• Reflectsthe very latest Egyptian Code provisions (ECP203  2007) and includes all major changes and additions. • Numerous illustrations and figures for each topic. • Good theoretical background for each topic with code provisions. • Extensive examples in each chapter utilizing 51 units. • All examples are worked out step by step ranging from simple to advanced. • Full reinforcement details for every example. • Numerous design charts for sections subjected to flexure.
• Design for Torsion • Design for Combined Shear and Torsion • Truss Models for RIC Beams
DESIGN OF REINFORCED
CONCRETE STRUCTURES
Volume 1
Second Edition
2008
PREFACE
Teaching reinforced concrete design, carrying out research relevant to the behavior of reinforced concrete members, as well as designing concrete structures motivated the preparation of this book. The basic objective of this book is to furnish the reader with the basic upderstanding of the mechanics and design of reinforced concrete. The contents of the book conform to the latest edition of the Egyptian Code for the Design and Construction of Concrete Structures ECP203. The authors strongly recommend that the Code be utilized as a companion publication to this book. The book is aimed at two different groups. First, by treating the material in a logical and unified form, it is hoped that it can serve as a useful text for undergraduate and graduate student courses on reinforced concrete. Secondly, as a result of the continuing activity in the design and construction of reinforced concrete structures, it will be of value to practicing structural engineers. Numerous illustrative examples are given, the solution of which has been supplied so as to supplement the theoretical background and to familiarize the reader with the steps involved in actual design problem solving. In writing the book, the authors are conscious of a debt to many sources, to friends, colleagues, and coworkers in the field. Finally, this is as good a place as any for the authors to express their indebtedness to their honorable professors of Egypt, Canada and the U.S.A. Their contributions in introducing the authors to the field will always. be remembered with the deepest gratitude. This volume covers the following topics
• .• • • • • • • • Reinforced Concrete Fundamentals Design of Singly Reinforced Sections Design of Doutily Reinforced Sections Design of T Beams Design for Shear Bond and Development length Design of Simple and Continuous Beams Truss Models for the Behavior of RIC Beams Design for Torsion
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5. 1.5.1 1.5.2 1.5.3 1.5.4 1.5.5 1.5.6 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10
2.
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.2.1 2.3.2.2 2.3.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8
Example 2.5 Example 2.6 Example 2.7 Example 2.8 2.9 Design of Singly Reinforced Sections by First Principles Example 2.9 Example 2.10 2.10 Design of Singly Reinforced Sections Using Curves ..; 2.10.1 Design Charts (RJ..l) ; 2.10.2 Design Chart (R oi) Example 2.11 Example 2.12 , Example 2.13 Example 2.14 Example 2.15
60 62 65 67 69 70 73 75 75 77 80 81 83 84 85
3.3
Design of Tsections Using Curves Development of the Curves Using the Design Aids (charts CIJ and RTJ) Example 3.17 (a<ts) Example 3.18 (a>ts) Design ofLSections Example 3.19 Example 3.20
4.
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.4.1 4.4.2 4.4.3 4.5 4.5.1 4.5.2 4.5.3 4.5.4 4.5.5
3.
3.1 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3
3.1.4
3.1.5
95 97 98 100 101 103 105 107 l08 111 112 113 115 115 115 119 122 123 126 127 129 131 133 135 137
5
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.4.1 5.4.2 5.5 5.5.1 5.5.2 5.5.3 5.6 5.7 5:8 5.8.1 5.8.2
6
6.1 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.3.1 6.3.2 6.3.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.6.2 6.6.3
8
8.1 8.2 8.2.1 8.2.2 8.2.3 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.5.1 8.5.2 8.5.3 8.5.4 8.6 8.6.1 8.6.2 8.6.3 8.6.4 8.6.5 8.6.5.1 8.6.5.2 8.6.6 8.6.7
7
7.1 7.2 7.2.1 7.2.2 7.2.2.1 7.2.2.2 7.3 7.4 7.4.1 7.4.2 7.4.3 7.4.4 7.4.5 7.4.6
: ;
vi
1
REINFORCED CONCRETE FUNDAMENTALS
1.1 Introduction
Reinforced concrete is one of the most important available materials for construction in Egypt and all over the world. It is used in almost all structures including; buildings, bridges, retaining walls, tunnels, tanks, shells. and even ships.
Concrete is a mixture of sand and gravel held together with a paste of cement and water. Sometimes one or more admixture is added to change certain characteristic of the concrete such as its workability, durability, and time of hardening. Concrete has a high compressive strength and a very low tensile strength. Reinforced concrete is a combination of concrete and steel wherein the steel reinforcement provides the tensile strength lacking in the concrete. Steel reinforcement is also capable of resisting. compression forces and is used in columns as well as in other situations to be described later. The tremendous success of reinforced concrete can be understood numerous advantages are considered. These include the following: • • • • • It is a low maintenance material. if its
It has great resistance to the action of fire provided that there is adequate cover over the reinforcing steel. A special nature of concrete is its ability to be cast in to a variety of shapes from simple slabs, beams, and columns to great arches and shells. A lower grade of skilled labor is required other materials such as structural steel. for erection as compared to
In. most areas, concrete takes advantage of inexpensive local materials (sand, gravel, and water) and requires a relatively small amount of cement and reinforcing steel.
To use concrete successfully, the designer must be completely familiar with its weak points and its strong ones. Among its disadvantages are the following: • • • Concrete has a very low tensile reinforcing. strength, requiring
In
Forms are required to hold the concrete sufficiently. Formwork could be expensive.
place
The properties of concrete could vary widely due to variations in its proportioning and mixing. Furthermore, the placing and curing of concrete is not as carefully controlled, as is the production of other materials such as structural steel. In general, reinforced concrete members are relatively large, as compared to structural members, an important consideration for tall buildings and long span bridges. Photo 1.2 Reinforcement placement during construction
weak in tension. The tensile strength of concrete is about onetenth its compressive strength. As a result, a plain concrete beam fails suddenly as soon as the tension cracks start to develop. Therefore, reinforcing steel is added in the tension zone to carry all the developed tensile stresses; this is called a reinforced concrete beam. . Concrete and steel work together beautifully 'in reinforced concrete structures. The advantages of each material seem to compensate for the disadvantages of the other. The great shortcoming of low concrete tensile strength is compensated for by the high tensile strength of the steel. The tensile strength of the steel is approximately equal to 100140 times the tensile strength of the usual concrete mix. Also, the two materials bond together very well with no slippage, and thus act together as one unit in resisting the applied loads. The disadvantage of steel is corrosion, but the concrete surrounding the reinforcement provides an excellent protection. Moreover, the strength of the exposed steel subjected to fire is close to .zero, but again the enclosure of the reinforcement in the concrete produces very satisfactory fire protection. Finally, concrete and steel work very well together in temperature changes because their coefficients of thermal expansion are almost the same. The coefficient of thermal expansion for steel is 6.5xlO·6, while that for the concrete is about 5.5xl06.
Loads
Column
Footing
The addition of steel reinforcement that bonds strongly to concrete produces a relatively dnctile material capable of transmitting tension and suitable for any structural elements, e.g., slabs, beam, columns. Reinforcement should be placed in the locations of anticipated tensile stresses and cracking areas as shown in Fig 1.3. For example, the main reinforcement in a simple beam is placed at the bottom fibers where the tensile stresses develop (Fig. 1.3A). However, for a cantilever, the main reinforcement is atthe top of the beam at the location of the maximum negative moment (Fig.l.3B). Finally for a continuous beam; a part of the main reinforcement should be placed near the bottom fibers where the positive moments exist and the other part is placed at the top fibers where the negative moments exist (Fig. 1.3C).
A Simple beam
Cracks
Reinforcement
BCantilever
beam
It should be mentioned that in other countries such as the United States and Canada, the compressive strength is measured by compression tests on 150 mm x 300 mm cylinders tested after 28 days of moist curing. In the case of using specimens other than the standard cube, the ECP 203 gives the correction factors shown in Table 1.1 to obtain the equivalent compressive strength of the standard cube.
Cracks
Cracks
Reinforcement
factors
x factor
Correction factor 0.97 1.00 1.05 1.12 1.20 1.25 1.30 1.25 1.3 1.32
Size (rrun) 100 xlOO x 100 (158 x 158 x 158) or (150 x 150 x 150) 200 x 200 x 200 300 x 300 x 300 100 x200 150 x 300 250 x 500 (150 x 150 x 300) or (158 x 158 x 316) (150 x 150 x 450) or (158 x 158 x 474) 150 x 150 x 600 7
CContinuous
beam I.
placement
for different
types of beams
Prism
The ECP 203 states in clause (2.5.2) that a concrete strength of 18 N/mm2 should be used to qualify for reinforced concrete category,15 N/mm2 for plain concrete, and 30 Nzmrrr' for prestressed concrete. Table 1.2 illustrates the grades of reinforced concrete RlC·and prestressed concrete PIS as permitted by the code. Table 1.2 Grades of reinforced and prestressed concrete (Nzmm! )
RIC
18
120
125
30 30
35 35
40 40
45 45 50 155 160
Since concrete is used mostly in compression, its compressive stressstrain curve is of a prime interest. Figure 1.4 shows a typical set of such curves obtained from uniaxial compression test of cylinders. All curves have somewhat similar characteristics. They consist of an initial relatively straight elastic portion in which stresses and strains are closely proportional, then begin to curve to reach a maximum value at a strain of 0.002 to 0.003. There is a descending branch after the peak stress is reached. It can be noticed that the weaker grades of concrete are less brittle than the stronger ones. Thus, they will take larger stains and deformations before breaking.
70 60
PIS
Field conditions are not the same as those in the laboratory, and the specified 28days strength might not practically be achieved in the field unless almost perfect mixture, vibration, and perfect curing conditions are present. As a result, section 253 of the ECP 203 requires that the target concrete compressive strength, J", must exceed the characteristic strength fi; by a safety margin (M). The safety margin for a concrete mix design depends on the quality control of the concrete plant and can range from 4 N/mm2 to 15 Nzmm", Table 1.3 (215 of the Code) lists the values of the safetymargin M according to the number of the performed tests and the characteristic strength !cu. Therefore the targeted concrete compressive strength J", is given by /.,,=/cu+M Table 1.3 Value of the safety margin M (Nzmm") Statistical data feu < 20 N/mm2 40 test data 1.64 SD ~ 4 N/mm2 or more less than 40 Not less than 0.6 feu test data Safety margin M
2040N/mm2 4060N/mm2
...
E E ..
l< .....
<1)
50 40 30 20 10
6 .., ..,
rF.J
(1.1)
0.0005 0.001 0.0015 0.002 0.0025 0.003 0.0035 0.004
1.64 SD ~ 6 N/mm2
1.64
N/mm
2
SD
> 
7.5
~ 12N/mm2
~ 15 N/mm2
For computational purposes, mathematical representations of the stressstrain curves of concrete in compression are available. For example, the stressstrain curve shown in Fig. 1.5 may be used. The curve consists of a parabola followed by a sloping line. Such a curve has been used widely in research purposes.
1.5.2 Tensile strength Experimental tests indicate that the tensile strength of concrete is highly variable and ranges from about 812% of its compressive strength. The actual value depends on the type of test and crack propagation pattern at failure. Tensile strength is usually determined by the bending test (Fig. 1.6) or by the split cylinder test (Fig 1.7). The ECP 203 states that the value of concrete tensile strength can be taken from experimental tests as follows: 60% from the concrete tensile strength determined from bending test. 85% from the concrete tensile strength determined from split cylinder test. In the bending test (modulus of rapture test), a plain concrete beam is loaded in flexure up to failure as shown in Fig. 1.6. The flexure tensile strength or the modulus ofruptureJ,. is computed from the following equation
t, =2
6M bxt
O.72f"u
0.0038
(1.2)
P/2
P/2
iDI
I~
~I
~~
t
The split cylinder test is performed on a 150x300 mm cylinder placed on its side and loaded in compression along its length as shown in Fig. 1.7.A The stresses along the diameter are nearly uniform tension perpendicular to the plan of loading as shown in Fig. 1.7.b The splitting tensile strength let is calculated from the following expression
fet =7r d L
1.5.3 Modulus of Elasticity It is clear from the stressstrain curve of the concrete shown in Fig.1.3 that the relation between the stress and the strain is not linear. Thus, the modulus of elasticity changes from point to point. Furthermore, its value varies with different concrete strengths, concrete age, type of loading, and the characteristics of cement and aggregate. The initial tangent is sometimes used to estimate the concrete modulus of elasticity, in which the slope of the stressstrain curve of concrete at the origin is evaluated as shown in Fig. 1.8. The ECP203 gives the following formula for estimating the concrete modulus of elasticity Ee = 4400.JJ::
2P
(1.3)
(1.5)
~ hlh~j;,
The magnitude of the modulus of elasticity is required when calculating deflection, evaluating bracing condition, and cracking of a structure.
Ji
A: Test setup B: Force system C: Stresses on an element
The tensile strength computed using the modulus of rupture is always higher than the split cylinder tension tests. The tensile strength of the concrete can be determined using its compressive strength. The tensile strength does not correlate well with the concrete compressive strength but rather with its square root. The ECP203 gives an expression for estimating the concrete tensile strengthlezr as a function of its compressive strength as follows:
fett·
= 0.6 .JJ::
(1.4)
12
13
1.5.4 Strength
of Concrete
Portions of many concrete members may be subjected to stresses in two perpendicular directions (biaxial state). The strength of the concrete is affected greatly by the applied stress in the perpendicular direction as shown in Fig. 1.9. In Fig. 1.9, all the stresses are normalized in terms of the uniaxial compressive strength !cu. The curve has three regions; biaxial compressioncompression, biaxial tensiontension, biaxial tensioncompression. In the compressioncompression zone, it can be seen that the compressive strength of the concrete can be increased by 2025% when applying compressive stress in the perpendicular direction. In the tensiontension zone, it is clear that the tensile strength of the concrete is not affected by the presence of tension stresses in the normal direction. For example, a lateral tension of about half the value of the uniaxial tensile strength will reduce the compressive strength to 50% of the uniaxial compressive strength.
The biaxial state may occur in beams as shown in Fig. 1.10 where the principle tensile and compressive stresses lead to biaxial tension compression state of stress. The split cylinder test illustrated in Fig. 1.7C is a typical example of biaxial state of stress, where the compressive stresses develop in the vertical direction and tensile stresses develop in the horizontal direction. This is the main reason that splitting tensile strength is less than flexural tensile strength.
r
feu
V
I

rf1 I~ _._
I
t;
II
.. ." _ _ _
l
_ _
Ir . .._
iJ
f7
_" "
__
__
.
__
.
_"
"
feu
compr ssion
o
0.2
.. .
o
.
._
V
+I
ension 0.2
It~tr
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.2
1.5.5 Shrinkage
As the concrete dries it shrinks in volume due to the excess water used in concrete mixing. The shortening of the concrete per unit length due to moisture loss is called shrinkage strain. The magnitude of the shrinkage strain is a function of the initial water content, the composition of the concrete and the relative humidity of the surroundings. Shrinkage is also a function of member's size and shape. Drying shrinkage occurs as the moisture diffuses out of the concrete. As a result, the exterior shrinks more rapidly than the interior. This leads to tensile stresses in the outer skin of the concrete member and compressive stresses in its interior. The rate of the shrinkage increases as the exposed area to the volume increases. The ECP203 gives the following formula to estimate the virtual member thickness
B
=
Values of final shrinkage for ordinary concrete are generally of the order of 0.00016 to 0.00030 and can be taken from table 1.4. Table 1.4 Values of shrinkage strain for concrete (x 103) weather condition Time by days 37 760 >60
B ~ 600
2;,
c
(1.6)
where B is the virtual member thickness, Ac area of the cross section, P, is the section perimeter subjected to shrinkage. Although shrinkage continues for many years as shown in Fig. 1.11, approximately 90% of the ultimate shrinkage occurs during the first year.
almost flat curve
1.5.6 Creep
t=oo
Time
Fig. 1.11 Variation of shrinkage with time for a typical concrete mix
...
!
When a reinforced concrete member is loaded, an initial deformation occurs as shown in Fig. 1.12. Experimental studies show that this initial deformation increases with time under constant loading. The total deformation is usually divided into two parts:(I)initial deformation (2) a time dependent deformation named creep. After the occurrence of the immediate deformation (point A" to point A), the creep deformation starts rapidly (point A to pint B) and then continues at a much lower rate till almost it becomes a flat curve at infinity. More than 75% of the creep deformation occurs during the first year and 95% in the first five years. If the load is removed at point B, immediate recovery occurs (point C), followed by a time dependent recovery till point D (creep recovery). The member will never recover all the developed deformation and there will be a nonrecoverable deformation called permanent deformation. The creep deformations are within a range of one to three times the instantaneous elastic deformations. Creep causes an increase in the deflection with time that may lead to undesirable deformation of the member. Thus, the deflection must be investigated to ensure that the deformations are within the allowable limits ofthe code.
16
17
elastic recovery
A
Elastic deformation time ofloadi g
\
high yield steel the strength is based on a specified proof stress of 0.2% as shown in Fig. 1.13. . . The major disadvantage of using steel in beams and columns IS COrr?s.lOn. he T volume of the corroded steel bar is much greater than that of the ongmal one. The results are large outward pressure, which causes severe cracking and spallingof the concrete cover. The ECP203 requires the increase o~ concrete cover in corrosive environments. Epoxy coated bars are a perfect solution for the problem of corrosion of the reinforcement. They are expensive and need to be handled very carefully to protect the coating layer from damage. However, they are not as efficient as uncoated bars in developing full bond with surrounding concrete.
, ,
.... ....
creep recovery
......

D permanent deformation
Stress
high grade steel 0.2% proof stress start of strain hardening
Time
ri,t ~ mild steel
1;.
yield plateau
Strain
0.002 Fig. 1.13 St~essStrain curve for mild and high grade steel
19
The strength reduction factors vary according to the applied compression force. As the compression force increases, the strength reduction factor in tum increases. One of the reasons for that, is the nature of the brittle failure that accompanies the compression forces. The strength reduction factor for concrete yc ranges from 1.73 for sections subjected to almost pure compression and 1.5 for sections subjected to pure bending. The strength reduction factor for steel reinforcement "Is ranges from 1.32 for sections SUbjected to compression and 1.15 for section subjected to pure bending. For sections subjected to combined compression forces and bending (eccentric compression sections) with at least 0.05t eccentricity, the ECP203 gives the following values for the strength reduction factors
Yc =1.5XH(e~t)}21.5
(1.7) (1.8)
r,
= 1.15X{~
(e~t)} 21.15
0.05
~ .8 o <S §
'.;::l u
]
.p
CI)
c. Stability
'limit states
g
0.05 0.50
These include buckling of compression members, overturning, sliding, formation of plastic hinge/mechanism, and general cases of instability. Also, in some cases, localized failure of a member may cause the entire structure to collapse. Such failure is called progressive failure and should be avoided.
elt
Fig. 1.11 Concrete and steel strength reduction factors For other cases the strength reduction factors can be taken as
rs
= 1.15
for serviceability
r, =1.0} r, = 1.0
and fixed in location for the lifetime of the structure. A major part of the dead loads results from the own weight of the structure itself. The dead loads also include sand required for leveling of the flooring, flooring material and brick walls. are the results of occupants and furniture. In bridges, vehicle loads represent the major live load. Their magnitude and location are variable. Live loads must be placed in such a way to produce the maximum straining actions on the structures. But rather by placing the live loads on the critical locations that cause maximum stresses for that member. Table 1.5 gives examples of the values of live load on some structures as mentioned in the Egyptian Code for Calculation of loads on Structures. Table 1.5 Live loads value according to building type (kN/m2). Structure Type Residential buildings Location/usage Rooms Balconies, stairs, kitchen Offices Office buildings Archives Balconies and stairs Patient rooms Hospitals Surgery/lab Balconies and stairs Classrooms Labs Schools and faculties Sports centers Book shelf area Lecture rooms Balconies and stairs Hotels Gust rooms Public area/restaurants/stairs Live load 2 3 2.5 510 4 2.5 4 or more 4 3 4 or more 5 10 4 4 2 4 
Live loads depend mainly on the use of the structure. For buildings, live loads
Australia, 22
..
Seated area Cinemas and theaters Public area unseated Balconies Stairs and corridors . Mosque / church / Halls Seated area Unseated area Inaccessible horizontal flexible roof Roofs Inaccessible horizontal rigid roof Accessible horizontal roof Parkil!_g_rea (small cars) a garages Buses Garage corridor For residential buildings with more than five stories, reduced according to the Table 1.6
4 5 5
6
4 5

(1.9)
0.6 1.0
2 3 4 5
where D are the working dead loads, and L are the working live loads Alternatively if the live loads are the less than 75% of the dead load, the following equation can be used
U=1.5(D+L) (1.10)
If the member is subjected to earth or fluid pressure (E), the ultimate load is given by
U = 1.4 D+1.6 L+1.6 E (1.11)
In the case oflateral pressure in closed spaces such as tanks and small pools, the ultimate load is taken from
U
Table 1.6 Reduction of live load in multistory residential buildings Location of the floor Roof From 1 to 4 under the roof Fifth floor under the roof Sixth floor under the roof Seventh floor under the roof E!g_hthfloor under the roof Ninth floor and more under the roof Live load value
the structure is subjected to wind loads W or earthquake loads S, the ultimate load U is taken as the largest from the following two equations
U = 0.8 (1.4 D+ 1.6 L+ 1.6 W) U =1.l2D+aL+S .. ,
P
P
(1.12)
(1.13)
~ a=1/4 in residentional buildings. ~ a=1/2 in public buildings and structures such as malls, schools, hospitals,
garages and theaters.
~ a=l in silos, water tanks, and structures loaded with sustained live loads from wind pressure,
such as public libraries, main storage areas and garages for public cars. In load cases in which reduction of live loads shall lead to increasing the value of maximum forces in some sections, the live load factor shall be taken to 0.9.
earthquake loads, soil pressure, and fluid pressure. In recent years, significant progress has been made to accurately estimate the horizontal forces due to wind or earthquake. TheECP 203 states a series of load factors and load combination cases to be used in designing reinforced concrete sections.
24
25
For cases in which the effects of the dead loads stabilize the structure, the ultimate loads should be taken from the following set of equations
U = 0.9 D
Table 1.7 Load factors according to ECP 203 Condition Factored Load U
U = 1.4 D + 1.6 L U = 1.5 (D+L) L '5,0.75 D
U =0.9 D+1.6 E U =0.9 D+1.4 E (for tanks and pools) U =0.9 D+1.3 W U=0.9D+1.3S
U=0.9
U = 1.12 D + a L + S
Earthquake
U =0.9D ±S U = 1.4 D + 1.6 L + 1.6 E
~arth pressure
U = 0.9 D + 1.6 E U = 1.4 D + 1.6 L + 1.4 E
Closed tanks
U = 0.9 D + 1.4 E
or
U = 0.8 (1.4 D + 1.6 L + 1.6 T) U = 1.4 D + 1.6 T U = 1.4 D + 1.6 L + 1.6 K U = 0.9 D + 1.6 K
where D, L,W, S, E, T, K are the dead, live, wind, soil, earthquake, and dynamic loads respectively.
temperature
26
27
Example 1.1 Using the load combinations of the ECP 203, determine the ultimate axial force and bending moment combinations for the column CD at point C. The frame is subjected to the following working loads D=15 kN/m'(uniform) L=30 kN/m'(uniform) Wind load of95 kN (may act in either direction) dead or 95 kN
B
35.20
35.20
live loads
Normal force (dead loads) Bending moment (dead loads)
Solution:
52.4 52.4
since the structure is indeterminate, a computer program was used to calculate the axial and bending on the frame. The following figures summarize the results.
91.25
Normal force (wind loads)
87.9
Bending moment (Wind loads)
28
29
To compute the ultimate loads and according to combinations were used as shown in the following table. Load combinations Axial load D L 45.0 90.0 bending moment 35.2 70.4 for member CD
the
ECP2003,
five
e 207.0~
188.2 143.1 63.4
2
,
IC 196.6')
62.5
W 17.64 52.4
17.6:>
Ie +36.4)
99.8
U = 0.8 [1.4'(45) + 1.6 (90) ± 1.6 (17.64)] U =165.60±22.60 =188.2kN and 143.0kN
and minimum ultimate axial force on the column The maximum and minimum ultimate bending
is 207.0 and 17.6 respectively. moment at C is 196.6 and +36.4. It is very important
to notice that the design should be carried out based on from the same load combination moment of 196.6. not the maximum
bridge,
Spain
from each case. Thus, it is wrong to design the column for an axial compression and bending Instead, the section must be of 207 and a bending In addition, it should be
2.1 Introduction
Until the late 1980s, nearly all reinforced concrete buildings in Egypt were designed according to the workingstress design method. However, since 1989 the ultimate limit states design method has gained popularity and has been adopted by the Egyptian Code for Design arid Construction of Concrete Structures. In this chapter, the basic design concepts of the ultimate limit states design methods are discussed. 31
to withstand
force
moment of 161.9)
30
tensile stresses in the concrete Most of these At the with the naked eye. the developed by definition neglected
exceed its tensile strength and tension cracks start to develop. cracks are so small that they are not noticeable bars are placed in the tension zone to carryall
location of the cracks, the concrete does not transmit any tension forces and steel tensile forces the stress at strength below the neutral axis. The neutral axis is an imaginary line that separates the tension zone from the compression concrete below the neutral axis zone. Therefore, is completely the neutral axis is equal to zero as shown in' Fig. 2.1. Thus, the part of the in the calculations and the reinforcing steel is solely responsible for resisting the entire
1'1"1
1·1
I~
.r.._,
tension force. At moderate loads (ifthe concrete stresses do not exceed approximately one
strength), stresses and strains continue to be very When the load is furthered increased, more
'.
uncracked section
strains
stresses
close to linear. This is called the working loads stage, which was the basis of the cracks are developed and the neutral axis is shifted towards the compression the compression and tension forces will increase and the However, the strain zone will become nonlinear.
a: before
over the cross section is linear. This is called the ultimate stage. The of the stresses in the compression zone is of the same shape of the yielding of The steel stress I, in this stage reaches
concrete stressfy.
stressstraincurve.
the ultimate load;' At the ultimate stage, two types of failure and the concrete can be noticed. crushes If the beam is large with a
reinforced with a small amount of steel, ductile failure will occur. In this type of ultimate load
."
c: ultimate and failure stage
rr"~"~"""""IAA
0.003 cracked section at ultimate
failure,
after experiencing
deflections and lots of cracks. On the other hand, if the beam is reinforced and occurs due to the crushing of concrete in the compression
large amount of steel, brittle failure will occur. The failure in this case is sudden zone without yielding of the steel and under relatively final collapse. small deflections and cracks. This is
. . cs>ey
j,=f/f.f5
not a preferred mode of failure because it does not give enough warning before
33
L Strain distribution is assumed to be linear. Thus, the strain at any point is proportional to the distance from the neutral axis. This assumption can also be stated as plane sections before bending remain plane after bending. 2. The strain in the reinforcement the same level. is equal to the strain in the concrete at
3. The tension force developed in the concrete is neglected. Thus, only the compression force developed in the concrete is considered, and all the tension force is carried by the reinforcement.
and steel can be calculated using the idealized stressstrain curves for the concrete and steel after applying the strength reduction factors.
in of as in
5. An equivalent rectangular stress block may be used to simplify the calculation of the concrete compression force. The above assumptions are sufficient to allow one to calculate the moment capacity of a beam. The first of these assumptions is the traditional assumption made in the development of the beam theory. It has been proven valid as long as the beam is not deep. The second assumption is necessary because the concrete and reinforcement must act together to carry the load and it implies a perfect bond between concrete and steel. The third assumption is obviously valid since the strength of concrete in tension is roughly 1110 of the compressive strength and the tensile force in the concrete below the neutral axis will not affect the flexural capacity of the beam. The fourth and fifth assumptions will be discussed in items 2.3.2 and 2.3.3.
................. (2.1.A)
1.*
r
rc
_~.~_7_f<:.u!yc_
<U
en en
.....
en
,;.
_I
+'
>= o U
i<,_'i __
,_tConcrete
0.003
strain tc
0.001
e,
0.002
stressstrain 35
h/~'
~
tension
E,=200,OOO Nzmrn' .,;
Y,.
en
e/Ys
~
,
·1
.,
ey/ys
Strain, ts
co.
o:j
II
c'
iv/Y,
B: strain
C: parabolic stress
distribution D: equivalent rectangular block
stress
< Ey / r, ~ E,./ Y s
(2.l.B)
(2.2)
2 2e C =bxxxf
2
33
• =bx (4 eX 9
jO)'
c
(23) .
j' '
'9
• =exbx 7 '9
(24) .
The compression
c: = bxaxjc' = fJ exbxf~
Photo 2.2 High grade steel Reinforcement
36 37
(2.5)
By definition, C must be equal to C', thus solving Eq. 2.4 and Eq. 2.5 for 13gives
fJ = 7.. = 0.777
9
The code approximates the previous value to 13=0.8, thus the rectangular stress block depth (a=0.8 c). To find the location of the total compression force C', take the moment of the forces at point "0" and note that the C.G of the force F2 is at 3/8 of the distance (2/3c)
c xb x
f, x
k,
c ~XbXjc'(~)+*
=
c xb x
f, C72
c)
(2.7)
k1=0.404 The code simplifies the value of k, with 13/2=0.4 (i.e. the resultant middle of the stress block)
is at the
compressed
zone
The compressive stresses in concrete are replaced by a uniform stress block as suggested by the Egyptian Code (section 4.2.1.1.9) with distance "a" from the concrete surface as shown in Fig. 2.6.
39
The analysis of the cross section is carried out by satisfying two requirements:
• EquilibriUm
I.
Having determined the stress block distance a, the assumption of the tension steel yielding can be verified using compatibility of strains as follows (c=a/0.8 and Es=200,000 N/mm2 )
t. = E,
e
S
xes
(Hook's Law)
c . , (compatibility of strains) . (2.10)
2.
= 0.003 d c
f = 600
s
• Compatibility
,
to its distance from the
d c c
5,
L: .. 1.15
If the steel stress Is calculated by Eq. 2.10 exceed jJI.15, then the assumption the yielding of the tension steel i,svalid (fs=f!Ll5) as used in Eq. 2.9.A.
of
Therefore, if the design problem has more than two unknowns, assumptions have to be made to reduce them to exactly two. The stress in the tension steel is assumed to be equal to the yield strengthJ;,. This assumption should be verified after determining the neutral axis position. The equilibrium of the internal forces is used to determine the stress block distance "a" as follows:
C=T· (2.8)
The seco~d equilibrium equation 'is used to determine the moment capacity of the section by equating theintemal moment to the external applied mom~nt Mu• The internal moment capacity is computed by taking the moment of the mtemal forces about any point. Normally, this point is taken at the resultant ?f t~e compression force C to simplify the ?alculations. ~he intemal n:oment m this case is the product of the tension force' multiphed by the distance ~o t~e compression force. This distance is called the lever arm (dal2) as shown m FIg. 2.7. The equation for the moment is: M,,~
0.67 feu b a = As fy ;.•• ; 1.5 1.15 If the tension steel does not yield Eq. 2.9.A becomes
. .
(2.9.A)
~~1~'(
d _·~)
=
(2.ll.A)
:.. (2.9.B)
s .:
becomes
2 . 0.67 feu
1.5
M
b
1/
A f'(d!!"')
s s·
:
0.003
(2.II.B)
. Compression zone
1J··_'~I
Il
Neutral axis
T=As/yll.15 T=As f/1.15 T=As fs steel yields steel does not yield
section
of a singly reinforced
section
40
41
Cmu.,
(2.15)
am•x =
d
(2.16)
'j
"
'I.
I
Mumax
0.003
cmax = 3Gh
I_..T
Es>E/1.lS
T=A,max f/1.15
strains
forces
Fig. 2.9 Neutral axis position for calculating the maximum values allowed by the code
The ratio of the reinforcement in the concrete section (u) is an indication to show if the section IS lightly reinforced or heavily reinforced and can be expressed as:
j.1
From similar triangles shown in Fig. 2.8, one can conclude that
CI>
,..;.. (2.12)
y,
modulus
where c, is the neutral axis at the balanced failure. The steel Young's Es equals E, =f)' =f)'ly, Gy G)'ly, Substituting with steel Young's ~
= :~
'"
(2.17)
(2.13)
After finding the maximum neutral axis position Cmax,it is beneficial to compute the maximum area of steel As.maxrecommended by the code. To find the maximum area of steel, apply the equilibrium equation (C=T) with neutral axis at Cmaxas shown in Fig. 2.9.
• 0.67
fell
(2.14)
J;
(2.18)
Diving both sides by (b x d) gives If C < Cb, then the strain in the tension steel is greater than esiYs and that the tension steel yields. To ensure ductile failure the ECP 203 requires that the value of Cmax be limited to 2/3 Cb' Substitution in Eq. 2.14 and referring to Fig. 2.9 ..gives the following equation
0.6~.{cu a~.x =
,u~~; ;'
(2.19)
42
43
substituting
with Eq. 2.16 into Eq. 2.19 gives 189 690 f, + 1,; feu
Defining ca
= J1
.&.
feu
(()max
JLmax
(2.20) Substituting
= J1max f.fy
cu
(2.22)
The ECP 203 limits the reinforcement ratio f.! to f.!max given by Eq. 2.20 to ensure ductile failure. Moreover, it is a good practice, from the economic point of view, to limit the area of steel reinforcement in beams to only 0.50.7 f.!max. It can be noticed that steel with smaller fy will have smaller yield strain Eyleading to larger neutral axis .distance cmaxas shown in Table 2. L Thus, the smaller the steel yield strength, the larger. the maximum permissiblesteel ratio f.!maxas shown in Fig. 2.10. .
690+
I,
(2.23)
Table 2.1 Values of cmaxld, f.!mm ffimax .Steel cb/d cmax/d amax/d Rmax R1max
,
f.!max·
rom~~
_.
240/350
0.74
0.50
OAO
0.214
0.143
8.56x104 feu
0.205
280/450
0.71
_.
OA8
0.38
.0.208
0.139
7.00x104
feu
0.196
E :i
_._360/520
0.66
OA4
0.35
0.194
0.129
5.00x104
feu
0.180
400/600
0.63
OA2
0.34
0.187
0.125
4.~1x104
feu
0.172
..h
Fig. 2.10 Effect offcu and fy on f.!max
450/520**
0.61
. OAO
0.32
0.180
0.120
3.65x104
feu
0.164
It should be clear that if for a given section the neutral axis distance "c" is less than neutral axis maximum value ema:" then the steel is yielded, the actualar~a of steel As, and the applied moment M; is less than code maximum limits as . indicated in Eq. 2.21.
* **
leu in N/mm2
for welded' mesh
If 'd
£ < C max
d
then
JL<JLma, As <A,;ma,
'M" < Mu•m""
...............................
(2.2.1)
44
45
In general,
= \~~51;·
(d  G;ax )
(2.24)
1.5 x
feu b d
Mu,mw< . 2
«:
= !cuI:
\~u;/)' (d  a;ux)
(2.25)
«: = 1.304 Jl'~u1;·
s.; = 1.304 wmax
Substituting
(1 c;x )
0.4
(2.26a)
(1
0.4 C
d,,,)
(2.26b)
I
C~ux )
•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••
(2.27)
Over Reinforced
; •.• (2.28)
distributions
sections
46
47
A'lnin
. 10.225 =smaller of [,
.JJ:
cu
bd~
f:.
11
bd
(2.29)
The effect of steel yield strength on ultimate strength is shown in Fig. 2.12A. It is clear that steel yield strength has a big impact on its ultimate capacity. Increasing the steel yield strength from 240 N/mm2 to 400 N/mm2 increases the ultimate capacity by 55%. On the other hand, concrete compressive strength has a little effect on the ultimate strength as shown in Fig. 2. 12B. Changing concrete compressive strength from 20 N/mm2 to 40 N/mm2 increases the ultimate strength by only 5%. Comparing Fig. 2.12C and Fig. 2.12D shows that increasing beam depth affects the ultimate capacity more than increasing beam width. Increasing beam depth from 500 mm to 1000 mm increases the capacity of the beam by almost three times. Finally, increasing steel reinforcement ratio has a significant effect on the ultimate capacity as illustrated in Fig. 2.12E.
1.3 A,
If!cll is greater or equal to 25 N/mm2 the term (0.225.JJ:: If,. b d) is bigger than (0.25% b d) and (0.15% b d). Thus, there is no need to check the third condition in Eq. 2.29, if 0.225 If,. < 1.3 A, . The minimum area of steel in this case can be simplified to: .
JJ::
0.225. ,vJ_, b d __
cc",,""
if
(v
J.3A,
....................... (2.30)
48
49
3.5 3
_._.
'\,
2.5
2
:E
'i1.5 ~
0.5
280
L
fy
3.5 ,,r..,..,,
Analysis Summary In this type of problem all the cross section information is known including beam cross section dimensions, steel yield strength and concrete strength. It is required to calculate the moment capacity Mu.
4==:::==I=:::::=t:==::::j:==~
ANALYSIS PROBLEM
Given : b, t ,As feu, fy : Mu a, Mu' Required Unknowns:
0.511++1 O~~+_+_~
320 360 400 20 25 30 35
o
240
feu 40
AEffect of fy
BEffect of feu
350 300
350
300
E250
E Z e. 'i
i 2OO
'i
150 250
350 450
100 400
:
:
V
800
:
Procedure o Step 1: Apply the equilibrium equation T=C to find the depth of
the stress block, "a" and the neutral axis depth "c" assuming that tension steel has yieldedfs=f/I.15. o Step 2: Check that tension steel has yielded (fs ~ f)U5) by ensuring the.ccc, or by using Eq.2.1 O. o Step 3: Compute the bending moment capacity M, by taking the moment about the concrete compression force.
600
1000
b(mm)
d(mm)
3.5
3.0 2.5 )2.0 ~ 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0.40
...
...

i I
1.20
1.00
Example 2.1
Determine whether the section shown in figure is underoroverreinforced section and check code maximum permissible area of steel for the following cases ' 1. As = 500 mm ,2 2. As =1000 mm 3. As =1500 mnr' 4. As =2000 mrrr' fcu=25 Nzmrrr' , fy=360 N/mm2
2
Case l: As= 500 mnr' Case 2: As=lOOO mnr' Case 3: As=l500 mm2 Case 4: As=2000 mm2
under reinforced (As<Asb) under reinforced (As<Asb) under reinforced (As<Asb) over reinforced (As>Asb)
Code limit safe (As<ASlllax) Code limit safe (As<Asmax) Code limit unsafe (As>Asmax) Code limit unsafe (As>Asmax)
I
'''' .J!,
o o
b:=l50
Note 1: An alternative
follows:
c" d 690 690+ fl,' 690 690+ 360
the balanced
area of steel is as
= 0.657
',>
mm
........
As Solution To determine whether the section is underoroverreinforced, calculate the balanced area of steel Asb. one has to
0.67
Jr"
1.5
b a"
Asb =
1;.
As" x360
1.15
1.15
~rom the code Tabie 4~lor Table 2.1 in thistext one can, get :
~ax=5
AsmiIX
=.J1max b4=0.Ol25x150x600=1l25mm2
mnr'
Asmin =smaller
.,j
of
O.225.J2sx150x600=281mm'
360 .1.3x(500) = 650 mm
2
=281
mm?
52
53
Example 2.2
For the crosssection shown in figure: A Determine the bending moment that the reinforced concrete section can carry if As=1200 mm'', . . . B Determine the maximum area of steel that can be used m this section c Determine the maximum moment that can be resisted by the section 2 fcu=25 N/mm2 and fy=400 N/mm
250
Step 2: Check f s
From Table 2.1 for/y=400N/mm2 Since c/d(0.311)
~
cb/d=0.63
Since c/d (0.311 )<cmax/d (0.42) then the beam satisfies code requirements (As<.Asmax and M, < Mumax)as will be shown in step 4.1 and 4.2
= As "1.15
1;. (d
_!!..)
2
•••
Solution Step1: Apply equilibrium equation T=C
Assume tension steel yields 0.67 0.67
M"
h"
1.5
x
ba
25 x 250x a 1.5
a= 149.51 mm
!:... = a I 0.80
d d
=
= 0.311
= Rmax h"
L5
bd
= 280,5 kN.m
aid
Or, alternatively
0.67 fe"
1.5
I . b=250 . I
0.67 x 25 1.5
cmax/d=0.42
uT [7 ro[~
0.003
11
amax) 2
1616X400(600_ 1.15x106
201.6)= 280.6kN.m 2
•••
54
As
T=As f/1.15=1200x400/1.l5
Example 2.3
Determine whether the crosssection shown in the figure below can withstand an applied bending moment of 80 kN.m. 2 fcu=30 N/mm and fy=240 N/mm2 150
Step 2: Check fs
From Table 2
>
c/d = 0.173 < cJd (0.74) then fs=fJ1.15 Since c/d (0.173 )<cmax/d (0.50) then the beam satisfies code requirements
lAo
8 8
M
u
As 1;. (d 1.15
_!!.) 2
(45062.3) 2
\f")
lL
••
As=600mm2
cover
0.67 feu b a As 1;. =1.5 1.15 0.67 x 30 x 150x a 1.5 a=62.30mm 600 x 240 1.15 c=a/0.8=77.8 mm
,0.003
Il
o o
\f")
0 "<t
\f")
As=600
••
A, x Y"
I,
in the beam
concrete
bridge during
construction
. 57
Example 2.4
Calculate the maximum moment that the beam shown in figure can sustain. Check whether the crosssection meets the code requirements regarding the maximum area of steel. The material properties are fcu=25N/mm2 and fy=400 N/mm2 200 0.67x25
I'
200
·1
1.5 0.003
11
___i
''
As=1700
i_
_
Es<Ey
As=1700 mm''
Step 3: Recalculate a
0.67 feu b a = A 1.5 s
f
s
The above equation is a second order equation, solving for "a" gives
a=l95.94 rom c=244.93rom 7c/d=O.69
1;.
1700x 400 1.15
1.15
f
s
400) 1.15
a=264:76mm
c=330.95 mm
M = A f (d!!:')2
u
S
Step 2: Check f s
cld =0.94 > cJd (0.63) tension reinforcement does not yield, we have to recalculate "a" thus fs equals I,»
600 d c= 600 0.8x350~a= 168000600xa
u, = 1700x
257.4 (350
Note: Since the steel does, not yield, the crosssection is considered overreinforced. Thus, the crosssection does not meet code requirements (c/d(0.69»cmax/d(0.42».
58
59
Example 2.5 A 3 mm steel plate with a yield strength of 400 N/mm is glued to a concrete beam reinforced with steel bars (4 (fJ16, h=360 Nzmnr' ) as shown in figure. Determine the bending moment that the reinforced concrete section can resist. The concrete compressive strength of the beam is 20 N/mm2•
200
2
Step 2: Check cmax/d From the code cmax/d (1;,=360 N/mm2 )=0.44 for
C
max
c<Cmax o.k (steel yields) ... The depth of the plate dp= h+tpl2=750+3/2=751.5 The stress in the plate
. Isl' = 600 dc
I' 
a a 0
V)
e
iL
fj
••••
~
150mm
' =978.78Nlmm
=400/1.15)
sp
Step 3 : Calculate the ultimate moment Mu Take the moment about the concrete force C
Solution Step1: Apply equilibrium equation T=C Area of the plate Ap= 3 x 150 = 450 mm' Area of the steel bars = 4<1>16 804 mnr' = C=Tl+ T~ Assume that both the plate and steel bars yield
"='_
M =T (d ::"'.)+T(d. ::...) 2 2
u t 2 P
= As i). (d
1.15
_::...)+
2'
AI'
1.15
i>1' (d _::...)
I'
2
= 804 X360(700 1 15
.
0.67
I;
ba
1.5
= 
As
1.15
kN.l1lI
+1.15
804 x 360
a= 228.48 mm ,
0.8
0.8
o
V)
.t
t
._ ...."
.....
As=804 Ap=450
60
61
Example 2.6 A reinforced concrete beam has a cross section of concrete dimensions b=200mm and d=450 mm. Calculate the moment capacity and the area of steel using the idealized curves for concrete & steel, without applying safety factors (Ys=rc=l) for the strain distribution shown in cases A&B. The idealized stressstrain curve for the concrete and steel isgiven below.
• Force in the steel since 1>.(0.005) 0.001 then from steel curve!s=320 N/mm2 > • Force in the concrete The force in the concrete equals the stressed area multiplied by the width b. The concrete area can be divided into two parts as shown in the figure below
x = 185.29
i ~ o{ .1._
'"
'<t
200
0.0035
200

;r
0.002 0.0035
= 105.88 mm
0.001
xl =185.29105.88 =79.41 mm
0.005
0.0008
Case A
Strain
Case B
Strain
320 N/mm2
Steel 0.001
23 x 105.88 200
= 243524
Solution
Case A From the strain distribution, the neutral axis depth "c" is determined as follows:
c
d
As (320) = 243524+365286 As=1902 mrrr' Note that the C.G. of force C1 is at xl3
Y1= 45079.4"105.8/3=335.3
mID
Y2=45079.4/2= M,
=
410.3 mm
·62
63
Case B
c d
__ 0'_00_1 __ = 0.5556 0.001 + 0.0008
Example 2.7 Find the ultimate moment capacity for the crosssection shown in the figure below. fcu=30Nzmnr' , and fy=360 N/mm2
c=0.5556 x 450 = 250 mm • Force in the steel since Es(0.0008) < 0.001 then find steel stress from graph
/, = 0.0008320 = 256
s
0.001
N / mm?
.Force in the concrete The concrete force is equal to the compressed area of concrete multiplied by the width b. The stress in the concrete is a triangular shape .from the concrete curve with strain=O.OOI~ fc=I1.5 N/mm2
23 N/mm' 
~I
400
Solution In this problem we have two unknowns a and M, .. Step 1: Compute a. It should be noted that the code permits the use of the stress block for trapezoidal sections The total compression force C equals to the concrete stress (0.67 feu/1.5) multiplied by the compressed area Ae. Assume that tension steel has yielded(fs=fyl1.15)
i
Concrete
o o
o
o o
0.0035
As fy 1.15
= 1600x360
c
I
1.15
As (256) = 287500
Y1= 450250/3=366.667 mm
Ac=37378 mm2
Mu= C1
8,=0.0008 200
Strain 64
Forces
s=4002 a tan 10
I·
As fyt1.15
"I
65
Example 2.8
Ae
= a .
400+s 2
= a [400a
x tan(10))
Find the ultimate moment capacity that this crosssection can resist. The material properties for the beam are fcu=20Nzrnm'', and fy=400 N/mm2
180 200
fs
150
Since c/d (0.244) < cb/d (0.66), thus steel yields f5=fyf1.15 Since c/d (0.244)<cmax/d(0.44) then the beam satisfy code requirements Step 3: Compute moment capacity,
200
150
Mu
The concrete force is divided into two parts. The first is the two small triangles (CI) and the second is rectangular C2•
1 C1= 2 xxaxa 2 (10") x 0.67 x30 = 22530 N tan. 1.5
Solution Step 1: Compute a. Assume that tension steel has yielded. Since we have two unknowns M, and (a), solving the equilibrium equations gives
0.67 x feu
X
Taking moment about concrete force C2 (a/2fromthe top) The distance between CI and C2 = 79.65 _ 79.65 = 79.65
2 3 6 1600x360 (97.65) M 11.= 500  97.65 + 22530 x= 226.3 xl 06 = 226.35 kN .m
Ac
1.5' 0.67
x
As fy 1.15
20 1.5
Ae _ 1250 X 400
1.15
Ac=48670 mrrr' Since Ac is grater than (200 x 180), thus the distance by the distance
X2
1.15
as follows
kN.1lll
= 25.34 mm
X2
a=180+
=205.34
66
67
0.67
20 /1.5
Il
fs
Two alternative procedures can be followed: 1. The thickness of the beam is assumed as a function of the span as will be discussed in Chapter 6 in order to satisfy serviceability requirements such as deflection (span/l0). This procedure is usually followed by practicing engineers. Apply the two equilibrium equations to obtain the remaining unknowns (a, As) 2. The area of steel As can be assumed. A reasonable assumption for such an area canbe obtained by assuming that the lever armequalsto O.8d. Since concrete compressive strength has a limited effect on the ultimate capacity, a. further simplification can be attained by assuming that /cu=25 N/mm2• Solving Eq;2.9.A and 2.11.A for the area of steel As> one can get
t
Since c/d(O.35)<Cb/d(O.63),fs=fyll.lS Since c/d(0.35)<cmax/d(0.42) then the beam satisfy the code requirements Step 3: Compute moment capacity Taking moment about the tension force
c
t
= 0.67 x20 200x180 1.5 1000 = 0.67 x20 500x25.34 1.5 1000
321.60 kN
As =O.ll~Mu
.. mm
fy
(2.31)
c
2
113.2
KN
The assumed As is approximately 0.91 %ofthe cross sectional area ()J.~0.0090.01). After assuming the area of steel, one can apply the two equilibrium equations to calculate the remaining unknowns (a, d). The procedure for using this approach is illustrated in example 2.10.
IFinalResult:
Mu=266.64
kN.1Dl
68
69
Pro~edure
o
Example 2.9
A singly reinforced concrete beam with a width of 250 mm is subjected to an ultimate moment of 270 kN.m. Find the beam depth and area of steel, then Calculate Asmax Mumax. and fcu=30N/mm2 and fy=400 N/mm2
• • •
o
Assume the beam depth (d) or assume f.l=0.01. Or, assume area of steel, As
= (0.1 0.11) ~
Mu b
r,
Solution
In this example we have three unknowns a, d, As and we have only two equilibrium equations, thus we have to assume one of the unknowns.
Step2: Apply equilibrium equation T=C to find the depth of the stress
block, "a" (Eq.2.9)
Step 1: Assumptions
I1m•x=4.3IxI04x30=0.0129
o o o
Step3: Take the moment about the concrete force and calculate the
area of steel or the beam depth (Eq. 2.11)
Step 4: Check minimum area of steel Asmin (Eq. 2.30) Step 5: Check the code limits Mu,max, m.Jd, As.max(Eq. .21) c 2
.Step 2: Calculate a
0.67 feu b a 1.5 0.67
x
30
250 x a
1.5
1.15
"I
 _._._._
._.
 ._
ur
0.003
Ii
C
__ ._. _
roI     _._o_._._._._o
........................
Step 3: Calculate d
M
u
Es>Ey
Calculation of As, d
As
1.15
1;. (d
_!!:..)
2
70
71
(d
0.2596 2
d)
d=597mm
Example 2.10
Rounding d to the nearest 50mm, d=600 mm and As= 4<j122 (1520 mm')
Step 4: Check Asmin
0.22550 400 250 x 600 = 460 mm
2
A singly reinforced concrete beam is subjected to an ultimate moment of 330 kN.m. Find the beam depth and area of steel. The material rroperties are: fcu=25N/mm and fy=280 N/mm2
Solution Step 1: Assumptions
= 460 mm
<As ···o.k
In this example we have four unknowns b, a, d, As and we have only two equilibrium equations, thus we shall assume two (b, As) Assume b=200 mm
A =O.l1~Mub • ~ =0;11
330xl0 x200=1689mm2
6
From the code ~max= 4.31xlO4 feu cmax/d =0.42 and Rmax=0.187 ~max = 4.31x104 (30) =0.01293 amax =0.8 x 0.42x 600 = 201.6 mm As,max ~max d =0.0129 x 250 x 600 =1939 mm' > As = b
M
u.max
2W
0.67 feu
o.k
I'
b=200
201.6) 2
= 337 kN.m
OR
M
u.max
= Rmax feu b d
L5
337 kN.m
...
As
1.15
, I
1.5
0.003
Il
250
1~
0.67 x30
I J
0.003
"I
s
,,1
C
__ ._
Step
= As fy
"
1.15 1689x280
Asmax
• • • '"'' 8 8 >_y_
1.5
1.15
a=184.12 mm
Calculation
of Mumax
Step 3: Calculate d
M = As "1.15
1;, (d
_!!_)
2 1.15
(d _ 184.12)
2
?
do=895 mm
aid = 0.205 > ald)min(O.I) .... ok Use d=900 mm t=950 mm and As= 1689 mrrr'
900 = 719 mm 2
=smaller of
1.3 x 1689 = 2195 mm
2
d=
Step 5: Check
Asmaxi Mumax
M"
~~l;' (d %)
~.~
(2.33)
,..
i
200
.,.
i
~"2.=
(li%)
f.1X
(2.34)
Substituting
withEq.
R" =
o
II")
bd
f.1
1.15
fy (10.9734
feu
1,.)
(2.35)·
0\
••• •••
Final design
I"
.1
0.003
._._._._._.__._._~I_. ..
Note 1. The reinforcement is arranged in two rows. 2. The depth of the beam is measured from the c.g of the reinforcement.
...
As
..................... Es>E/I.J5
AJ/J.J5
in rectangular
sections
Substituting different values of J..L the Eq. 2.35, the relation between Ru, J..L in can be established. Fig. 2.14 shows an example of such curves. Appendix A contains RJ..Ldesign charts.
6.0
.feu' OMPa
fy 240 ~ ~
fy=3
o~m / 'C:35
jn2
Pa
r~ V
./
MPa
RI=
(2.37)
feu
.
)~
~30
I~ ~
V
5 A
30
(2.38)
~ ~
~5
~
~2(
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
..
V..,V
~f v
~ ~
Substituting different values of coin the Eq. 2.38, the relation between Rl, co can be established. The curve should be terminated at the value of COmax listed in Table 2.1 and Eq. 2.23. Fig. 2.15 shows an example of such curves. Appendix A contains Rlro design chart.
0.15 0.14
.,.·....,.....R .................
lI
::tcfiY;;:!ID~I'
_
fy",
 
_.,...._.'1 ; :Jt i
jlo N' fm
0.5 0.0
tiln~
~
0.0 0.2
II"
t,
0.13 :::: :::::::: :::: ~~J(~~ ~:: :::::::: :::: :::: :::.:::: :::: 0.12
V
,
:;v
"" 'E :
./
0.11
.L_
0.10 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 28 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.6 0.07 0.06
.j
<E: '6
0.4
Jl
0.05
('
.9, :
0.M++4~~~~~~~+++44~~F.+++~~
.0.03 +/4V~~~++4+~+++1C~++'t++~~ 0.02 ~+++J.I++++'+J.I+++++~_;._t0.02 O.M 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12
(j)
I I I 0.D1+_j_+~J._L....+L+_L+___ll.L_+L;..+L..;..j_;._.!.._....j
0.14 0.16 0.18 0.20 0.22
Summary
The following information: table illustrates the use of the charts depending on the example
Note 4: If the both (As and d) are not given, consider assuming 1l=0.0080.0 1
and proceed as the previous procedure
d is given,
1. 2. 3. 4.
Calculate Rl or n, or Ku Use charts (RO)or Rl! or Kul!) to determine l! or 0) Calculate As Check Asmin and Asm.x
As
required
As
1. 2. 3. 4.
is given, d required
Calculate l! or 0) Use the charts to determine RlorRuorKu Calculate d Check Asmin and Asm.x
Note 5: It should be noted that we have to check Asminusing Eq. 2.30 even if ll>!!minon the curve, because the curve tests only the value of 1.11J;, Note 6: Since sometimes the beam depth is not known, a reasonable
estimation for "d" can be concluded by assuming a=O.l d and , 1l=0.01 and substituting in Eq. 2.34. gives: .
d = ll~ :;)' ,,
(2.36)
As,
d required
Note 7: The design curves can be presented in a tabular form (Rull) or (RuKu) as given in appendix A
Mu feu b Rl
A
S
= to b
d feu f
reinforcement
ratio !!maxorO)max. Thus, there is no need to check the maximum moment.or the maximum area of steel as long as the point is less than the maximum limit.
Note 2: It should be noted that beam depth needs to be increased if the point
is located outside the curve as shown in Fig. 2.16.
Rl>Rlmax
Rlmax
Rwnax
llmin
!!max
Fig. 2.16 Cases where the beam depth need to be increased Note 3: For small values ofRl«0.04),
0) can be approximated by 0)=1.2 Rl.
Example 2.11 A reinforced concrete crosssection is subjected to a bending moment of a factored value of 400 kN .m, The beam has a width of 200mm. It is required to design the cross section using the (Rlro) curve, knowing that fcu=30 N/mm2 and fy=280 N/mm2 .
Step
3:
Check
Asmin,
Asmax
Asmin = smaller of
0.
225
/"
0=836..1
=836mm2 <As····f),k
Solution Step 1: Assume f.1 and get Rl Since both (As and d) are not given, then t""'+ assume f.1=0.0 1
cv = fl
I.. ~
200
•I ~
mrrr'
Final design
0)=0.093
romax
0.074=
400xl0 30 X200 X d2
d=949mm
A =0.0933x200x949~=1899mm2 s 280
Example 2.12 A reinforced concrete crosssection is subjected to a bending moment of a factored value of 350 kN.m. The beam has a width of 250mm. It is required to design the cross section using the (Ruu) curve, knowing that fcu=25 N/mm2 and fy=400 N/mm2 . . Solution Step 1: Assume 11 and get Ru Since both (As and d) is not given, then, Assume R=1/2 Rmax ~+.~ Ru=2.4 From the curve 11=0.8% (0.008)
Example 2.13 A reinforced concrete crosssection is subjected to a bending moment of a factored value of 290 kN.m. The beam has a width of 150mm. It is required to design the cross section using the (Ruku) table, knowing that the material properties are fcu=40N/mm2 and fy=360 N/mm2 . Solution Step1: Assume J.1and get
Ku
Assume J.1= 0.8% (0.008) From the table (Ruku)with fy=360 N/rrim2 determine Ku=0.655 Step 2: ComP':lte d, As
rrrrrt
Rumax
d =K
u
~Mu =0.655
b
290xl0 150
=910.74mm
d=950 mm t=1000 mm Note: use the calculated depth (910 mm) to calculate As Step 3: Check Asmin,Asmax
11=0.80%
Step 2: Compute d, As
R :; Mu
u
Ilmax
A,min
smaller
of
360
. :;563cm2
<A,
ok
b d2
6
Take d=800 mm, t=850 mm Note: it is more economical to use the calculated depth (763 mm) not the chosen depth (800 mm) to compute As Step 3: Check Asmin,Asmax
I·
1.
150
•1
i
_
Asmin
=smaller .
of
!0.225.J]:; bd 0.22Sfis
fy 400
x250x800:;
563
.0
o o
.<
=563mm2
<A,
IJ.k
...
l.3As =1.3x1526=1983
• • ••
A s=1093 mrn
:.o.k
Final design
Example 2.14
Redesign the beam in example assuming that d=600 mm 2.9 using the design aids (RuJl) and
Example 2.15
Determine the value of the ultimate load (Pu) that can be applied to the beam shown in the figure using design aids.
fcu=25 N/rom2 and fy=360 N/rom2 (Neglect own weight of the beam)
As
=3
o o
2
R = Mu = 270x1Q6
u
bd
r~
250x600
§ID
I~I
••••
..
As=1245 mm
From the chart ((y=400 N/mm2 andfcu =30 N/mm2 )with Ru=3~Jl=0.99
As =u b d
>
1485 mm"
Solution
A
S
Compare the previous value with As obtained from example 2.9 (1493 mnr')
=0)
leu bd
I),
t~u=30
Rwnax ~~~~ __ \_
Jlmin
11=0.99
Jlmax
Rl= Mil 2 feu b d Muxl0 25 x 200 X 7002
6
m=O.128
mmax
0.097=
0.225.jJ:: bd f),
0.22550 400
= Pu xL
4,
l.3As = l.3xl485
P u=176.04
k.N.
3
DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS AND TBEAMS
Photo 3.1 Edgar J. Kaufmann House (Fallingwater), Lloyd Wright 1936, (6 m cantilever)
Frank
compression steel should be added. Adding compression steel reinforcement may change the mode of failure from compression failure to tension failure or may change the section status from overreinforced to underreinforced section. Compression steel also reduces longterm deflection and increases beam ductility. For economic considerations, the Egyptian code recommends limiting the compression reinforcement amount to only 40% percent of the tension steel. The compression area of steel A ~ is usually expressed as a ratio from the tension area of steel As as follows: A; =a As ,•..........•..•..•...•..................•............ where a usually ranges from 0.1 to 0.4. Despite all of the aforementioned benefits, adding compression steel in reinforced concrete beams will not increase the section moment capacity significantly. This is because the tension force is constant (T = As f!1.15) and the lever arm between the tension force and the resultant ofthe two compressive forces (in concrete and in steel) is slightly affected by adding compression reinforcement. This can be noticed by examining Fig. 3.1. In this figure, the vertical axis gives the percentage increase in the capacity of a doubly reinforced section as compared to an identical one without compression steel. The use of compression steel is more beneficial when the tension steel provided is near the maximum allowed percentage of steel Jinwx. Adding compression reinforcement with a=0.6 will increase the beam capacity by 6 to 13 percent for beams with 1l=0.8% and u= f.1max respectively.
14
(3.1) c
d
·····,,·········1'·····+!p',>e/1.I5 .. ·
fcu 11.5
(
I'
Fig. 3.2 Analysis b
Mu
d'
0.67t;,u b a 1.5
I
T=Asfy!1.l5
reinforcement
(steel yields)
It will be ass~med that both the compression and the tension steel have yielded. The stress block distance "a" is calculated utilizing the equilibrium of forces as follows Compression force
=
Tension force
(3.2) (3.3)
1.5
+l.15=l.15
A: I,
As J,
(3.4)
10
,,..
'<f. ''
(3.5) (3.6)
" E g :::s
f's
=&s
,. Es = 6c d' X 00=600
c
a0.8d' a
If the value oif, 'in Eq. 3.6 is less thanfJU5, the analysis should be carried out acc~rding to the procedure outlined in case B. On the other hand, if'£_'ln Eq. 3.6. IS larger than fJ 1.15, the assumption of yielding of compression steel is valid and the moment capacity can be determined by taking the moment of the forces around the concrete force as follows:
a=A)As
Fig. 3.1 Effect of compression reinforcement on moment capacity
,)
(3.7)
Simplified Sections
(3.8)
Approach for
the
Analysis of
Doubly Reinforced
0.67
(;u b
+ A; 1,' =
~~~ . ,
0.67 feu 11.5
The previous procedure indicates. that the compression steel strain s', is affected . by the distance d' (refer to Fig; 3..3). The compression steel yields if the distance d' is small compared to the neutral axis distance as presented by Eq. 3.6. Setting fs = f/1.1S, one can solve Eq. 3.6 for the maximum yielding of the compression reinforcement: d' that ensures
tl
al2  d'
d: =1.25(1:'" ~~)
ax
(3.12)
If the value of the actual d' /a is less than the value d'max/a, the compression steel will yield and f~ equals to f/1.15. Table 3.1 lists the values of d'max/a that ensures yielding. . The ECP assuming depth d' otherwise 203 presents a simplified approach for such an analysis. It permits that the compression steel yields if the ratio of the compression steel to tension steel depth d is less than the values given in Table 3.1, a compatibility of strains (Eq.3.6) has to be utilized.
f/1.1S
b Fig. 3.3 Analysis of sections with compression reinforcement (steel does not vield)
Substituting
d'/d at c<cmax(code·values) (3 9)
A, = _ fJ' 1.15
s 0.525
fy/l.lS600x
A; ) a480A; d' =0
(3.10) can be
Solution ofEq. 3.10 gives the value of "a". The moment capacity determined by taking the moment around the concrete force as follows:
M =A;.{~. (d~)+A:f,'(~d')
n
(3.11)
Note that the positive sign indicates that the compression steel force Cs is assumed to be located above the concrete compression force Ce·
The simplified approach for the analysis of a doubly reinforced section can be summarized in the following steps Given :jeu,fy, b, d'; d, As and A ~ Required iM;
Case A: check if d' /d< code limits (Table 3,1), then compression steel yields. • • Step 1 calculate "a" using Eq. 3.4. Step 2 calculate M, using Eq. 3.7.
3.1.3 Maximum Area of Steel for Doubly Reinforced Sections To ensure ductile failure of a doubly reinforced section, the neutral axis distance Cmax is limited to that of the singly reinforced section as given in Table 41 in the code or Table 2.1 given in Chapter 2. Thus, increasing the tension reinforcement above As,max is allowed by the code only by adding compression reinforcement that keeps the same neutral axis distance as shown in Fig. 3.4.1. A doubly reinforced section can be looked at as composed of a singly reinforced concrete section and a steel section. The singly reinforced section (Fig. 3.4.II) has an area of steel equal to As,max obtained from Table 2.1, and the steel section has the same amount of top and bottom steel of area A ~ (Fig 3.4.III). Thus, the maximum area of steel for a doubly reinforced section Asd,max is given by
Asd.max
Case B: check if d'/d> code limits (Table 3.1), then compression steel does not yield • • Step 1 calculate "a" using Eq. 3.8 or Eq. 3.10. Step 2 calculate Mu using Eq. 3.1l.
= As,max
+A;
(3.13)
Asd,max
= Pm.,
A1s,max a Ia
"
(3.14a) , (3.14b)
~/'
rr cmax
•.. ••
· .. ·(3.15)
where
J..lmax
The yielding of the compression reinforcement can be verified by comparing the ratio d'/d and with the maximum allowed value given in Table 3.1. If the compression steel does not yield, the maximum area of steel can be obtained from:
A sc ,max
I
rmax
II
bd+A'
sf
II 15
•
f.'
(3.16)
Maximum Moment Calculation Referring to Fig. 3.4, the maximum moment for doubly reinforced sections
Mud.max can be calculated using the following procedure
Mud,max
= Mu,max
=M
+M'
(3.17) (3.18)
i. uc .max
u.max
+ A; fy (d d') 1.15
I su .max
= Rmax feu
b d?
1.5
(3.19)
where Rmax obtained from Table 2.1 is An alternative procedure to obtain the maximum moment is to take the moment around the concrete compression force. Referring to Fig.3.4.I, the maximum moment is given by:
d
=
",I.max
(
b
d'
(3.20)
Es>Eyl1.l5
T=Asd.max f/l.15
Note that if the calculated neutral axis location "c" is less than the maximum value allowed by the code "cmax"then the following rule applies:
Mu•max d
Mu < Mucl.ma.,
~._
·····._·.,._ .. · .. _
II.... •
As.max
b
_l
L._
T [=As,max f/l.15
...............  ...,....* ?~
M'
(
..
................. i_ "..........
N
· ·]'
A's
?:??!..
Cs=A's f/1.15
~~::0
I
"0
A's
b
_.
1':,>&/1.15
'1
111Section with A',lop and bottom Fig. 3.4 Maximum moment and area of steelfor doubly reinforced sections
Example 3 .1 (compression steel yields) Find the moment capacity of the crosssection shown in Figure. Assume that d' = 50 mm and the material properties are: feu = 25 Nzmrrr' fy= 400 N/mm2 0.67 x 25 x 200x a 402 x 400 1520x400 + =1.5 1.15 1.15 a= 174.1 mm c = alO.S= 217.6 mm aid = 0.317 > ald)min(O.I).... ok
c/d = 217.6/550 = 0.396
•
o
2<D16
o
\0
4<D22 .1
1.= 600 
cd' c
= 600
= 462 > 
400·
l.l5
steel yields)
Is = 600 Solution As = 4<D22 =15.2 cm2 = 1520 mrrr' A's = 2<D16 =4.02 cm2 = 402 mm' d = 600  50 = 550 mm Step 1: Compute a.
d' 1d = 50/550
= 0.09
d c c
= 600
OR
(0.287)«0.S2,Table
3.1)then
•. Since c/d(0.396) < (cJd = 0.63, Table 2.1) then tension steel yields
Since d'/d (0.09) <0.1 (Table 3.1), one can assume that compression steel yields. This assumption will be ~heckedin step 2. Applying Eq. 3. 4 gives:
"'=
As 1;. (d 1.15
_~)+
2
=
As 1;. 1.15
0.67 feu
Thus
M
u
_._. . _. _._.
••
A's=402
°I
0.003
._._.
_. .~. ._._. _
;1
11
1.5
)+
kN.m
402X400(174.1_50) 1.15 2
Ce _. _. __ ._._._._ ..
= 249.94x10
= 249.94
•••
I.
As=1520
.' _ _J __ .•.• •• _ _._ ..... _..
As [11.15=1520
x 400/1.15
200
"I
95
I
I
!final Result: Mu
249.94
kN.IllI
96
Example 3.2
Calculate the maximum area of steel and the maximum moment capacity that is allowed by the Egyptian Code (ECP 203) for the doubly reinforced section sh~n in Example 3.1. The material properties are: feu = 25 N/mm2 and fy = 400 N/mm2
shown in figure.'
~I·
.j!,
I 250 .1
i :
A's
500mm2
• • ••
,. 200 • ,
Asd.max Solution
d= 750  50 = 700 mm
• • ••
1900 mm'
Step 1: Compute a.
+ A's
=
d = 700 = 0.143
o.k
d'
100
> 0.10 (see table 3.1) ... compression steel does not yield'
ba' (A,
J;./1.l5600xA;
)a480A;
d'=O
.'
.'
= R max
= [0.187
I" J cu
b d?
1.5
A'
I,
3350 a2
360869 a  24 X106
=0
a =154.2 mm"'~
c= 192.73 mm
0.67 feu
The same result can be obtained using Eq.3.20 as follows: amax=0.8 cmax=0.8 x 0.42 x550 =184.8 mm
11
2S0
'1
M
M
ud.max
. = A,t1,maxJ;'(d_amax2' 1.15
)+
. 1.15
.!..~s:?_~~·~·
•••
QR As=1900
~~~:~r~ ._~~.~~~~~~_._._
1.5
0.003
11
~~~~~s~:
.,
",I.max
=1587X400(550_184.8) 1.15 ~ 2
Asf/1.1S
Step 2: Check
I' J s=
fs and f's.
288.6 N / mm < compression steel does not yield 1.15
2
600
= 0.63
The same procedure used in designing singly reinforced sections is used for the design of doubly reinforced sections. The unknowns in these types of problems are the beam depth, area of steel, neutral axis position and the ratio of the compression steel a. Given Required
Step 3: Compute
Mu
:!cu,/y, u; h, d'
Since we have only two equilibrium equations,we have to limit the unknowns to only two. If not given, the depth of the compression steel will be assumed 0.050.1 of the beam depth to ensure yielding of compressed bars for all steel grades. The design procedure can be summarized in the following steps: 1. Make the necessary assumptions d' =0.050.10 d (compression steel yields for all fy)
!Final Resnlt: Mu
= 408.3
kN.1I1I
Assume As
= f.lmax
leu
ba
(a x As) 1.15
1;.
= 
As
I,
1.15
= f.lmax
bd
2. Check the minimum area of steel 3. Check the maximum area steel and the maximum moment by ensuring that (c/d<cmax/d)
00
100
Example 3.4
The doubly reinforced section shown in figure is subjected to a bending moment ofa factored value of200 kN.m. d' "" 50 mm, fcu= 27 Nzmnr', and fy= 280 N/mm2 Use the first principles to determine the required beam depth.
1<250 ) 1
=
u,
As fy (d 1.15
A's=509 mm'
200xl06=2260x d=429.5 mm
(d _141.4)+ 2,
509X280(141.4 1.152
50)
• • ••
As=2260 mm2
= 50/429.5 = 0.116
Since d'/d = 0.116 <0.2 (code limit for mild .steel see table 3.1), thus
fs= f/1.15
c/d = 176.75/429.5 = 0.4115 From Table 2.1 cmax/d= 0.48 for fy = 280 N/mm2
Is
.: ':"(0.411)::; emax (0.48)
= Iy /1.15
,,2
dd
th en
/l <'/ldmax
.
+
0.67 x 27 x 250 x a
509 x 280
=176.75 mm
mIDI
··1
A's=509
250
I·
0 003 .
~I
A' s=509 mm2 '
...~.
::1
i
A ~h/l.15=509x280/1.15
o o
V'l
r, • ,.
'_._.
•••
101 102
As=2260
••
••
As=2260mm2
1
Example 3.5
A reinforced concrete crosssection is subjected to 265 considerations require limiting the thickness of the section Economic considerations limited the value of a to 0.3. constraints, design the cross section. Check the maximum maximum moments allowed by the code knowing that: b = 250 rom, feu = 30 Nzmm', and fy = 360 Nzrrmr' kN.m. Architectural as much as possible. According to these area of steel and the
265xl06 265xl06
0.2453d)+ 2
d 0.1 d)
Solution . Step 1: Assumptions Given :/cu,J;"Mw b, a(ArJ Required : d, dr, As Unknowns : a, d, d', As
We have four unknowns, thus we shall assume two (d' and AS(Il)) (for singly reinforced section)
= 1037.9
= 1894.8 mm'
= 568.45
mm'
1. Assume d'
= 0.10 d
= Jl b d = 0.015x
250xd
= 3.75 d
= a As = 0.3x3.75 d = 1.125 d
Asmin
=smaller
of
Step 2:
I,
.JJ: bd = 0.225.J3Q
360
><250X.550= 470
= 470cm
<As
•••••
1J.k
=.=+1.5
0.67 fell b a
J,
1.15
=
As
Iy
3.75 d x 360 I 1.15
1.15
0.67 x 30 x 250 x a 1.125 d x 360 +1.5 1.15 a= 0.2453 d aid = 0.2453 > ald)min(O.I) .... ok
of 0.15, we can assume that compression steel yields. . 4 Asd.max = Jlmax b d + A ~ = 5x10 x 30 x 250 (550) + 568.45
A.d,max
....
o.k. o o
\0
250.!
0.67 fell
•
Step 5.2: Calculate maximum moment
M . = Rmax fell bd ",I.max 1.5
2
A's=568 rnm2
I"
250
I
~
0.003
.~_.~~~_~. _._._.~r_.__._~l_._. .
...
As
+ A;
1.15
1;. (ddr)
••••
As=1895 rnm2
Final design
",/.max
=0.194x30x250x550 1.5
+ 568x360(550_55)
1.15'
=381kN.m
>M
II
(265)
Es>EylI.lS
Example 3.6
Design a doubly reinforced concrete crosssection to withstand an ultimate . moment of 265 kN.m by assuming area of steel. Check the maximum area of steel and the maximum moments allowed by the code. b = 250 mm, feu= 30 Nzmm", and fy = 360 Nzmm' d
= 614
mm.
c/d
122.65/614
0.2
Since d'/d (50/614 = 0.081)< 0.15 (code limit for fy= 360 Nzmm"), then our assumption that compression steel has yielded is correct. Take d = 650 mm and t = 700mm
:.fcu,j;', Mu, b
Asmin
= smaller
of
I,
As =O.ll~Mu
1;.
b =0.11
1.250
!
.1
• A's=450
equation T =C
1500 x 360 1.15
o o
r.
=
••••
As=1500
a =98.12
mm
andc =a/0.8=
122.65.mm
Final design
Sfep3:
NOTE: The cross sections in Example 3.5 and 3.6 are subjected to the same
bending moment, however, the same capacity was obtained using different depth and area of steel as shown in figure. For the same moment capacity, area of steel may be reduced but the beam depth has to be increased.
265xl06
'"
1500x.360 1.15
(d _ 98.12)+ 2
0.003
450X3.60(98.12 1.15 2
• A's·.. As
...
_ .".
.; ._. _.
~I" mI'
N C:s>c/l.15
~~~C'e
. _ ........__ ..
As f/1.15=1500x360/1.15
, +__;_ _ _..:.._~
505
·:· .:
···
·
,,
·,· · 614
Hlh
_+
d(mm)
105
Example 3.7
Design a doubly reinforced concrete crosssection to withstand an ultimate moment 0[360 kN.m knowing that the beam thickness equals to 650 mm. b = 250 mm, feu= 35 Nzmm", and fy = 400 N/mm2
0.67
A;
steel yields
Dividing by (feub
=
As 1;.
1.15
x400 __ 1.15
0.67
x
_O._67_!!..cz:
35
1.15 I:
f.1
Iy (Ia)
.
a = 0.0623 As
I'
250 "
u
._o _. _.......
. ... _. _.
ill~ .1<.
Step 3: Apply
second
Es>E/1.15
L
....
o.or0
C'(j
l' F~
.C=
1.5
= As I(b . d)
Define
OJ
:;:::_A's
__ ....
= f.1 fy
feu
0.67 xlcu
._ ... ,_,,,,_,
b
A, '/115=A, ,400/1.15
0.003
A's f/1.15
(
50)
= 0.3 x As = 571
Mu
....... _._..
As 1;. (d
1.15
_!!..)+
2
A; 1;. (!!..d')
1.15 2 0.0623 As)+ 0.3XAsX400(0.0623As 2 1.15 2 mm
•••
As
Es>E/1.15
. As f/1.15
360xl06
As x 400 (600
Fig 3.5 Location of the neutral axis for doubly reinforced sections
mm"
(3.22) force
M
2
= As
u
1.152
iy
01
= 499 cm
< As ..... ok
l.3x1904
= 2475
107
lOS
dividing by (feu b
RI
To find
romax
= 1~5
(12ad)+
~l~
(2ad 
~'J
(3.23)
• • • •
• • •
Assume d' /d=0,050.1 Assume a=0.20A Choose the highest Rl for the chosen a to get the smallest possible depth Compute the depth "d" from the following relation
Ia
RI = Mil
feu b d
where
romax
From the tables or the charts get ro Compute the area of steel from the following relation
A
s
Figure 3.6 shows an example of such curves. Appendix A contains Rlro design charts. Table C in the appendix gives the maximum moment index Rlmax for each values of a, rodmax' To use the table enter with a and fy and either (Rlmax to find rodmax) or (rodmax to find Rlmax). The design procedure for using Table C to design doubly reinforced section is illustrated in Example 3.8
0.38 0.36 0.34 0.32 0.30 0.28 0.26
= OJ feo,
I,
A;
= a x A,
Notel:No need to check Asd,max because the limits are already in the charts Note2:No needto check As.min because we usually use u near J..lmax
•
•
A 0
,pi
~.6
tor
fy
=280 N/mm2
"'b
on
0.24 0.72 0.20 0.18 0.16 0.14 0:12 0,10 0.08 0.08
e
..d ~
~~ ~
0; .2 0;=
ar
10;
/.
?t
7.:
1...«'
~O
0.4
i II
e<:
.3
i
,
fO
~
i,  l,1y,
!,
+~
0
1.
A,
___,
.,:.
V
o
<0
,
~"
o
A =(obdi.· A' = tx
.'
(0
b d /."
ci
ci
~ 0 ci ci g ~ ~ ~ d ci ~ ~ ci ~ ci ~ ~ re ci ci ci d ~ ~ ~ g ci
0
Example 3.8
Design a doubly reinforced design aids. b = 250 mm,/cu Solution Assume a = 0.3 Enter the table or the chart with a = 0.3 and get the value of'Rl and eo very close to the maximum allowable for fy = 240 N/mm2 to get the smallest possible depth. Thus get R1 = 0.2 and ro = 0.274 R1=
0.2
=
Example 3.9
concrete section subjected to M, = 480 kN.m using Design a doubly reinforced section subjected to M, = 320 kN.m using Table C. b = 200 mm, d = 600, feu = 25 Nzmm", and fy = 280 N/mm2 Solution Assume d'/d
= 0.10
320x10 =0.177 25 X 200 X 6002
6
MUIl.max
leu b d?
From the table C with d'/d = 0.10 and Rldamx = 0.177, we can notice that the moment capacity exceeds singly reinforced get section and we must use compression
Mu
leu b d
2 6
reinforcement.
Thus, by interpolation
d=693
mm
= MIIII•max lell b d?
d'/d=O.05 d'/dO.1 d'/dO.15 d'/dO.2 280 ();196 0.206 0.218 0.231 0.245 0.21>1 0.280
A =0.274x~x250x693=3955mm2 s 240 .
m:Q(F,~.~;~ll,O::~'Q,i~$a, ~.d~$;R1$8 . •.
0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.147 0.146 0.156 0.155 0.167 0.1fi_5 0.179 1(0.176' 0.192 1\0.189 0.207 0:204 0.146 0.154 0.164 0.174 0.186 0.200 0.145 0.153 0.162 0.172 0.184 0.197
A; = a As = 0.3 x 3955
= 1186
mm"
=
As 
{()dmax.
leub
IJ'
3955 mm'
A =0.248x~200x600=2657mm2 s 280
A; = a As = 0.205 x 2657
Mu=480
= 544
mm'
I_ 200 .1
:. !
( ~i. ·..
kN'~T·
• A's=1186 mm'
No3955 mnr'
• • • • As=2657 crrr'
Final design
Final design
Example 3.10
.Find the maximum cantilever span L, for the beam shown in the figure at section Iusing R1w design tables. The material properties are fy = 360 Nzmrrr', feu = 40 Nzmnr'
with
(0)
OJ
Rl
001 002 003 004 005
0.=00 001 OOZ 0Q31 004 006 001 OOB! 010: 011 013: 014 400 360 016 018
0.=01 001 002' 0Q31 OO<U 0061 OOe 00Bi 0101 011! 012! 014< 01S! Oll!
0.02 001 002 0031 004 006 001 006 . 0.1()( 0.11 0.12 0.14 0.16 017 018 0.20
40036(
0.03 001 002 0031 OO<U 0061 007 008 01()( 011 01a 014( 015 0161 018 019 0211
ICp3E ICp4S
pel
GOO
007 008 009 010 011
I ( 74
Opa7 0fl99
ow.:
011 012 013! 0151 01& 01T 0191 020< 021 0231
Ie
12
~ID
I~
4<1> 28
24ll28O019
13OOlO
280
019 020>
240 022(
0.21
2<1>2S
01£
018.
( 022
['QZl6
Section I
=;:
SOmm
d =;: SSOSO =SOOmm Since section I is subjected to ve moment, the tension steel is at the top and the compression steel is at the bottom of the beam. As:=: 2463 mm", A's:=: 982 mnr' a = 982
2463
= 0.398 "" 0.4
0.170 =
Mu 40x 2QOx5002
X
M, = 340
.M" = 200
(internal moment)
d' /d
= SO/SOO = 0.1
W L2 1+P
i,
(external moment)
'I
Mu
40 2463 = (JJ x x 200 x 500 360 .
0)
= 0.2217
0 0 on
"0
II
In
forT sections
(3.25.a)
B s!:::L+b where
L2 = L L2 = 0.8 L L2 = 0.7 L simple beam one end continuous continuous beam
10 C.L to edge
forLsections
(3.25.b)
 Ib
~ ~
a) Distribution of maximum flexural compressive stresses Eo!.
!l>l.
'1
II
lE:
..!;)
I
~ ~
:;:!
~ ~
'1
C.L. to C.L.
for Tbeam
b) Flexural compressive
The direction of the bending moment distinguishes between rectangular and Tsections. If the flange participates in resisting the compression stresses resulting from the bending moment, then the section acts as a T'section, On the other hand, if only the web of the beam resists the compression stresses, then the section acts as a rectangular section. Consider for example the simply supported beam with cantilever shown in Case lof Fig. 3.9. According to the given schematic bending moment diagram, section AA acts as a TSec., while section BB acts as a rectangularsection. Case II, on the other hand, shows a simply supported beam with cantilever, in which the slab is located at the bottom part of the beam (called an inverted beam). In such a case, section CC acts as a rectangular section while section DD acts as a ISec.
Case I Case"
When designing a TSec., the neutral axis could be located inside the flange (Fig.3.10.A) or outside the flange (Fig. 3.10.B). Each case shall be analyzed in detail in section 3. 2.3
compression zone
ll
b
•••
As
~Slab
d
Bending Moment Bending Moment
C
BNeutral axis in the web
(
I'f
Mu
b.
of the neutral
TSection Section A
RSection Section B
RSection Section C
TSection Section D
I
118
3.2.3 Analysis of TBeams Case A: Neutral axis inside the flange (a:Sts) The details of this case are shown in Fig. 3.11. Applying the equilibrium equation gives:
T=Cc
two parts. The first part is in th~ flange with. a wid~ (~:b!, and thic~~~~ o~ 1,; (Fig. 3.l2.C). The second part is III the web with a WIdth b and depth a (FIg. 3.12. B). The force in the flange C, equals:
c = 0.67 feu
f
1.5
(B b) ts ...................•...................
(3.28)
As ~ 1.15
(3.26)
After calculating the stress block distance "a" the nominal moment can be computed by taking the moment around the compression force Cc:
M"
c
w
= 0.67 fe" b a
1.5
(3.29)
= ~s. ~.
d
%)
(3.27.A)
In some cases the depth of the neutral axis (a) is very small and less than the minimum required by the code (0.1 d). In such a case, the stress block distance is assumed to bea=O.l d. Thus Eq. 3.27.A becomes
M;
=
As ;;.(0.826
d)
0.67 feu
(3.27.B)
d
T=As f/l.l5 .1
b d
A Equilibrium of forces for the complete cross section
As
T=As flUS
Case B: Neutral axis outside the flange (a >ts) If the external moment is large enough, the neutral axis will be located outside the flange(Fig. 3.12.A). The ECP 203 permits the use of the stress block in the case of Tbeams as stated in clause 4.2.1.1. For the sake of simplicity and for comparison with rectangular sections, the compression zone will be divided in
B Force in the web C Force in the flange
rLJ
T=As f/1.15
Fig. 3.12 Analysis of Tbeam for the case of neutral axis outside the flange
120
119
3.2.4 Minimum Area of Steel for Tsections Applying the equilibrium equation
T
As Iy =0.67 1.15
=
Cr+ Cw
•••.••.•••••••••••••.••.....•.•..•••••.••.•••••
(3.30) (3.31)
The minimum area for Tsections is the same as the rectangular sections as stated in the ECP 203 section (4212g). The minimum area IS related to the web width "b ", not to the flange width ~'B" shown in Fig. 3.14. as
. = smaller of A .s mm 'J
leu
(3.34)
1.3 As
steel) 100 0.15 b d (high grade) 100
Solving Eq. 3.31 gives the equivalent stress block distance a. The moment of the internal forces may be taken around any point such as the location of the tension steel as follows:
Mu = Cf( d  t~ but nat less than
0.25 b d(mild
B
1
.
(3.35)
J+
Cw( d ~)
(3.32)
For the sake of simplicity, the code (Section 4212'» permits neglecting the compression part in the web and calculating the compression force as if it is in the flange only as shown in Fig. 3.13. In this case, the ultimate moment is taken the smaller of the following two equations:
u; = ~~I~' (d ~
r
d
(3.33a)
= 0.67~~5
B ts (d ~)
0.67
xlcu
r
1.5
T=As f/1.l5
,,
...
I
~ 3.2.5 Maximum Area of Steel for Tsections ~h~ maximum area of steel allowed for Tsections is usually several times the limits for rectangular sections. Thus, it is rare that aTbeam can exceed the maximum area of steel. It should be mentioned that, whether the neutral axis is located inside the flange (case A) or outside the flange (case B), the ECP 203 uses the same procedure for calculating the maximum area of steel. B
0.67 feu 11.5
t1
I
II
The maximum area of steel can be calculated by applying the same principle used in rectangular sections. The cmaxldvalues listed in table 2.1 are used to determine the maximum area of steel. Referring to Fig. 3.15 and observing the notations used in that figure, one can drive the following equation:
C
wmax
(3.36)
gives
(3.37)
1.15
f),
The procedure for calculating the maximum area of steel for section B is equivalent to that of rectangular section, thus I
•••
b
.15
swmax
=/1
rmax
bxd
(3.38)
where llmax determined from Table 41 in the code or Table 2.1 in Chapter 2. is
C,
max
= 0.67feu
1.5
(Bb)ts
(3.39)
Tjmax= Cjmax,
gives
(3.40)
rI L
_
"
A
f~
feu (Bb)ts
(3.41)
(3.42)
•••
b .
II
,_ (Bb)/2
rmax
b d + feu (B b) 2 X fy
ts
(3.43)
'I
OR
A
sl,max
,
I I I I
= CwnrdX + Cfmax
f), 11.15
(3.44)
,.!_~!,
Cforces in the flange Ib
A sf.max
I I I I
I
Tfmax=Asfmax fyfU5
The maximum area of steel allowed for aTsection is much bigger than that for a rectangular section especially when the section has a wide flange. Figure 3.16 presents the maximum area of steel.for Tsections. It is clear from the figure that the maximum area of steel can be as high as 68%(about fivesix times more than the maximum allowed for rectangular sections). .
l'JA
Fig. 3.15 Calculation of the maximum area of steel and moment for Tsections
123
1 ,
7
6.
4tr~~~~c~~~~~~~
3t~~~~~~~~~~+_~
2~~~~~
5tT~~~~~~~~~~
Given :/cu,/y, Mu. b. B Required : As and d Unknowns: a, As. d The design procedure can be summarized
F=
o
0.05 0.1 t"/d Fig. 3.16 Maximum 0.15
Ib=1
1. Make the necessary assumptions (either) i. Assume d ii. Or, estimate J.l or As as discussed in Chapter 2(see example 3.13) 2. Assume that the neutral axis is. inside the flange then determine the depth of the stress block a using the equilibrium equation: 0.251 0.67 feu B a 1.51.15 3.Calculate ts
=
0.2
As
1;.
II
1 i
i
J
1 T
la
Mu
(
= As
1.15
fy (d 2
T
•••
~ As
IT
ts
_j_
a
T
11
b
_,.
•••••.•••••.•..•
; ••••••
(3.45)
·Mur•max
= Rmax~;
b d + C/max (d  ~)
(3.46)
if a < ts then calculate the depth using Eq. 3.27.A or Eq. 3.27.B M
u
Not~: It should be clear that if the calculated neutral axis depth c is less than the maximum allowed value Cm,x,then there is no need to check the maximum area of steel or maximum moments
_!:)
d
a>O.ld a<O.ld
(3.27.A) (3.27.8)
= As
fy (d _ ~ ) 1.15 2
M"
= O.826AJy
3. Determine As (only if you used Ii, skip this step if you used lii)
If ~::; Cmax
d d
1',=
then
As = f.l b d
••••••••••••••••••••.••••••••••
A; = 0
(3.47)
4. Check minimum area of steel 5. Check maximum area steel andm~xi.mum moment (c/d<cmax/d)
u, <M"f.11l<IX.
125
Example 3.11 The figure shows aTsection that is subjected to an ultimate moment of a value of 220 kN.m. Using the first principles, calculate the required depth and area of steel. The material properties are feu= 25 N/mm2 and fy= 360 N/mm2
I), (d!!")
= 0.826
As
I. d
)
d=785.2mm
_LI~"'I
100
1500mm
a = 0.1 d = 78.5 mm < t, (our assumption is correct a<ts) As = 1.2 d =942.2 mm" Use d = 800 mm , As = 982 mm' (2<1>25)
T
••
As
1120 1
= 293.33 mm
<As · .. o.k
In this example we have three unknowns a, d, As and we have only two equilibrium equations, thus we shall assume one unknown (As) Assume As = 0.01 b d = 0.01 x 120 x d= 1.2 d Assume that the neutral axis inside the flange (a<ts) Step 2: Determine a
0.67
Step 5: Check Ast.max, Mut.max From the code cmaxld 0.44 = ald= 0.1 ~ c/d=0.125 Since c/d (0.125) <cmax/d(0.44)then Mu<Mumaxnd As<Asmax a
feu
1.5
Ba
=.As f)'
1.15
1.2 d x 360
0.67 x 25 xlS00xa
1.S
US
As = 2<1>259.82 cm2)1 (
l_
1500 mm
\
d
100
1_
0
tr)
00
As=2 <P 25
'
••
1
li20
As T=As f/1.15
Final Design
127
128
Example 3.12 Calculate the maximum area of steel and maximum moment for the section given in example 3.11. feu= 25 N/mm2 and fy= 360 N/mm2
1500mm
A
sr.max
100
_ll'~~
=377344+1541000 360/1.15
6128mm2
>A ... ok
s .
T
••
As
I
I
= 5 x 104x 25 =0.0125
2
Pmax
Solution Step 1: Calculation of Maximum area of steel From Table 2.1 cmax/d=0.44 for fy= 360 N/mm2 amax = 0.8 c max = 0.8 x 0.44 x 800 = 281.6 mm
I
=
Step 2: Calculation of Maximum Moments To find the maximum moment take the moment around tension steel
1.5
1.5
=377344N
0.67feu
C[ max;=
(Bb) 1.5
t•
;=
1541000N
I
i
!
Rmaxfeu
bd2
1.5
+C
[max
. (d~)
2
ez.max
1500
j_
100
0.67x 25 /1.5
rf
I....l._
Cfmax Cwmax
T max=Ast,lllax
.15
no
Example 3.13 T Sections (a < t s) The figure shows a Tsection that is subjected to an ultimate moment of a value of 280 kN.m. Using the first principles, calculate the required depth and area of steel. Check the code limits for maximum and minimum area of steel and Mumax t;,u= 30 N/mm2 and fy= 400 N/mm2
Step 3: Calculate d Assume a<O.ld, thus use a = O.ld use Eq. (3.27.B)
Mu = As
fy
(0.826 d)
120
1
T
11
1200
d= 751.8 mm a (24.38 mm)< 0.1 d (75.18 mm) our assumption is correcta<O.ld Use d = 800 rom , As = 11.27 cm2 Step 4: Check
Asmin
11
150
=370mm2 l.3x1127=1465mm
<As ···o.k
In this example. we have three unknowns a, d, As and we have only two equilibrium equations, thus we shall assume one (As) 1. Assume that a<t, 2. The area of steel may be assumed as
As = 0.11 ~Mu b = 0.11 fy 280x10
6
Mut.max
From the code cmax/d = 0.42 aid = 0.1 ~ c/d = 0.125 Since c/d (0.125) <cmaxld(0.42)then Mu<Mut,max As<Ast,max and
400
Step 2: Calculate a
"=
0.67
1.5
i: B a =_ As~.
1.15
1127x 400 1.15 1.5
0.67x30x1200xa
a=24.38mm
~~
~~IT~11'i
150
"
T=As f/1.15
Photo 3.6 Testing of simply supported reinforced concrete beam under flexure
380xl06
0.67x22.5x42{)x80
(d _ 80)
2
Take the largest d from (1) and (2) >>d = 1200 mm 420
80
0.67x22.5
d
•• ...__ As=1175 rnrrr'
I+l
120 nun
T=As f/1.15
Step 4: Calculate
Asmin
Step 2: Calculate a
Assume that a<ts 0.67
Asmin= smaller 01
leu a B
1.5 1.5
As
Iy
1175 x 400 1.15
1.15
400
=396mm2
<As···o.k
a=96.82mm Since a > t, we can use the approximate equation (Eq.3.33) to find "d"
assume (a>ts).
As
Step 3: Calculated
M
=
u
1.15
I, = 0.67 leu
(B  b) ts 1.5
+''~
As
1.15
1;, (d _!.J... )
2
1175 x 400
....... (3.33a)
l.l5
~~+1.5
(d _ 80) 2
2
a= 138.9 mm
969.8 mm >>>(1) 0. 67
s.; 138.9/0.8
d 969.8
=0.179
Mu
1eu B ts (d ~)
1.5
(3.34a)
2 For fy = 400 N/mm it can determined from Table 2.1 that cmaxld= 0.42 Since c/d < cmaJd, thus steel yields, As<Ast,maxand Mu<Mut.max o.k
Example 3.15
The figure below shows a simply supported in which the midspan section has a Tshape.
2
Step 3: Compute As
The critical section is at mid span
30x52 5 M =+80x=193.75kN.m u 8 4 Pu=80 kN ~ w?30kN/m'
Compute
lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllClllllllllllllmlllllllllllllllllllilIIIIIIIIIIII~
2500mm
L
1 .1
As= 1086mm
2500mm
a = 0.019 (1086) = 20.6 mm a (20.6) < t, (100) a (20.6) < O.ld (60) our assumption is correct a<ts is correct a<0.1 d
1200mm
1
our assumption
§
0 0 \0
TIOOmm
..LJe
Step 3: Check
...___
120mm
As
11
Step
Solution Step 1: Assumptions
Assume that the neutral axis inside the flange (a<ts)
5:
Check
Ast.max,
Mut,max
c/d= 0.125
Step 2: Compute a
0.67 feu B a
1.5
1.5
As =
J;,
1.15
1.15
a=
0.019 As
Step 3: Calculate Mu
M
M
u
= Cf
(d ~)+C (d !!..) 2 2
w
= 0.67x2Sx
(10S0120) I.S
100(SSO_100)+ 2
0.67x25x120x192 1.5
(SSO_I92) 2
= 636.05 kN.rr
600
',..._.._.._...:..I~~?_ .
•• As=?
Il
1050
Neutral axis
= 206 mm
< As .. ·o.k
120
Step 5: Check
Astmax,
Mut,max
:/cu,J;" Mw B. b. d. a
: As. M; : As .Mu
(As .M,).
Required Unknowns
Since we have only two equilibrium equations and two unknowns we can proceed directly without any further assumptions
From the code cmax/d = 0.44 Since c/d (0.436) <cmax/d(0.44) then Mu<Mut,maxand As<Ast.max
Step 2: Calculate As
d
=t
cover=600S0=SSO
mm mm
a =0.8 c=O.8x240=192

As
I.1S
I, = 0.67Ic.
+ """::"'!"1.S
As x 360 ~=
+
T=Asx360 Il.lS
I.
120
"
137
l'J.Q
3.2.7 Design of Tsections Using Curves 3.2.7.1 Development of the Curves Equilibrium equations are used to generate design aids for Tsections. Assume that the neutral axis is inside the flange (a<ts) Taking moment around the concrete force and referring to Fig. 3.17
C t
o~~
~~9 (10.4~ ~ )
(3.53)
I
Define
R=
T
feu B d2 RT
"
0~~~~9 ~(10.4~)
d = Cl~ f:"B
(3.54) (3.55)
CI"J;f" ~(1~:4~)
T =X; f/1.15 b
(3.56)
It can be determined from Eq. 3.49 that the area of steel equals
As
. yJ d
fM_u
...•....................•............•..................
(3.57)
u, =
~~j'~) (d
Mu
= As
= Asl.~)~
d (1 zad)
Equations 3.50 and 3.53 are the basis of design aids (CIJ) and (RrJ)
(3.48)
we can also express the moment as the tension force (As fy) multiplied by the lever arm (jd). Note that the factor 1.15 is included in the coefficient "J"
Figure 3.18 shows an example of(CIJ). Appendix A contains (CIJ) and (RrJ) design charts.
1;. j d
(3.49)
I
(3.50)
=ds(I~X~ )=ds(I0.4~)
M"
2
;~fI I I I 11d)=
""""\
:\
Dividing Eq. 3.48 by (fcu B cf) and noting that in case ofTsection As=f..L d B
feu B d
=~(10.4~)
1.15 feu'
04.0
3.8 3.6 3.4 3.2 3.0 2.8 2.6
(3.51)
·\ · · ·
J_/
" C1
./
0.72 0.74
0.76'
I
I
,
V
<, /' .?r,
<,
:
......._
0.78
1.5
1.15
!!_ = 1.9468 P x
f~
J;
(3.52)
V 2.4 0.10 ~
· · :
&
,/
/'
........_
Cm.x/d ( able41
0~80
g'u"" ~ : <0:
b:bi
.b:$
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
ad
0.35
0.40
0.45
Substituting with the minimum amin/d allowed by the code (cmiJd=0.l25) in Eq. 3.56 gives Cl=4.85. Thus any value for Cl above 4.85 will lead to c/d below the minimum code value. In this case use cmin/d=0.l25 and J=0.826. Fig 3.19 presents different design cases when using (ClJ) curve. In normal design situations, case I is the most frequently used. When using chart C, the same rules apply, if RT<0.042 then; use J = Jmax,if RT> 0.042 then determine J from the curve, and if'R, > RTmaxincrease d.
Step l:If"d" is not given, assume Cl=510 for Tsections and C1=34 for Rsections and determine d from the relation
d=C ~ Mu I fell B IfC1 in (CIJ) > 4.85 or RTin (RrJ)<O.042 then, use J=Jmax=O.826and gotostep 4
II
5.4
4.85 4.85
Step 4: Determine As
IfCI>4.85 use cmin/d IfCI<4.85 determine J IfCI under the curve, increase d .
Note1: The code minimum value for the depth of the stress block ratio "a" is O.ld. Thus substituting with aid = 0.1 in Eq. 3.50 gives jmax
.JJ: b d
l.3A,
Note 2: To estimate the depth of the beam, assume Cl equals Cl=34 for Rectangular Cl=45 for slabs Cl=510 forT beams beams Note: Both (ClJ) and (Ri'J) can be used for designing a rectangular replacing B with b section by
lAl
142
= Jmax= 0.826
_LII100
= 0.8
(0.125) 800
T
••
As
1;. J d
220 x 10 = 924.8 mm 2 (2<1>25) 360 x 0.826 x 800 Asmin 0.225.J2s 120x800=300mm2 360
6
As =
Step 5: Check
= 10
= 765
mm
say d=800 mm
and t=850 mm
Asmin=smaller
of I.3x924.8 = 1202mm2
=300mm2<As···o.k
j_1
100
1500mm
T
As=2 Cl> 25
'
1'0
'£)
00
4.85
••
120
11
Final Design
0.125
11..' _,'j
Mu=380kN.m
80mrn
T
~
••
As
Since the neutral axis is outside the flange, the part of the compression force in the web will be neglected and code approximate equation as follows.
As Mu L, /1.l5x(d =t, /2) Asmin 380xl0 400/1.l5x(1000~80/2)
6
120 mrn
=1138mm2
Step 5: Check
d = 5X
22.5x420
t=1050
mm
Cl
4.85
0.125
c/d
1Ll';
~03
".
0.67 feu
1.5
"
As T   Ib
A Lsection connected with slab BIsolated Lsection
Fig. 3.21 Stresses and strain for isolated Lsection Example 3.19 illustrates the calculation of the ultimate moment capacityof Lsection using the first principle, while example 3.20 shows the simplified procedure using design curves.
Fig. 3.20 Neutral axis position in Lsections Fig. 3.21 presents the forces and strain for a reinforced. concrete isolated Lsection. It can be easily determined that the distance Xl equals 1.5 b. The force in the compression zone equals the area of the compressed zone multiplied by the concrete stress as follows
c = O.61~:cU ( X ~ 1'; )
T
=
••••••...•.•.•...•.•.•.••.•..••.•••.••.••••.
(3.58) (3.59)
As
1.15
1;. .
The second equilibrium equation can be computed by taking the moment around the concrete force. The lever arm in this case is the vertical distance between the tensile force and the center of gravity of the compressed triangle. Thus, the internal moment equals
i)
(3.60)
Example 3.19
For the Lsection shown in figure determine the capacity of the section knowing that the beam is not laterally supported (isolated), knowing that fe,! = 25 N/mm2 , fy = 360 N/mm2 .
100 mm
= 36.74" = 224
4 mm .
11
7.:..:0:.:0~rnm=~I
= d cos
= SOOxcos
0 = 641 mm
I
o o
00
XI=300rnm
200 • • • As=1200 mrrr' 100 I
200rnm
o o
~
1.5 b
=
00
0.67 i.s
feu
300 mm
(XI
1';)
2 1.15
360
'=
1.15
fy
= 1200
375652 N
200 mm
Since C=T
375652 0.6~.: 25
00 x 2 1'; )
YI
224 mm
Step 2: Compute
Mu
3
M
u
As fy (d _ 1';)
1.15 1.15 3·
,.
= 272.5
lAO
Example 3 .20
Compute the area of steel for the Lsection shown in the figure if it is subjected to M, = 120 kN.m using R,J curve. feu = 35 N/mm2 and fy = 400 N/mm2
.600mm +I __ .....;_ ' __
1 100 .' 1 T
A=~
s
A=
;L_
As +..... 120 mm _
l
mnr'
=160mm2 <A,···o.k
=0.0357
',
600mm .
I
0.0357
1 __
1 ·• • , . ..,
120mm Final Design
.4 <D 18
4
SHEAR IN RIC BEAMS
4.1 Introduction
Reinforced concrete beams resist loads by, means of internal moments and shears. In the design of reinforced concrete members, moment is usually considered first, leading to the dimensions of the crosssection and the arrangement. The beam is then proportioned for shear.
Because a shear failure is sudden and brittle, the design for shear must ensure that the shear strength equals or exceeds the flexural strength at all points of the beam. This chapter presents the shear behavior and design of relatively slender (shallow) beams. More advanced topics related to the strength and behavior of slender beams can be found in Chapter (7). The behavior of deep beams is presented in Volume (3) of this text. .
The compressive forces on the hatched area in Fig. (4.1d), whic~ a~e the resultants of the normal stresses induced by the bending moments, are indicated by the two forces C and C+dC. Investigating the equilibrium. of the. upper portion of the infinitesimal slice, it is evident that there should be honzontal shear stresses in order to equilibrate the force dC.
dC=qbdx ;
(4.1) (4.2)
(4.3)
z
~···",····",··~·······l·
~ffiY~
i
.~
It dA = JMI z dA =MI
x ..
(4.4.a)
Hence,
~=
!Jf dA= S; a:
x
:
= Q,
(4.4.b)
(a)
(b)
M(
~B·L)
I.
J
M+dM
.C
Substituting from
one gets
(4.5)
C+dC
dx I
(c)
(d)
where Q = shear force acting on the cross section. I =mome~t of inertia of the cross section. Sy = the first moment of hatched area about the yaxis.
b
= width of the member where the shear stress are being calculated.
For anuncracked rectangular beam, Eq. (4.5) gives the distribution of shear stresses shown in Fig. (4.lb).
Considering the equilibrium of a small element in the beam, it follows that the horizontal shear stresses should be accompanied by vertical shear stresses of the same magnitude as the horizontal shear stresses. The elements in Fig. (4.2a) are subjected to combined normal stresses due to flexure, J, and shearing stresses, q. The largest and smallest normal stresses acting on such an element are referred to as principal stresses. The principle tension stress, !tman and the principal compression stress, !cman are given by:
C.L
~~~q~m~~ ~
(a) Flexural and shear stresses acting on beam elements
,~::: ~I
(b) Distribution of shear and normal stresses
r:
ax
=f+~(fr+q2
(4.6)
r.:
The inclination
=; ~(~J
+q2
(f~2)
1.........
¢~
~ b ft ').
" !
If the principle tensile stresses exceed the tensile strength of concrete, cracking occurs. The direction of cracking at any point is perpendicular to the direction of the principle tensile stress at that point. Obviously, at different positions along the beam the relative magnitudes of q and f change, and thus the directions of the principal stresses change as shown in Fig. 4.2c. At the neutral axis, the principal stresseswill be equal to the shear stresses and will be located at a 45° angle with the horizontal. Diagonal principal tensile stresses, called diagonal tension, occur at different places and angles in concrete beams.
156
I I
(4.10) (4.11)
Noting
C=jd
M
(4.12)
where Sny is the first moment of area , lny. is the moment of inertia of the full virtual section about the center of gravity and b is the width of the cross section.
It may be observed that, on the tension side of the section, Snv is calculated
Substituting Eq. (4.10) into (4.12) and noting that dM/dx=Q, one obtains
qrnax= jdb
Q
(4.13)
using the equivalent area of the tension steel reinforcement only. Consider an infinitesimaf portion of length dx of a reinforced concrete beam with rectangular cross section subjected to simple bending, where the bending moment is M on one side and M+dM on the other side, as shown in Fig. (4.3). The corresponding compressive forces, which are the resultants of the induced normal stresses, are C and C+dC, respectively.
The distancejd may be taken to be approximatelyO.87d. For routine design, shear strength in reinforced concrete beams is commonly quantified in terms of a nominal shear stress, q, defined as
q=_g__ bxd :
(4.14)
4.4 Behavior
IZ
4+ lQ+OQJ MfUM
.... T+dT dx Beam segment
C dC 
~i ...
• • .. b
_
1
qmax
Cross section
WebShear
Web. Shear
end support
Fig ..4~3 Shear stresses in cracked reinforced concrete beams Fig. 4.4 Types of cracking in reinforced concrete beams .
l'iR
iS9
4.4.2 Internal Forces in B . . eams without stirrups T?e forces·transferring shear forces across .. stirrups are illustrated in Fig (4 5) I h. an InclIned crack in a beam without . . . ntIS figure Q . h across th e crack by interlock of the : a IS t e shear transferred crack. Qax and Q are the hori aggregate partIcles on the two faces of th • ay onzontal and rti I e respectIvely. The shear force is resisted by: ve rca components of this force, Qcz th h . , e s ear In the compression zone Qay, the vertical component of th h e s ear transferred h of th e aggregate particles on the tw across t e crack by interloojQd 0 laces of the crack , the dowel action of the longitudinal reinforcement .
Co
Traditionally, Qc is taken equal to the failure capacity of a beam without stirrups. Since beams without stirrups will fail when inclined cracking occurs, Qc is equal to the inclined cracking load of the beam without stirrups. In general, the inclined cracking load of a beam without stirrups, and consequently Qc , is affected by: • The tensile strength of concrete: the inclined cracking load is a function of the tensile strength of concrete. As mentioned before, the state of stress in the web of the beam involves biaxial principal tension and compression stresses as shown in Fig. 4.2b (see Section 4.3). A similar biaxial state of stress exists in a split cylinder tension test (Fig. 1.7). This indicates that the inclined cracking load (or the shear carried by concrete) is related to the t~nsile strength of concrete. Longitudinal reinforcement ratio: tests indicate that the shear capacity of beams without stirrups increase with the increase of the longitudinal reinforcement ratio. As the amount of the steel increases, the length and the width of the cracks will be reduced. Hence, there will be close contact between the concrete on the opposite sides of the cracks; improving the shear resistance by aggregate interlocking. Shearspantodepth ratio (aid): the shear capacity of beams without stirrups is a function of the shear span, a, to the depth, d, of the beams (see Fig. 4.6). In general, concrete beams can be classified into slender beams and deep beams. Deep beams are those having small (aid) ratio. They are much stronger than slender beams in shear. Detailed discussion related to this subject can be found in Chapter (7) in this volume and in Volume (3) of this text. a
r. (i)
c
d
r=========1,___ T
(k) J
Qd
d
I..
It is difficult to quantif!., the conml, ti ~y u IOnsof Q Q d are lumped together as Q f cz s ay,an Qd· In design, these c , re erred to as shear carried by concrete. Qc
(4.15)
______ 1
161
1d
1.__, .
that n
is the number of stirrups crossing a crack, s is the spacing between stirrups, the crack angle is 45 degrees, and that the stirrups yield, then
n=!!..
s s
(4.16) (4.17)
Qs=nAstfy=Astfyd
14
~I
(i)
where
As!
=======u===
II II II
"
II II II II II II
(4.18)
Substituting
= As, xly
xd/s
bxd
= As, xi),
bxs
(4.19a)
q = As, xly bv s
S
(4.19h)
(k)
14
~I
The' presence of web .reinforcement restricts the growth of diagonal . cracks and reduces their penetration into the compression zone; and hence increases the part of the shear force resisted by the compression zone.
The presence of stirrups enhances the dowel action. in . .. " a beam with stirrups and an inclined crack are shown in Fig. (4.7) .
ThefQrces .~ .
3 If a concentrated load acts within a distance (a) where a<dJ2, the criti~al ~ection (AA) is taken at the face of the support. Th~ co.dt';~llows a reduction of the effect of this force on the shear design by multiplying Its effect by (a/2d) as shown in Fig. 4.8c. the the the for the reduce the effect of this load (p x a/2d)
The critical section is taken at a distance (dJ2) from the face of column provided that column reaction introduces vertical compression in support zone and no concentrated loads act closer to the support than half beam depth (Fig. 4.8.a). In such a case, the shear reinforcement obtained the critical section shall be kept constant through the distance from critical section to the support.
critical section
Ai
critical section
4. The critical section is taken directly at the face of the column in ca~e t?e column reaction introduces vertical tension in the support zone as shown ill Fig. 4.8d.
2. If a concentrated load acts within a distance (a) where (d / 2:<; a :<; 2d), the critical section (AA) is taken at (dJ2) the face of the support. The code allows a reduction of the effect of this force on the shear design by multiplying its effect by (a/2d) as shown in Fig. 4.8b. reduce the effect of this load (p x a/2d)
a
critical section
critical section
critical section
Fig.4.8b
(d /2:<; a s; 2d)
165
4.5.2 Upper limit of Design Shear Stress In or?er to avoid she~r. compression failure and to prevent excessive shear cracking, the ECP 203 limits the design ultimate shear stress to the value given by: iJuma.,
~OJ
IE: Vr:
Equations 4.22 and 4.23 indicate that the ECP 203 considers the effect of the axial force when calculation the shear strength provided ·by concrete. An externally applied axial compression force will result in large compression zone leading to enhanced qcu, The opposite would be true for a beam subjected to axial tensile force plus shear and bending. 4.5.4 Shear Strength Provided by Shear Reinforcement The design ultimate shear stress (qu ) is compared with the nominal shear ultimate shear strength provided by concrete (qcu). Two cases are possible: a). qu s b) q u )
qcu , qcu,
{4.20)
The upper limit ofqumax in Eq. 4.20 is 4 Nzmm" If the ultimate shear stress qu) qu rnax s the concrete dimensions of the cross section must be increased. 4.5.3 Shear Strength Provided by Concrete The code evaluation for the shear strength provided by concrete is as follows: No axial force .
qcu =0.24
then provide minimum web reinforcement. then provide web reinforcement to carry qsuo
q", =qu  0.5 qcu········································,·:·(4.24)
Jf·········:·······
(4.21)
Combined shear and axial compression Applying compression force on the cross section will increase the area of c?ncrete inco~pression and thus enhancing the shear capacity. The ECP 203 gives the followmg equation
The code allows the use of three types of shear reinforcement: 1. vertical stirrups 2. inclined stirrups .3. bent up bars These types are shown in Fig. 4.9
s: =oc x 0.24
,
V~
II:
(4.22)
m 1n1
r,:::;::;:1
1=r==r11::::;::::;1
1:::;:;::::;1
I
I
Vertical stirrups
1~ "'\~\\11. .I \\ \__\\. 1
I
Inclined stirrups
Bent bars
Combined shear and axial tension Applying tension force on the cross section will decrease the area of concrete in comp~ession and speeds up concrete cracking. The ECP 203 gives the following equation
In case of using inclined stirrups or bent up bars, the inclination angle with the beam axis shall not be less than 30° . The amount of the shear reinforcement is computed arrangement of the web reinforcement as follows: according to the
s; = Of xO.24 ~
166
(4.23)
qsu
where:
AS!
b.s
V;./ Ys)
~
·····;·········.·· .
(4.25)
bentup bars
In case of using two rows of bentup bars inclined at angle a with axis of the member accompanied by vertical stirrups, then the calculation is as follows:
1. Calculate the total design shear stress
qsu
area of all vertical legs in one row of stirrups. For two branch stirrup (AS! ) is twice the area of one bar. = yield strength of stirrups. spacing between stirrups (:S 200mm)
qsu
= beam width.
=
= q"
0.5
qcu
The previous equatio~ contains two unknowns, As! and s, thus either one should be assuI?ed to determine the required shear reinforcement. If the stirrups spacing are assumed , then Eq " 425 b ecomes
q", xbxs /;' I r,
Assume the vertical stirrups area (AsJ and spacing (s) then calculate the contribution of the vertical stirrups qsus as follows
«;
ASI
y./y,)
.s
(4.31)
··················
(4.26)
2. Calculate the amount of remaining shear stress that should be carried by the bentup bars qsub as follows
qsu', = qsu  qsus
(4.32)
Asb
3. Calculate the required cross sectional area of the bentup bars (4.27) (/;.IyJ(sina If the angle (a) is 45° , Eq. 4.33 becomes
·
qsuh
sl(onehranch) ~
xbxs
where n
IS
+ cosa)
(433) .
A xl
SI
qsu xb
t r,
< 200
mm
(4.28)
ASh
r£'~;Y.h
(4.34)
D: Shear stress provided by vertical stirrups and one row of bentup bars
In case of using one row of bentup bars inclined at angle a with axis of the member, then the previous procedure is followed. However, the required cross sectional area Asb is calculated from the following equation
(4.29)
ASh
s;
ASI
~,/ys)
.s
(sina + cosa)
..
(4.35)
in such a case
qsuh
:s; 0.24
xbxd
'
I, 'r.
169
(4.36)
168
4.5.5 Code Requirements for Shear Reinforcement 1 A minimum amount of shear reinforcement is required by the code. It is given by
ASI(min)
3 For beams with web width equal to or greater than 400 mm, and in beams of web width exceeding their height, stirrups of at least four branches shall be used. The maximum distance between branches should be less than 250 mm as shown in Fig. 4.11.
= 0.4 b
. fy
.S
••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••
(4.37)
<;
l
t
_l...
./
/) /} /)
Stirrups
where b is the width of the section as defined in Fig. 4.10. But not less than . Ast(min) =0.0015 b. s for mild steel 24/35
Ast(min) =0.0010 b. s
250mm(max)
Il
250 mm (max)
ASI
...__
4 For reinforced beams of depth of not more than 250 mm, the code requires that the design shear stress be resisted by concrete only according to the following r~lation
I·
.j
bbox section
s; :O;O.16~
(4.39)
asolid section
5 The maximum spacing between vertical stirrups shall riot exceed the following value
s_ ~ 200 mm
Fig. 4.10 Definition of b for solid and boxed sections 2 The area of steel
Ast(min)
(4.40)
:o;d
:0;
l.5d
provided
s, :0;
1.5
s;
:<:;2d
provided q u <
reduced=
As,(min)
«s« s;
(4.38)
where
!b...< «;
7 Construction joints should be generally avoided at location of high shear stresses. Otherwise precautions related to shear friction should be followed.
170
171
Example 4.1
Figu~e (EX. 4'.1) ~hows a simply supported reinforced concrete beam that carries a umfonnly distributed load having a factored value of 60 kN/m and a central concentrated load of a factored value of 100 kN . It'sI require d t0 carry out a . . sh ear design for the beam according to the following data:  Beam width = 300 mm Beam thickness = 700 mm
feu =30Nlmm2and
The critical section is located at a distance that is equal to 325mm from the face of the support. Reaction at the support =+ =+2 2 2 . Qu = R eaction+wx 2 2 . .wx L P 60x7.5 100 2 2
1;. = 240Nlmm2
= 275kN
IL~J1
10.501 3.50 m
I' •
Step No.2: Check the adequacy of the concrete dimensions of the section
The concrete dimensions of the section are considered adequate if the shear stress due to the design shear force is less than the ultimate shear strength.
= ik_= q" bxd 240.5xl0 300x650
3
3.50 m
.10.501
100 KN
=1.233N l mm'
60 KN/m
qumax =0.7
fr:
if::o; 4N
l mm :
Since
qll (qumax
«; =0.24
Since the shear stress is greater than the shear stress carried by concrete, web
(c) Shear Force Diagram
275KN
reinforcement is needed.
Qcu
=«
eN
xbxdl=1.073x30qx650=209.3kN i I
I, Irs
Assume that the stirrups spacing is 150 mm
A
s
~i~ii~
I
°i
~.a:==
q.Ii
i
Y l
I y
!5
:.§
.,
B
;
!j'i
3.50
I I
3,75
.i ~ "i
j'
,
275~50
A,,(min)
J
X
i
i
I0
i c:
OJ
i
I
I I
0g
'"
.,
3,50
0.50
i ~~
I I
Io
B c:
o
..0
.,
..
.,
i'':::: 'C
<>
E OJ
.,
x=2.65m
y = 3.752.65 ~ 1.09m '" 1.25m
assumed constant
1.233 0.6~
The calculated stirrups (7 ~ 10m') is provided in the distance y, while a minimum stirrups (s=200 mm) is provided in the distance x A s/(mm)= .rmm x b x s = 0.0017 x250x 200 = 85.0 mm" (for two branches) .
II ..
Area of one branch =42 mm" (use ~ 8 =50 mm') Use (5 ~ 8 m') (7 ~ 10 m')
. (5 ~ 8 m')
i
It should be mentioned that using the amount of stirrups obtained from the design of the critical section along the whole span is not economic. A practical approach to get an economic design is to use the minimum required amount of stirrups starting from the section at which the shear stress equals qcu' To compute the location of this section, the following calculations are carried out The shear force carried by concrete equals Final shear design
1_~~1~,2~5 0.50
4I
2.25 ~~ __ 3.50
'j , ..I
Example 4.2 ~!~:e (EX ..4.2) sho.ws.a simply supported reinforced concrete beam that . s.a umformly distributed load havinga factored value of 140 kN/m It IS re_:Ulredto ~arry out a shear design for the beam according knowing that feu  30 N / mm and fy = 360 N / mm2 for the stirrups.
Step 1: Determine the design shear force Due to the fact that the girder has a variable cross section, the designer has to check its shear capacity at more than one location. In this example two sections shall be examined as follows: The critical section in the solid part is located at d/2 from the face of the support. Assuming a concrete cover of 100 mm
d
=t
cover = 1100100 .
= 1000 mm wx L =
= 
140x12
= 840kN
. = Reacnon+w
The critical section at the hollow part (the box section) is located at the section where the hollow part starts (x=I.5m).
a
QU2 =R~actionw
1;0)=560kN
I.
Sec22 (a) Beam Layout
0.60
qumax=0.7
SeclI
l1: fY:s
4.0 N / mm
2i!
JJJJJ
JJ J JIll J II J JJ J lJ J J JJ H III
12.00 m
140 KN/m
t840kN
. 840kN •
:l t
«;
:. The concrete dimensions of the section are adequate. Critical section 2 2 Section 22 has a boxed shape and resistance to shear comes from the two webs each having a width of 175 mm
qu2
QlI2 bxd
1.60 N / mm"
':Qu2 squmax
s; =0.24
A stl(mm) .
xbxs=0.00111x600x200=133mm2 =0.00illx(2x175)x200
«A.!,provided=4x78.5)
..... ok ..... ok
= 0.635N 1 mm"
A
Sf
= q,ul xbx's fy 1 r,
Assume that the stirrups spacing is 200 mm 0.635x 600 x 200 2 AS( 360/1.15 = 243.4 mm The width of the section branches. is more than 400mm, thus requires more than two
Assuming 4 branches, the area of one branch = A" = 243.4 = 61 mm? n 4 Use <I> 10=78.5 mnr' Use <i>10@200mm4branches
Sec 11
(Longitudinal Rft. is not shown)
Stirrups Details
2+10@200mm
I"
'1
cp8@200mm q.1O@200mm cplO@200mm
Q,u2
=: 1.60 0.5x1.07
= q'U2 xbxs 1;.1 r,
= 1.065N l mm?
"
mm
_1.065x(2xI75)x200
st 
360/1.15
23

8.14 mm
cp8@200mm
1'1
Sec 22
(Longitudinal Rft. is not shown)
Each web is provided with one stirrup that has two branches. Thus, the area of one branch Use <I> 10=78.5 mm2 Use ¢10@200mm 4branches
Stirrups
Details
= AS!
n
=~
2x2
= 59 mm2
178
179
Example 4.3
Figure (EX. 4.3) shows a simply supported reinforced concrete beam that carries a uniformly distributed load having a factored value of 80 kN/m'. It is. requi.red to carry ?ut a shear design for the beam using bentup bars and vertical stirrups accordmg to the following data: Beam width = 250 mm Beam thickness = 800 mm fcu '" 25 N I mm", I, '" N / mm' for the stirrups and h =400 Nzmm'' for the 240 bentup bars
= 750
mm 2 2
= 256kN
= R.eacnon=
wx (d +col. Width) 2 2
= 256 
= 210kN
ILl1
6.0m
=1.l2Nlmm2
fl: s 4N VYc
I mm'
l mm"
22
t
I..
80 KN/m
J J IJ J J J JIll
256 KN
II
JJ
I J Jill
JJ
JJJI~
.
s.;: =2.86N
Since
256 KN
qu (qumax
6.40m
..
«; =0.24
Since the shear stress is greater than the shear stress carried by concrete, web reinforcement is needed.
s; = 1.12 O.5x
180
lRl
Example4.4
Figure (ExAA) shows a simply supported reinforced concrete beam that carries a uniformly distributed load having a factored value of 70 KN/m and a concentrated load of a factored value of 90 KN. It is required to carry out a shear design for the beam according to the following data: Beam width
t,
Assume s=200 mm
A,,(min) JLminxbxs = =0.00166x250x200=83.3 mm'
= 250 mm
leu = 25
Using one row of bentup bars and noting that the yield strength of the flexural steel is 400 Nzmm", the area of the bars equals
A sb= .fixqsuhxbxd 1;,1 r,
fJaUJ
10.50 I 1.00m . 5.50m (a)8eam 90KN agO 1111 II I jilL III I III !III j III 1111 J II Layout
I 0.50 I
.fixO.21x250x750 400/1.15
=160mm
1.25
if
I~01!! 5.75.
III
!!l1.b
=r
Ra=318.93 KN
""~ 2<1>2 1
~2~<1>~1~2~
__
318.93KN
3.00
i 'e . .,
I",
'0
'c:
(c)Shear
Force. Diagram
261.07KN
Fig.Ex.4.4
shear stress provided shear stress provided by concrete'
182
lQ'}