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Features

• Reflectsthe very latest Egyptian Code provisions (ECP203 - 2007) and includes all major changes and additions. • Numerous illustrations and figures for each topic. • Good theoretical background for each topic with code provisions. • Extensive examples in each chapter utilizing 51 units. • All examples are worked out step by step ranging from simple to advanced. • Full reinforcement details for every example. • Numerous design charts for sections subjected to flexure.

This volume covers the following topics:


• Reinforced Concrete Fundamentals • Deslqn of Singly Reinforced Sections • Design of Doubly Reinforced Sections • Design of T-Beams • Bond and Development Length Beams

• Design for Shear • Design of Simple and Continuous

• Design for Torsion • Design for Combined Shear and Torsion • Truss Models for RIC Beams

DESIGN OF REINFORCED

CONCRETE STRUCTURES
Volume 1

Mashhour Ahmed Ghoneim


Professor of Concrete Structures Cairo University

Mahmoud Tharwat EI-Mihilmy


Associate Professor of Concrete Structures Cairo University

Second Edition

2008

PREFACE
Teaching reinforced concrete design, carrying out research relevant to the behavior of reinforced concrete members, as well as designing concrete structures motivated the preparation of this book. The basic objective of this book is to furnish the reader with the basic upderstanding of the mechanics and design of reinforced concrete. The contents of the book conform to the latest edition of the Egyptian Code for the Design and Construction of Concrete Structures ECP-203. The authors strongly recommend that the Code be utilized as a companion publication to this book. The book is aimed at two different groups. First, by treating the material in a logical and unified form, it is hoped that it can serve as a useful text for undergraduate and graduate student courses on reinforced concrete. Secondly, as a result of the continuing activity in the design and construction of reinforced concrete structures, it will be of value to practicing structural engineers. Numerous illustrative examples are given, the solution of which has been supplied so as to supplement the theoretical background and to familiarize the reader with the steps involved in actual design problem solving. In writing the book, the authors are conscious of a debt to many sources, to friends, colleagues, and co-workers in the field. Finally, this is as good a place as any for the authors to express their indebtedness to their honorable professors of Egypt, Canada and the U.S.A. Their contributions in introducing the authors to the field will always. be remembered with the deepest gratitude. This volume covers the following topics
• .• • • • • • • • Reinforced Concrete Fundamentals Design of Singly Reinforced Sections Design of Doutily Reinforced Sections Design of T -Beams Design for Shear Bond and Development length Design of Simple and Continuous Beams Truss Models for the Behavior of RIC Beams Design for Torsion

It also includes appendices containing design aids.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5. 1.5.1 1.5.2 1.5.3 1.5.4 1.5.5 1.5.6 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10

REINFORCED CONCRETE FUNDAMENTALS


Introduction Reinforced Concrete Members , Reinforced Concrete Reinforced Concrete Behavior Mechanical Properties of Concrete Compressive Strength Tensile strength Modulus of Elasticity Strength of Concrete Under Biaxial Loading Shrinkage Creep Reinforcing Steel Limit States Design Method Strength Reduction Factors Classification ofLoads Load Combinations Example 1.1 1 3 5 5 7 7 11 13 14 16 17 18 20 20 23 25 28

2.
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.2.1 2.3.2.2 2.3.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8

DESIGN OF SINGLY REINFORCEDSECTIONS


Introduction 31 Reinforced Concrete Beam Behavior : 32 Flexure Theory of Reinforced Concrete ~4 Basic Assumptions of the Flexure Theory 34 Stress-Strain 'Relationships ..........................................•............................. 35 Concrete in Compression ; 35 Reinforcing Steel 36 The Equivalent Rectangular Stress Block , 37 Analysis of Singly Reinforced Sections 39 Maximum Area of Steel of a Singly Reinforced Section .42 Balanced, Under, and Over Reinforced Sections .47 Minimum Area of Steel. 48 Factors Affecting Ultimate Strength ;.. 49. Example 2.1 ..................................••........................................................... 52 Example 2.2 54 Example ·2.3 56 Example 2.4 ~ 58 ii

Example 2.5 Example 2.6 Example 2.7 Example 2.8 2.9 Design of Singly Reinforced Sections by First Principles Example 2.9 Example 2.10 2.10 Design of Singly Reinforced Sections Using Curves ..; 2.10.1 Design Charts (R-J..l) ; 2.10.2 Design Chart (R- oi) Example 2.11 Example 2.12 , Example 2.13 Example 2.14 Example 2.15

60 62 65 67 69 70 73 75 75 77 80 81 83 84 85

3.2.7 3.2.7.1 3.2.7.2

3.3

Design of T-sections Using Curves Development of the Curves Using the Design Aids (charts CI-J and RT-J) Example 3.17 (a<ts) Example 3.18 (a>ts) Design ofL-Sections Example 3.19 Example 3.20

139 139 142 143 145 147 149 151

4.
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.4.1 4.4.2 4.4.3 4.5 4.5.1 4.5.2 4.5.3 4.5.4 4.5.5

SHEAR IN RIC BEAMS


Introduction Shear stresses in Elastic Beams ; Shear Stresses in Cracked RIC Beams .............................................•................. Behavior of Slender Beams Failing in Shear Inclined Cracking Internal Forces in Beams without stirrups Behavior of Slender Beams with Stirrups : Egyptian Code's Procedure for Shear Design Critical Sections for Shear Upper limit of Design Shear Stress Shear Strength Provided by Concrete Shear Strength Provided by Shear Reinforcement Code Requirements for Shear Reinforcement Example 4.1 Example 4.2 Example 4.3 Example 4.4 153 154 158 159 159 160 l62 164 164 166 166 167 170 172 176 ·180 183

3.
3.1 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3

DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS AND T-BEAMS


Doubly Reinforced Sections Introduction ; Analysis of Doubly Reinforced Sections Maximum Area of Steel for Doubly Reinforced Sections Example 3. 1(compression steel yields) Example 3.2 Example 3.3 (compression steel does not yield) Design of Doubly Reinforced Sections Using First Principles Example 3.4 Example 3.5 Example 3.6 Example 3.7 Design of Doubly Reinforced Sections Using Curves Example 3.8 Example 3.9 ; Example 3.10 T-Bearns Application ofT-Beams Effective Flange Width , Analysis ofT-Beams : Minimum Area of Steel for T-sections Maximum Area of Steel for T-sections Design ofT-sections Using FirstPrinciples Example 3.11 Example 3.12 Example 3.13 T Sections (a<ts) Example 3.14 (a>ts) Example 3.15 · Example 3.16 iii 86 86 88
92

3.1.4

3.1.5

3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4 3.2.5 3.2.6

95 97 98 100 101 103 105 107 l08 111 112 113 115 115 115 119 122 123 126 127 129 131 133 135 137

5
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.4.1 5.4.2 5.5 5.5.1 5.5.2 5.5.3 5.6 5.7 5:8 5.8.1 5.8.2

BOND, DEVELOPMENT LENGTH AND SPLICING OF REINFORCEMENT


Introduction ; Average Bond Stresses in a Beam True Bond Stresses in a Beam , : Development Length Theoretical Considerations Development.Length According to ECP 203 Bar Cutoffs in Flexural Members The Moment of Resistance ofa RIC Beam Curtailment of Bars in Beams Egyptian Code's Requirements for Curtailment ..; Beams with Bent-up Bars : Anchorage of Web Reinforcement Splicing of Reinforcement Lap splices Welded and Mechanical Connections iv , ; 186 187 189 190 190 192 196 196 198 200 203 203 204 204 206

6
6.1 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.3.1 6.3.2 6.3.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.6.2 6.6.3

REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS


Introduction Statical Systems of RiC Beams The effective span Loads Acting on Beams Own weight of beams Slab loads Wall loads Slenderness limits for beams Linear Elastic Analysis of Continuous Beams Reinforcement Detailing in'RiC Beams Bar Spacing Egyptian Code Recommendations Example 6.1 Example 6.2 Example 6.3 Example 6.4 Example 6.5 Example 6.6 Example 6.7 Example 6.8 Example 6.9 207 208 209 210 210 211 216 219 220 221 222 223 224 231 235 241 245 254 266 273 283

8
8.1 8.2 8.2.1 8.2.2 8.2.3 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.5.1 8.5.2 8.5.3 8.5.4 8.6 8.6.1 8.6.2 8.6.3 8.6.4 8.6.5 8.6.5.1 8.6.5.2 8.6.6 8.6.7

DESIGN FOR TORSION


Introduction Equilibrium Torsion and Compatibility Torsion General Equilibrium Torsion Compatibility Torsion Principal Stresses due to Torsion Thin-Walled Tube in Torsion Space-Truss Model for Torsion · Components of the Space Truss Diagonal Compressive Stresses Forces in Stirrups Longitudinal Force The Design for Torsion in the Egyptian Code General Calculation of the Shear Stress due to Torsion Consideration ofTorsion Adequacy of the Concrete Cross-Section Design of Torsional Reinforcement.. Closed Stirrups : Longitudinal Reinforcement. Code Requirements for Reinforcement Arrangement.. Summary of Torsion Design According to ECP 203 .. Example 8.1 Example 8.2 Example 8.3 ; Combined Shear and Torsion The Design for Shear and Torsion inECP 203 ; Consideration ofTorsion : Adequacy of the Concrete Cross-Section Design of Transverse Reinforcement.. , Design of Longitudinal Reinforcement. Summary of the Design for Shear and Torsion Compatibility Torsion .: Torsional Rigidity Example 8.5 Example ·8.6 Example 8.7 326 327 327 327 329 330 331 333 333 335 337 337 : 339 339 339 341 341 341 341 342 342 345 347 351 355 359 359 , 359 360 361 361 362 365 365 372 376 382 391 409

7
7.1 7.2 7.2.1 7.2.2 7.2.2.1 7.2.2.2 7.3 7.4 7.4.1 7.4.2 7.4.3 7.4.4 7.4.5 7.4.6

TRUSS MODEL FOR BEAMS FAILING IN SHEAR


Introduction Background Slender Beams Versus Deep Beams Analysis of Forces in RiC Slender Beams Sectional Analysis Mechanical- Mathematical Models Truss Model for Slender Beams Traditional 45-Degree Truss Model Formation ofthe45-Degree Truss Evaluation of the Forces in the Stirrups The Compression Force in the Diagonals The Axial (Longitudinal) Force Due to Shear Comments on the 45-Degree Truss-Model Comparison of the Truss Model and ECP 203 Example 7.1 Example 7.2 ; The Variable-Angle Truss ModeL. General · Analysis of the Variable Angle Truss Model... Example 7.3 290 291 29l 293 294 295 296 297 297 298 299 302 303 303 304 310 316 316 317 320

8.7 8.8 8.8.1 8.8.2 8.8.3 8.8.4 8.8.5 8.9 8.10

: ;

7.6 7.6.1 7.6.2

APPENDIX A: DESIGN AIDS REFERENCES

vi

1
REINFORCED CONCRETE FUNDAMENTALS

Photo 1.1 Nile City Towers, Cairo-Egypt.

1.1 Introduction
Reinforced concrete is one of the most important available materials for construction in Egypt and all over the world. It is used in almost all structures including; buildings, bridges, retaining walls, tunnels, tanks, shells. and even ships.

Concrete is a mixture of sand and gravel held together with a paste of cement and water. Sometimes one or more admixture is added to change certain characteristic of the concrete such as its workability, durability, and time of hardening. Concrete has a high compressive strength and a very low tensile strength. Reinforced concrete is a combination of concrete and steel wherein the steel reinforcement provides the tensile strength lacking in the concrete. Steel reinforcement is also capable of resisting. compression forces and is used in columns as well as in other situations to be described later. The tremendous success of reinforced concrete can be understood numerous advantages are considered. These include the following: • • • • • It is a low maintenance material. if its

1.2 Reinforced Concrete Members


Reinforced concrete structures consist of a series of members. The first and the second floors of the building shown in Fig. 1.1 have a slab-and-beam system, in which the slab spans between beams, which in tum apply loads to the columns. Again, the columns' loads are applied to footings, which distribute the load over a sufficient area of soil. The structure shown in Fig 1.2 is a typical framed structure. The slab carries its own weight, flooring and live loads. The load is then transferred to secondary beams. The reactions of the secondary beams are transferred to the girders, which in tum are supported by the columns. Finally, the columns' loads are applied to the footings, which distribute the load to the soil.

It has great resistance to the action of fire provided that there is adequate cover over the reinforcing steel. A special nature of concrete is its ability to be cast in to a variety of shapes from simple slabs, beams, and columns to great arches and shells. A lower grade of skilled labor is required other materials such as structural steel. for erection as compared to

In. most areas, concrete takes advantage of inexpensive local materials (sand, gravel, and water) and requires a relatively small amount of cement and reinforcing steel.

To use concrete successfully, the designer must be completely familiar with its weak points and its strong ones. Among its disadvantages are the following: • • • Concrete has a very low tensile reinforcing. strength, requiring
In

the use of tensile until it hardens

Forms are required to hold the concrete sufficiently. Formwork could be expensive.

place

The properties of concrete could vary widely due to variations in its proportioning and mixing. Furthermore, the placing and curing of concrete is not as carefully controlled, as is the production of other materials such as structural steel. In general, reinforced concrete members are relatively large, as compared to structural members, an important consideration for tall buildings and long span bridges. Photo 1.2 Reinforcement placement during construction

1.3 Reinforced Concrete


It is a well-known fact that plain concrete is strong in compression and very

weak in tension. The tensile strength of concrete is about one-tenth its compressive strength. As a result, a plain concrete beam fails suddenly as soon as the tension cracks start to develop. Therefore, reinforcing steel is added in the tension zone to carry all the developed tensile stresses; this is called a reinforced concrete beam. . Concrete and steel work together beautifully 'in reinforced concrete structures. The advantages of each material seem to compensate for the disadvantages of the other. The great shortcoming of low concrete tensile strength is compensated for by the high tensile strength of the steel. The tensile strength of the steel is approximately equal to 100-140 times the tensile strength of the usual concrete mix. Also, the two materials bond together very well with no slippage, and thus act together as one unit in resisting the applied loads. The disadvantage of steel is corrosion, but the concrete surrounding the reinforcement provides an excellent protection. Moreover, the strength of the exposed steel subjected to fire is close to .zero, but again the enclosure of the reinforcement in the concrete produces very satisfactory fire protection. Finally, concrete and steel work very well together in temperature changes because their coefficients of thermal expansion are almost the same. The coefficient of thermal expansion for steel is 6.5xlO·6, while that for the concrete is about 5.5xl0-6.

Fig. 1.1 Slab and beam system in a building

Loads

1.4 Reinforced Concrete Behavior


Secondary beam

Column

Footing

The addition of steel reinforcement that bonds strongly to concrete produces a relatively dnctile material capable of transmitting tension and suitable for any structural elements, e.g., slabs, beam, columns. Reinforcement should be placed in the locations of anticipated tensile stresses and cracking areas as shown in Fig 1.3. For example, the main reinforcement in a simple beam is placed at the bottom fibers where the tensile stresses develop (Fig. 1.3A). However, for a cantilever, the main reinforcement is atthe top of the beam at the location of the maximum negative moment (Fig.l.3B). Finally for a continuous beam; a part of the main reinforcement should be placed near the bottom fibers where the positive moments exist and the other part is placed at the top fibers where the negative moments exist (Fig. 1.3C).

Fig. 1.2 Typical reinforced concrete structural framing system 4 5

1.5. Mechanical Properties of Concrete


1.5.1 Compressive Strength Many factors affect the concrete compressive strength such as the water cement ratio, the type of cement, aggregate properties, age of concrete, and time of curing. The most important factor of all is the water cement ratio. The lower water content with good workability leads to higher concrete compressive strength. Increasing the water cement ratio from 0.45 to 0.65 can decrease the compressive strength by 30-40 percent. Currently, high-range water-reducing admixtures (super plasticizers) are available and they allow engineers to produce fluid concrete mixes with a sharply reduced amount of water. In Egypt, the compressive strength of concrete is usually determined by loading 158 mm cube up to failure in uniaxial compression after 28 days of casting and is referred to as !cu. Additional details covering the preparation and testing of cubes are covered by the Egyptian Code for Design and Construction of Concrete Structures (ECP-203) including correction factors that can be used if the tested specimen is not the same dimension or shape as the standard cube. This is the strength specified on the construction drawings and used in the design calculations.

A- Simple beam

Cracks

Reinforcement

B-Cantilever

beam

It should be mentioned that in other countries such as the United States and Canada, the compressive strength is measured by compression tests on 150 mm x 300 mm cylinders tested after 28 days of moist curing. In the case of using specimens other than the standard cube, the ECP 203 gives the correction factors shown in Table 1.1 to obtain the equivalent compressive strength of the standard cube.
Cracks

Cracks

Reinforcement

Table 1.1 Correction Shape Cube Cube Cube Cube Cylinder

factors

to obtain the equivalentlcu=1c

x factor
Correction factor 0.97 1.00 1.05 1.12 1.20 1.25 1.30 1.25 1.3 1.32

Size (rrun) 100 xlOO x 100 (158 x 158 x 158) or (150 x 150 x 150) 200 x 200 x 200 300 x 300 x 300 100 x200 150 x 300 250 x 500 (150 x 150 x 300) or (158 x 158 x 316) (150 x 150 x 450) or (158 x 158 x 474) 150 x 150 x 600 7

C-Continuous

beam I.

Cylinder Cylinder Prism Prism

Fig. 1.3 Reinforcement

placement

for different

types of beams

Prism

The ECP 203 states in clause (2.5.2) that a concrete strength of 18 N/mm2 should be used to qualify for reinforced concrete category,15 N/mm2 for plain concrete, and 30 Nzmrrr' for prestressed concrete. Table 1.2 illustrates the grades of reinforced concrete RlC·and prestressed concrete PIS as permitted by the code. Table 1.2 Grades of reinforced and prestressed concrete (Nzmm! )
RIC

18

120

125

30 30

35 35

40 40

45 45 50 155 160

Since concrete is used mostly in compression, its compressive stress-strain curve is of a prime interest. Figure 1.4 shows a typical set of such curves obtained from uniaxial compression test of cylinders. All curves have somewhat similar characteristics. They consist of an initial relatively straight elastic portion in which stresses and strains are closely proportional, then begin to curve to reach a maximum value at a strain of 0.002 to 0.003. There is a descending branch after the peak stress is reached. It can be noticed that the weaker grades of concrete are less brittle than the stronger ones. Thus, they will take larger stains and deformations before breaking.
70 60

PIS

Field conditions are not the same as those in the laboratory, and the specified 28-days strength might not practically be achieved in the field unless almost perfect mixture, vibration, and perfect curing conditions are present. As a result, section 2-5-3 of the ECP 203 requires that the target concrete compressive strength, J", must exceed the characteristic strength fi; by a safety margin (M). The safety margin for a concrete mix design depends on the quality control of the concrete plant and can range from 4 N/mm2 to 15 Nzmm", Table 1.3 (2-15 of the Code) lists the values of the safetymargin M according to the number of the performed tests and the characteristic strength !cu. Therefore the targeted concrete compressive strength J", is given by /.,,=/cu+M Table 1.3 Value of the safety margin M (Nzmm") Statistical data feu < 20 N/mm2 40 test data 1.64 SD ~ 4 N/mm2 or more less than 40 Not less than 0.6 feu test data Safety margin M
20-40N/mm2 40-60N/mm2

.--..

E E -..
l-< .....
<1)

50 40 30 20 10

6 .., ..,
rF.J

(1.1)
0.0005 0.001 0.0015 0.002 0.0025 0.003 0.0035 0.004

Strain Fig. 1.4 Typical concrete stress-strain curves

1.64 SD ~ 6 N/mm2

1.64
N/mm
2

SD

> -

7.5

~ 12N/mm2

~ 15 N/mm2

For computational purposes, mathematical representations of the stress-strain curves of concrete in compression are available. For example, the stress-strain curve shown in Fig. 1.5 may be used. The curve consists of a parabola followed by a sloping line. Such a curve has been used widely in research purposes.

One test data is an average of 3 cube tests SD: Standard deviation


9

1.5.2 Tensile strength Experimental tests indicate that the tensile strength of concrete is highly variable and ranges from about 8-12% of its compressive strength. The actual value depends on the type of test and crack propagation pattern at failure. Tensile strength is usually determined by the bending test (Fig. 1.6) or by the split cylinder test (Fig 1.7). The ECP 203 states that the value of concrete tensile strength can be taken from experimental tests as follows: 60% from the concrete tensile strength determined from bending test. 85% from the concrete tensile strength determined from split cylinder test. In the bending test (modulus of rapture test), a plain concrete beam is loaded in flexure up to failure as shown in Fig. 1.6. The flexure tensile strength or the modulus ofruptureJ,. is computed from the following equation
t, =-2
6M bxt

O.72f"u

0.0038

Fig. 1.5 Modified Hognestad curve for concrete stress-strain relation

(1.2)

P/2

P/2

iDI
I~
~I
~~

t-

Fig. 1.6 Bending tensile test

Photo 1.3 Milwaukee Art Museum, USA.


10 11

The split cylinder test is performed on a 150x300 mm cylinder placed on its side and loaded in compression along its length as shown in Fig. 1.7.A The stresses along the diameter are nearly uniform tension perpendicular to the plan of loading as shown in Fig. 1.7.b The splitting tensile strength let is calculated from the following expression
fet =-7r d L

1.5.3 Modulus of Elasticity It is clear from the stress-strain curve of the concrete shown in Fig.1.3 that the relation between the stress and the strain is not linear. Thus, the modulus of elasticity changes from point to point. Furthermore, its value varies with different concrete strengths, concrete age, type of loading, and the characteristics of cement and aggregate. The initial tangent is sometimes used to estimate the concrete modulus of elasticity, in which the slope of the stressstrain curve of concrete at the origin is evaluated as shown in Fig. 1.8. The ECP203 gives the following formula for estimating the concrete modulus of elasticity Ee = 4400.JJ::

2P

(1.3)

The parameters in Eq. 1.3 are defined in Fig. 1.7.

(1.5)

whereleu is the concrete compressive strength in N/mm2

-~ hlh~j;,

The magnitude of the modulus of elasticity is required when calculating deflection, evaluating bracing condition, and cracking of a structure.

Ji
A: Test setup B: Force system C: Stresses on an element

Fig 1.7 Split cylinder test

The tensile strength computed using the modulus of rupture is always higher than the split cylinder tension tests. The tensile strength of the concrete can be determined using its compressive strength. The tensile strength does not correlate well with the concrete compressive strength but rather with its square root. The ECP-203 gives an expression for estimating the concrete tensile strengthlezr as a function of its compressive strength as follows:
fett·

= 0.6 .JJ::

(1.4)

Strain Fig. 1.8 Initial tangent modulus of concrete

12

13

1.5.4 Strength

of Concrete

Under Biaxial Loading

Portions of many concrete members may be subjected to stresses in two perpendicular directions (biaxial state). The strength of the concrete is affected greatly by the applied stress in the perpendicular direction as shown in Fig. 1.9. In Fig. 1.9, all the stresses are normalized in terms of the uniaxial compressive strength !cu. The curve has three regions; biaxial compression-compression, biaxial tension-tension, biaxial tension-compression. In the compression-compression zone, it can be seen that the compressive strength of the concrete can be increased by 20-25% when applying compressive stress in the perpendicular direction. In the tension-tension zone, it is clear that the tensile strength of the concrete is not affected by the presence of tension stresses in the normal direction. For example, a lateral tension of about half the value of the uniaxial tensile strength will reduce the compressive strength to 50% of the uniaxial compressive strength.

The biaxial state may occur in beams as shown in Fig. 1.10 where the principle tensile and compressive stresses lead to biaxial tension compression state of stress. The split cylinder test illustrated in Fig. 1.7C is a typical example of biaxial state of stress, where the compressive stresses develop in the vertical direction and tensile stresses develop in the horizontal direction. This is the main reason that splitting tensile strength is less than flexural tensile strength.

I{ig. 1.10 Biaxial state of stress in beams

1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2

r-----

feu

-V
I
-

rf1 I~ _._

I
t;

II
.. ." _ _ _

l
_ _

Ir- .- .._

iJ

f7

_" "

__

__

.-

__

.-

_"

"
feu

compr ssion

o
-0.2

.-. .
o

.-

._

V
+I

ension -0.2

It~tr
0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4 Photo 1.4 Typical reinforced 15 concrete structure

Fig. 1.9 Strength

of concrete in biaxial stress 14

1.5.5 Shrinkage

As the concrete dries it shrinks in volume due to the excess water used in concrete mixing. The shortening of the concrete per unit length due to moisture loss is called shrinkage strain. The magnitude of the shrinkage strain is a function of the initial water content, the composition of the concrete and the relative humidity of the surroundings. Shrinkage is also a function of member's size and shape. Drying shrinkage occurs as the moisture diffuses out of the concrete. As a result, the exterior shrinks more rapidly than the interior. This leads to tensile stresses in the outer skin of the concrete member and compressive stresses in its interior. The rate of the shrinkage increases as the exposed area to the volume increases. The ECP-203 gives the following formula to estimate the virtual member thickness
B
=

Values of final shrinkage for ordinary concrete are generally of the order of 0.00016 to 0.00030 and can be taken from table 1.4. Table 1.4 Values of shrinkage strain for concrete (x 10-3) weather condition Time by days 3-7 7-60 >60
B ~ 600

Dry weather Relative humidity ==55% Virtual thickness B


600 < B > 200 B 5. 200

Humid weather Relative humidity == 75% Virtual thickness B


B ~ 600 600 < B > 200 B:O; 200

2;,
c

0.31 0.30 0.28

0.38 0.31 0.25

0.43 0.32 0.19

0.21 0.21 0.20

0.23 0.22 0.19

0.26 0.23 0.16

(1.6)

where B is the virtual member thickness, Ac area of the cross section, P, is the section perimeter subjected to shrinkage. Although shrinkage continues for many years as shown in Fig. 1.11, approximately 90% of the ultimate shrinkage occurs during the first year.
almost flat curve

1.5.6 Creep

t=oo

Time

Fig. 1.11 Variation of shrinkage with time for a typical concrete mix

...
!

When a reinforced concrete member is loaded, an initial deformation occurs as shown in Fig. 1.12. Experimental studies show that this initial deformation increases with time under constant loading. The total deformation is usually divided into two parts:(I)initial deformation (2) a time dependent deformation named creep. After the occurrence of the immediate deformation (point A" to point A), the creep deformation starts rapidly (point A to pint B) and then continues at a much lower rate till almost it becomes a flat curve at infinity. More than 75% of the creep deformation occurs during the first year and 95% in the first five years. If the load is removed at point B, immediate recovery occurs (point C), followed by a time dependent recovery till point D (creep recovery). The member will never recover all the developed deformation and there will be a non-recoverable deformation called permanent deformation. The creep deformations are within a range of one to three times the instantaneous elastic deformations. Creep causes an increase in the deflection with time that may lead to undesirable deformation of the member. Thus, the deflection must be investigated to ensure that the deformations are within the allowable limits ofthe code.

16

17

deformation under constant loading

elastic recovery
A
Elastic deformation time ofloadi g
\

high yield steel the strength is based on a specified proof stress of 0.2% as shown in Fig. 1.13. . . The major disadvantage of using steel in beams and columns IS COrr?s.lOn. he T volume of the corroded steel bar is much greater than that of the ongmal one. The results are large outward pressure, which causes severe cracking and spallingof the concrete cover. The ECP-203 requires the increase o~ concrete cover in corrosive environments. Epoxy coated bars are a perfect solution for the problem of corrosion of the reinforcement. They are expensive and need to be handled very carefully to protect the coating layer from damage. However, they are not as efficient as uncoated bars in developing full bond with surrounding concrete.

, ,

.... ....

creep recovery
......

---

D permanent deformation

Stress
high grade steel 0.2% proof stress start of strain hardening

Time
r--i-,--t ~ mild steel

1;.

Fig. 1.12 Elastic and creep deformation of concrete

yield plateau

1.6 Reinforcing Steel


The most common types of reinforcing steel are bars and welded wire fabrics. Deformed bars are the most widely used type and manufactured in diameters from 10 mm to 40 mm, They are produced according to the Egyptian standards 262/1999. Bars are supplied in lengths up to 12m, however, longer bars may be specially ordered. Reinforcing bars are available in four grades with a yield strength of 240, 280, 360, and 400Nlmm2. The cost of steel having a yield stress of 400 Nlmm2 is slightly higher than that of steel with a yield point of 240 Nlmm2. However, the gain in strength and accordingly the reduction in the required steel area is obvious. It should be mentioned that grade 400 N/mm2 is the highest steel gradeallowed by the Code for reinforced concrete structures. The ultimate tensile strength, the yield strength and the modulus of elasticity are determined from the stress-strain curve of a specimen bar loaded in uniaxial tension up to failure. The modulus of elasticity of steel (the slole of the stressstrain curve in the elastic region) is 200 GPa (200,000 Nlmm ). The specified strength used in design is based on the yield stress for mild steel, whereas for 18

Strain

0.002 Fig. 1.13 St~ess-Strain curve for mild and high grade steel

19

1.7 Limit States Design Method


Members are designed with a capacity that is much greater than required to support the anticipated set of loads. This extra capacity not only provides a factor of safety against failure by an accidental overload or defective construction but also limits the level of stress under service loads to control deflection and cracking. The Egyptian code permits the use of two design methods, namely, the allowable working stress design method and the ultimate limit states design method. In the present time, the former is the most commonly used in the design of reinforced concrete structures. When a structure or a structural member becomes deficient for its planned use, it is said to have reached a limit state. The limit states of concrete structures can be divided into the following three groups: A. Ultimate Limit states These limit states are concerned with the failure of a structural member or the whole structure. Such a failure should have a very low probability of occurrence since it may lead to loss of human lives. B. Serviceability limit states These include all types that affect the functional use of the structure and can be classified as: Deformation and Deflection Limit States: Excessive deflections may be visually unacceptable and may lead to walls or partitions damage. • Cracking Limit States: Excessive cracks may lead to leakage, corrosion of the reinforcement, and deterioration of concrete. • Vibration Limit States: Vertical vibration of floors or roofs may cause unacceptable level of comfort for the users. •

The strength reduction factors vary according to the applied compression force. As the compression force increases, the strength reduction factor in tum increases. One of the reasons for that, is the nature of the brittle failure that accompanies the compression forces. The strength reduction factor for concrete yc ranges from 1.73 for sections subjected to almost pure compression and 1.5 for sections subjected to pure bending. The strength reduction factor for steel reinforcement "Is ranges from 1.32 for sections SUbjected to compression and 1.15 for section subjected to pure bending. For sections subjected to combined compression forces and bending (eccentric compression sections) with at least 0.05t eccentricity, the ECP-203 gives the following values for the strength reduction factors
Yc =1.5XH-(e~t)}21.5

(1.7) (1.8)

r,

= 1.15X{~-

(e~t)} 21.15

where e is the eccentricityand t is the member thickness and !:. 2 . t


. ,-..

0.05

~ .8 o <S §
'.;::l u

1.73 1.32 concrete strength reduction factor Yc

]
.p
CI)

c. Stability

'limit states

g
0.05 0.50

steel strength reduction factor Ys

These include buckling of compression members, overturning, sliding, formation of plastic hinge/mechanism, and general cases of instability. Also, in some cases, localized failure of a member may cause the entire structure to collapse. Such failure is called progressive failure and should be avoided.

elt

Fig. 1.11 Concrete and steel strength reduction factors For other cases the strength reduction factors can be taken as

1.8 Strength Reduction Factors


Strength reduction factors for both concrete and steel are introduced by the Egyptian code to account for several factors. These factors include simplifications, approximations, and small errors that may be encountered during calculations. They also consider variations between the actual strength and the design strength. 20

r, = 1.5 }pure bending, shear and torsion


eccentric and concentric tensile forces

rs

= 1.15

bond and bearing 21

for serviceability

limit states the reduction factors can be taken as

1.9 Classification of Loads


There are several types of loads that may act on a structure and can be categorized as:

r, =1.0} r, = 1.0

for calculation of cracking, deflection and deformation

Dead Loads: These are constant in magnitude

and fixed in location for the lifetime of the structure. A major part of the dead loads results from the own weight of the structure itself. The dead loads also include sand required for leveling of the flooring, flooring material and brick walls. are the results of occupants and furniture. In bridges, vehicle loads represent the major live load. Their magnitude and location are variable. Live loads must be placed in such a way to produce the maximum straining actions on the structures. But rather by placing the live loads on the critical locations that cause maximum stresses for that member. Table 1.5 gives examples of the values of live load on some structures as mentioned in the Egyptian Code for Calculation of loads on Structures. Table 1.5 Live loads value according to building type (kN/m2). Structure Type Residential buildings Location/usage Rooms Balconies, stairs, kitchen Offices Office buildings Archives Balconies and stairs Patient rooms Hospitals Surgery/lab Balconies and stairs Classrooms Labs Schools and faculties Sports centers Book shelf area Lecture rooms Balconies and stairs Hotels Gust rooms Public area/restaurants/stairs Live load 2 3 2.5 5-10 4 2.5 4 or more 4 3 4 or more 5 10 4 4 2 4 ----

Live loads depend mainly on the use of the structure. For buildings, live loads

Photo 1.5 Queensland,

Australia, 22

322 meters 78 stories (2005). 23

..

Seated area Cinemas and theaters Public area unseated Balconies Stairs and corridors . Mosque / church / Halls Seated area Unseated area Inaccessible horizontal flexible roof Roofs Inaccessible horizontal rigid roof Accessible horizontal roof Parkil!_g_rea (small cars) a garages Buses Garage corridor For residential buildings with more than five stories, reduced according to the Table 1.6

4 5 5

1.10 Load Combinations


For members that are subjected to live loads and where the lateral loads can be neglected, the ultimate factored loads U are computed from
U=I.4D+L6L

6
4 5

--

(1.9)

0.6 1.0
2 3 4 5

where D are the working dead loads, and L are the working live loads Alternatively if the live loads are the less than 75% of the dead load, the following equation can be used
U=1.5(D+L) (1.10)

If the member is subjected to earth or fluid pressure (E), the ultimate load is given by
U = 1.4 D+1.6 L+1.6 E (1.11)

In the case oflateral pressure in closed spaces such as tanks and small pools, the ultimate load is taken from
U

the live loads may be -If

= 1.4 D + 1.6 L + 1.4E

Table 1.6 Reduction of live load in multistory residential buildings Location of the floor Roof From 1 to 4 under the roof Fifth floor under the roof Sixth floor under the roof Seventh floor under the roof E!g_hthfloor under the roof Ninth floor and more under the roof Live load value

the structure is subjected to wind loads W or earthquake loads S, the ultimate load U is taken as the largest from the following two equations
U = 0.8 (1.4 D+ 1.6 L+ 1.6 W) U =1.l2D+aL+S .. ,

P
P

(1.12)
(1.13)

0.9P 0.8 p 0.7 P 0.6P 0.5 P

Where a is a coefficient that takes into account the effect oflive


..

load that might

exists on the building during an earthquake and is taken as follows

~ a=1/4 in residentional buildings. ~ a=1/2 in public buildings and structures such as malls, schools, hospitals,
garages and theaters.

~ a=l in silos, water tanks, and structures loaded with sustained live loads from wind pressure,
such as public libraries, main storage areas and garages for public cars. In load cases in which reduction of live loads shall lead to increasing the value of maximum forces in some sections, the live load factor shall be taken to 0.9.

Lateral loads These are the loads resulting

earthquake loads, soil pressure, and fluid pressure. In recent years, significant progress has been made to accurately estimate the horizontal forces due to wind or earthquake. TheECP 203 states a series of load factors and load combination cases to be used in designing reinforced concrete sections.

24

25

For cases in which the effects of the dead loads stabilize the structure, the ultimate loads should be taken from the following set of equations
U = 0.9 D

Table 1.7 Load factors according to ECP 203 Condition Factored Load U
U = 1.4 D + 1.6 L U = 1.5 (D+L) L '5,0.75 D

(1.14) (1.15) (1.16) (1.17) (1.18) Iwind Basic

U =0.9 D+1.6 E U =0.9 D+1.4 E (for tanks and pools) U =0.9 D+1.3 W U=0.9D+1.3S

U=0.9

U = 0.9 D + 1.6 L U = 0.8 (1.4 D + 1.6 L ± 1.6 W) U = 0.9 D±l.3 W

U = 1.12 D + a L + S

Earthquake
U =0.9D ±S U = 1.4 D + 1.6 L + 1.6 E

~arth pressure
U = 0.9 D + 1.6 E U = 1.4 D + 1.6 L + 1.4 E

Closed tanks
U = 0.9 D + 1.4 E

Settlement,creep, temperature Photo 1.6: Opera Sydney in Australia ~ynamic loading

or

U = 0.8 (1.4 D + 1.6 L + 1.6 T) U = 1.4 D + 1.6 T U = 1.4 D + 1.6 L + 1.6 K U = 0.9 D + 1.6 K

where D, L,W, S, E, T, K are the dead, live, wind, soil, earthquake, and dynamic loads respectively.

temperature

26

27

Example 1.1 Using the load combinations of the ECP 203, determine the ultimate axial force and bending moment combinations for the column CD at point C. The frame is subjected to the following working loads D=15 kN/m'(uniform) L=30 kN/m'(uniform) Wind load of95 kN (may act in either direction) dead or 95 kN
B

-35.20

-35.20

live loads
Normal force (dead loads) Bending moment (dead loads)

Normal force (live loads)

Bending moment (live loads)

Solution:

-52.4 -52.4

since the structure is indeterminate, a computer program was used to calculate the axial and bending on the frame. The following figures summarize the results.

-91.25
Normal force (wind loads)

87.9
Bending moment (Wind loads)

28

29

To compute the ultimate loads and according to combinations were used as shown in the following table. Load combinations Axial load D L -45.0 -90.0 bending moment -35.2 -70.4 for member CD

the

ECP-2003,

five

case Equation No. 1 2 3 4 5


U=1.4D+1.6L U =0.8(1.4 D + 1.6 L + 1.6W) U = 0.8 (1.4 D + 1.6 L - 1.6 W) U =0.9 D+1.3 W U =0.9 D-1.3 W

Axial force combination

Bending combination -161.9

e -207.0~
-188.2 -143.1 -63.4

2
,

IC -196.6')
-62.5

DESIGN OF SINGLY REINFORCED SECTIONS

W -17.64 -52.4

-17.6:>

Ie +36.4)

-99.8

An example of the calculation given by U =0.8[1.4D +1.6L ±1.6W]

for the axial force for the case of (D+L + W) is

U = 0.8 [1.4'(-45) + 1.6 (-90) ± 1.6 (-17.64)] U =-165.60±22.60 =-188.2kN and -143.0kN

From the table, the maximum

and minimum ultimate axial force on the column The maximum and minimum ultimate bending

is -207.0 and -17.6 respectively. moment at C is -196.6 and +36.4. It is very important

to notice that the design should be carried out based on from the same load combination moment of -196.6. not the maximum

straining actions resulting . force of -207.0 designed

Photo 2.1: Alamillo Cartuja suspended

bridge,

Spain

from each case. Thus, it is wrong to design the column for an axial compression and bending Instead, the section must be of -207 and a bending In addition, it should be

2.1 Introduction
Until the late 1980s, nearly all reinforced concrete buildings in Egypt were designed according to the working-stress design method. However, since 1989 the ultimate limit states design method has gained popularity and has been adopted by the Egyptian Code for Design arid Construction of Concrete Structures. In this chapter, the basic design concepts of the ultimate limit states design methods are discussed. 31

to withstand

(an axial compression

force

moment of -161.9)

and (-axial -188.2, bending -196.6).

designed for an axial force of -17.6 and a bending moment of +36.4.

30

When the load is further increased, the developed

tensile stresses in the concrete Most of these At the with the naked eye. the developed by definition neglected

2.2 Reinforced Concrete Beam Behavior


Consider that a reinforced concrete beam as the one shown in Fig. 2.1. is subjected to an increasing load that will cause the beam to fail. Several stages of behavior can be clearly identified. At low loads, below the cracking load, the whole of the concrete section is effective 'in resisting compression and tension stresses. In addition, since the steel reinforcement deforms.thesame amount as the concrete, it will contribute in carrying the tension stresses. At this stage, the distributions of strains and stresses are linear over the cross section.

exceed its tensile strength and tension cracks start to develop. cracks are so small that they are not noticeable bars are placed in the tension zone to carryall

location of the cracks, the concrete does not transmit any tension forces and steel tensile forces the stress at strength below the neutral axis. The neutral axis is an imaginary line that separates the tension zone from the compression concrete below the neutral axis zone. Therefore, is completely the neutral axis is equal to zero as shown in' Fig. 2.1. Thus, the part of the in the calculations and the reinforcing steel is solely responsible for resisting the entire

. _._._._._. .. ._._._._._.~._._._._._. ~ _._;_._._._._._._ """";.'._. __ ._ ..

1'1"1

uniform load I I I 1'1

1·1

I~

~--====.=====. ===.========-~ .~ -'.


.

.r.._,

·]L ~.V. .. _t-l~A b_d·············-··········..···A··············L]


.

tension force. At moderate loads (ifthe concrete stresses do not exceed approximately one-

third the concrete compressive working-stress design method.

strength), stresses and strains continue to be very When the load is furthered increased, more

'.

uncracked section

strains

stresses

close to linear. This is called the working loads stage, which was the basis of the cracks are developed and the neutral axis is shifted towards the compression the compression and tension forces will increase and the However, the strain zone will become nonlinear.

a: before

cracking service load

zone. Consequently, distribution distribution


cracked section

stresses over the compression

over the cross section is linear. This is called the ultimate stage. The of the stresses in the compression zone is of the same shape of the yielding of The steel stress I, in this stage reaches

concrete stressfy.

stress-straincurve.

For normally reinforced beams, the yielding load is about 90%-95%

b: cracking stage, before yield, working load

the ultimate load;' At the ultimate stage, two types of failure and the concrete can be noticed. crushes If the beam is large with a

reinforced with a small amount of steel, ductile failure will occur. In this type of ultimate load

."
c: ultimate and failure stage

rr"~"~"""""IAA
0.003 cracked section at ultimate

failure,

the steel yields

after experiencing

deflections and lots of cracks. On the other hand, if the beam is reinforced and occurs due to the crushing of concrete in the compression

large amount of steel, brittle failure will occur. The failure in this case is sudden zone without yielding of the steel and under relatively final collapse. small deflections and cracks. This is

. . cs>ey

j,=f/f.f5

not a preferred mode of failure because it does not give enough warning before

Fig. 2.1 Reinforced concrete beam behavior at different stages of loading


32

33

2.3 Flexure Theory of Reinforced Concrete


2.3.1 Basic Assumptions of the Flexure Theory
In order to analyze beams subjected to pure bending, certain assumptions to be established. These assumptions can be summarized as follows have

2.3.2 Stress-Strain Relationships 2.3.2.1 Concrete in Compression


The stress-strain curve for concrete is non-linear with a descending branch after reaching the maximum stress as shown in Fig. 1.4, presented in Chapter 1. The recorded maximum compressive stress in a real beam differs from that obtained in a cylinder or a cube test. Several studies have indicated that the ratio of the maximum compression stress in beams or columns to the cylinder compressive strength};. / can be taken equal to 0.85 for most practical purposes. This accounts for the size effect and the fact that the beam is subject to a sustained load while the cylinder is tested during a short period. Furthermore, since the cylinder strength j, / is about 0.80 of cube strength j.., the maximum value of the stress strain curve for beams or columns is 0.85 x 0.80.t,,= 0.67.t". For design purposes, the previous value is divided by the concrete safety factor (y,.=1.5 in case of pure bending) to account for the uncertainties explained in section 2.3. Hence the design compressive strength of the concrete as adopted by the Egyptian Code (ECP 203) is 0.67 };:/'y,.=0.45 };,,,. The Egyptian Code presents an idealization for the stress-strain curve compression. The first part of the curve is a parabolic curve up to a strain 0.002 and the second part is a straight horizontal line up to a strain of 0.003, shown in Fig.2.2. Referring to Fig. 2.2, the equation of the concrete stress};. terms of the concrete strain (tc) can be expressed as:
for for
h were

L Strain distribution is assumed to be linear. Thus, the strain at any point is proportional to the distance from the neutral axis. This assumption can also be stated as plane sections before bending remain plane after bending. 2. The strain in the reinforcement the same level. is equal to the strain in the concrete at

3. The tension force developed in the concrete is neglected. Thus, only the compression force developed in the concrete is considered, and all the tension force is carried by the reinforcement.

4. The stresses in the concrete

and steel can be calculated using the idealized stress-strain curves for the concrete and steel after applying the strength reduction factors.

in of as in

5. An equivalent rectangular stress block may be used to simplify the calculation of the concrete compression force. The above assumptions are sufficient to allow one to calculate the moment capacity of a beam. The first of these assumptions is the traditional assumption made in the development of the beam theory. It has been proven valid as long as the beam is not deep. The second assumption is necessary because the concrete and reinforcement must act together to carry the load and it implies a perfect bond between concrete and steel. The third assumption is obviously valid since the strength of concrete in tension is roughly 1110 of the compressive strength and the tensile force in the concrete below the neutral axis will not affect the flexural capacity of the beam. The fourth and fifth assumptions will be discussed in items 2.3.2 and 2.3.3.

s, < 0.002 D.002::; e, ::;0.003

................. (2.1.A)

1.*
r

0.67 feu =---

rc

_~.~_7_f<:.u!yc_

<U

en en
.....
en

,;.

-_------I

+-'

>= o U
i<--,-_--'-i-- __

,--_--tConcrete
0.003

strain tc

0.001

e,

0.002

Fig 2.2 ECP 203 idealized 34

stress-strain 35

curve for concrete

2.3.2.2 Reinforcing Steel


The behavior of the steel reinforcement is idealized by the Egyptian code (section 4.2.1.1 )as an elastoplastic material as shown in Fig 2.3. The reinforcing steel stress can be calculated using Eq. 2.l.B.

2.3.3 The Equivalent Rectangular Stress Block


To compute the compression force resisted by concrete, the Egyptian replaces the curved stress block shown in Fig 2.4C by an equivalent stress of an average intensity of 0.67 feuiYeand a depth a= peas shown in Fig. The magnitude and location of the force calculated using the equivalent block should be equal to that of the curved one.
/,.' = 0.67 /,."

Code block 2.40. stress

h/~'
~
tension
E,=200,OOO Nzmrn' .,;

Y,.

en
e/Ys

~
,

·1

.,

ey/ys

Strain, ts

co.
o:j

II

c'

compression neutral axis

-iv/Y,
B: strain
C: parabolic stress
distribution D: equivalent rectangular block

Fig 2.3 Idealized stress-strain curve for steel


I, = e, x E, I, = j .. Ys /
when Ex when e,

stress

< Ey / r, ~ E,./ Y s

(2.l.B)

Fig. 2.4 Equivalent rectangular stress block calculation.


To calculate the depth "a" of the stress block, one equates the compression force obtained using the stress-strain curve of the Egyptian Code, shown in Fig. 2.4C, to that using the equivalent stress block (Fig. 2.40). The total compression force (C=CI+C2) obtained using the stress-strain curve of the Egyptian Code can be calculated as follows:
C1 =bX(~Xjc')

(2.2)

2 2e C =bx-x-xf
2

33

• =bx (4 -eX 9

jO)'
c

(23) .
j' '

e 4e C=C +C =-xbxj. • +-xbxj.


I 2

'9

• =-exbx 7 '9

(24) .

The compression

force obtained using the stress block C' equals

c: = bxaxjc' = fJ exbxf~
Photo 2.2 High grade steel Reinforcement
36 37

(2.5)

By definition, C must be equal to C', thus solving Eq. 2.4 and Eq. 2.5 for 13gives

2.4 Analysis of Singly Reinforced Sections


Concrete beams subjected to pure bending must resist both tensile and compressive stresses. However, concrete has very low tensile stresses, and therefore tension steel is placed in these locations (below neutral axis) as shown Fig. 2.5. The most economic solution is to place the steel bars as far as possible from the neutral axis except for the concrete cover, which is normally assumed 50 mm from the external surface.

fJ = 7.. = 0.777
9

The code approximates the previous value to 13=0.8, thus the rectangular stress block depth (a=0.8 c). To find the location of the total compression force C', take the moment of the forces at point "0" and note that the C.G of the force F2 is at 3/8 of the distance (2/3c)

c xb x

f, x

k,

c ~XbXjc'(~)+*
=

c xb x

f, C72

c)

(2.7)

k1=0.404 The code simplifies the value of k, with 13/2=0.4 (i.e. the resultant middle of the stress block)

is at the

compressed

zone

steel bars concrete cover

cracked section A-A

Fig. 2.5 Reinforcement placement in reinforced concrete beam

The compressive stresses in concrete are replaced by a uniform stress block as suggested by the Egyptian Code (section 4.2.1.1.9) with distance "a" from the concrete surface as shown in Fig. 2.6.

Photo 2.3 Metropolitan Government Building in Tokyo 38

39

The analysis of the cross section is carried out by satisfying two requirements:

• EquilibriUm
I.

Having determined the stress block distance a, the assumption of the tension steel yielding can be verified using compatibility of strains as follows (c=a/0.8 and Es=200,000 N/mm2 )

L Forces (internal) = L Forces(external)


For sections subjected to pure bending, the external forces equal to zero. This leads to Forces (internal) = 0 ::::> T - C = 0 ::::> T = C;

t. = E,
e
S

xes

(Hook's Law)
c . , (compatibility of strains) -. (2.10)

2.

L LMu (internal) = LMu (external)


of Strains

= 0.003 d -c

(taken about 'any point in the section)

f = 600
s

• Compatibility

,
to its distance from the

d- c c

5,

L: .. 1.15

1. The strain at any point is proportional neutral axis.

If the steel stress Is calculated by Eq. 2.10 exceed jJI.15, then the assumption the yielding of the tension steel i,svalid (fs=f!Ll5) as used in Eq. 2.9.A.

of

Therefore, if the design problem has more than two unknowns, assumptions have to be made to reduce them to exactly two. The stress in the tension steel is assumed to be equal to the yield strengthJ;,. This assumption should be verified after determining the neutral axis position. The equilibrium of the internal forces is used to determine the stress block distance "a" as follows:
C=T· (2.8)

The seco~d equilibrium equation 'is used to determine the moment capacity of the section by equating theintemal moment to the external applied mom~nt Mu• The internal moment capacity is computed by taking the moment of the mtemal forces about any point. Normally, this point is taken at the resultant ?f t~e compression force C to simplify the ?alculations. ~he intemal n:oment m this case is the product of the tension force' multiphed by the distance ~o t~e compression force. This distance is called the lever arm (d-al2) as shown m FIg. 2.7. The equation for the moment is: M,,~

0.67 feu b a = As fy ;.•• ; 1.5 1.15 If the tension steel does not yield Eq. 2.9.A becomes
. .

(2.9.A)

~~1~'(
d _·~)
=

(2.ll.A)

0.61 feu ba =A.xj 1.5. .::'

:.. (2.9.B)
s .:

If the tension steel does not yield, Eq.2.ll.A

becomes
2 . 0.67 feu
1.5

M
b

1/

A f'(d-!!"')
s s·

:
0.003

(2.II.B)

. Compression zone

1J-·--·_'~I

I--l

Neutral axis
T=As/yll.15 T=As f/1.15 T=As fs steel yields steel does not yield

Fig. 2.6 Equilibrium

of forces in a singly reinforced

section

Fig. 2.7 Stress and strain distributions

of a singly reinforced

section

40

41

2.5 Maximum Area of Steel of a Singly Reinforced Section


The balanced failure occurs when the concrete strain reaches a value of 0.003 at the same time that the steel reaches the yield strain divided by the reduction factor (E!Ys) as shown in Fig. 2.8. b

Cmu.,

460 690+ f), 368 690+ 1;

(2.15)

am•x =
d

(2.16)

'j

0.003 .--.. --.-.- -.~:--.:r-----~-----.-... .. ,-

"

'I.

I
Mumax

0.003

cmax = 3Gh

I----_..T

Es>E/1.lS

T=A,max f/1.15

strains

forces

Fig.2.S Neutral axis position at the balanced condition

Fig. 2.9 Neutral axis position for calculating the maximum values allowed by the code
The ratio of the reinforcement in the concrete section (u) is an indication to show if the section IS lightly reinforced or heavily reinforced and can be expressed as:
j.1

From similar triangles shown in Fig. 2.8, one can conclude that
CI>

=_0_'0_03_ 0.003+ G)'

,..;.. (2.12)

y,
modulus

where c, is the neutral axis at the balanced failure. The steel Young's Es equals E, =f)' =f)'ly, Gy G)'ly, Substituting with steel Young's ~

= :~

'"

(2.17)

(2.13)

modulus E, =200,000 N/mm2 and Ys=1.15 gives 69~~

After finding the maximum neutral axis position Cmax,it is beneficial to compute the maximum area of steel As.maxrecommended by the code. To find the maximum area of steel, apply the equilibrium equation (C=T) with neutral axis at Cmaxas shown in Fig. 2.9.
• 0.67
fell

(2.14)

b amax = A,.max 1.5 1.15

J;

(2.18)

Diving both sides by (b x d) gives If C < Cb, then the strain in the tension steel is greater than esiYs and that the tension steel yields. To ensure ductile failure the ECP 203 requires that the value of Cmax be limited to 2/3 Cb' Substitution in Eq. 2.14 and referring to Fig. 2.9 ..gives the following equation

0.6~.{cu a~.x =

,u~~; ;'

(2.19)

42

43

substituting

with Eq. 2.16 into Eq. 2.19 gives 189 690 f, + 1,; feu

Defining ca

= J1

.&.
feu
(()max

J-Lmax

(2.20) Substituting

= J1max f.fy
cu

(2.22)

The ECP 203 limits the reinforcement ratio f.! to f.!max given by Eq. 2.20 to ensure ductile failure. Moreover, it is a good practice, from the economic point of view, to limit the area of steel reinforcement in beams to only 0.5-0.7 f.!max. It can be noticed that steel with smaller fy will have smaller yield strain Eyleading to larger neutral axis .distance cmaxas shown in Table 2. L Thus, the smaller the steel yield strength, the larger. the maximum permissible-steel ratio f.!maxas shown in Fig. 2.10. .

with the value off.!max determined from Eq. 220 gives


189
(j)max

690+

I,

(2.23)

Table 2.1 Values of cmaxld, f.!mm ffimax .-----Steel cb/d cmax/d amax/d Rmax R1max
---,

f.!max·
rom~~
-_.

3.5 3.0 2.5 ~ '-' ~ 2.0


,--..
0

240/350

0.74

0.50

OAO

0.214

0.143

8.56x10-4 feu

0.205

280/450

0.71
---_.

OA8

0.38

.0.208

0.139

7.00x10-4

feu

0.196

E :i

1.5 1.0 0.5 240 280 320 360 400


N/mnl

----_._-360/520

0.66

OA4

0.35

0.194

0.129

5.00x10-4

feu

0.180

400/600

0.63

OA2

0.34

0.187

0.125

4.~1x10-4

feu

0.172

..h
Fig. 2.10 Effect offcu and fy on f.!max

450/520**

0.61

. OAO

0.32

0.180

0.120

3.65x10-4

feu

0.164

It should be clear that if for a given section the neutral axis distance "c" is less than neutral axis maximum value ema:" then the steel is yielded, the actualar~a of steel As, and the applied moment M; is less than code maximum limits as . indicated in Eq. 2.21.

* **

leu in N/mm2
for welded' mesh

If 'd

£ < C max
d

then

J-L<J-Lma, As <A,;ma,
'M" < Mu•m""

...............................

(2.2.1)

44

45

Maximum Moment Capacity


To determine the maximum moment for a singly reinforced section, one can compute the moments of the tension force about the compression force (refer to Fig. 2.9) at c=c-s,
Mu,max

2.6 Balanced, Under, and Over Reinforced Sections


an under-reinforced section is the one in which reinforcing steel yields before the crushing of concrete. An over-reinforced section is the one in which failure occurs due to the crushing of concrete in the compression zone before the yielding of the steel. On the other hand, a balanced section is the one in which yielding of steel and crushing of concrete occur simultaneously. According to the analysis carried out in section 2.5, one can conclude that if the section is reinforced with Jl. less than Jl.b (=1.5 Jl.max) it is called "under reinforced". On the contrary, if the section is reinforced with Jl. greater than Jl.b, it is called "over reinforced". The under-reinforced sections are preferred because they fail in a ductile manner, in which the member will experience large deflections, large strains, and wide cracks. This gives enough warning so that repair can be performed on that member. On the other hand, over reinforced sections will fail suddenly without enough warnings. Figure 2.11 gives the strain distributions and the related values of the three sections 0.003
Under Reinforced

In general,

= \~~51;·

(d - G;ax )

(2.24)

R' De fini InIng max as Rmux

1.5 x

feu b d

Mu,mw< . 2

«:

= !cuI:

\~u;/)' (d - a;ux)

(2.25)

«: = 1.304 Jl'~u1;·
s.; = 1.304 wmax
Substituting

(1- c;x )
0.4

(2.26a)

(1-

0.4 C

d,,-,)

(2.26b)

I-

with the value of Jl.max calculated from Eq. 2.20 gives

«: = 69~~ 1;, (1- 0.4

C~ux )

•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

(2.27)
Over Reinforced

RImux = MUmax2 = Rmax feu b d 1.5

; •.• (2.28)

C>Cmax and ( C>Cb) Jl.>Jl.max and (Jl.>Jl.b) f8<f/1.15

Fig 2.11 Strain

distributions

for over, under and balanced

sections

46

47

2.7 Minimum Area of Steel


In some cases, and mainly due to architectural considerations, the member could be cho~en with con.crete dimensions bigger than those required by strength calculations, Accordmgly, the required area of steel could be very small. This may lead to situations where the strength of the section using cracked section anal?,sis is less than the. strength Of the uncracked section computed using the tensile strength of concrete. . The failure of such sections is brittle and wide cracks tend to develop. Thus, to control cracks,· to ensure ductility, and to avoid sudden failure in tension, the Egyptian code (4.2.1.2.g) requires that the actual area of steel As in any section should be greater than Asmin given by:

2.8 Factors Affecting Ultimate Strength


There are several factors that affect the ultimate strength of a beam SUbjectedto bending. These factors can be summarized as . • • • • • Yield strength of reinforcing steel.jj, Concrete compressive strength.j., Beam depth, d Beam width, b Reinforcement ratio, I..l.

A'lnin

. 10.225 =smaller of [,

.JJ:
cu

bd~

f:.

11

bd

(2.29)

The effect of steel yield strength on ultimate strength is shown in Fig. 2.12A. It is clear that steel yield strength has a big impact on its ultimate capacity. Increasing the steel yield strength from 240 N/mm2 to 400 N/mm2 increases the ultimate capacity by 55%. On the other hand, concrete compressive strength has a little effect on the ultimate strength as shown in Fig. 2. 12B. Changing concrete compressive strength from 20 N/mm2 to 40 N/mm2 increases the ultimate strength by only 5%. Comparing Fig. 2.12C and Fig. 2.12D shows that increasing beam depth affects the ultimate capacity more than increasing beam width. Increasing beam depth from 500 mm to 1000 mm increases the capacity of the beam by almost three times. Finally, increasing steel reinforcement ratio has a significant effect on the ultimate capacity as illustrated in Fig. 2.12E.

1.3 A,

but notless than

0.25 b d(mild steel) ) -0.15 b d (high grade) {100 100 ..

If!cll is greater or equal to 25 N/mm2 the term (0.225.JJ:: If,. b d) is bigger than (0.25% b d) and (0.15% b d). Thus, there is no need to check the third condition in Eq. 2.29, if 0.225 If,. < 1.3 A, . The minimum area of steel in this case can be simplified to: .

JJ::

0.225. -,-vJ_, b d __
cc",,""

if

(v
J.3A,

....................... (2.30)

Photo 2.4 Interior reading halls in the Library of Alexandria

48

49

3.5 3

---_._.-

'\,

2.5
2

:E

'i1.5 ~
0.5

280

L--

-fy

3.5 ,-------,r--.--.,.-.----,----,

3+---+---+---+--~ 2.51----1---+---+--------1 } 2f---f---+---+----j


1.5

Analysis Summary In this type of problem all the cross section information is known including beam cross section dimensions, steel yield strength and concrete strength. It is required to calculate the moment capacity Mu.

4==:::==I=:::::=t:==::::j:==~

ANALYSIS PROBLEM
Given : b, t ,As feu, fy : Mu a, Mu' Required Unknowns:

0.51----1---+---+--------1 O~--~--+_--+_-~
320 360 400 20 25 30 35

o
240

feu 40

A-Effect of fy

B-Effect of feu

350 300

350

300
E250

E Z e. 'i

250 200 150 100 ~ 150

i 2OO
'i
150 250
350 450

100 400

-:

-:

V
800

-:

Procedure o Step 1: Apply the equilibrium equation T=C to find the depth of
the stress block, "a" and the neutral axis depth "c" assuming that tension steel has yieldedfs=f/I.15. o Step 2: Check that tension steel has yielded (fs ~ f)U5) by ensuring the.c-cc, or by using Eq.2.1 O. o Step 3: Compute the bending moment capacity M, by taking the moment about the concrete compression force.

600

1000

b(mm)

d(mm)

C-Effect of beam width (b)

D-Effect of beam depth (d)

3.5
3.0 2.5 )2.0 ~ 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0.40

...-

----- ----0.60 0.80

...-

---

i I
1.20

1.00

E-Effect of reinforcement ratio l.l

Fig. 2.12 Parametric

study on the ultimate moment capacity 50

Photo 2.5 Cantilever box section in a reinforced concrete bridge 51

Example 2.1
Determine whether the section shown in figure is under-or-overreinforced section and check code maximum permissible area of steel for the following cases ' 1. As = 500 mm ,2 2. As =1000 mm 3. As =1500 mnr' 4. As =2000 mrrr' fcu=25 Nzmrrr' , fy=360 N/mm2
2

Case l: As= 500 mnr' Case 2: As=lOOO mnr' Case 3: As=l500 mm2 Case 4: As=2000 mm2

under reinforced (As<Asb) under reinforced (As<Asb) under reinforced (As<Asb) over reinforced (As>Asb)

Code limit safe (As<ASlllax) Code limit safe (As<Asmax) Code limit unsafe (As>Asmax) Code limit unsafe (As>Asmax)

I
'''' .J!,
o o

b:=l50

Note 1: An alternative
follows:
c" d 690 690+ fl,' 690 690+ 360

method for calculating

the balanced

area of steel is as

= 0.657

'-,->

Cb=( 0.657 x 600)=3942


'

mm

ab=0.8cb = 0.8 (394.2) = 315.36 mm

........
As Solution To determine whether the section is under-or-over-reinforced, calculate the balanced area of steel Asb. one has to

0.67

Jr"
1.5

b a"

Asb =--

1;.
As" x360

1.15

0.67 x 25x 150x 315.36 1.5

1.15

~rom the code Tabie 4~lor Table 2.1 in thistext one can, get :
~ax=5
AsmiIX

x 10-4 fcu=5 X 10-4 x 25= 0.0125

=.J1max b4=0.Ol25x150x600=1l25mm2
mnr'

but Cmax=2/3 Cbor Asmax= 2/3 Asb Asb = 3/2 x 1125~1687.5

Asmin =smaller

.,j
of

O.225.J2sx150x600=281mm'
360 .1.3x(500) = 650 mm
2

=281

mm?

... <As ... o.k

Thus, all sections satisfy the minimum area steel requirements

52

53

Example 2.2
For the cross-section shown in figure: A- Determine the bending moment that the reinforced concrete section can carry if As=1200 mm'', . . . B- Determine the maximum area of steel that can be used m this section c- Determine the maximum moment that can be resisted by the section 2 fcu=25 N/mm2 and fy=400 N/mm
250

Step 2: Check f s
From Table 2.1 for/y=400N/mm2 Since c/d(0.311)
~

cb/d=0.63

< cJd (0.63) then fs=f/1.15

Since c/d (0.311 )<cmax/d (0.42) then the beam satisfies code requirements (As<.Asmax and M, < Mumax)as will be shown in step 4.1 and 4.2

Step 3: Calculate bending moment Mu


M

= As "1.15

1;. (d

_!!..)
2

•••
Solution Step1: Apply equilibrium equation T=C
Assume tension steel yields 0.67 0.67

M"

1200x 400 (600_149.51) 1.15 . 2

= 219.23xl06 = 219.23 kN.m

Step 4.1: Calculate Maximum Area of steel As.max


From Table 2.1, f..1max=4.31xl0-4/cu f..1max= 4.31xl0-4 (25) =0.01077 As,max= f..1max d =0.01077 x 250 x 600 b As,max 1616 mm'' =

h"
1.5
x

ba

As iy 1.15 1200x400 1.15

25 x 250x a 1.5

Step 4.2: Calculate Maximum ·Moment Mu.max


From Table 2.1, Rmax=0.187 M
u.max

a= 149.51 mm

!:... = a I 0.80
d d
=

= 0.311

= Rmax h"

L5

bd

0.187 X25 X250 X600 1.5x 106

= 280,5 kN.m

aid

0.249 > ald)min(O.I) .... ok

Or, alternatively
0.67 fe"
1.5

I . b=250 . I

0.67 x 25 1.5

From Table 2.1,

cmax/d=0.42

_.. _._.-- - - -.-.-.-.-.-.-.~j.-.-.. - _._.-_._._--._._._

uT [7 ro[~

0.003

1--1

amax .""0.8 x 0.42x 60Q == 201.6 mm M


u ;max

As.max 1;. (d1.15

amax) 2

1616X400(600_ 1.15x106

201.6)= 280.6kN.m 2

•••
54

As

T=As f/1.15=1200x400/1.l5

IFinal results Mu=219 kN.m, As,max=1616 mm2 and Mumax=280.6 kN.1lll

Stress and strain distribution in the


55

Example 2.3
Determine whether the cross-section shown in the figure below can withstand an applied bending moment of 80 kN.m. 2 fcu=30 N/mm and fy=240 N/mm2 150

Step 2: Check fs
From Table 2
->

cb/d=0.74 and cmax/d=0.5

c/d = 0.173 < cJd (0.74) then fs=fJ1.15 Since c/d (0.173 )<cmax/d (0.50) then the beam satisfies code requirements

Step 3: Calculate bending moment


0 0

lAo

8 8

M
u

As 1;. (d 1.15

_!!.) 2
(45062.3) 2

\f")

lL

••

As=600mm2

= 600 x 240 1.15

= 52.44 x 106 = 52.44

kN m . (80 kN.m), the

Solution Stepl: Apply equilibrium equation T=C


Assume concrete cover of 50 mm
d
=t

Since Mu(52.44 kN.m) is less than the applied moment cross-section

can not withstand the applied moment (unsafe).

-cover

= 500 -50 = 450 min

0.67 feu b a As 1;. =-1.5 1.15 0.67 x 30 x 150x a 1.5 a=62.30mm 600 x 240 1.15 c=a/0.8=77.8 mm

aid = 0.138 > a/d)min(O.l 0) ., ..ok


0.67 x 30 1.5

,0.003

I---l

o o
\f")

0 "<t

\f")

As=600

••

A, x Y"

I,

= 600 x 240 1.15

Stress and strain distribution 56

in the beam

Photo 2.6 Reinforced

concrete

bridge during

construction

. 57

Example 2.4
Calculate the maximum moment that the beam shown in figure can sustain. Check whether the cross-section meets the code requirements regarding the maximum area of steel. The material properties are fcu=25N/mm2 and fy=400 N/mm2 200 0.67x25

I'

200

·1

1.5 0.003

1--1

----___i
'-------'

As=1700

i_
_
Es<Ey

.. .... __ ...._ ... ..__ ...

As=1700 mm''

Step 3: Re-calculate a
0.67 feu b a = A 1.5 s

f
s

Beam cross section

Solution Step1: Apply equilibrium equation T=C


. 0.67 feu b a
1.5 = As

0.67 x 25 x 200 x a = 1700x 168000- 600a 1.5 a

The above equation is a second order equation, solving for "a" gives
a=l95.94 rom c=244.93rom --7c/d=O.69

1;.
1700x 400 1.15

1.15

f
s

0.67 x 25 x 200 x a 1.5

= 600 350 - 244.93 = 257.4 NI mm" ... 244.93 .

400) 1.15

Step 4: Calculate bending moment Mu

a=264:76mm

c=330.95 mm

aid = 0.756> ald)min(O.lO) ok ....

M = A f (d-!!:')2
u
S

Step 2: Check f s
cld =0.94 > cJd (0.63) tension reinforcement does not yield, we have to recalculate "a" thus fs equals I,»
600 d -c= 600 0.8x350~a= 168000-600xa

u, = 1700x

257.4 (350-

19~94) = 110.28 x 106 = 110.28 kN.m

Note: Since the steel does, not yield, the cross-section is considered overreinforced. Thus, the cross-section does not meet code requirements (c/d(0.69»cmax/d(0.42».

58

59

Example 2.5 A 3 mm steel plate with a yield strength of 400 N/mm is glued to a concrete beam reinforced with steel bars (4 (fJ16, h=360 Nzmnr' ) as shown in figure. Determine the bending moment that the reinforced concrete section can resist. The concrete compressive strength of the beam is 20 N/mm2•
200
2

Step 2: Check cmax/d From the code cmax/d (1;,=360 N/mm2 )=0.44 for
C

max

= 0.44 x 700 = 308 mm .


mm

c<Cmax o.k (steel yields) ... The depth of the plate dp= h+tpl2=750+3/2=751.5 The stress in the plate
. Isl' = 600 d-c
-I' -

a a 0
V)

e-

iL

fj

••••
~
150mm

iSl'= 600751.5-285.6. .. 285.6


4 (fJl 6 -steel plate 1:p=3mm

' =978.78Nlmm

400 >-(steelplateyieldsi 1.15

=400/1.15)
sp

Step 3 : Calculate the ultimate moment Mu Take the moment about the concrete force C

Solution Step1: Apply equilibrium equation T=C Area of the plate Ap= 3 x 150 = 450 mm' Area of the steel bars = 4<1>16 804 mnr' = C=Tl+ T~ Assume that both the plate and steel bars yield
---"=-'_

M =T (d -::"'.)+T(d. -::...) 2 2
u t 2 P

= As i). (d
1.15

_::...)+
2'

AI'

1.15

i>1' (d _::...)
I'
2

= 804 X360(700 1 15
.

_ 228.48) + 450 x 400 (. 1 _ 228.48 )._ 75 .5 - 247.17 kN.m 2 US 2

0.67

I;

ba

1.5

= --

As

1.15

1;. +--i)7> AI>


1.15

!Final results Mu=247.7


450 x 400 1.15

kN.l1lI

0.67 x 20 x200 x a 1.5

---+--1.15

804 x 360

a= 228.48 mm ,

c= _!!:_ = 228.480 = 285.6 mm

0.8

0.8

o
V)

.t-

t-

._ ...."

.....
As=804 Ap=450

TI~As f/1.15 T2=Ap fyp/1.15

60

61

Example 2.6 A reinforced concrete beam has a cross section of concrete dimensions b=200mm and d=450 mm. Calculate the moment capacity and the area of steel using the idealized curves for concrete & steel, without applying safety factors (Ys=rc=l) for the strain distribution shown in cases A&B. The idealized stressstrain curve for the concrete and steel isgiven below.

• Force in the steel since 1>.(0.005) 0.001 then from steel curve!s=320 N/mm2 > • Force in the concrete The force in the concrete equals the stressed area multiplied by the width b. The concrete area can be divided into two parts as shown in the figure below
x = --185.29

i -~---- o{ ---.--1._
'"
'<t

200

0.0035

200

--

;r

0.002 0.0035

= 105.88 mm

0.001

xl =185.29-105.88 =79.41 mm

0.005

--0.0008

Case A

Strain

Case B

Strain

320 N/mm2

23 N/mm2 1:,=0.005 Isometric for Stress distribution Concrete 0.002 0.0035 C1

Steel 0.001

23 x 105.88 200

= 243524

C2 = 23 x 79.41 x 200 = 365286 N

Solution

Case A From the strain distribution, the neutral axis depth "c" is determined as follows:
c
d

As (320) = 243524+365286 As=1902 mrrr' Note that the C.G. of force C1 is at xl3
Y1= 450-79.4"105.8/3=335.3
mID

__ 0_.0_0_3:.-5 0.411 _= 0.0035+ 0.005

Y2=450-79.4/2= M,
=

410.3 mm

c=O.4llx 450= 185.29 mm

C1 Y1 +C2 Y2 = (243524 x 335.3 +365286 X 410.3)/106 =231.53.kN.m

·62

63

Case B
c d
__ 0'_00_1 __ = 0.5556 0.001 + 0.0008

Example 2.7 Find the ultimate moment capacity for the cross-section shown in the figure below. fcu=30Nzmnr' , and fy=360 N/mm2

c=0.5556 x 450 = 250 mm • Force in the steel since Es(0.0008) < 0.001 then find steel stress from graph

/, = 0.0008320 = 256
s

0.001

N / mm?

.Force in the concrete The concrete force is equal to the compressed area of concrete multiplied by the width b. The stress in the concrete is a triangular shape .from the concrete curve with strain=O.OOI~ fc=I1.5 N/mm2
23 N/mm' ------

~I
400

Solution In this problem we have two unknowns a and M, .. Step 1: Compute a. It should be noted that the code permits the use of the stress block for trapezoidal sections The total compression force C equals to the concrete stress (0.67 feu/1.5) multiplied by the compressed area Ae. Assume that tension steel has yielded(fs=fyl1.15)

i
Concrete

f,= 11.5 N/mm'

o o
o

o o

0.0035

0.67 feu Ac 1.5 0.67x30xAc 1.5

As fy 1.15
= 1600x360

c
I

= 11.5 x 250 200 = 287500 N

1.15

As (256) = 287500
Y1= 450-250/3=366.667 mm

Ac=37378 mm2

Mu= C1

Y1=(287500x 366.667)/106 =105.41 kN.m


0.001

8,=0.0008 200

Strain 64

Forces

s=400-2 a tan 10

As fyt1.15

"I

65

Example 2.8
Ae

= a --.

400+s 2

= a [400-a

x tan(10))

Find the ultimate moment capacity that this cross-section can resist. The material properties for the beam are fcu=20Nzrnm'', and fy=400 N/mm2

37378 = 400 a- 0.176 a2 Solving for a a=97.65 mm


a 97.65 c =-=--=122.06 0.8 0.8 mm 400 • •• As=1250 mm
2

180 200

aid = 0.195 > ald)min(O.I).... ok Step 2: Check

fs
150

Since c/d (0.244) < cb/d (0.66), thus steel yields f5=fyf1.15 Since c/d (0.244)<cmax/d(0.44) then the beam satisfy code requirements Step 3: Compute moment capacity,

200

150

Mu

The concrete force is divided into two parts. The first is the two small triangles (CI) and the second is rectangular C2•
1 C1= 2 x-xaxa 2 (10") x 0.67 x30 = 22530 N tan. 1.5

Solution Step 1: Compute a. Assume that tension steel has yielded. Since we have two unknowns M, and (a), solving the equilibrium equations gives
0.67 x feu
X

Taking moment about concrete force C2 (a/2fromthe top) The distance between CI and C2 = 79.65 _ 79.65 = 79.65
2 3 6 1600x360 (97.65) M 11.= 500 - -97.65 + 22530 x-= 226.3 xl 06 = 226.35 kN .m

Ac

1.5' 0.67
x

As fy 1.15

20 1.5

Ae _ 1250 X 400

1.15

Ac=48670 mrrr' Since Ac is grater than (200 x 180), thus the distance by the distance
X2

1.15

is bigger than 180

as follows

!Final Result: Mu=226.35

kN.1lll

48670 = 200x 180 + 500 x 2


X2

= 25.34 mm
X2

a=180+

=205.34

66

67

0.67 feu /1.5

0.67

20 /1.5

2.9 Design of Singly Reinforced Sections by First Principles


To design a reinforced concrete section, the applied factored moment, concrete strength and steel yield strength must be given. It is then required to calculate the cross section unknowns including b, d and As. If the beam supports a wall then its width is usually chosen equal to the wall width (either 120 mm or 250 mm). The width of the beams that do not support walls may be reasonably assumed to meet architectural requirements.' The assumption of the beam width leaves the designer with two unknowns (d, As). In spite of having two equilibrium equations, one can not get these two unknowns. This is due to the fact that the stress block depth (a) is also an unknown.

I-l

Step 2: Check steel yield stress,


c= alO.8 =256.675 mm d=180+200+400-50(cover)=730 mm

fs

Two alternative procedures can be followed: 1. The thickness of the beam is assumed as a function of the span as will be discussed in Chapter 6 in order to satisfy serviceability requirements such as deflection (span/l0). This procedure is usually followed by practicing engineers. Apply the two equilibrium equations to obtain the remaining unknowns (a, As) 2. The area of steel As can be assumed. A reasonable assumption for such an area canbe obtained by assuming that the lever armequalsto O.8d. Since concrete compressive strength has a limited effect on the ultimate capacity, a. further simplification can be attained by assuming that /cu=25 N/mm2• Solving Eq;2.9.A and 2.11.A for the area of steel As> one can get
t

Since c/d(O.35)<Cb/d(O.63),fs=fyll.lS Since c/d(0.35)<cmax/d(0.42) then the beam satisfy the code requirements Step 3: Compute moment capacity Taking moment about the tension force

c
t

= 0.67 x20 200x180 1.5 1000 = 0.67 x20 500x25.34 1.5 1000

321.60 kN

. ---*Y = 73 0 -- 180 = 640 mm

As =O.ll~Mu
.. mm

fy

(2.31)

c
2

113.2

KN

25.34 ---*Y2 =730-180---=537.33 2

Mu =321.6x 640 +113.2 x 537.33 =266.65 kN.m


100 1000

The assumed As is approximately 0.9-1 %ofthe cross sectional area ()J.~0.0090.01). After assuming the area of steel, one can apply the two equilibrium equations to calculate the remaining unknowns (a, d). The procedure for using this approach is illustrated in example 2.10.

IFinalResult:

Mu=266.64

kN.1Dl

68

69

Pro~edure
o

Step1: Make the necessary assumptions to keep only two unknowns

Example 2.9
A singly reinforced concrete beam with a width of 250 mm is subjected to an ultimate moment of 270 kN.m. Find the beam depth and area of steel, then Calculate Asmax Mumax. and fcu=30N/mm2 and fy=400 N/mm2

• • •
o

Assume the beam depth (d) or assume f.l=0.01. Or, assume area of steel, As
= (0.1- 0.11) ~

Mu b

r,

Solution
In this example we have three unknowns a, d, As and we have only two equilibrium equations, thus we have to assume one of the unknowns.

If"b" is not given (assume b=120, 200, or 250 mm)

Step2: Apply equilibrium equation T=C to find the depth of the stress
block, "a" (Eq.2.9)

Step 1: Assumptions
I1m•x=4.3IxI0-4x30=0.0129

o o o

Step3: Take the moment about the concrete force and calculate the
area of steel or the beam depth (Eq. 2.11)

Assume f.l<f.lmax ~~Assume

f.l=0.01 ........... (1)

As = f.lb d = 0.01 x 250 x d =2.5 d

Step 4: Check minimum area of steel Asmin (Eq. 2.30) Step 5: Check the code limits Mu,max, m.Jd, As.max(Eq. .21) c 2

.Step 2: Calculate a
0.67 feu b a 1.5 0.67
x

As fy 1.15 2.5 d x 400

30

250 x a

1.5

1.15

a=0.2596 d aid = 0.2596 > ald)min(O.l).... ok


0.67 x30 250 1• 1.5

"I
- _._._._

._.-

- ---._

ur

0.003

I--i
C
__ ._. _

roI - - - - _._o_._._._._o

........................
Step 3: Calculate d
M
u

Es>Ey

Calculation of As, d

As

1.15

1;. (d

_!!:..)
2

Photo 2.7 Reinforcement

placement in a slab-beam roof

70

71

270x 106= 2.5 400 1.15

(d

0.2596 2

d)

--d=597mm

Example 2.10

From Eq. (1)

As = 2.5 d =1493 mm2

Rounding d to the nearest 50mm, d=600 mm and As= 4<j122 (1520 mm')
Step 4: Check Asmin
0.22550 400 250 x 600 = 460 mm
2

A singly reinforced concrete beam is subjected to an ultimate moment of 330 kN.m. Find the beam depth and area of steel. The material rroperties are: fcu=25N/mm and fy=280 N/mm2
Solution Step 1: Assumptions

= 460 mm

<As ···o.k

1.3 x 1493 = 1940 mm

In this example we have four unknowns b, a, d, As and we have only two equilibrium equations, thus we shall assume two (b, As) Assume b=200 mm
A =O.l1~Mub • ~ =0;11

Step 5: Check Asmax,Mumax

330xl0 x200=1689mm2
6

From the code ~max= 4.31xlO-4 feu cmax/d =0.42 and Rmax=0.187 ~max = 4.31x10-4 (30) =0.01293 amax =0.8 x 0.42x 600 = 201.6 mm As,max ~max d =0.0129 x 250 x 600 =1939 mm' > As = b
M
u.max

2W

0.67 feu

o.k

I'

b=200

As.maX fy ·(d _ amax.) = 1939x 400 (6001.15 2· 1.15 X 106

201.6) 2

= 337 kN.m

OR
M
u.max

= Rmax feu b d

L5

0.187 x 30x 250x 6002 1.5xl0


6

337 kN.m

...
As
1.15

________ J__ j_____~


--_._,-,---Es>Ey

, -I

1.5

0.003

I---l

250
1~

0.67 x30

-I J

0.003

._. _. _. _. _. _. _. ._. _._....

"I
s

._. -. . _. _. -.~. _._

,,1

C
__ ._-

Step

2: Calculate 0.67 feu b a


1.5

= As fy

"

1.15 1689x280

Asmax
• • • -'-"'---'---- 8 8 >_y_

0.67 x 25x 200x a


Asmaxf/1.l5

1.5

1.15

a=184.12 mm

Calculation

of Mumax

Step 3: Calculate d
M = As "1.15

1;, (d

_!!_)
2 1.15

2.10 Design of Singly Reinforced Sections Using Curves


Design aids are very useful tools in designing prepare the design aids, equilibrium equations utilized. There are several charts that can be shall present several design charts followed by to use such design aids. reinforced concrete sections. To and compatibility of strains are used in the design process. We design examples to explain how

330x 106= 1689 x 280

(d _ 184.12)
2

---?

do=895 mm

aid = 0.205 > ald)min(O.I) .... ok Use d=900 mm t=950 mm and As= 1689 mrrr'

2.10.1 Design Charts (R-~)


Applying the equilibrium equation for the forces shown in Fig. 2.13 0.67 feu b a As f), L5 1.15 Dividing by (b x d) and noting that !-L=A/(b .d)

Step 4: Check ASmin


0.225.fi5 _-":-200x 280
Asmin

900 = 719 mm 2

=smaller of
1.3 x 1689 = 2195 mm
2

d=

1.5xJ-lxJ;, J-lxf)' 0.67 x 1.15 =t; =1.9468-I,-e"-·······································(2.32)

Taking moments about the concrete force C

Step 5: Check

Asmaxi Mumax

M"

Since c/d(0.26) < cmax/d(0.48) then As<Asmaxand Mu<Mumax

~~l;' (d -%)
~.~

(2.33)

Dividing Eq. 2.33 by b x d2 gives

!Final design d=900 mm, t=950 mm and A.=1689 mm~

,..
i

200

.,.
i

~"2.=

(l-i%)
f.1X

(2.34)

Substituting

withEq.

2.32 in Eq. 2.34 gives


MIl2

R" =
o
II")

bd

f.1

1.15

fy (1-0.9734

feu

1,.)

(2.35)·

0\

••• •••
Final design

6<1>20 s=1885 mnr') (A

I"

.1

0.003

._._._._._.__._._~I_. ..

Note 1. The reinforcement is arranged in two rows. 2. The depth of the beam is measured from the c.g of the reinforcement.

...
As

..................... Es>E/I.J5

AJ/J.J5

Fi2. 2.13 Equilibrium offorces

in rectangular

sections

Substituting different values of J..L the Eq. 2.35, the relation between Ru, J..L in can be established. Fig. 2.14 shows an example of such curves. Appendix A contains R-J..Ldesign charts.

2.10.2 Design.Chart (R-ro) Definingro as


W=fLfy feu

Subsisting the value of coin Eq. 2.32 gives


.::_ 1.9468 W =

6.0

Dividing Eq. 2.35 by feu gives


1",=4 MPa

5.5 5.0 4.5


4.0 3.6 3.0

.feu' OMPa

fy 240 ~ ~

fy=3

o~m / 'C:35

jn2

Pa

r~ V

./
MPa

RI=

Mu =~(l-0.9734fLfy) feu b d2 1.15 feu


W.

(2.37)
feu
.

)~

~30

I~ ~
V
5 A

30

RI = (1- 0.9734 W) 1.15

(2.38)

~ ~
~5

~
~2(

2.5
2.0

1.5
1.0
..

V..,V

~f v
~ ~

Substituting different values of coin the Eq. 2.38, the relation between Rl, co can be established. The curve should be terminated at the value of COmax listed in Table 2.1 and Eq. 2.23. Fig. 2.15 shows an example of such curves. Appendix A contains Rl-ro design chart.
0.15 0.14
.,.-·....,.----...--.R .................

l-I

::tcfiY;;:!ID~I'
_
fy",

-- --

_.-,...-._.--'1 ; :Jt i

jlo N' fm

0.5 0.0

tiln~
~
0.0 0.2

II"

A =_!!._xbxd±~ s 100 11.15

t,

0.13 :::: :::::::: :::: ~~J(~~ ~:: :::::::: :::: :::: :::.:::: :::: 0.12

V
,

:;v
"" 'E :

./

0.11

.L_

0.10 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 28 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.6 0.07 0.06

.j

<E: '6

0.4

Jl

Fig. 2.14 Example of Ru-J..Ldesign curve

0.05

+-+-+-+-j:.-/-h-q_-+--+-+-+--I--+-+-l-4-I+: --+--+--;-1--;-+-1 1 +-+-+--j:.-V-¥-+--+--+-+--I---I--+-+---+--f---1~c----t-:+~--l

('

.9, :

0.M+-+-4~~~~~~~+-+-+-4-4-~~-F.-+-+-+~~
.0.03 +--/4V~~~+--+-4--+-~--+-+--+---1C--~+--+-'-t--+--+~~ 0.02 ~+---+--+--J.-I--+---+-+--+-'+--J.-I--+--+-+-+--+~_;._t-0.02 O.M 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12
(j)

I I I 0.D1+-_j_--+-~--J._L....+--L-+-_L-+___l-l--.L_-+---L;..--+--L-..;..j_;._.!.._....j
0.14 0.16 0.18 0.20 0.22

Fig. 2.15 Example of Rl-m design curve

Summary
The following information: table illustrates the use of the charts depending on the example

Note 4: If the both (As and d) are not given, consider assuming 1l=0.008-0.0 1
and proceed as the previous procedure

d is given,
1. 2. 3. 4.

Calculate Rl or n, or Ku Use charts (R-O)or R-l! or Ku-l!) to determine l! or 0) Calculate As Check Asmin and Asm.x

As

required

As
1. 2. 3. 4.

is given, d required
Calculate l! or 0) Use the charts to determine RlorRuorKu Calculate d Check Asmin and Asm.x

Note 5: It should be noted that we have to check Asminusing Eq. 2.30 even if ll>!!minon the curve, because the curve tests only the value of 1.11J;, Note 6: Since sometimes the beam depth is not known, a reasonable
estimation for "d" can be concluded by assuming a=O.l d and , 1l=0.01 and substituting in Eq. 2.34. gives: .
d = ll~ :;)' ,,

(2.36)

As,

d required

1. Assume Rl=1I2RmaX(R:::::O.07) 2. Use the charts to determine 0) 3. Calculate d, As d2

Note 7: The design curves can be presented in a tabular form (Ru-ll) or (RuKu) as given in appendix A

Mu feu b Rl

A
S

= to b

d feu f

4. Check Asmin and Asmax

Note 1: Each curve terminates

at the value of the maximum

reinforcement

ratio !!maxorO)max. Thus, there is no need to check the maximum moment.or the maximum area of steel as long as the point is less than the maximum limit.

Note 2: It should be noted that beam depth needs to be increased if the point
is located outside the curve as shown in Fig. 2.16.

Rl>Rlmax

Rlmax

Rwnax

llmin

!!max

Fig. 2.16 Cases where the beam depth need to be increased Note 3: For small values ofRl«0.04),
0) can be approximated by 0)=1.2 Rl.

Photo 2.8 Trammell Crow Center (209m ,50 stories)

Example 2.11 A reinforced concrete cross-section is subjected to a bending moment of a factored value of 400 kN .m, The beam has a width of 200mm. It is required to design the cross section using the (Rl-ro) curve, knowing that fcu=30 N/mm2 and fy=280 N/mm2 .

Step

3:

Check

Asmin,

Asmax

Asmin = smaller of

0.

225

/"

.JJ:: bd = 0.225Eox200X95. 280


l.3As = 1.3x1899 = 2469

0=836..1

=836mm2 <As····f),k

Solution Step 1: Assume f.1 and get Rl Since both (As and d) are not given, then -t""'+ assume f.1=0.0 1
cv = fl

Since Rl<RI.max thus A.;;<A.;;max o.k.

!Final Result: d=950mm, t=1000 mm, As=1899 mm~

iL = 0.01 280 = 0.0933


I;
30

From the chart with ro=0.0933, Rl=0.074


o
o o

I.. ~

200

•I ~

Rlmax • • •• Rl=0.074 As=1899

mrrr'

Final design

0)=0.093

romax

Step 2: Compute d, .As


Rl M" feu bd
2

0.074=

400xl0 30 X200 X d2

d=949mm
A =0.0933x200x949~=1899mm2 s 280

Take d=950 mm, t=lOOOmm

Example 2.12 A reinforced concrete cross-section is subjected to a bending moment of a factored value of 350 kN.m. The beam has a width of 250mm. It is required to design the cross section using the (Ru-u) curve, knowing that fcu=25 N/mm2 and fy=400 N/mm2 . . Solution Step 1: Assume 11 and get Ru Since both (As and d) is not given, then, Assume R=1/2 Rmax ~-+.~ Ru=2.4 From the curve 11=0.8% (0.008)

Example 2.13 A reinforced concrete cross-section is subjected to a bending moment of a factored value of 290 kN.m. The beam has a width of 150mm. It is required to design the cross section using the (Ru-ku) table, knowing that the material properties are fcu=40N/mm2 and fy=360 N/mm2 . Solution Step1: Assume J.1and get

Ku

Assume J.1= 0.8% (0.008) From the table (Ru-ku)with fy=360 N/rrim2 determine Ku=0.655 Step 2: ComP':lte d, As
r-r-r-r-r-t-

Rumax

d =K
u

~Mu =0.655
b

290xl0 150

=910.74mm

A, = J1 b d = 0.008 x 150 x 910.74 = 1093 mm' = 10.93 em"

d=950 mm t=1000 mm Note: use the calculated depth (910 mm) to calculate As Step 3: Check Asmin,Asmax
1-1=0.80%

Step 2: Compute d, As
R :; Mu
u

Ilmax
A,min

-smaller

of

!0.225.J]:; bd 0.225.J]:; x150x950=563


I,
=;

360

. :;563cm2

<A,

ok

b d2
6

l.3A, = l.3x1093 = 1421

2.4 = 350 x 10 250x d2

~~d=763mm Since J.1 Ilmax,hus As<Asmax < t · o.k

As = J1 b d = 0.008 x 250 x 763 = 1526 mm' = 15.26 em"

Take d=800 mm, t=850 mm Note: it is more economical to use the calculated depth (763 mm) not the chosen depth (800 mm) to compute As Step 3: Check Asmin,Asmax

!Final Result: t=1000 mm, As=1093 mm~


1.

150

•1
i

_
Asmin

=smaller .

of

!0.225.J]:; bd 0.22Sfis
fy 400

x250x800:;

563

.0

o o
.-<

=563mm2

<A,

IJ.k
...

l.3As =1.3x1526=1983

• • ••

A s=1093 mrn

Since 11<'Ilmax,thus As<Asmax

:.o.k

Final design

Example 2.14
Redesign the beam in example assuming that d=600 mm 2.9 using the design aids (Ru-Jl) and

Example 2.15
Determine the value of the ultimate load (Pu) that can be applied to the beam shown in the figure using design aids.
fcu=25 N/rom2 and fy=360 N/rom2 (Neglect own weight of the beam)

Solution Step 1: Estimate


Calculate R,

As
=3

o o
2

R = Mu = 270x1Q6
u

bd

r-~

250x600

§ID
I~I

••••

..

As=1245 mm

From the chart ((y=400 N/mm2 andfcu =30 N/mm2 )with Ru=3~Jl=0.99
As =u b d
>

0.99 250x600= 100

1485 mm"

Solution
A
S

Compare the previous value with As obtained from example 2.9 (1493 mnr')

=0)

leu bd

I),

1245 = m ~ 200x 700 360

t~u=30
Rwnax ~~~~ __ \_

m=0.128 From the chart (R1-m) with m=0.128 get Rl=0.097

Jlmin

11=0.99

Jlmax
Rl= Mil 2 feu b d Muxl0 25 x 200 X 7002
6

m=O.128

mmax

Step 2: Minimum and Maximum, As


Since Ru is less than the Rumaxvalue in the curve , thus A s<A smax

0.097=

M;» 237.65 kN.m.


Asillin =smaller of

0.225.jJ:: bd f),

0.22550 400

x 250 x 600 = 462 =462mm = 1930

The maximum moment occurs at midspan and equals to M


<As······ .. ok 237.65 = P" x5.4

= Pu xL
4,

l.3As = l.3xl485

P u=176.04

k.N.

3
DOUBLY REINFORCE-D BEAMS AND T-BEAMS

Photo 3.1 Edgar J. Kaufmann House (Falling-water), Lloyd Wright 1936, (6 m cantilever)

Frank

3.1 Doubly Reinforced Sections


3.1.1 Introduction Doubly reinforced sections ate those that include both tension and compression steel reinforcement. In most cases, they become necessary when architectural requirements restrict the beam depth. From the economic point of view, it is recommended to design the member as a singly reinforced section with tension reinforcement only. If the required area of the tension steel exceeds the maximum area of steel recommended by the code,

compression steel should be added. Adding compression steel reinforcement may change the mode of failure from compression failure to tension failure or may change the section status from over-reinforced to under-reinforced section. Compression steel also reduces long-term deflection and increases beam ductility. For economic considerations, the Egyptian code recommends limiting the compression reinforcement amount to only 40% percent of the tension steel. The compression area of steel A ~ is usually expressed as a ratio from the tension area of steel As as follows: A; =a As ,•..........•..•..•...•..................•............ where a usually ranges from 0.1 to 0.4. Despite all of the aforementioned benefits, adding compression steel in reinforced concrete beams will not increase the section moment capacity significantly. This is because the tension force is constant (T = As f!1.15) and the lever arm between the tension force and the resultant ofthe two compressive forces (in concrete and in steel) is slightly affected by adding compression reinforcement. This can be noticed by examining Fig. 3.1. In this figure, the vertical axis gives the percentage increase in the capacity of a doubly reinforced section as compared to an identical one without compression steel. The use of compression steel is more beneficial when the tension steel provided is near the maximum allowed percentage of steel Jinwx. Adding compression reinforcement with a=0.6 will increase the beam capacity by 6 to 13 percent for beams with 1l=0.8% and u= f.1max respectively.
14

3.1.2 Analysis of Doubly Reinforced Sections

Case A: compression steel yields


The. equilibrium of forces and strain compatibility shall be applied to analyze the section. The strain distributions and the internal forces in beams with compression reinforcement are shown in Fig. 3.2. The compressive force is the sum of two parts; i) concrete force Ce, and ii) compression steel force Cs.
0.67
····_· ··············T·.'T":"":" ..··7··· ..·_········ .

(3.1) c
d

·····,,--·········1'·····+--!p',>e/1.I5 .. ·

1-1' C = A's fyl1.15 i---,


s

fcu 11.5

(
I'
Fig. 3.2 Analysis b

Mu

d'

0.67t;,u b a 1.5

-I

T=Asfy!1.l5

of sections with compression

reinforcement

(steel yields)

It will be ass~med that both the compression and the tension steel have yielded. The stress block distance "a" is calculated utilizing the equilibrium of forces as follows Compression force
=

Tension force

(3.2) (3.3)

C, + Cs= T 0.67 feu b a


12

1.5

+l.15=l.15

A: I,

As J,

(3.4)

10
,,-..

The compression steel stress f~ is checked using compatibility of strains as follows:


e'. s

'<f. '-'

=0.003 c-d' =0003a-0.8d' c' a

(3.5) (3.6)

" E -g :::s

f's

=&s

,. Es = 6c -d' X 00--=600
c

a-0.8d' a

0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

If the value oif, 'in Eq. 3.6 is less thanfJU5, the analysis should be carried out acc~rding to the procedure outlined in case B. On the other hand, if'£_'ln Eq. 3.6. IS larger than fJ 1.15, the assumption of yielding of compression steel is valid and the moment capacity can be determined by taking the moment of the forces around the concrete force as follows:

a=A)As
Fig. 3.1 Effect of compression reinforcement on moment capacity

M -T15 (d -2 +-us- (a - As I, a) A; t, i:'


u

,)

(3.7)

Case B: compression steel does not yield


Applying the equilibrium condition and referring to Fig. 3.3, one gets:

Simplified Sections
(3.8)

Approach for

the

Analysis of

Doubly Reinforced

0.67

(;u b

+ A; 1,' =

~~~ -. ,
0.67 feu 11.5

The previous procedure indicates. that the compression steel strain s', is affected . by the distance d' (refer to Fig; 3..3). The compression steel yields if the distance d' is small compared to the neutral axis distance as presented by Eq. 3.6. Setting fs = f/1.1S, one can solve Eq. 3.6 for the maximum yielding of the compression reinforcement: d' that ensures

t---l

al2 - d'

0.67 feu b a 1.5

d: =1.25(1:'" ~~)
ax

(3.12)

If the value of the actual d' /a is less than the value d'max/a, the compression steel will yield and f~ equals to f/1.15. Table 3.1 lists the values of d'max/a that ensures yielding. . The ECP assuming depth d' otherwise 203 presents a simplified approach for such an analysis. It permits that the compression steel yields if the ratio of the compression steel to tension steel depth d is less than the values given in Table 3.1, a compatibility of strains (Eq.3.6) has to be utilized.

f/1.1S

b Fig. 3.3 Analysis of sections with compression reinforcement (steel does not vield)

Table 3.1 Values of (d') to ensure yielding of compression steel fiN/mmi)


240 ~0.20 ~0.326 ~ 0.815 280 ~0.20 ~0.285 ~0.74 360 ~ 0.15 ~0.210 ~0.60 400 ~ 0.10 :;;; .176 0

Substituting

the expression 04466 r


'. J cu

off~ from Eq. 3.6 into Eq. 3.8 gives:


(a - 0.8d') b a + A 600 ., a ,

d'/d at c<cmax(code·values) (3 9)

A, = _- fJ' 1.15

d'fd at c""'cmax (max. values) d'fa at c:S;cmax

This can be reduced distance (a), given by

to a second order equation

in terms of the stress block

s 0.525

0.4466 feu b a' -(A,

fy/l.lS-600x

A; ) a-480A; d' =0

(3.10) can be

Solution ofEq. 3.10 gives the value of "a". The moment capacity determined by taking the moment around the concrete force as follows:

M =A;.{~. (d-~)+A:f,'(~-d')
n

(3.11)

Note that the positive sign indicates that the compression steel force Cs is assumed to be located above the concrete compression force Ce·

The simplified approach for the analysis of a doubly reinforced section can be summarized in the following steps Given :jeu,fy, b, d'; d, As and A ~ Required iM;
Case A: check if d' /d< code limits (Table 3,1), then compression steel yields. • • Step 1 calculate "a" using Eq. 3.4. Step 2 calculate M, using Eq. 3.7.

3.1.3 Maximum Area of Steel for Doubly Reinforced Sections To ensure ductile failure of a doubly reinforced section, the neutral axis distance Cmax is limited to that of the singly reinforced section as given in Table 4-1 in the code or Table 2.1 given in Chapter 2. Thus, increasing the tension reinforcement above As,max is allowed by the code only by adding compression reinforcement that keeps the same neutral axis distance as shown in Fig. 3.4.1. A doubly reinforced section can be looked at as composed of a singly reinforced concrete section and a steel section. The singly reinforced section (Fig. 3.4.II) has an area of steel equal to As,max obtained from Table 2.1, and the steel section has the same amount of top and bottom steel of area A ~ (Fig 3.4.III). Thus, the maximum area of steel for a doubly reinforced section Asd,max is given by
Asd.max

Case B: check if d'/d> code limits (Table 3.1), then compression steel does not yield • • Step 1 calculate "a" using Eq. 3.8 or Eq. 3.10. Step 2 calculate Mu using Eq. 3.1l.

= As,max

+A;

(3.13)

Asd,max
= Pm.,

A1s,max -a I-a

"

(3.14a) , (3.14b)

~/'
rr cmax

(for singlyrft section(Table2.1)

IAsd,max = Pmax b d + A;I

•.. ••

· .. ·(3.15)

where

J..lmax

is obtained from Table 2.1.

The yielding of the compression reinforcement can be verified by comparing the ratio d'/d and with the maximum allowed value given in Table 3.1. If the compression steel does not yield, the maximum area of steel can be obtained from:
A sc ,max
I

rmax

II

bd+A'

sf

II 15

f.'

(3.16)

Maximum Moment Calculation Referring to Fig. 3.4, the maximum moment for doubly reinforced sections
Mud.max can be calculated using the following procedure
Mud,max

= Mu,max
=M

+M'

(3.17) (3.18)

i. uc .max

u.max

+ A; fy (d -d') 1.15

I su .max

= Rmax feu

b d?

1.5

A' f +_S_" (d -d') 1.15

(3.19)

where Rmax obtained from Table 2.1 is An alternative procedure to obtain the maximum moment is to take the moment around the concrete compression force. Referring to Fig.3.4.I, the maximum moment is given by:
d

=
",I.max

A"I.ma., i" 1.15

(d _ amax)+ A;1.15 (a 2 -d') i" 2


max

(
b

d'

(3.20)

Es>Eyl1.l5

T=Asd.max f/l.15

Note that if the calculated neutral axis location "c" is less than the maximum value allowed by the code "cmax"then the following rule applies:

1- Doubly reinforced cross-section

i,= 1;. 11.15


then

J1 < J1c1max . As < Ascl•max

Mu•max d

Mu < Mucl.ma.,
~._

·····._·.,._ .. · .. _

II.... •

As.max
b

.··I--··~...···-··..- ···~--~····· ..·-········ ··· .. · .. .. ·


E,>E/1.15

_l

-L._

T [=As,max f/l.15

11- Singly reinforced section with A.max

............... - ..-----.,...--.* ?~
M'

(
..

................. i_ "..........
N

· ·]'
A's

?:??!..

Cs=A's f/1.15

~~----::0
I

"0

A's
b

_.
1':,>&/1.15

'1

111-Section with A',lop and bottom Fig. 3.4 Maximum moment and area of steelfor doubly reinforced sections

Photo 3.3 Peachtree Tower (1990), Atlanta IJSA (235m, 50 stories)

Example 3 .1 (compression steel yields) Find the moment capacity of the cross-section shown in Figure. Assume that d' = 50 mm and the material properties are: feu = 25 Nzmrrr' fy= 400 N/mm2 0.67 x 25 x 200x a 402 x 400 1520x400 + =---1.5 1.15 1.15 a= 174.1 mm c = alO.S= 217.6 mm aid = 0.317 > ald)min(O.I).... ok
c/d = 217.6/550 = 0.396


o

2<D16

o
\0

Step 2: Check f sand f's • • •• I.


200

4<D22 .1

1.= 600 --

c-d' c

= 600

217.6-50 217.6 550-217.6 217.6

= 462 > -

400·

l.l5

... ok .... (compression

steel yields)

Is = 600 -Solution As = 4<D22 =15.2 -cm2 = 1520 mrrr' A's = 2<D16 =4.02 cm2 = 402 mm' d = 600 - 50 = 550 mm Step 1: Compute a.
d' 1d = 50/550
= 0.09

d -c c

= 600

400 917> ... ok .... (tension steel yields) l.l5

OR

• Since d'/d(0.09) <0.1 or d'/a compression steel yields

(0.287)«0.S2,Table

3.1)then

•. Since c/d(0.396) < (cJd = 0.63, Table 2.1) then tension steel yields

Step3: Compute moment capacity, Mu


.Taking moment around concrete force C, and applying Eq. 3.7. M
u

Since d'/d (0.09) <0.1 (Table 3.1), one can assume that compression steel yields. This assumption will be ~heckedin step 2. Applying Eq. 3. 4 gives:
--"'--=--

As 1;. (d 1.15

_~)+
2

A; 1;. (~-d') 1.15 2

0.67 feu b a A; 1;. +-.1.5 1.15

=--

As 1;. 1.15
0.67 feu

Thus
M
u

_._. . _. _._.

••

A's=402

_._. - _. - ._. _._.

°I

0.003

._._.

_. -.~. ._._. _

;1

1-1

1.5

1520x 400 (550_174.1 US 2

)+
kN.m

402X400(174.1_50) 1.15 2

A's [11.15=402 x 4001 l.l 5 Mu

--Ce _. _. __ ._._._._ ..

= 249.94x10

= 249.94

•••
I.

As=1520
.--'- _ _J __ .•.• •• _ _._ ..... _..

As [11.15=1520

x 400/1.15

200

"I
95

I
I

!final Result: Mu

249.94

kN.IllI

96

Example 3.2
Calculate the maximum area of steel and the maximum moment capacity that is allowed by the Egyptian Code (ECP 203) for the doubly reinforced section sh~n in Example 3.1. The material properties are: feu = 25 N/mm2 and fy = 400 N/mm2

Example 3. 3 (compression steel does not yield)


Find the mom~nt capacity of the cross-section feu= 30 N/mm , and fy = 400 N/mm2
d'=100

shown in figure.'

~I-·
.j!,

I 250 .1
i :

A's

500mm2

• • ••
,. 200 • ,

Asd.max Solution
d= 750 - 50 = 700 mm

• • ••

1900 mm'

Solution Step 1: .Ca'culate maximumarea of steel


From Table 2.1 and for fy = 400 N/mm2 : ~max= 4.31x 10-4 feu,
since d'/d (0.09) < 0.176 (at c = cmax), table 3.1, then compression steel has yielded

Step 1: Compute a.

Asd.max= ~maxb d Asd.m,x (4.31 =


X

+ A's
=

d = 700 = 0.143
o.k

d'

100

> 0.10 (see table 3.1) ... compression steel does not yield'

10-4x 25) 200 x 550 + 402

1587 mrrr' > A.(l520)

We can use Eq 3.8 or Eq 3.10 to calculate a


0.67 feu b a + A' t: = A, fy. 1.5 "1.15 0.4466fcu

Step 2: Calculate .max.imum moment capacity


From Table 2-1: Rmax= 0.187, cmax/d= 0.42 for fy = 400 N/mm2 Using Eq.3 .19 to find Mud.max
M
uli.ma,

ba' -(A,

J;./1.l5-600xA;

)a-480A;

d'=O

.'

.'

= R max
= [0.187

I" J cu

b d?

1.5

+_'_Y (d _ d') 1.15


2

A'

I,

3350 a2

360869 a - 24 X106

=0

Solving for the only unknown "a"


Mud•max X25 X200x 550 + 402x400 (550- 50)]1106 = 258.5 kN.m 1.5 1.15'

a =154.2 mm-"'~

c= 192.73 mm
0.67 feu

The same result can be obtained using Eq.3.20 as follows: amax=0.8 cmax=0.8 x 0.42 x550 =184.8 mm

11

2S0

'1

M
M

ud.max

. = A,t1,maxJ;'(d_amax2' 1.15

)+

. 1.15

A;. k(amax. 2 -d')


402X400(184.8_50)~2585kN + 1.15 2 ..m

.!..~s:?_~~·~·
•••
QR As=1900

~-~~:~r~ ._~~.~~~~~~_._._
1.5

0.003

1--1

~~~~~s~:

.,
",I.max

=1587X400(550_184.8) 1.15 ~ 2

Asf/1.1S

Step 2: Check
I' J s=

fs and f's.
288.6 N / mm < compression steel does not yield 1.15
2

3.1.4 Design of Doubly Reinforced Sections Using First Principles


400

600

192.73 -100 192.73

Since c/d(0.27S) < cJd

= 0.63

then tension steel yields fs = fILlS

The same procedure used in designing singly reinforced sections is used for the design of doubly reinforced sections. The unknowns in these types of problems are the beam depth, area of steel, neutral axis position and the ratio of the compression steel a. Given Required

Step 3: Compute

Mu

:!cu,/y, u; h, d'

Taking moment around concrete force Cc M

: d, As and A's Unknowns: a, d, As and A's

= AJy (d -!!")-A' s f'(d'-!!..)= 1.15 2 s· 2

AJy (d -!!..)+A'I· '(!!..-d') 1.15 2 s .s 2


= 408.3 kN.m

M = 1900x 400 (700u 1.15'

154.2)+ 500x 288.6 (154.2 -100).= 408.3xl06 2 . 2

Since we have only two equilibrium equations,we have to limit the unknowns to only two. If not given, the depth of the compression steel will be assumed 0.050.1 of the beam depth to ensure yielding of compressed bars for all steel grades. The design procedure can be summarized in the following steps: 1. Make the necessary assumptions d' =0.05-0.10 d (compression steel yields for all fy)

!Final Resnlt: Mu

= 408.3

kN.1I1I

Assume As

= f.lmax

b d -+(Ilmaxfor singly reinforced section (Table 4.1))

Assume a=0.2-0A and Equilibrium of forces gives ----"-''''--1.5 0.67

leu

ba

(a x As) 1.15

1;.

= --

As

I,

1.15

Get a=J.d Taking moment around the concrete force gives

M = As 1;. (d _f!:_)+ A; 1;. (!!..-d') 1.15 2' 1.15 2


u

Solve the above equation to determine (a, d), then calculate


As

= f.lmax

bd

2. Check the minimum area of steel 3. Check the maximum area steel and the maximum moment by ensuring that (c/d<cmax/d)

00

100

Example 3.4
The doubly reinforced section shown in figure is subjected to a bending moment ofa factored value of200 kN.m. d' "" 50 mm, fcu= 27 Nzmnr', and fy= 280 N/mm2 Use the first principles to determine the required beam depth.
1<250 ) 1

Step 2: Compute beam depth d


Taking moment around concrete force C, M

=
u,

As fy (d 1.15

_!!:.)+ A; fy (!!:.-d') 2 1.15 2


280 1.15

A's=509 mm'

200xl06=2260x d=429.5 mm

(d _141.4)+ 2,

509X280(141.4 1.152

-50)

• • ••

As=2260 mm2

Step 3: check f sand f's


d'/d

Solution step 1: Compute a.


Assume that both compression and tension steel has yielded. This assumption will be checked later Given : fcu,J;" Mu, b, d', As and A's Required :d Unknowns ,: a, d Since we have two unknowns only in this example, nothing needs to be assumed. Apply the first equilibrium equation: 0.67 feu b a + A; fy 1.5 1.15' 1.5 a = 141.4 mm c =a/0.8

= 50/429.5 = 0.116

Since d'/d = 0.116 <0.2 (code limit for mild .steel see table 3.1), thus

fs= f/1.15
c/d = 176.75/429.5 = 0.4115 From Table 2.1 cmax/d= 0.48 for fy = 280 N/mm2

Is
.: ':"(0.411)::; emax (0.48)

= Iy /1.15
,,2

As f" 1.15 2260 x 280 1.15 1.15

dd

th en

/l <'/ldmax
.

------+---

0.67 x 27 x 250 x a

509 x 280

A, (22.6 em ) <A., .m, ax Mu(200 kN.m) < Mud.max

=176.75 mm

IFinal Result: d = 450 imn and t= 500


250

mIDI

_. ._. _*_. _. _-_' _. .-. - ._._. . -.-.

··1
A's=509

250


0 003 .

~I
A' s=509 mm2 '

.-.-.-~.-

::1
i

A ~h/l.15=509x280/1.15
o o
V'l

r-----, • ,.

'_._.-

•••
101 102

As=2260

••

••

As=2260mm2

1
Example 3.5
A reinforced concrete cross-section is subjected to 265 considerations require limiting the thickness of the section Economic considerations limited the value of a to 0.3. constraints, design the cross section. Check the maximum maximum moments allowed by the code knowing that: b = 250 rom, feu = 30 Nzmm', and fy = 360 Nzrrmr' kN.m. Architectural as much as possible. According to these area of steel and the

Step 3: Apply the second equilibrium equation, Eq. 3.7


.Taking moment around concrete force Cc

M = As 1;. (d _::..)+ A; fy (E.-d') 1.15 2 1.15 2


II

265xl06 265xl06

3;75 dx 360 (d1.15 d"

0.2453d)+ 2

1.125 dX360(0.2453 1.15 2

d -0.1 d)

Solution . Step 1: Assumptions Given :/cu,J;"Mw b, a(ArJ Required : d, dr, As Unknowns : a, d, d', As
We have four unknowns, thus we shall assume two (d' and AS(Il)) (for singly reinforced section)

= 1037.9

d=505.29 mm As = 3.75 d = 3.75 x 505.29 A; = 1.125 d

= 1894.8 mm'

= 568.45

mm'

Take d = 550 mm, d' == 0.1 d = 55mm and t= 600mm

1. Assume d'

= 0.10 d

2. Assume 11= Ilmax As A;

Step 4: Calculate minimumarea of steel


0. 225

11= 5x 10-4 feu=5 x 10-4 X 30=0.015

= Jl b d = 0.015x

250xd

= 3.75 d

= a As = 0.3x3.75 d = 1.125 d

Asmin

=smaller

of

Step 2:

Apply the equilibrium equation T=C Eq.3.4


A;

I,

.JJ: bd = 0.225.J3Q
360

><250X.550= 470

= 470cm

<As

•••••

1J.k

1.3As = 1.3 x 1895 = 2462

Assume that compression and tension steel has yielded.

Step 5.1: Calculate maximum area of steel


Since d'zd (0.1) < 0.21 (from Table 3.1) and even less than the code value

---=.=--+-1.5

0.67 fell b a

J,

1.15

=--

As

Iy
3.75 d x 360 I 1.15

1.15

0.67 x 30 x 250 x a 1.125 d x 360 -----------+-------1.5 1.15 a= 0.2453 d aid = 0.2453 > ald)min(O.I) .... ok

of 0.15, we can assume that compression steel yields. . -4 Asd.max = Jlmax b d + A ~ = 5x10 x 30 x 250 (550) + 568.45
A.d,max

= 2631 mm' > As(1895)

....

o.k. o o
\0

250.!

0.67 fell


Step 5.2: Calculate maximum moment
M . = Rmax fell bd ",I.max 1.5
2

A's=568 rnm2

I"

250

-I

~
0.003

.~_.~~~_~. _._._.~r_.__._~l_._. .

...
As

=A's fy/Ll5 As f/1.15

+ A;

1.15

1;. (d-dr)

••••

As=1895 rnm2

From Table 2.1 Rmax=0.194


M.

Final design

..... _ ..... _._.

",/.max

=0.194x30x250x550 1.5

+ 568x360(550_55)
1.15'

=381kN.m

>M
II

(265)

Es>EylI.lS

!Final Result: d= 550 mm, As =1895 mm2 and Ns =568 mmj

Example 3.6
Design a doubly reinforced concrete cross-section to withstand an ultimate . moment of 265 kN.m by assuming area of steel. Check the maximum area of steel and the maximum moments allowed by the code. b = 250 mm, feu= 30 Nzmm", and fy = 360 Nzmm' d

= 614

mm.

c/d

122.65/614

0.2

Since d'/d (50/614 = 0.081)< 0.15 (code limit for fy= 360 Nzmm"), then our assumption that compression steel has yielded is correct. Take d = 650 mm and t = 700mm

Solution Step 1: Assumptions


.: d, d', As, A ~ Unknowns : a, d, d', As, A's We have five unknowns, thus we shall assume three (d' and As, A's(a)) 1. 2. Assume a=0.3, d'=50 mm use the approximate relation to assume As. Given Required

Step 4: Calculate minimum area of steel


0.225

:.fcu,j;', Mu, b

Asmin

= smaller

of

I,

.JJ:: bd = 0.225.J30 x250x650=556


360 1.3As =L3xI500=1950

= 556 em 2 < As ....... .ok

Step 5: Check maximum area of steel'


Since c/d(0.2) <0.44 (code limit for fy =; 360 N/mm2), then our assumption is correct and As<Asd.max.Mu<Mud.max.

As =O.ll~Mu

1;.

b =0.11

265xl0 x250 = 1492 mm' 360

Take As= 1500 mrrr' A; =o: As =0.3xI500=450mm2

1.250
!

.1

• A's=450

Step 2: Apply first equilibrium


Assume that compression -----0.67 x 30 x 250 x a 1.5 450x 360 1.15

equation T =C
1500 x 360 1.15

and tension steel has yielded.

o o
r-.

=---

••••

As=1500

a =98.12

mm

andc =a/0.8=

122.65.mm

Final design

Sfep3:

Apply secondequilibrium equation !,M=O

NOTE: The cross sections in Example 3.5 and 3.6 are subjected to the same
bending moment, however, the same capacity was obtained using different depth and area of steel as shown in figure. For the same moment capacity, area of steel may be reduced but the beam depth has to be increased.

Taking moment around concrete force C,

M = As 1;. (d. _!!..)+ A; Ii' (!!..-d') 1.15 2 1.15 2


u

265xl06

'"

1500x.360 1.15

(d _ 98.12)+ 2
0.003

450X3.60(98.12 1.15 2

":50) . Example 3.5 (Mu=265 kN,m) 1895 --------1500 ---------~------

·. I... 250 'I


d
.-. _. _._.

• A's·-.. As

...

_ .".

.; ._. _.

~I" mI'
N C:s>c/l.15

.-. _._ ._._. _.

~~~-C'e

Example 3.6 (Mu=265 kN.m)

. _ ...-.....__ ..

As f/1.15=1500x360/1.15

, +__;_ _ _..:.._~
505

·:· .:
···
·
,,

·,· · 614
Hlh

_+

d(mm)

105

Example 3.7
Design a doubly reinforced concrete cross-section to withstand an ultimate moment 0[360 kN.m knowing that the beam thickness equals to 650 mm. b = 250 mm, feu= 35 Nzmm", and fy = 400 N/mm2

3.1.5 Design of Doubly Reinforced Sections Using Curves


The design of doubly reinforced sections from the first principles is complicated. Therefore, design curves were prepared to facilitate their design. In developing such curves, both compression steel and tension steel were assumed to reach yield. In addition, two values for d'/d were used in developing these curves and tables namely (0.05,0.1). These selected values were chosen to satisfy code requirements and to ensure yielding of the compression reinforcement for all types of steel. Recalling the first equilibrium equation 3.4 and referring to Fig. 3.5 feu ----""""-- a + __ 1;. 1.15

Solution Step 1: Assumptions


Assume 0.=0.3, d'=50 mm, d = 650 -50 = 600 mm. Since we have two unknowns, (a and A,J, the equilibrium equations are used directly as follows:

0.67

A;

Step 2: Apply first equilibrium equation T=C


d' / d

= 50/600 = 0.0833 < 0.10 compression


A = -,-s

steel yields

Dividing by (feub

1.5 d) and rearranging

=--

As 1;.
1.15

0.67x35x250xa __ ......:...._~_:::_ 0.3xA s x400 + 1.5 1.15

x400 __ 1.15
0.67
x

_O._67_!!..cz:
35

1.5 d where a. = A'JAs and u


f/1.15=A's x400/1.15
_ e

1.15 I:

f.1

Iy (I-a)
.

a = 0.0623 As

I'

250 "
u

._o _. _.......

. ... _. _.

ill~ .1<.
Step 3: Apply
second

Es>E/1.15

L
....

o.or0

C'(j

l' F~
.C=

1.5

= As I(b . d)
Define
OJ

:;:::_A's
__ ....

= f.1 fy

feu
0.67 xlcu

(3.21 ) 1.5 t--l

._ ... ,_,,,,_,

b
A, '/1-15=A, ,400/1.15

0.003

A's f/1.15

equilibrium equation l:M=O Taking moment around concrete force C,


M=
u

(
-50)
= 0.3 x As = 571

Mu

....... _._.-.-

As 1;. (d
1.15

_!!..)+
2

A; 1;. (!!..-d')
1.15 2 0.0623 As)+ 0.3XAsX400(0.0623As 2 1.15 2 mm

•••

As

Es>E/1.15

. As f/1.15

360xl06

As x 400 (600

1.15· Thus a=0.0623

Fig 3.5 Location of the neutral axis for doubly reinforced sections
mm"

Solving the above equation gives As=1904 mm", A;


X As=1IS.61

Step 4: Check Asdmax and Asmin


c=a/.S= 14S.267 mm c/d=0.24 < c/dmax(0.42) .... ok (As<Asdmax) As min = sma! ler

d Recalling the moment equation around the concrete compression

!!.. = 1.9468 cd{l- a)

(3.22) force

M
2

= As
u

1.152

iy

(d _!!..) + A; IJ' (!!..-d') l.l5 2

01

O.225.J3"5 . ---.x 250 x 600 = 499


400

= 499 cm

< As ..... ok

l.3x1904

= 2475

107

lOS

dividing by (feu b

d2) and rearranging

Procedure for Using Charts and Tables


The general following: steps for using the charts or tables can be summarized m the

RI
To find
romax

= 1~5

(1-2ad)+

~l~

(2ad -

~'J

(3.23)

in case of doubly reinforced sections, recall equation 3.14 d'IVIidimg b y. (b d t: If.eu ly ) .

• • • •
• • •

. A,.rna., A,d.rnax = --,

Assume d' /d=0,05-0.1 Assume a=0.2-0A Choose the highest Rl for the chosen a to get the smallest possible depth Compute the depth "d" from the following relation

I-a

RI = Mil

feu b d

where

romax

is given in Table 2.1

From the tables or the charts get ro Compute the area of steel from the following relation
A
s

Figure 3.6 shows an example of such curves. Appendix A contains Rl-ro design charts. Table C in the appendix gives the maximum moment index Rlmax for each values of a, rodmax' To use the table enter with a and fy and either (Rlmax to find rodmax) or (rodmax to find Rlmax). The design procedure for using Table C to design doubly reinforced section is illustrated in Example 3.8
0.38 0.36 0.34 0.32 0.30 0.28 0.26

= OJ feo,

I,

A;

= a x A,

Notel:No need to check Asd,max because the limits are already in the charts Note2:No needto check As.min because we usually use u near J..lmax



A 0

'Om" for t~=240 N/mm'


(Oma;\

,pi
~.6

tor

fy

=280 N/mm2

co,." for fy =360 N/mm' rom" tor t~ =400 N/mm'

"'b
on

0.24 0.72 0.20 0.18 0.16 0.14 0:12 0,10 0.08 0.08

e
..d ~
~~ ~
0;- .2 0;=

ar
10;

/.

?t

7.:

1...«'
~O

0.4

i II
e<:

.3

i
,

fO
~
i, - l,1y,
!,
+~
0

1.

A,

___,

.,:.-

V
o
<0

,
~"
o

A =(obdi.· A' = tx

.'

(0

b d /."

ci

ci

~ 0 ci ci g ~ ~ ~ d ci ~ ~ ci ~ ci ~ ~ re ci ci ci d ~ ~ ~ g ci
0

Photo 3.4 A reinforced concrete building during construction


110

Fig. 3.6 Design chart for doubly reinforced sections


lOQ

Example 3.8
Design a doubly reinforced design aids. b = 250 mm,/cu Solution Assume a = 0.3 Enter the table or the chart with a = 0.3 and get the value of'Rl and eo very close to the maximum allowable for fy = 240 N/mm2 to get the smallest possible depth. Thus get R1 = 0.2 and ro = 0.274 R1=
0.2
=

Example 3.9
concrete section subjected to M, = 480 kN.m using Design a doubly reinforced section subjected to M, = 320 kN.m using Table C. b = 200 mm, d = 600, feu = 25 Nzmm", and fy = 280 N/mm2 Solution Assume d'/d

20 Nzmm", and.t_;,= 240 Nzmnr'

Assume d'/d = 0.10

= 0.10
320x10 =0.177 25 X 200 X 6002
6

In using Table C use Mu = Mud,max R1


II max

MUIl.max

leu b d?

From the table C with d'/d = 0.10 and Rldamx = 0.177, we can notice that the moment capacity exceeds singly reinforced get section and we must use compression

Mu
leu b d

2 6

480x10 20x 250x d2

reinforcement.

Thus, by interpolation

a = 0.205 and rodmax 0.248 = a R1


dmax

d=693

mm

= MIIII•max lell b d?

d'/d=O.05 d'/d-O.1 d'/d-O.15 d'/d-O.2 280 ();196 0.206 0.218 0.231 0.245 0.21>1 0.280
A =0.274x~x250x693=3955mm2 s 240 .

m:Q(F,~.~;~ll,O::~'Q,i~$a, ~.d~$;R1$8 . •.
0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.147 0.146 0.156 0.155 0.167 0.1fi_5 0.179 1(0.176' 0.192 1\0.189 0.207 0:204 0.146 0.154 0.164 0.174 0.186 0.200 0.145 0.153 0.162 0.172 0.184 0.197

A; = a As = 0.3 x 3955

= 1186

mm"
=

As -

{()dmax.

leub

IJ'

Take d = 700 and t = 750 and As

3955 mm'

A =0.248x~200x600=2657mm2 s 280

A; = a As = 0.205 x 2657
Mu=480

= 544

mm'
I_ 200 .1
:. !

( ~i. ·..

kN'~T·

• A's=1186 mm'

No3955 mnr'
• • • • As=2657 crrr'

Final design

Final design

Example 3.10
.Find the maximum cantilever span L, for the beam shown in the figure at section Iusing R1-w design tables. The material properties are fy = 360 Nzmrrr', feu = 40 Nzmnr'

From Table R-w design tables (d'/d=0.10) getRl == 0.17

with

(0)

0.2217 and a = 0.4)

OJ

Rl
001 002 003 004 005

0.=00 001 OOZ 0Q31 004 006 001 OOB! 010: 011 013: 014 400 360 016 018

0.=01 001 002' 0Q31 OO<U 0061 OOe 00Bi 0101 011! 012! 014< 01S! Oll!

0.-02 001 002 0031 004 006 001 006 . 0.1()( 0.11 0.12 0.14 0.16 017 018 0.20
40036(

0.-03 001 002 0031 OO<U 0061 007 008 01()( 011 01a 014( 015 0161 018 019 0211

0.- ~ Op12 • CP24

0.-05 001 002' 0Q31 000 0061 007' 008

ICp3E ICp4S

pel

GOO
007 008 009 010 011

I ( 74
Opa7 0fl99

ow.:
011 012 013! 0151 01& 01T 0191 020< 021 0231

Ie

12

IC 25 IC 39 I ( 52 I ( 66 Gj179 Gj193 11m

~ID
I~

012 013 014 015 016

4<1> 28

24ll28O019

13OOlO
280

019 020>

240 022(

0.21

2<1>2S

01£
018.

240 0.25 i4()( 024

( 022
['QZl6

Section I

Solution Assume cover d' =SOmm

=;:

SOmm

d =;: SSO-SO =SOOmm Since section I is subjected to -ve moment, the tension steel is at the top and the compression steel is at the bottom of the beam. As:=: 2463 mm", A's:=: 982 mnr' a = 982
2463
= 0.398 "" 0.4

0.170 =

Mu 40x 2QOx5002
X

M, = 340
.M" = 200

106 = 340 kN.m


u

(internal moment)

d' /d

= SO/SOO = 0.1

W L2 1+P

i,

(external moment)

'I

External moment =Internal moment 15 L; +80Le -340.0


=0

Mu
40 2463 = (JJ x x 200 x 500 360 .
0)

= 0.2217

0 0 on

"0

II

Solving the second order equation gives: 150 A's

ILc = 3.256 m.1


1 1 LI.

In

3.2 T-Beams 3.2.1 Application of T-Beams


Reinforced concrete buildings usually consist of beams and slabs that were cast monolithically. Thus, slabs and beams act together in resisting the applied loads. As a result, the beam will have an extension concrete part at the top called "flange", and the beam is called a T-beam. The portion of the beam below the slab is called the "web ". The stress distribution in the slab will vary according to the ratio between the thickness of the slab and the overall thickness. To simplify section capacity calculations, most codes assume uniform distribution of the stress and specify a limited width of the slab to be considered when analyzing the beam capacity called the "effective width" as shown in Fig. 3.8. For T-sections, the Egyptian code ECP 203 section (6-3-1-9) requires that the effective width does not exceed the following
16 t, +b B s!:::L+b
5 C.L to C.L 6 t, +b

forT -sections

(3.25.a)

3.2.2 Effective Flange Width


The distribution of the flexural compressive stresses in the flange of the slab is shown in Fig. 3.7. The compressive stress is a maximum at the beam locations, and minimum between the beams. The concept of replacing the non-uniform stresses over the width B, to uniform stresses over a width B is called the effective width. The compression force developed in the reduced width B equals the compressive force in the.real compression zone-of width Bo.
Magnitude of compressive stress in flange

B s!:::L+b where
L2 = L L2 = 0.8 L L2 = 0.7 L simple beam one end continuous continuous beam

10 C.L to edge

forL-sections

(3.25.b)

in which L is the effective span (explained clearly in Chapter Six)

- I--b
~ ~
a) Distribution of maximum flexural compressive stresses Eo!.

!l>l-.

'-1
II

lE:
..!;)
I

~ ~
:;:!

~ ~

'-1

C.L. to edge for L-beam

C.L. to C.L.

for T-beam

b) Flexural compressive

stress distribution assumed in design

Fig. 3.7 Distribution of compressive stresses across the flange


115

Fig. 3.8 Definition of T and L-beams in the ECP 203


116

The direction of the bending moment distinguishes between rectangular and Tsections. If the flange participates in resisting the compression stresses resulting from the bending moment, then the section acts as a T'-section, On the other hand, if only the web of the beam resists the compression stresses, then the section acts as a rectangular section. Consider for example the simply supported beam with cantilever shown in Case lof Fig. 3.9. According to the given schematic bending moment diagram, section A-A acts as a T-Sec., while section B-B acts as a rectangular-section. Case II, on the other hand, shows a simply supported beam with cantilever, in which the slab is located at the bottom part of the beam (called an inverted beam). In such a case, section C-C acts as a rectangular section while section DD acts as a I-Sec.
Case I Case"

When designing a T-Sec., the neutral axis could be located inside the flange (Fig.3.10.A) or outside the flange (Fig. 3.10.B). Each case shall be analyzed in detail in section 3. 2.3
compression zone

l--l
b

•••

As

A-Neutral axis inside the flange,

~Slab

d
Bending Moment Bending Moment

C
B-Neutral axis in the web

(
I-'-f

Mu

b.

Fig. 3.10 Location

of the neutral

axis for T -sections,

T-Section Section A

R-Section Section B

R-Section Section C

T-Section Section D

I
118

Fig. 3.9 Compression

zone for T-beams

3.2.3 Analysis of T-Beams Case A: Neutral axis inside the flange (a:Sts) The details of this case are shown in Fig. 3.11. Applying the equilibrium equation gives:
T=Cc

two parts. The first part is in th~ flange with. a wid~ (~:b!, and thic~~~~ o~ 1,; (Fig. 3.l2.C). The second part is III the web with a WIdth b and depth a (FIg. 3.12. B). The force in the flange C, equals:

c = 0.67 feu
f

0.67 feu B a 1.5

1.5

(B -b) ts ...................•...................

(3.28)

As ~ 1.15

(3.26)

The force in the web C; equals:

After calculating the stress block distance "a" the nominal moment can be computed by taking the moment around the compression force Cc:
M"

c
w

= 0.67 fe" b a

1.5

(3.29)

= ~s. ~.

d-

%)

(3.27.A)

In some cases the depth of the neutral axis (a) is very small and less than the minimum required by the code (0.1 d). In such a case, the stress block distance is assumed to bea=O.l d. Thus Eq. 3.27.A becomes
M;
=

As ;;.(0.826

d)
0.67 feu

(3.27.B)
d

0.67 feu B a 1.5


I.

T=As f/l.l5 .1

b d
A- Equilibrium of forces for the complete cross section

As
T=As flUS

Fig. 3.11 Neutral axis located in the flange (a<ts)

Case B: Neutral axis outside the flange (a >ts) If the external moment is large enough, the neutral axis will be located outside the flange(Fig. 3.12.A). The ECP 203 permits the use of the stress block in the case of T-beams as stated in clause 4.2.1.1. For the sake of simplicity and for comparison with rectangular sections, the compression zone will be divided in
B- Force in the web C- Force in the flange

r-LJ

T=As f/1.15

D- Forces in the cross section

Fig. 3.12 Analysis of T-beam for the case of neutral axis outside the flange
120

119

3.2.4 Minimum Area of Steel for T-sections Applying the equilibrium equation
T
As Iy =0.67 1.15
=

Cr+ Cw

•••.••.•••••••••••••.••.....•.•..•••••.••.•••••

(3.30) (3.31)

The minimum area for T-sections is the same as the rectangular sections as stated in the ECP 203 section (4-2-1-2-g). The minimum area IS related to the web width "b ", not to the flange width ~'B" shown in Fig. 3.14. as
. = smaller of A .s mm 'J

leu

(B - b) ts + 0.67 leu b a 1.5 1.5

{0.22; ,.JJ:: b d > ~~ b d


)' }

(3.34)

1.3 As
steel) 100 0.15 b d (high grade) 100

Solving Eq. 3.31 gives the equivalent stress block distance a. The moment of the internal forces may be taken around any point such as the location of the tension steel as follows:
Mu = Cf( d - t~ but nat less than

0.25 b d(mild
B

1
.

(3.35)

J+

Cw( d -~)

(3.32)

For the sake of simplicity, the code (Section 4-2-1-2---'» permits neglecting the compression part in the web and calculating the compression force as if it is in the flange only as shown in Fig. 3.13. In this case, the ultimate moment is taken the smaller of the following two equations:

u; = ~~I~' (d -~

r
d

(3.33a)

= 0.67~~5

B ts (d -~)
0.67

Fta, 3.14 Calculation ofAsmin


(3.33b)

xlcu
r
1.5

--I 1.5 t-- C _ 0.671eu B ts

T=As f/1.l5

Fig. 3.13 Calculation of the ultimate moment using Code simplifications

,,
...

Photo 3.5 A Dart of an art museum (USA)


177

I
~ 3.2.5 Maximum Area of Steel for T-sections ~h~ maximum area of steel allowed for T-sections is usually several times the limits for rectangular sections. Thus, it is rare that aT-beam can exceed the maximum area of steel. It should be mentioned that, whether the neutral axis is located inside the flange (case A) or outside the flange (case B), the ECP 203 uses the same procedure for calculating the maximum area of steel. B
0.67 feu 11.5
t--1

I
II

The maximum area of steel can be calculated by applying the same principle used in rectangular sections. The cmaxldvalues listed in table 2.1 are used to determine the maximum area of steel. Referring to Fig. 3.15 and observing the notations used in that figure, one can drive the following equation:
C
wmax

= 0.67 feu b amax 1.5


Twmax= Cwmax

(3.36)

Applying the equilibrium equation


A
swmax

gives
(3.37)

1.15

f),

= 0.67 feu b amax 1.5

The procedure for calculating the maximum area of steel for section B is equivalent to that of rectangular section, thus I-

•••
b

.15

swmax

=/1

rmax

bxd

(3.38)

where llmax determined from Table 4-1 in the code or Table 2.1 in Chapter 2. is
C,
max

A- Complete cross section

= 0.67feu

1.5

(B-b)ts

(3.39)

Applying the equilibrium equation


Af
max

Tjmax= Cjmax,

gives
(3.40)

r----I L
_

"

fy = 0.67feu (B-b)ts 1.15 1.5


::e-X

A
f~

=0.5136 feu (B-b)ts

feu (B-b)ts

(3.41)
(3.42)

•••
b .

Ast.max=Asw.max +Aif.max T wmax=Aswmax fyfl.15 A


. sf.max

B-forces in the web

II

,_ (B-b)/2

rmax

b d + feu (B -b) 2 X fy

ts

(3.43)

'I

OR
A
sl,max

,
I I I I

= CwnrdX + Cfmax
f), 11.15

(3.44)

,.!_~!,
C-forces in the flange Ib

A sf.max

I I I I

-I

Tfmax=Asfmax fyfU5

The maximum area of steel allowed for aT-section is much bigger than that for a rectangular section especially when the section has a wide flange. Figure 3.16 presents the maximum area of steel.for T-sections. It is clear from the figure that the maximum area of steel can be as high as 6-8%(about five-six times more than the maximum allowed for rectangular sections). .
l'JA

Fig. 3.15 Calculation of the maximum area of steel and moment for T-sections
123

1 ,
7
6.

4t------r~~~~c-~~~--~~~~
3t-----~~~~~~~~--~~+_----~
2~~~~~

5t------T----~~~~~~----~~~~

Given :/cu,/y, Mu. b. B Required : As and d Unknowns: a, As. d The design procedure can be summarized

3.2.6 Design of T-sections Using First Principles '

in the following steps:

-F=
o
0.05 0.1 t"/d Fig. 3.16 Maximum 0.15

Ib=1

1. Make the necessary assumptions (either) i. Assume d ii. Or, estimate J.l or As as discussed in Chapter 2(see example 3.13) 2. Assume that the neutral axis is. inside the flange then determine the depth of the stress block a using the equilibrium equation: 0.251 0.67 feu B a 1.51.15 3.Calculate ts
=--

0.2

As

1;.

area of steel for T-sectious

Maximum Moment For T -sections


Referring to Fig. 3.15 and summing the moment of the forces around the tension steel
M "f.max = Cwmax (d - ama,) + CI max (d 2 tS)

II
1 i

the beam depth using the moment equati"~ll as follows:


B

i
J

1 T

la

Mu

(
= As
1.15
fy (d 2

T
•••
~ As

IT

ts

_j_
a

T
1--1
b

-_,.

•••••.•••••.•..•

; ••••••

(3.45)

The part in the web is equivalent to a singly reinforced section, thus:


2

·Mur•max

= Rmax~;

b d + C/max (d - ~)

(3.46)

if a < ts then calculate the depth using Eq. 3.27.A or Eq. 3.27.B M
u

Not~: It should be clear that if the calculated neutral axis depth c is less than the maximum allowed value Cm,x,then there is no need to check the maximum area of steel or maximum moments

_!:)
d

If a> ts calculate the depth using the simplified Eq. 3.33 M


u

a>O.ld a<O.ld

(3.27.A) (3.27.8)

= As

fy (d _ ~ ) 1.15 2

M"

= O.826AJy

3. Determine As (only if you used I-i, skip this step if you used l-ii)

If ~::; Cmax
d d

1',=
then

~.I1.15. f.l < f.lfmax As < Asr~max

As = f.l b d
••••••••••••••••••••.••••••••••

A; = 0

(3.47)

4. Check minimum area of steel 5. Check maximum area steel andm~xi.mum moment (c/d<cmax/d)

u, <M"f.11l<IX.

125

Example 3.11 The figure shows aT-section that is subjected to an ultimate moment of a value of 220 kN.m. Using the first principles, calculate the required depth and area of steel. The material properties are feu= 25 N/mm2 and fy= 360 N/mm2

Step 3: Calculated Mu= As


1.15

I), (d-!!")

= 0.826

As

I. d
)

220 x 106= (0.826) x 1.2 d x 360 x d = 356.86 d 2

d=785.2mm

_LI---~-"'-I
100

1500mm

a = 0.1 d = 78.5 mm < t, (our assumption is correct a<ts) As = 1.2 d =942.2 mm" Use d = 800 mm , As = 982 mm' (2<1>25)

T
••
As

Step 4: Check Asmin


0.225 360 Asmin =smaller 01 1.3 x 942.2 = 1224.8 mm?

.Solution Step 1: Assumptions

1120 1

55 120 x 800 = 300 mm

= 293.33 mm

<As · .. o.k

In this example we have three unknowns a, d, As and we have only two equilibrium equations, thus we shall assume one unknown (As) Assume As = 0.01 b d = 0.01 x 120 x d= 1.2 d Assume that the neutral axis inside the flange (a<ts) Step 2: Determine a
0.67

Step 5: Check Ast.max, Mut.max From the code cmaxld 0.44 = ald= 0.1 ~ c/d=0.125 Since c/d (0.125) <cmax/d(0.44)then Mu<Mumaxnd As<Asmax a

feu
1.5

Ba

=.As f)'
1.15
1.2 d x 360

0.67 x 25 xlS00xa

1.S

US

a =.0.0224 d aid = 0.0224 < ald)min(O.l) usea=O.l d


c
1500mm

!Final design d = 800 mm, t = 850 mm and

As = 2<1>259.82 cm2)1 (

l_

1500 mm

\
d

100

1_-

0
tr)

00

As=2 <P 25

'---

••
1

li20
As T=As f/1.15

Final Design

127

128

Example 3.12 Calculate the maximum area of steel and maximum moment for the section given in example 3.11. feu= 25 N/mm2 and fy= 360 N/mm2
1500mm

To find the maximum area of steel, apply the equilibrium

A
sr.max

100

_ll'~----~

=377344+1541000 360/1.15

6128mm2

>A ... ok
s .

T
••
As

OR use Eq. 3.43


,

I
I

From Table 2.1, Jlmax = 5 x lO-4!cu


/1n.ax = 5 x W !cu
A
SI,max

= 5 x 10-4x 25 =0.0125
2

Pmax

b d +feu (B -b )ts = 0.0125x120x800+ 25(1500-120)100 ""6000mm 2xf . 2x360


y .

Solution Step 1: Calculation of Maximum area of steel From Table 2.1 cmax/d=0.44 for fy= 360 N/mm2 amax = 0.8 c max = 0.8 x 0.44 x 800 = 281.6 mm

I
=

Step 2: Calculation of Maximum Moments To find the maximum moment take the moment around tension steel

M c . = 0.67 feu barna., = 0.67x25x120x281.6


wmax

1.5

1.5

=377344N

_ax = 377344 (800ul.max

281.6) + 1541000(800- 100) = 1404.5 kN.m 2 2

> M" ... ok

0.67feu
C[ max;=

(B-b) 1.5

t•
;=

0.67x25x (1500-120) 100


1.5"
.

1541000N

I
i
!

ORuse Eq. 3.46


M
=

Rmaxfeu

bd2

1.5

+C

[max

. (d-~)
2

ez.max

= 0.194x 25x 120x800 + 1541000x(800- 100) ~ 1404 kN.m 1.5 2

1500

j_
100

0.67x 25 /1.5
r-f

I....----l._-

Cfmax Cwmax

T max=Ast,lllax

.15

no

Example 3.13 T Sections (a < t s) The figure shows a T-section that is subjected to an ultimate moment of a value of 280 kN.m. Using the first principles, calculate the required depth and area of steel. Check the code limits for maximum and minimum area of steel and Mumax t;,u= 30 N/mm2 and fy= 400 N/mm2

Step 3: Calculate d Assume a<O.ld, thus use a = O.ld use Eq. (3.27.B)
Mu = As

fy

(0.826 d)

280x 106= 0.826 x 1127 x 400 x d

120

1
T

1----1

1200

d= 751.8 mm a (24.38 mm)< 0.1 d (75.18 mm) our assumption is correcta<O.ld Use d = 800 rom , As = 11.27 cm2 Step 4: Check
Asmin

Solution Step 1: Assumptions

1-1

150

0.225 400 A s min = smaller of

.J3o 150x 800 = 370 mm


2

=370mm2 l.3x1127=1465mm

<As ···o.k

In this example. we have three unknowns a, d, As and we have only two equilibrium equations, thus we shall assume one (As) 1. Assume that a<t, 2. The area of steel may be assumed as
As = 0.11 ~Mu b = 0.11 fy 280x10
6

Step 5: Check Astmax,

Mut.max

From the code cmax/d = 0.42 aid = 0.1 ~ c/d = 0.125 Since c/d (0.125) <cmaxld(0.42)then Mu<Mut,max As<Ast,max and

400

x 150 = 1127 mm"

Step 2: Calculate a
----"--=--

0.67

1.5

i: B a =-_ As~.
1.15
1127x 400 1.15 1.5

0.67x30x1200xa

a=24.38mm

~~

Our assumption is correct a<t,

-----------------------~~I------T~11'i
150
"

T=As f/1.15

Photo 3.6 Testing of simply supported reinforced concrete beam under flexure

Example 3.14 (a>ts)


Compute the depth for the T-section shown in figure ifit is subjected to an ultimate moment of 380 kN.m using first principles. feu= 22.5 N/mm2 and fy = 400 N/mm2
420 nun

380xl06

0.67x22.5x42{)x80

1.5 d = 1165 mm ->->->(2)

(d _ 80)
2

Take the largest d from (1) and (2) ->->d = 1200 mm 420
80

0.67x22.5

d
•• ...__ As=1175 rnrrr'

I+--l
120 nun

Solution Step 1: Assumptions


In this example we have two unknowns a, d (As is given). Thus the calculation of a can proceed immediately

T=As f/1.15

Step 4: Calculate

Asmin

Step 2: Calculate a
Assume that a<ts 0.67

Asmin= smaller 01

leu a B
1.5 1.5

As

Iy
1175 x 400 1.15

1.15

* 1.1 is bigger than 0.225.Ji::


Step 5: Check
Astmaxl Mut.max

400

.!..:£ 20x 1200 = 396 mm 1


1.3 x 1175 = 1526 mm
2

=396mm2

<As···o.k

0.67 x 22.5 x420x a

a=96.82mm Since a > t, we can use the approximate equation (Eq.3.33) to find "d"

To determine the exact position of the neutral-axis,


--

assume (a>ts).

As

Step 3: Calculated
M
=
u

1.15

I, = 0.67 leu

(B - b) ts 1.5

+--'--'~-

0.67 leu b a 1.5 80 0.67 x22.5x 120 a 1.5

As

1.15

1;, (d _!.J... )
2

1175 x 400

....... (3.33a)

l.l5

-----~--~-+------1.5

0.67 x 22.5 x (420-120)

380xl06 = 1175x 400 1.15 ..

(d _ 80) 2
2

a= 138.9 mm

969.8 mm ->->->(1) 0. 67

s.; 138.9/0.8
d 969.8

=0.179

Mu

1eu B ts (d -~)
1.5

(3.34a)

2 For fy = 400 N/mm it can determined from Table 2.1 that cmaxld= 0.42 Since c/d < cmaJd, thus steel yields, As<Ast,maxand Mu<Mut.max o.k

Example 3.15
The figure below shows a simply supported in which the midspan section has a T-shape.
2

Step 3: Compute As
The critical section is at mid span
30x52 5 M =--+80x-=193.75kN.m u 8 4 Pu=80 kN ~ w?30kN/m'

Compute

the area of steel for the T-section

shown in figure. feu = 30

N/mm and fy = 360 Nzmnr'

Assume a<O.ld, thus use a = O.ld, use Eq. (3.27.B)


Mu = As f), (0.826 d) 193.75x106= As x360xO.826x600
2

lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllClllllllllllllmlllllllllllllllllllilIIIIIIIIIIII~
2500mm
L
1 .1

As= 1086mm
2500mm

a = 0.019 (1086) = 20.6 mm a (20.6) < t, (100) a (20.6) < O.ld (60) our assumption is correct a<ts is correct a<0.1 d

1200mm
1

our assumption

§
0 0 \0

TIOOmm
..L------J-e

Step 3: Check

Asmin 0.225.J30 360 120x 600 = 246 mm?

...___
120mm

As

Asmin =smaller of L3x1085 = 1410 mm 2

1---1

Step
Solution Step 1: Assumptions
Assume that the neutral axis inside the flange (a<ts)

5:

Check

Ast.max,

Mut,max

From Table 2.1 cmaxld= 0.44 ald=O.l


-+

c/d= 0.125

Since c/d (0.125) <cmaxld(0.44) then Mu<Mut,maxand As<Ast,max

Step 2: Compute a
0.67 feu B a

1.5
1.5

As =--

J;,

1.15
1.15

0.67 x30 x 1200x a = As x 360

a=

0.019 As

Example 3.16 T Sections


For the neutral axis position given in the figure below, calculate the required and area of steel and the ultimate moment. Check the code limits for maximum minimum area of steel and Mumax feu= 25 N/mm
2

Step 3: Calculate Mu

M
M
u

= Cf

(d -~)+C (d -!!..) 2 2
w

and fy = 360 N/mm2

= 0.67x2Sx

(10S0-120) I.S

100(SSO_100)+ 2

0.67x25x120x192 1.5

(SSO_I92) 2

= 636.05 kN.rr

600

'-----,..-._.._.._...:..I~~?_ .
•• As=?
I--l

1050

Step 4: Check Asmtn


0.225.J25120xS;0=206mm2 360 A,min = smaller 01 1.3x 4139.30 = S~81 mm
2

Neutral axis

= 206 mm

< As .. ·o.k

Solution Step 1: Assumptions


Given'

120

Step 5: Check

Astmax,

Mut,max

:/cu,J;" Mw B. b. d. a
: As. M; : As .Mu
(As .M,).

Required Unknowns

::...= 240 = 0.436 d SSO

Since we have only two equilibrium equations and two unknowns we can proceed directly without any further assumptions

From the code cmax/d = 0.44 Since c/d (0.436) <cmax/d(0.44) then Mu<Mut,maxand As<Ast.max

Step 2: Calculate As
d
=t

-cover=600-S0=SSO

mm mm

a =0.8 c=O.8x240=192
--

As

I.1S

I, = 0.67Ic.

(B-b)ts I.S I.S

+ -"""::"'!"--1.S

0.67Ic. ba 0.67 x 2Sx 120x 192 I.S

As x 360 ~---=

0.67 x 2Sx (lOSO-120) 100

l.lS A, = 4139.30 mm"

+-------

T=Asx360 Il.lS
I.

120

"

137

l'J.Q

3.2.7 Design of T-sections Using Curves 3.2.7.1 Development of the Curves Equilibrium equations are used to generate design aids for T-sections. Assume that the neutral axis is inside the flange (a<ts) Taking moment around the concrete force and referring to Fig. 3.17
C t--

Substitution in equation 3.51 gives


feu~' d2 =

o~~

~~9 (1-0.4~ ~ )

(3.53)

--I

0.67 x feu 1.5

Define

R=
T

feu B d2 RT

"

0~~~~9 ~(1-0.4~)
d = Cl~ f:"B

(3.54) (3.55)

Comparing Eq. 3.53 with Eq. 3.55 gives

CI"J;f" ~(1~:4~)
T =X; f/1.15 b

(3.56)

It can be determined from Eq. 3.49 that the area of steel equals
As

Fig. 3.17 Equilibrium of force for T-section

. yJ d

fM_u

...•....................•............•..................

(3.57)

u, =

~~j'-~) (d
Mu
= As

= Asl.~)~

d (1- zad)

Equations 3.50 and 3.53 are the basis of design aids (CI-J) and (RrJ)
(3.48)

we can also express the moment as the tension force (As fy) multiplied by the lever arm (jd). Note that the factor 1.15 is included in the coefficient "J"

Figure 3.18 shows an example of(CI-J). Appendix A contains (CI-J) and (RrJ) design charts.

1;. j d

(3.49)

Comparing Eq. 3.48 and Eq. 3.49, one can determine J as


j

I
(3.50)

=ds(I-~X~ )=ds(I-0.4~)
M"
2

4.8 4.6 4.4 4.2

;~fI I I I 11d)=
""""\

:\

Dividing Eq. 3.48 by (fcu B cf) and noting that in case ofT-section As=f..L d B
feu B d

=~(1-0.4~)
1.15 feu'

04.0
3.8 3.6 3.4 3.2 3.0 2.8 2.6

(3.51)

·\ · · ·

J_/
" C1

./

0.72 0.74
0.76'

I
I

-,
V
<, /' .?r-,
<,

-:
......._

0.78

From the equilibrium of forces (C = T) Fig. 3.17 we can determine that:


0.67 feu B a As -~=---=--r,

1.5

1.15

!!_ = 1.9468 P x

f~

J;

(3.52)

V 2.4 0.10 ~

· · -:
&

,/

/'

........_

Cm.x/d ( able4-1

0~80

g'u"" ~ : <0:

0.82 0.84 0.50

b:bi

.b:$

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

ad

0.35

0.40

0.45

Fig. 3.18 CI-J design chart


139 140

Substituting with the minimum amin/d allowed by the code (cmiJd=0.l25) in Eq. 3.56 gives Cl=4.85. Thus any value for Cl above 4.85 will lead to c/d below the minimum code value. In this case use cmin/d=0.l25 and J=0.826. Fig 3.19 presents different design cases when using (Cl-J) curve. In normal design situations, case I is the most frequently used. When using chart C, the same rules apply, if RT<0.042 then; use J = Jmax,if RT> 0.042 then determine J from the curve, and if'R, > RTmaxincrease d.

3.2.7.2 Using the Design Aids (charts C1-.Jand Ky-.J)

Step l:If"d" is not given, assume Cl=5-10 for T-sections and C1=34 for R-sections and determine d from the relation
d=C ~ Mu I fell B IfC1 in (CI-J) > 4.85 or RTin (RrJ)<O.042 then, use J=Jmax=O.826and gotostep 4

II

5.4
4.85 4.85

Step 2: From the curve determine J value


If c/d < cmin/d,then use J=Jmax=O.826 If c/d > cmaxfdchange the cross section (increase d)

Step 3: calculate a=O.8 c


check whether a-ct, or a>ts

Step 4: Determine As
IfCI>4.85 use cmin/d IfCI<4.85 determine J IfCI under the curve, increase d .

Fig 3.19 Different

cases for Using C1-J curve

Note1: The code minimum value for the depth of the stress block ratio "a" is O.ld. Thus substituting with aid = 0.1 in Eq. 3.50 gives jmax

Step 5:Check As,min


0.225 fy

.JJ: b d

(use b not B in this relation)

l.3A,

Note 2: To estimate the depth of the beam, assume Cl equals Cl=3-4 for Rectangular Cl=4-5 for slabs Cl=5-10 forT- beams beams Note: Both (Cl-J) and (Ri'-J) can be used for designing a rectangular replacing B with b section by

lAl

142

Example 3.17 (c- ts)


The figure shows a T-section that is subjected to an ultimate moment of a value of220 kN.m. Using CI-J, calculate the required depth and area of steel. feu = 25 N/mm
2

Step 2: Determine J and check c/ d limits


Use cmin/d and J

= Jmax= 0.826

and fy = 360 N/mm I

because c/d <cmax/d, the condition that As<Asmaxis satisfied


1500 mm

Step 3: Compute "a"


a

_LII-----100

= 0.8

(0.125) 800

80 mm < ts(IOOmm) a <t,


As

T
••
As

Step 4: Calculate area of steel,

The stress block is located inside the slab, continue relation


A=~
S

using the following

1;. J d
220 x 10 = 924.8 mm 2 (2<1>25) 360 x 0.826 x 800 Asmin 0.225.J2s 120x800=300mm2 360
6

Solution Step 1: Determine d


Assume C I = 10 mm as a first trial
d=CI~ M" feu B 220xl06 25x1500

As =

Step 5: Check

= 10

= 765

mm

say d=800 mm

and t=850 mm

Asmin=smaller

of I.3x924.8 = 1202mm2

=300mm2<As···o.k

Using CI-J, one can find that C1


=

10.0> 4.85 (out side the curve)

j_1
100

1500mm

T
As=2 Cl> 25
'---

1-'0
'£)

00

4.85

••
120

1---1
Final Design

0.125

Example 3.18 (a>ts)


Compute the depth and area of steel for the T -section shown in figure if it is subjected to an ultimate moment of 380 kN.m using CI-J curve. feu = 22.5 N/mm2 and fy = 400 N/mm2 .
420mrn

Step 2: Determine J and check c/d limit


Use cmin/d c/d = 0.125 Because c/d <cmaJd, then As<Asmax Mu<Mutmax and

11..--' _-,'j
Mu=380kN.m

Step 3: Compute "a"


a

80mrn

T
~

= O.S (0.125) 1000 = 100 rum > t.(SOmm)


As

(a>t., outside the flange)

Step 4: Calculate area of steel.

••

As

Since the neutral axis is outside the flange, the part of the compression force in the web will be neglected and code approximate equation as follows.
As Mu L, /1.l5x(d =t, /2) Asmin 380xl0 400/1.l5x(1000~80/2)
6

120 mrn

=1138mm2

Solution Step 1: Determine d


Assume that Cl=5.0
d =Cl~ Mu feu B 380x10
6

Step 5: Check

.!.:£.120X1000 = 3.30 mm 400 A s min = smaller of


= 1002 mm

d = 5X

22.5x420

say d= 1000 mm and

t=1050

mm

1.3xl138 = 1479 mm?

Cl

5 > 4.85 (outside the curve), use c/dmin

*Note that 1.1 is greater than 0:225../22.5

4.85

0.125

c/d

1Ll';

3.3 Design of L-Sections


L-sections are often encountered in external beams of reinforced concrete structures. If such a beam is connected to a slab it will be only allowed to deflect in the vertical axis and the neutral axis will be very close to horizontal as shown Fig 3.20A. The analysis in this case is the same as T-beams except with smaller width Eq. 3.2S.B. However, if the beam is allowed to deflect in both vertical and horizontal directions (isolated beam), the neutral axis will be inclined as indicated in (Fig. 3.20B). Since the applied loads do not cause any moments laterally, the compression and tension forces must be in a vertical plane as the applied loads as shown in Fig. 3.20B.

~03
".

0.67 feu
1.5

"

As T - - -I----b
A- L-section connected with slab B-Isolated L-section

Fig. 3.21 Stresses and strain for isolated L-section Example 3.19 illustrates the calculation of the ultimate moment capacityof Lsection using the first principle, while example 3.20 shows the simplified procedure using design curves.

Fig. 3.20 Neutral axis position in L-sections Fig. 3.21 presents the forces and strain for a reinforced. concrete isolated Lsection. It can be easily determined that the distance Xl equals 1.5 b. The force in the compression zone equals the area of the compressed zone multiplied by the concrete stress as follows

c = O.61~:cU ( X ~ 1'; )
T
=

••••••...•.•.•...•.•.•.••.•..••.•••.••.••••.

(3.58) (3.59)

As

1.15

1;. .

The second equilibrium equation can be computed by taking the moment around the concrete force. The lever arm in this case is the vertical distance between the tensile force and the center of gravity of the compressed triangle. Thus, the internal moment equals

M" = ~:j' (d147

i)

(3.60)

Photo 3.7 Beam-column structural system


148

Example 3.19
For the L-section shown in figure determine the capacity of the section knowing that the beam is not laterally supported (isolated), knowing that fe,! = 25 N/mm2 , fy = 360 N/mm2 .
100 mm

Step 3: Check steel stress


0= tan-I(224) 300

= 36.74" = 224
4 mm .

c. = J:!_ = 224 x 'cosO 'O.S O.S d,

1-1

7.:..:0:.:0~rnm=~-I

= d cos

= SOOxcos

0 = 641 mm

I
o o
00

or directly c/d=Yl/d=280/800=0.35 Since c/dj(0.35)<cmax/d(0.44), fs = f/1.15 and As<Asmax... o.k

XI=300rnm
200 • • • As=1200 mrrr' 100 I

200rnm

Solution Step 1: Compute Y 1


From the geometry XI
C = 0.67 feu 1.5
=

o o

~
1.5 b
=

00

0.67 i.s

feu

300 mm

(XI

1';)
2 1.15
360
'=

1.15

fy

= 1200

375652 N

200 mm

Since C=T
375652 0.6~.: 25

00 x 2 1'; )

YI

224 mm

Forces and strain distributions

Step 2: Compute

Mu
3

Take the moment around the compression force C

M
u

As fy (d _ 1';)
1.15 1.15 3·

M u == 1200 )(360 (SOO- 224)

,.

= 272.5

x 106 N.mm = 272.5 kN.m

lAO

Example 3 .20
Compute the area of steel for the L-section shown in the figure if it is subjected to M, = 120 kN.m using R,J curve. feu = 35 N/mm2 and fy = 400 N/mm2
-.-600mm -+I __ .....;_ ' __

Step 3: compute "a"


a = 0.8 (0.125) 400 = 40 mm < ts(lOOmm) a-ct,

Step 4: Calculate area of steel,As


The stress block is located inside the slab, thus

1 100 .-----' 1 T

A=~
s

J;,Jd 120xl0 . =908 mm' .400xO.826x400


.
6

A=
;L_

As +..... 120 mm _
----l

Choose 4 <D 18 =1018

mnr'

Solution Step 1: Assumptions Step 2 : Determine RT


120xl0 35x600x4002 ·:RT <0.042 use c/dmin
6

Step 5: Check Asmin


0.225 .J35 ~20x400 = 160 mm 2 400
A'min «smailer of 1.3 x 908 = 1180mm
2

Assume that the neutral axis inside the flange (a<ts)

=160mm2 <A,···o.k

=0.0357
',

600mm .

I
0.0357

-1- __

1--- ·• • , . ..,
120mm Final Design

.4 <D 18

Step 2: Determine J and check c/ d limits


Use cmin/d=0.125and J = Jmax 0.826 = because c/d <cmaxfd, he condition that As<Asmaxs satisfied t i

4
SHEAR IN RIC BEAMS

Photo 4.1 Yokohama Landmark Tower, Japan.

4.1 Introduction
Reinforced concrete beams resist loads by, means of internal moments and shears. In the design of reinforced concrete members, moment is usually considered first, leading to the dimensions of the cross-section and the arrangement. The beam is then proportioned for shear.

Because a shear failure is sudden and brittle, the design for shear must ensure that the shear strength equals or exceeds the flexural strength at all points of the beam. This chapter presents the shear behavior and design of relatively slender (shallow) beams. More advanced topics related to the strength and behavior of slender beams can be found in Chapter (7). The behavior of deep beams is presented in Volume (3) of this text. .

The compressive forces on the hatched area in Fig. (4.1d), whic~ a~e the resultants of the normal stresses induced by the bending moments, are indicated by the two forces C and C+dC. Investigating the equilibrium. of the. upper portion of the infinitesimal slice, it is evident that there should be honzontal shear stresses in order to equilibrate the force dC.
dC=qbdx ;

(4.1) (4.2)

4.2 Shear stresses in Elastic Beams


The beam shown in Fig. (4.1) is acted upon by a system ofloads which lie in a plane of symmetry. The infinitesimal slice of length dx is bounded by the two sections 1-1 and 2-2 which are subjected to bending moments M andM+dM and shearing forces Q andQ+dQ (Fig.4.1c), respectively. dC =qb
dx

The normal flexural stressfxequals I, = ~

(4.3)

z
~-·-·-·",·-·-·-·",·-·~-·-·-·-·-·-·-·-l·-

~ffiY~
i
.~

But, the compression force C equals


C=

It dA = JMI z dA =MI
x ..

(4.4.a)

Hence,

~=

!Jf dA= S; a:
x

:
= Q,

(4.4.b)

(a)

(b)

M(

~B·L)
I----.
J

M+dM

.C

~_lJ E!l ---=---~Z_--D--"-----:·dx .

Substituting from

Bq. (4.2) and noting that dM/dx


q= Q Sy
Ib

one gets

(4.5)

C+dC

dx I

(c)

(d)

where Q = shear force acting on the cross section. I =mome~t of inertia of the cross section. Sy = the first moment of hatched area about the y-axis.
b

= width of the member where the shear stress are being calculated.

.Fig. 4.1 Shear stresses in an elastic beam

For anuncracked rectangular beam, Eq. (4.5) gives the distribution of shear stresses shown in Fig. (4.lb).

Considering the equilibrium of a small element in the beam, it follows that the horizontal shear stresses should be accompanied by vertical shear stresses of the same magnitude as the horizontal shear stresses. The elements in Fig. (4.2-a) are subjected to combined normal stresses due to flexure, J, and shearing stresses, q. The largest and smallest normal stresses acting on such an element are referred to as principal stresses. The principle tension stress, !tman and the principal compression stress, !cman are given by:

C.L

~------------~--~q~-m~~ ~
(a) Flexural and shear stresses acting on beam elements

,--~::: -~--I
(b) Distribution of shear and normal stresses

r:

ax

=f+~(fr+q2

(4.6)

r.:
The inclination

=; -~(~J
+q2

(4.7) by: (4.8)

of the principal stresses to the beam axis, 8, is determined


28= tan "

(f~2)

-1------.-------.-.-.-.----.---.-.--.-

-¢~
~ b- ft ').

" !

If the principle tensile stresses exceed the tensile strength of concrete, cracking occurs. The direction of cracking at any point is perpendicular to the direction of the principle tensile stress at that point. Obviously, at different positions along the beam the relative magnitudes of q and f change, and thus the directions of the principal stresses change as shown in Fig. 4.2c. At the neutral axis, the principal stresseswill be equal to the shear stresses and will be located at a 45° angle with the horizontal. Diagonal principal tensile stresses, called diagonal tension, occur at different places and angles in concrete beams.

(c) Principal stresses on beam elements

Fig.4.2 Normal, shear and principal stresses in homogenous uncracked beam

156

I I

Photo 4.2 Burj-Dubai during construction

4.3 Shear Stresses in Cracked RIC Beams


The general formula that gives the distribution of shear stresses in homogeneous sections subjected to simple bending may be applied to reinforced concrete sections. If one considers the virtual area of the section which consists of the area of concrete in compression plus n-times the area of the steel reinforcement.
q= Q Sny lny b (4.9)

Then one should have


dC=qrnaxbdx

(4.10) (4.11)

Noting
C=jd
M

Wherejd is the arm of the internal moment Then one gets


dC=jd
dM

(4.12)

where Sny is the first moment of area , lny. is the moment of inertia of the full virtual section about the center of gravity and b is the width of the cross section.
It may be observed that, on the tension side of the section, Snv is calculated

Substituting Eq. (4.10) into (4.12) and noting that dM/dx=Q, one obtains
qrnax= jdb
Q

(4.13)

using the equivalent area of the tension steel reinforcement only. Consider an infinitesimaf portion of length dx of a reinforced concrete beam with rectangular cross section subjected to simple bending, where the bending moment is M on one side and M+dM on the other side, as shown in Fig. (4.3). The corresponding compressive forces, which are the resultants of the induced normal stresses, are C and C+dC, respectively.

The distancejd may be taken to be approximatelyO.87d. For routine design, shear strength in reinforced concrete beams is commonly quantified in terms of a nominal shear stress, q, defined as
q=_g__ bxd :

(4.14)

4.4 Behavior

of Slender Beams Failing in Shear

4.4.1 Inclined .Cracklng


Two types of inclined cracking occur in concrete beams; web shear cracking and flexure-shear cracking. These two types of inclined cracking are illustrated in Fig. (4.4). Web-shear cracking begins from an interior point ina member when the principal tensile stresses due to shear exceed the tensile strength of concrete. Flexure-shear cracking is essentially an extension of a vertical flexural cracking. The flexure-shear crack develops when the principal tensile stress due to combined shear and flexural tensile stress exceed the -tensile strength of concrete. It should be mentioned that web-shear cracks usually occur in thinwalled I beams where the shear stresses in the web are high while the flexural stresses are low. .

IZ

4+ lQ+OQJ MfUM
...----. T+dT dx Beam segment

C dC -

~i ...
• • .. b

----_-

1
qmax

Cross section

Shear stress distribution

WebShear

Flexural and Flexural-Shear

Web. Shear

end support

Fig ..4~3 Shear stresses in cracked reinforced concrete beams Fig. 4.4 Types of cracking in reinforced concrete beams .
l'iR

iS9

4.4.2 Internal Forces in B . . eams without stirrups T?e forces·transferring shear forces across .. stirrups are illustrated in Fig (4 5) I h. an InclIned crack in a beam without . . . ntIS figure Q . h across th e crack by interlock of the : a IS t e shear transferred crack. Qax and Q are the hori aggregate partIcles on the two faces of th • ay onzontal and rti I e respectIvely. The shear force is resisted by: ve rca components of this force, Qcz th h . , e s ear In the compression zone Qay, the vertical component of th h e s ear transferred h of th e aggregate particles on the tw across t e crack by interloojQd 0 laces of the crack , the dowel action of the longitudinal reinforcement .
Co

Traditionally, Qc is taken equal to the failure capacity of a beam without stirrups. Since beams without stirrups will fail when inclined cracking occurs, Qc is equal to the inclined cracking load of the beam without stirrups. In general, the inclined cracking load of a beam without stirrups, and consequently Qc , is affected by: • The tensile strength of concrete: the inclined cracking load is a function of the tensile strength of concrete. As mentioned before, the state of stress in the web of the beam involves biaxial principal tension and compression stresses as shown in Fig. 4.2b (see Section 4.3). A similar biaxial state of stress exists in a split cylinder tension test (Fig. 1.7). This indicates that the inclined cracking load (or the shear carried by concrete) is related to the t~nsile strength of concrete. Longitudinal reinforcement ratio: tests indicate that the shear capacity of beams without stirrups increase with the increase of the longitudinal reinforcement ratio. As the amount of the steel increases, the length and the width of the cracks will be reduced. Hence, there will be close contact between the concrete on the opposite sides of the cracks; improving the shear resistance by aggregate interlocking. Shear-span-to-depth ratio (aid): the shear capacity of beams without stirrups is a function of the shear span, a, to the depth, d, of the beams (see Fig. 4.6). In general, concrete beams can be classified into slender beams and deep beams. Deep beams are those having small (aid) ratio. They are much stronger than slender beams in shear. Detailed discussion related to this subject can be found in Chapter (7) in this volume and in Volume (3) of this text. a

r----------. (i)

c
d

r=========1,___ T

(k) J

Qd
d

I..

Fig. 4.5 Internal forces in a cracked beam without stirrups

It is difficult to quantif!., the conml, ti ~y u IOnsof Q Q d are lumped together as Q f cz s ay,an Qd· In design, these c , re erred to as shear carried by concrete. Qc

= Qcz + Q ay+ Q d ·•••••· ••••.••••..•..••...•.••.•.•.•••

(4.15)

______ 1
161

1d

1.__, .

Fig. 4.6 Shear span -to-depth ratio (a/d) 160

4.4.3 Behavior of Slender Beams with Stirrups


The purpose of web reinforcement is to prevent sudden shear failure and ensure that the full flexural capacity can be developed. Web reinforcement may either be consisting of vertical stirrups, inclined stirrups or bent bars as shown in Fig. (4.7).

The shear transferred

by tension in the stirrups is defined as Qs . Assuming

that n

is the number of stirrups crossing a crack, s is the spacing between stirrups, the crack angle is 45 degrees, and that the stirrups yield, then

n=!!..

s s

(4.16) (4.17)

Qs=nAstfy=Astfyd

14

~I
(i)

where

As!

area of stirrups Shear stress carried by stirrups qs


. q =~ s bxd

=======u===

II II II

"

II II II II II II

(4.18)

Substituting

with the value of Qs in Eq. 4.17 gives


q
s

= As, xly

xd/s

bxd

= As, xi),
bxs

(4.19a)

q = As, xly bv s
S

(4.19h)

(k)

14

~I

Fig. 4.71fitm'iial~rces in a cracked beam with stirrups


Measurements have shown that web reinforcement is almost free from stress prior to the formation of diagonal cracks. After diagonal cracking, web. reinforcement affects the shear resistance of the beam in three separate ways: Part of the shear force is resisted by the web reinforcement crack. traversing the

The' presence of web .reinforcement restricts the growth of diagonal . cracks and reduces their penetration into the compression zone; and hence increases the part of the shear force resisted by the compression zone.
The presence of stirrups enhances the dowel action. in . .. " a beam with stirrups and an inclined crack are shown in Fig. (4.7) .

ThefQrces .~ .

Photo 4.3 Diagonal cracking in the shear span

4.5 Egyptian Code's Procedure for Shear Design


4.5.1 Critical Sections for Shear The critical sections for shear design are as follows:
1.

3 If a concentrated load acts within a distance (a) where a<dJ2, the criti~al ~ection (A-A) is taken at the face of the support. Th~ co.dt';~llows a reduction of the effect of this force on the shear design by multiplying Its effect by (a/2d) as shown in Fig. 4.8c. the the the for the reduce the effect of this load (p x a/2d)

The critical section is taken at a distance (dJ2) from the face of column provided that column reaction introduces vertical compression in support zone and no concentrated loads act closer to the support than half beam depth (Fig. 4.8.a). In such a case, the shear reinforcement obtained the critical section shall be kept constant through the distance from critical section to the support.

critical section

Ai
critical section

Fig.4.8c Fig. 4.8a Critical section for shear (general case)

Case of concentrated load (a<dJ2)

4. The critical section is taken directly at the face of the column in ca~e t?e column reaction introduces vertical tension in the support zone as shown ill Fig. 4.8d.

2. If a concentrated load acts within a distance (a) where (d / 2:<; a :<; 2d), the critical section (A-A) is taken at (dJ2) the face of the support. The code allows a reduction of the effect of this force on the shear design by multiplying its effect by (a/2d) as shown in Fig. 4.8b. reduce the effect of this load (p x a/2d)
a

critical section

critical section

critical section

Fig. 4.8d Case of a beam supported by a tension member

Fig.4.8b

Case of concentrated load 164

(d /2:<; a s; 2d)

165

4.5.2 Upper limit of Design Shear Stress In or?er to avoid she~r. compression failure and to prevent excessive shear cracking, the ECP 203 limits the design ultimate shear stress to the value given by: iJuma.,
~OJ

IE: Vr:

Equations 4.22 and 4.23 indicate that the ECP 203 considers the effect of the axial force when calculation the shear strength provided ·by concrete. An externally applied axial compression force will result in large compression zone leading to enhanced qcu, The opposite would be true for a beam subjected to axial tensile force plus shear and bending. 4.5.4 Shear Strength Provided by Shear Reinforcement The design ultimate shear stress (qu ) is compared with the nominal shear ultimate shear strength provided by concrete (qcu). Two cases are possible: a). qu s b) q u )
qcu , qcu,

:s; 4.0 N I mm? .•.............................

{4.20)

The upper limit ofqumax in Eq. 4.20 is 4 Nzmm" If the ultimate shear stress qu) qu rnax s the concrete dimensions of the cross section must be increased. 4.5.3 Shear Strength Provided by Concrete The code evaluation for the shear strength provided by concrete is as follows: No axial force .
qcu =0.24

then provide minimum web reinforcement. then provide web reinforcement to carry qsuo
q", =qu - 0.5 qcu········································,·:·(4.24)

Jf·········:·······

(4.21)

Combined shear and axial compression Applying compression force on the cross section will increase the area of c?ncrete inco~pression and thus enhancing the shear capacity. The ECP 203 gives the followmg equation

The code allows the use of three types of shear reinforcement: 1. vertical stirrups 2. inclined stirrups .3. bent up bars These types are shown in Fig. 4.9

s: =oc x 0.24
-,

V~

II:

(4.22)

m 1n1
r,:::;::;:1

1=r==r11::::;::::;1

1:::;:;::::;1

I
I

Vertical stirrups

1~ "'-\~\\11. .I \\ \__\\. 1
I

Inclined stirrups

Bent bars

Combined shear and axial tension Applying tension force on the cross section will decrease the area of concrete in comp~ession and speeds up concrete cracking. The ECP 203 gives the following equation

. Fig. 4.9 Web reinforcements

of reinforced concrete lieams

In case of using inclined stirrups or bent up bars, the inclination angle with the beam axis shall not be less than 30° . The amount of the shear reinforcement is computed arrangement of the web reinforcement as follows: according to the

s; = Of xO.24 ~
166

(4.23)

A: Shear stress provided by vertical stirrups


ASI

qsu

where:
AS!

b.s

V;./ Ys)

~
·····;·········.·· .

C: Shear stress provided by vertical stirrups and two rows or more of

(4.25)

bent-up bars
In case of using two rows of bent-up bars inclined at angle a with axis of the member accompanied by vertical stirrups, then the calculation is as follows:
1. Calculate the total design shear stress
qsu

area of all vertical legs in one row of stirrups. For two branch stirrup (AS! ) is twice the area of one bar. = yield strength of stirrups. spacing between stirrups (:S 200mm)

qsu

given by: (4.30)

= beam width.
=

= q"

0.5

qcu

The previous equatio~ contains two unknowns, As! and s, thus either one should be assuI?ed to determine the required shear reinforcement. If the stirrups spacing are assumed , then Eq " 425 b ecomes
q", xbxs /;' I r,

Assume the vertical stirrups area (AsJ and spacing (s) then calculate the contribution of the vertical stirrups qsus as follows

«;

ASI

y./y,)
.s

(4.31)

··················

(4.26)

2. Calculate the amount of remaining shear stress that should be carried by the bent-up bars qsub as follows
qsu', = qsu - qsus

(4.32)
Asb

The area of one branch is determined by


A _ ASI

3. Calculate the required cross sectional area of the bent-up bars (4.27) (/;.IyJ(sina If the angle (a) is 45° , Eq. 4.33 becomes
·
qsuh

sl(onehranch)- ~

xbxs

where n

IS

the number of branches

+ cosa)

(433) .

If the stirrups area is assumed, then Eq. 4.25 becomes


s

A xl
SI

qsu xb

t r,

< 200

mm

(4.28)

ASh

r£'~;Y.h

(4.34)

B: Shear stress provided by inclined stirrups


In case of using stirrups inclined at angle a with axis of the member

D: Shear stress provided by vertical stirrups and one row of bent-up bars
In case of using one row of bent-up bars inclined at angle a with axis of the member, then the previous procedure is followed. However, the required cross sectional area Asb is calculated from the following equation
(4.29)
ASh

s;

ASI

~,/ys)
.s

(sina + cosa)

qsuh xbxd . lylYsxsma

..

(4.35)

in such a case
qsuh

:s; 0.24

rz:, VY: If the angle (a)


.
ASh

is 45° , Eq. 4.35 becomes


.fiXqsUh

xbxd
'

I, 'r.
169

(4.36)

168

4.5.5 Code Requirements for Shear Reinforcement 1- A minimum amount of shear reinforcement is required by the code. It is given by
ASI(min)

3- For beams with web width equal to or greater than 400 mm, and in beams of web width exceeding their height, stirrups of at least four branches shall be used. The maximum distance between branches should be less than 250 mm as shown in Fig. 4.11.

= 0.4 b

. fy

.S

••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

(4.37)

<;

l
t
_l...-

./
/) /} /)

Stirrups

where b is the width of the section as defined in Fig. 4.10. But not less than . Ast(min) =0.0015 b. s for mild steel 24/35
Ast(min) =0.0010 b. s

for ribbed high-grade steel

250mm(max)

I--l

250 mm (max)

but not lessthan 5 <I> 6 1m'

ASI
...__

Fig. 4.11 Stirrups arrangement

for beams having b>t or b> 400 mm

4- For reinforced beams of depth of not more than 250 mm, the code requires that the design shear stress be resisted by concrete only according to the following r~lation

.j
b-box section

s; :O;O.16~

(4.39)

a-solid section

5- The maximum spacing between vertical stirrups shall riot exceed the following value
s_ ~ 200 mm

Fig. 4.10 Definition of b for solid and boxed sections 2- The area of steel
Ast(min)

(4.40)

. 6- The maximum spacing between rows of bent up bars is as follows:


Smax

calculated using Eq. (4.37) may be reduced for

:o;d
:0;

beams of width exceeding their depth as follows:


or
ASI(min)

l.5d

-provided

s, :0;

1.5

s;

-:<:;2d

provided q u <

reduced=

As,(min)

«s« s;

(4.38)

where

!b...< «;

7- Construction joints should be generally avoided at location of high shear stresses. Otherwise precautions related to shear friction should be followed.

170

171

Example 4.1
Figu~e (EX. 4'.1) ~hows a simply supported reinforced concrete beam that carries a umfonnly distributed load having a factored value of 60 kN/m and a central concentrated load of a factored value of 100 kN . It'sI require d t0 carry out a . . sh ear design for the beam according to the following data: - Beam width = 300 mm Beam thickness = 700 mm
feu =30Nlmm2and

Step No.1: Determine the design shear force


The critical section for shear is located at d/2 from the face of the support. Assuming concrete cover of 50 mm
d = t - cover = 700 - 50 = 650 mm

The critical section is located at a distance that is equal to 325mm from the face of the support. Reaction at the support =--+- =---+2 2 2 . Qu = R eaction+wx 2 2 . .wx L P 60x7.5 100 2 2

1;. = 240Nlmm2

= 275kN

IL--~-J1
10.501 3.50 m
I' •

(d col. Width) = 275 - 60 x (0.65 0.5) = 2405kN -+ -+.


2

Step No.2: Check the adequacy of the concrete dimensions of the section
The concrete dimensions of the section are considered adequate if the shear stress due to the design shear force is less than the ultimate shear strength.
= ik_= q" bxd 240.5xl0 300x650
3

3.50 m

.10.501

(a) Beam Layout

100 KN

=1.233N l mm'

60 KN/m

qumax =0.7

fr:

if::o; 4N

l mm :

(b) Statical System


275 KN

Since

qll (qumax

the concrete dimensions of the section are adequate.

Step No.3: Determine the shear stress carried by concrete

«; =0.24

rr: f30 Vr:- = 0.24 Vu = 1.073 N I mm

Since the shear stress is greater than the shear stress carried by concrete, web
(c) Shear Force Diagram
275KN

reinforcement is needed.

Step No. 4 Design the web reinforcement


Fig. EX. 4.1
1 '7")

q,u = 1.233 - 0.5 x 1.073 = 0.697 N / mm' q,u xbxs

Qcu

eN

xbxdl=1.073x30qx650=209.3kN i I

I, Irs
Assume that the stirrups spacing is 150 mm
A
s

~i------~i----------------------i~
I

°i

0.697x300x150 =150.2 mm" 240/1.15


2
,

:.Required area of one branch = 150.2 = 75.1mm2


Use{610@150mm (7~ 10m')

choose ~ 10 =78.5 mm2

~.a:==

q.Ii
i
Y l
I y

!5

:.§

.,

B
;

!j'i
3.50
I I

3,75

.i ~ "i
j'
,

Check min shear reinforcement


Pmin

0.4 =-=-=0. 0.4 I, 240

0017> 0 .005 ....ok 1

275~50

A,,(min)

= Pmin xb x s = 0.0017 x300x150 = 76.5 mm" < (As!,provided=x 78.5) ..... ok 2

J
X

i
i
I0

i c:
OJ

i
I

I I

Shear force diagram


:.§

0g
'"

.,
3,50

0.50

i ~~

I I

Io

B c:
o
..0

.,

..

.,

. Referring,to the ,above shear force diagram and similarity of triangular


x 3.75 209.3-50 275-50

i'':::: 'C
<>

E OJ

.,

x=2.65m
y = 3.75-2.65 ~ 1.09m '" 1.25m

assumed constant

shear stress provided by stirrups

1.233 0.6~

shear stress provided by concrete

The calculated stirrups (7 ~ 10m') is provided in the distance y, while a minimum stirrups (s=200 mm) is provided in the distance x A s/(mm)= .rmm x b x s = 0.0017 x250x 200 = 85.0 mm" (for two branches) .
II ..

Area of one branch =42 mm" (use ~ 8 =50 mm') Use (5 ~ 8 m') (7 ~ 10 m')

. (5 ~ 8 m')

-i
It should be mentioned that using the amount of stirrups obtained from the design of the critical section along the whole span is not economic. A practical approach to get an economic design is to use the minimum required amount of stirrups starting from the section at which the shear stress -equals qcu' To compute the location of this section, the following calculations are carried out The shear force carried by concrete equals Final shear design

1_~~1~,2~5 0.50

4I

2.25 ~~ __ 3.50

'j , ..I

Example 4.2 ~!~:e (EX ..4.2) sho.ws.a simply supported reinforced concrete beam that . s.a umformly distributed load havinga factored value of 140 kN/m It IS re_:Ulredto ~arry out a shear design for the beam according knowing that feu - 30 N / mm and fy = 360 N / mm2 for the stirrups.

Step 1: Determine the design shear force Due to the fact that the girder has a variable cross section, the designer has to check its shear capacity at more than one location. In this example two sections shall be examined as follows: The critical section in the solid part is located at d/2 from the face of the support. Assuming a concrete cover of 100 mm
d

=t-

cover = 1100-100 .

= 1000 mm wx L =--

Reacuon at the support Q


I u

= ---

140x12

= 840kN

. = Reacnon+w

x (d -+ COI.Width) = 840 - 140 x (1.0 1.0) = 700kN --+_. 2 2 2 2

The critical section at the hollow part (the box section) is located at the section where the hollow part starts (x=I.5m).
a

QU2 =R~action-w

x(x + cOI.~idth )=840-140X(1.5+

1;0)=560kN

Step 2: Check the adequacy of the concrete dimensions

I.
Sec2-2 (a) Beam Layout

0.60

qumax=0.7

Secl-I

l1: fY:s

4.0 N / mm

2i!

JJJJJ

JJ J JIll J II J JJ J lJ J J JJ H III
12.00 m

140 KN/m

t840kN

. 840kN •

:l t

qumax =3.13N lmm.'

Critical section 1-1


For the critical section at <:112 from the face of the column QUI bxd 700xlOOO =1.17 N l mm" 600xlOOO

(b) Statical System


840kN

«;

:. The concrete dimensions of the section are adequate. Critical section 2- 2 Section 2-2 has a boxed shape and resistance to shear comes from the two webs each having a width of 175 mm

(c) Shear Force Diagram


840kN

qu2

QlI2 bxd

560x 1000 (2x175)xlOOO :.

1.60 N / mm"

Fig. EX. 4.2


1'7'<;

':Qu2 squmax

The concrete dimensions of the section are adequate.


1'7'7

Step ~: Determine the shear stress carried by concrete

s; =0.24

rz;; Vr:.=0.24 ,fff0 =1.073Nlmm


1.5

Check min shear reinforcement


II. r"m,"

= 0.4 = 0.4 = 0.00111 > 0.0010....ok iy 360 .


=11. rrom

A stl(mm) .

xbxs=0.00111x600x200=133mm2 =0.00illx(2x175)x200

«A.!,provided=4x78.5)

..... ok ..... ok

Step 4: Design the web reinforcement for each section


For Sec. 1-1
·qsul =qul -0.5qcu qfUI = 1.17 -0.5xl.073

A st2(mm) =11. xbxs . rmm

= 77.7 mm? «As!,provided=4x78.5)

= 0.635N 1 mm"

A
Sf

= q,ul xbx's fy 1 r,

Assume that the stirrups spacing is 200 mm 0.635x 600 x 200 2 AS( 360/1.15 = 243.4 mm The width of the section branches. is more than 400mm, thus requires more than two

Assuming 4 branches, the area of one branch = A" = 243.4 = 61 mm? n 4 Use <I> 10=78.5 mnr' Use <i>10@200mm4-branches

Sec 1-1
(Longitudinal Rft. is not shown)

Stirrups Details
2+10@200mm

For Sec. 2-2

I"

'1
cp8@200mm q.1O@200mm cplO@200mm

Q,u2

=: 1.60 -0.5x1.07
= q'U2 xbxs 1;.1 r,

= 1.065N l mm?

"

Assume that the stirrups spacing is 200


A

mm

_1.065x(2xI75)x200
st -

360/1.15

-23
-

8.14 mm

cp8@200mm

1'1
Sec 2-2
(Longitudinal Rft. is not shown)

Each web is provided with one stirrup that has two branches. Thus, the area of one branch Use <I> 10=78.5 mm2 Use ¢10@200mm 4-branches

Stirrups

Details

= AS!
n

=~

2x2

= 59 mm2

178

179

Example 4.3
Figure (EX. 4.3) shows a simply supported reinforced concrete beam that carries a uniformly distributed load having a factored value of 80 kN/m'. It is. requi.red to carry ?ut a shear design for the beam using bent-up bars and vertical stirrups accordmg to the following data: Beam width = 250 mm Beam thickness = 800 mm fcu '" 25 N I mm", I, '" N / mm' for the stirrups and h =400 Nzmm'' for the 240 bent-up bars

Step 1: Determine the design shear force


The critical section for shear is located at d/2 from the face of the support. Assuming concrete cover of 50 mm
d = t - cover= 800-50
.

= 750

mm 2 2
= 256kN

Reaction at the support


Q

wxL 80x6,4 =-'"--

= R.eacnon=

wx (d -+col. Width) 2 2

= 256 -

80 x (0.75 -+- 0.4) 2 2

= 210kN

IL--l1
6.0m

Step 2: Check the adequacy of the concrete dimensions


The concrete dimensions of the section are considered adequate if the shear stress due to the design shear force is less than the ultimate shear strength.
=~= qu bxd qumax =0.7 210xl0 250x750
3

=1.l2Nlmm2

(a) Beam Layout

fl: s 4N VYc
I mm'

l mm"

22
t
I..

80 KN/m

J J IJ J J J JIll
256 KN

II

JJ

I J Jill

JJ

JJJI~
.

s.;: =2.86N

Since
256 KN

qu (qumax

the concrete dimensions of the section are adequate.

6.40m

..

.Step No.3: Determine the shear stress carried by concrete

(b) Statical System


256 KN

«; =0.24

fl: = 0.24 f25 = 0.98 N I mm VYc V 1.5

Since the shear stress is greater than the shear stress carried by concrete, web reinforcement is needed.

Step 4: Design the web reinforcement


The web reinforcement consists of two parts: a) vertical stirrups; b) bent-up bars
(c) Shear Force Diagram

Fig. EX. 4.3

s; = 1.12 -O.5x

0.98 = 0.63 N I mm'

180

lRl

Step 4.1: Shear stress carried by vertical stirrups


Assume that a minimum area of stirrups shall be provided
JLmin

Example4.4
Figure (ExAA) shows a simply supported reinforced concrete beam that carries a uniformly distributed load having a factored value of 70 KN/m and a concentrated load of a factored value of 90 KN. It is required to carry out a shear design for the beam according to the following data: Beam width

0.4 0.4 === 0.00166 > 0.0015 ....ok 240

t,

Assume s=200 mm
A,,(min) JLminxbxs = =0.00166x250x200=83.3 mm'

= 250 mm

Area of one branch=41.65


qsus AS! l.h,/Ys) b .s

mm", choose <jl8=50 mnr'


. NI mm
2

Beam thickness = 700 mm

leu = 25

N Imm2 and h = 240 N /mrrr'

= (2 x 50) 2401 l.l 5 =0417


250x 200

Step 4.2: Design of bent-up bars


. qsuh=qsu -qsus =0.63-.417=0.21 N'I mm?

Using one row of bent-up bars and noting that the yield strength of the flexural steel is 400 Nzmm", the area of the bars equals
A sb= .fixqsuhxbxd 1;,1 r,

fJ-aU--J
10.50 I 1.00m . 5.50m (a)8eam 90KN agO 1111 II I jilL III I III !III j III 1111 J II Layout

I 0.50 I

.fixO.21x250x750 400/1.15

=160mm

Use 2<1>12 (=226 mm/)

1.25

if

I~01!! 5.75.

II J J!! IIJill 0011111

III

!!l1.b

=r

Ra=318.93 KN

Rb=261.07KN (b)Staticai System

""~ 2<1>2 1

~2~<1>~1~2~

__
318.93KN

3.00

i '-e . .,
I",

'0
'c:

(c)Shear

Force. Diagram

261.07KN

shear stress provided by 12)

i"" .e.> I '.0 . ·c


Ie.>

Fig.Ex.4.4
shear stress provided shear stress provided by concrete'

182

lQ'}