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РОССИЙСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ ДРУЖБЫ НАРОДОВ

Институт иностранных языков

Кафедра теории и практики иностранных языков

УТВЕРЖДАЮ
Зав. кафедрой теории и практики иностранных
языков
______________к.ф.н., профессор Н.Л.Соколова
«______» _______________2021 г.

КУРСОВАЯ РАБОТА
на тему

«Фразеологические особенности употребления глаголов have и tener в английском и


испанском языках»

45.03.02 – Лингвистика

Разработчик
Студент группы ЯЛНбд-01-18 (3 КУРС)
Студенческий билет № 1032183825
Абдугафаров Олимхон Бахадир Угли
«______» _______________2021 г.

Руководитель
к.ф.н., профессор, академик МАНПО

_________________Н.Л.Соколова

Научный консультант
Старший педагог ДПО
_____________________М.Б.Рудзеевская

Москва 2021
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PEOPLES’ FRIENDSHIPUNIVERSITY OF RUSSIA

Institute of Foreign Languages

Department of Foreign Languages in Theory and Practice

APPROVED FOR PRESENTATION


The Head of the Department of Foreign
Languages in Theory and Practice

__________________Ph.D. Prof. N.L.Sokolova


‘______’_______________2021

COURSE PAPER

“Specifics of Using Phraseological Units with Verbs "to have" and "tener" in English and
Spanish”

45.03.02 – Linguistics

Submitted by
Abdugafarov Olimkhon Bakhodir’s Son
Student’s ID № 1032183825
Full-time course, group ЯЛНбд-01-18

‘______’_______________2021
Course Paper Advisor
PhD, Professor
_______________________N.L.Sokolova

Scientific Advisor
Senior Teacher
_________________ M.B.Rudzeevskaya

Moscow 2021
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СONTENTS
INTRODUCTION.........................................................................................................................3
I. THEORETICAL BASIS OF THE RESEARCH....................................................................6
1.1 The Phraseological System(?)...................................................................................................6
1.2 Place of Phraseological Units in National Language Worldview............................................12
1.3 The Verbs “to Have” and “Tener” in the Language System...................................................18
1.4 Role of the Phraseological Units with the Components “to have” and “tener” in the
Context(?)................................................................................................................................19
II. ANALYSIS OF SPECIFICS OF USING PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS WITH VERBS
“TO HAVE” AND “TENER” IN ENGLISH AND SPANISH................................................23
2.1 Material of the (Under) Research............................................................................................23
2.2The Use of the Verb “To Have” in the English Language.......................................................24
2.3The Use of the Verb “Tener” in the Spanish Phraseological Units..........................................28
CONCLUSION............................................................................................................................33
REFERENCES.............................................................................................................................35
APPENDIX...................................................................................................................................38

Олим!
Во второй главе в пунктах 2.2 и 2.3 Вы должны отразить в названии и исследовать
конкретные примеры, а также они должны быть однотипными – Вы не можете
исследовать глагол в английском языке вообще, а в испанском – во фразеологических
единицах.
Проверьте правильное оформление ссылок и таблиц.
Количество страниц в оглавлении и в работе не совпадает. Проверьте и исправьте.
В тесксте есть фрагменты выделенные синей волнистой линией – это сделал компьютер.
Исправьте эти фрагменты так, чтобы подчеркивание исчезло. Исключение составляют
термины. Проверьте их правильное написание.
После всех исправлений загрузите работу в Антиплагиат. Ссылку отправляю.
5

INTRОDUCTIОN
There are numerous English and Spanish idioms that seem to be global categоries in all
lifestyles of the world. One thing is for sure: a large number of research, articles, and papers
have been written cоncerning the role of specific categories in phraseology, such as body parts,
animals, the weather, or colors, for example. In contrast, research in the field of phraseology that
examine idioms as ethnocultural phenomena are rarely mentioned. Here's an example of an
apparent lack of research.
This is the reason why this work “Idioms as ethnocultural phenomena (based on the
English and Spanish languages)” focuses on phraseology as a precise feature of language. These
phrases will be studied in Modern English and Modern Spanish to see which cultural
implications of the word have been translated into the phraseological unit (idiom) individuals
employ in their respective languages, according to the study. It is also intended that implications
and formal characteristics of cultural identity be identified.
As far as phraseological studies go, historical and cultural events aren't commonly
alluded to as of yet Their stylistic connotations, on the other hand, appear to be quite essential.
Using the culturological comment, one of the most recent developments in the phraseological
dictionary in the history of lexicography, this research reveals that phraseological units are the
most culturally revealing layer of all the language units. As part of our research, we're trying to
determine where the most popular British and Spanish idioms, as well as other phraseological
units, come from.
The verbs “to have” and “tener” are one of the most widespread in the English and
Spanish languages. There are a lot of phraseological units based on these verbs.
All these facts contain the importance and relevance of this work.
The object of the present research is British and Spanish phraseological units.
The subject of this study is specifics of using phraseological units with verbs “to have”
and “tener” in English and Spanish.
The objective of the course paper is specifics of using phraseological units with verbs “to
have” and “tener” in English and Spanish.
6

The data was taken from dictionaries and the Modern English and Spanish languages, as
well as other sources. Studies suggest that certain idioms have distinct cultural meanings
depending on the language. A deeper and more systematic "linguo-cultural" examination of
British English and Spanish idioms is also called for. Later we will examine the ethnocultural
characteristics of British and Spanish idioms to see which one is more prevalent.
To reach this aim, the following objectives can be put:
-to describe the phraseological system of the language;
- to study the definition of context in English and Spanish;
- to analyze the English and Spanish language and cultural identity through cross-cultural
understanding;
- to study the use of the verb “have” and “tener” in the English and Spanish
phraseological units.
The material for analysis is the British and Spanish novels: “Origin” by Dan Brown and
“El tango de la Guardia Vieja” by Arturo Perez-Reverte.
The following research methods were used in this wosrk:
- the method of linguistic description;
- the analytical method;
- the descriptive and inductive-deductive methods;
- the comparative method.
The practical significance of this work can be found out in university linguistic and
stylistic lectures, as well as during faculty studies and practicums. It can also be used to improve
communication skills.
This work is structured as follows: after the introduction, the first chapter will study the
historical basis of phraseology as a language of culture: its significance in the depiction of
cultural mindset; the most significant phraseological research in the English and Spanish settings
will be discussed. Aside from that, the idea of phraseological idioms of modern language will be
defined and emphasized as the major topic of research in phraseology. Identities of language and
culture will also be examined.
The second chapter describes the practical research of the use of the verbs “to have” and
“tener” in the English and Spanish phraseological units.
Conclusions and ideas for further research will be presented in this work's conclusion
once the analysis and results have been reviewed. 
7

1. THEORETICAL BASIS OF THE RESEARCH


1.1 The Phraseological System

Finding a standard categorization system for phraseology and defining the study's goal
(Gläser, Melcuk, Howarth, Ruiz Gurillo, Cowie, Moon, Corpas Pastor) [6] appears to be a
challenge. That's because the same terminological diversity that linguists have used to designate
to both the general field and the aspects it examines (Fernando and Flavell, Gläser, Corpas Pastor
[3, p. 65])(Ссылку нельзя отделять от фамилии или источника. Проверьте во всей работе)
underscores its unpredictability. It is not only foreign scientists, but also Russian academics,
such as N.N. Amosova and I.V Arnold who have contributed to the definition of the linguistic
status of the set expressions or fixed phrases under investigation) [2, p 56] theories of
phraseological identification.
In linguistics, phraseology is an intermediate discipline between vocabulary studies (since
it investigates fixed word combinations with an unified meaning) and syntax studies.
Phraseological phenomena have also been linked to stylistics because of their expressive nature
[17, p. 67]. Despite its strong ties to other linguistic sciences, phraseology is increasingly viewed
as a separate field with its own research objectives and techniques.
The phraseological units of a particular language are the topic of phraseological research
as a separate field (or a group of languages). S.Bally was the first to utilize the phraseological
unit as a concept. From V.V. Vinogradov, and other Russian linguists, it was taken. There is a
clear distinction between phraseological units and free word combinations due to the syntactic
stability of phraseological units. A free word combination may become a phraseological unit,
and a phraseological unit, in turn, may become a compound word over time and with frequent
and extended usage. The term phraseology can refer to both the discipline and its goal, which is
the collection or totality of phraseological units in a particular language, respectively.
The relationship between phraseologisms and metaphor is another important factor to
consider. When it comes to the link between metaphors and idiomatic expressions, Stelian
Dumistrăcel argues that the fact that "both have a particular (figurative) meaning" is enough to
8

establish the connection [24; p.67]. Early in the twentieth century, the preconditions for the
establishment of phraseology as an autonomous linguistic discipline and the definition of the
phraseological unit as its study object had already been set in place. Researchers like F. de
Saussure, C. Bally, O. Jespersen, J. Seidl and W. Mc Mordie, R. Moon, R. Gläser and P. Cowie
have played a key part in this process as well as others. Three primary currents may be identified
in phraseology:
1. The Western-European structuralism,
2. Linguistics of Russia
3. North-American linguistics.
When it comes to phraseology, it's only been around for a few decades, thanks to the likes
of C. Bally and V. Vinogradov. The generative transformational paradigm was also gaining
popularity among linguists in the United States.
Further evolution of phraseology has taken place during the previous fifteen years.
Despite the fact that phraseology was marginalized in the early 1980s, with the exception of
Britain, where the major activity connected to phraseology was dictionary-making, phraseology
is no longer a marginalized field now, with the exception of Britain. To some extent, this is
attributable to a number of factors, such as the fading of political and intellectual isolation in
Eastern Europe and Russia, the rising importance accorded to phraseology by the United States,
and developments in corpus-based language analysis.
Grammar and phraseology have been transformed by theories developed from corpus
linguistics and corpus techniques support most of the present work in applied linguistics,
discourse studies, and text analysis Researchers may now test their theories by using language
corpora. Phraseological components have a crucial role in the development of communicative
competence among the speakers of a particular language, according to scholars in cognitive
grammar [4, p. 65], discourse analysis, and corpus linguistics (J. Sinclair and R. Moon).
The study of corpus linguistics has revolutionized the way communication has been seen
in the past. Researchers have discovered that anytime communication occurs, speakers of a
language mix various words in order to communicate their views. When it comes to
prefabricated structures, however, many linguists are drawn to them, and phraseology is drawn
to them as well.
On the other hand, substantial study has been devoted to demonstrating the essential role
played by phraseology in first-language and second-language acquisition, which has made
significant progress in phraseology (Peters 1983; Alonso Ramos 1993). For its part, Fillmore's
research [11, p. 54] have provided additional support for the theory, claiming that, instead of one
large grammar, we need an entire continuum of mini-grammars to account for speech formulas
9

that are always changing. According to what has already been said, phraseology's recent rise to
prominence is the result of an increase in research.
Phraseology's prominence as an autonomous academic subject is demonstrated not only
by research but also by the production of specialist dictionaries [7, p. 54]. Determination of
phraseology's independence may be shown in linguistic research initiatives and in Bielefeld's
“Europäische Gesellschaft für Phraseologie”, founded on the 29th of January, 1999. (Germany).
There is a growing awareness of the importance of ready-made memorized combinations, both in
written and spoken language, as well as their role in first and second language acquisition, which
is reflected in the growing interest in phraseological units [7, p. 54] or "word-combinations" [7,
p. 56]. (Разделять ссылку также нельзя. Проверьте во всей работе)
It's( Подобные сокращения в тексте работы недопустимы. Проверьте во всей
работе) a branch of lexicology that studies phraseological units (set expressions, phraseologism,
or idioms) (in foreign linguistics). Many distinct names, such as idiom [12, page 54], phraseme
[20, page 34] and word-group [14, p. 54], have been used to refer to the same category in the
literature on phraseology. Every single one of them is defined by a distinct set of criteria, and as
a result, each word leads to either larger or narrower definitions and viewpoints.
When R. Ginzburg and her colleagues defined idioms in 1979, they said: "Idioms are
non-motivated word groupings that cannot be freely made up in speech but are replicated as
ready-made components" (25, p. 32).
Gläser, on the other hand, describes idioms as "a more or less lexicalized, repeatable
bilexemic or polylexemic word-group in widespread usage, which has syntactic and semantic
stability, may be idiomatized, may convey connotations, and may have an emphatic or
intensifying role in a text" [25, p. 32].
Idioms are described here in their most basic form, as summarized by earlier writers
(Fernando and Flavell, Gläser) [10, p. 51]. Idioms:
A term or phrase that is composed of several words, is institutionalized
(institutionalization), has semantic or syntactic specificity, has varying degrees of stability
(graduality and stability), and has the potential for some variation in its constituent words or
phrases (variation).
Stability (as evidenced by a high frequency of occurrence in the language) and semantic
unity are typically regarded as the two major qualities that may be used to identify
phraseological units (reflected in the lack of the correspondence between the general
signification of the structure and the accumulation of significations of the constituent elements).
There is a strong connection between these two qualities. its regular use contributes to stability
because of the group's worldwide significance. [30, p. 78].
10

Idioms transmit a single notion and meaning of idiomatic, in other words, it is not only
the sum of the components of idiomatic.
Their structural invariance means that they cannot be substituted by any component of the
phrase without losing their meaning (to be bee in one's bonnet), for example (not hat or cap).
This means that they aren't created during the communication process, but are instead
used as finished products afterward. Words cannot be broken down into distinct components and
changed, but idioms can because of their syntax: His mind wandered to the fact that she seemed
so unaffected and genuine that the ice had been shattered between them for a little period
[18, p. 53].
In Russia, idioms are categorised according to a variety of characteristics. Citation
needed The semantic principle, i.e. the degree of meaning motivation, is used in Vinogradov's
classification to classify phraseological idioms. It's divided into three categories: phraseological
unities, phrases fusions, and phrases combinations.
1. Phraseological fusions are not motivated. There is no relationship between the value of
the whole and the worth of its parts: to kiss the hare’s foot, to kick the bucket, the image of the
king;
2. Phraseology unit is motivated through the image expressed in the whole structure,
metaphor on which it is based;
3. Phraseology combination is also motivated.
Professor Smirnitskiy categorizes idioms according to the underlying concept of
grammatical construction. The phraseological components and the idioms themselves are
separated [26, p.98].
Idioms are metaphorical, but phraseological elements aren't: fall asleep, get up, to take to
drinking; conciliar el sueño, tomar a la bebida.
Idioms are stylistically colored: to bark up the wrong tree, to beat about the bush, to take
the bull by the horns,dar con la huella, andar por las ramas.
According to Professor Amosova, idioms are classified based on the type of situation. An
idiom has a fixed (permanent) context that cannot be changed: (but not Spanish or Russian).
Phrasemes and idioms themselves are singled out [1, p. 65].
Idioms are defined by idiomaticity: their meaning is not just a sum of the meanings of its
components, but is generated by the entire group.
Professor Kunin's categorization is based on the communication function of idioms.
Depending on their function, idioms can be categorized as nominative, nominative-sociable,
communicative, or interjectional.
11

1. Nominal idioms are units for objects, actions, events and quality. They can be of the
following types:
a) substantive - a bitter pill; un trago amargo.
b) adjectival -long in the tooth; tiempo en el diente.
c) adverbial – out of the blue sky, como una bala.
d) prepositional - with an eye, encabezado por.
2. The communicative and nominative units contain a verb: to set the Thames on fire, to
make (someone) turn in a coffin, bailar al son que le tocan, entre gustos no hay disgustos.
3. Interjectional idioms express the emotions state: A pretty kettle of fish! madre mìa,
¡voto a chàpiro!
4. Communication idioms are represented by the proverbs and sayings [32, p. 123]
Some linguists do not include sayings and proverbs in their classifications [1, p. 45].
Others do on the grounds that:
1. When it comes to idioms, their elements never alter.
There are several idiom dictionaries that classify phraseological units thematically.
The categorization of idioms according to their etymological origin.
The idioms are split into two categories: borrowed and native. Nearly all of the local
idioms are rooted in British or Spanish culture:
By bell book and candle (jokingly).
This idiom takes the form of excommunication from the text, which ends with the
following words: Dow to a book, quench the candle, calls the book! To carry coal to Newcastle!
Estar de Rodríguez.
A large number of Russian idioms are derived from the technical terms: his last card, the
game is over, poner las cartas sobre la mesa.
There are a variety of sources where borrowed idioms can be found.
They were taken from the Bible and assimilated to perfection: throw a pearl before
swine, the root of all evil; edificar sobre arena [10, p. 46].
Items from ancient mythology and literature were prevalent: abone of contentionthe
Greek calends; siglo de oro, greca etc.
Many of the idioms came from other languages – blood and iron (Blut und Eisen), to lose
face (Chinese tiu lien) and from the other variants of the English language (AmE) - a green
light, bark up the wrong tree [22, p. 65].

1.2 Place of Phraseological Units in National Language Worldview


12

All the languages are the result of the organization and perception of the surrounding
world by the people. The meanings expressed in it constitute an integral system of views, a kind
of folk philosophy that is natural for every native speaker.
According to the vocabulary of each language, one can trace how the world around was
seen and understood by the native people. A certain vision of reality is “embedded” in any
natural language, first of all, in its semantics [25, p. 44].
With the help of phraseological units, representatives of a certain linguistic community
fix, save and have the opportunity to convey to the next generations their feelings, emotions,
sensations and assessment of certain phenomena.
It is in the phraseological picture of the world that the peculiarity of the language is most
accurately and fully reflected, since phraseological units include components of meaning that
contain information about the national characteristics of the perception of reality, they represent
a system of values, folk wisdom, the people's view not only of the surrounding reality, but also
of the internal organization of a person, his psychology.
The semantics of phraseological units embodies a long process of cultural development
and the formation of the mentality of a particular people. It “absorbs” the peculiarities of the
social, material and spiritual culture of the people, is evidence of its history, traditions and
customs.
The emergence in the language of any phraseological unit is a consequence of a
sufficiently long language development (from a free phrase to a stable expression with an
integral meaning) [4, p. 93].
The phraseological picture of the world has a number of distinctive features that have a
significant impact on the formation of its semantics. We can give the most important of them
[34, p. 55].
1. Universatility
The very fact of the existence of phraseology in the language is a linguistic universal: a
language in which there would be no phraseological turns does not exist. Also, phraseological
units are made universal by their main property: the indivisibility and non-derivability of the
general meaning from the meanings of individual components.
Thus, the universal properties of phraseological units are expressed both in structure and
in semantics.
The phraseology of any language reflects the universal semantic categories of the
language (the categories of time, quantity, space, degree, qualities and states of objects and
subjects). Moreover, in semantics, universal human connotations associated with a particular
reality, on the basis of which a stable turnover is formed, can be fixed.
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2. Anthropocentrism.
There is a person who cognizes the surrounding reality is in the center of the linguistic
picture of the world. A person compares the world around him, first of all, with himself, finding
similarities and drawing analogies not only with his mind and body, but also with the history of
his people or humanity as a whole.
3. Expressiveness.
One of the distinctive qualities of the phraseological picture of the world is its emotional
coloring.
Emotionally, an expressive coloring of phraseological units is inextricably linked with the
concept of connotation. Expressiveness and connotation are often identified in linguistic studies
as synonymous concepts; nevertheless, expressiveness is the result of using the connotative
means of language.
“The connotation seems to be layered on the statement and gives it an expressive
coloring, and the statement itself becomes two-dimensional – it informs about the world and
expresses the emotive attitude of the subject of speech to the designated one” [45, p. 44].
The indisputable examples of the existence of connotative semantics are called
phraseological phrases by linguists.
Phraseologisms are a kind of microworlds, which include “both moral law and common
sense, expressed in a short dictum, which the ancestors bequeathed to the guidance of their
descendants” [5, p. 55]. It is the soul of any language, in which the way of thinking, individuality
and mentality of the entire nation that speaks it is expressed in a unique and individual form.
The main feature of phraseological phrases is the fact that the most of them contain
“traces” of national culture, which can be studied and, therefore, identified. The cultural
component is preserved in the internal form of the phraseological turnover, which gives the
phraseological unit a cultural and national coloring.
Phraseology is an integral part of the linguistic picture of the world of any person.
In this case, phraseological units are always focused on the subject, that is, they arise not
so much in order to describe the surrounding reality, but rather in order, on the contrary, to
assess it, interpret and express a subjective view of the situation. It is this feature that emphasizes
the difference between phraseological units and other nominative units of the language.
According to the statement of V. N. Telia, the phraseological composition of any
language is “a mirror in which the linguocultural community identifies its national identity”,
since it is the phraseological expressions that help to form native speakers have a special picture
of the world and a vision of a certain situation (for example, information about the everyday life
of the people, about their etiquette behavior, about customs and signs, etc.) [5].
14

Separately, it should be emphasized that various types of phraseological units in different


ways reflect the culture of the people speaking a particular language.
This aspect of meaning is created by the signs that make up the denotation - the linguistic
reflection of the described concept [29, p. 54]
Phraseologisms with a denotative aspect in their lexical composition contain a direct
indication of any aspect of the culture of the people. The meaning of these phraseological units
was born on the basis of the meanings of individual lexemes.
To this category, one can also add the phraseological units reflecting the history of the
people, containing national proper names or important dates and events in the life of the people.
The cultural information of such phraseological units is closely related to the
phenomenon of denotation, because the denotation is presented in its own way by the bearer of
the cultural component of phraseological units.
However, in the most phraseological units, cultural and historical information has a
different focus.
In order to better understand what exactly is the carrier of cultural information in such
phraseological units, let us consider in more detail the history of the emergence of figurative-
emotive phraseological units.
It is true that some prototype situations happen in reality, i.e. those situations that lead to
the literal meaning of phraseological units being established.
Only after that a certain connotation is assigned to the situation, which is subsequently
rethought, and, ultimately, an image of a phraseological unit is formed based on the primary
meanings of lexemes in a prototype situation [2].
It is these primary words that leave their mark. Thus, the internal form of phraseological
unit is born, which carries the basic information related to the culture and life of the people.
When phraseological units of a language first exist or emerge, i.e. when symbols are
chosen, their relationship to cultural and national traits as well as signs and customs is tracked.
When the associative basis is connected to culture, this knowledge is physically resurrected in
connotations (standards, symbols, stereotypes).
This is because these phraseological units contain culturally defined causes or culturally
important effects, thus they are the most comprehensive and instructive for us in terms of
recognizing the linguocultural component.
Phraseologisms that reflect certain typical situations and representations of the people
begin to play the role of signs, symbols, archetypes, stereotypes, as well as precedent phrases for
a particular culture and ethnic group.
Their meaning and wording may vary in different languages and cultures [19].
15

The English and Russian languages we are considering can rightfully be called one of the
richest and the most interesting for research from the point of view of the presence of
phraseological units in its wide system, since they occupy a massive layer of its structure.
Almost all the loudest events from the past were reflected in the language, in phraseology
in particular. Some of them have a tendency to become obsolete, go out of use and become
archaisms.
But they are replaced without stopping by new, relevant, bright and lively. We can safely
say that the phraseological system of any language never stops developing, it gradually acquires
new shades, features and meanings, develops along with the culture and language of the people,
which, in turn, shape it themselves.
Today in the philological sciences there is a steady growth in the interest of researchers in
the problems of phraseology.
This interest of linguists and philologists in the field of phraseology gives rise to the
emergence of new scientific paradigms and the creation of modern phraseological disciplines
(for example, linguistic and cultural phraseology, cognitive phraseology, etc.) [23].
Particular attention is paid to the consideration and analysis of the problematic of the
connection of phraseology with the culture of the people, its history and mentality. Most often,
linguists and philologists engaged in the study of phraseology are interested in the relationship
that exists between the concepts of “phraseology” and “mentality”, “culture” and “national
history”.
Whatever the direction of the research, whatever language is considered by the scientist,
almost all researchers agree that the phraseology of any language is the richest linguistic
heritage, which reflects the peculiarities of mentality, national culture, beliefs and customs,
history and even fantasy.
These set expressions are the products of history, since from generation to generation the
entire system of ideas and knowledge about the world and culture is transmitted from parents to
children through language.
The connection of the phraseology of any national language with the history, mentality
and culture of the people speaking it is based on such an important characteristic of
phraseological units as “historical accumulation”.
To understand the ability of phraseology as “historical accumulation” should be far from
only the fixation and transmission of individual facts.

1.3 The Verbs “to Have” and “Tener” in the Language System
16

To have is one of the most commonly used verbs in the English language, and
unfortunately, it is used incorrectly in many cases.
This verb appears at all levels, but in textbooks information is given separately, and in
detail and systematized, the features of the verb to have are almost never understood.
Therefore, ideas about the verb to have are ambiguous: many believe that this is a very
unusual verb, it has some special forms, questions and negations, whether it is semantic, or
auxiliary, has different meanings, then it is translated, then not .. ...
Indeed, the verb to have is endowed with a lot of meanings (which we will cover shortly
in this article), so it can be translated in different ways. It is true that it can be both semantic and
auxiliary (more on this later).
But its forms are very simple: there are only three of them. In present tense, have has two
forms: have for (I, you, we, they) and has for (he, she, it).
As an irregular verb, in the past tense have has the form had for all persons and numbers.
In the future - will have also for all faces and numbers.
Here it is necessary to analyze its meanings. In the process of learning English, everyone
begins to notice that the range of meanings of the verb to have is much wider than just “I have.”
When using the have verb, it is important to understand what the verb means in each specific
case in order to use it correctly.
1. Ownership, possession.
This is the first and main meaning: to have, to have. We translate most often as
“Someone has something”, but depending on the context, we can translate and how to have,
possess, possess.
I have a car.
When describing appearance, the verb have is also used:
I have long hair.
In this meaning, have is used as an ordinary semantic verb, therefore, in order to form
negative and interrogative forms with it, we use auxiliary verbs of the time we need: do / does in
Present Simple, did in Past Simple:
I do not have a yacht.
2. Relationship.
When we talk about people: about our family or loved ones, then this is more an attitude
than possession, do you agree?
I have two sisters.
It is necessary to emphasize once again that, speaking in the first two meanings, the have
verb is a State Verb. This means that it cannot be used during the Continuous group times. We
17

cannot observe action as such. It would be wrong to say: I am having a car or she is having a
brother. Remember that in the meaning of "I have" - only I have.
The second important issue is that the verb have in the meanings to own, to possess, to
have in colloquial speech is often replaced by the form have got. We will talk about the
differences between have and have got in a separate article, which will very soon appear on the
blog at the numerous requests of our subscribers. I recommend that you familiarize yourself with
it, stay tuned!
3. Actions.
The fact is that, in addition to its basic meanings described above, it can also replace
other verbs, and therefore "stuck" in speech in these combinations. Consider examples of
expressions in which have - does not mean "to have, to own, to have", but replaces another
action:
Have in the meaning of eat (is):
have breakfast / lunch / dinner
Have in the meaning of drink:
have some coffee / some tea
Have in the meaning of suffer from or experience:
have a headache
Have in the meaning of give birth to:
have a baby
Have in the meaning of get (get, buy):
have news
Have in combination with a noun conveys a single short-term action, the meaning of
which depends on the noun.
4. Have to - the equivalent of the modal verb must.
If after the verb have there is an infinitive with a particle to, then in front of you is the
equivalent of the modal verb must (must, must). The point is that must has no past and future
tense forms.
But after all, we need to talk about obligations not only in the present, but also in the past
and in the future. And here have to comes to the rescue.
It is important to remember that despite the connection with the modal verb and the
unusual form, in this meaning the have verb continues to be semantic, therefore it forms
negations and questions with the help of the auxiliary verb of the tense you need:
I do not have to work tomorrow.
5. Auxiliary in Perfect tenses.
18

Have in combination with the third form of verbs forms perfect forms. Depending on the
time, the form of the verb has changes, and the third form remains unchanged: in the Present
Perfect, the forms of the present tense (have and has) are used, in the Past Perfect - the past
(had), and in the Future Perfect - will have.
And of course, since the verb is auxiliary, have is required for the formation of questions
and negations in the tenses of the Perfect group, where it is not translated.
Read how to build questions and denials in thematic articles dedicated to each of the
times.
6. Have something done (Causative).
This point is for more advanced readers, since this construction is usually studied at the
Upper-Intermediate level. Here have is again in the role of an auxiliary verb and the whole
construction means that something is being done without the participation of the one who acts as
the subject. In other words: someone has something done, something is done for someone else.
Here, the present and past and future forms of the verb have are also used, it builds
negatives and questions and is present in short answers.
The verb tener is one of the most commonly used verbs in Spanish. Therefore, if you
have started to learn Spanish, then you just need to read this article. It provides the most
complete list of meanings of the verb, from the most used to the least used. Also in the article
you will find the most common set expressions and idioms with the verb tener.
One of the main meanings of the verb tener is the expression of the relation of belonging
to the subject (subject) of this verb of what is the complement of the verb, that is, it is used to
express the presence of an object, person or abstract concept in someone or something. In simple
words: expresses ownership of something. In this sense, the verb literally translates as to have or
to have, but corresponds to the constructions in the Russian language.

1.4 Role of the Phraseological Units with the Components “to have” and “tener” in the
Context (???)
From the mid 70’s and increasingly over the 80’s one of the strong influences on
phraseological theory was provided by the work of Russian linguists. So, the material obtained
from their works can be widely used for describing phraseological units of the various languages.
There are many terms used to refer to the same category, which is not uncommon in phraseology
and other areas of linguistics. However, most early categorizations and further modifications
recognize a basic distinction between "word-like units" which function syntactically at or below
the level of a simple sentence, and "sentence-like units" which function pragmatically.
19

However, Russian-influenced British novelists such as Cowie and Howarth are still able
to see the distinction. They include sayings, proverbs, and other sentence-like elements [11, p.
84] that are not part of this research. In the early days of Russian linguistics, word-like units
were the focus of study. Today's theorists believe that Vinogradov made a key contribution to
phraseology as a separate linguistic discipline by providing a sub-classification of "word-like" or
"semantic."
For this reason, he is considered to be the father of Russian Phraseology. He adopts the
term "phraseological unit" to designate the generic class of "word-like units" or "semantic
unities, more sophisticated than a word" and defines them as the fundamental object of
phraseology. Vinogradov classified phraseological units into three categories: phraseological
fusions, phraseological unities and phrases. Since that time, idiom is regarded the most inclusive
category and the most commonly used term in Russia's phraseology.
Unmotivated (or semantically opaque) and structurally fixed phraseological fusions (also
known as idioms) consist of word groupings or combinations. An opaque or unmotivated notion
refers to the fact that the meaning of a whole cannot be inferred from the meanings of its
constituent pieces since there is no relationship between their meanings. Other words, there is a
total shift in interpretation due to an incoherent metaphor (spill the beans). Because of its
emphasis on the difficulties of understanding a whole as the sum of its parts, this classification is
considered the conventional approach to idiomaticity [9, p. 90]. Anyhow, Vinogradov went on to
suggest that semantic fusion was also connected to rigidity (or lack thereof) of the semantic
expression, or, as Arnold put it, "with the ability to change either the form or order of
components or replace the entire expression with a single word" [2, p. 32]
Phraseological unities are a sort of word-groups or combinations that are partially
motivated. Their metaphorical expansion from a (still active) technical meaning is part of what
motivates them. In this sense, they are somewhat transparent (to lock the stable door after the
horse is taken, to wash one's dirty linen in public). A person's language and cultural background
might affect the boundary between unities and fusions. Even while some people's interpretations
of words are not yet fully fossilized, others' interpretations of the same words are. According to I.
Melcuk, this category cannot be recognized because of its vagueness: the assignment of a phrase
to this category depends on the speaker's language and cultural background [18, p. 19].
In fact, the nоtiоn оf “cоntextual determinatiоn оf meaning” is a cоre cоncept fоr mоdern
phraseоlоgy, indeed phraseоlоgical units are alsо investigated frоm the cоntextual perspective,
under this apprоach, the distinctiоn is that free-wоrd grоups build a variable cоntext, whereas the
essential feature оf phraseоlоgical units is a nоn-variable оr ''fixed" cоntext. Unlike free-wоrd
grоups, which have variable cоmpоnents, phraseоlоgical units allоw оnly partial о nо
20

substitutiоn, fоr instance, in the phraseоlоgical unit "small hоurs" (the early hоurs оf the
mоrning), there is nо variable member as “small” denоtes "early" оnly in the cоllоcatiоn with
wоrd "hоurs". In the phraseоlоgical units "small bear" the wоrd "small" has the cоnnоtatiоn
"weak" оnly in this fixed nоn-variable cоntext. Hence, a nоn-variable cоntext is indicative оf a
specialized meaning оf the cоmpоnent wоrds, this implies the cоnnоtatiоn is оbserved in the
wоrd оnly in the given phrases.
As the most difficult to define of Vinogradov's three categories, it introduces the notion
of “contextual determination of meaning”:
According to Arnold [9, p. 53], phraseological combinations “are not just motivated but
comprise a component which is employed in its literal sense, while the other is used
metaphorically”. In such word-groups, there is some degree of stability due to lexical valence
(meet the demand/requirements, where meet is employed in a metaphorical sense, while nouns
create a variable-determining context). They tend to become cliches, where the meaning of a
member-word is dominated by that of the full group, and as a result, they have a certain degree
of inseparability in meaning. It should be noted that the metaphorically used component's unique
meaning is defined by its context (according to Vinogradov, it's "phraseologically constrained")
[11, p. 43].
When it comes to phraseological combinations, Vinogradov and Amosova differ since
the former felt that a phraseological combination could only be identified by a limited number of
phrases. A single deciding component is required for the "bound sense." For her definition of
"phraseologically bound meaning" [1, p. 63], N. N. Amosova merits special notice.
Contextual meaning is a key idea in current phraseology, and phraseological units are
also studied from a contextual viewpoint. For example, in the phraseological unit "little hours"
(the early morning hours), there is no variable member since "small" only means "early" in
conjunction with the word "hours."
For example, "little bear" only carries "weak" connotations in this fixed, non-variable
context. Unvariable contexts, thus, provide a specific meaning for each word, which suggests
that the term's implication is only apparent in certain contexts. It is for this reason that
phraseological units with distinct semantic structures (i.e. non-variability of context) and stable
lexical components (i.e. non-variability of context) are considered as interdependent
characteristics.
Apparently, there's a disagreement regarding how much a collocation may vary while still
being "limited." Vinogradov and Amosova's formulations for world-like units are still replicated
in the late 1990s [1, p. 98], despite their variations in terminology.
21

It has been frequently utilized by linguists to describe phraseological systems in various


languages, including English and Spanish, based on the typology supplied. The term "idiom" is
widely used in western nations, although there are many other terms as well, such as "set
phrases," "composites," and "phraseological units," among many others.
There is no reliable way to differentiate between free word groups and idims, not even in
the English dictionaries (which contain a wide variety of phrases). The fact that the boundary
between free word-groups and idiom is not well defined illustrates the intricacy of the subject
matter of this study. In terms of their semantics, all word-groups may be divided into two
categories: motivated and non-motivated. Idioms with varying degrees of "non-motivation" are
classified as non-motivated word groups. They differ from motivated word groups in that they
cannot be spontaneously created in speech, but must be repeated as ready-made units.
As a result, it's conceivable to justify the idea that phraseological units are characterized
by the stability of their lexical components and structures. "Red flower," for example, has a first
term that may be changed to any other color ("a flower of a specific color") without altering the
meaning of "a flower of a certain color." "Blue/black tape" would indicate a tape of a specific
hue, but "red tape" refers to the burocratic techniques. Thus,(?) a free word-comparative group's
lack of motivation and its semantic inseparability, which allow us to consider them semantically
comparable to single words and as such a single unit with a distinct meaning, are therefore the
most important criteria for distinguishing it from an idiom
As an alternative, Gläser describes wordlike idioms as "nominations" since they identify
an occurrence, object, action or process in the external world. In addition to idioms and non-
idioms, they are the foundation of the phraseological system as a whole.
Non-idioms have clear meanings and include technical words, phrases with proper
names, clichés, etc. These "prepositions" are placed in the perimeter of the phraseological system
and can be classified into: proverbs, commonplaces, routine formulas, and slogans. As can be
observed in the appendix, the transitional zone of this system is filled by idioms.
According to this comprehensive assessment of the English phraseological models, the
difference between idioms and other components is anything but obvious. Appearances suggest
that Idioms can be classified in various and distinct ways, according to different criteria Overall,
idioms have been classified into two primary categories: word units, and sentence units. This is
the most common approach to idiom categorization. Another essential point to note is that,
especially in recent classifications, more and more emphasis is placed on all those expressions
that play a vital role in communication, both for their pragmatic and organizational roles in the
discourse. Having identified a wide range of definitions and denominations, most of the time
22

various labels for the same category, it appears acceptable to agree that there has been and there
is currently a major dispute over phraseological specificity, in order to identify distinct idioms.
The phraseological unit does not have a conventional definition in either English or
Spanish. The most important qualities of idioms, according to academics, are the phrases'
stability (that is, fixity), their high frequency of usage, and their non-motivation (non-
compositional) nature.
So, a branch of lexicology that deals with phraseological units (phraseologisms,
adverbials, and so on) might be described as phraseology (in foreign linguistics).
Neither in English nor in Spanish does the phraseological unit have a defined definition
that outlines its characteristics. Many linguists, however, agree that idioms are characterized by
their stability (fixity, even if there is the potential of lexical and grammatical change), their
frequency of use, and their absence of motive.
Phraseological units represent long-term cultural evolution and mindset creation. A
person's social, material, and spiritual culture is "absorbed" by their clothing. Their clothing
reflects their history, traditions, and customs.
The relationship between cultural and national traits, signs, and traditions may be traced
in the process of the development of phraseological units of any language, that is, in the choice
of symbols. It actually comes back to life as implications reflecting the relationship between the
associative-shaped basis and culture (standards, symbols, stereotypes).
23

2.(II) ANALYSIS OF SPECIFICS OF USING PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS WITH


VERBS “TO HAVE” AND “TENER” IN ENGLISH AND SPANISH
2.1 Material of the(?) Research

In this paragraph, the practical analysis of the phraseological units with the verbs “to
have” and “tener” usage and its functions in the English and Spanish languages will be carried
out.
The material under analysis is the novel “Origin” by Dan Brown and the novel “El tango
de la Guardia Vieja” by Arturo Perez-Reverte.
The total amount of the analyzed material is 100 units (sentences containing
phraseological units based on the verbs “to have” and “tener”): 50 units in English and 50 units
in Spanish.
Dan Brown is a famous American writer. Origin is a new novel of the author. This is the
fifth novel about Harvard University professor Robert Langdon. An expert on ancient symbols
and iconography, as in the previous four books, is once again forced to save the world - this time
in Spain. In early October, at the Frankfurt International Book Fair, Dan Brown presented his
new work to the public.
Dan Brown's works are known for their use of a variety of stylistic devices. When it
comes to the choice of linguistic methods, narrative determinants and character adventures have
a major role.
It is Dan Brown's active use of words and unique historical and scientific language that
lends the novels their solidity and expressiveness, and convinces the reader of the reality of what
is happening in his stories. The author uses description and character dialogue to imply phrases
in the novel's text.
Arturo Pérez-Reverte Gutiérrez is a Spanish writer and journalist. He is the author of
historical novels and detective stories.
As a combat reporter, Arturo Perez-Reverte worked for the Pueblo newspaper and
television for more than twenty years, starting in 1971. Aside from the wars in Cyprus and
Lebanon, he also covered the Western Sahara and Libya, as well as the crises in Mozambique,
Angola, and the former Yugoslavia.
24

The first novel “Hussar”, which takes place during the Napoleonic Wars, was published
in 1986.
The success came to him in 1990 after the publication of the novel "Flemish Plaque", the
protagonists of which are investigating a murder that happened in the 15th century.
His most famous novel "Queen of the South", published in 2002, was filmed twice, the
American TV series was released in 2016.
“El tango de la Guardia Vieja” is a novel by the Spanish writer Arturo Perez-Reverte,
published in 2012. It is dedicated to the love that broke out during a cruise on the Atlantic Ocean
between a dancer named Max and a woman, the wife of a composer. The tango dance became
the connecting component, thanks to which feelings were born. And although the heroes were
not destined to stay together, after a while fate will give them a gift.

2.2 The Use of the Verb “To Have” in the English Language(?)
This paragraph helps to assess whether or not a verb's compatibility with other
components of a phraseological unit may be determined. They also help identify the most
prevalent forms of verbal phraseological units in modern English speech, as well as the most
common set expressions with this verb.
Consider the first grammatical model represented by the structure V + (d) + N (Verb +
determinant + Noun) - verb + determinant + noun. Such a two-component structural-
grammatical organization is characteristic of a significant number of verbal phraseological turns
that have the component have. We note that many of these phrases are phraseomatic with their
characteristic non-descriptive transformation of meaning. They are widespread phraseological
units that are not formed according to the generating structural-semantic model of variable word
combinations.
Based on what has been learned from the language data, phraseological combinations (as
defined by Vinogradov) are the most prevalent form of phraseological turns. Furthermore, a
phraseomatically linked verb is characterized by semantic independency, meaning change, and
restricted compatibility with a single word or a limited number of words, among other things To
illustrate phraseological combinations including have in English, the following turns are used,
which all have the same semantic meaning:
to have an argument, to have a care, to have a  glimpse,  to  have a sleep, to have a ba
th,  to  have a talk,  to  have a peek, to have a shower, to have a  pick, to have ideas, to have a 
peep,  to  have  a meal and many others.
25

These phraseological combinations have a leading verb component with a changed


meaning, in which the seme of uniqueness or completion of action takes center stage, while
ownership takes a backseat to other meanings in the phraseology.
Together with phraseological combinations within the framework of the grammatical
model under consideration, there are actually phraseological units, i.e. revolutions with a
complicated internal shape?)[4, р. 165]:  have common sense, to have a crack, to have a fit, to
have a head, to have a misfortune, to have a ball, to have a bite, to have a case, to have the age,
to have guts, to have appeal, to have kittens, to have a point, for example:
“She'd been giving the baby a half aspirin and a teaspoonful of whisky every night to
make him sleep. The doctor had kittens  when he found what was going on. (DB, p. 54)
“A German once said that ‘in Britain they think that soap is civilisation.' When you
reflect that we spend more money on advertising and marketing detergents than we do on our
whole educational system, you must admit he might just have a point”  (DB, p. 32)
The analyzed phraseological turns are characterized by unambiguity, and the
phraseological units of the grammatical model under consideration are prone to the development
of polysemy: to have the wall:
1) to be near the wall,
2) to have the prelevance in front of somebody;
To have the bird – 1) to be booed, 2) to get the kick;
To have a way (with one) – 1) to be attractive, 2) to have an approach.
One more example should be analyzed here.
“When he choose to exert himself, there were few men or women he failed to please; as
the saying went, he  had a way  with him” (DB, p. 43)
Frank certainly has a way  with vegetables. They're growing splendidly (DB, p. 33).
Consider the structural grammatical model V + (d) + Adj + N,which combines three-
component phraseological units with constant or constant-variant dependence of components
[6, p. 107].
Phraseological units with constant dependence of components are represented by
phraseological units:  have itching ears, to have leaden feet, to have a smooth tongue, to have
mixed feelings, to have long hands, to have second thoughts, to have a thick skin, to have a long
face,for example:
“I took some pictures of the gunpit in which he had died. I was going to send them to his
family. Thank God I had second thoughts”. (DB, p. 32)
26

“Hinchcliffe is not afraid of or dependent upon the large landowners of the region who
will sit on the top of the social pyramid as did their great-grandfathers. ‘It's feudal here,' said
Hinchcliffe, ‘but I have a thick skin'”.(DB, p. 22)
“I suppose they lost at the match, because I can't think of any other reason why you
should have such  a long face”. (DB, p. 13)
For phraseological units with a constant-variant dependence of components, various types
of variants are characteristic - quantitative, adjective and morphological variants:
to have light fingers / to have sticky fingers, to have a long tongue / to have a loose
tongue, to have strong feelings / to have strong feelings on a subject, to have a quick wit / to
have a ready wit / to have quick wits, to have a slow wit / to have slow wits, to have long ears /
to have got long ears, to have an open mind / to keep an open mind, to have a second string / to
have a second string to one's bow, etc.
Let us compare, for example:
(1)  I've an open mind. I've nothing against angels, for those who want to put their trust in
them ((DB)- (page?)
“As Mr Morley can only have heard old recordings of some of the famous artists past
their best, I feel he should at least have kept an open mind on the quality of their voices”. (DB,
p. 7)
(2)”I'll just jot down that telephone number. We have a babysitter that can usually co
me but it does  no harm to have a  second string”. (DB, p. 5)
“Gradually more and more people began to regard medicine as the first rather than
the  second string to their bow”. (DB, p. 37)
One should also consider the third grammatical structure, a combination of three-
component verbal phraseological units, which implies constant-variable and constant-variant-
variable dependency of the components (about the author of the sign to represent an alternant: V
+ (d) + N + Prep + q. For the grammatical model under discussion with constant-variable
dependency, the phraseological units do not change in quantity but instead are mostly part of an
abbreviated colloquial vocabulary to have the air of somebody (something), to have a pash for
somebody, to have a hand in something, etc, for example:
 “The radio had a hand in forming my interest in music”. (DB, p. 65)
“A  shy! How can you use such vulgar words, Mr. Newcome?” (DB, p. 55)
Languages like English include a large number of phraseological units based on this
constant-variant-variable dependency of components. It is possible to make changes to the
grammatical structure by using adjectives, substantives and verbal components: to have a nose
27

for something to have an eye for something, to have a bash / a fling / a go / as stab / a try / to
have a stab at something / to make a stab at something, for example:
“Is Jim going  to have a bash  at  the 500-metre race?”(DB, p. 54)
“See if you can have a crack at getting this nail out, I can't remove it”. (DB, p. 50)
“D'you think you'll be able to travel the day after tomorrow?' - 'I'll have a good stab
at  it.”(DB, p. 33)
You cold  hardly  stand up. I'd never  fight you sober, Peter. I'd be mad.”(DB, p.44)
Based on the component analysis, it is possible to find out that the most common are verb
variants: to have a whack at something, to have the advantage of / over somebody.
Some examples should be given here:
“Some employers seem to have a grudge against women; even when they give them
work, they pay them less”. (DB, p. 77)
“Mind you, although she has lowered the name of my intended, I bear no grudge
against  her”. (DB, p. 98)
Finally, consider the structural grammatical model V + (d) + N + Prep + q's + N, which
combines four-component phraseological units with constant-variable or constant-variant-
variable dependence. Phraseological units with constant-variable dependence are represented by
phraseological units:to have a corner in somebody's heart, to have a cobweb in one's throat, to
have a flea in one's ear, etc.:
“He thought all he had to do was come and ask for his job back, but he soon had a flea
in his ear from me, and he won't be back”(DB, p. 45)
Phraseological units of the considered structural organization with constant-variant-
variable dependence of components include a variety of lexical, grammatical and lexical-
grammatical variants: to have got a head on one's shoulders /with a head on one's shoulders, to
have a drop in one's eye / to take a drop, to have a film over one's eyes / to have a film over the
eyes to have bats in one's belfry, etc.
There are some examples:
“You? Anybody that would fall in love with you would have to have bats in their belfry”.
(DB, p. 80)
“Aw, don't pay any attention to that human phonograph, Amy. He's got bats in his
belfry”. (DB, p. 99)
So, the linguistic material collected by the method of continuous sampling - verbal
phraseological units with the have component - and the structural and grammatical analysis
carried out on its basis lead to the following conclusions:
28

1. V + (d) + N, B) V + (d) + Adj + N, ) V + (q's) V + (d) + Prep + q's + N are the four
most prevalent verb patterns in modern English phraseology. Verb-object interactions that are
not mediated by an alternant are common to all of these theories.
2. In addition, most typical verbal phraseological units are composed of three or four
major components, which is characterized by a compact structure.
3. When it comes to phraseological units, the major types of dependency are constant-
variable and constant-variant-variable, which shows the average degree of stability of the
investigated segment.
2.3The Use of the Verb “Tener” in the Spanish Phraseological Units
In Spanish, the verb “tener” differs from other verbs in that this verb is irregular. As it
was mentioned above, the definition of an idiom is a phrase whose literal meaning cannot be
determined from its context. Many idiomatic phrases may be found in Spanish as well. They may
seem strange to English speakers, yet they make perfect sense to native speakers. As an example,
let's look at the following:
Idiom:  Hace mucho frío
The literally meaning is: It makes much cold
The true meaning is the following: It is very cold
There are many idiomatic expressions based on the verb tener. This one expresses age:
Idiom:  tener… años
The literally meaning is:  to have… years
The true meaning is the following:   to be …years old (AG)
There are great number expressions with the help the verb “tener” express physical
sensations:
tener frío - to be cold; tener calor - to be hot; tener hambre - to be hungry; tener sed - to
be thirsty; tener sueño - to be sleepy; tener dolor de - to hurt or be sore, etc.
There are also many idiomatic expressions with tener that express sensations more
psychological in nature:
tener prisa - to be in a hurry; tener miedo a/de + noun - to be afraid of something; tener
miedo a/de + infinitive - to be afraid to do something; tener cellos - to be jealous; tener
confianza - to be confident; tener cuidado - to be careful; tener vergüenza - to be ashamed.
Some more idioms with tener can be singled out as well:
tener razón - to be right; tener éxito - to be successful; tener la culpa - to be guilty; tener
suerte - to be lucky; tener lugar - to take place; tener ganas de - to feel like; tener en cuenta - to
take into account
29

It is important to conjugate the verb (tener) in these idiomatic phrases in accordance with
what is being said.
Yo tengo  cinco años.(AG, p. 65)
Tú tienes ocho años.( AG, p. 55)
One should mention that the expressions with the verb tener can contain a noun as well:

Table 1 – Expressions with the verb “tener” + noun (Оформить по образцу


el año la confianza el hambre (feminine)

los celos el calor la vergüenza

el frío el cuidado la sed

la razón el sueño el éxito

el dolor la culpa la prisa

la suerte el miedo el lugar

Expressions using the word "tener" are adjectival rather than adverbial since nouns are
used.
Tengo frío.(AG, p. 43)
Tengo  mucho frío. (not  muy)(AG, p. 76)
At the end, the following conclusions were made. This chapter makes it possible to
determine the nature of the compatibility of the verb “to have” and “tener” with other
components within the phraseological unit, to consider the most common set expressions with
this verb in the phraseological system of modern English and Spanish and to identify the most
common types of verbal phraseological units in modern English and Spanish speech.
The linguistic material collected by the method of continuous sampling - verbal
phraseological units with the have component - and the structural and grammatical analysis
carried out on its basis lead to the following conclusions:
1. It has been shown that there are four most prevalent verbal patterns in current English
phraseology. There are three ways to do this. Verb-object interactions that are not mediated by
30

an alternant are common to all of these theories. In addition, most typical verbal phraseological
units are composed of three or four major components, which is characterized by a compact
structure.
2. In terms of constant-variable and constant-v, the components of the phraseological
units investigated are most dependent on each other.
3. When it comes to phraseological units, the major types of dependency are constant-
variable and constant-variant-variable, which shows the average degree of stability of the
investigated segment.
In Spanish, the verb “tener” differs from other verbs in that this verb is irregular. As it
was mentioned above, the definition of an idiom is a phrase which literal meaning cannot be
determined from its context. Many idiomatic phrases may be found in Spanish as well. They may
seem strange to English speakers, yet they make perfect sense to native speakers.
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CONCLUSION

There are several phraseological units in English and Spanish that defy logic and
grammatical norms. Languages such as English and Spanish lose much of their diversity and
comedy when they do not have phraseological components to work with.
In a language, the vocabulary is not only enhanced with words, but also with
phraseological components. Word groups, known as Idioms, are word groups that may be
formed during speech; they exist in the language as ready-made units.
In the special dictionaries, they have been compiled. The same as words, they
communicate a single idea and may be utilized in a phrase. To describe such units, American and
British dictionary writers use the term 'idioms'. The following dictionaries are worth mentioning:
Idioms and words by L. Smith, A book by B. Collins on the English idiom, etc. You'll discover
idiomatic terms, as well as word groupings and phrases, in these dictionaries. Each dictionary is
divided into distinct semantic categories.
Its phraseological fund is a significant source of information on the culture and
psychology of the people; they establish the people's image about myths, customs, rite and ritual,
habits and morality and other aspects of their life. It's not a fluke, either. It has been claimed by
B.A. Larin that the idioms used in his age reflect the people's beliefs, as well as the social system
and philosophy of the time in question.
In terms of the language's expressive methods, the fixed phrases are by far the most
unique. Throughout the phraseology, one can see a person's culture, their past, and their views on
certain items and occurrences based on national preconceptions of the world.
If you look at a phraseological image of the world written in any language, you'll find
universal qualities and national idiosyncrasies that reveal themselves both in expression and
substance.
There is little question that a language's phraseological resources are strongly tied to its
culture. Since every language has a distinct culture, the idioms are no different.
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Language units that depict common circumstances or perspectives serve as cultural


emblems, norms or stereotypes. It is the responsibility of each phraseological unit to guard and
preserve the cultural knowledge. The phrase "language remembers and retains secrets" is a
metaphor. However, the language's lexical component not only reproduces but also molds the
cultural and national outlook's aspects and traits A cultural meaning in each phrase adds to the
broader tapestry of national culture.
Because of this practical component, it is possible to identify the most common verbal
phraseological units in modern English and Spanish, as well as determine the compatibility of
the verb "to have" and "tener" with other components inside the phraseological unit.
Through other words, phraseological units contain cultural information about the world
society either directly (in denotation) or indirectly (via association of the associative-shaped
basis with the norms, symbols, and stereotypes of national culture). English and Spanish
phraseology, then, both preserve and reproduce the people's thinking and culture from generation
to generation.
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APPENDIX

(DB) Dan Brown “Origin”: [site]. – URL: https://www.pdfdrive.com/origin-d176064477.html


(датаoбращения: 1.03.2019)
(AR) Arturo Perez-Reverte “El tango de la Guardia Vieja” . – URL:
https://www.perezreverte.com/libro/601/el-tango-de-la-guardia-vieja/ (date of access:
10.05.2121)