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Failure Prediction for Static Loading

FAILURE PREDICTION FOR MULTYAXIAL STRESS STATE


1. Maximum-Shear-Stress-Theory (MSST).
2. Distortion-Energy-Theory (DET).
3. Maximum-Normal-Stress-Theory (MNST).
4. Internal-Friction-Theory (IFT).
5. Modified-Mohr-Theory (MMT).
DUCTILE MATERIALS
1. MAXIMUM-SHEAR-STRESS THEORY (MSST)
- Coulumb (1773) – first proposed
- Tresca (1868) – independently discovered.
- Good theory for predicting the yielding of ductile materials.
- σ1 ≥ σ2 ≥ σ3 ----- for the principal stresses, the maximum shear
stress says that yielding will occur when :

Three Dimensional Yield Locus

MSST :

Sy
1   3 
ns

Where :

S y  yield stress of material


n s  safety factor

Three dimensional yield locus for MSST and DET.


MSST for Biaxial Stress State

Graphical
representation of
maximum-shear-stress
theory (MSST) for
biaxial stress state
(z=0)

DISTORTION-ENERGY THEORY (DET)


(von Misses criterion).
-Failure is caused by the elastic energy associated
with shear deformation.
-Valid for ductile materials.
-Predict yielding under combined loading with
greater accuracy than other recognized theory.

2
 oct  1
3

2
( oct ) lim it  e
3
Stress acting on octahedral planes
 e  von Mises stress, Pa
Maximum octahedral stress occurs at : ( ) 2
oct lim it  e
3
 e  von Mises stress, Pa
• For a triaxial stress state
1 1
e   ( 2   1 ) 2  ( 3   1 ) 2  ( 3   2 ) 2  2

• For biaxial stress state assuming :  3  0


2 2 1
 e  ( 1   2   1 2 ) 2

• Thus, the DET predict failure if

Sy
e 
ns

DET for Biaxial Stress State


Graphical representation
of distortion-energy-
theory (DET) for biaxial
stress state (z=0)
Example 6.6

BB C

Rear wheel suspension used in Example 6.6.

Example 6.7

Cantilevered, round bar with torsion applied to


free end (used in Example 6.7). (a) Bar with
coordinates and load; (b) stresses acting on
element; (c) Mohr’s circle representation of
stresses.
Example 6.8

Cantilevered, round bar with torsion and


transfer force applied to free end (used in
Example 6.8). (a) Bar with coordinates and
loads; (b) stresses acting on top of bar and at
wall; (c) Mohr’s circle representation of
stresses.

BRITTLE MATERIALS
-NO YIELDING
-STRENGTH IN COMPRESSION >> STRENGTH IN TENSION,
FAILURE CRITERION WILL SHOW A DIFFERENCE IN TENSILE
AND COMPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR.
-THREE FAILURE CRITERIA :
1. - MAXIMUM NORMAL STRESS THEORY
2. - INTERNAL FRICTION THEORY
3. - MODIFIED MOHR THEORY.
MNST Theory for Biaxial Stress State
Failure will occur whenever the greatest positive principal stress exceeds
the tensile yield strength, or whenever the greatest negative principal
stress exceeds the compressive yield strength.

Graphical representation of
maximum-normal-stress
theory (MNST) for biaxial
stress state (z=0)

Internal Friction and Modified Mohr Theory (IFT)

Internal Friction Theory

1  3 1
 
S ut S uc n s

Internal friction theory and


modified Mohr theory for
failure prediction of brittle
materials.
Static Loading

• Modified Mohr Theory


S ut 3 S uc S ut
If 
1 0 and  3   S ut 1  
S uc  S ut ns S uc  S ut
S ut
If  3   S ut 1 
ns

If  1  0 S uc
3 
ns

Comparison of Failure Theories to Experiments

Comparison of experimental results to failure criterion.


(a) Brittle fracture. (b) ductile yielding.
Significance of the theories of failure

Failure Theory Tension Shear Relationship


Max. Normal y  y y y
Stress
1
Max. Shear Stress  y y  y  0.5  y
2
1 
1
y 5 y
Max. Strain (   )   y  0 .8  y
4 E 4 E
2 2
Octahedral Shear  oct  y  oct  y  y  0.577  y
3 3
1 1 5 1 2
Max. Energy (   4 ) U   y2 U y  y  0.817  y
2E 4 E
2
1 y  y
2 y
Distortion Energy U*  U *  (1   )  y  0.577  y
3 E E

HW (Home work)
1. Search some examples of machine components
subjected to various loading, as follows :
1. Tension, Compression, or Torsion loading, only.
2. Biaxial Stresses
3. Three-axial Stresses
Make FBD (Free Body Diagram) and schematic
figure of its machine component.
2. Decide failure theory which is appropriate for the
above case (examples) and describe the failure
theory.