Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 44

2G-3G Handover

2G-3G HANDOVER FIRST OFF

Date Page
PSS-TI/GSM Engineering 6/28/2007 1

All rights reserved. Passing and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization.
2G-3G Handover

DOCUMENT HISTORY

Version Author(s) Object


1.0 Sherif Abdel Wahab Initial veriosn .
Ervin Farkas
2.0 Sherif Abdel Wahab Results included .
Ervin Farkas

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

This document describes the 2G-3G Handover feature First Off carried out in Excelcomindo Network. We
start by an overview description of Inter-RAT telecommunication procedures including idle mode and
dedicated mode procedures. Then we emphasis with a detailed description of the 2G-3G Handover
mechanism. A test plan has been developed to show the telecom gain that can be achieved by employing
the 2G-3G Handover in heterogeneous networks. This test plan involves both unitary and statistical tests
that we explain with initial expectations of telecom gains as well as observations from field. Finally we
enumerate recommended parameter settings to be employed on first application of the 2G-3G IOT
features, and describes fine tuning strategies.

Date Page
PSS-TI/GSM Engineering 6/28/2007 2

All rights reserved. Passing and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization.
2G-3G Handover

TABLE OF CONTENTS
2G-3G HANDOVER FIRST OFF ................................................................................................................1
document History ......................................................................................................................................2
Executive Summary ..................................................................................................................................2
Intoduction .................................................................................................................................................5
Feature describtion ...................................................................................................................................7
PRINCIPLE............................................................................................................................................. 7
GAIN .................................................................................................................................................. 7
ALGORITHM ......................................................................................................................................... 7
Classmark Handling ............................................................................................................................. 7
System and Measurement Information ................................................................................................. 8
Cell Reference .................................................................................................................................... 12
Building Neighbor Cells List................................................................................................................ 12
Measurement processing and reporting ............................................................................................. 13
2G to 3G HO Preparation ................................................................................................................. 15
2G to 3G HO Management............................................................................................................... 15
2G to 3G HO Execution..................................................................................................................... 16
PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................................... 18
PM Counters....................................................................................................................................... 18
RNO indicators .................................................................................................................................. 19
PARAMETERS ....................................................................................................................................... 20
EQUIPMENT COMPLIANCE ..................................................................................................................... 21
Test plan description ...............................................................................................................................22
UNITARY TESTS.................................................................................................................................... 22
Sites ................................................................................................................................................... 22
Tools .................................................................................................................................................. 22
Protocol & Planning............................................................................................................................ 22
Parameters Tuned .............................................................................................................................. 23
Performance Management ................................................................................................................. 23
STATISTICAL TESTS................................................................................................................................ 23
Sites ................................................................................................................................................... 23
Tools .................................................................................................................................................. 24
Protocol & Planning............................................................................................................................ 24
Performance Management ................................................................................................................. 25
Results.......................................................................................................................................................26
UNITARY TESTS RESULTS......................................................................................................................... 26
Date Page
PSS-TI/GSM Engineering 6/28/2007 3

All rights reserved. Passing and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization.
2G-3G Handover

First Drive Test Results ........................................................................................................................ 26


Second Drive Test Results ................................................................................................................... 27
STATISTICAL TESTS RESULTS ................................................................................................................... 29
Initial Status........................................................................................................................................ 29
First Parameters Tuning ...................................................................................................................... 29
A_ECNO_HO Parameter Tuning ........................................................................................................ 30
THR_ECNO_HO Parameter Tuning .................................................................................................... 31
T3121 Parameter Tuning.................................................................................................................... 31
RESP_REQ Parameter Tuning.............................................................................................................. 32
FDD_REPORTING_OFFSET And FDD_REPORTING_THRESHOLD....................................................... 32
QOS EVOLUTION .................................................................................................................................. 33
SDCCH And RTCH Traffic................................................................................................................... 33
SDCCH Assignment Failure ................................................................................................................ 34
RTCH Assignment Failure ................................................................................................................... 35
Incoming Handover............................................................................................................................ 36
Outgoing Handover ........................................................................................................................... 37
Call Setup Success Rate (CSSR) .......................................................................................................... 38
Call Drop Rate (CDR) ......................................................................................................................... 39
Conclusion ................................................................................................................................................40
Appendix I. 2G-3G handover Configuration Recommendation for excelcomindo ......................41
Appendix II. 2G-3G Reselection Configuration Recommendation for excelcomindo ..................43
Appendix III. 3G-2G Reselection and HANDOVEr Configuration Recommendation .................44

Date Page
PSS-TI/GSM Engineering 6/28/2007 4

All rights reserved. Passing and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization.
2G-3G Handover

INTODUCTION
ALU BSS defines a set of telecommunication procedures, to enable inter-system interoperability. This
includes 2G-3G Reselection and 2G-3G Handover. The BSS supports also reselection and Handover from
3G networks. Figure 1 summarizes these Inter-RAT interoperability procedures.
In the following paragraphs we introduce each procedures for consistency of the text flow. Detailed
description for 2G-3G Reselection, 3G-2G Reselection, and 3G-2G Handover are not tackled in this
document to maintain the main scope which is 2G-3G Handover. However default parameter settings,
and configuration recommendations related to Excelcomindo network is elaborated in Appendix I
Appendix I, Appendix IIAppendix II, and Appendix IIIAppendix III .

Inter-RAT Interoperability

Telecom Procedures

2G->3G 3G->2G

2G->3G Reselection 2G->3G Handover 3G->2G Hard 3G->2G Reselection


Handover

Idle Mode Reselection Idle Mode Reselection

PIM Reselection Cell_FACH State

PTM Reselection

Figure 1- 2G,3G Interoperability procedures

2G-3G Reselection is employed in idle mode, Packet Idle Mode (PIM) and in Packet Transfer Mode (PTM).
In Reselection the network instruct the UE/MS when it is allowed to search for 3G cells. This decision is
based on comparison of thresholds against a parameter that is supplied by the BSS in system information
messages. Qsearch_I, Qsearch_P, and Qsearch_P_PTM are used in ALU BSS for Idle Mode, PIM, and
PTM reselection respectively.
In a next step the UE/MS compares performance measure in serving 2G cells (e.g. Signal Strength) to
performance measure of measured 3G cells (e.g. CPICH RSCP). By applying an offset value and taking
into account minimum access quantity value in 3G, the UE can reselect a 3G cell, while avoiding ping-
Date Page
PSS-TI/GSM Engineering 6/28/2007 5

All rights reserved. Passing and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization.
2G-3G Handover

pong effects and assuring minimum required service level in 3G. For example the UE/MS reselects a 3G
cell in idle mode according to the following criteria:
CPICH _ EcNo > FDD _ Q min
And
CPICH _ RSCP > RLA _ C + FDD _ Qoffset
Where FDD_EcNo is the received Energy per Chip of the primary pilot channel of neighbor 3G cell,
CPICH_RSCP is the Received Signal Code Power of the primary pilot channel, FDD_Qmin is the minimum
threshold of 3GFDD reselection, RLA_C is the 2G quantity measured by the UE/MS and FDD_Qoffset is
an offset applied to RLA_C. Similar analogy to reselection criteria for PIM, and PTM is employed. Besides
in GMM ready mode, the network can or can not control the reselection criteria based on
NETWORK_CONTROL_ORDER.
In the next section we describe in more details the 2G-3G handover feature. We begin this description by
describing operation principle of the feature, and the expected gain from employing it in heterogeneous
networks like Excelcomindo. Then we give an in depth explanation of the feature algorithm. This is
followed by a enumeration of the related parameters, performance metrics, and equipment compliance.

Date Page
PSS-TI/GSM Engineering 6/28/2007 6

All rights reserved. Passing and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization.
2G-3G Handover

FEATURE DESCRIBTION
Principle
Before B9MR4, only 3G to 2G Handovers are handled by the BSS. It does not allow to take fully benefit
from the 3G layer, because the UE/MS must wait for the end of the call to go back to the 3G layer by
performing a 2G to 3G Cell Reselection.
From B9MR4, handover towards UTRAN is
supported by threshold triggering on Ec/No
(R’99 compliant UE/MS). This HO is possible
only from TCH/2G to TCH/3G. The MSC
may inform the BSS if preference for specific
radio access technology shall be applied.
This cause of HO is identified by the cause 31, and is activated by setting the parameter EN_3G_HO at
cell level to the value “enabled”.

Gain
The main expected gain is to take more quickly benefit from the 3G layer in terms of load balancing, and
quality of service.
By increasing the load of the 3G layer, resources will be freed on the 2G layer, allowing sparing some
capacity investments and offering a better quality to the 2G subscribers.

Algorithm
Classmark Handling

A first information is sent in the SYSTEM INFORMATION TYPE3 message (BSS > MS) to indicate to the
UE/MS that the sending of UTRAN and CDMA2000 Classmark Sending messages is controlled by the
Early Classmark Sending Control parameter.
On call establishment an UE/MS sends a CLASSMARK CHANGE (MS > BSS) message to the network
to inform the network about its radio access capability (e.g. It support GSM, UTRAN
FDD,CDMA200,…etc). The BSC stores this information for further possible 2G to 3G HO.
The message UTRAN CLASSMARK CHANGE (MS > BSS) is sent by the MS to the network either on
requirement from the BSC (by using the CLASSMARK ENQUIRY message in case of inter BSC handover)
or following the CLASSMARK CHANGE previously sent by the MS.

Date Page
PSS-TI/GSM Engineering 6/28/2007 7

All rights reserved. Passing and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization.
2G-3G Handover

The UTRAN CLASSMARK CHANGE message contains the Inter Radio Access Technology Handover
info. This information is transparently sent to the MSC (it provides UTRAN with MS capabilities, for a
further handover to UTRAN) in case of handover to 3G or in case of inter-BSC handover to 2G.
System and Measurement Information

System information messages are employed to send to the mobile necessary information required to carry
out radio access technology measurement. In the following paragraphs we describe the most important
system information measurements employed for 2G-3G Handover purpose. A mere understanding of
these messages is required for diagnostics of the feature from drive test traces.
SYSINFO Type 3 (Figure 2Figure 2) is a broadcast message that informs UE/MS(s) about the BSS
capabilities in idle mode. For example one can find necessary access information in this message. This
message indicates to the UE/MS whether the BSS supports early Classmark sending procedure. Also
indication about whether SI2Quater is supported or not by the BSS.

Figure 2 - Example of SYSINFO Type3 Message

SYSINFO 2Quater (Figure 3Figure 3) is employed to broadcast to the UE/MS(s) with necessary
information to perform measurements on the 3G layer. We can find 2G-3G reselection parameter like
Qsearch_I in this message. Also FDD_ARFCN to be monitored by the mobile during idle mode is
broadcasted in this message. Finally this message contains Qsearch_C_Initial (Always set to Zero).
Qsearch_C_Initial is used instead of Qsearch_C until the mobile is able to acquire value of Qsearch_C
from MEASUREMENT INFORMATION message.

Date Page
PSS-TI/GSM Engineering 6/28/2007 8

All rights reserved. Passing and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization.
2G-3G Handover

Figure 3-Example Of SYSINFO Type SI2Quater

Figure 4Figure 4 Shows an example of System information exchange in idle and dedicated modes.
The message MEASUREMENT INFORMATION (Figure 5Figure 5) is sent in dedicated mode on the
SAACH in the following cases:
o If the 2G to 3G handover is enabled for the considered serving 2G cell.
o If the MS is a dual mode MS (2G/3G)
o If the MSC did not inhibit 2G to 3G handover for that call
One or two instances of this message are necessary to transmit the whole set of information to the MS.
 3G_BA_IND: “3G sequence number”, used to identify one set of 3G cells information given to the
MS. It is reported by the MS as 3G_BA_USED. It is independent from BA_IND and BA_USED already
existing for 2G.
 MI_COUNT : Number of MEASUREMENT INFORMATION instances
 MI_INDEX : Number of the current instance of the MEASUREMENT INFORMATION
 Report Type : This information is set to “The MS shall use the MEASUREMENT REPORT message for
reporting”

Date Page
PSS-TI/GSM Engineering 6/28/2007 9

All rights reserved. Passing and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization.
2G-3G Handover

Idle Mode

Dedicated
mode

Figure 4 - System and Measurement Information

 3G Neighbor Cells Description: This element gives to the MS the 3G neighbor cells (up to 8)
 UARFCN (up to 3) : This element contains several sub-elements :
❏ FDDindic0
❏ NR_OF_FDD_CELLS
❏ FDD_CELL_INFORMATION (scrambling code, diversity)
The sending order defines indexes for sorting the 3G cells in the list, used back by the MS when reporting
3G measurement results.
 Qsearch_C: Threshold of the received signal level of the serving cell. The MS shall search for 3G
cells only if that received signal level (O&M settable parameter) of the serving cell is below or above
(according to value set at OMC) the threshold, including never and always.
 3G_SEARCH_PRIO: Indicates if 3G cells may be searched when BSIC decoding is required (O&M).
 FDD_REP_QUANT : Indicates the reporting quantify for UTRAN FDD cells (Ec/No)
 FDD_MULTIRAT_REPORTING : Indicates the number of the strongest 3G cells to be reported by
the MS in the MEASUREMENT REPORT message (O&M)
 FDD_REPORTING_OFFSET : Indicates the offset that the MS shall apply to 3G measurements
before reporting (O&M)
 FDD_REPORTING_THRESHOLD: Indicates the threshold above which the MS shall report the 3G
measurements, including never and always. (O&M).

Date Page
PSS-TI/GSM Engineering 6/28/2007 10

All rights reserved. Passing and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization.
2G-3G Handover

Figure 5-MESUREMENT INFORMATION Example

Date Page
PSS-TI/GSM Engineering 6/28/2007 11

All rights reserved. Passing and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization.
2G-3G Handover

Cell Reference
The following table lists how 3G cells are identified in the BSS. Analogy can be made to 2G, for readers
with less 3G background.

Table 1 - Cell Reference

The parameter CGI_3G_REQD is used to determine the format of 3G cell identification towards the MSC
(depends on MSC type)
If CGI_3G_REQD = 1 then 3G cell will be identified on A interface with “Cell Global Identifier” else with
“Partial Identifier”.
Building Neighbor Cells List
The global neighbor cell list (containing 2G & 3G cells) is built from the both 2G and 3G neighbor cells
lists. The following tables list the respective limitations and specifications for each part:
Building of GSM neighbor cells list

Table 2 - GSM Neighbor Cell List

Date Page
PSS-TI/GSM Engineering 6/28/2007 12

All rights reserved. Passing and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization.
2G-3G Handover

Building of UMTS neighbor cells list

Table 3 - UMTS Neighbor Cell List

Building of global neighbor cells list

Table 4 - Global Neighbor Cell List

Measurement processing and reporting


CPICH Ec/No: Received energy per chip divided by the power density in the band measured for the
primary pilot channel (CPICH). The reference point for the CPICH Ec/No shall be the antenna connector
or the UE. The UE/MS measures CPICH Ec/NO for each adjacency 3G cell indicated in the
MEASUREMENT INFORMATION message.
If TX Diversity is applied on the primary CPICH, the received energy by chip (Ec) from each antenna shall
be separately measured and summed together in Ws to a total received chip energy per chip on the
primary CPICH before calculating the Ec/No. The parameter EN_3G_DIVERSITY(n) indicates if the
diversity is applied in the 3G cell, and as a consequence, if the EC/No measurement method shall be
adapted. Figure 5 shows how this reflects definition of the 3G adjacencies in MEASUERMENT
INFORMATION message.
Qsearch_C controls when the UE/MS should perform measurements for 3G adjacencies. By default this
parameter is set to “Always search for 3G neighbors”. However appropriate setting of this parameter
could reduce number of reporting, and could also reflect operator 3G deployment strategies. Figure 6
and Figure 7 shows two examples of strategies achieved by proper settings of Qsearch_C.
In Figure 6 Qsearch_C is set to 4 so that UTRAN measurement is triggered if GSM signal strength is
below -82 dBm. Such scenario is preferable in case 3G cells are supposed to extend GSM coverage. In
this case, It becomes reasonable to set Qsearch_C in 0 to 6, as cell reselection and handover becomes
necessary only in shortage of GSM coverage. Figure 7 Shows another scenario where Qsearch_C is set to
10 ,so that UTRAN measurements is performed if GSM signal strength is above -70dBm. Such scenario is

Date Page
PSS-TI/GSM Engineering 6/28/2007 13

All rights reserved. Passing and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization.
2G-3G Handover

preferable in case 3G sites are co-located with 2G sites. This is because in this case the GSM signal
strength will be almost always high compared to 3G cells. Hence it makes no sense just to wait until the
GSM signal strength is degraded, as 3G signal won’t be good anyway. Recommended setting is “Always
search for 3G neighbors”.

Figure 6-Qsearch C=4. UTRAN measurements performed when

Figure 7-Qsearch C=10. UTRAN measurements performed when

For 3G cells, as the 2G to 3G Handover does not care of 3G cell load, only the better 3G cells are taken

Date Page
PSS-TI/GSM Engineering 6/28/2007 14

All rights reserved. Passing and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization.
2G-3G Handover

into account. The MS can include a 3G cell in the measurement report if (Quantities compared by coded
value):
CPICH _ EcNo + FDD _ REPORTING _ OFFSET ≥ FDD _ REPORTING _ THRESHOLD
Measured Ec/No on FDD UTRAN is the average of the measured samples taken over the reporting period
which is the duration of one SAACH (480ms). Then at the BSC, The reported Ec/No on UTRAN FDD
neighbor cells are averaged using a sliding arithmetic window on a given window length (settable
parameter A_ECNO_HO).

2G to 3G HO Preparation
When a new measurement report is reported by the MS, the process re-evaluates the CPICH Ec/No for all
3G cells measurements reported.

λ) ≥ THR_ECNO, the cell λ shall be added in the list of candidate cells


For each cellλ, if AV_ECNO(λ
ranked according to AV_ECNO(λ) and 3G cells are systematically placed on top of the list.

The 3G cell having the highest AV_ECNO(λ λ) is marked as candidate cell for handover. Figure 8
illustrates 2G-3G Handover preparation process.

Figure 8-2G->3G Handover Preparation

2G to 3G HO Management
Handover management shall manage two lists of rejected cells, associated to each connection. The first
list of cells to which the MS failed to handover: MS_CELL_REJ_LIST, guarded by the timer
T_MS_CELL_REJ. While the timer T_MS_CELL_REJ timer runs, the cells which belong to this list can
not be selected in subsequent channel change attempts on this connection. If the list is full, the oldest cell
is discarded and the new one is stored. The timer is restarted each time a new cell is added to the
MS_CELL_REJ_LIST. When this timer expires, MS_CELL_REJ_LIST is emptied. The size of this list is 4.
The other list of cells to which the handover is temporarily impossible (e.g. for congestion):
REJ_CELL_LIST This list is guarded by T7. When T7 expires, this list is emptied. The size of this list is
2*N_PREF_CELLS. These lists are also emptied when receiving an exit and clear message from
protocols (except in case of T_HO_REQD_LOST expiry in ECC). Emptying of the lists allows the cells to
be reselected for a channel change. Furthermore, the ALU BSS assumes that the MSC tries the target cells
Date Page
PSS-TI/GSM Engineering 6/28/2007 15

All rights reserved. Passing and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization.
2G-3G Handover

in the order given by the BSS. Figure 9 shows the flow-chart for the algorithm used to manage cell
rejection.

Figure 9-Algorithm of handling cell rejection

2G to 3G HO Execution

Figure 10-InterSystem Handover execution

1. The BSC sends HANDOVER REQUIRED message to the GSM MSC containing the UTRAN candidate
cell.
2. The MSC sends MAP/E message PREPARE HANDOVER to the UMTS CN.

Date Page
PSS-TI/GSM Engineering 6/28/2007 16

All rights reserved. Passing and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization.
2G-3G Handover

3. The CN sends RANAP message RELOCATION REQUEST to the Target RNC.


4. Response RELOCATION REQUEST ACKNOWLEDGE is returned to the CN by the target RNC via
RANAP.
5. MAP/E message PREPARE HANDOVER RESPONSE is sent by the UMTS CN to the MSC.
6. The MSC initiates the handover execution by sending the message HANDOVER COMMAND to the
old BSC.
7. The BSC sends the INTER SYSTEM TO UTRAN HANDOVER COMMAND to the UE/MS. The T3121
timer is started.
8. When target RNC has detected the UE, RELOCATION DETECT message is sent to the CN node.
9. When the RRC connection is established with the target RNC and necessary radio resources have
been allocated the UE sends RRC message HANDOVER COMPLETE to the target RNC.
10. Once complete the target RNC sends RANAP message RELOCATION COMPLETE to the CN.
11. CN sends MAP/E message SEND END SIGNAL REQUEST to the MSC.
12. The MSC sends CLEAR COMMAND message to the BSC.
13. The BSC responds with CLEAR COMPLETE message to the GSM
14. The MSC sends MAP/E message SEND END SIGNAL RESPONSE to the UMTS CN to
conclude the procedure (this message is not sent until the end of the call).
Upon starting the inter-system handover signaling using INTER SYSTEM TO UTRAN HANDOVER
COMMAND T3121 timer starts. This timer stops when the mobile correctly seizure a UTRAN channel. Its
purpose is to keep the old channels sufficiently long for the MS to be able to return to the old channels,
and to release the channels if the MS is lost. High value of this parameter should satisfy this primary
purpose, however very high value could result in congestion in 2G side. Default value is 140 (14
seconds).

Date Page
PSS-TI/GSM Engineering 6/28/2007 17

All rights reserved. Passing and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization.
2G-3G Handover

Performance Management
PM Counters

The following table enumerates the PM Counters:

Table 5 - PM Counters

Date Page
PSS-TI/GSM Engineering 6/28/2007 18

All rights reserved. Passing and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization.
2G-3G Handover

RNO indicators

Listed in table below the RNO indicators:

Table 6 - RNO Indicators

Date Page
PSS-TI/GSM Engineering 6/28/2007 19

All rights reserved. Passing and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization.
2G-3G Handover

Parameters
The following table enumerates all feature related parameters. In bold the main parameters tuned during
first off tests.

Logical name Definition Min Max Def Unit Instance


CGI_3G_REQD Controls format of 3G cell identifications sent to the 0 1 1 None BSC
MSC.
SCRAMBLING_CODE_3G(n) This parameter indicates the Primary Scrambling 0 511 -1 None 3G cell
Code as defined in 3GPP TS 25.213
FDD_ARFCN(n) FDD UTRAN frequency 0 3276.6 -1 MHz 3G cell
EN_3G_DIVERSITY(n) This parameter indicates if diversity is applied for 0 1 0 None 3G cell
the cell
Qsearch_C Threshold for searching for 3G cells in -98 -50 7 dBm cell
dedicated mode depending whether the
received signal
level of the serving cell is below or above
the threshold.
THR_ECNO_HO Ec/No threshold above which a handover to - -47 -91 dBm cell
UTRAN may be triggered 110
T3121 This timer is started by sending an INTER 0 25,5 14 sec BSC
SYSTEM TO UTRAN HANDOVER message to
the MS and
is normally stopped when the MS has
correctly seized the UTRAN channel(s).
Its purpose is to keep the old channels
sufficiently long for the MS to be able to
return
LAC_3G(n) This parameter indicates the Location Area Code as 0 65535 -1 None 3G cell
defined in 3GPP TS 24.008.
It is used in the HANDOVER COMMAND message
FDD_REPORTING_THRESHOLD Threshold above which the MS shall report 0 42 0 dB cell
the measurements
A_ECNO_HO Window size for Ec/No level averages for 2G 1 31 8 Samfr cell
to 3G handover

CI_3G(n) This parameter indicates the Cell Identifier of a 3G 0 65535 -1 None 3G cell
cell as defined in 3GPP TS 25.401
FDD_MULTIRAT_REPORTING Number of the strongest 3G cells to be reported by 0 3 2 None cell
the MS in the measurement report message
FDD_REPORTING_OFFSET Offset that the MS shall apply to 0 42 0 dB cell
measurements before reporting
MNC_3G(n) Mobile Network Code of a neighbor 3G cell of the 0 999 999 None 3G cell
own PLMN or of a foreign PLMN.
MCC_3G(n) Mobile Country Code of a neighbor 3G cell of the 0 999 999 None 3G cell
own or of a foreign PLMN.
EN_3G_HO This flag enables/disables the 2G-3G handover 0 1 0 None cell
RNC_ID(n) This parameter indicates the RNC Identifier as 0 4095 -1 None 3G cell
defined in 3GPP TS 25.401. It is used in HO
Required message sent to the MSC.
Table 7 - Parameters

Date Page
PSS-TI/GSM Engineering 6/28/2007 20

All rights reserved. Passing and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization.
2G-3G Handover

Equipment Compliance
 Supported in Evolium, M4M, and M5M BTSs with B9 MR4
 Supported in G2 BSC with B9 MR4
 Compatible with 3GPP Rel’4 fully compliant UTRAN
 Compatible with ALU UTRAN starting from R5 MR3, Nokia UTRAN since RAN 1.5, Nortel UTRAN
and Huawei UTRAN

Date Page
PSS-TI/GSM Engineering 6/28/2007 21

All rights reserved. Passing and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization.
2G-3G Handover

TEST PLAN DESCRIPTION


Unitary Tests
Sites
ALU 2G Cell IDs: 30301, 30302, 30291
3G Cell ID: 57735
Tools
TEMS measurement tool + Mobile: Sony-Ericsson Z800
Protocol & Planning
Back to
3G layer
the 2G layer
by 3G to 2G
HO
Mobility towards
the 3G layer until
the 2G to 3G
Test start handover is
on the 2G performed.
layer 2G layer

Figure 11 - Drive Test Protocol

Test type Nb of loops Parameters setting Expected behaviour foreseen duration

CS drive test 20 Feat. Enabled All 2G to 3G handovers should be performed. 4 hours

Table 8 - Drive Test Planning

This test will allow assessing:

• The 2G-to-3G handover duration compared with 3G-to-2G and 2G-to-2G handovers.
• The % of 2G-to-3G HO efficiency
• Ping Pong Effect

Date Page
PSS-TI/GSM Engineering 6/28/2007 22

All rights reserved. Passing and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization.
2G-3G Handover

Parameters Tuned
Test-1 Test-2
Parameter instance unit Operational Operational
Value Value
Qsearch_C Cell dBm 7 7

THR_ECNO_HO Cell dBm -12 -9

T3121 BSC sec 14 14

A_ECNO_HO Cell Samfr 10 10


FDD_REPORTING_THRESHOLD
Cell dB 0 6
FDD_REPORTING_OFFSET
Cell dB 0 18
Table 9 – Parameters Tuned for Drive Test

Performance Management
2G to 3G HO Performances will be assessed based on following events observed during drive test:

• Number of requested 2G3G HO


• Number of attempted 2G3G HO
• Number of preparation fails
• Number of successfully 2G3G HO
• Number of ROC observed
• % of efficiency rate and % of success rate
• Average, min. and max. 2G-to-3G handover duration compared with 3G-to-2G and 2G-to-2G
handovers

Statistical Tests
There is no reference available to the performance of the 2G to 3G HO performance for old Huawei cells
(feature was available in Huawei solution but without KPIs commitment from their side).
Sites
• Site: Medan, Indonesia
• Operator: Excelcomindo
• 2G Network: Alcatel-Lucent:
o 742 cells
o connected to 2 legacy BSC and one legacy MFS.
o Pilot defined on 28 cells listed in the following table
BSC LAC CI BSC LAC CI BSC LAC CI

Date Page
PSS-TI/GSM Engineering 6/28/2007 23

All rights reserved. Passing and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization.
2G-3G Handover

2921_Martabe-1 22251 29211 3026_PmtgSintr-3 22252 30263 3032_KABANJAHE-3 22251 30323

2921_Martabe-2 22251 29212 3027_Parapat-1 22251 30271 3035_Motung-1 22251 30351

2921_Martabe-3 22251 29213 3027_Parapat-2 22251 30272 3035_Motung-2 22251 30352

2976_Sembahe-1 22251 29761 3027_Parapat-3 22251 30273 C057_JuharKaro-7 22251 30577


C068_SutomoSiantar-
2976_Sembahe-2 22251 29762 3029_SIBOLANGIT-2 22251 30292 7 22252 30687
C068_SutomoSiantar-
2977_KpBntanSn-1 22252 29771 3030_BANDARBARU-1 22251 30301 9 22252 30689

2977_KpBntanSn-2 22252 29772 3030_BANDARBARU-2 22251 30302 3093_TukTuk-1 22251 30931

2977_KpBntanSn-3 22252 29773 3032_KABANJAHE-1 22251 30321 3093_TukTuk-2 22251 30932

3026_PmtgSintr-1 22252 30261 3032_KABANJAHE-2 22251 30322 3093_TukTuk-3 22251 30933

3026_PmtgSintr-2 22252 30262


Table 10 - Cells Used for Statistical Tests

• 3G Network: Huawei: 276 3G external cells defined in OMC-R.


• Core Network: Ericsson

Tools
Alcatel-Lucent A9156-RNO
Protocol & Planning1
The aim of this test is to study QoS evolution, in response to feature parameter setting change. The main
goal is to find parameter setting optimization methodology that achieve the gain of the feature, by
Handover Multi-Rat Mobiles to 3G whenever possible while preserving Network Quality and stability.
Network Quality is preserved by avoiding excessive Call drops or voice interruption. And network stability
is preserved by maintaining Signaling load at nominal values and reduce ping-pong effects.

Phase 1. Enable the feature with default ALU parameters. For the pilot cells the following parameters are
to be applied.

1
As the feature was rapidly activated before the tests start date, these tests are not carried out in the
sequence shown.

Date Page
PSS-TI/GSM Engineering 6/28/2007 24

All rights reserved. Passing and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization.
2G-3G Handover

Parameter Instance unit Value


2
Qsearch_C Cell dBm 7

THR_ECNO_HO Cell dBm -15

T3121 BSC sec 14

A_ECNO_HO Cell Samfr 8

FDD_REPORTING_OFFSET Cell dB 0

FDD_REPORTING_THRESHOLD Cell dB 0
Table 11 - Phase 1 Parameters Values

Phase 2. Study the effect of each parameter on 2G, and 3G QoS by tuning each value such that:
 Study effect of Qsearch_C set to a higher value (e.g. -70 above)
 Study effect of Qsearch_C set to a lower value (e.g. -70 below): It is not possible to be tested in
Excelcomindo as all 3G cells are collocated with 2G cells
 Study effect of Setting THR_ECNO_HO to 0 “Attempt HO to 3G whatever value EcNo”
 Study effect of Setting THR_ECNO_HO to an optimized value (e.g. -12, -9 dBm)
 Study effect of Setting A_ECNO_HO to a higher value (e.g. 10)
 Study effect of Setting A_ECNO_HO to a lower value (e.g. 4)
 Study effect of Setting FDD_REPORTING_{THRESHOLD,OFFSET} to a higher value (e.g. 6,18)

Phase 4. Final Parameter Fine tuning session and QoS follow-up.


Performance Management

The following RNO reports are used to asses the Feature performance in response to each phase in the
previous section3:
2G-3G Handover Procedure Performance:
KPI evolution:
Traffic Evolution:
General Handover Pattern Evolution:

2
Qsearch_C=7 is equivalent to “Always search for 3G cell”.
3
Due to unavailability of 3G statistics in correspondence to parameter changes, only 2G statistics are
taken into account

Date Page
PSS-TI/GSM Engineering 6/28/2007 25

All rights reserved. Passing and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization.
2G-3G Handover

RESULTS
Unitary tests results
First Drive Test Results

20 loops of drive test were performed in order to check 2G3G HO, 2G2G HO and 3G2G HO (for a set of
2G cells - 30301, 30302, 30291 - and 3G cell 57735) for a period of 8 hours. Following number of
Handovers were observed:
• 2G3G HO = 20,
• 3G2G HO = 14,
• 2G2G HO = 46
During this drive test no handover failure was observed for either 2G or 3G side. Also there was no ROC
observed in 2G side.
In the figure below an overview of HO duration is presented. The duration was computed as time
difference between HO command and HO complete messages.
Related to HO duration, from the figure can be observed almost same performance for 3G2G HO and
2G3G HO. Also to be noticed that the maximum duration is around 250 ms, duration which does not
impact end user perception. In order to measure exactly effect of this interruption on voice quality, a
voice quality assessment audit can be organized. Such an audit was not possible during this First off
due to unavailability of a voice quality measurement tool.

350.00

300.00

250.00

200.00 Average
Maximum
150.00 StdDiv
100.00

50.00

0.00
2G-2G HO 2G-3G HO 3G-2G HO

Figure 12 - First Drive Test HO Duration

For the 2G-2G HO there was only one case with duration over 300ms (see max value in graph above).
But can be noticed that duration of 2G-2G HO has a standard deviation greater than 2G-3G or 3G-2G,
which means that the values are spread between minimum and maximum values. For 2G-3G HO and
3G-2G HO the standard deviation is lower which means that HO durations are concise around the
average value.

During 8 hours drive test there were 8 calls dropped from which 7 in 3G due to un-optimized 3G2G HO
management and one in 2G due to radio conditions. In the figure below can be observed the evolution of
RSCP and ECNO levels on 3G side and also evolution of measured RxLev on 2G side (finally a call drop
Date Page
PSS-TI/GSM Engineering 6/28/2007 26

All rights reserved. Passing and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization.
2G-3G Handover

occurred even if 2G cell with good level was reported – no emergency HO required on 3G side).

UMTS Measurements
Call Drop
Compressed Mode
-40 0

-50
-5
-60

-70 -10
[dBm]

[dB]
-80

-90 -15

-100
-20
-110
-120 -25

CPICH_RSCP [dBm]
0, 0

0, 0

000

0, 0

8, 7

100
1
.10
5
0, 0
1. 9

0
2. 2

0
2. 6
0, 0
3. 0

4
3. 4

6
3. 8
0, 0
4. 2

0
4. 6
0, 0
5. 0

4
5. 4

0
5. 8

10

1. 1
10, 4
1. 1

0
0
.0
0

1
.7
4.

8.
,

1.

4.

,
.1
,0

,0

,0

,0

,0

,0

,0

,0

,0

,3
GSM RxLev [dBm]
Time [ms] CPICH_EcNo [dB]

Figure 13 - UMTS Measurements Before Call Drop

Second Drive Test Results


Initially in the Excelcomindo network the 3G to 2G HO was not working due to outdated adjacencies
relations to the new ALU 2G cells. For the first drive test only for one cell the relations were updated in
order to allow the loop test.

Starting with 14th of June all adjacencies were updated and the 3G to 2G HO start to impact the
performances observed for 2G to 3G HO (preparation failed rate increased, due to increased number of
required HO). In order to check if there is a ping pong present between 2G cells and 3G cells a second
drive test was performed on the 2G cell 30323 and 3G cell 57746.

The table below is showing Handover event times during this drive test. It can be observed that in less
than 1 minute there are 3 HO commands To and From UTRAN.

12:45:10.93 Handover From UTRAN Command-GSM (DL-DCCH)


12:45:23.15 Inter-System To UTRAN Handover Command
12:45:23.39 Handover To UTRAN Complete (UL-DCCH)
12:45:31.81 Handover From UTRAN Command-GSM (DL-DCCH)
12:45:40.26 Inter-System To UTRAN Handover Command
12:45:40.46 Handover To UTRAN Complete (UL-DCCH)
12:45:48.78 Handover From UTRAN Command-GSM (DL-DCCH)
Table 12 - TO/FROM UTRAN Handover Commands

By analyzing both measurement reports in UTRAN and BSS we observed that 3G-2G Handover is based
on CPICH_RSCP Quantity4. We observed also that at Handover decision instances the value of CPICH
Ec/No fall in the interval from -7.5 dB and -12 dB (Table 13). As the EC/NO threshold used for 2G-3G
Handover was -12 dB it is clear that there will be a ping-pong between 2G and 3G cells.

4
The only way to analyze 3G behavior is by inspecting a drive test measurement as such information was
not accessible by the First off team.

Date Page
PSS-TI/GSM Engineering 6/28/2007 27

All rights reserved. Passing and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization.
2G-3G Handover

As increasing the threshold on 2G side has big impact on number of required HO, also that on 3G side
the CPICH EC/NO and RSCP are still at good level when the decision for 3G2G HO is taken, the solution
is only adjusting the threshold on 3G side (see “Conclusion” chapter for more recommendations on this
topic).

All-AS All-AS
CPICH CPICH
Time Message Type- Ec/No[dB] RSCP[dBm]
12:38:20.46 Handover From UTRAN Command-GSM (DL-DCCH) -12.5 -102.
12:41:17.89 Handover From UTRAN Command-GSM (DL-DCCH) -10. -97.
12:41:45.50 Handover From UTRAN Command-GSM (DL-DCCH) -14. -102.
12:42:09.17 Handover From UTRAN Command-GSM (DL-DCCH) -9. -95.
12:43:44.59 Handover From UTRAN Command-GSM (DL-DCCH) -10. -99.
12:44:26.70 Handover From UTRAN Command-GSM (DL-DCCH) -7.5 -94.
12:44:51.93 Handover From UTRAN Command-GSM (DL-DCCH) -7. -93.
12:45:10.93 Handover From UTRAN Command-GSM (DL-DCCH) -9.5 -96.
12:45:31.81 Handover From UTRAN Command-GSM (DL-DCCH) -8. -93.
12:45:48.78 Handover From UTRAN Command-GSM (DL-DCCH) -11. -98.
12:46:40.59 Handover From UTRAN Command-GSM (DL-DCCH) -11.5 -102.
12:47:53.17 Handover From UTRAN Command-GSM (DL-DCCH) -9.5 -97.
12:49:38.17 Handover From UTRAN Command-GSM (DL-DCCH) -8.5 -97.
Table 13 - CPICH EC/NO and RSCP Level for 3G2G HO Commands

Date Page
PSS-TI/GSM Engineering 6/28/2007 28

All rights reserved. Passing and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization.
2G-3G Handover

Statistical Tests Results


Initial Status

In the figure below is presented the initial status (05 June) of 2G-3G HO for the cells used for statistical
tests. From the figure, it’s clear that very few cells in the network experience 2G-3G Handover , given that
the feature was enabled on 40 cells.

Outgoing HO 2G 3G
200 120
150 100 drop bss
80
100 60
50 40
20 drop radio
0 0

C057_Juha
3030_BAN
3026_Pmtg

3093_TukT
2976_Sem

3039_SeiR
3025_Tebi
2977_KpB

3032_KAB
3027_Para

3098_TbTg
2921_Mart

2948_Mart

success

prep fail

% success rate

% effic rate

Figure 14-MultiCell report from 5th of June

Below an overall view of the 2G-3G HO status in 05 June 2007:


• Number of required HO: 355
• Number of attempted HO: 319
• Success rate: 60.28%
• Preparation fail rate: 10.14%
• Drop rate: 32.92%
First Parameters Tuning

A first action done was to change the Qsearch_C and THR_ECNO_HO values as follows:
• For the cells with low number of 2G3G HO required it was changed only Qsearch_C from the
value -70(above) to “Always Search for 3G Cells”
• For cells where number of requests was higher we changed Qsearch_C from the value -
70(above) to “Always Search for 3G Cells” and THR_ECNO_HO from 0 to -15 [dB]
In the figure below can be observed the impact of changes to the 28 cells under observation:

Date Page
PSS-TI/GSM Engineering 6/28/2007 29

All rights reserved. Passing and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization.
2G-3G Handover

Outgoing HO 2G 3G

700 80
600 70
60 drop bss
500
50
400 drop radio
40
300 success
30
200 prep fail
20
100 10 % success rate
0 0 % effic rate
06/01/2007 06/02/2007 06/03/2007 06/04/2007 06/05/2007 06/06/2007

Qsearch_C = -70(above) Qsearch_C = Always Search for 3g

Figure 15 - 2G3G HO Evolution after Qsearch_C Changed

For the cells on which only Qsearch_C was changed the number of required HO increased by 57.6% and
on cells where also THR_ECNO_HO was changed number of required HO increased by 49.9%.

Changing the values for parameters Qsearch_C and THR_ECNO_HO had no impact on numbers of
required HO for the cells with 0 required. This problem could be to not correct declaration of 3G
adjacencies (incorrect scrambling code defined).
A_ECNO_HO Parameter Tuning

A_ECNO_HO represent the window size for Ec/No level averages for 2G to 3G handover.
One of the first observation done on the 28 cells used for the 2G to 3G HO validation tests was that for
some cells the number of required HO is very low (even 0 for some cells).
In order to improve the number of required HO the averaging window was reduced in order to allow a
more quick decision for HO request. From the figure below can be noticed that the parameter tuning
does not has the expected impact on number of 2G to 3G HO required.
•A_ECNO_HO = 10
Outgoing HO 2G 3G THR_ECNO_HO = -12
•A_ECNO_HO = 8 •A_ECNO_HO = 4
20 120

100
15 drop bss
80
drop radio
10 60
success
40 prep fail
5
20 % success rate
0 0 % effic rate
06/06/2007 06/07/2007 06/08/2007 06/09/2007 06/10/2007 06/11/2007 06/12/2007 06/13/2007

Figure 16 - Impact of Decreased A_ECNO_HO

Also in next graph can be observed that also increasing the averaging window doesn't decrease the
number of requests.

Date Page
PSS-TI/GSM Engineering 6/28/2007 30

All rights reserved. Passing and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization.
2G-3G Handover

Outgoing HO 2G 3G
•A_ECNO_HO = 10
•A_ECNO_HO = 8 •A_ECNO_HO = 10 THR_ECNO_HO =-12
250 90
80
200 70
drop bss
60
150 drop radio
50
40 success
100
30 prep fail
50 20
% success rate
10
0 0 % effic rate
06/06/2007 06/07/2007 06/08/2007 06/09/2007 06/10/2007 06/11/2007 06/12/2007 06/13/2007

Figure 17 - Impact of Increased A_ECNO_HO

We propose for this parameter the value 10 (default value proposed by ALU is 8) as it increase success
and efficiency rate for 2G to 3G HO without to reduce the number of required HO. This increase in
success and efficiency rate was due to the fact that by setting A_ECNO_HO to a higher value, fast
fluctuation in the radio link are compensated in the averaging process, and handover decision is only
performed for the stable radio conditions.

THR_ECNO_HO Parameter Tuning

THR_ECNO_HO parameter defines the Ec/No threshold above which a handover to UTRAN may be
triggered.
In order to increase the quality of 2G to 3G HO an increased value of the threshold for 2G to 3G HO
decision was used. Can be observed on the figure below that increasing the threshold with 3 dB the
success rate was increased by 66%. In combination with the average window size of 10 it brings a very
good quality to 2G to 3G HO. A significant improvement in Radio drop was observed as it reduced to
more than 25% of its value before the parameter tuning. This directly improved Handover efficiency rate.

Outgoing HO 2G 3G
•A_ECNO_HO = 10
•THR_ECNO_HO = -15 •THR_ECNO_HO = -12 THR_ECNO_HO = -12
180 100
160 90
140 80
70 drop bss
120
60 drop radio
100
50
80 success
40
60 prep fail
30
40 20
% success rate
20 10
0 0 % effic rate
06/06/2007 06/07/2007 06/08/2007 06/09/2007 06/10/2007 06/11/2007 06/12/2007 06/13/2007

Figure 18 - THR_ECNO_HO Impact

T3121 Parameter Tuning

This timer is started by sending an INTER SYSTEM TO UTRAN HANDOVER message to the MS and is

Date Page
PSS-TI/GSM Engineering 6/28/2007 31

All rights reserved. Passing and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization.
2G-3G Handover

normally stopped when the MS has correctly seized the UTRAN channel(s). Its purpose is to keep the old
channels sufficiently long for the MS to be able to return to the old channels, and to release the channels
if the MS is lost.
In order to allow the mobile to return to 2G resources if the HO to 3G is not possible one solution tested
was to increase the timer T3121. From the figure below can be noticed that T3121 has no impact on the
ROC.

HO_Out_MSC_2G_3G_ROC (HOOMOCUN)
HO_Out_MSC_2G_3G_ROC (HOOMOCUN) T3121 = 1.4s T3121 = 2s T3121 = 14 s

9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0/ 607

0/ 607

0/ 607

0/ 607

0/ 607

0/ 607

0/ 607

0/ 607

0/ 607

0/ 607

0/ 607

0/ 607

0/ 607

0/ 607

0/ 607

0/ 607

7
00
01
0/ 6
/022

/023

/024

/025

/026

/027

/028

0/29

/120

1/21

/122

1/23

/124

1/25

/126

/127
0

0
/2
Figure 19 - 2G-3G HO ROC

RESP_REQ Parameter Tuning

This flag controls “Response request” OIE inclusion in HANDOVER REQUIRED. If this parameter is not
“Enabled”, due to the fact that HANDOVER REQUIRED messages are not included in IE , so not received
by BSC, the counter MC924G (2G 3G HO Preparation Failed) is not incremented. Thus enabling this
parameter was necessary during this first off in order to assess explicit Handover rejection from 3G/Core
side by.
Alcatel-Lucent recommends to set RESP_REQ to 1 if EN_EXT_DR is set to “Enabled” in order to get a
Handover Reject message from the MSC in case all target cells are congested and thus to attempt other
procedures.
FDD_REPORTING_OFFSET And FDD_REPORTING_THRESHOLD

FDD_REPORTING_OFFSET represents an offset that the MS shall apply to measurements before reporting.
FDD_REPORTING_THRESHOLD represents the threshold above which the MS shall report the
measurements.
In order to check the impact of these parameters we changed the values for some cells where increased
number of preparation failed was observed (due to ping pong with 3G network). The aim of this
parameter tuning is to let the mobile report only CPICH EcNo values above -12 dB, and hence taking
handover decision towards a non-degraded, non-congested 3G cell.
Tested values are:
• FDD_REPORINTING_OFFSET = 18 (default is 0)
• FDD_REPORTING_THR = 6(default is 0)
In the figure below can be observed that there is no impact on preparation failed of these parameters
(preparation fail still present).

Date Page
PSS-TI/GSM Engineering 6/28/2007 32

All rights reserved. Passing and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization.
2G-3G Handover

Outgoing HO 2G 3G

50 120
40 100 Series 4

30 80
20 60 Series 3
40
10 20
0 0 Series 2
06/17/2007
06/17/2007
06/17/2007
06/17/2007
06/17/2007
06/17/2007
06/18/2007
06/18/2007
06/18/2007
06/18/2007
06/18/2007
06/18/2007
06/19/2007
06/19/2007
06/19/2007
06/19/2007
Series 1

Series 6

Series 5

FDD_REPORTING_OFFSET = 0 FDD_REPORTING_OFFSET = 18

FDD_REPORTING_THRESHOLD = 0 FDD_REPORTING_THRESHOLD = 6

In order to check this behavior also a drive test is planned for this cell.

QoS Evolution
In the following subsections we will demonstrate QoS indicator evolution during the first off Period for the
28 cells under test. In general stable QoS has been observed, and no impact from feature activation nor
parameter tuning.
SDCCH And RTCH Traffic

Stable SDCCH traffic, encountered throughout the first off period.

SDCCH traffic
400 270
300 265
260
200 255
250 Erlang total
100 245
240
0 235 SDCCH avail avg
0/ 3 7

0/ 5 7

0/ 7 7

0/ 9 7

1/ 1 7

/1 07

/1 07

1/ 7 7

1/ 9 7

7
600

600

600

600

00
06
0/ 1

02/ 60

02/ 06

02/ 06
3
02/ 06
5
02/ 06
/02

/02

/02

/02

/2

Stable RTCH traffic, encountered throughout the first off period.

Date Page
PSS-TI/GSM Engineering 6/28/2007 33

All rights reserved. Passing and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization.
2G-3G Handover

RTCH traffic
500 290
400 280
300 270 Erlang total
200
100 260
0 250 RTCH avail avg

0/ 3 7

0/ 5 7

0/ 7 7

0/ 9 7

1/ 1 7

/1 07

/1 07

1/ 7 7

1/ 9 7

7
600

600

600

600

00
06
0/ 1

02/ 60

02/ 06

02/ 06
3
02/ 06
5
02/ 06
/02

/02

/02

/02

/2
A Interface Traffic

Figures below shows stability of A interface traffic, even with existence with the ping pong effect. It worth
noting that this graphs are related to the two BSCs which have the 2G-3G feature activated.

A Traffic

1250
1200
1150
1100
1050
Erlang total
1000
950
900
06 7

06 7

06 7

06 7

06 7

06 7

06 7

06 7

06 7

06 7

06 7

06 7

7
00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00
06
8

0
/0
/2

/0
/2

/1
/2

/1
/2

/1
/2

/1
/2

/1
/2

/1
/2

/1
/2

/1
/2

/1
/2

/1
/2

/2
/2

A Channel Occupancy

4400000 44
4200000 43
42
4000000
41
3800000 40
Occupancy
39
3600000
38 Duration Avg
3400000 37
3200000 36
06 7

06 7

06 7

06 7

06 7

06 7

06 7

06 7

06 7

06 7

06 7

06 7

7
00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00

00
06
8

0
/0
/2

/0
/2

/1
/2

/1
/2

/1
/2

/1
/2

/1
/2

/1
/2

/1
/2

/1
/2

/1
/2

/1
/2

/2
/2

SDCCH Assignment Failure

Stable SDCCH assignment procedure, throughout the First off period.

Date Page
PSS-TI/GSM Engineering 6/28/2007 34

All rights reserved. Passing and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization.
2G-3G Handover

SDCCH assignment failure


250000 5
200000 4
150000 3
100000 2 Fail - BSS
50000 1
0 0
Fail - Radio

Success
0/ 3 7

0/ 5 7

/0 07

/0 7

1/ 1 7

/1 07

1/ 5 7

1/ 7 7

1/ 9 7

7
600

60

600

600

00
06
0/ 1

02/ 06

02/ 06
7
20/ 0
9
02/ 06

02/ 60
3
02/ 60
/02

/02

/20

/2
% Fail

SDCCH Assign Congestion


250000 2
200000 1.5
150000 1
100000
50000 0.5
Congestion
0 0
06/01/20

06/03/20

06/05/20

06/07/20

06/09/20

06/11/20

06/13/20

06/15/20

06/17/20

06/19/20
Request

% Congestion

RTCH Assignment Failure

Stable RTCH assignment phase throughout the first off period.

RTCH assign preparation


40000 0.15
38000 0.1
36000 Prep Fail BSS
34000 0.05
32000 Congestion
30000 0
06/01/20

06/03/20

06/05/20

06/07/20

06/09/20

06/11/20

06/13/20

06/15/20

06/17/20

06/19/20

Request

% Prep Fail
BSS

% Congestion

Date Page
PSS-TI/GSM Engineering 6/28/2007 35

All rights reserved. Passing and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization.
2G-3G Handover

RTCH assign execution


40000 0.3
38000 0.25
36000 0.2
34000 0.15 Exe Fail BSS
0.1
32000 0.05 Fail Radio
30000 0
Success
/0 07

0/ 5 7

0/ 7 7

0/ 9 7

/1 07

1/ 3 7

1/ 5 7

1/ 7 7

1/ 9 7

7
% Exe Fail BSS

600

600

600

600

600

00
06
1
02/ 06
3
02/ 60

60
1
02/ 06
/0

/02

/02

/02

/02

/02

/02

/2
% Fail Radio

Incoming Handover

From the figure below, we observe increase in number of Incoming Inter BSC Handover. This is due to
correction of 2G adjacencies definition in 3G side, which also appear in Figure 20.

Fail - Radio
Incoming Inter BSC handovers
2000 8 Fail - BSS

1500 6
1000 4 Success

500 2
No CIC alloc
0 0
Prep Fail
0/ 3 7

/0 7

/0 07

0/ 9 7

/1 07

1/ 3 7

1/ 5 7

1/ 7 7

1/ 9 7

7
Congestion
600

60

60

60

060

600

600

00
06
0/ 1

20/ 0
5
02/ 06
7
20/ 0

20/ 0
6
1
20/ 0
/02

/02

/20

/20

/2

% Fail

% Cong

Incoming HO 3G 2G
2000 5
1500 4 Fail BSS

1000 3
2
500 1
Fail Radio

0 0
Success

Prep Fail
0/ 3 7

/0 7

/0 07

0/ 9 7

1/ 1 7

1/ 3 7

1/ 5 7

1/ 7 7

1/ 9 7

7
60

060

60

060

060

600

060

060

00
06
0/ 1
20/ 0

5
02/ 60
7
20/ 0
/20

/20

/20

/02

/20

/20

/2

% Fail

% Prep Fail

Figure 20

In the figure below it’s clear that 3G-2G Handover dominates 2G-2G handover for this area. All these
handover are non-emergency causes, which don’t met operator strategy in Excelcomindo to make the
maximum benefit from 3G. Thus a recommendation is highlighted to the operator, to tune 3G-2G
handover for emergency causes only.

Date Page
PSS-TI/GSM Engineering 6/28/2007 36

All rights reserved. Passing and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization.
2G-3G Handover

Incoming HO 3G 2G split
100%
80%
60%
3G Request
40%
20%
0% 2G Request

0/ 3 7

0/ 5 7

/0 7

0/ 9 7

/1 7

/1 7

/1 7

/1 7

/1 7

07
0

60

60

60

60

60

60
06
0/ 1
060

20/ 0

20/ 0

7
20/ 0

20/ 0

1
0206
3
20/ 0

5
0206
7
20/ 0

9
2/ 0
/2

/
Stable Incoming Intra BSC Handover encountered throughout the first off period.

Incoming Intra BSC handovers


Fail - Radio
15000 2
10000 1.5 Fail - BSS
1
5000 0.5 Success
0 0
Prep Fail

Congestion
0/ 3 7

0/ 5 7

0/ 7 7

0/ 9 7

1/ 1 7

1/ 3 7

1/ 5 7

/1 07

1/ 9 7

7
0

060

600

060

600

600

00
06
1
02/ 60

02/ 06

06
7
02/ 60
/0

/02

/02

/02

/20

/20

/02

/2
% Fail

% Cong

Outgoing Handover

Stable outgoing inter BSC Handover encountered throughout the First off period.

Outgoing Inter BSC handovers


Drop - Radio
300 10
250 8
200 6 Drop - BSS
150 4
100
50 2 ROC
0 0
Success

Prep Fail
0/ 3 7

/0 07

0/ 7 7

0/ 9 7

1/ 1 7

1/ 3 7

1/ 5 7

1/ 7 7

1/ 9 7

7
600

060

600

600

600

600

600

00
06
0/ 1

60
5
20/ 60
/02

/20

/02

/02

/02

/02

/02

/20

/2

% Drop

% ROC

Stable outgoing Intra BSC handover encountered during the First off period.

Date Page
PSS-TI/GSM Engineering 6/28/2007 37

All rights reserved. Passing and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization.
2G-3G Handover

Outgoing Intra BSC handovers


Drop - Radio
15000 2.5
2
10000 1.5 Drop - BSS

5000 1
0.5 ROC
0 0
Success

0/ 3 7 Prep Fail

0/ 5 7

0/ 7 7

0/ 9 7

1/ 1 7

1/ 3 7

/1 07

1/ 7 7

1/ 9 7

7
0

600

060

600

600

060

00
06
1
02/ 60

02/ 06
5
02/ 60

02/ 60
/0

/02

/02

/02

/20

/02

/2
% Drop

% ROC

The figure below shows evolution of the 2G-3G Handover. From the figure we notice significant
improvement in radio drop and efficiency rate after parameter tuning on 15th of June. A High preparation
failure is observed after activation of 3g-2G Handover, due to explicit rejection from 3G side as seen by
the counter MC924g. This in turn affected success rate, but this should not be interpreted as degradation
from 2G side.

Outgoing HO 2G 3G
3000 120
2500 100 drop bss
2000 80
1500 60
1000 40 drop radio
500 20
0 0 success

prep fail
/0 07

0/ 5 7

0/ 7 7

0/ 9 7

1/ 1 7

/1 07

/1 07

1/ 7 7

1/ 9 7

7
0

600

600

600

600

00
06
1
02/ 60
3
02/ 60

60
3
02/ 60
5
02/ 60

% success
/0

/02

/02

/02

/02

/02

/2

rate

% effic rate

Call Setup Success Rate (CSSR)

Stable CSSR is encountered throughout the period of the First Off.

Call success
1000 100
800 99.5
600 99 Call drop
400 98.5
200 98 Assign Unsucc
0 97.5
SDCCH drop

% Call
/0 07

0/ 5 7

0/ 7 7

0/ 9 7

/1 07

1/ 3 7

1/ 5 7

1/ 7 7

1/ 9 7

07
0

600

600

600

600

060

success
06
1
02/ 60
3
02/ 60

60
1
02/ 60

2/ 0
/0

/02

/02

/02

/02

/02

/02

% Call setup

Date Page
PSS-TI/GSM Engineering 6/28/2007 38

All rights reserved. Passing and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization.
2G-3G Handover

Call Drop Rate (CDR)

Stable CDR is encountered throughout the period of the first off. This is a strange behaviour, because we
have observed improvement in the outgoing 2G-3G Handover Radio drop. The reason for this is that the
formula for Call drop HO doesn’t take into account the case for 2G-3G Handover. For this we suggest to
change the trigger condition for the counter MC621 to take into account the case of expiry of T3121,
without revision to old channel.

A short term solution is to modify the Call_Drop indicator formula to be:

( [MC736] + [MC621] + ( [MC14C] + [MC739]) + [MC921c] + [MC924e] )

Instead of

( [MC736] + [MC621] + ( [MC14C] + [MC739]) + [MC921c])

Call drop
Preemption
400 1.2
300 1 Drop - BSS
0.8 RTC
200 0.6
100 0.4 Drop BSS
0.2 Intern
0 0
Drop - HO

Drop - Radio
/0 07

0/ 5 7

0/ 7 7

0/ 9 7

1/ 1 7

1/ 3 7

/1 07

/1 07

1/ 9 7

7
0

600

060

600

060

00
06
0/ 1
20/ 60
3
02/ 60

02/ 06
5
02/ 60
7
02/ 60
/02

/02

/20

/02

/2
% RTCH drop

% Call Drop

One last observation related to RNO is that we were using RNO that parameters related to 2G-3G
handover are not present in logical parameter tabs, namely we didn't find these parameters:
En_3G_HO,THR_ECNO_HO EN_2G_TO_3G_CELL_RESELECTION, Qsearch_C. CR 32/156152 was
issued related to this problem, but was not implemented in B9MR4. Implementation is foreseen in a next
release.

Date Page
PSS-TI/GSM Engineering 6/28/2007 39

All rights reserved. Passing and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization.
2G-3G Handover

CONCLUSION
This document presents First off application of the 2G-3G Handover feature in Excelcomindo network.
The feature was tested with Huawei UTAN and Ericsson Core network. After this First off we can conclude
the following about the feature:
• The 2G-3G handover feature as implemented in ALU is working well and achieved the main
expected gain, which is taking more quickly benefit from the 3G layer in terms of load
balancing, and quality of service.

• The feature can be introduced in other networks.

• Unitary tests showed that call interruption time due to Intersystem handover, is around 190ms,
which should not affect end user voice quality. And with simple parameter tuning we can reach
high HO efficiency with very low call drop.

• Unitary tests also enabled us to study ping pong phenomena introduced between 2G and 3G due
to Intersystem Handover. This ping pong phenomena didn’t cause any network instability (e.g.
Congestion or Signaling load). Feedback from other networks will be needed regarding this
point.

• We noticed that inconsistent parameter setting in UMTS side result in this ping pong phenomena
and the only way to reduce it with current ALU implementation is by joint parameter optimization
between 3G to 2G. In Excelcomindo it’s recommended to have 3G-2G Handover based on
CPICH EcNo (not on CPICH RSCP) and with enough hysterics introduced.

• A defensive mechanism is needed to be implemented in ALU BSS to prevent such phenomena,


also Handover based on CPICH RSCP should be implemented for more tuning flexibility from
BSS side.

• Statistical tests enabled us to study impact of all feature parameters on Network statistics
evolution. We showed possibility and methodology to tune different parameters to have high
intersystem handover efficiency and low call drop.

• Network QoS indicators were stable during whole first off period. A suggestion on
modification of Call drop HO counter triggering condition and Call Drop Indicator formula
definition is highlighted.

• Preparation failure due to explicit rejection from 3G side, was noticed after activation of 3G-
2G handover widely. This should not be interpreted as degradation, but rather as a defensive
mechanism in 3G to avoid overload situation, and mainly drive stability in the network. More
feedback from other networks deploying other UTRAN is needed.

• The feature has achieved expectation of Excelcomindo operator for Intersystem operability.
This was also done, with support of NE team related to 2G-3G Reselection, 3G-2G Reselection
and 3G-2G Handover features.

Date Page
PSS-TI/GSM Engineering 6/28/2007 40

All rights reserved. Passing and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization.
2G-3G Handover

APPENDIX I. 2G-3G HANDOVER


CONFIGURATION RECOMMENDATION FOR
EXCELCOMINDO
The following table lists all 2G-3G Handover parameters template to be applied during the swap. Fine
tuning of this parameters should be done on a case by case basis.
Logical name Definition Value Unit Instance
CGI_3G_REQD Controls format of 3G cell identifications sent 1 None BSC
to the MSC.
SCRAMBLING_CODE_3G(n) This parameter indicates the Primary Depends None 3G cell
Scrambling Code as defined in 3GPP TS on 3G
25.213 neighbors
FDD_ARFCN(n) FDD UTRAN frequency Depends MHz 3G cell
on 3G
neighbors
EN_3G_DIVERSITY(n) This parameter indicates if diversity is applied Depends None 3G cell
for the cell on 3G
neighbors
Qsearch_C Threshold for searching for 3G cells in 7 dBm cell
dedicated mode depending whether
the received signal
level of the serving cell is below or
above the threshold.
5
THR_ECNO_HO Ec/No threshold above which a -12 dBm cell
handover to UTRAN may be triggered
T3121 This timer is started by sending an 14 (140 sec BSC
INTER SYSTEM TO UTRAN HANDOVER x 0.1
message to the MS and Sec)
is normally stopped when the MS has
correctly seized the UTRAN channel(s).
Its purpose is to keep the old channels
sufficiently long for the MS to be able
to return
LAC_3G(n) This parameter indicates the Location Area Depends None 3G cell
Code as defined in 3GPP TS 24.008. on 3G
It is used in the HANDOVER COMMAND neighbor
message
FDD_REPORTING_THRESHOLD Threshold above which the MS shall 6 dB cell
report the measurements
A_ECNO_HO Window size for Ec/No level averages 10 Samfr cell
for 2G to 3G handover

CI_3G(n) This parameter indicates the Cell Identifier of Depends None 3G cell
a 3G cell as defined in 3GPP TS 25.401 on 3G
neighbors
FDD_MULTIRAT_REPORTING Number of the strongest 3G cells to be 2 None cell
reported by the MS in the measurement
report message
FDD_REPORTING_OFFSET Offset that the MS shall apply to 18 dB cell
measurements before reporting
MNC_3G(n) Mobile Network Code of a neighbor 3G cell Depends None 3G cell
of the own PLMN or of a foreign PLMN. on 3G
neighbors
MCC_3G(n) Mobile Country Code of a neighbor 3G cell Depends None 3G cell

5
For cells with high Radio drop or Very low efficiency, it’s recommended to set this parameter to a higher
value (e.g. -9 dB). But this will reduce the number of required Handover.

Date Page
PSS-TI/GSM Engineering 6/28/2007 41

All rights reserved. Passing and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization.
2G-3G Handover

of the own or of a foreign PLMN. on 3G


neighbors
EN_3G_HO This flag enables/disables the 2G-3G Enabled None cell
handover
RNC_ID(n) This parameter indicates the RNC Identifier Depends None 3G cell
as defined in 3GPP TS 25.401. It is used in on 3G
HO Required message sent to the MSC. neighbors

Date Page
PSS-TI/GSM Engineering 6/28/2007 42

All rights reserved. Passing and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization.
2G-3G Handover

APPENDIX II. 2G-3G RESELECTION


CONFIGURATION RECOMMENDATION FOR
EXCELCOMINDO
The following table lists all 2G-3G Handover parameters template to be applied during the swap. This
template aims to Reselect 3G whenever possible. Fine tuning of this parameters should be done on a case
by case basis.

Logical name Definition Value Unit Instance


EN_2G_TO_3G_CELL_RESELECTION Enables/Disables the GSM to UTRAN FDD cell 1 None cell
reselections and defines the 3G search activation mode for
MS in GMM Ready state.
FDD_FREQUENCY_LIST List of neighbor FDD UTRAN frequencies Depends on MHz BSS
3G network
FDD_GPRS_Qoffset Offset added to the received level average (default) -32 dB cell
of the serving cell and of the neighbor GSM cells
for UTRAN FDD cell re-selection in GPRS
FDD_Qmin Minimum threshold for Ec/Io for UTRAN FDD cell re- (default) -12 dB cell
selection.
FDD_Qoffset Offset added to the received level average of (default) -12 dB cell
the serving cell and of the neighbor GSM
cells for UTRAN FDD cell re-selection.
Qsearch_I Threshold for searching for 3G cells depending whether the Always search for dBm cell
received level average of the serving cell is below or above 3G neighbor cells
the threshold.
Qsearch_P Threshold for searching for 3G cells in GPRS depending Always search for dBm cell
whether the received level average of the serving cell is 3G neighbor cells
below or above the threshold
Qsearch_P_PTM Threshold for searching for 3G cells in Always search for dBm cell
GPRS packet transfer mode depending 3G neighbor cells
whether the received level average of the
serving cell is below or above the threshold

Date Page
PSS-TI/GSM Engineering 6/28/2007 43

All rights reserved. Passing and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization.
2G-3G Handover

APPENDIX III. 3G-2G RESELECTION AND


HANDOVER CONFIGURATION RECOMMENDATION
As there are no parameters in ALU BSS related to these procedures, The recommendation here is that to
make sure of correct 2G adjacency definition in Huawei UTRAN. Thus whenever an update in 2G cells
configuration, it must be reflected in 3G side.
The following Configuration Parameters should be kept up to date:
• LAC
• Cell Id
• NCC
• BCC
• MCC
• MNC
• ARFCN

END OF DOCUMENT

Date Page
PSS-TI/GSM Engineering 6/28/2007 44

All rights reserved. Passing and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization.