we oughtn’t to leave now, oughtn’t we?
14.Which two sentences mean the same?
a) you must be more careful.
b) you ought to be more careful.
c) you should be more careful.
15.Which question is best if you’re talking to a friend?
a) do you think we ought to go now?
b) ought we to go now?

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16.Which is the strongest advice: a, b or c?
a) you should lose weight.
b) you’d better lose weight.
c) you ought to lose weight.
17.Right R or wrong W?
a) I always used to be afraid of dogs.
b) I used always to be afraid of dogs.
18.What is the difference between these two requests?
a) can I have some more coffee, please?
b) could I have some more coffee, please?
19.Which verb form (s) can complete the sentence correctly?
She ____ be at home. I’ll phone her and find out.
a) can’t
b) may not
c) might not
20.Who is more likely to be going to Moscow tomorrow?
Ann: I may be going to Moscow tomorrow.
Pete: I might be going to Moscow tomorrow.
a) Ann
b) Pete
c) We don’t know
21.Could, might or both?
When I was young, people ____ smoke in the office.

22.Which verb (s) can complete the sentence?


He says that we ____ use their dictionary.
a) can
b) may
c) might
23.Which replies are right?
Where’s Nora?
a) She can be with Joe.
b) She may be with Joe.
c) She could be with Joe.
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d) She might be with Joe.
24.Which modal verb (s) can complete the sentence?
We _______ go camping this summer, I’m not sure.
a) may
b) might
c) can
d) could
25.Are these uses of may right R or wrong W?
a) May you be in Rostov next week?
b) Do you think you may be in Rostov next week?
c) I may be in Rostov next week.
26.Are these uses of can right or wrong?
a) She can win the race next month if she works hard.
b) I can speak English well in another half a year.
27.Are these uses of could right or wrong?
a) I could find a really nice dress inn the shop yesterday.
b) I could play the piano quite well when I was younger.
c) When I went into the kitchen I could smell something tasty.
28.What do you think about these two sentences?
She speaks English very well.
She can speak English very well.
a) They mean the same.
b) They have different meanings.
c) One of them is incorrect.
29.What does Mary’s reply mean?
Ann: I don’t know what to give John for his birthday.
Mary: You can always give him a book.
a) You can give him a book every year.
b) You give him a book every year.
c) You can give him a book if you can’t think of anything better.
30.Right or wrong?
a) We could have spent yesterday in the park if we’d planned things better.
b) We could have spent today in the park if we’d planned things better.

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31.Right or wrong?
a) May I smoke here?
b) May everybody park here?
c) Can I park here?
d) Can everybody park here?
32.Right or wrong?
You were stupid to try climbing up the cliff. You may have killed yourself.

33.Right or wrong?
a) A female crocodile may lay 30-40 eggs.
b) A female crocodile can lay 30-40 eggs.
c) In those days a man might be hanged for stealing a sheep.
d) In those days a man could be hanged for stealing a sheep.
34.What does this sentence mean?
He may be clever, but he hasn’t got much common sense.
a) I agree that he’s clever, but ….
b) Perhaps he’s clever, but …
c) He’s clever sometimes, but …
35.Right or wrong?
a) Kate wasn’t at the station. She may have missed her train.
b) Phil isn’t answering his phone. He may have gone out by now.
c) By the end of this year I may have saved enough money to go to London
36.One of these sentences is less natural than the others. Which?
a) I must do some more work. I want to pass my exam.
b) I have to do some more work. I want to pass my exam.
c) In my job I must work from 9 to 5.
d) In my job I have to work from 9 to 5.
37.Right or wrong ?
a) When you leave school you’ll have to find a job.
b) I’ve got to go for a job interview tomorrow.
38.What do you think about these two sentences?
Anne isn’t in her office. She had to go home early.
Anne isn’t in her office. She must have gone home early.
a) They have different meanings. (If so, what?)
b) They mean the same.
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c) One of them is incorrect.
39.One of these sentences is wrong. Which one?
a) He only left the office five minutes ago. He can’t be home yet.
b) He only left the office five minutes ago. He mustn’t be home yet.
c) She walked past without saying hi. She can’t have seen us.
d) She walked past without saying hi. She mustn’t have seen us.
40.Which verb form (s) can complete the sentence correctly?
It’s important that he ____ to the doctor.
a) should talk
b) talks
c) talk
41.Which verb form (s) can complete the sentence correctly?
It’s surprising that she ____ so much make up.
a) should put on
b) puts on
c) put on
42.Which is\are the best explanation (s) of the sentence?
Ben should get the manager’s job, I think.
a) I think Ben will definitely get the job.
b) I think Ben will very probably get the job.
c) I think Ben deserves to get the job.
43.What is the best explanation of this use of will?
She will sit talking to herself for hours.
a) It refers to habitual behavior.
b) It predicts future behavior.
c) It describes a wish.
44.What is the best explanation of this use of will?
She will fall in love with the wrong people.
a) It refers critically to habitual behavior.
b) It refers neutrally to habitual behavior.
c) It makes a critical prediction of future behavior.
45.What is the best paraphrase of this sentence?
You would tell Mary about the party – I didn’t want to invite her.

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a) You wanted to tell Mary about the party….
b) You were going to tell Mary about the party but you didn’t ….
c) It was typical of you to tell Mary about the party …
46.Would, used to or both?
a) When we were kids we _______ play football every weekend.
b) I _________ have an old car that kept breaking down.
c) Chris ______ play a lot of volleyball when he was at school.
47.Right or wrong?
a) What did people use to do in the evenings before TV?
b) I didn’t used to like opera.
c) Used you to play football?
d) You used not to like him, used you?
48.Which of these sentences is\are right ?
a) Do we need to reserve seats on the train?
b) Need we reserve seats on the train?
c) I wonder if I need fill in a form.
d) I know I need fil in a form.
e) Ann needsn’t work tomorrow.
49.Right or wrong?
She daren’t tell her husband what she thinks.

50.What does this mean?


I dare say Mary is going to cause trouble.
a) Mary is quite probably going to cause trouble.
b) I’m not afraid to say that Alice is going to cause trouble.
c) Mary is certainly going to cause trouble.

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Answer keys
The Final Test 1
Can, may, must
1. couldn't 26. mustn't
2. won't be able 27. must have worked
3. wasn't able to 28. must be working
4. could 29. must talk
5. could 30. must have been
6. could have told 31. must have been crying
7. could have helped 32. must misunderstand.
8. could have met 33. must have failed.
9. be thinking 34. must fail
10. have been sitting 35. must be discussing
11. have 36. may
12. aren't waiting 37. can
13. be still sleeping 38. must
14. were allowed to 39. might
15. may 40. may not
16. might 41. can
17. were allowed to 42. might have told
18. might see 43. could have looked
19. might have called 44. could water
20. may be 45. must
21. might hear 46. must not
22. may have noticed 47. might
23. might be 48. could
24. might have told 49. must
25. may have fallen ill 50. must

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The Final Test 2
Have to, be to, need, should. Ought to
Task 1. Paraphrase orally and choose the right variant.
1. a 6. b
2. b 7. b
3. c 8. b
4. a 9. a
5. a 10. b
Task 2. Choose the right verb:
11. c 16. a
12. a 17. a
13. b 18. c
14. a 19. a
15. c 20. a
Task 3. Choose the proper modal verb
21. c 26. a
22. a 27. c
23. b 28. c
24. a 29. a
25. b 30. b
Task 4. Choose “should” or “ought to”
31. a
32. a
33. b
34. b
35. b
36. b
Task 5. Choose the right Infinitive.
37. a 44. b
38. a 45. b
39. b 46. b
40. b 47. b
41. b 48. b
42. b. 49. a
43. a 50. b

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The Final Test 3
Will, would, shall, dare
Task 1. Choose the right variant
1. a 6. a
2. a 7. b
3. a 8. a
4. b 9. b
5. b 10. a
Task 2. Insert the proper verb
11. a 16. b
12. b 17. a
13. a 18. b
14. b 19. a
15. a 20. a
Task 3. What modal verb would you choose if you translated these sentences?
21. b 26. c
22. a 27. a
23. b 28. b
24. c 29. a
25. a 30. b
Task 4. Choose the proper verb to ask for instructions or advice and to make
offers and suggestions
31. a 36. c
32. b 37. a
33. c 38. b
34. b 39. a
35. a 40. b
Task 5. State the meaning.
41. a 46. b
42. a 47. b
43. a 48. c
44. a 49. c
45. b 50. c

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The Final Test
(Modules 1-3)

1. It’s wrong. He could have 26.A


borrowed. 27.A-wrong
2. A B, c – right
3. Both are right. 28.A
4. C 29.C
5. B 30.Both are right
6. A 31.A, c, d – right
7. C B – wrong
8. A- couldn’t 32.Right
B – wouldn’t 33.All four are right
9. Both 34.A
10.All four are right 35.All three are right
11.All three are right 36.C
12.B, c 37.Both are right
13.A – wrong 38.A (necessity, certainty)
B – right 39.B is wrong
14. B, c 40.All are right
15.A 41.A, b
16.B 42.B, c
17.A 43.A
18.B is more polite 44.A
19.B, c 45.C
20.A, c 46.A – both
21.Could B, c – used to
22.A, b 47.A, b, c -right
23.B ,c, d D – wrong
24.A, b, d 48.A, b, c
25.A – wrong 49.Right
B, c -right 50.A

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References
1. All about modal verbs. Модальные глаголы в английской речи. / Учебное
пособие. Составители: Л.К. Голубева., Н.М. Пригоровская., Г.И.
Туголупова., - М.: Издательство «Менеджер», 2004.
2. Блох М.Я. Практикум по английскому языку: Грамматика: сборник
упражнений / М. Я. Блох., А.Я. Лебедева., В.С. Денисова. – М.: АСТ:
Астрель, 2005.
3. Бондарева В.В. Английская грамматика в забавных рассказах. English
grammar in funny stories / Учебное пособие по англ.яз – СПб.: КАРО,
2006.
4. Качалова К.Н., Израилевич Е.Е. практическая грамматика английского
языка с упражнениями и ключами (том 2) . 8-е издание. Киев: Методика,
2003.
5. Каушанская В.Л., Ковнер Р.Л., Кожевникова О.Н. и др. Грамматика
английского языка. Пособие для студентов педагогических институтов.
– М.: Айрис-пресс, 2016.
6. Каушанская В.Л., Ковнер Р.Л., Кожевникова О.Н. и др. Сборник
упражнений по грамматике английского языка. М.: Айрис-пресс, 2016.
7. Крылова И.П. Английская грамматика для всех. – М.: КДУ, 2007.
8. Черненко Д. Модальные глаголы английского языка. – М.: Эксмо, 2008.
9. Murphy R. English grammar in use. A self-study reference and practice book
for intermediate learners of English/ Fourth Edition. 2012.
10.Swan M. Practical English usage. Third edition. Oxford University Press.
2012.
11.Swan M., Baker D. Grammar scan. Diagnostic tests for practical grammar
usage. Third edition. Oxford University Press. 2012.

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