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Dav e
r Man
Does It

Key to
More Muscle

Myths, Lies
and Misconceptions

• Squat Science—Rules to Grow By
• New Size-Building Studies
Please display until 12/30/08 • Mr. Olympia—Eye-Popping Full-Page Pics
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www.ironmanmagazine.com \ APRIL 2006 261

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150 DECEMBER 2009 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com



January 2009

The TEG men reveal what they learned from this year’s extended ripping phase.
Plus, a peek at their new X-mass workout (“Hey, Claus, give me a spot!”).

Ron Harris teaches his young protégé how to plan for more muscle.


Drug-free bodybuilder Dave Goodin discusses how he gets sliced—and how he
keeps building muscle as he closes in on 50.

The Wilson brothers analyze this key amino—and the ways it can give older
bodybuilders a magic anabolic edge.


Jerry Brainum gives the king of the mass moves a good going over,
researchwise. Plus, a solution for low-back squatting problems.

Steve Holman and Jonathan Lawson show you how to X-celerate your gains. SCIENCE
Jerry Brainum reports on the International Society of Sports Nutrition
conference in Las Vegas. Lots of views you can use to get huge—and cut!


David Young’s Q&A with Terry Baldwin, a 53-year-old bodybuilder and
powerlifter and the developer of the innovate-to-isolate Flexolate training cuffs.


From the Bodybuilding.com archives, Jim Brewster outlines how the over-40
bodybuilder can jack up muscle-building hormones.


Doris Barrilleaux’s impressions of a 103-year-old legend of the iron game.


Big, full-page pics of the most muscular men in the world.


The over-40 pro talks about training,
life philosophy, supplements and Dave Goodin and
overcoming obstacles. Lexy Raven appear
on this month’s at


cover. Hair and
254 HEAVY DUTY makeup by
A classic Mike Mentzer diatribe ver Man
How Co odin
Marisol Orozco. Dave Go
on aerobics: myths, lies and Photo by Michael Does It

misconceptions. Neveux. Leucine

266 ONLY THE Key to
More Muscle


Myths, Lies
and Misconceptions
Coach Bill Starr reveals how strength-
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your big lifts and athletic performance.
246 Vol. 68, No. 1

Please display until 12/30/08

FC_IMJan2009_F.indd 1
• Squat Science—Rules to Grow By
• New Size-Building Studies
• Mr. Olympia—Eye-Popping Full-Page Pics

10/31/08 5:39:05 PM

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Tips for over-40 beginners; plus, Joe Horrigan on cable rows and lower-back pain.

Coach Charles Poliquin outlines work-capacity training to shock your shoulders.

Go fish, D-rail illness and beta-alanine’s anabolic connection.

John Hansen lays out the best workout for growth.

Dave Goodin on the state of natural bodybuilding.

Steve Holman’s muscle-building tips and trips for putting some freak on your
L.T.’s world of
186 ANTIAGING RESEARCH bodybuilding
Is DHEA the fountain of youth? Jerry Brainum explains its pros and cons.


Lonnie Teper’s raucous report from Olympia Weekend in Vegas.


Eric Broser’s monthly Web-surfing results. Plus, a new DVD review and training
advice, including burst cycling (no, it’s not having gas on a stationary bike).


Ruth Silverman’s views of the Olympia extravaganza, emphasis on the ladies.


Dave Draper’s look at the diverse paths of winter training; BodySpace Physique of the
Month, 54-year-old Ed Cook; and how to live to be 100.


Military might, ballsy comments, hot Hardbody and X-traordinary workouts.

See more Photos @
See more Video @
In the next IRON MAN:
Next month we’re on a transition mis-
Here are the places that IronManMagazine.com viewers recently sion—to give you the ammunition you
clicked on the most: need to transform your physique fast.
You’ll see how Chris Jalali did it, go-
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included. Then C.S. Sloan checks out
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Publisher’s Letter Founders 1936-1986:

Peary & Mabel Rader
Publisher/Editorial Director: John Balik
by John Balik Associate Publisher: Warren Wanderer
Design Director: Michael Neveux
Editor in Chief: Stephen Holman
Art Director: T.S. Bratcher
Senior Editor: Ruth Silverman

The Passing of a Giant Editor at Large: Lonnie Teper

Articles Editors: L.A. Perry, Caryne Brown
Assistant Art Director: Brett R. Miller
Ben Weider, a Man of Vision Staff Artist: Fernando Carmona
Mary Gasca, Vuthy Keo, Mervin Petralba
Contributing Authors:
Ben Weider created and nurtured competitive bodybuilding on a Jerry Brainum, Eric Broser, David Chapman,
worldwide stage. Before he entered the picture, the sport had no one Teagan Clive, Lorenzo Cornacchia, Daniel Curtis,
with global vision. Ben’s passion and indomitable energy created a Dave Draper, Michael Gündill, Rosemary Hallum,
sports organization that now stretches to 173 countries, and his passing Ph.D., John Hansen, Ron Harris, Ori Hofmekler,
marks the end of an era. While he handed off the baton in 2006 to Rafael Rod Labbe, Skip La Cour, Jack LaLanne, Butch
Lebowitz, John Little, Stuart McRobert, Gene
Santonja, who got a great deal of experience at his side, as both a sym-
Mozée, Charles Poliquin, Larry Scott, Jim
bol of the IFBB and its creator Ben Weider is irreplaceable. Shiebler, Roger Schwab, Pete Siegel, C.S. Sloan,
He had an unwavering belief in the power of sport to unite and a Bill Starr, Bradley Steiner, Eric Sternlicht, Ph.D.,
lifelong dedication to the idea that bodybuilding is an important part Randall Strossen, Ph.D., Richard Winett, Ph.D.,
of nation building. Nothing and nobody can stand in his shoes. Body- and David Young
building changes more than the body; Ben understood that and was a Contributing Artists:
tireless evangelist for its transformative power. Steve Cepello, Larry Eklund, Ron Dunn,
Born in 1923 in Montreal in humble circumstances worsened by the Jake Jones
deep poverty of the ’30s, Ben dropped out of school after the seventh Contributing Photographers:
grade to help support his family. That early trial by fire plus the relent- Jim Amentler, Ron Avidan, Roland Balik, Reg
Bradford, Jimmy Caruso, Bill Dobbins, Jerry
less anti-Semitism of the time forged his spirit.
Fredrick, Irvin Gelb, Isaac Hinds, Dave Liberman,
Ben began his lifelong support of the military by enlisting in the Ca- J.M. Manion, Merv, Gene Mozée, Mitsuru
nadian Army, landing on the beach in Normandy on June 6, 1944. In his Okabe, Rob Sims, Ian Sitren, Leo Stern
later years he was awarded the title of honorary colonel. By 2004, his Director of Marketing:
prestige was so high that during the ceremonies honoring the 60th an- Helen Yu, 1-800-570-IRON, ext. 1
niversary of D-day, he was seated next to the president of France. Accounting: Dolores Waterman
With his older brother Subscriptions Manager:
Joe, Ben shared a vision of Sonia Melendez, 1-800-570-IRON, ext. 2
what bodybuilding could E-mail: soniazm@aol.com
be, beginning with their Advertising Director: Warren Wanderer
belief that it was good for 1-800-570-IRON, ext. 1
everybody. What I admired (518) 743-1696; FAX: (518) 743-1697
most about him was that Advertising Coordinator:
he changed the politics Jonathan Lawson, (805) 385-3500, ext. 320
of the sport in the United Newsstand Consultant:
States and the world. Be- Angelo Gandino, (516) 796-9848
cause he understood prej- We reserve the right to reject any advertising at our
udice, he created in the discretion without explanation. All manuscripts, art
or other submissions must be accompanied by a self-
IFBB an organization that addressed, stamped envelope. Send submissions to
judged competitors not IRON MAN, 1701 Ives Avenue, Oxnard, CA 93033. We
on skin color or religion are not responsible for unsolicited material. Writers and
photographers should send for our Guidelines outlining
but on who had the best specifications for submissions. IRON MAN is an open
physique. Before the IFBB, forum. We also reserve the right to edit any letter or
it was impossible to be a manuscript as we see fit, and photos submitted have an
Ben Weider, receiving the Peary and Mabel implied waiver of copyright. Please consult a physician
Rader Lifetime Achievement Award from Mr. America if you were
before beginning any diet or exercise program. Use the
John Balik at the ’04 IRON MAN Pro. Jewish or a person of color. information published in IRON MAN at your own risk.
Ben changed that. It’s often
IRON MAN Internet Addresses:
mentioned that he made a Web Site: www.ironmanmagazine.com
statement for equality in 1975 by insisting on equal treatment and ac- John Balik, Publisher: ironleader@aol.com
commodations for all athletes in apartheid South Africa during the IFBB Steve Holman, Editor in Chief: ironchief@aol.com
World Amateur Championships in Pretoria. Few of us can make that Ruth Silverman, Senior Editor: ironwman@aol.com
kind of difference. Ben did! T.S. Bratcher, Art Director: ironartz@aol.com
Ben passed away on October 18, 2008. My deepest condolences to his Helen Yu, Director of Marketing:
family. IM Jonathan Lawson, Ad Coordinator: ironjdl@aol.com
Sonia Melendez, Subscriptions: soniazm@aol.com
26 JANUARY 2009 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com
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28 JANUARY 2009 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

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Over-40 Beginners Advantages

of a late start

Bodybuilding has a proud tradition of men who Because muscle growth is a very gradual process
displayed superior physiques well into their 40s and requires a good deal of knowledge and strat-
and often beyond. Notable examples include Bill egy, an older man can have the upper hand.
Pearl, Vince Taylor, Chris Dickerson, Toney Free- Less wear and tear. One thing a man start-
man, the late Don Youngblood, Sonny Schmidt ing out in his 40s does not have that his counter-
and, of course, Ronnie Coleman. What about the parts who have been at the iron for decades do
guy who doesn’t really get started until he’s over have is the wear and tear of those thousands of
40? heavy workouts on the joints, tendons and liga-
In a society increasingly preoccupied with anti- ments. My brother is seven years older than I am,
aging, more men begin serious training later in life. but I’m the one who always has some kind of
Did they miss the boat by not starting as teen- ache or pain in the shoulders, lower back or el-
agers, when energy and hormones run at their bows. Healthy joints and connective tissues mean
highest? You could say that, but watching my you can train heavy on any exercise without being
older brother Dana get serious about bodybuild- limited by pain or the risk of reinjuring beat-up
ing a couple of years after he hit 40, I’ve seen that areas.
there are some definite advantages to being a late —Ron Harris
starter. If you’re a newbie who’s
passed the “new 30” and wonder
how you could count yourself
lucky, think about the following:
Mo’ money. The average 45-
year-old doesn’t just make three
times more money than a 15-
year-old; he probably earns quite
a bit more. That means he has
disposable income to invest in
better food, more supplements, a
gym membership, books, maga-
zines and DVDs—and perhaps
even a personal trainer. Despite
his relatively lower testosterone,
all those factors—many of which
the average teen can only dream
of until he starts building a ca-
reer—can still help him make very
good gains.
Patience and wisdom.
Youth may have boundless ener-
gy and enthusiasm, but patience
and wisdom are often in very
short supply. Theoretically, we
all learn and grow mentally and
emotionally as we get older, and
that can serve us well as we train
in middle age. Your odds of doing
things the right way and not mak-
ing foolish mistakes and errors
in judgment lessen significantly.

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Whatever You Need—Wherever You Train ™

Train to Gain / MASS TACTICS

Q: Do I have to use static

contraction sets to get best
results from the latest X-Rep
[Fascia-Expansion] program?
I feel like a dork holding a
weight in the contracted
position for up to a minute.
People at my gym look at me
A: You don’t have to use any
tactics you aren’t comfortable
with—and not all of them will work
well for everyone anyway. In place
of a total static-hold set, you could
do a standard set and then tack on
a static hold at the end for as long
as you can maintain it. We’ve used
that Flex-X technique on contracted-
position exercises like triceps push-

downs and leg curls to get excellent

occlusion size
effects. You
Tip for Titanic Tri’s End-of-set flex tactic can tack that
same end-of-
set hold onto
Have you ever noticed the fantastic triceps development of male gym-
the back end
nasts? It’s certainly better than that of most bodybuilders of roughly the of a standard
same size. Oddly enough, they don’t get those heroic horseshoes from end- set of stretch-
less sets of skull crushers, close-grip bench presses, pushdowns or even position ex-
dips. ercises, like
NPC ’08 Junior National Heavyweight champion and USA runner-up incline curls
Michael Liberatore pointed out to me that gymnasts spend a lot of time and overhead
extensions, as
supporting their bodyweight on the parallel bars and pommel horse, both of
well. At ex-
which are essentially the top position of a dip. Liberatore, who packs a pair haustion, move to the stretch point
of 21-inch arms at just 217 pounds and is a former gymnast, has applied and hold.
that to his own triceps training. At the end of each set of weighted dips, he The key to getting fast, continual
holds the last rep in a static contraction as long as possible. results is experimentation. The more
I gave it a try myself, and, damn, does techniques and tactics you try, the
it work! You could also attempt a long easier it is to find favorites that work
well for you on certain exercises.
hold as a set of its own after your dips.
On some moves a certain X tactic
Putting just a slight bend in your elbows will help you feel the muscle more
so they’re almost totally locked out than you ever have, stimulating it
magnifies the difficulty exponentially. Ad- to new levels of growth—but heed
ditional weight hanging from your waist the warning: Don’t get stuck on
is optional but probably unnecessary. If one technique. Adaptation occurs
your triceps routine is a bit stale and you quickly, so you should rotate tech-
niques frequently. You need change
haven’t seen improvements lately, give
for continual gains.
this one a try at your next workout. —Steve Holman
—Ron Harris and Jonathan Lawson

Editor’s note: Ron Harris is the Editor’s note: The above is

author of Real Bodybuilding, available at excerpted from the e-book X-Rep
Michael Libertore. www.RonHarrisMuscle.com. Update #1, available at www

30 JANUARY 2009 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

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Train to Gain / MATURE MUSCLE
Building Bigger Bodyparts As you age

Q: I’m 45 years old, and I’ve been training for pictures that show the triceps and how they attach, and get
10 years. I’m natural and want bigger arms. Could into the process of setting yourself up for some creativity.
you tell me how you got your triceps so full and For instance, on extensions try putting a bar on a low pul-
defined? ley and bringing it overhead with both hands. Now put one
leg forward and push out just
A: You may think that I with your triceps, then let the
have a secret, but I don’t. bar come back all the way so
Most muscles are designed that your forearms collapse
to be a particular shape and totally onto your biceps—then
size once they reach maxi- push out again. Keep your
mum hypertrophy. I believe elbows totally still—right on
the best you can do is find either side of your head. Be
the most leverage-advanta- as strict as possible and give
geous exercises and blast a squeeze at the contrac-
away. When I say leverage tion point. Do 10 to 15 reps
advantageous, I mean the and see how they feel. If they
exercises that you feel most feel good, then you’re on to
powerful doing and have total something. What you’re doing
control over—the exercises is changing the point of at-
that you’re able to do easily tack. If it feels just right, then
yet intensely. do three all-out sets. Try not
For example, I have very to think of the exercise as a
strong triceps: I can do so-called shaping move or
straight-bar pushdowns with anything of the sort—there’s
230 pounds for 10 good no such thing. When isolating
reps. Questions then arise: a muscle, you want to use all
Are you strong when doing the weight that you can handle
the exercise? Do you feel and blast away as if you were
leverage and power in that doing any other major exer-
position? Or are you weak cise.
and shaky, have problems If you think in biomechani-
Neveux \ Model: Dave Goodin

mastering the exercise and/or cal terms, the other exercises

don’t feel it in the directed mentioned all press directly
muscles but rather in the down or up. This is a bit differ-
joints in the surrounding ent, designed to hit the triceps
area? from a unique angle. Find two
The power I feel when or three of these gems, and
doing pushdowns I also feel you have your path to triceps
when doing lying extensions glory. You need to stick with
with a cambered bar. I have done sets with 225 pounds for the exercise(s) for at least six months to a year, however,
12 reps with strict form. That’s because my triceps have low before you’ll see real change.
attachments and I was born with a lot of muscle fibers there. The idea with any stubborn bodypart is not to change for
Now, oddly, I am not such a good bench presser. I’m average the sake of changing; rather, it’s to find or create the best
at best. I can bench-press more with a reverse grip—hands movements for that bodypart and stick with them. I assure
supinated as opposed to hands pronated. Often those of us you, that’s how we’ve all done it over the years.
with great triceps don’t have great pectorals and vice versa. —Paul Burke
The key with any muscle group for those who are natural
is to find the two or three most leverage-advantageous exer-
cises and blast the hell out the target muscle once a week. I Editor’s note: To contact Paul
don’t agree with changing the routine once I find what’s mak- Burke, write to pbptb@aol.com. Burke
ing my muscles grow and separate. Why would I? If you’ve has a master’s degree in integrated
found two or three exercises that you can do with increasing studies from Cambridge College in
intensity and increasingly heavier weight, why change for the Cambridge, Massachusetts. He’s been
sake of changing? a champion bodybuilder and arm wres-
Say that you’re just beginning your journey. Start with the tler, and he’s considered a leader in the
conventional exercises first when looking for keepers. For field of over-40 fitness training. You can
triceps that will be pushdowns, lying extensions, weighted purchase his book, Burke’s Law—a
dips, seated machine dips and so on. If none of them work New Fitness Paradigm for the Mature
too well for you, start getting creative. Look at your triceps Male, from Home Gym Warehouse. Call
and think of how they work and where the attachments are. (800) 447-0008, or visit www.Home-
Perhaps the attachments are high and you need specialized Gym.com. His training DVD “Burke’s
training. Visualize the biomechanics of the situation: Look at Law” is also now available.

34 JANUARY 2009 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

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Train to Gain / HARDGAINER
The Older, Bolder Bodybuilder’s Greatest Goal
I’m over 40, and your greatest body- youngster—if you know what you’re
building-related goal is also mine. It’s not to doing. Imagine 175 pounds and a 31-inch
build or maintain a 17-inch arm or even a waist at 5’9” and age 50. That’s nothing
16-inch arm, not to build or maintain a big compared to a professional bodybuilder
bench press and not to build or maintain a but plenty compared to the average 50-
six-pack. It may include those targets, but year-old. If you can maintain that or very
the greatest goal is much bigger. It’s not close to it when you’re 60, you’ll be a true
what you can do over the next year or two superman.
or three but that you’re still training in 30 or 4) Older people usually need more
even 40 years. recovery time and have less exercise
The greatest bodybuilding-related goal tolerance than younger people unless the
is training longevity—to train for the rest older people have exercised for years and
of your life. Do your utmost to stay at your have developed conditioning that’s better
best if you’ve already trained well for a long than the average younger person’s. So if
time, or do your utmost to work toward you feel you need an extra day between
your best if you’re new to bodybuilding. workouts or a more abbreviated training
Strive to build more muscle and strength, routine, that’s normal.

but never lose sight of the bigger picture. 5) Younger people usually need more
The greatest benefit of bodybuilding isn’t calories than older people. Teenagers
aesthetics but health. Done correctly, body- may be able to eat a great deal without
building can add life to your years and perhaps years to your life, getting fat, but 30 years later, that same calorie intake may be too
but you have to do it for the rest of your life to get both benefits. much. Eat as many nutritious calories as possible without getting
Done correctly, the strength-training aspect of bodybuilding fat. Eliminate junk food. Eat healthful food only, and don’t overeat.
is the most productive form of exercise. Here’s why: It builds Fast weight loss is always a bad idea. Slow and steady is the way
strength, develops muscle, strengthens bones, improves overall to go—by way of a permanent lifestyle. Losing fat only and keep-
fitness, increases calorie consumption, helps control bodyfat, im- ing it lost are the priorities.
proves posture, slows the effects of aging, increases resistance to 6) Youngsters don’t have to do cardio, but middle-aged body-
injury and transforms physical appearance. No other single form builders should definitely include it twice a week for heart health.
of exercise can produce all those benefits. That’s why strength First get the approval of your doctor—make sure demanding
training is the most important element of an exercise program. cardio work is safe for you. Even then, start out at low intensity
Supplement it with cardio and stretching for a complete regimen. and gradually build up the effort. Take about two months before
Sensible training for us over-40s is similar to sensible training working your heart hard.
for bodybuilders in their 20s, but there are some differences if You’ll need to go to at least 85 percent of your age-adjusted
you’re to achieve training longevity. maximum heart rate. If you’re, say, 50, that means your age-
1) Charles Smith was a major figure working on Joe Weider’s adjusted maximum heart rate is 220 minus 50, or 170, and 85
magazines in the 1950s and one of the last links to the pioneers of percent of that is 145. Once you’re in good condition, or if you’re
bodybuilding. Here’s what Charles told me shortly before his death already in good condition because you’ve been doing cardio work
in 1991: “You never know how important good health is until you for many years, 145 beats per minute won’t be enough to give
no longer have it.” Think about that—dwell on it. Health is great your heart a good workout. At 49, I go to about 165 beats per
wealth and should be revered and preserved. Avoid all harm- minute.
ful habits, activities and environments. Look after yourself! That 7) Youngsters don’t have to stretch, though it’s recommended
applies to people of all ages—and you should never take liberties for them too. Middle-aged bodybuilders should definitely stretch
with your health even if you’re young—but it applies with ever-in- two or three times a week—preferably after their weight workouts.
creasing magnitude as you age. Maintaining a supple body is imperative for keeping a youthful
2) Training safety is the number-one priority for middle-aged body, but it’s easy to get injured while stretching, so be careful.
bodybuilders—whether beginner or experienced. Experienced Do not get injured. Never do any ballistic stretching. Instead, do
bodybuilders know how to train safely; otherwise they wouldn’t several progressive reps of each stretch, each one taking you a
be experienced bodybuilders, although some of them do things bit farther than the previous one. Hold each rep for at least 20
that would injure most other bodybuilders. Beginners, though, seconds.
usually don’t know what they are doing, and just one slip can Train correctly at every workout. Eat correctly at every meal.
lead to an injury. Middle-aged bodybuilders must be even more Sleep well every night. And do it all relentlessly. That way you’ll
careful to choose exercises that are safe for them and use cor- make good, steady bodybuilding progress. Train for health and
rect technique. Never cheat. If you can’t complete a rep in correct physique, not just physique.
technique, end the set. —Stuart McRobert
3) Youngsters, because of their age and because they have www.Hardgainer.com
more training years ahead of them, have a greater potential for
mass than much older people do. So youngsters can have higher Editor’s note: Stuart McRobert’s first byline
expectations. What matters most, regardless of age, is doing the in IRON MAN appeared in 1981. He’s the author
best you can one day at a time. Do that week after week, month of the new 638-page opus on bodybuilding Build
after month and year after year, and the results will take care of Muscle, Lose Fat, Look Great, available from
themselves relative to your genetic potential and dedication. Home Gym Warehouse, (800) 447-0008 or
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36 JANUARY 2009 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

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Seated Cable Rows and Lower-Back Pain
The traditional seated cable row is commonly per- firing—it’s known as myoelectric silence. At the point of
formed in every heavy gym or gym chain. Virtually all back rounding, the weight of the upper body and any-
bodybuilders today either include it in their back work- thing you’re holding is taken by the ligaments and disks
outs or have used it in the past. As with many exercises, of your spine. That can lead to a sprain or worse. Those
it has good points and bad points. studies were done with untrained individuals and weren’t
Its popularity hinges on the dynamic action of the row. repeated with trained subjects.
You lean forward and stretch your arms forward to full Some trainees experience lower-back pain from
length. Then your lower back initiates the pull by extend- seated cable rows, and others never really acclimate to
ing the hips and back. At the same time the rowing mo- the movement. They start too heavy to begin with and
tion occurs. An enormous amount of muscle is trained increase the poundage too fast. The solution is to reduce
the weight significantly and give the back muscles a
chance to actually experience a training effect.
Some trainees have lower-back problems—disk
pathology, arthritis, instability—and may not be able to
perform seated cable rows because of back pain. They
have several options: 1) Drop the cable row; 2) reduce
the weight without increasing the reps significantly, as the
lower back takes a long time to recover from high-vol-
ume training; 3) try to not lean as far forward on the row.
You can use your legs or hips to pull the weight back on
the first and last rep of each set so you won’t have to
lean so far forward.
Neveux \ Model: Dan Decker

The problems with the seated cable row led to the

creation of seated row machines that have a chest pad
to lean against to “protect” the back—the quote marks
around protect are not meant to be sarcastic. Some
trainees have such serious lower-back problems that an
Don’t lean too far forward at the start of each rep on cable alternative technique is the only way they can row, and
rows, or you could do serious damage to your lower back. any training modification that keeps them in the gym is
a good thing. For others, however, the weakness of the
at one time: lower lats (latissimus dorsi), upper lats (teres lower back creates a vicious circle. Weakness causes
major), middle back (rhomboids, middle and lower trape- many trainees to strain their lower backs so easily that
zius muscles), spinal extensors (muscles along the spine), they stop training those muscles. They then become
hamstrings (from leaning forward and leaning back), further deconditioned, and new attempts to strengthen
rear delts (posterior deltoids), biceps and brachioradialis them leads to more strain and sprain. In many cases, at-
(large forearm muscles). The large amount of muscle tempts to protect the back simply reinforce the problem.
activity lends the exercise to a great deal of weight for Some trainees have had so many back strains that they
the strongest trainees. Some powerlifters include it for all can’t tell the difference between normal training soreness
those reasons. that lasts a few days and injury—but that’s a topic for
It sounds like a good exercise. So what’s the problem another time. Train smart, and then train hard.
with it? The very thing that makes the seated cable row —Joseph M. Horrigan
unique is what makes it unusable for some.
Any trainee who begins to do seated cable rows Editor’s note: Visit www.SoftTissueCenter.com for
should use light weight, perhaps much lighter than he reprints of Horrigan’s past Sportsmedicine columns that
or she can easily handle. The reason is that the muscles have appeared in IRON MAN. You can order the books,
along the spine don’t work the same way as the biceps, Strength, Conditioning and Injury Prevention for Hockey
pecs and quads do. Research has demonstrated a by Joseph Horrigan, D.C., and E.J. “Doc” Kreis, D.A.,
reason for the lower-back injuries we commonly see in and the 7-Minute Rotator Cuff Solution by Horrigan and
health care. When an average, untrained person rounds Jerry Robinson from Home Gym Warehouse, (800) 447-
his or her back forward, the muscles along the spine 0008 or at www.Home-Gym.com.
decrease in activity to the point that they actually stop

38 JANUARY 2009 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

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Train to Gain / TECHNIQUE
You May Not Remain Seated rise

I don’t give much thought Arnold!” with each rep. Both

to shoulder presses. I’ve al- of them owned some of the
ways had pretty decent del- best shoulders of their era.
toids, and I’ve always been Pressing in a standing
very strong on any type of position is much tougher
overhead press. Recently, I because you’re forced to
read something that piqued keep yourself balanced,
my curiosity and caused me which forces your shoulders
to rethink my presses for to work much harder than
the first time in years. they would if you were nice-
Marty Gallagher, a col- ly supported by a bench
umnist for The Washington and back support. I’ve tried
Post and a world-champion standing presses with a
powerlifter who’s prob- barbell many times, and
ably forgotten more about they never felt quite right.
weight training than most A certain amount of lean-
people know, commented ing back was needed just
that standing presses for so the bar didn’t whack my
shoulders have gone the jaw or nose as I pressed. It
way of the dinosaur over was the lean that actually
the past three decades. caused the overhead press
Most bodybuilders and to be dropped as an Olym-
serious weight trainers pic lift in 1972. I always
today have never even done felt that I was going to fall
them. Today a lot of people backward. Dumbbells make

Merv \ Model: Branch Warren

press on Smith or Hammer a lot more sense to me.
Strength or LifeFitness ma- Because you hold dumb-
chines. Plenty of guys press Need bigger delts? Branch Warren is a big proponent bells directly over your
of free-weight presses. Try them standing with dumb-
with barbells and dumbbells shoulders rather than in
bells for new shoulder size.
but always seated on a front of or behind them, it’s
bench with back support. much easier to maintain
What’s so wrong with a perfect upright position.
that? Well, when I press while seated on a bench, I can When I decided to give standing dumbbell presses a try, I
move a lot of iron, but I also arch my back and lean back warmed up with a pair of 30s for 12, then 40s for six and
quite a bit when I get to my heaviest weights. I’ve pressed then did my work sets. I got 50s for 15, 60s for 12 and
140-pound dumbbells for a few reps, and I’ve pressed 275 60s for a final 10. I could have gone a bit heavier, but not
on a barbell to the front for a few reps—but always with much. It’s odd, because 60s and 70s are a warmup weight
compromised form. My wife, Janet, used to rip on me for for me when I do my overhead presses seated. Stand-
what she perceived as horrendous technique and said I ing, they were plenty heavy! The real proof that I was on
was working more upper chest than shoulders. My witty to something came only hours later. I thought I’d hurt my
comeback was, “You can never have too much upper shoulders somehow and was worried that an emergency
chest development.” visit to the chiropractor was called for—but no, it was just
Aside from the lean-back form, there was another prob- that my deltoids were already getting sore, something that
lem. My shoulders have been feeling the wear and tear hadn’t happened to me in more than a year.
of well over two decades of heavy training. It’s becom- So I’d give the big thumbs-up to standing dumbbell
ing clear to me that, whether I like it or not, the years are presses. Just be sure you don’t attempt to use as much
catching up to me and I can’t train so heavy all the time. weight as you do when you perform the exercise sitting
Marty talked about the old-time bodybuilders who all down. It ain’t gonna happen. The slight wound to your ego
did standing presses with dumbbells and barbells, and the due to the lighter dumbbells will be just a distant memory
shoulder development of those men was typically sensa- once the soreness kicks in—and you find your shoulders
tional. Picture the broad, cannonball delts of John Grimek, growing wider, thicker, rounder.
Clancy Ross, Armand Tanny and Steve Reeves. If you’ve —Ron Harris
seen “Pumping Iron,” you should also recall two memo-
rable workout scenes involving standing presses that Editor’s note: Ron Harris is the author of Real Body-
featured Mike Katz and Lou Ferrigno grunting, “Arnold! building, available at www.RonHarrisMuscle.com.

40 JANUARY 2009 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

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Smart Training
by Charles Poliquin

3) Rest only 60 seconds, during which you decrease the

Shocking weight by 2 1/2 to 10 pounds, depending on your level of

strength and the nature of the exercise.
4) Perform as many strict reps as possible with the new
Shoulders weight.
5) Rest only 60 seconds, during which you decrease the
weight by five to 10 pounds, depending on your level of
Q: My shoulder growth has come to a standstill. 6) Do as many strict reps as possible with the new weight.
Got a great routine that’ll boost growth again?
7) Rest only 60 seconds and decrease the weight by five
A: A few years ago IFBB pro Boyer Coe visited me in to 10 pounds, depending on your level of strength.
Colorado and shared with me a workout program that’s 8) Perform as many strict reps as possible with the new
great for increasing both hypertrophy and strength endur- weight.
ance. It’s called work-capacity training and uses descend-
ing loads in the following manner: After four sets with decreasing poundages, move on to
the next exercise and use the same protocol. Do a total of
1) Warm up until you get to a weight with which you three exercises per bodypart.
struggle to complete 12 reps—your 12RM. Here’s a sample of a workout-capacity training program
for the shoulders. Adjust the weights according to your
2) Perform 12 strict reps with that weight.
strength level.

The work-capacity
training tactic can
work magic on lagging
Neveux \ Model: Brain Yerskey

bodyparts like the


44 JANUARY 2009 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

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This 3-plus-hour DVD is a

masters class on what it’s like
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Mitsuru Okabe spent 4 days
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to his sixth win in a row of the
Mr. Olympia. This DVD is shot
in an absolute “you are there”
style. There are no set ups,
no retakes, nothing but the
real Ronnie Coleman. Ronnie
is absolutely focused on his
goal and he lives his life to
make it happen. You will see
him do 800-pound squats,
75-pound dumbbell curls and
an astounding 2250-pound leg
press—almost every 45-pound
plate in the gym! It’s the stuff
of legends. But more than just
the sets, reps and the nutrition,
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It hits all the right notes:
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Give that routine a try, and you

should see some sizable gains fast.

Q: Who, in recent times, do you

think has had the most influence
on getting bodybuilders to re-
think training?

A: Arthur Jones, the inventor of the

Nautilus and MedX machines. The
Nautilus machines and the company
he formed to sell them made him
a multimillionaire and landed him
on the Forbes list of the 400 richest
people. At one point financial analysts
estimated that Nautilus was grossing
$300 million annually. He sold Nauti-
lus Inc. in 1986 for $23 million. Then
he created an ingenious line called
MedX, which he sold in 1996, after
which he retired.
On August 28, 2007, Jones died from
natural causes at his home in Ocala,
Florida, at age 80.
Now the big question: Why would a
strength coach who espouses multiple
sets and free weights credit Arthur

Model: Arnold Schwarzenegger

Jones? Well, first, credit should always
be given where it’s due. I believe my
training system is like Bruce Lee’s jeet
The Nautilus pullover machine is one of Arthur Jones’ best contributions kune do—I just took the best from
to modern bodybuilding. It’s an almost perfect lat exercise. Even Arnold everybody and mixed it. I don’t believe
loves it. in dogma. Nevertheless, here are five
major contributions to strength train-
ing that Jones made. Some he invent-
Seated barbell military presses ed, and some he just sold or publicized very well.
1) Warm up 1) Chins and dips. Of course he didn’t invent those
2) 145 x 12 exercises, but he sure sold them well. When time is short,
3) Rest 60 seconds chins and dips beat the barbell versions of the bench
4) 140 x 10 press and bent-over rows for packing meat on the upper
5) Rest 60 seconds body because the muscles of the upper back and chest
6) 135 x 11 are exercised over a longer range. I prefer to do them on
7) Rest 60 seconds rings, as that increases the number of motor units recruit-
8) 130 x 9 ed—which, of course, I did not invent. Joe Weider invented
9) Rest 60 seconds chins and dips on rings, actually, the same day he invented
sliced bread and sex. (That’s my modification of a joke from
Low-pulley rope upright rows Jones. Needless to say, Jones didn’t have a Joe Weider shrine
10) 115 x 12 at his house.)
11) Rest 60 seconds 2) Accommodating resistance. Arthur Jones, to my
12) 110 x 9 knowledge, was the first to recommend that chains would
13) Rest 60 seconds provide a better load for the strength curves of the exten-
14) 105 x 12 sor chain, which refers to the
15) Rest 60 seconds movement of the glutes, ham-
16) 100 x 10 strings and lower-back muscles.
17) Rest 60 seconds They improve the overload on
presses, squats and deadlifts.
Seated lateral raises More than 14 years ago, over
18) 35 x 12 breakfast, powerlifter and
19) Rest 60 seconds trainer Louie Simmons told me
20) 32.5 x 12 that he got the concept from
21) Rest 60 seconds Jones—Louie being another
22) 30 x 11 who always gives credit where
23) Rest 60 seconds it’s due. That’s one of the many
24) 27.5 x 8 reasons I have the highest re-
Arthur Jones.
46 JANUARY 2009 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com
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spect for him. The inventive Power cleans are a

and ingenious Simmons dynamic movement
brought the use of chains to that can add size and
the powerlifting world back thickness to your back.
in the mid-1990s, when O.J.
was looking for Nicole’s killer ’80s and is true to the work-
on an L.A. freeway. Since then outs of the old-time body-
chains have jumped to the builders. It consists of four
mainstream weight-training exercises commonly used by
world—and O.J. still hasn’t Olympic lifters to develop
had any luck. strength for the competition
Jones came up with the lifts, the snatch and the clean
Nautilus shaped cam. Unfor- and jerk. The difference is
tunately, he used the same that they’re less technical
cam shape for all machines. than the competition lifts and
That was a mistake, as can be performed for higher
strength curves come in three reps, providing an increased
shapes in humans: ascending muscle-building effect.

Neveux \ Model: Derik Farnsworth

(pressing movements, pull- If you’ve never performed
overs), descending (e.g., knee those exercises, ask a strength
flexors) and ascending/de- coach—preferably one with
scending (e.g., elbow flexors). at least a Level 2 PIPC certifi-
Which leads me to his third cation—or an Olympic lifter
contribution. to teach you how to perform
3) The pullover ma- them properly. I generally
chine. Jones was fascinated don’t recommend the use of
with isolating the lats and removing the elbow flexors from straps, but do use them when you feel that not doing so will
the equation. For that purpose he invented the pullover compromise your technique or the amount of weight you
machine, which, according to two peer-reviewed studies, can use on each exercise.
matched the human strength curve. If you have access to The program alternates between exercises performed
one of those, please do try it. If you want to purchase one, by lifting the bar from the floor and those performed while
make sure you can load your own plates—the weight-stack standing on a small platform about four to six inches high.
machines are always too light for the well-trained person. The variation changes the line of pull of the posterior
4) The value of eccentric training. Bob Peoples in chain—that is, backside—with each new exercise. The de-
1908 was probably the one who really should be credited layed muscle soreness caused by the mechanical advantage
with recognizing the value of eccentric, or negative, train- differences is horrendous but very rewarding for strength
ing in building strength, but Jones is the one who sold it and hypertrophy gains. The workout consists of four exer-
the most. He developed some simple designs, as simple as cises performed for five sets of five to six reps and is much
steps to climb up the chin and dipping stations and foot more difficult than it looks on paper. Here it is:
pedals on the Omni Biceps machine, eliminating, or over-
coming the concentric, or positive, position of the rep. A) Power cleans from the floor: 5 x 5, 1/0/X/0 tempo, rest-
5) Rethinking volume. In his heyday Jones was rec- ing 2.5 minutes between sets
ommending one to two sets per bodypart, three workouts
B) Snatch pulls on a podium: 5 x 6, 1/0/X/0 tempo, rest-
maximum per week, while the Southern California muscle
ing 2.5 minutes between sets
subculture was into 20 to 30 sets per bodypart, training
twice a day, six days a week. Two very different views—in C) Clean pulls from the floor: 5 x 6, 1/0/X/0 tempo, rest-
the early ’70s it was the debate in bodybuilding magazines. ing 2.5 minutes between sets
Bodybuilders like my friend Boyer Coe trained under both D) Snatch deadlifts on podium: 5 x 6, 4/0/X/0 tempo,
systems, coming to the conclusion that probably 10 to 12 resting three minutes between sets
sets a bodypart every three to five days was the more effi-
cient system for hypertrophy for most people. Even though If there’s a lesson to be learned from such a brutal retro
time showed that Jones’ approach was certainly no pana- workout, it’s not only that, as the saying goes, everything
cea, he at least got people to drop their volume consider- old is new again but also that, sometimes, old things are
ably and make some decent progress. still the best!
He was a master salesman—he could have persuaded
the Saudi princes to buy sand from him, and he could Editor’s note: Charles Poliquin is recognized as one
have sold fridges to the Inuits. In all fairness, he influenced of the world’s most successful strength coaches, having
many people in a positive way, from Dr. Ken Leistner to coached Olympic medalists in 12 different sports, includ-
Dorian Yates. ing the U.S. women’s track-and-field team for the 2000
Olympics. He’s spent years researching European journals
Q: I want to build a thick set of erector spinae (he’s fluent in English, French and German) and speaking
muscles. Can you recommend anything? with other coaches and scientists in his quest to optimize
training methods. For more on his books, seminars and
A: Here’s a great way to build the erector spinae. I call it a methods, visit www.CharlesPoliquin.net. Also see his ad
retro workout because the routine was devised in the early on page 205. IM

48 JANUARY 2009 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

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Train ™ \ JULY 2006 181

Nutrition With a Get-Big Mission

to Grow
NUTRITION SCIENCE high in protein. Indeed, as contest
But eat the time approaches, many competitive
Need Cuts? Go Fish right kind bodybuilders habitually eschew beef
and even chicken in favor of baked or
broiled (never fried) fish.
“I hate fish.” So said Lee Haney, preventing cardiovascular disease. Fish species differ in their nutrient
six-time Mr.Olympia, when I asked him While all the benefits of omega-3 fats content. Only fatty fish contain
about his protein preferences. Since are easily obtained by taking a fish oil generous levels of omega-
that interview took place nearly 20 supplement, many experts still extol the 3 fats—sardines, mackerel,
years ago, it’s likely that these days he’s value of eating actual fish. salmon and halibut, for example.
getting his omega-3 fatty acids from Despite Haney’s dislike of fish, it’s The lean fish favored by
some source—and for good reason. a staple of most bodybuilding diets, bodybuilders, such as mahimahi,
Research concerning the health benefits particularly during precontest prep. tuna and orange roughy, have
of omega-3s is extensive, especially in Fish is devoid of carbohydrates and almost no omega-3s.
relation to optimal brain function and low in fat and calories while being In a recent study, researchers
purchased 30 species of wild and
farmed fish from supermarkets,
wholesale distributors and commercial
Lee Haney, six- fish farms in the United States and
time Mr. Olympia. abroad.1 They found that the omega-
3 content ranged from “practically
none” to nearly 4,000 milligrams per
100 grams—about five ounces—of
fish. When they compared the four
most common farmed fish—Atlantic
salmon, trout, tilapia and catfish—they
found that the tilapia and catfish
were not only low in omega-3s but
also high in omega-6 fats and had
higher percentages of saturated and
monounsaturated fats.
The fat profile of tilapia and
catfish is problematic because
omega-6 fats are a precursor
of arachidonic acid, which in
turn is the primary precursor
of fatlike chemicals called
eicosanoids, many of which
have potent inflammatory
effects. The fish had more omega-6
fats because they were fed food rich
in them. Tilapia and catfish are low in
omega-3s naturally, but the authors
considered their omega-6 content to
be a true health liability. Inflammation
is now accepted as the cornerstone of
most degenerative diseases, including
cardiovascular disease and cancer.
The study also found that the tilapia
and catfish were high in linoleic acid

(an omega-6 fat) and arachidonic acid.

52 JANUARY 2009 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com
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This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.
Many analgesic, or painkilling, drugs,
including aspirin and ibuprofen,
work by interfering with the activity
of the enzyme cyclooxygenase-2,
or COX-2, that converts arachidonic
acid into eicosanoids. If you lower
the inflammatory eicosanoids, you
also reduce pain. Examples of such
inflammatory eicosanoids include
prostaglandin E2, thromboxane A2
and leukotriene B4. On the other
hand, arachidonic acid is also the
precursor of anti-inflammatory
eicosanoids, such as prostacyclin dietary precursor of arachidonic acid power by day 50 of the study. Their
and lipoxin A4. synthesis, the body tightly regulates bodies also experienced a decline in
The findings have bodybuilding production of arachidonic acid from interleukin-6, a marker of inflammation,
implications. Arachidonic acid is the linoleic acid. Thus, taking large that didn’t occur in the placebo group.
precursor of prostaglandin F2A, which amounts of linoleic acid doesn’t directly The arachidonic acid group also had
is involved in muscle protein synthesis translate into more arachidonic acid more prostaglandin E2, indicating that
and muscle repair processes after in body tissue. As for omega-6 fats the supplement did affect eicosanoid
intense exercise. Indeed, some studies and inflammation, human-subject synthesis. On the other hand,
show that when you take analgesics studies reveal an opposite effect: less the supplement didn’t produce
before or after training, you short-circuit inflammation after a high intake of any significant changes in body
the anabolic effects of exercise because omega-6 fats. Other studies that have composition, circulating anabolic
you inhibit the production of PF2A from looked directly at arachidonic acid hormones or intramuscular
arachidonic acid. In fact, arachidonic intake show that taking up to 1.5 grams markers of muscle gains. Nor
acid is even offered in supplement a day is not harmful to humans. That’s did it improve strength. Add it all up,
form under the supposition that intense good news, as the suggested dose for and you find that using an arachidonic
exercise may deplete it in the body. supplemental arachidonic acid is 1,000 acid supplement may improve training
More on that later. milligrams daily. efficiency through increasing anaerobic
Since linoleic acid is the primary A salient question arises: If capacity and lowering inflammation, but
arachidonic acid is the precursor of supplement-driven muscle gains appear
PGF2A, which is anabolic, would to be zilch. One possible reason is that
supplementing with a direct source of the arachidonic acid supplement didn’t
it build more muscle? That question affect or change the amount of PGF2A
was examined in a study published in the body. Whether using a higher dose
about a year ago.2 Thirty-one men, of the supplement or taking it longer
all actively engaged in weight training, would change the results remains to be
took either a placebo or one gram a examined.
day of a commercial arachidonic acid —Jerry Brainum
supplement. The study was sponsored
by a company that sells the arachidonic
acid supplement that researchers used. References
The subjects underwent such testing
procedures as body composition, one- 1 Weaver, K.L., et al. (2008). The
rep-max bench press, one-rep-max leg content of favorable and unfavorable
press and the Wingate anaerobic test, polyunsaturated fatty acids found in
which measures anaerobic capacity. commonly eaten fish. J Am Diet Assoc.
The subjects also provided muscle 108:1178-1185.
biopsies obtained from their front-thigh 2 Roberts, M., et al. (2007). Effects
muscles. of arachidonic acid supplementation on
Those in the arachidonic training adaptations in resistance-trained
acid group had an 8.5 percent males. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 4:21.
increase in peak anaerobic

www.ironmanmagazine.com \ JANUARY 2009 53

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to Grow

Food Facts
That can affect your
workouts, weight and wellness

Tea can help fight

cancer. Researchers
at the University of
Mississippi Medical
Center gave water
mixed with green tea
EGCG to mice that
had breast cancer,
and after five weeks their tumors were
66 percent smaller than those in mice
who drank plain water. Drink more
Aspirin has

Neveux \ Model: Deanna Merryman

been recom-
mended as a daily
supplement for
those predisposed
to heart attack,
You need a little sunshine every stroke and high
day. Just don’t overdo it. blood pressure.
New evidence
suggests that the best time to take
a 100-milligram dose is right before
One in three Americans is
D-Rail Illness deficient in vitamin D
bedtime because the body produces
chemicals that raise blood pressure
when you’re at rest.
Corn has almost
Winter is here, and that means less exposure to the sun. That’s good twice the antioxidant
and bad—good in that you won’t get sunburned or expose your skin to activity of apples. That’s
what a study found
harmful rays for long periods, bad because your body needs sunlight when researchers com-
to produce vitamin D. New research suggests that one in three Ameri- pared cooked sweet
corn to the red fruit.
cans is deficient in vitamin D, which is unfortunate because the healing Not sure if that includes
vitamin not only builds bones but also helps prevent cardiovascular popcorn.
Water is im-
disease, arthritis, multiple sclerosis, colds, flu—even cancer. portant to weight
For adequate production of vitamin D you need about 15 minutes loss. Your metabo-
lism depends on
of sun exposure twice a week—without sunscreen, which completely it. A study at the
blocks vitamin D production. If you can’t get that amount in the win- University of Utah
found that subjects
ter—and not many people can—take vitamin D supplements. Another who drank eight
consideration is that people age 50 and older tend to have skin that to 12 eight-ounce
glasses of water a day had faster
loses some of its vitamin D conversion ability. Dark-skinned people metabolisms than those who drank
don’t have as much ability to convert sunlight into vitamin D as light- only four glasses.
Fiber up to take
skinned people do. Supplements may be necessary. weight off. Getting at
The optimal daily intake has been set at 400 international units per least 25 grams of fiber a
day can curb your ap-
day for adults under age 70, but many researchers are suggesting petite and slow digestion,
1,000 to 2,000 I.U. per day, especially in winter. which reduces insulin
—Becky Holman —Becky Holman
www.XtremeLean.com www.XtremeLean.com

54 JANUARY 2009 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

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Included is complete
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Repping With D-Ribose

There’s been conflicting research on D-
ribose, a sugar that’s part of ATP. Your
muscles use ATP to fire out reps, so taking
D-ribose should help make you stronger,
much in the manner of creatine, which also
heightens ATP function. New research shows
that supplementing with D-ribose may not
boost strength on your first few sets. Later,
when ATP is more depleted, however, it can
help you get more reps—those last few that
activate the high-threshold motor units and
more key growth fibers. Try taking a few
grams in your pre- and postworkout
drinks along with creatine.
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Neveux \ Model: Todd Smith


Protein Burns Fat Awesome Abs With Almonds

Science is finally catch- Scientists looked
ing up with the bodybuild- at 65 men and
ing world. A new study women on low-
verifies what muscleheads calorie diets and
have known all along—that found that those
a high-protein intake can who ate almonds
help you get lean. Your frequently reduced
body uses more energy to their waists by 50
process protein than carbs, percent more than
a measurement known as subjects who didn’t
the thermic effect of food, eat the nuts. And
or TEF. In the October ’08 yes, the subjects
Prevention Donald Layman, Ph.D., a professor of nutrition were all eating the
at the University of Illinois, says that if your diet is 14 per- same number of
cent protein and you double that while reducing the carbs calories each day.
to keep your calorie intake the same, you can burn almost It’s believed that
200 extra calories a day. High protein, lower carb. Hmm, the monounsaurated fatty acids found in almonds—and
that sounds familiar. avocados—reduces the accumulation of abdominal fat.
—Becky Holman —Becky Holman
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Protein Timing Enhances muscle and bone

Just 167 calories after your workout—it doesn’t take much exercise session. They drank the supplement before and
to ensure that you get the optimal anabolic response to every 15 minutes during exercise. The researchers discovered
exercise. We’re finding out more and more just how powerful that carb plus protein lowered whole-body-protein-breakdown
the proper nutrients are when you take them in before, during rates 8 percent more than carbohydrate only and that protein
and after exercise. Recently, scientists evaluated the response oxidation and synthesis rates were augmented by 77 percent
of various muscle and bone adaptation parameters after 24 and 33 percent, respectively. Thus, the whole-body net
weeks of strength training in healthy women when they took protein balance was negative in the carb-only group, whereas
a nutrient supplement or a placebo immediately following a positive net balance was achieved with the carb-and-protein
each training session.1 Each woman was randomly and combination. Is there any doubt that nutrient timing works?2
double-blindly assigned to a nutrient or a placebo group. The Downing a sugar-only drink ain’t gonna do it. Sorry, Gatorade.
nutrient contained 10 grams of whey protein, 31 grams of You gotta add protein. Without protein, how can you expect
carbohydrate, one gram of fat, 5.0 micrograms of vitamin D to optimize muscle gains?
and 250 milligrams of calcium. The placebo consisted of six I’d suggest that bodybuilders follow these general rules of
grams of carbohydrate and 12 milligrams of calcium. nutrient timing:
The results were extraordinary. Those in the nutrient group 1) Drink a beverage that contains at least three to six grams
improved concentric and isokinetic muscle strength by 9 of essential amino acids or 10 grams of protein before your
percent, while the controls showed no change. Only the workout.
nutrient group improved lean body mass over the 24 weeks. 2) During exercise, sip on a protein shake.
Bone mineral density improved to a greater extent in the 3) Get some major calories immediately after you train. Try
lumbar region of the subjects taking the nutrient too. for 40 grams of protein (whey) mixed with your favorite carb
Then we have an intriguing study about nutrient source (bananas, strawberries, etc.) and some healthful fat
supplementation during exercise. Male subjects participated like flaxseed oil.
in two experiments in which they took either carbohydrate If you follow those tenets, the mass gains are as inevitable
or carbohydrate plus protein during a two-hour resistance- as hurricanes hitting the Florida coast.
For the latest science on
nutrient timing, check out the
International Society of Sports
Nutrition’s Position Stand on
Nutrient Timing: www.jissn.org.
—Jose Antonio, Ph.D.

Editor’s note: Jose

Antonio, Ph.D., is the CEO of the
International Society of Sports
Nutrition (www.theissn.org). In
his spare time he watches the
National Geographic channel,
plays catch with his kids and
paddles around Key Biscayne.

1 Holm, L., Olesen, J.L.,
Matsumoto, K., et al. (2008).
supplementation following
strength training enhances
the effect on muscle mass,
strength and bone formation in
postmenopausal women. J Appl
Physiol. 105:274-281.
Neveux \ Model: Mike Semanoff

2 Beelen, M., Koopman,

R., Gijsen, A.P., et al. (2008).
Protein co-ingestion stimulates
muscle protein synthesis during
resistance-type exercise. Am J
Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 295:

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to Grow

Beta-Alanine and Anabolism

A number of studies, many of which have been 30 days those in the beta-alanine group had increased
reported here, demonstrate that using supplemental beta- their completed reps by 22 percent. Measurements of
alanine may boost gains in muscle size and strength. testosterone, growth hormone and cortisol showed no
Beta-alanine acts as a substrate for the synthesis of differences between the groups, indicating that while
carnosine in muscle. Carnosine is a dipeptide, composed those hormones were affected by the exercise, beta-
of two bonded amino acids, histidine and beta-alanine. alanine had no discernible effect. No changes occurred
Muscle usually contains more than enough histidine, in body mass or strength, but as the authors note,
so the limiting factor is beta-alanine. Taking carnosine rapid gains don’t occur too often in advanced trainees,
itself would not be effective, as it’s rapidly degraded by especially in only 30 days. Meanwhile, the fact that beta-
the enzyme carnosinase before it has a chance to enter alanine clearly increased training endurance shows that it
muscle. may pump up training intensity, which is likely to increase
Carnosine acts as a major intramuscular buffer. That gains in muscle size and strength over the long haul.
means it neutralizes the excess acidity that builds up —Jerry Brainum
during high-intensity exercise. Studies show that regular
intense training increases muscle carnosine. In fact, Hoffman, J., et al. (2008). Beta-alanine and the
bodybuilders tend to have higher-than-normal muscle hormonal response to exercise. Int J Sports Med. In press.
carnosine as a result of regular intense training. On the
other hand, even experienced athletes who take extra
beta-alanine get a boost in muscle
carnosine as high as 64 percent over
While many studies related to
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The men took beta-alanine
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gold standard of clinical research.
Before and after using the beta-
alanine, the subjects did six sets
of 12 reps of barbell squats using a
weight equal to 70 percent of their
one-rep maximums. At the end of

60 JANUARY 2009 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

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Whatever You Need—Wherever You Train ™

Train, Eat,
GROW Muscle-Training Program 111
From the IRON MAN Training & Research Center

by Steve Holman and Jonathan Lawson

Photography by Michael Neveux

atience is a virtue. That’s fat slowly—over the course of 14 to tuation. We weren’t that lax on our
one of those sayings that 16 weeks. Notice the built-in flex- diets, but we did tend to loosen up
can help you persevere ibility—we didn’t set an actual peak on the weekends—and all it takes
and achieve your goals, date but just decided to be patient is some minor straying to blur that
even if it takes longer and diligent and schedule a photo hard-to-get eye-popping detail and
than expected. As it turns out, im- shoot when we noticed that we were vascularity.
patience can be a virtue as well, close to being spot-on. The worst part of it is that the lon-
especially when it comes to achiev- We thought that by taking our ger we went past 13 weeks, the more
ing extreme-lean condition. Let us time and not being so fanatical, our bodies thought famine was
explain. we’d retain and perhaps build more imminent—maybe 13 is unlucky.
This past spring, when we began muscle as we gradually lost fat. After That’s when the body preserves the
to tighten our diets in preparation all, the extended approach works for last bit of fat and begins burning
for our ripping phase, we decided the Texas Shredder. The guy is, well, more muscle in the face of pro-
to take a slightly different approach shredded. longed calorie deficit. That’s when
from years past. Our friend, natural What we found was that our we began to shrink without much
bodybuilder Dave Goodin, at age 50, condition kept fluctuating, never more fat loss. Jonathan’s condition,
told us that he allows himself a good getting very close to peak condi- due to his slower metabolism, really
12 weeks to go from 8 percent body- tion. Yikes. Sometimes we looked began to deteriorate. We needed
fat down to 3. That’s three months a few weeks away, and other times some action fast.
to ratchet down a mere 5 percentage we looked even further out. We kept We decided to set a shoot date
points. [For more on Dave, see his asking each other, “What the heck is immediately to give us a sense of
interview, which begins on page 96.] going on?” urgency—two weeks from week
We liked that strategy, not to 15. That’s when everything finally
mention Dave’s results. After as- Hard-to-Hit Moving Target began to click—more vascularity
sessing our conditions, we realized began appearing almost instantly,
Model: Jonathan Lawson

that our starting percentages were What we figured out is, when we and the last bit of fat began melt-
above 10 percent, as we’d allowed don’t have a target date set and we ing away. It’s as if our minds had to
ourselves to bulk up over the win- feel as though we have all the time wrap around an exact date to shift
ter. So we decided to apply the in the world, we simply don’t hunker the body into gear. Unfortunately, it
patient route and attempt to lose down—hence our condition fluc- was too late for our muscle size.

www.ironmanmagazine.com \ JANUARY 2009 65

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Muscle-Training Program 111

Shoot Shock
Week 17 was our photo shoot,
The Long-and-Winding Diet Road Costs Muscle
and we were shocked at our condi- These photos
tions—and not in a good way. Steve were taken about a
was ripped but more drawn than month apart, with age 35.
he’s been in the past. Jonathan’s the ones on the far
slower metabolism had caused him right shot in the
to hold on to more fat—he was cut studio at the end
but still had a noticeable layer. He of our grueling 17
appeared to be a few weeks away weeks of dieting. We
from being inside-out shredded. learned that, for us,
To add to his disappointment, his a long-and-wind-

muscle size had suffered somewhat ing diet road costs
(see the photos at right). too much muscle.
What did we learn from that We actually look
lengthy experiment? That we need almost peaked in the
to set a target date at 10 to 12 weeks “before” photos, but Steve,
out from the start of our ripping- even at that point age 49.
phase diet and get serious from the we were beginning
get-go—but still make it a gradual to lose muscle. Fat
process. That gives us the all-im- loss stopped after
portant sense of urgency from the about week 13, and
start and minimizes straying from we purged muscle.
our diets; however, we did learn that Next year it’s back
patience is indeed a virtue in one to our original plan,

respect: diet. which has worked
We were a bit too enthusiastic well in the past: Set
in the beginning because we don’t a target date 12 weeks out, gradually cut calories and/or increase cardio,
like the way we look when we’re and don’t get fat over the winter!
bulked. Enthusiasm is great when
it’s channeled correctly, but it had
us going from our very loose winter
diets right into our summer ripping- his exercise of choice. All was well When it comes to cardio, go slow
phase diets without a transition. As at first, when he was regaining his if you’re interested in more muscle
we explained in our e-book X-treme aerobic conditioning, but as his size.
Lean, which chronicles our very endurance-oriented muscles and What about interval cardio?
successful X-Rep transformation metabolism began adapting, his That’s all-out bursts alternated with
diets, gradually cutting calories and runs got longer and faster. Then it low-intensity work—like running
increasing cardio is the way to go happened. the straightaways and walking the
(we need to read our own stuff more He noticed that his legs weren’t curves on a running track. We in-
often!). Because we were impatient, getting more cut but smaller. “What corporated that type of cardio one
we took a flying leap and held our the heck is going on?” he screamed. weekend day every week toward
lowest calorie count for way too The answer was obvious once we the end of our ripping phase. It
long. Steve was around 1,700 for backtracked and looked at muscle- was worth a try, but in small doses;
more than 15 weeks. No wonder he fiber research. most of our cardio remained slower,
lost muscle. In the beginning, when Steve’s steady-state work.
runs were slow, the activity was Studies show that interval
Cardio, Cuts and primarily slow-twitch dominant; cardio burns more bodyfat than
however, as he regained his aerobic steady-state aerobics and boosts
abilities, his running pace began the metabolism long after it’s over
In past years Steve has done to increase. When you run at a me- primarily because of muscle dam-
minimal cardio, thanks to his fast dium-fast pace, you bring in the age—the high-intensity bursts are a
metabolism and lower calorie in- type 2A fast-twitch fibers in a high- lot like weight training in that they
take, while Jonathan has relied on endurance capacity. They have both stress and damage fast-twitch fibers
two cardio sessions most days and aerobic and anaerobic capabilities. in the quads, calves and hamstrings.
keeping his calories higher. As we’ve If you do too much medium-fast Your metabolism is higher post-
both gotten older—Steve is 49 and cardio, it’s like doing very-high- workout because your body has to
Jonathan 35—cardio is becoming rep weight work—the muscles get repair the muscle damage, and it
more integral to the ripping process, stringy and lose size because the uses bodyfat for energy to accom-
especially for the old guy. 2As are becoming aerobic, essential- plish that. The low-intensity phases
Steve decided that he needed ly morphing into fibers resembling help you burn bodyfat as well, es-
a bit more cardio, and running is slow twitchers without much size. pecially considering that the bursts

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Muscle-Training Program 111

deplete all circulating sugar quickly, addition to your normal leg work- so a weekend interval session was
so bodyfat becomes the energy of out and the increased potential for perfect. Jonathan used an exercise
choice. That’s why we thought it injury. So you shouldn’t use it the bike, pedaling all out for 30 to 40
would get us past our plateau. day of or the days around your leg seconds alternated with a slow pace
The problem with interval cardio workout. We were doing one weight- for one to two minutes. His interval
is twofold: more muscle damage in training leg workout on Tuesdays, cardio workouts lasted about 15

IRON MAN Training & Research Center Muscle-Training Program 111

Workout 1: Chest, Lats, Triceps, Abs Leg press calf raises (X Reps) 1 x 12-15
Smith-machine low-incline presses (X Reps) 2 x 9-12
Standing calf raises (X Reps) 1 x 12-15
High cable flyes (drop; X Reps) 1 x 10(6)
Hack-machine calf raises (X Reps) 1 x 9-12
Wide-grip dips 1 x 9-12
Standing or one-leg calf raises (X Reps) 1 x 12-20
Wide-grip dips (drop; X Reps) 1 x 9(6)
Machine donkey calf raises (drop; X Reps) 1 x 12(8)
Seated calf raises (X Reps) 2 x 15-20
Middle cable flyes 1 x 9-12
Low cable flyes (X Reps) 1 x 7-9
Bench pushups (X Reps) 1 x 7-9 Workout 3: Delts, Midback, Biceps, Forearms
Wide-grip pulldowns (X Reps) 1 x 9-12 Dumbbell upright rows (drop to side rows)2 x 9-12(6)
Chins (X Reps) 1 x 9-12 Forward-lean lateral raises (drop; X Reps) 1 x 10(6)
Superset Smith-machine behind-the-neck presses 1 x 9-12
Machine pullovers 1 x 9-12 Seated dumbbell presses (X Reps) 1 x 9-12
Rope rows or dumbbell pullovers (X Reps) 1 x 7-9 Superset
Superset One-arm cable laterals (X Reps) 1 x 9-12
Undergrip pulldowns 1 x 8-10 Incline one-arm laterals (X Reps) 1 x 8-10
Dumbbell pullovers (X Reps) 1 x 7-9 Bent-over laterals (drop; X Reps) 1 x 12(7)
Lying extensions 1 x 9-12 Tri-set
Decline dumbbell extensions (X Reps) 1 x 9-12 Dumbbell shrugs (DXO or stage style) 1 x 9-12
Tri-set Cable upright rows (X Reps) 1 x 9-12
Rope pushouts 1 x 9-12 High rows (X Reps) 1 x 8-10
Kickbacks 1 x 8-10 Machine rows (X Reps) 1 x 9-12
Stiff-arm kickbacks 1 x 6-8 Shoulder-width cable rows (X Reps) 1 x 9-12
Superset Tri-set
Rope pushouts 1 x 9-12 Behind-the-neck pulldowns (X Reps) 1 x 9-12
Bench dips (drop to feet on floor) 1 x 9(6) Bent-arm bent-over laterals (X Reps) 1 x 8-10
Superset Bent-over dumbbell rows (X Reps) 1 x 7-9
Incline kneeups (drop; X Reps) 1 x 15(10) Cable curls (X Reps) 1 x 9-12
Flat-bench leg raises 1 x 8-10 Superset
Tri-set Cable curls 1 x 9-12
Ab Bench crunches 1 x 10-12 Dumbbell preacher curls 1 x 8-10
Twisting crunches 1 x 10-15 Concentration curls (drop) 1 x 9(6)
End-of-bench kneeups 1 x 9-12 One-arm spider curls 1 x 9-12
Workout 2: Quads, Hamstrings, Calves, Lower Back Incline hammer curls 1 x 9-12
Leg extensions (warmup) 1 x 18-20 Rope hammer curls (X Reps) 1 x 8-10
Superset Tri-set
Hack squats 1 x 10-12 Forearm Bar reverse wrist curls 1 x 8-10
Leg presses 1 x 10-12 Cable reverse curls (X Reps) 1 x 9-12
Hack squats (X Reps) 1 x 8-10 Dumbbell reverse wrist curls 1 x 10-15
Leg extensions (drop; X Reps) 1 x 10(6) Tri-set
Squats 1 x 10-15 Forearm Bar wrist curls 1 x 10-15
One-leg leg extensions (Flex X) 1 x 10-15 Barbell wrist curls 1 x 8-10
Leg curls (drop; X Reps) 1 x 10(6) Behind-the-back wrist curls 1 x 10-12
Leg curls (X Reps) 1 x 9-12 Rockers (drop) 1 x 15(9)
Note: Where X-Reps are designated, usually only one
Stiff-legged deadlifts 1 x 9-12 set or phase of a drop set is performed with X Reps or an
Hyperextensions (X Only) 1 x 8-10 X-Rep hybrid technique from the e-book Beyond X-Rep
Hyperextensions 1 x 9-12 Muscle Building. See the X-Blog at www.X-Rep.com for
Knee-extension leg press calf raises (X Reps)1 x 20-25 more workout details.

68 JANUARY 2009 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

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Muscle-Training Program 111

minutes. Steve ran, sprinting for Fall Mass
50 to 100 yards and then walking
for about two minutes. His interval
cardio workouts lasted about 30 After shaking
minutes, as he used a longer walk as off the shackles
a cooldown. of strict dieting,
The one interval cardio session we started look-
helped us get leaner in the 11th ing over all of our
hour, and our legs actually started programs in our
looking a bit fuller the last week e-books in search
as we reduced our weight-training of our next step.
volume and used slow, steady-state We’ve decided
work for the majority of our cardio. that a great one to
The lesson: If you want your legs go to for growth
to stay large and muscular, walk, after our gruel-
slow jog or do interval work. Don’t ing 17-week rip- If you want your
legs to stay large
do medium-fast runs or treadmill ping phase is our
and muscular, walk,
work, or your 2As could become too X-Rep version
slow jog or do
aerobically inclined and lose size of Eric Broser’s interval work. Don’t
and anaerobic ability. Also, if you Power/Rep do medium-fast
do interval cardio, don’t get carried Range/Shock runs or treadmill
away. As we said, it’s like a hard leg (listed in its en-

Model: Jonathan Lawson

work, or your 2As
workout and takes a toll, especially tirety on pages could cause you
when you’re in a calorie deficit. Be 103 through 114 to become too
frugal and be careful—no hamstring of the e-book 3D aerobically inclined
or knee injuries allowed! Muscle Building). and lose size.

IRON MAN Training & Research Center Home-Gym Program 111

Workout Chest,Lats,
Abs Knee-extensiondonkey
Knee-extension donkeycalf
raises(X(X Reps)22xx20-25
Reps) 20-25
Low-incline presses(X(XReps)
Reps) 2 2x x9-12
9-12 One-legcalf
One-leg calfraises
Reps) 22xx12(8)
Incline flyes(drop;
Reps) 1 1x x10(6)
10(6) Donkeycalf
Donkey calfraises
Reps) 22xx12-15
Bench pressesororwide-grip
dips 1 1x x9-12
9-12 Seatedcalf
Seated calfraises
Reps) 22xx15-20
Bench presses or wide-grip
Bench presses or wide-grip dips dips(drop)
(drop) 1 x
1 x 9(6)9(6)
Superset Workout3:3:Delts,
Workout Delts,Midback,
Flyes declineflyes
Reps) 1 1x x9(6)
9(6) Dumbbellupright
Dumbbell uprightrows
rows) 22xx9(6)
Pushups Reps) 1 1x xmax
max Forward-leanlaterals
Forward-lean laterals(drop;
Reps) 11xx9(6)
Chins Reps) 3 3x x9-12
9-12 Inclineone-arm
Incline one-armlaterals
Reps) 11xx9(6)
Superset Barbellorordumbbell
Barbell dumbbellpresses
Reps) 22xx9-12
Undergrip rows 1 1x x9-12
9-12 Bent-overlaterals
Bent-over laterals(drop;
Reps) 11xx10(6)
Dumbbell pullovers 1 1x x8-10
8-10 Superset
Lying extensions 2 x 9-12
2 x 9-12 Dumbbellshrugs
Dumbbell shrugs(X(XReps)
Reps) 11xx9-12
Superset Uprightrows
Upright rows 11xx8-10
Overhead extensions 1 1x x9-12
9-12 Bent-overdumbbell
Bent-over dumbbellrowsrows 22xx9-12
Kickbacks benchdips
dips 1 1x x8-10
8-10 Bent-armbent-over
Bent-arm bent-overlaterals
Giant set (drop;XXReps)
(drop; Reps) 11xx9(6)
Incline kneeups 1 1x x15-20
15-20 One-armdumbbell
One-arm dumbbellrowsrows 11xx9-12
Flat-bench legraises
raises 1 1x x10-12
10-12 Dumbbellcurls
Dumbbell curls 22xx9-12
crunches 1 1x x10-12
10-12 Concentrationcurls
Concentration curls(drop)
(drop) 11xx9(6)
End-of-bench kneeupskneeups 1 x
1 x 9-129-12 Inclinecurls
Incline curls(X(XReps)
Reps) 11xx9-12
Incline hammercurlscurls(drop)
(drop) 11xx9(6)
Workout Quads,Hamstrings,
Back Dumbbellreverse
Dumbbell reversewrist
(drop) 11xx12(8)
Leg extensions(warmup)
(warmup) 1 1x x12-15
12-15 Dumbbellwrist
Dumbbell wristcurls
(drop) 11xx12(8)
Old-style hacksquats
squats 2 2x x10-15
10-15 Rockers
Rockers 11xx12-20
Leg extensions(drop)
(drop) 1 1x x10(6)
Squats 2 2x x9-12
9-12 Note: If you don’t have a leg extension machine, do old-
Leg curls(drop;
Reps) 1 1x x9(6)
9(6) style hacks, nonlock style. Use partner resistance, towel
Stiff-legged deadlifts 1 1x x9-12
9-12 around the ankles, if you don’t have a leg curl machine.
Hyperextensions Reps) 1 1x x10-15

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As we’ve said six reps per work set.
in the past, train-
Rep Range: On the first exercise
ing each body-
the rep range is seven to nine, on
part only once a the second it’s 10 to 12, and on
week has never the third it’s 13 to 15—or higher.
worked for us as
well as we would Shock: The rep range is eight
have liked, but to 12 on most exercises but with
we figure that intensity techniques like drop
we’re in such a sets, slow negatives, DC training,
depleted state, X Reps and X-hybrid techniques
it may be just to shock new growth.
what the doctor After Shock week it’s back to
ordered. Plus, we Power, and the cycle begins again.
have some new We’ll have more on our new pro-
ideas on how to gram next month, including our
make it more new split as well as our Power
successful for us. workouts. If you’d like to see how
To review, P/RR/ our program is evolving and exactly
S calls for chang- what we’re doing in the gym at the
ing the training moment, check out our X-Blog
protocol every Training Journal at X-Rep.com.
We’re now going week: Editor’s note: For the latest on
back to Eric Broser’s X Reps, X e-books and the X-Blog
Model: Jonathan Lawson

Power/Rep Range/ training and supplement journals,

Shock training visit www.X-Rep.com. A few of the
Straight sets
approach, but with mass-training e-books are shown
with heavy
an X-Rep twist. below. IM
weights, four to

X-traordinary Workouts — X-ceptional Results!

The Ultimate Mass Workout. Beyond X-Rep Muscle 3D Muscle Building. X-traordinary Muscle-
This is the original X-Rep Building. More on X Reps Positions-of-Flexion mass Building Workouts. The big
manual. Includes the and X-hybrid techniques, training. Includes the 20- 10 mass-program arsenal.
ultimate exercise for each including X Fade and pounds-of-muscle-in-10- Includes Heavy/Light, 20-
muscle and workouts. Double-X Overload. weeks size surge program. Rep Squat, Power Pyramid.

www.ironmanmagazine.com \ JANUARY 2009 71
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Naturally Huge
by John Hansen, Mr. Natural Olympia

Best Workout 24 to 30 sets per workout using a split routine, and

although I never saw my abs and never really put on
much mass, my waist was down to 36 inches. That
was three years ago, November, 2005.
to Grow My daughter’s health took me away from training
for almost three years, but she’s now on the mend.
I’ve started training again and getting refocused. I
can still bench-press 145 pounds for three sets of
Q: I just finished reading your October ’08 column eight and deadlift 250 pounds. I’ve never made the
highlighting workouts for beginning bodybuild- commitment to be a real bodybuilder, but I’d like to
ers. I found your advice timely, as I’m starting that do so now.
journey myself, although with a big difference—I’m I’ve returned to an old full-body routine similar
52. I’ve lifted weights off and on over the years but to one you suggested in your column. I’m doing
have never been consistently serious until almost three sets of 12 reps for a dozen exercises. My plan
six years ago. At that time, I was 47, 6’5” and almost was to do that for two to three months while doing
250 pounds with 20-plus percent bodyfat. I started HIT cardio on off-days, then switch to the split rou-
doing full-body workouts and slow-motion cardio. tine you suggested.
After almost three years and a couple of injuries I was amazed at the volume in your split routine.
that helped me learn how to be more careful, I was Is that really what I need to put on solid mass? What
doing very well. My weight was down to 210 with level of intensity is needed with that volume? Later
about 12 percent bodyfat, according to my online in the same issue, C.S. Sloan, a former powerlifter,
trainer. I’d gone from a 90- to a 170-pound bench recommends lots of volume, staying away from
press for three sets of 12 reps, deadlifting 350, doing failure and moderate reps (six to eight), while Steve
Holman’s approach with X Reps and
POF suggests less volume with ex-
treme intensity, even for an older guy
“As I moved like me.
into my 40s, I My question comes down to this:
had to reduce Can I apply the general outline of
my volume and your article to my own training
training days needs as a 52-year-old relative new-
per week.” bie? What general modifications,
if any, would you recommend to
ensure that it’s effective? Or would
you recommend an alternative ap-
proach such as Sloan’s or Holman’s
for someone in my situation?

A: I think it’s great that you’re making

the commitment to be a “real bodybuild-
er.” It’s never too late, and I’m happy that
you’re ready to take on the challenge and
achieve your best condition ever.
The routine I listed in the October issue
is an intermediate program designed for
younger bodybuilders who are trying to
add size and gain weight. That was the
routine I used to bulk up when I was in
my early 20s.
That program is centered on the basic
exercises, using heavy resistance for six to
eight reps. I trained each bodypart twice a
week, but I trained only four days a week
Neveux \ Model: John Hansen

so I’d have three full dayson

(continued topage
volume is relatively high because I trained
four muscle groups at each workout with
an average of 10 to 12 sets per bodypart.
Here’s the routine again:

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Bench presses 4 x 10, 8, 6, 6 times a week. That seems to help recuperation, not only
Incline dumbbell presses 3 x 8, 6, 6 for my muscles but also for my joints and tendons—a big
Flyes 3 x 8, 6, 6 consideration as we get older.
Dumbbell pullovers 3 x 10, 8, 8 By training only two muscle groups per workout instead
Seated military presses 4 x 10, 8, 6, 6 of four, I keep my total volume much lower. That makes
Lateral raises 4 x 10, 8, 6, 6 it easier to train harder at each workout, and it gives me
Bent-over lateral raises 3 x 8, 6, 6 more days off before I train the same bodyparts again. I can
Barbell shrugs 4 x 10, 8, 6, 6 no longer train each muscle group twice a week because I
Pushdowns 4 x 10, 8, 6, 6 don’t recuperate as fast as I used to.
Lying triceps extensions 3 x 8, 6, 6 I think a good routine for you at your level would be to
Weighted dips 3 x 8, 6, 6 split your body up over three workouts. Don’t train three
Standing calf raises 4 x 12, 10, 8, 6 days in a row—you’ll need a day off after two consecutive
Seated calf raises 3 x 12, 10, 8 days of workouts. Instead, train two days on/one day off.
That will give you five days of rest for each muscle group
Tuesday and your body two to three complete days of rest per week.
Incline situps 3 x max Here’s an example:
Incline knee raises 3 x max
Squats 5 x 10, 8, 6, 6, 6 Day 1: Chest, arms, calves
Leg presses 4 x 12, 10, 8, 6 Dumbbell bench presses 4 x 12, 10, 8, 6
Leg curls 4 x 10, 8, 6, 6 Incline presses 3 x 10, 8, 6
Stiff-legged deadlifts 3 x 10, 8, 6 Incline flyes 3 x 10, 8, 8
Wide-grip chins 4 x 10, 8, 6, 6 Close-grip bench presses 3 x 10, 8, 8
Barbell rows 4 x 10, 8, 6, 6 Lying extensions 3 x 10, 8, 6
Seated cable rows 3 x 10, 8, 6 Incline curls 3 x 10, 8, 8
Incline curls 3 x 10, 8, 6 Barbell curls 3 x 10, 8, 6
Barbell curls 3 x 8, 6, 6 Seated calf raises 4 x 20, 15, 12, 10
Wrist curls 4 x 12, 10, 8, 8
Day 2: Abs, legs
Wednesday Hanging knee raises 3 x 30-40
Rest Crunches 3 x 30-40
Leg extensions 3 x 15, 12, 10
Thursday Leg presses 3 x 12, 10, 8
Bench presses 4 x 10, 8, 6, 6 Squats 3 x 10, 8, 8
Incline barbell presses 3 x 8, 6, 6 Leg curls 3 x 12, 10, 8
Incline flyes 3 x 10, 8, 6 Stiff-legged deadlifts 3 x 10, 8, 8
Weighted dips 3 x 8, 6, 6
Seated dumbbell presses 4 x 10, 8, 6, 6 Day 3: Off
Seated lateral raises 4 x 10, 8, 6, 6
Upright rows 3 x 10, 8, 6 Day 4: Delts, back, calves
Power cleans 3 x 8, 6, 6 Seated dumbbell presses 3 x 10, 8, 6
Close-grip bench presses 4 x 10, 8, 6, 6 Lateral raises 3 x 10, 8, 8
Seated barbell extensions 3 x 8, 6, 6 Bent-over lateral raises 3 x 10, 8, 8
Donkey calf raises 4 x 20 Shrugs 3 x 10, 8, 6
Leg press calf raises 3 x 15, 12, 10 Wide-grip chins 3 x 12, 10, 8
Barbell rows 3 x 10, 8, 6
Friday Deadlifts 3 x 10, 8, 6
Incline situps 3 x max Leg press calf raises 4 x 12, 10, 8, 8
Incline knee raises 3 x max
Squats 4 x 12, 10, 8, 8 Day 5: Off
Front squats 3 x 10, 8, 6
Leg curls 4 x 10, 8, 6, 6 Day 6: Repeat cycle
Stiff-legged deadlifts 3 x 10, 8, 6
Wide-grip chins 4 x 12, 10, 8, 6 The program focuses on the basic exercises, but by train-
One-arm dumbbell rows 3 x 8, 6, 6 ing fewer bodyparts per workout, you cut way back on the
T-bar rows 4 x 10, 8, 6, 6 volume. It should be a good routine for you. Keep training
Hyperextensions 3 x 15-20 hard by making the workouts progressive—training heavier
Seated dumbbell curls 3 x 10, 8, 6 or employing techniques such as supersets or drop sets to
Preacher curls 3 x 8, 6, 6 increase the intensity—and you should be able to achieve
Wrist curls 4 x 12, 10, 8, 6 your goal of getting into the best shape of your life.

Q: My calves, and a lot of other people’s, are ex-

As we get older, recuperation plays a bigger role in our tremely stubborn. I’ve noticed improvement recent-
workouts. I’m in my mid-40s now, and I never train more ly, but not much. As the calves are fast-recovering
than four days a week. I’ve modified the intermediate muscles, would it be all right to hit them with four
routine by training each bodypart only once instead of two sets four times a week? I want to do a soleus-promi-

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nent day, then a gastroc- with another 100 pounds
nemius-prominent day, in resistance hanging from
alternating between the belt. I could force out
standing and seated calf 15 reps with that substan-
raises. Any thoughts on tial weight—about 500
that? pounds—before one of the
guys would jump off. I’d
A: The calves are notori- continue doing the exer-
ous for being the body- cise with just one guy on
builder’s most challenging my back and the extra 100
bodypart. The bodybuilders pounds. I could usually
with the best calves usually get another 10 reps with
owe much of their devel- that resistance before the
opment to heredity. Chris other guy would jump off.
Dickerson, Ken Waller, Mike Then, with just the weight
Matarazzo and Mike Men- from the belt, I’d force
tzer always credited their out another 10 reps. That
parents for their incredible amounted to a total of 35
calf development; however, reps.
many bodybuilders don’t By doing drop sets that
put the effort into develop- way, I trained my calves
ing their calves that they with very heavy weight but
do other muscles, like the still did a lot of repetitions
chest, arms or even thighs. to force the blood into the
Another problem is the Calves can muscle. The combination
overwhelming opinion that handle more of high resistance and high
if your calves are weak, frequent reps really made the dif-
it’s all genetics and there’s workouts than ference in building up my
nothing you can do about it. other bodyparts. calves.
My calves were very My current program
skinny when I started body- has me working calves on
building as a teenager. My Monday, doing seated calf
legs were a weak point, and raises—the best exercise
I always worked hard on for developing the so-
them to bring them into leus—for four sets of 10 to
balance with my upper 20 reps followed by stand-
body. My calves eventually developed into one of my stron- ing calf raises for the gastrocs, three to four sets of eight to
ger bodyparts. 12 reps.
Calves seem to recuperate much more quickly than most I use high reps on the seated calf raises because the
muscle groups, so they need to be trained more than once soleus is composed mostly of slow-twitch fibers, and it
a week. I work my calves with two exercises for three to four responds best to high repetitions—15 to 20. After I have the
sets each, twice a week. I usually train them on Monday blood in the muscle, I move to standing calf raises. I use
and Thursday, giving them three to four days of rest be- heavier weights for eight to 12 reps to develop the fast-
tween workouts. twitch muscle fibers of the gastrocnemius.
I think the best exercise for calves is the donkey calf On Thursday I begin with donkey calf raises for four sets
raise. I love doing donkeys because the weight is distrib- of 20 to 30 reps. That blows up my calves and gives me a
uted directly over the hips—unique for a calf exercise. In great pump. When I finish the four sets, I can hardly walk.
addition, donkey calf raises give you heavy resistance and I finish off with another three sets of calf raises on the leg
higher repetitions. press machine, keeping my knees straight and getting a full
The key to building the calves is to train them heavy range of motion—three sets of 10 to 12 reps.
and use high repetitions to really pump the blood into You can see the pattern here. Do high reps with the first
the muscle. If you think about it, the calf muscles are the exercise to get a great pump in your calves and then follow
farthest from the heart, so you have to do more repetitions up with another exercise that uses heavier resistance. The
to get the blood into the calves. Even so, you can’t train combination is the best for developing size in the calves.
the calves with light weights and expect them to grow. The
muscle fibers in the calves are accustomed to walking every Editor’s note: John Hansen has won the Mr. Natural
day, so doing high reps with a light-to-moderate resistance Olympia and is a two-time Natural Mr. Universe winner.
won’t do the trick. Check out his Web site at www.NaturalOlympia.com or
I do donkey calf raises with someone sitting on my back send questions or comments to him via e-mail at John@
instead of using a machine. Most of the machines I’ve seen NaturalOlympia.com. Look for John’s new DVD, “Natural
don’t have enough resistance to really develop the calves. Bodybuilding Seminar and Competitions,” along with his
In addition to the weight of my partner, I use a belt to strap book, Natural Bodybuilding, and his training DVD, “Real
on more weight. Muscle,” at his Web site or at Home Gym Warehouse,
At one point in my career, when I made the best gains www.Home-Gym.com. Send written correspondence to
in calf development, I had two guys sit on my back along John Hansen, P.O. Box 3003, Darien, IL 60561. IM

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Shredded Muscle
by David Goodin

The State
Why is that? More important, which organization
would you recommend?

A: I totally understand your confusion about the natu-

of Natural ral bodybuilding organizations. A quick search yielded
the following: OCB, IFPA, NGA, INBF, WNBF, ABA, INBA,
Bodybuilding NABF, NANBF, ONBF, NPA, IBA, BLNPA and NFSO. That’s 20
organizations, and new ones are popping up all the time.
In some cases promoters of natural bodybuilding have
had issues with their sanctioning organizations. Instead of
finding another established natural organization, they just
Q: I’m interested in competing in natural body- started their own.
building. I started looking for shows, and I’ve found I’ve known of other promoters who were also athletes
a plethora of natural bodybuilding organizations. who created their own “natural” organization to match

Dave (third from the right) competing in

the ’08 NPC Team Universe welterweight
division. He placed second.

Roland Balik

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Roland Balik

Drug-free competitions are becoming more and more popular in the NPC.
Promoters see the potential as steroids continue to get bad publicity.

their own natural status, such as one, a limb last year and promoted a natu-
three or five years drug-free, complete ral NPC contest in Juneau, Alaska. Due
with various definition of “drug-free.” to the excitement his contest gener-
Still others formed their own organiza- ated, NPC promoters Garry Loeden
tions so that they could collect both and Philip Bradfield added the Natural
the entry fees and the organization’s Crystal Cup to their contest schedule
membership fees. It’s mind-boggling in Anchorage.
if you’re an athlete trying to get started You’re probably wondering why I’m
in the sport. going on and on about NPC natural
For those who aren’t familiar with contests. Well, when you compete in
the various organizations, just come the NPC, you generally get a lot more
compete in my show, the NPC Texas competition and a lot more coverage.
Shredder Classic. Seriously, although Regardless of which organization(s)
the NPC is not known for natural you compete in, you should look for
bodybuilding, the number of drug- certain qualities. One is the drug-free
tested NPC contests is growing rapidly. requirement. I haven’t examined every
Dave Liberman has been promoting one of them, but some organizations
NPC natural shows in Ohio very suc- accept only lifetime drug-free athletes.
cessfully for years. Just off the top of Most, however, put a time limit on
my head I can name seven states that drug-free status, such as one year or
have NPC natural shows, and most of several years. Some don’t specify an
them have more than one. amount of time that an athlete must
It requires promoters who are will- be drug-free. For those organizations
ing to take the risk on a natural show you have to be clean enough only to
to get things started. I’ve been pro- pass the test, usually urinalysis. The
moting the Texas Shredder Classic for next thing to look at is the banned-
11 years now. My first year to sanction substance list.
it with the NPC was 2008, and the or-
ganization allowed me to do the same Editor’s note: See Dave Goodin’s
drug testing I’ve always done. The new blog at www.IronManMagazine
response was so great that our state .com. Click on the blog selection in
and district chairman, Lee Thompson, the top menu bar. To contact Dave
has committed to promoting an NPC directly, send e-mail to TXShredder@
Natural Texas State Championships aol.com. IM
next year. Corey Pavitt stepped out on

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Critical Mass
by Steve Holman

Muscle-Building Tips and Tricks

Q: Your latest X-Rep workout program in
the e-book X-Rep Update #1 is amazing. I
added a couple of pounds of muscle after only
two weeks, and I swear I’m seeing cuts and
striations I’ve never seen on me before. Do
you notice more size and detail when you use
fascia-expansion workouts?

A: Standard POF protocol is the midrange ex-

ercise followed by the stretch exercise followed
by the contracted exercise. For example, bench
presses (midrange), dumbbell flyes (stretch) and
cable crossovers (contracted). Merely switching the
order of the last two exercises—pump followed by
stretch—has a greater loosening effect on the en-
casements around the muscle fibers, which, theo-
retically, makes it possible for more growth to occur.
Many researchers claim that the fascia, or encase-
ments, restrict growth. It’s a constriction that can be
remedied somewhat by pumping the muscle with
a contracted move like cable crossovers and then
elongating that full muscle with a stretch exercise
like dumbbell flyes soon after. It’s a lot like stretch-
ing a new balloon before you blow it up to make it
easier to inflate.
Another plus is that doing the stretch-position
exercise last, when the target muscle is fully en-
gorged, puts more stress on the insertion points. In
the example above, doing dumbbell flyes last, after
your pecs are fully engorged, puts more stress on the
inner area where the pec major attaches to the rib
cage. That will etch in more detail all the way up the
inner chest. I have trouble with my pecs—stubborn
bastards!—but switching the exercise order gave me
new size and detail. It has worked for other muscle
groups as well.
It’s more evidence that one small change can
create big gains. Simply switching the exercise order
can get you growing again—as you’ve discovered—
and chisel attention-grabbing detail. Oh, one other
thing: That latest X-Rep program also includes static
holds, which can produce more muscle detail. It’s
one reason competitive bodybuilders get harder and
more dense-looking muscles when they practice
posing for a contest. Posing is a form of static-hold
training; however, using weights is even more effec-
tive at chiseling more eye-popping cuts.

Q: I’m 44 years old, and I like the idea of

heavy workouts alternated with light ones. My
question is, Is it a good idea to use preexhaus-
tion up front on light day instead of straight
sets? So for light quads I’d do leg extensions
supersetted with squats for two rounds in-
stead of doing two sets of subfailure squats
and a drop set on extensions afterward. I ask

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because I’ve read that you don’t like preexhaustion.
Preexhaustion is
A: I don’t think preex is very effective if used exclusively, excellent for light-
but it’s an ideal mass tactic in certain cases, and this is one day workouts.
of them. Here’s why: You’ll probably get an even bigger
pump on light day with preex than than with the straight-
set method listed in the heavy/light program. Remember,
light day is for pushing more blood into the target muscle
for glycogen replenishment and recuperation, and that’s
precisely what preex does best.
Preex isn’t so great for force generation, the key muscle-
building component, because you get less fiber activation
doing the contracted-position exercise first. That isolation
move involves fewer fibers and creates lactic acid pooling
in the target muscle. In other words, the prefatigue it cre-
ates derails your ability to generate maximum force on the
important big, midrange exercise, which you do second in
a preex superset. In your example, the big exercise, squats,
is hampered by leg extension fatigue, which reduces force
generation and fiber activation; however, that makes preex training I restructured my
perfect for light-day training. Remember, on light day physique. By adding X Reps
you’re trying to maximize pump and minimize damage. and X-hybrid techniques in
So at your heavy quad workout you do straight sets of my 40s, I’ve gotten bigger and
squats and a drop set or two on sissy squats, a traumatic better. My before and after
stretch-position exercise. Then on light day you do two pre- photos are posted at X-Rep
exhaustion supersets of leg extensions and squats—quick .com.
and effective—and you won’t believe the full-blown pump. You’re correct that the
older you get, the more cau-

Neveux \ Model: Brian Yersky

Q: I’m using the Basic Ultimate Mass Workout 1 on tious you must be about
page 56 of the e-book The Ultimate Mass Workout. overtraining. It’s a never-end-
I like doing the ultimate exercise for each bodypart ing challenge, which is why
with X Reps because I have limited time to train. I I emphasize two important
know that end-of-set X-Rep partials are important mass-building techniques.
for getting maximum growth stimulation, but I’m 1) Phase training. It’s
having trouble X-ing at the end of some of them, like four to six weeks of all-out
incline hammer curls. When I reach exhaustion, I training followed by one or two weeks of subfailure work-
can’t budge the dumbbells. Should I grab lighter outs without X Reps or intensity tactics. I call the easier
dumbbells and do a drop set instead of X Reps? week the supercompensation phase, as you actually grow
during the downshift from the previous all-out workouts.
A: As you read in the e-book, the research suggests that 2) Heavy/light. For older trainees and/or hardgainer
movement is necessary for optimal nervous system activa- types I highly recommend using a heavy/light training
tion, which means more muscle fibers get in on the action protocol for much of the year. You hit each bodypart with a
with X-Rep partials at the end of a set. On some exercises, shorter all-out workout—to exhaustion with X Reps. Then
like incline curls and lying triceps extensions, the addition at the next workout for that bodypart you use a subfailure
of X Reps is impossible. For those moves I suggest a Static workout with higher reps—or preex, as explained above—
X instead. for pump and recovery, no X Reps.
When you reach exhaustion—no more full-range reps If you’re a regular reader of this column, you know that I
are possible—slowly move the weight into the semistretch firmly believe that no matter what your age, some intense
position, or X Spot, and simply hold the weight as you flex training is a must for triggering the best and fastest gains
the target muscle. That end-of-set static hold is the next possible—challenging your muscles gives them a reason
best thing to X-Rep partials. You’ll feel it working. It’s much to adapt and grow. If a muscle gets the same lower-level
better than just stopping the set at positive failure, which stimulus constantly, there’s no reason for it to get larger and
reduces tension time and leaves too many fibers under- stronger.
stimulated. An all-out set also activates the size principle of muscle
Neveux \ Model: Brian Yersky

fiber recruitment best—that’s a domino effect, with the last

Q: I’m 42 years old, on the thin side and have few intense reps activating key fast-twitch growth fibers
been training for many years. I want to know if I’ll that are difficult to recruit in abundance with subfailure
overtrain by taking my work sets to failure and then sets—and adding X Reps gets at even more of them. Just
adding X-Rep partials to the end. Some expert train- don’t get carried away and don’t forget to back off regularly.
ers say it will cause burnout and that you have to be
juiced to stand that style of workouts. I’m natural, Editor’s note: Steve Holman is the author of many
so I wonder if I can handle that type of training at bodybuilding best-sellers and the creator of Positions-
my age. of-Flexion muscle training. For information on the POF
videos and Size Surge programs, see the ad sections
A: I’m almost 50 years old, drug free and making great beginning on pages 174 and 264, respectively. Also visit
gains with X Reps and X-hybrid tactics—DXO, X Fade, static www.X-Rep.com for information on X-Rep and 3D
holds, etc. I’ve been thin all my life. I weighed less than 120 POF methods and e-books. IM
pounds when I started training. With Positions of Flexion

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A Bodybuilder
Is Born
Episode 42
by Ron Harris
Photography by Michael Neveux

hristmas had come and gone. For
Christmas Eve we had the tradi-
tional dinner at my sister-in-law’s
house. Traditional, that is, if you
were raised in Puerto Rico, as most of her hus-
band’s family was. The house was packed wall
to wall—no doubt exceeding local fire codes—
and the stereo blasting salsa and merengue
music at ear-splitting levels was accompanied
by a makeshift band playing bongos, a trum-
pet, a cowbell and an odd instrument that
involved scraping a ridged piece of wood. The
decibels were roughly equivalent to a jet tak-
ing off. We left at 1 a.m., and the party was still
going strong, as the alcohol hadn’t run out. At
one point I had actually touched my cheek
to make sure blood wasn’t trickling out
of my eardrum from the ungodly din. So
much for silent night, holy night.
Christmas had been a great day for
my kids. My daughter got an iPod Nano,
which would enable her to more ef-
fectively ignore us when we told her to
clean her room or do her homework.
My son got a bunch of toys, the king of
them all being RoboRaptor, a remote-
control robot dinosaur. He was ecstatic
for about 10 minutes, until he started
whining that he needed a second
RoboRaptor to do battle with this one.
How could we have been so incon-
Now we were in the weird in-be-
tween week, after Christmas but
before New Year’s. Unfortunately
for my wife, her birthday fell smack
dab in the middle of it. She was
used to family members being too
Model: Rob Riches

financially devastated from buy-

ing gifts for the 200 assorted children—Latin
families tend to be large—to get her anything.
I’d at least bought her a very nice white-gold
necklace this year.

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Bodybuilder Is Born
It was the day before New time to look bar as a dessert with each meal had
Year’s Eve. Janet and I still back on the year helped, along with training hard
weren’t sure where we were that had passed and heavy consistently. That gave
going the next night. Randy and see which him about 30 grams of protein and
and his latest girlfriend were goals had been 300 extra calories, which all added
headed to a club about met and which up.
an hour south of had not. That I was now up to 229 in the morn-
us in Rhode could apply ing and 232 by evening. Funny how
Island called not only that works, isn’t it? If I could just
Therapy. to body- not go to the bathroom for a few
It opened building days, maybe I could hit 250—as-
at 10 p.m. but suming I didn’t die first from the
toxic backup. Randy wanted to
reach 225 by the first day of spring,
and my new goal was 235—morn-
ing weight, after a visit or two to the
porcelain throne. That was one goal
for the coming year. Now it was
time to sketch out the remainder.
“Randy, I have a plan for you,” I
“Uh-oh,” he warily replied.
“Relax. It’s nothing that involves
torture or staying celibate for any
length of time.”
“Same thing,” he stated.
“There’s a contest in September
that has a novice class, with two
weight divisions, over and under
175. You would be over.”
“I would hope so.”
“You’re going to win the class, or
at least do your damnedest to win
it. But winning isn’t as important
as showing a very noticeable im-
provement from the New Englands.
I want you weighing in at no less
“Eight pounds of pure muscle than 192 onstage, with a much bet-
in the right places make a big ter chest, arms and calves.”
Now, 192 at 5’11” is not a mass
difference in a physique, junior.” monster in modern bodybuilding
by any stretch of the imagination.
Ronnie Coleman won the Olympia
Model: Chris Jalali

in ’04 at the same height and 296

pounds, though there’s a rumor
that genetic testing has confirmed
he is not human but in fact an en-
and didn’t close until 8 a.m. on to career and personal relation- tirely new species, Ronnie Sapiens
New Year’s Day. I was a bit wary of ships as well. Randy and I had been Giganticus. Even without compar-
staying out that late. I’d probably training together a bit more lately, ing himself to Ronnie, however,
need therapy just to get back on as it was a time of year almost no- Randy wasn’t too impressed with
track with real life. At 36 years old body was buying new cars—unless the goal I had set for him.
I was a bit past my partying prime. we’re talking Hot Wheels. I didn’t “That’s it? Just eight pounds
By 3 a.m., no matter how hopping want to get into his work situation heavier than last year?” Apparently
the club might be, I’d be craving or relationships, but if we were he thought I was setting the mark
a warm bed to crawl into after a talking about bodybuilding—that’s too low.
warm mug of protein shake and where I could poke my nose into “Eight pounds of pure muscle
cookies. his business. in the right places make a big dif-
Where we went on New Year’s We’d both been doing well on our ference in a physique, junior,” I
Eve wasn’t important. What was winter bulking plan. Since Thanks- informed him. “I like to use the
important was that the year was giving Randy’s weight had climbed old analogy Mike Mentzer made
coming to an end, and fast. It was from 212 to 217. Having a protein famous. He used to say to imagine

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Bodybuilder Is Born
Once the show is over, you rest up and eat what you want for a
what that week, and then you start packing the muscle on all over again
amount, in because your body will be ready to grow after the long diet.
this case eight
pounds, would
look like if it
was raw steak
piled on a
table in front
of you. That’s
when you get
a better ap-
preciation for
just how much
muscle it really
Randy said, his
eyebrows knit
in concentra-
tion as he no

doubt envi-
sioned slabs
of meat. “So,
once I get to 225, do I start dieting Anyway, I
or what?” believe you
“Sort of,” I explained. “You can actually
should hit that weight by about keep gain-
April. That’s when I want you to ing muscle
very gradually start cleaning up until about
your diet. You’ll still be eating plen- 12 weeks out,
ty of food, just not as much worth- when we’ll
less crap like those start limiting
muffins from your carbs.
Dunkin’ Donuts So when I
you seem to be say 192, I
addicted to.” really think
“They’re you could
good,” he noted. very well be
“I’m sure a few pounds more than that. But planned out for me.”
they are. by aiming for the lower number, we “That’s right. Now if only I could
underpromise and overdeliver.” figure out what I was going to do
“Cool. So I win the tomorrow night.”
show—then what?” Randy thought a moment, then
“The show is in late had it.
September. Once it’s “They’re having something at
over, you rest up and the planetarium with a laser show,
eat what you want then champagne and cheese at
for a week, and then midnight. That’s about your speed,
you start packing right?” He burst out laughing at his
the muscle on all own lame joke. The sad thing is, I
over again because was thinking about how I could do
your body will be that and be in bed by one.
ready to grow after “Okay, but if you’re not back
the long diet. When from that club by noon the next
we talk at this time day, I may have you declared legally
again next year, I dead.”
expect you to be “You really aren’t going?” he
about 230 pounds in asked.
the same condition “Kid, I pass the torch to you. Just
Ronnie you are now.” make sure you get home with some
Coleman. “Wow, so you brain cells left. You’ve got a big year

have my whole year ahead of you.” IM

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How Cover Man Dave Goodin
Continues to Compete and
Improve at 50 — Drug-Free
by Steve Holman
Photography by Michael Neveux

Dave Goodin is amazing. He still because I was accommodating my

has the motivation and rock-solid training partners. On my three-day
physique to hit the bodybuilding split I do legs on Monday; chest,
stage with the best—and come out front and middle delts, and biceps
on top, or close to it, every time. At on Wednesday; then back, rear delts
his most recent outing, the ’08 NPC and triceps on Friday.
Team Universe Championships, IM: In the programs de-
he took second in the welterweight scribed in your blog at Iron
class, beating some very good, and ManMagazine.com, you often
young, drug-free bodybuilders. And list, say, seven sets for squats
he did it only a year after ripping his or seven sets for bench. How
hamstring from the bone in a freak many of those sets are lighter
accident. warmup sets on the big, com-
It’s not only contests he can pound exercises, and how many
zero in on. At every photo shoot are work sets?
he schedules, he’s rock-hard and DG: When I list seven sets, usually
ripped. Is the guy some kind of mu- my first four are warmup sets and
tant, a shred-meister from planet my last three are work sets. Particu-
Super-striate? Let’s find out. larly with the basic exercises like
IM: What’s your current pre- squats, leg presses, deadlifts, bench
contest split? Lay out a one- presses and overhead presses I’m
week snapshot for me. not only doing sets to warm up my
DG: Monday, legs; Tuesday, chest muscles and joints, I’m also doing
and light biceps; Thursday, back; progressively heavier sets to prepare
Friday, shoulders, biceps, triceps. my nervous system for the heavier
IM: How does that change in weights I will use on my work sets.
the off-season? If, for example, I tried to do a couple
DG: My preference is to go to of warmup sets with 180 pounds
a three-day Monday-Wednesday- and 270 pounds on the leg press and
Friday split in the off-season. I then jump straight to my workout
haven’t done that the past few years weight of 810, I probably wouldn’t

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www.ironmanmagazine.com \ JANUARY 2009 97
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be able to handle the weight be-
cause (at least for me) my nervous
system wouldn’t be ready. If I work
my way up to the 810 in 90-pound-
per-set jumps, when I get to 810, I
can usually do it for at least 20 reps.
IM: Do you go to failure on
your work sets? And what about
forced reps—do you ever use
DG: I go very very close and
sometimes to failure on my work
sets. I rarely do forced reps. I’ll only
do them if I have a spotter I’m really
comfortable with. I like a spotter
who gives just enough help to keep
the weight moving smoothly. If you
get somebody who is going to let the
weight stop completely before they
help you, then you’re in for trouble.
At my age I really have to stay in
the groove to avoid injury, and with
forced reps it’s easy to get out of the
groove unless your spotter is really
IM: I know you mix up the
exercises at every workout.
For example, I see you do hack
squats first on some leg days,
squats first on others. Are there
any general rules you follow as
far as exercises go, or do you
just do whatever you feel like
“I’m not only doing? Do you ever do isolation
exercises first?
doing sets to DG: I actually mixed up my leg
workouts much more this year than
warm up my I usually do. My legs were behind
because of my 2007 hamstring in-
muscles and jury [and surgery]. I had not done
hack squats in years but was looking
joints, I’m for a way to add more sweep to my
also doing quads. I’ve also had a lower-back
problem that popped up as soon as
progressively I got off the crutches and painkillers
last year—and it hasn’t gone away.
heavier sets I’ve had quite a few weeks that my
back was really sore, and I knew I
to prepare my didn’t want to squat as heavy, so I
did hacks or leg presses first.
nervous system My general rule is to always do
the compound movements first
for the heavier so that I can handle the heaviest
weights on them. I very, very rare-
weights I will use ly—almost never—do an isolation
movement first.
on my work sets.” IM: In one of the routines
on your blog you supersetted
a chest exercise with a back
movement all the way through.
How do you like that agonist/
antagonist-superset method,

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and do you use it often?
DG: It’s not something that I do
very often. Usually when I do that
kind of superset it’s because it’s the
week of a show and I’m working
chest and back on the same day. Or,
“I haven’t if I’m working out by myself and my
shoulders are bothering me, doing
trained a pulling movement after the push-
ing exercise makes them feel better.
bodyparts When I do it for that reason, I don’t
go hard on the back movements.
twice per week Occasionally, if I’m pressed
for time, I’ll superset agonist and
since I was in antagonist muscle groups on my
isolation exercises. Last year I often
my late 20s.” supersetted leg extensions and leg
curls. Another one I’ve done quite
a bit, but rarely this year, is biceps
and triceps. I like the pump I get
when doing those supersets, but I’m
always concerned that I can’t handle
as much weight as usual on the
second movement.
IM: You seem to train with
a lot of volume. Do you think
that’s best when you train each
bodypart only once a week? Do
you ever do lower volume and
train bodyparts more often, or
do you feel that may overstress
your middle-aged body?
DG: I haven’t trained bodyparts
twice per week since I was in my
late 20s. I tried to go back to train-
ing everything twice a week when
I was in my mid-30s, but my joints
just couldn’t take it. I would say that
part of the reason that my training
volume is so high is my propensity
for injuries.
I’m experimenting with doing
a little extra work for certain body-
parts. This year I started throwing
in three or four sets of curls after
my chest workout in order to try
to bring up my biceps. Those were
more pumping-type sets—not ex-
haustive. It worked really well. Just
a couple of weeks ago I added a few
sets of laterals after chest to try to
put more width on my medial delts.
IM: You and I are almost the
same age, but I notice that you
don’t have the loose-skin issues
that I’ve been experiencing the
past couple of years when I get
lean. Do you do something to
prevent that, is it genetics, or is
it just a function of staying fair-
ly lean all year so the skin never
gets stretched?

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“Getting fatter to
add more muscle
that I can’t hold on
to doesn’t help me
at contest time.”

DG: I’m sure that genetics does on how often I drink margaritas. time. Plus, I like looking good all
play a part in it, but I think that stay- [Laughs] the time—not just when I’m getting
ing fairly lean is the biggest thing. I think the big thing is that eat- ready to step onstage.
In the past eight years I don’t think ing poorly makes it harder to put on IM: A sound approach I’m
I’ve been more than 15 pounds out muscle. There are a lot of physique finally realizing myself. Can you
of contest shape. I prefer to keep athletes who go back to really bad list your most recent precontest
it within 10 to 12 pounds. I’ve also eating habits in the off-season and diet? Have you changed it in any
noticed that since I started taking rationalize it as “bulking.” I’ve done way over the past few years as
essential fatty acids, my skin looks the bulk-up thing a couple of times. you’ve gotten older?
much healthier in contest shape. There were a couple of years that I DG: I changed my contest diet
IM: You’ve said that you stay got to 30 pounds over my contest dramatically about 14 years ago.
in the 8-to-10-percent-bodyfat weight, but by the time I dieted When I first got into bodybuilding
range most of the year and then back down into ripped condition, in the early ’80s, the lowfat, high-
take 12 weeks or more to come I was only a pound heavier. I had carb, moderate-protein diet was in
down to 3 percent for competi- to diet so much harder and do so vogue. When I started competing in
tion. Do you think staying so much more cardio to get the fat off the WNBF [without weight classes],
lean makes it harder to build that any muscle I may have added I needed to put on a considerable
more muscle? was lost by the time I was in con- amount of muscle to be competitive
DG: Well, I’ve never gone over test shape. Getting fatter to add with the other natural pros. I dou-
10 percent bodyfat. I usually stay more muscle that I can’t hold on bled my protein intake from about
around 6 to 8 percent, depending to doesn’t help me out at contest 125 grams per (continued on page 107)

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“I’m definitely not
a low-carb guy.
Even with about
40 percent of my
calories coming
from carbs, I will
sometimes get
glycogen depleted.”

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Midafternoon depletion in the past, I got terribly
8-10 ounces grilled chicken flat from it. Having adequate carbs
breast, salad, 1 or 2 pieces fresh in your diet spares protein. I’m not
fruit that big of a guy. I don’t have any
extra muscle that I can afford to lose
Late afternoon as I prepare for a show.
1 protein bar or Pro-Fusion IM: How do you keep the fat-
protein drink burning process moving along
as you get leaner? Do you in-
Evening crease cardio as a contest gets
12 ounces grilled chicken or closer, or do you reduce your
grilled fish, salad, 1 piece fresh calories or both?
fruit DG: Sometimes I reduce calories
a little by cutting back on carbs a bit
Before bed or by cutting out fats where I can.
1 piece fresh fruit or protein But the biggest thing for me is in-
bar creasing cardio. I’ll add more cardio
sessions—sometimes doing it two
IM: How does your diet or even three times per day. I prefer
differ in the off-season? that to having one much longer
Also, when you start your session.
precontest diet, do you All of my cardio is walking outside
move to what you outlined or riding the Lifecycle. I did prob-
(continued from page 102) day to 250. earlier, or do you gradually cut ably 90 percent of my cardio walk-
I also cut starches out of my contest down to that over the first few ing this year. The “Shredder Walk,”
diet and got my carbs from low-gly- weeks? which is what the guys at Hyde Park
cemic fresh fruits. The only adjust- DG: In the off-season I add Gym here in Austin named it, is
ments I’ve made to my diet in the starches back into my diet. I also like four miles round trip from the gym
past few years are: 1) following some a glass or two of wine with dinner, down to Memorial Stadium, where
of the nutrient-timing guidelines, 2) and I like to sip a good tequila when the Longhorns play. About a block
adding essential fatty acids and 3) in I go out. During the off-season I’m before the stadium there’s an eight-
just the last two years I’ve added a not nearly as strict, and I’ll eat chips story parking garage. When I get
lot more supplements from Muscle- and salsa if it’s set in front of me or there, I run up the stairs, come back
Link to my nutrition plan. pizza occasionally with my kids. down and continue to the stadium.
Here’s a typical day from my con- My off-season diet is still lowfat At the stadium I walk up the ramps
test training this summer. I’d esti- most of the time. I never eat fried to the upper deck—11 stories. Then
mate it’s about 2,300 calories. foods and rarely eat desserts. I eat I go back down, back to the parking-
desserts usually only at Thanksgiv- garage stairs again and then back
Breakfast (6 a.m.-ish) ing and Christmas dinners (my to Hyde Park Gym. You don’t notice
4 egg white omelet with 2-3 mom makes great apple pie!). that it’s slightly downhill when
ounces grilled chicken and nonfat I plan the start of my contest diet you’re headed to the University of
cheese; 1 orange or grapefruit by how many pounds I think I need Texas campus, but you notice that
to lose. If I’m 10 pounds over my it’s uphill on the way back!
On the way to work contest weight, I’ll give myself 12 I do the Shredder Walk only once
Venti black-eye from Starbucks weeks. A few years ago I found my- or twice a week. Most of the time my
(large coffee with two shots ex- self 15 pounds over, so I started my walks are about two miles.
presso) contest diet 17 weeks out. I usually IM: Have you ever tried high-
gradually work my way into the full- intensity cardio—the interval
Midmorning blown contest diet over the course method, alternating all-out
1 protein bar or Pro-Fusion pro- of a few weeks. sprints with lower-intensity
tein drink IM: You’re not a low-carb guy. work?
I believe you said you usually DG: Yes, I have. About six years
Noon (workout) keep carbs at about 40 percent. ago I thought that would be a good
During workout: 8-10 ounces Ga- Ever tried the low-carb route? idea, and the second time I went
torade and 8 ounces water with 1/2 DG: I’m definitely not a low-carb out to do sprints, I tore a hamstring
scoop Pro-Fusion, 1 scoop Xtend guy. Even with about 40 percent (even though I was thoroughly
and 1/2 scoop Creasol of my calories coming from carbs, warmed up). A few years later one of
Immediately after workout: 10- I will sometimes get glycogen de- my buddies tried sprinting for car-
12 ounces Gatorade with 1 1/2-2 pleted. I feel horrible! I can’t think dio and tweaked a hamstring. I just
scoops Pro-Fusion and 1/2 scoop straight, my legs feel like lead, and talked to Mary Hobbs, a national-
Creasol I can’t get a pump or a burn when level bodybuilder, a few weeks ago.
I’m training. When I’ve done carb She tore a calf muscle sprinting

www.ironmanmagazine.com \ JANUARY 2009 107

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SHREDDER “I think the big
thing is that eating
ramps as she prepared for the NPC
USA and had to drop out. poorly makes it
While it sounds great in theory, the harder to put on
practice is risky. The other issue I have muscle.”
with high-intensity work for cardio is
where to put it into your weekly rou-
tine. My leg workouts are so exhaustive
that by the time the soreness wears off,
I wouldn’t have time to recover from
the sprints before it was time for my
next leg workout.
IM: Do you have any workout se-
crets and/or favorite supplements
for getting your patented Texas
Shredder look?
DG: Workout secrets? Hmm—not
really. Go extremely hard on the basic
exercises, but that’s not much of a
secret. Don’t cheat on your diet—but
that’s no secret either.
Favorite supplements—I have a
bunch! Here they are in order of impor-
Pro Fusion (protein powder—Mus-
Creasol (titrated creatine—Muscle-
Omega Stak (essential fatty acids—
Life Pak Nano (Pharmanex)
Xtend (branched-chain amino
Red Dragon (beta-alanine—Muscle-Link)
“There is no
substitute for GH Stak (Muscle-Link)
consistency—and ZMA-T (zinc and magnesium—Muscle-Link)
that’s consistency Cort-Bloc (phosphatidylserine—Muscle-Link)
in both training Ribose Size (Muscle-Link—this I use much more in the off-
and diet.” season)
Hyperdrive 3.0 (ALR Industries—I just discovered this prod-
uct last summer; it’s the best thermogenic I’ve come across)

You’ll notice that the first six supplements listed are things
that actually add to the nutrition that I’m taking in. I think
those are the most important. If you can afford to take more
supplements, then you add compounds that affect changes
in hormone levels. That said, I have to say that GH Stak,
ZMA-T and Cort-Bloc are incredible. I don’t think I could do
without them now that I’ve used them and seen the results.
IM: I know you don’t do the same exercises at every
workout, but can you list your favorite mass move for
each bodypart?
DG: That’s easy!
Legs: Squats and leg presses
Chest: Bench presses and incline presses
Back: Deadlifts and rows
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Shoulders: Overhead presses
Biceps: Dumbbell curls
Triceps: A toss-up between skull
crushers, pressdowns, dips (when my
shoulders feel good) and seated tri-
ceps extensions

IM: Do you have any training tips

for middle-aged bodybuilders that
might help them keep packing on
the muscle?
DG: Be consistent! There is no substi-
tute for consistency—and that’s in both
training and diet. People always ask my
age. Then they ask me how I can be in
such great shape at 50 (I’ll actually be 50
on March 8). The thing is that I eat pretty
clean year-round, and I’ve never stopped
training. In 27 years my longest layoff
was six weeks—and that was 16 years
ago. In ’97 I had biceps-tendon-reattach-
ment surgery. I was back in the gym a
week later doing everything that I could
do with a cast on my right arm. Last year
I had the hamstring tendon reattached
on a Friday, and I did a chest workout
the following Tuesday. People marveled
that I was dedicated enough to hobble
around the gym on crutches with a leg
ridiculously swollen and immobilized.
But my response was, “What should I
do? Sit around and let everything else
shrink up? I know I’m going to have one
seriously atrophied leg, but I’m not going
to let the rest of my body go to pot!” The
importance of being consistent cannot
be overstressed.
I guess the only training adjustment
I’ve made as I’ve gotten older is that I
have to move the weights much more
smoothly and deliberately. I’m really
careful with my technique and very care-
ful not to get out of the groove. I can’t
train with the reckless abandon that I did
even 10 years ago. It takes the injuries
too long to heal these days.
I also listen to my body more. If my
joints are sore (I mean sorer than usual),
or if anything doesn’t feel right, I’ll keep
the weights lighter and do more reps. I’m
also careful not to get overzealous when
I’m having a really good day. I might feel
like I could handle 10 more pounds, but
if I’ve done enough to properly fatigue
the muscles, I’ll move on and save the
increase for next time. Hopefully, I’ve
gotten wiser. Sometimes I question that
though. [Laughs]

Editor’s note: Visit Dave Goodin’s

Texas Shredder blog at www.IronMan
Magazine.com. IM

110 JANUARY 2009 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

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The Anabolic Key
to Unlocking Gains
for Older Athletes

by Jacob M. Wilson, M.S., CSCS, and Gabriel J. Wilson, M.S., CSCS

Photography by Michael Neveux

50-Year-Old Athletes and
ne of the most
frightening things
Resistance Training
about getting Before delving into the central
older is the seem- issue of amino acid supplementa-
ingly unavoidable tion for masters athletes, we want
loss of strength, to address common questions: “I’m
muscle and power. From age 25 to getting older, so is bodybuilding
50 the average male and female lose still for me? Can I still get
10 percent of muscle and after 50, 1 results in the gym?”
to 1.4 percent every year.1 Do those The answer is
statistics apply, though, to masters absolutely yes.
bodybuilders and strength athletes? For ex-
Do they have different nutritional ample, stud-
needs for optimizing growth from ies indicate
what they needed when they were that men and
in their 20s? women aged 50
A great deal of our research con- to 100 can achieve
cerns why people lose muscle tissue 50 to 60 percent in-
after the age of 50 at an accelerated creases in muscle cell size,2,3 60 to
rate, how you can prevent that loss 260 percent elevations in isomet-
and, most important for the readers ric (handgrip) and dynamic (free
of IRON MAN, how older athletes weights and machines) strength2,3
respond to training. What we and and 30 percent increases in power
others have found is that a blunted in short periods of time—12 to
muscle-building response to the 16 weeks.4 If building muscle and
amino acid leucine plays a promi- changing your body are your goals,
nent role in muscle loss with age. then those studies enable us to
Model: Steve Holman

That leads to practical info you can boldly declare that bodybuilding
use to reverse the muscle-tissue and strength training are for you,
aging process. regardless of your age.
Nevertheless, studies indicate

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www.ironmanmagazine.com \ JANUARY 2009 115
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amino acids
that the overall growth response in roughly equal
to training is blunted compared to proportion.
what young people experience.5 The
reason may lie in how older athletes Leucine,
respond to the anabolic properties
the Critical
of their meals.6
Amino Acids—the Key to The word anab-
olism is synony-
Muscle Tissue Growth
mous with growth.
Every time you eat a meal con- Clearly, essential
taining carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids are
fats, you send out triggering signals anabolic, but sci-
that tell muscle tissue to build new entists have found Between meals we recommend
proteins. The process of build- that after the age two to three servings of either
ing new proteins is called protein of 50 people be- BCAAs with a minimum of three
synthesis. More than 80 percent of come resistant to
muscle-growth stimulation is actu- their effects. Dr. grams of leucine or 15 grams of
ally triggered by the protein and Katsanos and his essential amino acids with the
amino acids in that meal.8 Proteins fellow scientists same leucine content.
are made up of 20 amino acids, found that seven
nine of which are termed essential grams of essential
because they cannot be produced amino acids stimu-
in the body and therefore must be lated protein synthesis
obtained through diet. in young people but
Only the nine essential amino completely failed
acids are responsible for stimulating to do so in older
the building of new muscle from a people. Does that
meal. For example, one study found mean that older
that six grams of essential aminos people have lost
stimulated twice the protein syn- the capacity to
thesis that a dose of three grams of respond to amino
nonessential amino acids and three acids? If so,
grams of essential amino acids did.
Additional studies have shown that
15 grams of pure essential amino
acids stimulated twice as
much protein synthesis as
15 grams of a whole protein
source, even though the calo-
ries were the same.9 That’s
Model: John Hansen

because whole proteins are

a natural mixture of both
essential and nonessential

Studies indicate that

the overall growth
response to training
is blunted compared
to what young
people experience.
The reason may lie
in how older athletes
respond to the
anabolic properties
of their meals.

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that it should be higher—3.2 to 4.3
Of the nine essential amino acids, leucine appears to be grams14—as lesser amounts may re-
the main one responsible for protein synthesis. It’s the only sult in no muscle growth. The higher
leucine content brings them gains
amino acid that can stimulate protein synthesis alone. similar to those of their younger
Practical counterparts.
Implications At a recent meeting of the Inter-
national Society of Sports Nutri-
We commonly see tion, our colleague Layne Norton
people eating just oat- explained that you should be aware
meal for breakfast or of the leucine content in various
older athletes buying a proteins. Beef, egg, casein, chicken,
“healthy” breakfast that pork and fish are approximately 8 to
contains about seven 9 percent leucine, and whey protein
grams of protein, only is 12 percent leucine. For calorie
half of which provide efficiency a masters athlete can also
essential amino acids. take 15 grams of essential amino
Such eating patterns help acids.
explain much of the mus- The next question is whether
cle loss and the blunted masters athletes should take leucine
response to exercise that supplements. The answer is that
occur with age. Masters while leucine increases protein syn-
athletes should be taking thesis by itself, it acts much faster
in an amino acid mixture when combined with other amino
or whole protein that con- acids—25 minutes compared to
tains a minimum of 2.5 to 120.15 Leucine, isoleucine and valine
three grams of leucine per are collectively called the branched-
serving. Some scientists say chain amino acids. Taking leucine

then the muscle loss and the

Masters athletes should be taking in an amino acid
blunted response we see to resis- mixture or whole protein that contains a minimum of
tance training are an inevitable 2.5 to three grams of leucine per serving.
consequence of aging. Fortunately,
that is not the case. Senior trainees
Some scientists say that it should be
simply need a higher dose of criti- higher—3.2 to 4.3 grams—as lesser
cal elements in an essential-amino amounts may potentially
Leucine appears to be the main
result in no muscle
essential amino acid responsible growth. The higher
for protein synthesis.11 It’s the only leucine content brings
amino acid that can stimulate pro-
tein synthesis alone.12 Because older
them gains similar to
people are resistant to the anabolic those of their younger
effects of amino acids, researchers counterparts.
investigated what would happen if
they bumped up the leucine content
from the original 1.7 grams to 2.8
grams in a seven-gram mixture.13
They found that the older people
could stimulate protein synthesis
to the same extent as young people.
Research also shows that there are
no differences in the building of
muscle tissue between younger and
older people at a dose of 15 grams of
essential aminos.10
That implies that masters athletes
can respond the way young athletes
Model: John Hanson

do, given a higher dose of amino


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triggers the enzyme responsible bodybuilding is a timeless sport,
for breaking down the other two but only when you give your
BCAAs, and when their concentra- body adequate nutrients to sup-
tion is lowered, protein synthesis port your hard work in the gym.
goes down as well. That’s why we Clearly the nutrient threshold
advise taking either an entire es- shifts with age, but by countering
sential amino acids mixture or a that shift with adequate servings
mixture of the BCAAs with leucine of essential amino acids, particu-
at a 2-to-1 ratio to each of the other larly leucine, you’ll recover as if
BCAAs. you were 30 years younger.
Based on the above studies, we Editor’s note: Gabriel Wil-
recommend the following for mas- son is completing his Ph.D. in
ters athletes: nutrition, with an emphasis on
1) Eat four to five meals per day optimal protein requirements for
of animal-based whole protein muscle growth, and is a research-

Model: Jennifer Miicheli

sources. If that comes from er in the Division of Nutritional
meats, the leucine content will Sciences, University of Illinois,
generally be 8 to 9 percent, and Urbana. He is vice president of
you’ll need about 40 grams to the Web site ABCBodybuilding
get three grams of leucine. If you .com. Jacob Wilson is a skel-
use a whey protein supplement etal-muscle physiologist and
as well, you’ll need only 25 to 30
grams of whole protein.
2) Between meals we recommend More than 80 percent of the muscle-growth stimulation
two to three servings of either that you get from a meal is actually triggered
BCAAs with a minimum of three
grams of leucine or 15 grams of by the protein and amino acids
essential amino acids with the in that meal.
same leucine content. The reason
we recommend taking the sup-
plements between meals
is that they’re
an extremely
ficient way to
add muscle
adding un-
fat.9 That’s
important for
masters ath-
letes, whose
may be lower
than those
of younger

The beauty
of science
is that it di-
rectly asks
the difficult
questions and
then answers
them with
solid data. As
researchers in
the lab we can
tell you that

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following isocaloric ingestion 13 Katsanos, C.S., et al. (2006).

researcher in the Department of Nu- of amino acids or whey protein. Exp A high proportion of leucine is
trition, Food, and Exercise Science, Gerontol. 41(2):215-219. required for optimal stimulation
Florida State University, Tallahassee. 10 Paddon-Jones, D., et al. (2004). of the rate of muscle protein syn-
He is president of the Web site ABC Amino acid ingestion improves thesis by essential amino acids in
Bodybuilding.com. muscle protein synthesis in the the elderly. Am J Physiol Endocrinol
young and elderly. Am J Physiol En- Metab. 291(2):E381-387.
References docrinol Metab. 286(3):E321-328. 14 Norton, L. (2008). Optimal pro-
11 Norton, L.E., and Layman, D.K. tein intake and meal frequency to
1 Larsson, L., et al. (1979). Muscle (2006). Leucine regulates transla- support maximal protein synthesis
strength and speed of movement in tion initiation of protein synthesis and muscle mass. JISSN. 3(5):S4.
relation to age and muscle morphol- in skeletal muscle after exercise. J 15 Kobayashi, H., et al. (2006).

ogy. J Appl Physiol. 46(3):451-456. Nutr. 136(2):533S-537S. Modulations of muscle protein

2 Pyka, G., et al. (1994). Muscle 12 Garlick, P.J. (2005). The role metabolism by branched-chain
strength and fiber adaptations to a of leucine in the regulation of amino acids in normal and mus-
year-long resistance-training pro- protein metabolism. J Nutr. 135(6 cle-atrophying rats. J Nutr. 136(1
gram in elderly men and women. J Suppl):1553S-1556S. Suppl):234S-236S. IM
Gerontol. 49(1):M22-27.
3 Singh, M.A., et al. (1999).

Insulin-like growth factor I in

skeletal muscle after weight-
lifting exercise in frail elders.
Am J Physiol. 277(1 Pt 1):
4 Hakkinen, K., et al. (1998).

Changes in muscle mor-

phology, electromyographic
activity, and force produc-
tion characteristics during
progressive strength training
in young and older men. J
Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci.
5 Kosek, D.J., et al. (2006).

Efficacy of 3 days/wk resis-

tance training on myofiber
hypertrophy and myogenic
mechanisms in young vs.
older adults. J Appl Physiol.
6 Katsanos, C.S., et al.

(2005). Aging is associated

with diminished accretion
of muscle proteins after the
ingestion of a small bolus of
essential amino acids. Am J
Clin Nutr. 82(5):1065-1073.
7 Moffatt, R.J., et al. (2008).

Nutrition for resistance train-

ing in middle-aged adults.
In Nutrition for Middle-Aged
Adults (vol 1). In press.
8 Rennie, M.J., et al. (2002).

Latency, duration and dose

response relationships of
amino acid effects on human
muscle protein synthesis. J
Nutr. 132(10):3225S-3227S.
Model: Berry Kabov

9 Paddon-Jones, D., et al.

(2006). Differential stimu-

lation of muscle protein
synthesis in elderly humans

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Is It Truly the Best Exercise?

by Jerry Brainum

Squats are often called the king of

exercises—and for good reason. Squats
work the largest muscles in the body, the
thighs, and so they not only stimulate
serious gains in muscular size and
strength but also provide a systemic
metabolic stimulation that seems to
encourage even upper-body growth.
In past the barbell squats formed the cornerstone upper-body muscles, I began my training with an
of every bodybuilding champion’s leg program. One intense breathing squats/straight-arm pullovers work-
notable advocate of intense squatting was the late Reg out similar to Park’s. I’d read about the workout in Iron
Park, a three-time Mr. Universe. Reg believed that his Man. The article stated that doing breathing squats
heavy squat workouts played a major role in his acqui- provided an increased metabolic effect that would
sition of a truly Herculean physique. stimulate size gains in the entire body. It worked ex-
Reg favored “breathing squats.” He did high-rep actly as advertised. I gained about 25 pounds and put a
squats—20 or more per set—in which he took several whopping six inches on my chest.
breaths between reps. As soon as he completed one Another early proponent of squats was the great
Neveux \ Model: Peter Putnam

set, Reg would immediately do a set of straight-arm John C. Grimek. The only man to win the Mr. America
pullovers, also for high reps, in the 15-to-20 range. It title twice, in 1940 and ’41, Grimek also won the Mr.
was a particularly grueling workout, and Reg credited it USA and Mr. Universe titles, defeating such great
with developing his deep rib cage. bodybuilders of the era as Steve Reeves and Clarence
I can attest to the validity of Reg’s claims about Ross. I once saw Grimek accept an award. At the time
breathing squats. Unlike those who focus only on he was in his late 70s, and he lamented to the crowd

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www.ironmanmagazine.com \ JANUARY 2009 127

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that he could no longer squat
with the heavy weights that
he used in his younger years.
Grimek complained about
having to squat with no more
than 300 pounds—at the age
of 70! Many men that age have
trouble getting up out of a
chair, much less squatting with
300 pounds.
Over the 39 years that I have

Arnold always incorporated some form of

squats in his leg-training sessions. I know, since
I served as his leg-training partner.
trained at Gold’s Gym in Ven-
ice, California, I’ve watched
heavy-squat techniques evolve.
During the Arnold era of the
1970s nearly all the top champs,
including Arnold, incorporated
some form of squats in their
leg-training sessions. Training
thighs was particularly onerous
for Arnold—building mass there
didn’t come easy for him, and
his thigh mass was the first to
atrophy when he didn’t train.
As a result, when he worked his
thighs, Arnold always sought a
training partner to push him. I
know, since I served as Arnold’s

You can tell the present champs who still squat

by their humongous thigh development; for
example, that of eight-time Mr. Olympia Ronnie
Coleman and two-time Mr. O Jay Cutler.

leg-training partner on several

I recall that he would do six
sets of every thigh exercise but
worked particularly hard on
barbell squats. Training thighs
was so difficult for Arnold that
he trained nothing else at that
workout. He often left the gym
after an intense thigh workout,
got something to eat and then
took a nap, returning to the
gym later in the day to work his
upper body. All the other pro
bodybuilders at Gold’s in those
years, among them Ken Waller,
Neveux \ Model: Ja y Cutler

Mike Katz, Ed Corney, Bill Grant

and Pete Caputo, followed
Arnold’s lead in doing intense
squat workouts. Not doing

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Squats Leg extensions are an
Squat Problem Solved isolation exercise, also
There are plenty of us who would love to squat really heavy and cer-
tainly have the hip and thigh power to do so but also have lower-back
known as an “open-chain
injuries that make it impossible. If your legs aren’t as huge as you’d like kinetic” exercise. Because
them to be, that can be a downer, but the great thing about weight train- of their biomechanics,
ing is that there are always ways around such issues. You can indeed
make 200 pounds feel like 500 and make it stimulate just as much mus-
they place more stress
cle growth. Slowing down your reps, pausing at the bottom and using directly on the knee joints.
higher-rep ranges are a few In contrast, when you
neat tricks.
I recently picked up
do squats, the weight is
another one from IFBB pro distributed among several
King Kamali, who happens strong muscle groups,
to own a pair of monster
tree trunks. The main part
including the thighs, hips
that intrigued me about and glutes.
his leg workout was that he
supersetted heavy Smith-
machine squats with lighter
barbell squats for 15 reps
each. That appealed to me
because going heavy on the
Smith machine keeps the
lower back relatively fresh,

Neveux \ Model: Henrik Jansson

as it’s not needed to bal-
ance the weight the way it
is when you use a barbell.
Then, when you move di-
rectly to free-weight squats,
the quads are temporarily
weaker, relatively speak-
ing, than the spinal erector
muscles of the lower back and can be blasted into oblivion.
As I have a chiropractor’s rap sheet longer than my arm, I thought
that might be just the ticket. I warmed up with one 45-pound plate on
each side of the Smith machine for 12 reps, then did the same on the bar
for 12. Next, I added a second 45 to the Smith and got 15 reps. Luckily,
the Smith machine was right next to the squat rack, where I did a mere
135 for 15. I was starting to get one heck of a pump going in my quads. squats wasn’t a consideration.
I added a quarter to the Smith, which would be 275 if it were a bar, and Times have changed. While many
did 15 more reps. After a quick two steps over to the barbell, where I pros still do squats, others eschew
kept the weight at 135, I got another 15. I had planned on going at least them, using ersatz substitutes such
to 185 but now saw that would be overly ambitious. The 135 sure felt a as leg presses and lunges. They cite
lot heavier. such reasons as, “Squats build a big
The beauty of it was, it really wasn’t. My lower back was not being ex- ass,” or “Squats widen the waist and
posed to potentially traumatic loads. For my final set I needed my wife, produce a bulging belly.” Yet many
Janet, to help me get the last couple of reps with the 275 and also with champs who did extensive squat
the 135 on the bar. I felt like I’d been run over by a truck! routines, such as three-time Mr.
One really cool thing about this superset is that if your lower back Olympia Sergio Oliva, three-time
is perfectly healthy, you can simply swap the order and do the barbell Mr. Olympia Frank Zane and ’68
squats first. Those will do a number on your lower back, but you’ll still Mr. America Jim Haislop, built mas-
be able to continue on to Smith-machine squats to drive your thighs sive thighs with heavy squat work-
into a zone of pain and growth the likes of which you’ve never experi- outs—yet also had tiny hips without
enced. You can finish quads off with a couple sets of leg extensions and bulging abdomens. You can tell the
leg presses if you still have it in you, but you may not even need them. present champs who still squat by
If your quads haven’t had a great pump in some time, or if you’re look- their humongous thigh develop-
ing for a way to hammer them without using a ton of weight, give this ment; for example, that of eight-
routine a try. time Mr. Olympia Ronnie Coleman
—Ron Harris and two-time Mr. O Jay Cutler.
Editor’s note: Ron Harris is the author of Real Bodybuilding, avail- Many bodybuilders today avoid
able at www.RonHarrisMuscle.com. squats because they believe that
squats induce knee injuries. That

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notion stems from a 1962 report by the thighs, hips and glutes,
a doctor named Klein that’s been rather than being imposed
disproved many times over the directly on the vulnerable
years. If you’re concerned about knee joints.
your knees, you’d be well-advised to My comments assume that activate the powerful gluteus maxi-
be careful with other leg exercises, you perform the exercise in good mus, or buttocks muscle, which
such as leg extensions and hack form. That includes not rounding greatly aids squatting power.
squats. Properly done squats impart your back; descending in a slow, Thigh muscles respond better to
far less knee strain than they do. controlled fashion rather than just higher reps. Tom Platz, well-known
Leg extensions produce an in- dropping down; and not bouncing for his awesome thighs, says that
tense shearing effect on the knees at the bottom. Some trainers advise he didn’t achieve the freaky look he
that breaks down knee cartilage. looking either straight ahead or up, became famous for until he began
That’s particularly true if you flex since looking down tends to encour- doing high-rep squats—and I do
your lower legs past the 90 degree age your body to bend forward, mean high reps. Platz would do sets
angle at the start of the exercise or if which is tough on the lower back. of 50 or more, even up to 100 reps,
you use too heavy a poundage. Leg As for depth, that is perhaps using about 315 pounds. He was,
extensions are an isolation exer- the greatest controversy about the however, hardly the first to find that
cise, also known as an “open-chain squat. Klein and other early squat- high-rep squatting produced super-
kinetic” exercise. Because of their ting dissidents advised squatting lative leg development.
biomechanics, they place more only halfway down, to the point I met Dr. Kimon Voyages at the
stress directly on the knee joints. In where the thighs are parallel to the Mid-City gym in New York back
contrast, when you do squats, the floor. The idea was that parallel in the mid-1960s. The personable
weight is distributed among several squats preserved the knees. On the Voyages was then 42 years old but
strong muscle groups, including other hand, only full squats fully still had quite impressive thighs.

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Tom Platz, well-known for his

awesome thighs, says that he
didn’t achieve the freaky look
he became famous for until he
began doing high-rep squats—
and I do mean high reps. Platz
would do sets of 50 or more,
even up to 100 reps, using
about 315 pounds.


As a bodybuilding competitor in other hand, if for some reason your from the gym for unknown reasons.
the 1940s, Kimon had won numer- form is continually bad—for ex- I now do a type of machine squat
ous Best Legs awards and even ample, you’re leaning too far for- that just isn’t the same as a barbell
defeated Steve Reeves in that cat- ward—doing squats on a machine squat or squat bar, and my thigh
egory at the ’47 Mr. America contest may force you to stay in the proper development has regressed signifi-
in Chicago, where he placed sixth exercise plane and thus preserve cantly as a result, despite the fact
overall and Reeves was the winner. your lower back. that I also do moderate-weight leg
When I asked Kimon how he built Many trainees feel that they have presses and leg extensions.
those solid underpinnings, he told more control when they use a ma- Frank Zane used a special squat
me of his penchant for doing very chine, which puts less stress on the apparatus that he designed that
high-rep squats. Scientific studies knees. I used to use a special squat makes it easier to maintain perfect
confirm that high-rep squats are su- bar that combined the best of free form throughout your set. Zane feels
perior for building front-thigh mass. weights and machine squats. It that it contributed greatly to his
What about free weights vs. ma- forced you to use good form yet also thigh development. Another body-
chine squats? Most of those with permitted you to use heavy weights. builder from that era, Dave Draper,
superior thigh development prefer I stopped doing the exercise only squats using a special device of
free-weight barbell squats. On the when the squat bar was removed his own design that lies across his

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back and helps support the bar,
thus favoring better squat form and
increased exercise focus.
Another typical method of doing
squats involves changes in foot
position. The dogma states that
keeping the feet in a narrow stance
favors the outer thighs, thus pro-
moting a desirable thigh “sweep.” A
wider stance is supposed to place
the focus on the inner thighs, train-
ing such muscles as the adductors
and sartorius. Studies show that
doing wider-stance squats does
produce more adductor activity.
Doing narrow-stance squats, how-
ever, does not work any of the thigh
muscles more effectively than if you
use a normal foot stance of about
shoulder width.
While some suggest that doing
full squats involves the hamstrings

Neveux \ Model: Mehmet Yildirim

more, meaning the muscles on the
backs of the thighs, the truth is that
squats provide minimal hamstring
Front squats, another effective variation. Holding
involvement. For full hamstring the bar in front of your neck forces your torso to
development you need to do at least stay more upright, giving you a direct quad hit.
two basic movements: leg curls and
stiff-legged deadlifts. That way you
work the hams at both the knee and fingers excessively. That can also be wet, and here he’s doing another
hip areas. painful. One possible solution is to ass-building exercise!”
Steve Reeves favored front squats. attach lifting straps to the bar and In one hack variation that Vince
The screen Hercules believed that hold the straps rather than bending favored, you move your hips for-
doing heavy regular squats would your fingers under the bar. Reeves ward as you come up out of the low
increase his hip and glute size, and did the exercise with his arms position. He said that would train
since he was blessed with small hips crossed over his chest, holding the both the lower and upper thighs,
and glutes, he wanted to keep them bar in his crossed arms. whereas hack squats normally focus
that way. His basic thigh workout Hack squats are another useful on the lower part of the front-thigh
consisted of front squats, hack variation, although they are not a muscles.
squats and leg curls. He did it three replacement for barbell squats. On Bodybuilders often use too much
times a week as part of a whole- the other hand, famed bodybuilding weight on hack squats. The angle of
body routine. Knowing that the trainer Vince Gironda was a strong the typical hack machine places a
thighs are the largest muscles in the proponent of hack squats done on a lot of stress on the knee joints, just
body and required more energy to machine and even refused to allow as leg extensions do, since the large
be trained effectively, Reeves trained squat racks in his famous Studio glute and hip muscles are not heav-
them first. City, California, gym. Vince suggest- ily involved in the movement (which
Front squats, as the name im- ed that doing machine hack squats is why Vince liked it). Piling on the
plies, are performed with the bar with varying body alignments would weight and doing the exercise with
held in front, usually resting on your produce full thigh development a narrow foot position is guaranteed
front delts and upper chest. One minus the big ass and hips that he to result in bad knees eventually. I
advantage of them is that they make said would result from heavy barbell know, because I did hacks that way
it more difficult to lean forward. squats. I recall once sitting in the for more than 20 years. I wound up
That has the duel effect of lessening front of Vince’s Gym with Vince as shearing away most of the cartilage
the possibility of lower-back strain we observed a bodybuilder across in my knees, leaving me with ar-
and placing less stress on the hips the gym doing lunges, which Vince thritis today. Don’t make the same
and glutes. called another “ass builder.” Vince mistake.
A major drawback of front squats watched the guy for a few minutes, I can also attest that when done
is that there’s a tendency for the a look of utter disgust on his face, properly, squats are still the king
bar to press into your throat, which then turned to me and said, “Look of exercises, and there is simply no
can be uncomfortable. Another at the guy. He has an ass so big, you substitute if you’re seeking to build
problem is the way the bar rests in could hide a small child under it in massive and powerful legs. IM
your hands, often bending back the the rain and the kid wouldn’t get

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Model: Skip La Cour

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Triceps MASS
Building Muscle
by Steve Holman and Jonathan Lawson
Photography by Michael Neveux

Q: I’m making great gains with You want to shift the focus to getting other two heads still get some size
3D Positions of Flexion, train- the outer heads as beefy as possible stimulation as well. In X-traordinary
ing each bodypart through its so they give your arms width when Arms we suggest alternating that
midrange, stretch and contract- they’re viewed head-on. Here’s one width routine with a different sweep
ed positions, but my triceps still of the triceps “width” routines from routine, but it sounds as if you don’t
look small. I’ve noticed that our e-book X-traordinary Arms: need more fullness from the side.
they have pretty good sweep Try the above as your sole triceps
from the side, but from the Midrange: Close-grip attack, with X Reps and X-hybrid
front my arms look skinny. How bench presses 2 x 9-12 techniques on some sets, and your
should I alter my POF triceps Stretch: Cable arms will be grabbing people’s at-
program to address that prob- pushouts 1-2 x 9-12 tention from every angle.
lem? Contracted: Two-arm
kickbacks 1-2 x 12-15 Q: I have a few questions: 1)
A: Your medial and long triceps Is it unusual to “feel” bigger as
heads are getting the brunt of the All of those exercises emphasize you go [through the programs
work in your current arm program. the outer triceps head, although the in the e-book Quick-Start Mus-
cle-Building Guide]? It’s like an
awareness of my muscles that
I’ve never had—strange but
nice. 2) I’m unclear on what to
do if I’m sore and it’s time to
work that muscle again. Say my
chest is still really sore, but it’s
chest day again. Do I work it or
skip it?

A: It’s not unusual to feel big-

ger when you’re using the Quick-
Start Muscle-Building Guide. The
workouts are designed with that
in mind—using force-generation
exercises plus the neuromuscular
stimulation of slow contracted-
Model: Dan Decker

position exercises. That provides

the perfect growth stimulus for the
beginner, as the research studies we

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Cable pushouts, a stretch-position exercise for triceps.

Review: Climb Your Ladder of Success Without discuss in that e-

Running Out of Gas book indicate. Most
beginning programs
This new book by John M. Rowley isn’t your normal rah-rah, just-
don’t build muscle
do-it success mishmash—not by a long shot. It rises above the crowd
from the get-go; the
precisely because Rowley is a bodybuilder and has been for 20-plus
Quick-Start workouts
years. He was the owner of the gym at which Lou Ferrigno trained in are designed to do
“Pumping Iron.” He has a definite love for the weights and the body- just that, as you’re
building lifestyle—and he actually ties that into his ladder-of-success finding out.
formula. As for soreness,
Yes, besides ideas on remodeling your mind-set, the power of for- if it’s only mild, you
giveness, forgetting yesterday and finding your “why,” there are chap- can hit the muscle
ters on clean eating, including sample menus and recipes as well as hard when it’s time.
discussions on the macronutrients—like the importance of protein. If soreness is more
There’s also an entire chapter on building muscle, “Dramatically severe, you should
Transform Your Body Into a Muscle-Building, Fat-Burning Dynamo,” which includes train the muscle
complete workouts with core bodybuilding exercises, sets and reps. again, but use lighter
Lots of so-called success manuals give lip service to merging mind, body and spirit, poundages and don’t
but Rowley actually does it, tipping his hat to bodybuilding in the process. A smile came go to exhaustion on
to my face many times when he used weight-room analogies as examples (“Your attitude your exercises. In
toward failure is your spotter”). other words, make
He also provides lots of real-world success stories from his life and others’, even going it an easy, pump
back in history to show how a man like Abraham Lincoln swam against the tide of ad- workout, the sole
versity his whole life, dealing with failure after failure before becoming president of the purpose being to
bathe the muscle
United States.
in nutrient-rich
Climb Your Ladder of Success is especially relevant now, with our economic turmoil
blood. Keep the reps
straining and draining our optimism. Rowley helps you rally and gives you the ammuni-
fairly high—around
tion to weather that or any other storm—and a big part of that ammo is to keep pound- 12—on each exer-
ing the iron and eating right. You won’t be running out of gas. You’ll be flooring it as you cise, with the 12th
achieve and race past each of your goals—with a muscular physique to boot. rep being fairly easy.
—Steve Holman You should strive for
full engorgement to
Editor’s note: Climb Your Ladder of Success Without Running Out of Gas is available facilitate recovery
from Home-Gym.com. and growth.

138 JANUARY 2009 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

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Q: I’m very interested in giv- some additional force, but their pur-
ing DC training a spin. My ques- pose is more to extend the tension
tion is this: DC has me doing time on the target muscle—to build
three sets in a row with 20 sec- the endurance components of the
onds of rest after each. Which of muscle, such as the mitochondria
those sets is best for X Reps? Or and capillaries, which also adds to
should I do X Reps on all three? muscle size increases. The first set
is key, however, as max force is the
A: Dante’s DoggCrapp, or DC, primary hypertrophic trigger, espe-
training is an excellent mass-build- cially on compound exercises.
ing technique because it’s a good Most of the exercises Dante
mix of max-force generation with recommends for his DC-training
an extended-tension-time chaser. programs are compound moves.
You use the same weight on all Obviously, you use a lot of energy
three sets—reps usually go nine, on each multijoint set, especially
six, three—so the first set gives you with only 20 seconds of rest. From
the most force output from the what we’ve experienced, end-of-set
target muscle. The 20 seconds of X-Rep partials won’t be possible
rest between sets isn’t long enough on the second two sets if you go
for fatigue products to clear and all-out on them—but a static hold
Model: Jonathan Lawson

the nervous system to regener- at the X Spot will. Try the following
ate—studies suggest that takes sequence, taking each set to exhaus-
about three minutes—but it’s why tion:
the second and third sets build the
Set 1: 9 reps + X Reps
muscle along a different pathway, as
you’ll see in a moment. Rest 20 seconds
So to answer your question, we
Set 2: 6 reps
suggest you amplify the force gener-
ation of set number one with X-Rep Rest 20 seconds
partials at the end. Remember, the Set 3: 3 reps + Static X
first set is when your force output
is highest, so you activate the most If you don’t abuse it, DC should
fast-twitch growth fibers. The sec- pack plenty of new muscle onto
ond two sets are somewhat compro- your frame. Try it on some or most
mised because of limited rest, but of your midrange exercises, like
that’s the idea. bench presses, pulldowns and rows.
The second and third sets provide If you’re not familiar with what ®

X Reps are, here’s the drill: On DESIGNED TO BUILD RES U L T S

the first set at exhaustion, move
the resistance to a point on
the stroke at which the target
muscle is semistretched—like
near the bottom of an incline

press—and do eight-inch
pulses, or X Reps. You drive the
bar from a point a few inches
off your chest up to near the
halfway mark and bring it back
to the semistretch spot a few
times. Think of them as con-
trolled explosions.
As for the Static-X technique, GROW.
at exhaustion on the last set,
move the bar to the semistretch
point and hold for as long as
possible. It hurts, but it works.
Editor’s note: For more on www.issresearch.com
X-Rep training, visit X-Rep.
Model: Brent Kutlesa

com. For more on the Quick

Start Muscle-Building Guide,
visit MuscleQuickStart.com.

Free download from imbodybuilding.com

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Study Haul
A Good Day at
Red Rock
for Bodybuilding-Related
by Jerry Brainum

he annual meeting
of the International
Society of Sports
Nutrition was held
during the first week of June
2008 at the $925 million
Red Rock Casino and Spa
in Las Vegas. The Red Rock,
named for the nearby Red
Rock Mountains, opened
in 2006 and is located 10
miles away from the fabled
Las Vegas Strip. I last attended
the ISSN meeting two years ago,
when it was held at the now-defunct
Sahara Hotel on the Strip.
This year’s event looked promising, as it featured several well-known researchers in
sports nutrition and exercise physiology. There were scheduling conflicts; I chose to

attend the seminars that seemed likely to provide the most practical information for
those engaged in bodybuilding.

www.ironmanmagazine.com \ JANUARY 2009 143

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Study Haul
Richard Kreider:
Nutrition Strategies for resistance training are protein lowing apply:
supplements, essential amino General fitness: .8 to 1 gram per
Preventing Overtraining acids, HMB and kilogram of bodyweight
and Optimizing creatine. Moderate fitness: training 30
Performance • Protein re- minutes to one hour, three to four
quirements vary times a week—1 to 1.5 grams per
Kreider heads the sports nu- with level of kilogram of bodyweight
trition lab at Baylor University exercise, but Heavy training: training two to
in Texas and has published a as a general three hours, six days a week—1.5
number of studies analyzing rule, the fol- to 2 grams per kilogram of body-
the effects of popular sports
supplements. Here are the HMB may help prevent excessive muscle
highlights of his discussion:
• The best supplements for
breakdown after intense training.
promoting lean mass gains with
Training at elevated altitude: 2
to 2.2 grams per kilogram of body-
• Most people engaged in body-
building need an average of 1.8
grams of protein per kilogram of

The best overall supplement

for increasing muscle, based
on existing research, is
• Athletes who need to make
weight are at the greatest risk of
not getting enough protein due to
decreased calorie intake. That in-
cludes runners, cyclists, swimmers,
skaters and boxers. A high-quality
protein supplement is valuable
for them. Protein quality is based
on the content of essential amino
• The best overall supplement
for increasing muscle, based on
existing research, is creatine. It
enhances muscle glycogen synthe-
sis, increases work capacity and
boosts exercise recovery. Studies
have shown that using creatine
A protein intake of .8 supplements can double muscle
to 1 gram per kilogram gains when compared to a placebo.
of bodyweight is a good The gains are derived from more
efficient muscle protein synthesis,
rule of thumb for general not water retention.
fitness. Heavy training • The optimal essential amino
requires 1.5 to 2 grams per acid intake for increasing muscle
mass is six grams.
kilogram of bodyweight. • HMB is a leucine metabolite
that in doses of three grams a day
may help untrained people build
muscle. The jury is still out on the
effects of HMB in those with more

training experience, although it

may help prevent excessive muscle

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Study Haul
Layne Norton:
breakdown after intense training. Optimizing Protein amino acids may still be elevated
• Sodium bicarbonate—baking for five hours or more. When you
soda—may provide ergogenic ef-
Intake for Muscle-Mass eat a meal containing protein, fat
fects if you take it one to two hours Gains and carbs, muscle protein synthe-
before competition at a dose of 0.3 Norton is a graduate student sis lasts for at least three hours.
grams per kilogram of bodyweight. from the University of Illinois who • Insulin also drops off after
Another method: taking 10 grams is also a bodybuilder. He’s been about three hours, so there must
of sodium bicarb for five days. So- published in this magazine and be a connection between insulin
dium bicarb affects activity lasting elsewhere. decline and decreased muscle
one to three minutes. Since it can • Norton believes that specificprotein synthesis.
cause gastrointestinal distress, it’s meal recommendations are more • One study showed that tak-
best to start with small doses. important than total daily proteining 2.5 grams of leucine between
• Sodium phosphate, like so- intake in relation to making muscle
meals increased muscle protein
dium bicarb, may reduce excess gains. synthesis. Contrary to popular
extracellular acidity. Some studies • Leucine is the primary initiator
opinion, eating small, high-protein
show that it increases oxygen in- of muscle protein synthesis. Taking
meals more often doesn’t give you
take. The dose is four grams a day three to four grams of leucine perthe same result.
for three to six days. meal maximizes it. • It’s more effective to eat larger
• Beta-alanine shows promise as • Twenty-five to 33 grams of amounts of protein at each meal,
a precursor of carnosine synthesis whey protein contain three to fourseparating the meals by four to six
in muscle. Taking four to six grams grams of leucine. You’d need to eat
a day of this intramuscular buffer 54 grams of chicken or 20 slices of • Using an example of a 200-
can increase muscle carnosine by bread to get that amount of leu- pound bodybuilder, Norton pro-
60 to 80 percent. cine. vided this model: five meals a day,
• GAKIC is an amino acid com- • The notion of constantly sup-each meal separated
plex that when taken right before plying amino acids to build muscleby four to six
training may give you more reps is wrong, according to Norton. hours, four
during training. He cited studies showing that an grams of leu-
• AAKG, an arginine complex infusion of amino acids for six cine per meal,
taken in 12-gram doses, increases hours led to
one-rep-maximum bench press an increase in Eating fewer calories leads
strength. This form of arginine is muscle protein
common in many nitric oxide- synthesis for
to greater use of protein as
boosting supplements. only the first an energy source, as does
• Branched-chain amino acids two hours. The endurance exercise.
may have anticatabolic effects, activity stops
but research is equivocal on the after that time,
benefits. Leucine, one of the three even though plasma
branched-chain amino acids, is the
primary amino involved in muscle
protein synthesis,
• In summa-
rizing his
tions for
eating a
diet, taking a
daily, carb load-
ing, drinking
plenty of water and
fluids to prevent
dehydration, and
using posttraining
and evening protein

146 JANUARY 2009

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Study Haul

Neveux \ Model: Lee Apperson

two meals from whey, two chicken greater use of protein as an energy
Taking the protein right meals, one beef meal. The whey source, as does endurance exercise.
after training supported meal must contain 33 grams of
protein to maximize muscle pro- Richard Bloomer:
muscle protein synthesis, tein synthesis. That would result
but delaying it by two hours The Truth About NO
in a daily intake of 225 grams of
protein, close to the often sug- Supplements
abated the effect and also
gested dose of one gram per pound Bloomer is an assistant professor
blocked training-related of bodyweight. Taking essential at the University of Memphis, and
strength increases. amino acids between meals aug- his research focuses on antioxi-
ments muscle protein synthesis. dants and oxidative stress. He told
• Younger people can eat less me that he used to be a competi-
protein because they get increased tive bodybuilder and as a teenager
insulin response. Older people went up against none other than
need to take more essential ami- two-time Mr. Olympia Jay Cutler
nos to duplicate the response of (Cutler won). Perhaps for that rea-
younger people. son Dr. Bloomer began his discus-
• Whey is the preferred protein sion by pointing out how large a
source because the slowly digested role genetics plays in bodybuilding
casein, another milk protein, won’t success. He suggested that about
supply enough readily available one in 10 million has the genes to
leucine to maximize muscle pro- duplicate the bodies you see com-
tein synthesis. peting in the Olympia.
• Eating fewer calories leads to His seminar focused on the ef-
ficacy of the popular nitric oxide
supplements. Bloomer noted that
none of the companies selling NO
Propionate L-carnitine and products seem willing to sponsor
glycine, sold as GPLC, may research to support the claims they
boost NO an average of 18 make in their ads. On the other
hand, if the products didn’t work
percent above baseline. at all, they would likely have fallen
from favor. Other points he made:

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Darryn Willoughby:
• NO is a free radical and a gas ments work for them, but there
with a short half-life. That means it could be another mechanism at
disappears rapidly. The amount of work. Many NO products also con- Supplementation and
NO is determined by the amount tain simple sugars, which promote Muscle Damage
of nitrite in your blood. an insulin release, itself a cause of
• Low or slightly elevated rapid vasodilation. Willoughby, also from Baylor
amounts of NO have positive ef- • Contrary to popular belief, argi- University, specializes in how exer-
fects on health. Large amounts nine, though it’s the direct dietary cise and nutritional supplements
can be toxic because it reacts in precursor of NO synthesis, doesn’t regulate the molecular mecha-
the body with superoxide to form regulate the process. What actually nisms of muscular growth. You
peroxynitrate, one of the most determine how much arginine gets can’t help trusting his information:
toxic free radicals. So products that converted into NO are the NO–syn- He looks like a champion power-
promote excessive increases in NO thesizing enzymes. lifter or professional linebacker,
aren’t a good thing. • A supplement that may boost not a geek who never set foot in
• A low level of NO in the body is NO an average of 18 percent above a gym. Willoughby talked about
good for cardiovascular health. The baseline is propionate L-carnitine using proteases, or protein-digest-
vasodilation of blood vessels from and glycine, sold as GPLC, which ing enzymes, to improve muscle
NO release leads to lower blood boosts NO–synthesizing enzymes recovery and the molecular mech-
pressure, greater oxygen delivery in the lining of blood vessels. You anisms of muscular inflammation.
to muscles and improved nutrient need 4.5 grams a day divided in While there was a bit of biochem-
delivery to tissues. two doses. It’s best taken in with a istry overload, the man does know
• While intravenous administra- high-carb source, as the increased his stuff. Among his many valuable
tion of arginine can boost NO in insulin release helps retain carni- points: (continued on page 154)
the body, there’s no evidence that tine in muscle. If all that sounds
any type of oral arginine supple- familiar, it’s because I’ve written
ment duplicates the effect. about that effect in previous issues
• Exercise alone increases of IRON MAN. Note that at current
NO release after eight to 12 prices, using the suggested dose
weeks. of GPLC isn’t cheap. On the other
• Many bodybuilders hand, it’s good for your heart, and
say that NO supple- it’s the preferred form of carnitine
in muscle metabolism.

Taking three to four

grams of leucine per
meal maximizes muscle
protein synthesis.

www.ironmanmagazine.com \ JANUARY 2009 151

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Study Haul
(continued from page 151)
• There’s no direct relationship researcher specializing in skeletal
between the extent of muscle protein metabolism. His discus-
soreness and muscle damage fol- sion focused on why whey protein
lowing exercise. is best for building muscle. His
• While protein-digesting en- essential points were:
zymes, such as bromelain and • The timing of protein intake is
papain, are most often linked to more important than the amount
digestion of protein foods, when of protein taken in.
taken without food, they may • Whey is the highest-quality
have potent anti-inflammatory protein available because of its
effects that help increase muscle high BCAA and leucine content.
recovery. • Athletes have different needs
• Protease supplementation for protein than nonathletes.
improves the return of interstitial Bodybuilders and strength ath-
fluid, or lymph, and cells to the letes need 1.6 to 1.7 grams of pro-
blood, which reduces swelling and tein per kilogram of bodyweight
edema. Taking the enzymes with- each day. Most athletes get at least
out food also appears to decrease 25 percent of their total calorie in-
production of inflammatory pros- take as protein, which meets their
taglandins and other eicosanoids. daily needs.
• The inflammatory response is • Endurance athletes need more
a result of tissue damage, usually protein because they burn more
from eccentric muscle contrac- energy, including protein. Also,
tions, which increases capillary endurance exercise shuts down
permeability and allows leakage of muscle protein synthesis.
proteins, such as fibrinogen, albu- • There’s no tolerable upper
min and various globulins into the limit for protein intake. The
interstitial space—the lymph sys- recommended daily allowance
tem—at the site of the injury. Fi- of 0.8 grams per kilogram of
brinogen is particularly important bodyweight was never intended to
because it hinders the return of represent a target goal for protein
edema fluid to the capillaries and intake.
lymphatic channels. That leads to • Hard-training athletes need
edema and inflammation in the more protein for remodeling of
affected area. Protease enzymes proteins in tendons, bones and
break down the fibrin barrier, thus ligaments. Protein supports gains
giving you greater flow of lymph in lean mass, optimal immune
and decreasing inflammation. At function and optimal use of
least, that’s the theory. Willoughby plasma proteins.
pointed out that no one knows for • A study of older men
certain how the enzymes work, compared the effects of taking
since research in this area is just protein immediately after exercise
beginning. with waiting two hours after
• What is known is that an oral exercise to take it. The supplement
dose of about three grams of pro- used in the study contained only
tease enzymes lessens strength 10 to 12 grams of protein. Taking
losses, minimizes muscle damage it right after training supported
and improves recovery. Previous muscle protein synthesis, but
studies of protease enzymes ap- delaying it by two hours abated
pear to have used a dose too small that effect and blocked training-
to show any effectiveness. related strength increases.
• Taking more than 10 grams
Stu Phillips: The of protein leads to an increase in
protein oxidation. The maximum
Superiority of Whey
amount of protein you can take
Proteins for Building in at a single time and avoid
Muscle oxidation is 20 to 25 grams.
Resistance exercise improves
Phillips, from McMaster Uni- the ability to use protein, which
versity in Canada, is a well-known explains why advanced trainees

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Study Haul may need less protein than
• Various studies prove the
superiority of milk over soy protein
in supporting muscle protein
synthesis after resistance training.
• In one study a subject taking
protein gained seven kilograms of
lean mass in 30 days, far more than
other subjects in the same study.
Phillips attributes that to more
favorable responses due to genetic
factors and suggests that this was
the type of person who could add
huge amounts of muscle and wind
up as a professional bodybuilder.
• The BCAA leucine is not only
the key to muscle protein synthe-
sis but also stimulates significant
bodyfat loss. The mechanism may
be an upregulation in the activity
of thermogenic proteins in muscle.
• Casein is the slowest digesting
protein known, and no other food
protein duplicates its effect. Cot-
tage cheese is largely casein. While
casein curdles in the stomach,
leading to a slow release of protein,
whey remains in solution, leading
The BCAA leucine is not only the to a rapid uptake into the body.
key to muscle protein synthesis This is only a small part of the
but also stimulates significant information offered at the ISSN
meeting, but it’s the material that
bodyfat loss. The mechanism may I thought would have most rel-
be an upregulation in the activity of evance for IRON MAN readers. One
thermogenic proteins in muscle. final thing: The cliché “What hap-
pens in Vegas, stays in Vegas” was
true in my case. I received a box
lunch during the second day of the
conference. Somehow I misplaced
the box. So it did indeed stay in
Vegas. IM

Dr. Bloomer suggested that about one in 10 million has the

genes to duplicate the bodies you see competing in the Olympia.

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Up to

53-Year-Old Bodybuilder and Powerlifter

Terry Baldwin Innovates to Isolate—
and Gets Better With Age!
by David Young
Photography by Michael Neveux

nnovators are rare in any other serious bodybuilders, so I more strength. The guys in the
field and even rarer in body- jumped at the chance to interview gym were so impressed with my
building. Among the few that him. physique that they talked me into
come to mind is Arthur Jones, DY: Tell the readers a little competing in a local bodybuilding
the father of high-intensity about yourself. show in 1981. I placed third in my
training and inventor of Nautilus TB: Well, I was born in Fresno, first NPC show in the open class and
machines. Arthur felt that the small- California, and raised in Coeur then came back the next year and
er muscle groups were the limiting d’Alene, Idaho. I’ve been married for took first.
factor in basic exercises, and his 34 years, and we have three daugh- DY: That’s an interesting start.
elaborate machines attempted to ters. The arm wrestlers I’ve met
isolate the back, chest and shoulder DY: What’s your height and generally go into competitive
muscles by eliminating the use of weight? powerlifting. What do you do for
the biceps, triceps and forearms, TB: I’m 5’7”. My off-season a living?
which are weak links when you’re weight is around 225, and my com- TB: I’m a certified fitness trainer.
performing bench presses, incline petition weight is 205 to 208. Of I own my own personal-training
presses, overhead presses, chins and course, I’m always striving to im- facility, Baldwin Fitness Training
rows. prove size as well as conditioning, in Missoula, Montana, where I and
Amazingly, Terry Baldwin, a so those bodyweights are simply a five other trainers work. I’m also a
53-year-old NGA drug-free com- measuring stick, so to speak. partner and developer in a company
petitive bodybuilder and AWPC DY: How long have you been called Flexsolate, which special-
world-record bench presser, has training? izes in creating new technologies
accomplished what Jones attempt- TB: I’ve been training competi- for strength training and physical
ed—isolation of the larger muscle tively since 1980. therapy, like the Flexsolate grip-free
groups—with a simple device that DY: I understand that you isolation cuffs and the Flexsolate
costs less than $100 and fits neatly came into bodybuilding from a Gym in a Bag.
into any gym bag. unique entry point. DY: Flexolate cuffs really take
Terry’s been training for 34 years TB: I was a professional arm the strain off the joints and
and has been a competitive body- wrestler from 1975 to 1980, training smaller muscle groups and iso-
builder for 29 of them. It would be in the basement of my home with a late the larger muscle groups.
an understatement to say that he bench and a small set of weights. I TB: Thank you. That’s exactly
might have a few things to teach joined a small gym in 1980 to gain what they’re designed to do.

www.ironmanmagazine.com \ JANUARY 2009 159

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DY: Do you play other sports
or are you involved in any hob-
TB: I’m a world-class drug-free
bench presser and record holder.
I’m training to compete at the
WABDL World championships in
Las Vegas to try to break the record
of 556.5 pounds. I also love to hunt,
fish and spend time with my family.
DY: What keeps you motivated
to train and diet at 53 years old?
TB: I just enjoy feeling, looking
better and being stronger than I was
in my 20s and 30s. Life continues to
get better for me.
DY: What is your diet strategy,
both on- and off-season?
TB: Whether on- or off-season
I eat six meals a day. That never
changes. What changes are the calo-
ries and the macronutrient percent-
ages. It breaks out like this:
Off-season: I eat 3,200 to 3,500
calories a day—50 percent carbs, 30
percent protein and 20 percent fats.
On-season: I eat 2,600 calories a
day—50 percent carbs, 40 percent
protein and 10 percent fats. During
that time I do cardio seven days a
DY: Do you have a cheat day
when you’re dieting strictly?
TB: During the season I have a
cheat meal once a week, but I’m still
eating good wholesome food with
some extra carbs. In the off-sea-
son I eat good wholesome food all
week during my training, as that’s
the most critical time for nutri-
ent demand, and then indulge on
the weekend with a few treats. My
wife is a great cook who’s extremely
health conscious, and we like to
enjoy new recipes and sometimes
dessert on the weekends. We enjoy
pizza maybe once every couple of
months, but that’s about it for fast
DY: Describe a sample day of
of your eating plan.
TB: Sure:
“I’m a partner and developer in a company
4 a.m.: 16 ounces organic coffee called Flexolate, which specializes in
mixed with 1/2 packet chocolate
Labrada Nutrition Lean Body creating new technologies for strength
training and physical therapy, like the
5 a.m.: 1 1/2 cups cooked oameal
with organic (continued on page 164)
Flexolate grip-free isolation cuffs.”
160 JANUARY 2009 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com
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(continued from page 160) maple Anabol Naturals amino GH re-
syrup; 1 sliced banana; 3 leasers; 2 scoops Labrada Nutri-
capsules Now Sports Nutri- tioin Super Charge Xtreme
tion omega 3-6-9 fatty acids;
1 capsule each Juice Plus 1 p.m. to 2:15 p.m.: Workout
vegetable, fruit and berries;
2 capsules Now Sports 2:15 p.m.: Postworkout drink
Nutrition glucosamine and with 1 scoop Now Sports Nutri-
chondroitin with MSM tion whey protein isolate shake, 1
scoop Now Sports Nutrition Elec-
6 a.m.: 5 capsules Anabol tro Pro Recovery drink, 1 scoop
Naturals amino acids Metabolic Nutrition Trans-Ala-
nyl-Glutamine; 3 capsules Now
7 a.m.: 3 tablets EFX Nytric; Sports Nutrition omega 3-6-9
1 1,000-milligram tablet Now fatty acids; 5 capsules Anabol
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8 a.m.: 1 1/2 cups cooked sea- 5 p.m.: 1 organic Kashi granola

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apple, orange or grapefruit
7:30 p.m.:1 organic fresh veggie
Noon: 1 tablespoon EFX Liquid salad or stir-fry, 8 ounces lean
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12:45 p.m.: 5 capsules Anabol spread, diced fresh organic fruit
Naturals amino acids; 3 capsules mix

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9 p.m. (before bed): 1 capsule Plus. It’s an organic supplement that have been married for 34 years and
each Juice Plus vegetable, fruit uses micronutrients from 15 fruits have three wonderful grown daugh-
and berries; 2 capsules Now and vegetables. It’s an excellent ters. My proudest achievement in
Sports Nutrition glucosamine and source of antioxidants and phytonu- bodybuilding is being where I am
chondroitin with MSM; 3 cap- trients to help fight oxidation within today without the use of anabolic
sules EFX ZMA; 3 capsules Anabol the body. Second would be EFX steroids.
Naturals amino GH releasers Liquid Kre-Alkalyn. I’ve never used a DY: Being drug-free, how do
creatine that works as fast and effec- you overcome training pla-
DY: That’s very disciplined. tively as that. teaus?
What are your favorite supple- DY: What’s your proudest TB: By having patience and ac-
ments? achievement? cepting the fact they’re always going
TB: Number one would be Juice TB: The fact that my wife and I to occur. I like to cycle my training
during the year from
heavy to moderate
resistance, always
“I just enjoy applying the mind to
the muscle one rep
feeling, looking at a time, attacking
the bodyparts with
better and being different methods of
isolation, resistance
stronger than I and angles, constantly
was even in my looking for ways to
shock the body.
20s and 30s. Life DY: How did you
find what works for
still continues to you?
get better for me.” TB: Through years
of trial and error. My
biggest mistake was
overtraining the first
few years, thinking
more was better. Once
I got over that hurdle,
the gains were much
quicker with fewer
DY: What keeps
you fired up?
TB: I love body-
building, but it’s my
love for God that gives
me strength to con-
tinue on. I believe God
has given me a gift
as a successful body-
builder and trainer for
a reason other than to
satisfy my own de-
sires. Whether I con-
tinue to compete or
not, I plan to use that
gift as a tool to reach
out and share with
others what He does
for me. I believe we all
can be ambassadors
for good, whatever
our gifts are, as long as
they are used to help
others in need and
make the world a bet-

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ter place to live in. way I want. I prefer spring con-
DY: What are your goals in tests. That way I have a good part
bodybuilding? of the winter to prepare, which is
TB: I’ve always looked at body- a less hectic time in my personal
building and fitness as a continuing life.
journey, and whatever I achieve DY: How many weeks out
along the way is a bonus. I just take do you start your prepara-
it one day at a time and try to wait tion?
for God to open doors. TB: Ten weeks in order to lose
DY: It’s often said that a great approximately 20 pounds.
deal of success in bodybuilding DY: Do you use supersets,
is the mental approach. Do you forced reps or other inten-
use any mental or visualization sity techniques?
principles? TB: I use drop sets, super-
TB: I constantly try to visualize sets, static resistance and forced
how I want my body to look. If I see reps only on movements that
a lagging bodypart, I try to put more minimize the risk of injury. I
emphasis on it than other parts. In also like to use different types of
order to work the weak bodyparts, resistance, such as free weights,
you need to master the mind before machines, stretch cords, power-
you can master the body. I try to plate training with free weights
mentally “will” the muscle to grow and instability platforms. Any-
while watching it contract during thing to shock the muscle for
the exercise. I visualize it growing potential growth.
right before my eyes. I enjoy the DY: What kind of set-and-
challenge of working the weak parts rep patterns do you use?
of the body and seeing the changes TB: I do four to five different
occur. exercises for each bodypart for
DY: Do you have a life philoso- three to four sets each. I do any-
phy? where from 10 to 20 reps, always
TB: In order to live life to the varying the weight from one
fullest, you have to experience it week to the next.
not only physically but spiritually as I believe that there’s no per-
well. That is the way to truly enjoy fect ratio. What matters most is
life and keep things in a true and achieving the mind-to-muscle
positive perspective. I never take connection to obtain total iso-
my good health for granted and am lation and muscle control for
extremely thankful for it. maximum results.
DY: What strategies do you use DY: What about cardio?
for success in life or business TB: Off-season I do no cardio.
that you’re able to carry into On-season I do cardio the first
bodybuilding? eight weeks of my 10-week diet
TB: I never worry about competi- on an elliptical machine for 45 to
tion as long as I put all my energy 60 minutes at 70 percent of my
and focus into being the best I can maximum heart rate.
be. I’m not afraid to try innovative DY: How do you organize
ideas to keep things fresh and excit- your training week?
ing, not only for myself but also for TB: I shut down my training
my clients. facility from 1 to 2:30 p.m. on
DY: What is your training phi- Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday
losophy? and Thursday for me and my
TB: I live by a statement I heard workout partner. Then I take
years ago: “The will to win is not three full days off for recovery.
nearly as important as the will to My split is Monday: chest
prepare to win.” and triceps; Tuesday: back and
DY: How do you switch from biceps; Wednesday: shoulders
your normal training to contest and abs; Thursday: quads, ham-
training? strings and calves.
TB: Everything has to feel right. DY: Can you list a typical
Once I commit, there has to be week of your training pro-
minimal interruption during con- gram bodypart by bodypart?
test preparation in order to do it the TB: Sure.

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“I live by a statement I heard Chest
Bench presses 4 sets
years ago: ‘The will to win is Incline presses 3 sets
Decline presses 3 sets
not nearly as important as the Flat-bench flyes 3 sets
will to prepare to win.’”
Wide-grip pulldowns 3 sets
Narrow-grip pulldowns 3 sets
Narrow-grip rows 3 sets
Overhead straight-arm
pulls 3 sets

Lateral raises 3 sets
Straight-arm front raises 3 sets
Overhead presses 3 sets
Rear-delt rows 3 sets
Shrugs 3 sets

Wide-grip curls 3 sets
Narrow-grip curls 3 sets
Drag curls 3 sets
Hammer curls 3 sets

Overhead extensions 3 sets
Pushdowns 3 sets
Dips 3 sets
Close-grip presses 3 sets

Leg presses 4 sets
Hack squats 3 sets
Leg extensions 3 sets

Weighted one-leg lunges 3 sets
Leg curls 3 sets

Standing calf raises 4 sets

Hanging knee raises 4 sets

DY: What range of motion do

you use?
TB: I use full range most of the time,
always keeping constant tension on
the muscle being worked.
DY: What about rep speed?
TB: Reps are performed at a mod-
erate tempo. Then, as fatigue sets in,
I like to slow it down during the ec-
centric part of the motion to maintain
control over the weight and not let the
weight control me. That mentally gives
me more power and minimizes the
risk of injury.
DY: How long do you rest be-

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tween sets? a great body? ing sure you work at 65 to 75 percent
TB: Approximately one minute. TB: The key elements of training of your maximum heart rate to en-
DY: What is your overall phi- are consistency, mind-to-muscle sure that you don’t become catabolic
losophy about bodybuilding? connection, isolation and muscle and burn lean muscle mass.
TB: Bodybuilding, if done the control. DY: How does bodybuilding
correct way, can promote good The key elements of nutrition affect your relationships?
health in a lot of ways. It builds are eating nutrient-dense, organic TB: Bodybuilding has been a
self-esteem and confidence, instills whole foods as much as possible and blessing in our lives. My wife and I
a good work ethic, teaches struc- staying away from fast foods and take good care of ourselves because
ture and builds discipline. If not, processed or refined foods. of what bodybuilding has taught us
it can be very self-consuming and The key elements of supplemen- over the years. God has taught me to
destructive. My philosophy is that if tation are knowing why, knowing love my spouse the way I love my-
you do it for the love of health, you’ll how much and knowing when. That self. It would be hard to love myself
reap the rewards of a fulfilled life. will keep you from wasting a whole if I felt and looked lousy because I
DY: I agree. What do you think lot of money. didn’t exercise, sleep and eat right.
are the key elements of train- The key elements of cardio are DY: Do you have any role mod-
ing, nutrition, supplementation making sure your body is glycogen els?
and cardio that lead to building loaded before your session and mak- TB: Without a doubt that would
be legendary bodybuilder and
strongman Chuck Sipes. I first met
Chuck back in 1983. I had the honor
“The key of being a friend of his before he
passed away. He was an unselfish,
elements of godly man who would go out of
his way to help others in need. If it
training are hadn’t been for his help and encour-
agement early in my career, I don’t
consistency, know if I would have stayed in body-
mind-to-muscle building. I thank God for Chuck.
DY: What’s the toughest thing
connection, about bodybuilding?
TB: The toughest thing is the con-
isolation test preparation. Not because the
and muscle physical part is tough, but because
you have to literally be a slave to a
control.” 10-week scheduled plan. Normal life
is nonexistent during that time as
far as eating meals with my wife and
weekend activities are concerned. I
think a lot of it is because I’m such
a driven person. I don’t like to do
anything that’s going to diminish my
chances for success, especially in a
sport like bodybuilding, which re-
quires so much time and effort.
DY: What is the best thing
about being a bodybuilder?
TB: Two things: 1) Going out
in public with my eight-year-old
grandson and having people mistake
him for my son; 2) Being featured in
DY: Great answer!

Editor’s note: To contact Terry

Baldwin about contest preparation,
guest posing or training advice, send
e-mail to terry@flexsolate.com. To
learn more about Flexolate training
aids, visit Flexolate.com. IM

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For the OVER -40
by Jim Brewster
Photography by Michael Neveux

For older natural bodybuilders the you train chest and triceps on a tended-set techniques:
idea of manipulating the body’s re- separate day and shoulders on an-
lease of hormones through exercise other day? • Rest/pause. When you reach
and diet should be quite exciting. The answer? You begin those failure, rack the weight for a 10
The hormones I’m referring to are workouts with squats or deadlifts. count; then continue the set for
the big three: testosterone, growth I don’t mean you have to work another three or four reps. You
hormone and insulin. yourself into the ground, but one to can do that once or even two or
The body’s natural output of the three working sets done at a mod- three times. Count the entire R/P
big three declines as you age, so erate weight will get the process sequence as one set.
taking maximum advantage of them started. Remember the Iron Guru,
is essential if you want to make big Vince Gironda? He used to have his • Forced reps. When you reach
gains. The right approach to training trainees begin their arm workouts failure, have someone give you
and diet will enable you to do it. with squats because he believed it just a bit of help, enough to get
set the adrenal gland up for growth. the bar moving. Shoot for three to
Testosterone He was on the right track. four extra reps per set done this
way. Warning: only used forced
You can increase your body’s
natural production of testosterone
Growth Hormone reps on a few sets per bodypart;
they are notorious for triggering
with hard work on the big, com- Research shows that when GH is overtraining.
pound movements, especially those secreted along with testosterone, it
on which the body actually moves magnifies the effect of the testos- • 1 1/2 reps. This is just what you
up and down, such as the squat and terone. Research also shows that would think: Complete a full rep
deadlift. The bigger the muscle, the there’s a direct connection between followed by a half rep, and keep
more testosterone is released—and the burn of lactic acid buildup and repeating the pattern. On squats
what’s bigger than the legs and GH release. What better way to get you go down, come up halfway,
back? the burn than by using an extended- go down again, and then come up
Starting your workout with three set technique, like drop sets, which to full lockout. That’s one rep.
Model: Dave Fisher

to five sets of heavy squats or dead- involve repping out with a weight,
lifts done for six to 10 reps will work then at exhaustion reducing the • Supersets. Here you do two
wonders. That’s easy to do on leg poundage and immediately repping exercises back to back without
and back day, but what if, like me, out again. Here are a few other ex- stopping, such as barbell curls

www.ironmanmagazine.com \ JANUARY 2009 177

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Model: Gus Malliarodakis

carbs and protein,
about 40 grams of
protein with 40 to
60 grams of carbs.
There are post-
workout drinks that
contain those pre-
cise amounts. You
Supersets. Do two can also mix whey
exercises back to back for protein powder with
the same muscle without some orange juice,
rest. Research shows a direct skim milk and a
Model: Daryl Gee

connection between the burn of banana.

lactic acid buildup and growth At those key times
hormone release. you want to get
nutrients into your
bloodstream as fast
supersetted with cable curls. courage growth hormone release. as possible. After your workout your
muscles are depleted and ready
• 21s. This was an Arnold favor-
ite. Using the curl as an example,
Insulin to absorb nutrients. That’s when
you want to take advantage of the
you do seven full reps followed by This hormone can cause the anabolic actions of insulin. The first
seven half reps from the starting body to store fat if it’s constantly thing in the morning is also critical
position to halfway up, followed spiking all day. That’s the reason it’s because you’re coming off an over-
by seven half reps from halfway a good idea to watch your intake of night fast and primed for the ana-
up to the top of the movement. simple carbs. On the other hand, bolic activation an insulin spike plus
All of that counts as one set. insulin also causes amino acids the right nutrients will provide.
and creatine to be stored, which All your other meals should be
• Static holds. Using cable rows encourages protein synthesis. To get high in protein and mixed with
as an example, you pull the han- the anabolic action without the fat complex carbs. That will keep insu-
dle to your waist and hold it there storage, you want to cause an insu- lin spikes under control when you
for a 10 count, and then lower lin spike at two key times: first thing don’t want them and help minimize
and begin another rep. in the morning when you wake up or eliminate fat storage.
and after your workout, a.k.a. the
Remember, the point of using anabolic window. Editor’s note: For more articles
these techniques is to get a burn in How do you cause your insulin to by Jim Brewster, visit Bodybuilding
the target muscle in order to en- spike? By drinking a mixture of fast .com. IM

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Exercise-Specific Hormone Release
Most IRON MAN readers are familiar with Positions-of-Flexion mass
training. Basically, you work each target muscle at three specific points
along its arc of flexion for full-range-of-motion size stimulation. The best
example of the concept is the POF routine for triceps.
If you raise your hand as if you wanted to ask a question in class, that’s
the top point along the triceps’ arc of flexion—overhead extensions at-
tack the stretch position when your elbow is bent, forearm down. Next
position: Lower your straight arm till it’s perpendicular to your body, as if
you just completed a bench press. That’s the midpoint along the triceps’
arc of flexion—close-grip bench presses train that midrange position.
Now lower your straight arm down next to your torso. That’s a third key
flexion point—pushdowns hit the contracted, or fully flexed, position.
By training those three exercises, you attack the critical points along
the triceps’ ROM, which is from overhead to down next to your torso,
effectively and efficiently working the bulk of the muscle through its full
range. That provides complete development quickly, as you get unique
fiber activation at each point—but there’s more.
With the midrange exercise, close-
grip bench presses, you achieve max-
force generation thanks to muscle
synergy. The next exercise, overhead
extensions, stretches the triceps
Model: Omar Deckard

against resistance. Stretch overload like

that has been linked to hyperplasia, or
fiber splitting. In fact, one animal study
produced a 300 percent mass increase
after only one month of progres-
sive-stretch overload as the sole source of stimulation. Pushdowns train
the triceps in the contracted position. They’re one of the best exercises
for creating occlusion, or blocked blood flow, with continuous tension.
Research has shown that occlusion and tension produce significant in-
creases in muscle size, even with light weights, which is partially due to
the influx of blood when you finish the exercise.
You can see how those three positions, or points, of flexion all con-
tribute different components to the growth process, making it more ef-
ficient—not to mention perfect for keeping older trainees flexible and
strong through each muscle’s full range of motion. And if you use a differ-
ent rep count for each exercise, you also get specific anabolic-hormone-
releasing effects. For example:
Close-grip bench presses, 2 x 7-9
Overhead extensions, 2 x 10-12
Pushdowns, 2 x 12-15
If you train all work sets to exhaustion—till another full rep is impossi-
ble—you will get testosterone release from the big, midrange move using
lower reps. What’s more, stretch-position exercises have been shown to
trigger anabolic hormone release in the target muscle, and doing higher
reps on continuous-tension contracted-position exercises creates more
muscle burn, which is linked to more growth hormone release.
By varying the rep range on those three exercises, you amplify the size-
building characteristic of each. Take that POF triceps routine for a test
drive, and I guarantee you’ll have a full, skin-stretching pump and feel
a deep ache in your triceps almost immediately. You’ll know that you’ve
achieved unique stimulation that will bring impressive new muscle size
and a hormone profile geared for growth.
—Steve Holman

Editor’s note: The e-book 3D Muscle Building is the Positions-of-

Flexion training guide. It’s available at www.3DMuscleBuilding.com.

Free download from imbodybuilding.com


Antiaging Research
by Jerry Brainum

Fountain of Youth
or Washout?
Dehydroepiandrosterone continues to be
a source of intense controversy. It’s a steroid
produced in the adrenal glands and is by far the
most abundant steroid circulating in the blood.
It comes in two forms: DHEA, which is the free,
or unbound, version, and DHEA-S, which is
attached to a sulfur molecule. DHEA has a short
half-life of one to three hours, meaning that half
of an oral dose is broken down in that time.
DHEA-S is the primary circulating form, last-
ing for 10 to 20 hours in the body. While other
steroids, such as testosterone and estrogen, are
bound to sex-hormone-binding globulin in the
blood and are not active until they’re unbound,
DHEA-S is loosely bound to albumin, another
plasma protein. DHEA-S circulates at a concen-
tration that’s 100 to 500 times higher than tes-
tosterone and 1,000 to 10,000 times greater than
estrogen. That’s why it’s often referred to as the
mother of all hormones.
Despite its abundance in the blood, scientists
still aren’t sure exactly what DHEA does. Most
suggest that it acts as a reservoir for the synthesis
of other steroid hormones, including estrogen
and testosterone, and that most of the beneficial
effects ascribed to it come from that property.
Having low DHEA has been linked to several
aspects of the aging process, including insulin re-
sistance, obesity, cardiovascular disease, cancer,
depression and blunted immune response—all of
which increase with age. In animals DHEA shows
definite antiaging effects, which has led to its
being labeled a fountain-of-youth hormone. Still,
rodents and other animals have either no or low
DHEA, and the doses given in animal or test-tube
studies are much higher than normal.
One reason DHEA is linked to age-related
DHEA is often maladies is that it declines in most people. You
called the have a lot in your body at birth, but it rapidly
mother of all declines. It increases again at about age 10, peak-
hormones, ing at about age 30. After that it depletes at a
but it declines rate of about 10 percent per decade until age 80,
as we age. when its level plateaus. Many older people show
DHEA-S—the type measured in the blood—at a
rate only about 20 to 25 percent of the youthful
Neveux \ Model: Lee Apperson

peak. Some studies correlate limited DHEA with

aging infirmities; the less you have, the less zest
and vigor you have. People in nursing homes
who have very little require the most assistance.
Although the data for humans are equivocal,
studies done with other primates, such as mon-

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keys, show that having more metabolic crapshoot.
DHEA is associated with lon- A study published in 2006
gevity. Humans experiencing found that men 65 or over
age-related loss of muscle who took DHEA experienced
and bone have low DHEA. significant increases in tes-
Indeed, one theory suggests tosterone, along with cyclic
that it helps to maintain GMP, a substance that’s also
higher levels of insulinlike boosted by the drug Viagra.
growth factor 1, a hormone Along with those changes,
that protects the integrity of the men had less low-den-
numerous organs and tissues sity lipoprotein—the bad
in the body, including the kind of cholesterol. Another
heart, brain and muscles. study published the same
DHEA was the first pro- year found no connection
hormone put on the market between DHEA and cardio-
after the food supplement vascular death in men, while

Neveux \ Models: Lee Apperson and Jennifer Micheli

act of 1994 was passed, and more recent research found a
bodybuilders snapped it up. slightly increased risk of car-
It had previously sold as a diovascular disease in older
supplement derived from a women who take it, likely
plant sterol found in Mexican because it lowers high-den-
yams, but the United States sity lipoprotein—the good
Food and Drug Administra- Many people who ingest DHEA report kind of cholesterol—in older
tion removed that form from women.
the market in 1986, owing to
an enhanced outlook on life and a more Various maladies related
quality-control issues. Some positive attitude. to brain function tend to
alleged DHEA supplements increase with age, including
didn’t contain any DHEA. depression and degenerative
DHEA didn’t appear to build muscle, although it may diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. DHEA is gener-
have benefited older men and women. One study reported ated in the brain, where it acts as a neurosteroid, meaning
that giving 50 milligrams a day, the suggested replacement that it influences brain function. Indeed, the brain secretes
dosage, to older men and women over 16 weeks enhanced an abundance of DHEA, and nature never does anything
muscle and strength adaptations during a weight-training wantonly—so there must be a reason. DHEA works against
program.1 In a more recent study, however, a daily dose of GABA, which inhibits the body from producing such bene-
50 milligrams given to 31 older women for 12 weeks was ficial substances as growth hormone, while it increases the
found to have no advantages over a placebo.2 The women activity of another neurotransmitter called serotonin. The
did endurance exercise four times a week and lifted weights effect is to reduce depression. In addition, DHEA increases
three days a week during the course of the study. Their beta-endorphin, the brain’s natural feel-good substance.
DHEA-S count rose by 650 percent over baseline, as did Some researchers believe that could explain why older
other steroid hormones, such as testosterone (100 percent), people who take DHEA report a more positive attitude.
estradiol (165 percent) and estrone (85 percent). IGF-1 rose Animal studies show that DHEA appears to lessen the
by 30 percent in the women who took DHEA. loss of cognition related to a buildup of a brain protein
A 1999 study involved giving 100 milligrams a day of called beta-amyloid, which is considered a major cause
DHEA or a placebo to 40 middle-aged men, average age 48, of Alzheimer’s disease. Another cause of Alzheimer’s is an
who had all actively engaged in weight training for at least increase of free-radical activity, to which the brain is prone
one year. After 12 weeks the researchers found no changes because of its high polyunsaturated fat content. DHEA acts
in body composition, lean mass, strength or testosterone as an antioxidant in the brain, particularly in the hippo-
in the DHEA group. The good news was the absence of side campus, the area of the brain associated with memory and
effects. learning. Long-term flooding of the brain with the stress
Other studies examined the impact of oral doses of hormone cortisol selectively destroys brain cells that are
DHEA on young men engaged in weight training. In one linked to memory and learning, but DHEA blocks cortisol’s
it wound up as a metabolite of dihydrotestosterone, a.k.a. impact.
DHT, itself a metabolite of testosterone that is linked to Research on older adults shows that those who have
male-pattern baldness, acne and prostate enlargement. enough DHEA are less likely to suffer from depression;
None of the young men experienced any of those prob- people who are depressed most of the time have a higher
lems, but neither did they show increased testosterone or mortality rate. Other studies show that DHEA may support
added muscle or strength. restful and restorative sleep, and many older people are
In women DHEA always increases testosterone mea- sleep-deprived, which has a direct bearing on hormone
sures. It converts first to androstenedione—the first pro- release. Sleep deprivation leads to a precipitous drop in
hormone to follow DHEA into the marketplace—then anabolic hormones—including growth hormone, IGF-1
directly into testosterone. That’s thought to occur because and testosterone—and to enhanced cortisol production.
women produce much smaller amounts of testosterone That’s not only bad for brain function but is also related to
than men. In older men DHEA can take various pathways. the frailty and muscle loss so common in older people. A
In those who are low in testosterone, it may convert to recent study using rats as subjects found that giving them
testosterone. In others it converts to estrogen—kind of a 30 milligrams of DHEA per kilogram of bodyweight for a

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restore youthful amounts of
DHEA to the subjects, none
showed any benefits in ei-
ther cognition or feelings of
well-being. Consistent with
previous studies, the women
experienced a greater hor-
mone impact. Their testos-
terone rose by 60 percent and
estradiol, an estrogen, rose by
40 percent. The men showed
no hormone changes.
In contrast, a British study
of younger men found that a
dose of 150 milligrams of DHEA twice daily resulted in im-
proved episodic memory and subjective mood, along with
a drop in evening cortisol counts.
Another problem often linked to aging is lowered insulin
sensitivity. That often leads to diabetes, the fourth greatest
cause of death. In rats, DHEA lowers insulin and increases
insulin sensitivity, but as rats don’t produce DHEA, extrap-
olating the effect to humans is a stretch. Results in human
studies vary, with some subjects who have blunted adrenal
gland function showing more effects on insulin when they
take DHEA. Longevity is closely linked to insulin; healthy
older people always have low resting insulin and higher
insulin sensitivity. Having more insulin means more body-
fat gain and buildup of several fat-synthesizing enzymes.
In ongoing studies of monkeys on calorie-restricted diets,
lower insulin, less diabetes, less bodyfat and more DHEA
were consistent results. While having too much insulin
points toward atherosclerosis and heart disease, DHEA op-
poses those effects. In animals DHEA prevents the buildup
of plaque in arteries after a high-fat diet and prevents the
internal clot formation that is the immediate cause of most
heart attacks and strokes.
DHEA may help prevent bodyfat increase. It always has
that effect in animals—quite potently. While a study of
young men showed that a daily dose of 1,600 milligrams
of DHEA significantly lessened bodyfat, follow-up studies
Neveux \ Model: Daniele Seccarecci

failed to confirm the finding. Cell studies show that DHEA

prevents development of new fat cells. Other studies show
that it inhibits an enzyme required for cells to convert
sugar into fat. A 2004 study of older men and women pub-
lished in the Journal of the American Medical Association
found that DHEA depleted deep-lying abdominal fat and
improved insulin sensitivity.
When you read that an older person died of “old age,”
month led to beneficial changes in their brains, including it usually means that the person didn’t die from the usual
lowering the activity of monoamine oxidase, an enzyme causes of death, such as heart disease or cancer. What then
that degrades catecholamines in the brain that block de- was the cause? Often it’s related to a loss of immune re-
pression, such as dopamine, epinephrine and norepineph- sponse. Diseases rarely fatal in the young, such as pneumo-
rine. DHEA also lowered the accumulation of lipofuscin, a nia, often prove fatal to older people, who lack the immune
waste material that interferes with brain function. defense against them. Cortisol, which suppresses immuni-
Not all studies, however, find that DHEA benefits cogni- ties, increases with age, while DHEA levels decline. That
tive function and quality of life. A 2006 study published in may explain why the immune system fades, setting you up
the New England Journal of Medicine featured older men for diseases like cancer. It’s the major reason that cancer
and women who took DHEA for two years. The scientists is so prevalent in the aged. DHEA may help maintain the
found no beneficial effects on body composition, physi- immune system. One way it does that is by blocking the
cal performance, insulin sensitivity or quality of life. In a impact of cortisol.
recent study 110 men and 115 women got either 50 mil- A recent review pointed out that exercise helps control
ligrams of DHEA or a placebo for one year.6 The subjects, cortisol, thereby maintaining immunity. Exercise—but not
none of whom were selected on the basis of their baseline overtraining—tips the metabolic scales in favor of DHEA
DHEA, underwent a variety of cognitive tests throughout over cortisol. Both aerobics and weight training may help
the course of the study. Although the supplement did too.7 Calorie restriction, which extends life in many spe-

188 JANUARY 2009 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

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cies but remains a speculative issue in humans, increases DHEA, but it’s temporary and not considered a major prob-
DHEA. Alcohol intake lowers it, as do caffeine and high- lem. Others report an increase in body hair, likely the result
stress conditions. of the androgenic effects of DHEA in women. When such
A study published in the June 2008 issue of the Journal of effects do occur, they nearly always happen with doses of
the American Geriatrics Society measured serum DHEA in more than 100 milligrams daily. The usual replacement
940 men and women, aged 21 to 88, and monitored them dose is 50 milligrams. The use of the word replacement is a
from 1978 to 2005. The researchers found that having less bit of a stretch, as there’s no evidence that DHEA is essen-
DHEA-S was significantly associated with shorter life span, tial to life.
and higher DHEA-S counts were a strong predictor of lon- A movement is under way in Congress to have DHEA
gevity in men even after adjusting for age, blood pressure added to the list of banned anabolic steroids. That’s be-
and plasma glucose. They found no relationship between cause it can be a precursor of testosterone, though there’s
DHEA and longevity in women, however. Interestingly, they no evidence that DHEA has any significant anabolic effects.
found no significant difference in longevity until after 15 For that reason DHEA remains the sole survivor of the FDA
years of follow-up, which they suggest could explain the pro-hormone purge of 2005 and is still an ingredient in
negative findings concerning DHEA and male longevity in several “anabolic” supplements. The evidence, however,
previous studies. demonstrates that DHEA, when taken in daily doses of 50
Side effects vary with sex. DHEA should be avoided by milligrams or less, is benign and may provide some ben-
men who have prostate disease. In younger men it may efits related to the aging process and disease prevention.
convert into a metabolite of DHT, which may or may not The best way to determine if DHEA would be helpful for
lead to male-pattern baldness, acne and prostate prob- you is to have a blood test for DHEA-S. About 15 percent
lems. The most common side effect in women is acne; of those over 40 have normal DHEA counts, and for them
DHEA is the major cause of teenage acne too. Some people supplementing it would do little or nothing. For the other
experience a minor elevation in liver enzymes when using 85 percent, however, supplemental use of DHEA remains a
matter of intense scientific debate, stemming
from the fact that most of the research show-
ing its benefits involved animals that produce
little or no DHEA and test-tube studies. On the
other hand, a body of human research shows
that those who are low in DHEA can derive
DHEA may be quality-of-life benefits from the still enigmatic
beneficial to about substance.
85 percent of those
over age 40. References
1 Villareal, D.T., et al. (2006). DHEA enhanc-
es the effects of weight training on muscle
mass and strength in elderly men and women.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 291:E1003-
2 Igwebuike, A., et al. (2008). Lack of DHEA
effect on a combined endurance and resis-
tance exercise program in postmenopausal
women. J Clin Endocrin Metab. 93:534-538.
3 Wallace, M.B., et al. (1999). Effects of de-
hydroepiandrosterone vs androstenedione
supplementation in men. Med Sci Sports Exerc.
4 Bastianetto, S., et al. (1999). Dehydroepi-
androsterone (DHEA) protects hippocampal
cells from oxidative stress-induced damage.
Brain Res Mole Brain Res. 66:35-41.
5 Kumar, P., et al. (2008). Effect of
dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on mono-
amine oxidase activity, lipid peroxidation, and
lipofuscin accumulation in aging rat brain
regions. Biogerontol. 9(4):235-246.
6 Kritz-Silverstein, D., et al. (2008). Effects
of dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation
Neveux \ Model: Mehmet Yildirim

on cognitive function and quality of life: The

DHEA and Well-Ness (DAWN) trial. J Am Geri-
atric Soc. 56:1292-1298.
7 Buford, T.W., et al. (2008). Impact of
DHEA-S and cortisol on immune function in
aging: a brief review. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab.
33:429-33. IM

www.ironmanmagazine.com \ JANUARY 2009 189

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The Most Amazing Man
I Ever Met
by Doris Barrilleaux

f all the stars of the iron tice to his incredible life would be never smoked, never consumed
game and the other comparable to engraving the entire alcohol.
celebrities that I’ve Bible on the head of a pin. At the tender age of five, Joe
met in my 77 years, As someone once wrote, “Joe began to lift some of his father’s
Joe “the Great” Rollino looks at least 20 years younger, acts dumbbells. Bruno noticed Joe’s in-
stands out as the most at least 40 younger and thinks 60 terest and strength and determined
amicable, genuine and years younger than his age.” That’s to find an able strength-training
utterly amazing. At age 103, he has an understatement. teacher for his son. When Joe was
total recall of names, dates, venues, Joe’s father, Bruno (1860–1940), 10 years old, weighing 68 pounds,
poundages and events of every emigrated to the United States from they went to Coney Island to meet
important person in the iron game Austria and was a great strongman Warren Lincoln Travis, the most re-
during the last century. He is truly a in his own right. He stood 6’2” and nowned strongman of the era, who
walking encyclopedia. Just mention weighed about 300 pounds. His could lift across his back 10 men
anyone involved in strength feats diminutive mother, Clara, at 5’2”, standing on a plank.
and other sports from the past, and weighed 120 pounds and “had arms Travis, however, was doubtful
without a second’s hesitation he can like iron, carrying logs, wielding an about the small child’s strength
relate fascinating stories about that ax and holding up her end on a two- until Joe lifted one of the 250-pound
person. I’ve now coined a phrase man saw.” dumbbells off the ground five times
that I use every time I can’t remem- Joe, born in Brooklyn, New York, in succession. Joe quit school, and
ber something: “Joe would know.” on March 19, 1905, was the middle Travis took him on as an appren-
Even the very young who are in- of 14 children. His nine brothers all tice, working with him for the next
volved in any aspect of the strength stood over 6’ like his dad. Joe inher- 23 years, until Joe entered military
sports are mesmerized as they listen ited his strength and height from service.
to every word he so willingly shares his mother. He reveals that he had a The two became so close that Tra-
with his fans. They wait patiently for rough childhood and that the fam- vis actually wanted to adopt the boy.
a handshake and for a photograph ily often had little to eat. Upon his Of course, that wasn’t acceptable to
with a truly amazing man. To do jus- mother’s advice, Joe never ate meat, Joe’s parents. Together they traveled

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Rollino was strong and built as a boy and a man.
Above: As a member of the Iceberg Club of winter
bathers. Below: Joe gives the big weights a go.

the country and abroad as Travis

taught Joe how to train and perform New Jersey, on June 7, 2008. Joe con- • Eugen Sandow, who, in 1924,
onstage, as well as other invaluable fided that nickels are much harder when Joe was 19, covered himself in
skills, including self-confidence and to bend. He showed me that his left white powder and posed against a
perseverance. middle finger was a bit smaller than black drape in the same city where
By age 12, Joe was part of Travis’ the right one—the reason he could famed Italian opera singer Enrico
vaudeville act, bending a six-inch lift only 500 pounds with it com- Caruso had performed. Sandow was
spike with his hands. Then, with his pared to the 635 pounds with his so famous that Thomas Edison used
teeth and neck, he’d bend one back right middle finger! his posing to demonstrate his new
and forth until it broke in two. Joe In 1919, when Joe was 14, his moving-picture camera.
once raised a carrousel holding 14 brother took him to Toledo, Ohio, • Josephine Blatt (“Minerva”),
people. to see Jack Dempsey knock out the proclaimed the strongest female in
Over the years some of Joe’s lifts, gigantic Jess Willard. That instilled the world, who in the 1890s stood
at a bodyweight of between 130 in Joe a desire to become a boxer. At on a high platform and lifted a lower
and 150, were the back lift, 3,200 5’4” and 155 pounds Joe, known as platform containing 23 men.
pounds; harness lift, 1,800 pounds; “Kid Dundee,” had some 100 fights • Kate Brumbach (“Sandwina”),
one-finger lift, 635 pounds; chins as an “armory boxer,” in National who at 6’2” and 200 pounds could
while pinch-gripping rafters, 15; Guard halls and arsenals. He could lift 1,000 pounds of cannon on her
hundreds of pullups on a two- not be knocked out. Even if matched back and 280 pounds overhead.
by-four beam with a pinch grip; against much bigger opponents and • Jack Dempsey, heavyweight
one-finger chins. To this day he can there was a clinch, no one could champion of the world from 1919 to
bend dimes and quarters, a feat I move him because he possessed 1926, with whom Joe once sparred.
witnessed myself, seated next to such unbelievable strength. • Bernard MacFadden, known as
him at the 25th reunion of the As- Joe has met every great in the iron the “father of physical culture.”
sociation of Oldetime Barbell and game and other sports celebrities • Charles Atlas (real name Angelo
Strongmen’s banquet in Newark, as well: Siciliano), who lived across the

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Above: With author Doris

Barrilleaux. Left: With
weightlifing great Tommy
Kono, Doris and Clarence
“Ripped” Bass. Below left: With
Red Larille.

street from Joe. The “World’s Most

Perfectly Developed Man” was the
original 97-pound weakling who
had sand kicked in his face. He was
best known in comic books and
magazines as
a mail-order
expert. Travis suffered a heart attack while one stayed in the water for five or
Joe married performing on July 12, 1941. Sadly, 10 minutes, it killed any germs in-
in 1924. He Joe could not attend his mentor’s side the body—back in the day the
and his wife, funeral. waters off Coney Island were clean.
Clara, had After returning from combat, Joe He described those swims as invigo-
twin boys, became estranged from his wife and rating, and he stopped the practice
Bruno and children. He held numerous jobs only five years ago. He claimed that
Orazio, and over an amazing lifetime, working other members also continued the
a daughter, as a lumberjack, a seaman and a routine into their 90s and 100s.
Clara. He sandhog, building New York City’s Today, Joe lives with his niece
had been Holland and Lincoln tunnels in the Christina, the daughter of one of
too young to fight 1920s. That was a very strenuous his sisters who was named after
in World War I, but in 1939, with and dangerous job. While working her grandmother (there were five
World War II brewing, he joined the as a longshoreman, he wasn’t afraid Christinas in the immediate family).
41st Infantry Division at age 34 and to stand up to union goons. She is as protective of her uncle Joe
served through the war in the Pacific For 50 years Joe belonged to the as all the presidential bodyguards
theater. Iceberg Club. As one who’s never combined. After a few bad experi-
While fighting in the jungle, he used air-conditioning, I’m dumb- ences with the media, Tina also
was severely injured by shrapnel founded that anyone would swim ferociously protects him from being
that tore into his right thigh and with air temperatures in the teens exploited. In return he protects
neck; he still carries shrapnel in his and the water 32 degrees. Joe didn’t Tina, walking her to the bus stop
legs. The scars have nearly faded just take a dip, as the Polar Bear club every morning, and then continues
from his neck, but he has a metal members do. His group swam in the his morning walk for 3 1/2 miles. He
plate in his left shoulder. He re- frigid ocean three or four times a stopped vigorous weight training at
ceived three Purple Hearts, a Silver week, when the water temperature age 85 but continues to work on his
Star and a Bronze Star. During Joe’s was actually warmer than the air neck and abs and occasionally does
tour of duty in the South Pacific, temperature. They believed that if some curls. IM

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Should Cutler Retire?

Swami Says,
No Way
Hey, fans, leave the experts’
commentary for “The Experts”: me,
Isaac Hinds and Yaron Avidan,
a.k.a. Yogi, Mr. Magoo and Mum-
bles—take your pick. Many industry
followers were telling me—in per-
son, via e-mail and by phone—that
Jay Cutler needs to hang up his
posing trunks after being unseated
at the ’08 Mr. Olympia contest by
Dexter Jackson.
His time is over, some said. The
chapter on the powerful-but-less-
aesthetic physique has closed, a
few noted. Jay’s body will only get
worse from here on out, several Olympia face-off:
insisted. Dexter Jackson
and Jay Cutler.
Time for me to insist. To resist.
First of all, Cutler looked better this
year than when he won for the sec-
ond time in a row in 2007. True, he was not at his best
at the prejudging once again, but he was improved over
last season’s look. In fact, Cutler actually won round four
at the finals, besting Jackson by two points, after shed-
ding 12 pounds in 24 hours, going from 260 to 248 and
showing up with a much harder and refined look.
Of course, since the Blade was out in front by nine
digits, it didn’t matter. Jackson would have had to come
in 20 percent off from his Friday night shape—and when
does Dex show up out of condition, period, much less
way off from one night to the next?
From pictures I saw a week out from the show, Cutler
looked to be at his all-time best—or at least to rival the
spectacular 2001 model of of his physique: hard and
veiny at about 265 pounds. What happened in those
seven days is beyond me, but Jay’s Friday-night curse
continued, as he appeared watery when it came time
to face off at the prejudging. You can only get away
with that so long before the panel will make the switch to a harder, more Toney Freeman.
refined body. With Victor Martinez still recovering from knee surgery,
Action Jackson became the man the judges would reward.
Cutler certainly has it down when it comes to doing a Hollywood
makeover from Friday to Saturday; his only concern now is how to be at
his best when it counts the most—at the prejudging. Perhaps he should Dennis
do on Thursday night what he’s done on Friday night and Saturday after- Wolf.
noon the past couple of years.

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And they say LOOKING BACK L.T. was all
he doesn’t Bodybuilding over the
know which mourns the loss Olympia
way is up. of Steve Stone. booth action.
Pages 209 Pages 211 and Pages 212
through 211 213 and 213

In any case, I say no way to a Cutler retirement party. And, yes, way
to those who ask if Jay can really regain the crown in 2009. It isn’t about
muscle tears or imbalances (Jay does have his imperfections, but
Silvio don’t they all?). It’s mostly about conditioning.
Samuel. I don’t think coming in lighter is necessarily the answer, either.
I feel that the version of Cutler we saw at the ’03 IRON MAN Pro,
when he tipped the scales at around 265, was the second-best
effort of his illustrious pro career.
He’s not called the Ultimate Beef for nothing. Cutler has been
the best or second-best bodybuilder in the world throughout the
decade because of his overpowering musculature. And he’s only
35 years old, fairly young by bodybuilding standards—four years
younger than Jackson and the same age as Martinez. Don’t forget
where you came from, Jay. In your case size does matter—but in a
drier version.
Melvin Now, would a tighter body make it automatic for Cutler next
Anthony. season? Of course not. Jackson’s been terrific for years and was at
his all-time best this season, winning five contests (the Arnold, the
New Zealand Elite Pro, the Australia Grand Prix, the Olympia and
Pair of champs: the Romania Grand Prix). He will be, I predict, every bit as sublime
David Henry and next time. Don’t discount a repeat.
Jackson. Of course, Martinez was the man most were talking about after
he pushed Jay a year ago. Some are already saying he’ll be hug-
ging the Sandow at the end of next September. Well, if Victor can
come all the way back from knee surgery—and we’ll find out at the
Contest photography by Roland Balik

’09 Arnold—he’ll be one of the favorites.

Yes, one of the favorites. Cutler, Martinez, Jackson and Phil
Heath are all capable of running off with the Sandow next time.
Heath, this season’s IM Pro champ and runner-up to Jackson at
the Arnold Classic in March, looked spectacular at the O. As he’s
but 28 years old, he should be even better next year. He already
has the best guns in the game, as well as marvelous calves, wheels
and hams, and if he can add some width to his frame, he might be
better than all of them. Emphasize might.
Let me add Toney Freeman to the list. Freeman, who was
John Balik’s pick to win the O after the judging, stunned me with
his appearance, especially since I’d been saying that he’d be worn
out after competing six times this year, including at
Phil the Atlantic City Pro two weeks before. It looked
Heath. like I knew what I was talking about too, as Free-
man, 42, lost the masters event in Jersey to Dar-
rem Charles before finishing fourth in the open.
At the O Toney was the first man to walk on-
stage, and it took IRON MAN photog Merv “Pilias-
wami” Petralba only seconds to make like Regan
in “The Exorcist,” twisting his head all the way
around to say that Freeman looked unbelievable
through his high-powered lens.
No Dennis Wolf on the list of potential winners
for next year? Not based on what I saw in Vegas,
Experts plus one: Yogi, L.T., but I might as well toss the mighty German into

Roland and Lifter. the mix. Dennis was not better than he’d been 12
months earlier, however. I was a big fan up until
game time, but Wolf needs to bring up his weaknesses to get back in my
good graces.
By the way, IM science scribe Jerry Brainum asked on the IronMan-

www.ironmanmagazine.com \ JANUARY 2009 209

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Magazine.com forum how David Henry could have won the 202-
and-under show and then finished 15th in the main event? Another
question is how Ronny Rockel landed in 14th. I thought they both
looked terrific, and they tied for my Overlooked award.
On that subject, what about Silveo Samuel? Probably the most
conditioned athlete in the lineup, Silveo duplicated his seventh-place
landing of ’07, again one slot behind Marvelous Melvin Anthony.
That ain’t shabby—but Samuel really nailed it in his final contest of
the year. Guess size really does matter, eh, gang?

Find L.T.’s
ADD JACKSON—Although I was teaching at Pasadena City Col- interview with
lege when the press conference took place on Thursday of Olympia Big Lou at Iron
Weekend, I hear I was one of the topics. As you may know, Dexter ManMagazine
Jackson and I have always debated his true bodyweight. At the .com.
press conference, when he said that he weighed 235 pounds, he also
asked if I was in the house. And if someone would bring up a scale
so he could finally shut me up regarding my doubts about his veracity.
We were going to take care of that issue at the IM Pro a few years
back, but Dex apparently couldn’t find the venue, as he was absent from
the weigh-in. He said he had a MuscleTech photo shoot that day, and
who am I to doubt that? Especially considering the weight of his contract.
I addressed the weight issue—one more time—when I interviewed him
at the Meet the Olympians reception that night. He said I was full of crap
about his being “around 220.” Well, I did use that number a few years
back, but Jackson admitted he was only 205 at the ’07 Arnold.
Okay, Dex, I’ll give ya 223—hey, for 5’6 1/2” that’s a lot of muscle. At
the same height, you weigh 25 to 30 pounds more onstage than Shawn
Ray did when he competed, 18 pounds more than the 5’10 1/2” Flex
Wheeler was at the ’93 Arnold, several pounds
more than the 5’9” Phil Heath was in Vegas
and only 13 pounds less than Jay Cutler at the
Bottom line (again): Does it really matter what
you weighed? Whatever it was, you added

an extra couple of ounces with that $155,000
first-place check. And your contest winnings of Russ Deluca and Mandy Cook.
around 300K for the year are probably the most a
competitor has ever pocketed in a single season. At left: L.T. with David Hughes,
So here are my official congrats on your Mr. Stevie Zee and Rich and Liz
O victory. You’re a ba-a-a-ad man, Mr. Jackson.
Roland Balik

And I will definitely bring the scale next year. I win
if you are under 235; you win at 235 and above.
Loser buys dinner; if I am wrong, make sure it’s
at a place I can afford. I only weigh 180, and you
know us little guys don’t make much cash.
he weighed,
ADD EXPERTS—I hate to admit it, but good.
Isaac Hinds wins the Expert of the Olympia
2008 award. He picked Toney Freeman as
his longshot, while Yogi Avidan went with Will
Harris and I, of course, stuck with my former
student Quincy Taylor. And, natch, neither of
our fellas even made it to the Olympia stage. I
also owe Hinds a meal because Heath finished
one slot ahead of Dennis Wolf. Good thing
the Lifter lives 1,200 miles away. Catch ya at the
Nationals, my man.
I made up for the terrible prognostication by
getting Q.T. to talk on camera about all the ankle
biters who, he says, unfairly place ahead of him
in many shows. If you haven’t seen the hilarious
John Balik

Shawn Ray
interview, check it out at IronManMagazine.com in 2001.

as soon as you finish perusing these pages.

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As bad as the picks of Taylor and Harris were, though, nothing
matched the insane call by ace IRON MAN photog Roland Balik, who
begged me to include him as a special guest on ”The Experts Olympia
Wrap-up” video based on what he felt were on-the-money visions of the
contest seen through his powerful lens. As you see in the tape, Roland
did make it into the lineup that night, but only after winning my Bonehead
Pick of the Year award. Why? Because he left both Jackson and Heath
out of the top five. Could be the worst picks in decades, perhaps of all
time. As the good-natured Balik said, however, “I wanted to keep it in the
family.” He was, of course, referring to Hinds’ bonehead prediction last
year that Freeman would finish third (he ended up 14th). Toney certainly
provided payback for Lifter this time, so all’s forgotten, eh, Isaac?

Mandy Blank, Debbie Kruck, Kenny

Kassel and Ruth Silverman. A View From the Top

Thanks to Bodybuilding.com’s Russ DeLuca, I was able to view

the Olympia finals from a VIP room high atop the Orleans Arena,
which came complete with big screens, cozy couches and a spread
of finger-lickin’ grub. I spent much of the evening, between scrutiniz-
ing the physiques in rounds three and four, chatting with Lou Ferri-
gno, his sons Lou Jr. and Brent and Rich and Liz Gaspari.
Big Lou, still spry at 56, talked about a new flick he’s got on the
horizon. I met the boys back in 1994 when I worked on the docu-
mentary “Stand Tall” and hadn’t seen them since shortly after that. I
did, however, attend a Notre Dame High School (in Sherman Oaks,
California) football game a few years back to watch Lou Jr., now 23,
play. He went on to earn a spot as a linebacker at USC, one of the
Bev Francis and Steve Stone awarded
strongest collegiate programs in the country.
Olympia medals onstage at the
judging shortly before he died. When Lou said that his sons now pump heavier iron than he
Watch L.T.’s last interview with Steve does—and that Brent wants to compete next year in the Teen Nation-
at IronManMagazine.com. als—I sprang into action. For the next 10 minutes the 18-year-old,

who has a 400-pound squat to his credit, heard a barrage of details

about my Junior California Championships (www.npcjuniorcal.com),
June 20 at Rosemead High School—which is exactly one month out
from the Teen Nationals. As I cleverly pointed out, the requirement
to compete at the Teen Nationals is to enter a contest prior to the
event; whoops, there it is! The next competitor to follow in the foot-
Lou steps of his famous father. I can just see it now.
Duarte in
ADD GASPARI—Thumbs-up to
Rich, Liz and Gaspari Nutrition not only
for their success in the industry and their
support of IFBB and NPC events but
for going above and beyond in adding
Stevie Zee to the company’s stable of
athletes. A victim of cerebral palsy, Stevie
Photo courtesy of Tracy Gaither

was “discovered in the gym” by Gaspari

signee David Hughes 10 years ago,
when both lived in Oregon. Zee wanted
to make like his mentor and compete
in a bodybuilding contest. He eventu-
ally moved to Los Angeles to pursue his

talents as a stand-up comic and, after

a special pump that delivered the drug
Baclofren into his spinal chord was placed in his stomach in 2003, Zee
L.T. and
was on his way. Three years later, after a decade of training under the
guidance of Hughes, who had moved to L.A. around the same time, Zee
achieved his goal of getting onstage. He competed in the ’06 Los Angeles
Championships—to a standing ovation—and was honored with the Stevie
Zee Inspirational Award by MuscleMag International.
“I used to ask, why me?” Stevie says. “Now I know I was given cere-
bral palsy for a reason—to inspire others, to be a better person, and to
make the most out of my life, no matter what. If you change your attitude,

www.ironmanmagazine.com \ JANUARY 2009 211

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Photography by Lonnie Teper and Dave Liberman



11 1) Julie Palmer phones home.

2) L.T. has his SANs full.
3) David Henry is always in shape.
4) Linda Reho and Dave Liberman.
5) Brandon Curry.
6) Cathy LeFrancois and Scott Nolte.
7) The Big Nasty, his wife Christine and
Toney Freeman.
8) Phil Heath’s gun show.
9) Ryan Bentson and his Zero Gravity
10 12 fitness team.
10) Gunter Schlierkamp and Kim Lyons.

212 JANUARY 2009 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

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you never know what you can do with your life.
Gaspari Nutrition is helping others with the disease improve their lives as well;
check out Roland Balik’s video of my interview with Rich, Liz, David and Stevie (at
IronManMagazine.com), in which Rich presents Zee, 36, with the first annual Dragon
Slayer award—not to mention a check for $5,000 to the Cerebral Palsy Foundation.
13 Rich actually got a bit emotional when talking about the award. Watch the video,
and you may shed a tear or two yourself.

Steve Stone
The most shocking moment of Olympia Weekend came in the form of a phone call.
Roland and I were having a late lunch at the Orleans Hotel on Friday; a call from Ron
Avidan brought the news that Steve Stone had died backstage at the Las Vegas
Convention Center toward the end of the women’s prejudging. A pulmonary embo-
14 lism—basically, a blood clot in the lungs—was the cause of death listed at press time.
According to Kenny Kassel, Steve’s close friend for 30 years, Stone had recently
turned 52. Apparently, a genetic factor was involved in Steve’s condition, and he had
been on medication for some time.
I had known Steve since his days as a standout bodybuilder and eventually teamed
up with him in our duties as emcee and expediter at many shows, notably the Nation-
als and USA. We would always kid each other about breaking the old record, time-
wise, from the previous year. A video interview that I did with Steve on the morning
after the ’07 USA is posted in my blog at IronManMagazine.com.
Three days after this year’s USA, I received a voice mail from him. He said he was
sorry that he hadn’t gotten to thank me after the show for being part of our latest re-
cord-setting effort. As captain of our team, he wanted to make sure I felt appreciated.
That was Steve—a nice, hard-working guy who always put the athletes first.
Stone’s wife, Andrea, was part of the team, handling the emcee book, among
15 other duties. It was no surprise when I heard that a huge crowd of friends, many from
within the industry, attended his funeral the following week in New York.
After the men’s finals on Saturday night, I joined Kassel, Ruth Silverman, Deb-
bie Kruck, Mike Zeltzer and Mandy Blank for a toast to Steve’s life at the hotel
bar. I normally don’t drink, so you know this fella was special.
You certainly were, Steve. And you’ll be missed, both on and off the stage. Condo-
lences to the Stone family, which includes all of the competitors who adored him so

Add Junior Cal

I’ve always said that if you dig deep enough, there’s a neat story behind every
competitor. Tracy Gaither, winner of my NPC Junior Cal 45-and-up figure division in
2008 and a frequent competitor in local contests, is a great example.
A resident of Yorba Linda, California, Gaither started bodybuilding 22 years ago.
Her father is Lou Duarte, a former masters competitor (he won the California Muscle
Classic) and former owner of Lou’s Gym. Lou was also a promoter and created the
Border States competition, eventually selling it to Jaguar Jon Lindsay.
After graduating from San Diego State, Tracy moved to Orange County and trained
at Gold’s in Huntington Beach before joining Flex It Gym, where icons like Rory
Leidelmeyer and Diana Dennis pumped iron. After competing for a couple of
years, however, she dropped out.
“By then, women were using steroids, and I couldn’t compete against that, so I
11) L.T. says hello to Jay Cutler— played soccer for 17 years,” she says. “I love it, but I started back heavy in the weight
sort of.
12) Monica Brant and Dorian room because it helped my goal kicking. I’m a striker and felt that weightlifting kept
Yates. me free from the typical injuries that most of the women were getting. People wanted
13) Desmond Miller. me to train them, they wanted to look like me, and so I decided to get certified. One
14) John Romano and girlfriend thing led to another, and here I am.”
Wendy—no bull.
15) Shawn, Asia Monet, Kristi Now 47, Gaither teaches a weightlifting course at Fullerton College in addition to
and Bella Blu Ray. training clients. Plus, she’s still getting her kicks playing soccer and currently com-
16) L.T. and Lee Labrada. petes for two different teams.
Keep it up, Tracy. I know Lou, who’s now 70, is beyond proud of your achieve-
ments. IM
To contact Lonnie Teper about material possibly pertinent to News & Views, write to 1613 Chelsea Road, #266, San Marino, CA 91108;
fax to (626) 289-7949; or send e-mail to tepernews@aol.com.

www.ironmanmagazine.com \ JANUARY 2009 213

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L O N N I E T E P E R ’S R i si n g St ar s

Age: 27
Weight: 203 contest; 240
Height: 5’8”
Residence: West Covina,
Occupation: Owner of
Nutrition 4 Less
Contest highlights: ’08
NPC USA Championships,
light heavyweight,
8th; ’08 NPC Orange
County Muscle Classic,
heavyweight, 1st, and
overall; ’07 NPC California
Championships, light
heavyweight, 3rd
Factoid: He’s been
competing since he was
Contact: www.Garrett

Photography by Merv
214 JANUARY 2009 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com
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Age: 36
Weight: 115 contest; 135
Height: 5’3”
Residence: Anchorage,
Occupation: Dietary
Contest highlights: ’08
USA, lightweight, 3rd;
’08 NPC Washington
lightweight, 1st, overall
and mixed-pairs winner
(with her husband)
Factoid: “Married with
children—four, to be
Contact: www.myspace

L O NN I E T EP E R’S Ri si ng S tars

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L O N N I E T E P E R ’S R i si n g St ar s

Isaac Hinds \

Age: 22
Weight: 172 contest; 205
Height: 5’7”
Residence: Aurora, Colorado
Occupation: Student
Contest highlights: ’08 USA,
welterweight, 8th; ’08 Colorado
Championships, middleweight,
Factoid: He’s a premed senior
majoring in biology at the
IRON MAN University of Colorado Denver.
Contact: YusefAlAwaji@yahoo.com

216 JANUARY 2009 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

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Eric Broser’s

Muscle “In” Sites

If you find something on the Web that IM readers should know about, send the URL to Eric at bodyfx2@aol.com.

Although it’s a lot of fun to research and study
the Web sites of famous pro bodybuilders and
fitness and figure competitors, I find it equally
interesting to discover the sites of the lesser-
known but equally dedicated individuals who
make up the backbone of the industry. Colorado
NPC bodybuilder Jim Machak is one such ex-
ample. Although Jim has competed successfully
several times, he finds even greater satisfaction
in helping others reach their all-time best. Over
his 15 years in the sport he has helped hundreds
of competitors prepare for shows and has slowly
but surely established himself as something of a
precontest guru. At an off-season weight of 235
pounds while standing just 5’9”, he would be
hard to miss stomping around his home state;
however, it’s now his goal to reach people from all proper form on some of the most popular weight-
over the United States with his experience and training exercises. It’s an excellent resource for
knowledge. That’s why he has put together a se- beginners. Just remember, some of the best
ries of online training and nutrition packages to trainers in the business are not pro athletes but
fit the needs of trainees at every level. In addition, instead are individuals who are driven to help
his site offers dozens of videos that demonstrate others make their dreams come true.

>www.MaggieFit.com Although her site includes a wonderful photo gallery,

her contest history and a list of appearances, what I
While attending the most recent Olympia Weekend in really want to discuss here are the amazing suits she
Vegas, I had the great pleasure of meeting and talking designs for figure, fitness and bodybuilding com-
with Maggie Blanchard, NPC district chairwoman, IFBB petitors. There is no doubt that in a closely contested
pro fitness competitor, competition promoter and com- show, the cut, color and design of one’s suit can make
petition suit designer! Yes, this lovely gal wears many or break the final placing, which is why you need to pay
hats (in fact, she had a hat on when I met her…hmm)! just as much attention to that area of your prep as diet,
training, cardio or tanning. Can you imagine having a
judge tell you that you would have won if your suit had
fit better? Do not take chances! Maggie’s suits are of
the highest quality, and she will work closely with you to
make sure you achieve the optimum look for your par-
ticular body type onstage. As a pro competitor herself,
Maggie knows exactly what it takes to make an athlete
look her or his (yes, she does men’s trunks too) best!
MaggieFit.com is truly a one-stop shop for competition
day, as she also offers ladies’ shoes, tanning products
and even supplements. So do yourself a favor the next
time you’re set to step onstage—complete your win-
ning look with the help of MaggieFit.com.

224 JANUARY 2009 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

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>DVD Review: “2008 IRON MAN Pro”
The IRON MAN Pro has always Rich Gaspari and Jerome Fer-
been one of my favorite shows. Not guson. A major battle took place
only does it kick off the men’s contest for the top four positions, with
season, but it always draws a fantastic the biggest surprise, in my opin-
lineup of competitors. Many athletes ion, being when Moe El Mous-
use the IM Pro to make their pose-for- sawi nabbed third. Aside from
pay debut, while seasoned veterans perhaps Phil Heath, nobody was
often compete in order to gain mo- as dry and grainy as Moe! He
mentum for the Arnold Classic just was ripped head to toe and also
a couple of weeks later. This contest showed great size and fullness.
also brings in a strong European con- He even managed to knock
tingent looking to get some recogni- Silvio into fourth place—no easy
tion here in the States. feat! The battle for first was a
The IM Pro is legendary for its in- classic apple vs. orange (or per-
credible stage lighting, making each haps Ferrari vs. Hummer) situa-
competitor look his shredded best. My tion with the massive and thick
collection of IM Pro videos dates back Gustavo Badell trying to scream
to 1993, when Flex Wheeler wiped his way (literally) to the winner’s
the floor with everyone in his first circle against a nearly flaw-
IFBB competition. The 2008 version certainly did not less Heath. If Gustavo had entered the show about 10
disappoint, with a lineup that included rising stars like pounds lighter and with a smaller waist, he might have
Phil Heath, Desmond Miller and Silvio Samuel; veterans given Phil a run for his money, but on this night nobody
Toney Freeman, Gustavo Badell, Troy Alves and Johnnie was beating “the Gift.” I have seen Phil compete in both
Jackson; and relative newcomers like Moe El Moussawi, the Arnold Classic and the Olympia, but I think he was
Omar Deckard and DeShaun Grimez. And of course no best at the ’08 IM Pro. Check it out yourself.
IM Pro show would be complete without the “going to
die trying” Kenny Jones! Editor’s note: The “2008 IRON MAN Pro” DVD set is
This two-disc DVD includes complete coverage of the available from www.Home-Gym.com, or call (800) 447-
prejudging and night shows, as well as interviews with 0008.

nificant development will result in the smaller assisting

>Broser’s Net Results Q&A muscles as well—and that effect will be amplified if you
have particularly good genetics for building muscle in the
The Power/Rep Range/Shock innovator answers your biceps, triceps and shoulders (hello, Lee Priest and Kevin
questions on training and nutrition.

Q: I was told by a guy at my gym that I am wast-

ing my time directly training my shoulders and
arms. He said that those bodyparts would grow
huge simply by training chest and back very
heavy. It’s obvious that the shoulders and arms
are involved in presses and rows, but is that really

A: That’s actually an interesting question that I’m going

to be forced to answer in two ways. It’s absolutely true
that the triceps and anterior deltoids are stimulated during
Neveux \ Model: Nathan Detracy

all pressing movements for the chest and that the biceps
and posterior deltoids are heavily involved in all pulling
exercises for the back, such as rows, pulldowns and pull-
ups. Since most lifters can move some pretty heavy iron Pressing for pecs involves a lot of triceps
on bench presses, incline presses, bent-over rows, seated stimulation, but is it enough for complete
rows and one-arm rows, there’s no doubt that some sig- rear-arm development?

www.ironmanmagazine.com \ JANUARY 2009 225

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Net Results

Levrone!). or midback), and stick with them for the entire Burst phase.
If you have a limited time to spend in the gym and crave The goal is to move more weight at each corresponding P,
only pure bulk, without the detail and perfect proportions of RR and S session so that by the final three weeks you’re far
a competitive bodybuilder, you can probably be rather suc- ahead of where you started.
cessful primarily training chest, back and legs while leaving Here is what an 18-week P/RR/S Burst Cycle would look
the arms and shoulders alone. A Monday-Wednesday- like:
and-Friday schedule would work well here, with legs sitting
between the two upper-body sessions. P/P/P/RR/RR/RR/S/S/S/P/P/RR/RR/S/S/P/RR/S
Now, for the other side of the coin: If your goal is to
maximize the development of every bodypart and to either So far that sequence has been quite successful, espe-
compete on a bodybuilding stage or at least look as if you cially for my clients who are at an intermediate level, mean-
do, it’s necessary to do direct work for the arms and delts. ing three to five years of consistent training. Very advanced
You can build larger bi’s, tri’s and shoulders without isolat- trainees will probably do better with the basic P/RR/S
ing them, but I do not feel you can reach your full genetic method, as the longer people have been training, the more
potential for size, nor can you build the type of complete quickly their muscles and CNS adapt to the stressors
physique you see on a bodybuilder. There are myriad an- placed on them.
gles, grips and nerve patterns you must hit in order to bring Give the P/RR/S Burst Cycling a try and let me know
out the optimal development of every muscle group, even how you do.
the smaller ones. That means direct work—curls, exten-
sions, laterals, etc. Q: So Dexter Jackson is Mr. Olympia. Do you
It’s up to you to figure out what you really wish to ac- think he should have beaten Jay? What does that
complish and then take the proper route to get there. Ask mean for pro bodybuilding?
yourself: “Am I a bodybuilder or a guy who lifts weights?”
Your answer will tell you what you need to do. A: In 2007 Victor Martinez should have been Mr. Olym-
pia, so Jay was truly lucky to hold the title for another year.
Q: I have been using P/RR/S for about a year Jay is an amazing bodybuilder, a tremendous businessman
and love it. I have made substantial progress fol- and a wonderful representative of the sport, but he was not
lowing it. However, I sometimes feel like I want to the best man onstage in ’07 or ’08. Dexter deserved the
stick with P, RR, or S for more than just one week victory, as he carried the best overall package in the lineup.
before moving on. I know the idea behind your When his name was announced as the winner, I stood up
method is the cyclical nature of the program—hit- and applauded till my hands hurt. Not only was I happy for
ting different growth pathways and such—so I was Dexter, but I was happy for bodybuilding.
wondering what you thought of the possibility of Jackson’s winning the Olympia is the best thing that
doing more than one week straight of each proto- has happened to the sport in years because we now see
col. that it can be anyone’s game. Since Lee Haney’s reign
the Olympia has been ruled by mass and freakiness, not
A: I’ve actually been experimenting over the last few necessarily the best and most complete physiques. After
months with something I call “P/RR/S Burst Cycling,” Haney, Dorian Yates took things to another level, and just
which is exactly the type of experience you’re looking for. when you thought he could not be outdone, Ronnie Cole-
Instead of changing programs every week, you focus on man brought a body to the stage that looked like computer
one hypertrophy path- animation come alive. But
way for more than just now the Olympia is no
a week at a time. That longer just a “big man’s”
allows for more efficient realm. We have gone back
strength adaptations to to a day when the best
take place within each man, not just the biggest
of the protocols (P, RR man, will win—and I hope
and S), with the eventual it stays that way.
goal being to complete And the most wonder-
more reps with the same ful part is that there are
weights or the same so many incredible phy-
number of reps with siques out there right now
more weight. Inevitably, that every year we could
that will lead to muscle have a new winner! I used
growth. to watch the Olympia
The idea is to choose wondering only how sec-
a series of the most ef- ond through 10th places
fective exercises for you Dexter Jackson would pan out, but now
Roland Balik

(and/or ones that focus vs. Jay Cutler at fans can enjoy a real bat-
on weak points, such as the ’08 Mr. O. A tle for the title. And that’s
upper chest, brachialis
new dawning for how it should be. IM

226 JANUARY 2009 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

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Mr. Olympia
2008 IFBB

The Blade Cuts Down

230 JANUARY 2009 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

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the Competition
Photography by: John Balik, Roland Balik, Merv and Jerry Fredrick

www.ironmanmagazine.com \ JANUARY 2009 231

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1) Dexter JACKSON

’08 Mr. Olympia

1) Dexter Jackson
2) Jay Cutler
3) Phil Heath
4) Dennis Wolf
5) Toney Freeman
6) Melvin Anthony
7) Silvio Samuel
8) Dennis James
9) Moe El Moussawi
10) Gustavo Badell
11) Darrem Charles
12) Johnnie Jackson
13) Craig Richardson
14) Ronny Rockel
15) David Henry

232 JANUARY 2009 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

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234 JANUARY 2009 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

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3) Phil HEATH

www.ironmanmagazine.com \ JANUARY 2009 235

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4) Dennis WOLF

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5) Toney FREEMAN

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6) Melvin ANTHONY

For more photos and

behind-the-scenes videos from
the ’08 Olympia Weekend visit
www.IronManMagazine .com
www.ironmanmagazine.com \ JANUARY 2009 239
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7) Silvio SAMUEL

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8) Dennis JAMES

www.ironmanmagazine.com \ JANUARY 2009 241

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9) Moe El Moussawi

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10) Gustavo BADELL

www.ironmanmagazine.com \ JANUARY 2009 243

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11) Darrem CHARLES 12) Johnnie JACKSON

14) Ronny

13) Craig

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Profiles in Muscle
Joel Stubbs
Profiles in Muscle

IFBB Pro Bodybuilder

& Muscle Asylum
Project Athlete
Compiled by Ron Harris

Full name: Joel Jehu Stubbs months guy in the gym. I was also very
much inspired by Arnold as a kid
Nickname: Big Joel Hobbies: “Spending time with and, later on, Flex Wheeler and
my baby boy and my two rottwei- Ronnie Coleman.”
Date of birth: December 30, 1967 lers, Hercules and Xena.”
Height: 6’3” Top titles: ’99 and ’01 Bahamas
How did you get into body- Overall champion; ’03 IFBB Ca-
Off-season weight: 325 building? “I was just like any ribbean and Central American
other young guy. I wanted to beef Championships, heavyweight and
Contest weight: 285 up my chest and arms a little bit overall; ’07 Australian Grand Prix,
Current residence: Nassau, to impress the girls. I was very tall seventh
Bahamas and skinny.”
Favorite bodypart to train: “It
Years training: 20 Who inspired you when you used to be back, but now it’s my
were starting out? “My uncle legs. It’s fun to see how hard I can
Occupation: Commercial airline John, whom people called Steel, work them and how deeply I can
pilot was very muscular and could have stimulate the muscle fibers of my
been a good bodybuilder if he’d quads.”
Marital status: Single ever been interested in compet-
Children: Son Lincoln, 21 ing. He was always the strongest Favorite exercise: None

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Least favorite exercise: Cardio.
“Mind-numbingly boring, but you
have to do it to get in shape.”
Best bodypart: Back
Most challenging bodypart:
Obstacles overcome: “In 1997 I
tore both quadriceps muscles clean
off the patellar tendons during a
basketball game I was playing just
a couple of hours after a heavy leg
workout. Leg training has been a
challenge ever since, and I’m con-
stantly doing my best to bring my
quads up to match the rest of my
body. I’m grateful that people rave
about my back, but I want to be
known as a great bodybuilder, not
just for a freaky bodypart.”
Do you have a quote or a phi-
losophy you try to live by?
“Whatever the mind can conceive
and believe, it can achieve.”
How do you stay motivated?
“I know I haven’t