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М. К.

Неджат

OPINIONS

IMPROVE YOUR ENGLISH


DISCUSSING POPULAR FICTION
AND MODERN ISSUES

STUDENT’S BOOK

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Учебник М. К. Неджат предназначен для лиц, изучающих английский язык на
продвинутом уровне (upper-intermediate/advanced), и содержит оригинальные
художественные и публицистические тексты. Предлагаемая автором методика
способствует развитию всех видов речевой деятельности: информативному чтению,
устной и письменной речи, пониманию на слух. Грамматический материал тщательно
отобран в целях формирования навыков правильного стилистического оформления
речи. Кроме того, в учебник включено много упражнений на повторение сложных
явлений базовой грамматики.
Имеется аудиоприложение.
В помощь преподавателям предлагается книга для преподавателя (Teacher’s Book) с
подробными рекомендациями и дополнительными заданиями по всем разделам
учебника.

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CONTENTS

Предисловие ............................................................................................

Unit 1

Popular Fiction.
D. H. Barber. Getting Known. ………………………………………..

Modern Issues.
The Woes of Modern Cities. ………………………………………….

Unit 2

Popular Fiction
Morley Callaghan. The Snob. ………………………………………..

Modern Issues
The Spirit of Sport: the Good and the Bad. ……………………………...

Unit 3
Popular Fiction
W. S. Maugham. The Ant and the Grasshopper. ……………………….

Modern Issues
It Takes All Sorts to Make a World. ……………………………………

Unit 4
Popular Fiction
Graham Greene. I Spy. ………………………………………………..

Modern Issues
Need Parenting Help? …………………………………........................

Unit 5
Popular Fiction
Oscar Wilde. The Sphinx Without a Secret. ………………………….

Modern Issues
Healthy Eating. .......................................................................................

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Unit 6
Popular Fiction
Ernest Hemingway. A Canary for One. .......................................................

Modern Issues
The “Beauty Premium”: Young, Trendy and Successful. .............................

Unit 7
Popular Fiction
W. S. Maugham. The Verger. .....................................................................

Modern Issues
Work: Employer v Employee. ………………………………………………

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ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

Учебник предназначен для тех, кто изучает английский язык на продвинутом уровне
(upper-intermediate/advanced), и может быть рекомендован для факультетов и отделений
английского языка высших учебных заведений, курсов английского языка (на
продвинутом этапе), а также для широкого круга лиц, совершенствующих свои
познания в английском языке.
Цель учебника – формирование языковых коммуникативных компетенций,
необходимых для успешной межкультурной дискурсивной практики.
Главной задачей учебника для продвинутого этапа является обучение культуре
речевого общения, дальнейшее развитие всех форм устного и письменного общения на
английском языке: информативного чтения, устной и письменной речи, понимания на
слух. Учащиеся уже овладели солидным лексическим запасом и полным объемом
базовой грамматики – теперь им предстоит поработать над развитием навыков
правильного стилистического оформления своей устной и письменной речи. Для этого
в настоящей книге предлагаются как художественные, так и публицистические тексты;
грамматический материал, нацеленный на освоение приемов правильного
стилистического оформления речи; разнообразные задания для работы над устной и
письменной речью, как разговорной, так и официальной.
Материал учебника состоит из семи разделов (Units), каждый из которых включает в
себя художественный текст в рубрике POPULAR FICTION и публицистические
тексты (основной и 1-2 дополнительных) в рубрике MODERN ISSUES. Все тексты
аутентичны, некоторые из них даны с незначительными сокращениями.
В рубрике POPULAR FICTION предлагаются короткие рассказы выдающихся
авторов: британских писателей С. Моэма, О.Уайльда, Гр. Грина, Д. Барбера,
американского писателя Э. Хемингуэя и канадского писателя М. Кэллагана.
Все тексты сопровождаются пояснениями и лексическим материалом, отобранным
для изучения. Каждая словарная статья содержит словарную единицу из текста, ее
транскрипцию (за исключением тех случаев, когда произнесение слова не должно
вызывать затруднений), перевод на русский язык, основные значения многозначного
слова, другие части речи там, где это целесообразно, частотные словосочетания,
иллюстративные примеры употребления.
Задания в этой части раздела направлены на
- отработку нового лексического материала (Vocabulary Study): парный
перевод с ключами, письменный перевод на английский язык,
воспроизведение изучаемой лексики во фрагментах текста рассказа;
- проверку понимания текста (Reading Comprehension): парафраз,
интерпретация, перевод фрагментов на русский язык;
- развитие навыков устной речи (Discussion): стилистически правильно
оформленное обсуждение идеи автора, содержания, персонажей рассказа;
- развитие навыков письменной речи: стилистически правильно оформленное
письменное резюме рассказа (Summary);
- изучение стиля художественной прозы: стилистический анализ рассказа
(Stylistic Analysis).
В этой же части учебника предъявляются грамматический материал и задания к нему.
В работе над грамматикой акцент делается на освоение приемов правильного
стилистического оформления устной и письменной речи, как разговорной, так и
официальной. Например, грамматическая тема «Способы выражения цели» (Means of
Expressing Purpose) не ограничивается наличием придаточных предложений цели, а
включает весь спектр приемов, существующих в английском языке для выражения цели
в официальной и неофициальной сферах общения.

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Ввиду частого употребления фразовых глаголов (Phrasal Verbs) в разговорном
английском языке в учебник включен соответствующий материал. Фразовые глаголы
распределены по разделам в алфавитном порядке и сопровождаются дефиницией и
подстановочным упражнением.
Как первая, так и вторая части раздела предполагают работу с текстами в аудиозаписи
(Listening Comprehension). Диск с текстами прилагается к учебнику. Комплекс заданий
по развитию навыков аудирования предназначен определить степень понимания
записи, убедиться в ее адекватном понимании и завершается дискуссией, что позволяет
совершенствовать навыки не только аудирования, но и устной речи.
Во второй части каждого раздела учебника под рубрикой MODERN ISSUES
содержатся материалы для работы по публицистической тематике. Темы
распределяются следующим образом:
Unit 1 The Woes of Modern Cities – проблемы больших современных городов, такие
как перегруженность транспортом, загрязнение окружающей среды, шум,
преступность;
Unit 2 The Spirit of Sport: The Good and the Bad – роль спорта в жизни современного
общества, благотворное влияние спорта на формирование личности и воспитание
молодежи, злоупотребления в профессиональном спорте и их последствия для
здоровья;
Unit 3 It Takes All Sorts to Make a World – личность и общество, личные проблемы,
межличностные отношения;
Unit 4 Need Parenting Help? – трудности воспитания, проблемы, с которыми
сталкиваются родители и их решения, современные дети и современные родители;
Unit 5 Healthy Eating – правильный рацион питания, питательная ценность
продуктов, последствия неправильного питания, переедание и проблемы лишнего веса,
здоровый образ жизни;
Unit 6 The “Beauty Premium”: Young, Trendy and Successful – современный стиль
жизни, успешная карьера, самооценка, пути самовыражения;
Unit 7 Work: Employer v Employee – производственные отношения, работодатель и
служащий, проблемы на работе и их решения.
Каждая из семи тем в рубрике MODERN ISSUES достаточно многогранна, и все
вместе они позволяют охватить широкий круг актуальных проблем современного
общества. Источником материала этой части учебника послужили неадаптированные
статьи из британской, американской и российской периодики последних лет: The Times,
The International Herald Tribune, The Independent, The Daily Mail, The Mirror, The USA
TODAY, The New York Times, Newsweek, The Moscow Tribune, «Известия», «Мы
говорим», «Наш малыш», «Спутник ТВ».
Материал по каждой теме включает основной проблемный текст и один или два
дополнительных информативных текста, содержащих сведения по другим аспектам
темы. Тексты в аудиозаписи служат еще одним источником, расширяющим диапазон
информации по теме.
Задания этой рубрики также направлены на расширение лексического запаса,
развитие умения читать и глубоко и всесторонне понимать оригинальный английский
текст, развитие навыков устной и письменной речи, а также навыков аудирования. Для
этого предусмотрены такие виды работы, как поиск и воспроизведение в исходном
контексте эквивалентов русских слов и словосочетаний; поиск, перевод на русский
язык и воспроизведение в контексте отобранной в упражнении лексики; общая
дискуссия; 4-5-минутное сообщение по теме с последующим комментарием другими
учащимися; парная работа по составлению и озвучиванию диалогов дискуссионного
характера (аргумент – контраргумент); работа в группах по 2-4 человека – ролевые
игры (сюжетный диалог-беседа, интервью, ТВ ток-шоу); составление рассказа по
сюжету картинки; комментирование афоризмов и поговорок; сочинение на одну из

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предложенных тем по изученной проблематике. Очевидно, что перечисленные виды
работы включают как подготовленную речь (фрагменты текста статьи, собственные
«заготовки»), так и неподготовленную. При этом учащимся рекомендуется четко
аргументировать свои утверждения и возражения, а также не забывать употреблять
речевые средства (клише), делающие высказывания логичными, естественными и
убедительными.
Приступая к работе над материалом рубрики MODERN ISSUES, очень важно
обратить внимание учащихся на особенности публицистического стиля, его
лексические и синтаксические отличия от стиля художественной литературы.
Готовясь к сообщению по изучаемой теме и дискуссии, учащиеся должны не только
тщательно отрабатывать текст статьи, но и привлекать дополнительные источники,
главным образом Интернет. Учебник насыщен заданиями, которые предполагают
серьезную самостоятельную работу.
Контрольными заданиями, завершающими работу над темой, являются эссе и
реферирование русской статьи на английском языке.
Учащиеся должны помнить, что при оценке навыков письменной речи учитываются такие
критерии, как стилистически правильное лексическое и грамматическое оформление,
логичность и связность изложения за счет использования соответствующих речевых средств,
аргументированность, полнота раскрытия темы.
Устное реферирование русской статьи на английском языке предполагает четкое
определение центральной идеи и изложение основных положений статьи без излишней
деталировки, но с опорой на фактический материал.
В этой же части раздела предлагаются упражнения на повторение явлений базовой
грамматики (Grammar Revision: парный перевод с ключом и перевод или подстановочное
упражнение).
Автор выражает надежду, что работа с учебником будет приятна и полезна всем, кто хочет
красиво и правильно говорить по-английски.

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UNIT 1
POPULAR FICTION

Text Getting Known


The latest book of my poems has not been selling very well; in fact 122 of my personal friends
and relatives tell me they've bought it, but the publishers say only 84 copies have been sold. So the
general public seem to have received it rather coldly.
"The trouble is," said Edith, "that nobody has ever heard of you; and those who have heard of
you don't want to again. What you need is a little advertisement. Let people know that you exist and
that you write poetry, and they will rush along to the libraries and ask for your latest book." "But I
can't just put an advertisement in the newspaper saying I'm a poet."
Edith thought for a moment and then she said she had a bright idea.
"Why not put an advertisement in The Times," she said, "saying that you recommend as butler
in a small family a man who has been in your employment for twenty years?"
"But I haven't had anybody in my employment for twenty years," I said. "And I've never kept a
butler of any sort, as you know very well. And how can I sell more copies of my poems by
pretending that I wanted to find work for a nonexistent butler who hasn't been in my employment
for twenty уеаrs?"
"You're not very bright this morning," said Edith. "Don't you know that the most successful
sort of advertisement is the sort that doesn't look like an advertisement? You ought to do so-
mething like this." She got a piece of paper and a pen and wrote the following:
"Mr. L. Conkleshill, the poet (author of Raspberry Bushes and Other Poems), strongly
recommends as butler in a small family his present head man, who has been with him for twenty
years."
"The idea is not bad," I said, "but I refuse to do anything so dishonest. And if the plan didn't
work, it would mean money thrown away. I won't do it myself, and, moreover, I absolutely forbid
you to do it..."
As a matter of fact, I secretly rather liked the idea; and I thought that when I absolutely
forbade Edith to do it, she would pay the money herself and send in the advertisement. I could
then speak to her severely about disobeying my orders, save mу money and sell my books.
For some days, however, she did nothing, although I was careful to keep reminding her that I
absolutely forbade her to send in the advertisement.
"I expect to be obeyed in such matters," I said several times a day. Nearly always this sort of
treatment produces the desired effect, but you can never depend on a woman. Although I looked in
The Times every morning, the advertisement didn't appear. Edith went away to stay with a sick aunt,
and I forgot all about the matter.
Then came the event of The Man With The Dog.
He was a big man, and the dog was a big dog, and they both stood outside the front door
and made noises at me.
"I'll take the money now," said the man in a bad-tempered voice.
"What money is this?" I said politely. "Something due for milk supplied?"
"Nonsense," said the man. "Two pounds I want for the dog."
"I don't want a dog," I said uncertainly. Ours was a lonely sort of road, and the man was a big
sort of man, and it would perhaps be wiser to buy the dog.
"Don't want the dog!" said the man in an unpleasant voice. "You calmly let me come here
all the way from Hampstead with this cursed dog, and then tell me that you don't want him."

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At last I bought the dog for thirty shillings. I was weak perhaps, but Edith had been saying for a
long time that we ought to have a dog. In any case, I was in the middle of writing a poem, and if the
man had knocked me down I shouldn't have been able to catch the five o'clock post.
I gave the dog some meat and locked him in the kitchen, and went back to my poems.
Then the bell rang again, and I found two men on the step, both with large dogs.
This time I didn't argue, I just shut the door and went and looked at myself in the glass, I was
worried. Were the dogs real, or were they the result of that last glass of whisky? I went up to my
bedroom and looked down the long road that leads to the station. I could see six men with six
dogs.
Then the solution of the problem came to me, and I looked at the Lost and Found
advertisements in the Times.
"Mr. L. Conkleshill offers a reward for the return of his faithful dog Ogo, who first awakened
the ideas in "Faithful Еуеs", his new book of poems."
Edith said afterwards that I hadn't told her she mustn't put in an advertisement about a dog.

(By D. H. Barber)
Proper Names

Edith /'JdIT/
Conkleshill /'kPNklSIl /
Ogo /'qVgqV /

Notes

1. butler /'bAtlq/ n – дворецкий

2. raspberry /'rRzbqrI/ n – малина

3. head man – старший слуга, дворецкий


4. ... a lonely sort of road, ... a big sort of man – после выражений a sort of, this sort of, some
sort of и т. п. артикль обычно не употребляется

Vocabulary Study

publishers n издательство: He is an author in the Progress Publishers.; publish v публиковать,


издавать: The firm publishes educational books.; publication n 1. издание, опубликование: A few
mistakes in the printing of that book weren’t noticed before publication.; 2. издание (газета,
журнал и т.п.): The Economist is a weekly publication that provides thorough business and political
analysis.

editor /'edItq/ n редактор: Who is the new editor of the magazine?; edit v /'edIt/ редактировать:
She edits scientific journals.; edition / I'dI- /n издание: We saw an illustrated (pocket, etc.) edition
of the novel. The second edition of the book is much better than the first.

fact n 1. обстоятельство, факт: a stark fact голый, неприкрашенный, вопиющий факт: It


is a stark fact that people over 50 are discriminated against in recruitment because of their

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age.; 2. истина, действительность: The fact is companies like Ford favour voluntary early
retirement.; in fact, as a matter of fact в действительности, на самом деле: Hе said a package
holiday was a good thing, but he was not sure, as a matter of fact.; factual adj основанный на
фактах: factual information.

public (the) n общественность: the general public, the world public, the reading public, the
theatre-going public, the British public, etc. The television public is/are increasing rapidly.

forbid (forbade, forbidden) v запрещать: forbid sb to do sth/from doing sth: His mother
forbade him to smoke. Children must be forbidden from playing near construction sites; forbid sth: If
Mr. Wigg had known about it, he would have forbidden the marriage. Smoking is forbidden in
public places. Ant. allow.

sell v продаваться, иметь сбыт: to sell well, easily, badly, hard, etc.: The book is selling well. –
Эту книгу покупают очень охотно (нарасхват). Goods of that quality will never sell. – Товары
такого качества никогда не будут иметь сбыта. Compare: to read well, to wear well: This
cloth will wear well. The book reads like a screen-play.

due adj . 1. должный, надлежащий; with due attention с должным вниманием; in due time в
свое время: The train is due to arrive at 7.40 (The train is due at 7.40); 2. причитающийся: His
wages are due (His wages are due to be paid).; due to prep. благодаря, вследствие: His death
was due to multiple injuries.

supply /sq'plaI/ v снабжать, поставлять; supply sb with sth: The secretary will supply you with
all the necessary information.; supply sth to sb: The factory supplies medical equipment to
hospitals.; supply n снабжение, поставка: a food supply, a water supply; Bring a large supply of
water with you.; supplies n припасы, продовольствие, провиант: We’ve run out of all supplies.;
supply and demand спрос и предложение.

temper n 1. нрав, характер; самообладание: to have a good, bad/ill, calm, quick (вспыльчивый)
temper; lose one’s temper терять самообладание, выходить из себя: He loses his temper easily
and starts shouting.; 2. настроение: She was in a good temper yesterday and smiled all day. ; good-
tempered adj с хорошим характером/настроением; bad/ill-tempered adj с плохим
характером/настроением.

faithful adj верный, преданный: Не has always been faithful to his friends (words, principles,
promises, etc. ). Ant. unfaithful неверный, вероломный: Soon Jim found that Pilkins was an
unfaithful friend.; faithfulness n верность, преданность Ant. unfaithfulness неверность,
вероломство Syn. infidelity неверность (особ. супружеская).

cunning adj хитрый, коварный: He is as cunning as a fox.; cunning n хитрость, коварство:


Don’t use your tricks with me. Cunning will get you nowhere!

gentle (with sb) adj нежный, ласковый; легкий, спокойный: The child is frightened, try to be
gentle with him.; gentle heart, look, manners, music, etc.

frank adj искренний, откровенный: a frank conversation, book, smile, face, person; be frank
with sb; frankness n откровенность: He liked him for his frankness..

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hostile /'hPstaIl / adj враждебный, недружелюбный: hostile to sb, sth: It's a pity the children
are hostile to their new teacher. He was hostile to his wife’s plan.; hostility /hqs'tIlItI/ to/towards
sb n враждебное отношение, враждебность: Though Brian didn't like the boy he showed no
hostility towards him.; hostility to/against sth: His hostility against the idea surprised us.;
hostilities военные действия: Hostilities broke out between the two countries.

reward / r I'wLd / n вознаграждение: As a reward for his academic success the boy was given a
book. A reward of $50 is offered for the return of the dog.; reward v вознаграждать: Our
efforts were rewarded.

rush v бросаться, мчатъся: The firemen rushed to the burning building. The blood rushed to her
face.; rush out действовать, выполнять поспешно: They rushed out 1,000 cheap copies
of the dress.; rush through завершить дело в спешном порядке: We’ll try to rush the
contract through before Saturday.; rush n 1. стремительное движение, бросок, напор:
The cat made little rushes to and fro after the ball.; 2. спешка: What’s all the rush? We
needn’t leave yet.; We’ve got to paint the kitchen before tomorrow: it’s a rush job.; rush
hour час пик: You must get to work before the rush hour starts.

Exercise 1. Translate from Russian into


English. Work in pairs and check with the
key.

11
1. Зарубежные издательства регулярно 1. Foreign publishers regularly take part in
принимают участие в книжных book fairs held in Moscow.
ярмарках, проводимых в Москве.
2. Насколько мне известно, это 2. As far as I know, he is a young author. He has
молодой автор. Он пишет всего лет been writing only for about five years, but he has
пять, но уже опубликовал четвертую published his fourth book.
книгу.
3. Книга, изданная в бумажной обложке, 3. A paper-back edition of a book is much cheaper
гораздо дешевле издания в than a hardcover edition.
твердом переплете.
4. Какие у вас возражения против 4. What are your objections to Mr. Greenwood’s
того, чтобы мистер Гринвуд editing these articles?
редактировал эти статьи?
5. Здесь запрещено переходить улицу. 5. Crossing the street is forbidden here.
6. На вашем месте я бы запретил 6. If I were you, I would forbid your daughter to
дочери возвращаться домой так come home so late.
поздно.
7. Врач категорически запретил 7. The doctor absolutely forbade the sick man to
больному курить. smoke.
8. Эта книга идет нарасхват. Я 8. This book is selling very well. I suggest that
предлагаю тебе сейчас же пойти you (should) go to the shop at once and buy it if
в магазин и купить ее, если еще it isn't too late.
не поздно.
9. Эти платья не станут покупать. 9. These dresses won't sell. They are out of
Они вышли из моды. fashion.
10. Мне рассказали, что эта ферма 10. I was told that the farm had been supplying
уже восемь лет снабжает город the town with milk and butter for eight years.
молоком и маслом.

12
11. Мне кажется, у мужа Джейн 11. I think Jane's husband has a very bad temper.
очень плохой характер. Его характер His temper is a source of trouble
доставляет ей много хлопот. to her.
12. Тебе нужно отдохнуть. Ты очень 12. You should take a holiday. You've been very
нервный в последнее время. Часто nervous lately. You often lose your temper and
срываешься и кричишь. shout.
13. Какой коварный совет! Как ты
можешь доверять этому человеку! 13. What cunning advice! How can you trust this man!

14. «Этот человек не так умен, как 14. “This man isn't so clever as he is cunning,”
хитер, – заметил Смит. – Я бы не
смог доверять ему». remarked Smith. “I wouldn't trust him.”

15. Я не вижу оснований для подобного 15. I see no reason for such hostility on his
враждебного отношения с его стороны. part.
16. Какой верный друг! Он никогда не 16. What a faithful friend! He'll never let
подведет тебя.
you down.

17. Зазвенел звонок, и ребенок бросился 17. The bell rang and the child rushed to meet
встречать родителей. his parents.

18. Я знаю Мэри очень давно. Она 18. I've known Mary for a long time. She has
всегда была кротким человеком. always been a gentle person.

19. Лиза была беременна, и ребенок 19. Liza was pregnant, and the baby was due in
ожидался в апреле. April.
20. Мистер Стэнфорд ушел в отставку как раз 20. Mr. Stanford resigned at the very
в тот момент, когда его ожидал высокий пост moment he was due to take the high position
главного исполнительного директора. of Chief Executive.

Exercise 2.Translate into English.


1. В некоторых частных коллекциях имеются первые издания книг русских
писателей XIX века.
2. Широкая общественность восторженно встретила приезд знаменитого
певца.
3. В этом месте запрещено купаться. Разве вы не видели объявления?
4. Летом мороженое раскупается очень быстро.
5. Эти платья вышли из моды, поэтому их не раскупают.
6. Когда споришь с кем-либо, надо внимательно и спокойно слушать, что тебе
говорят, выдвигать свои аргументы и ни в коем случае нельзя выходить из
себя.
7. «Откровенность и доверие этого мальчика были для меня лучшей
наградой», – сказал учитель.
8. Браун недоумевал, почему его деловой партнер в последнее время стал
проявлять к нему враждебность и избегать откровенного разго вора.
9. Писатель всю жизнь оставался верным своим принципам.
10. «Я на твоем месте не был бы так откровенен с этим человеком. Он очень
хитер», – предостерег Крейн своего приятеля.
11. У малыша прекрасный характер, он пока что (so far) не доставляет
родителям никаких хлопот.
12. К сожалению, мальчику запрещено заниматься спортом. Он еще не вполне
здоров.

13
13. Дик со всех ног побежал домой, чтобы первым сообщить отцу приятную
новость.
14. Издательства заинтересованы в заключении долгосрочных договоров с молодыми
перспективными (promising) авторами.
15. В издательстве автору сообщили, что издание его романа займет несколько лет.
16. Кто написал предисловие ко второму изданию книги?
17. Нужно быть верным своему слову и делать то, что обещал.
18. Врач категорически запретил больному курить.
19. Зная вспыльчивый (quick) характер отца, Роджер решил пока (for some time) не
говорить ему о своей неудаче.
20. Шахты этого района поставляют уголь на многие предприятия в разных частях
страны.
21. Когда начали появляться пьесы Бернарда Шоу, все критики, как доброжелательные,
так и настроенные враждебно, признали, что это новое направление в драматургии
(drama).
22. «Это деньги (которые причитаются) за молоко (доставляемое домой)?» – спросил
мистер Конклшил.
23. « К сожалению, эти пальто залеживаются в магазине», – сказал продавец.
24. Рок-группа ожидалась в Москве в сентябре, и приготовления шли полным ходом (to
be in full swing).
25. Счета подлежали оплате уже на этой неделе, а Эмили все не могла найти работу.

Exercise 3. Find in the text the words and phrases listed below, then close the book and
reproduce them in the context of the story:
publishers, the general public, in fact, as a matter of fact, rush, forbid, bad-tempered, due, supply, in
any case, reward, faithful.

Reading Comprehension

1. Find in the text and paraphrase or explain.


1. You are not very bright this morning.
2. You ought to do something like this.
3. . . . a man who has been in your employment for twenty years.
4. I refuse to do anything so dishonest.
5. I was careful to keep reminding her that I absolutely forbade her to send in the
advertisement.
6. I expect to be obeyed in such matters.
7. Nearly always this sort of treatment produces the desired effect, but you саn never depend on
a woman.
8. "What money is this?" I said politely, "Something due for milk supplied?"
9. Ours was a lonely sort of road, and the man was a big sort of man, and it would perhaps be
wiser to buy the dog.
10. I was in the middle of writing a poem, and if the man had knocked me down I shouldn't
have been able to catch the five o'clock post.
11. Then the solution of the problem came to me.
12. His faithful dog Ogo, who first awakened the ideas in "Faithful Eyes", his new book of
poems.

2. Find in the text and translate into Russian.


1. So the general public seem to have received it rather coldly.
2. ...those who have heard of you don't want to again.

14
3. "Why not put an advertisement in the Times?"
4. Mr. I. Conkleshill strongly recommends as butler in a small family his present head man...
5. ...I secretly rather liked the idea.
6. I could then speak to her severely about disobeying my orders, save my money and sell my
books.
7. Then came the event of The Man With The Dog.

Discussion

1. Do you think that the following attributes apply to the characters of the story? Give
arguments to support your opinion.
Modest, bright (сообразительный), shrewd /SrHd/ (проницательный), dense /-s/ (тупой,
глупый), intelligent, a man of genius, talented, mediocre /"mJdI'qVkq/ ( посредственный,
заурядный), sincere, insincere, romantic, naïve /nR'Jv/, ambitious (честолюбивый), shy,
self-complacent / - kqm'pleIsnt/ (самодовольный, самоуспокоенный), sophisticated
/sq'fIstIkeItId/ (искушенный, умудренный опытом), unsophisticated, 'competent,
incompetent, cheerful, melancholic, practical, unpractical, cunning, vain (тщеславный),
imaginative, resourceful, predictable, unpredictable.

2. What do you think of the situation described in the story? Choose the words that may
help you from the list below and give arguments to support your statements.
Credible (правдоподобный), incredible, true-to-life, curious, trivial, amusing, boring,
exaggerated, simplified, surprising, witty (остроумный), absurd, far-fetched (надуманный),
sentimental.

Stylistic Analysis
1. Write a summary of the short story “Getting Known” (10-15 sentences).The
following clichés might be helpful in summarizing this and other stories:
the story centres on (revolves around)…; the setting of the story is …; the story is set
in…; as the story (episode, drama) unfolds…; the story ends with the main character
doing…; the main character ends up doing….
2. What is the author’s message? The following clichés might be helpful in
analysing this and other stories:
the author’s premise is…; the story carries a profound social (humane, human, antiwar,
philosophical, psychological message); to reveal to the Reader; (to bring home, to get
across to the Reader); to give an insight into…; to expose; to denounce; to deride; to
ridicule.
3. The story is told in the first person. Analyse the narrator’s speech. Explain the
syntax and the capitalization of the words in the sentence “Then came the event of
The Man With The Dog”. Comment on the sentence beginning with “Were the dogs
real…?” State the stylistic device used, its purpose and effect.
4. Comment on the choice of words in the texts of the advertisements.
5. Comment on the choice of words and the syntax in the remarks of the man with
the dog.
6. Find in the text cases of repetition and parallel constructions. Analyse their
purpose and effect.
7. Explain how the author achieves a humorous effect in the story.

15
NOTE
In analysing the stylistic devices in this and other stories make use of the clichés listed
below:
a) the author makes use of (applies, resorts to, employs) the stylistic devices of
repetition, simile, etc.;
b) devices are used to describe (to convey, to bring out, to reveal) the characters’ state
of mind (inner feelings, relationships), to characterize sb, to emphasize (to
highlight) sth, to produce (to create) the impression of (an atmosphere of, the effect
of sth, a humorous, ironic, sarcastic, etc. effect), to contrast sb, sth with sb, sth, to
heighten (to enhance) dramatic intensity;
c) the author’s narrative is interlaced ( interwoven) with the character’s inner speech.

Grammar: Means of Expressing Purpose

Formal: so as/in order + an infinitive


e. g. Alan bought a hamburger so as to have something to eat.

Informal: an infinitive
e. g. Alan bought a hamburger to have something to eat.

Note that “so as/in order” must be used with the infinitive to express negative
purpose.
e. g. Sally put on suntan oil in order not to get burnt.

Formal: so that + can/may


e. g. Jane gave her new colleague her phone number so that he could get in touch
with her after work.

Informal: “that” can be omitted in casual talking.


e. g. “Here’s my phone number so you can call if you feel lonely,” Jane said.

Formal: with a view to + a gerund; with the aim of + a gerund; for fear of
sth/doing sth; for fear (that) + might
e. g. He left early with a view to (with the aim of) catching the 8.20 train. He left
early for fear he might miss the train. He waited for the landlord at the gate for fear
of being attacked by his dog.

Note that negative purpose can also be expressed with the words prevent + a
gerund and avoid + a gerund
e. g. Sally put on suntan oil to avoid getting burnt. The manager kept an eye open
for the trainee to prevent him (from) mixing up the orders.

Exercise 1. Translate into English.


1. Было решено, что совет директоров компании соберется 16 октября с
целью рассмотрения жалоб акционеров (shareholders).
2. Молодая женщина тщательно заперла все окна и двери, опасаясь, что ее
ограбят.
3. «Давайте возьмем носильщика, чтобы не нести такие тяжелые чемоданы
самим!» – воскликнул Джон.
16
4. Лиза села позади отца, чтобы он не мог видеть выражения ее лица.
5. Старик принял все меры предосторожности из страха, что кто-то может
случайно узнать о его плане и помешать исполнению.
6. «Поскорее приведи все в порядок, чтобы мама не огорчилась», – сказала
няня малышу.
7. Давид открыл счет в банке и понемногу откладывал деньги с намерением
купить домик в деревне.
8. С целью создать рекламу своему мужу, жена поэта предложила поместить
объявление в газете.
9. Старая сплетница (gossip) понизила голос, чтобы ее никто не услышал.
10. Фермер подозвал собаку и крепко держал ее, чтобы она не накинулась на
незнакомца.

Exercise 2. Find in your reading materials 10 cases of the grammar under


study.

Phrasal Verbs

be after – to chase sb/sth;


be in for – to expect sth;
be on – to be shown (on TV, at the cinema, theatre);
be through with – to have finished (a job, relationship);
be up to – to do sth wrong

break down – 1. to stop working (of machinery), 2. to destroy, 3. to fail (of


negotiations, a relationship), 4. to lose control of feelings (of a person);
break off – to end (a relationship);
break up (with) – to cease to be together (of a couple, a group)

bring about – to cause to happen;


bring forward (to ) – to arrange for sth to be done at an earlier time than
previously arranged;
bring round – to bring to, to make sb regain consciousness

call for – to require, demand; call off – to cancel

Fill in the correct particle(s).


1. Whatever are you …? I will have no more nonsense from you.
2. The police are … him. And I’m sure you know his hiding place.
3. Stan is megajealous and this is something I can’t stick. I`m … with him.
4. I hope you understand what you are … . All your own doing. Asking for trouble
I call it.
5. A new serial was … and she sat glued to the box.
6. When her computer broke … , Ann rushed to the Internet Café on the corner.
7. When Jeff realised that he was no longer in love with Sheila, he broke … his
engagement.
8. When Jeff told Sheila about his decision, she broke … .
9. When Sheila was told that Jeff had broken … with three girls before her in a
similar way, she was shocked.

17
10. When their engagement broke …, Jeff’s and Sheila’s parents were deeply
disappointed.
11. The young couple couldn’t wait for another eight months and decided to bring
… their wedding day.
12. The arrival of the baby in the family brought …changes in Tom’s daily routine.
13. The scared passenger fainted and it took some time to bring him … .
14. The Robinses planned to go to Majorca, but then Mrs. Robins had a stroke and
they called … the trip.
15. This sport calls … great strength and endurance, let alone will power.

Listening Comprehension

Audiotext 1 Basic Physics Saves Trapped Family

1. Listen to the text one time and report the gist of it.

The words below will help you understand the text:


volt n – a standard measure of electrical force (an 11,000-volt force)
arc (arck) and spark – контачить и искрить
swirl v – образовывать водоворот
electrocute v – убивать электрическим током
summon courage – собраться с духом
gale-force (wind) adj – шквальный (ветер)
rubber tyres – резиновые шины
Cambridgeshire – a county in the southeast of England

2. Listen again and reproduce the text in detail.


3. Listen to the passages that your teacher will read and try to fill in the gaps
with the exact words of the text as you remember them.
4. Answer the following questions:
- How did Mrs. Duncan cope with the emergency?
-What basic physics did she remember?
- It was Mrs. Duncan’s presence of mind and quick thinking that saved the
family, wasn’t it? Prove that she didn’t break down during the ordeal.
- The husband seems to be strangely in the background. Why doesn’t the
article cover his role in the incident?

18
MODERN ISSUES

The Woes of Modern Cities

Read the texts with the help of a dictionary and do the assignments below.

Text 1 About Noise

Noise is one of the biggest forms of pollution in modern society. Late parties, deafening
music and slamming doors prompted 118,000 reported neighbourhood noise complaints a
year. “No one is saying you can’t listen to music,” said Michael Meacher, the environment
minister, “No one is saying you can’t have a party. It’s just saying be considerate and keep
the noise down.” Sleep is as important as food, drink and shelter.
In Britain the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs announced plans
to make it easier for local authorities to prosecute noisy neighbours. These new powers will
enable them to take speedy and effective action against nuisances and disturbances and will
be of great help.
The government also announced a consultation exercise intended to tackle background
noise from transport and industry. It is seeking views on devising a national strategy to
cover the worst areas around airports and major roads, and how to protect the few
remaining tranquil areas of the countryside.
Doctors have known for a century or more that if workers are exposed to continuous noise
they are likely to become deaf. In Britain the legal limit for the level of noise in a place of work
is 90 decibels, which is roughly twice the level of noise that makes conversation impossible. If
workers have to adjust to continuous noise at 90 decibels for eight hours a day they have a one in
three chance of becoming profoundly deaf by the time they retire.
Governments everywhere go to tremendous lengths to reduce noise, traffic sounds are carefully
measured; levels of noise are recorded and statistics produced to provide the basis for further le-
gislation. This is all very commendable, but the law cannot protect the welfare of people who
listen to continuous noise voluntarily. Many young people are likely to suffer permanent hearing
loss аs a result of listening to music played at levels well above the industrial noise limit.
Because they like music, they have no incentive to turn down the volume! Indeed for many of
them extremely loud sounds have a sort of drug-like effect that adds to the experience.
Sound levels above 100 decibels have been reported in many discotheques, and have been а
cause for concern for many years now. Now, several organizations concerned with helping deaf
people have issued warnings about the dangers of loud music for a new reason. The new cause
for concern is the rapid increase in popularity of personal hi-fis.
In many British cities these days you'll see people walking along wearing headphones.
Continuous rock music bombards their ears and drowns the roar of the traffic. The danger lies
not only in the fact that these personal hi-fis can play very loudly, but also because they increase
the opportunity for long-term exposure to damaging levels.
Just how much someone's hearing is likely to be damaged depends partly on how loud the
sound is and partly on how long it goes on for. There is also a difference between individuals. Some
people are more prone to hearing loss than others. But even the noise of ordinary city life is
enough to make a measurable difference between the average hearing ability of city dwellers and
those who live in the countryside.
The problem in persuading people to accept advice about exposure to loud noise is that the ill-
effect is not immediately noticeable. High sound levels damage hearing in a selective way. This
doesn't mean that everything just sounds quieter to the sufferer. Instead, what happens is that it

19
becomes difficult to hear quiet conversation. So for this reason, and because the damage
happens gradually most people don't realise they have a problem until it is too late.
(From The Times.)

Vocabulary Study

Exercise 1. Find in the text the English equivalents for the phrases listed below and
reproduce them in the context of the article.
1. быть внимательным (тактичным по отношению к другим людям) и не увеличивать
громкость звука
2. преследовать судебным порядком (возбуждать иск против) шумных соседей
3. принять срочные и действенные меры по пресечению нарушений общественного
порядка
4. тихие (безмятежные) уголки природы
5. подвергать длительному воздействию шума
6. вполне вероятно, что они могут оглохнуть
7. один шанс из трех
8. уровень звука
9. приспосабливаться к чему-либо
10. добровольно слушать что-либо
11. ничто не побуждает их
12. громкость звука
13. быть склонным к чему-либо
14. поддающийся измерению
I5. отчасти зависеть от
16. заметный результат
17. не останавливаться ни перед чем, идти на все
18. благополучие

Exercise 2. Translate into Russian.


1. Apartment dwellers who have considerate neighbours are fortunate.
2. John never showed any consideration for his mother’s feelings.
3. It was most inconsiderate of you to switch off the TV while Grandad was watching his
serial.
4. What a nuisance! I’ve forgotten my ticket.
5. Don’t make a nuisance of yourself. Sit down and be quiet.
6. The living body adjusts itself to external changes.
7.. He can't adjust his mind to the idea.
8. You can adjust your chair to make it more comfortable.
9. They seek to boost economic growth in the country by offering incentives to foreign investors.
10. The parents did everything for the welfare of their children.
11. The child was exposed to the sun's rays too long.
12. Man is prone to error.
13. He is prone to jump to hasty conclusions.
14. She'll go to any lengths to get her way.
15. He raised the volume of the radio.
16. There has been a noticeable rise in demand.
17. No one has yet been prosecuted in connection with the murder.
18. He could face prosecution over the incident.
19. The wedding is likely to cost her parents more than they can afford.
20
20. He is not likely to approve of the plan.
Obnoxious noise is both a health and a social hazard. City residents have cause for concern.
They must face up to the challenges of big modern cities.

Speaking

1. Prepare to speak about and discuss.


1. Noise makers are public nuisances. They must be restrained.
2. Exposure to noise is stressful. Excessive noise affects people’s emotional and physical well-
being.
3. The few remaining tranquil areas of the countryside need to be protected.
4. Young people with headphones constantly clamped to their ears run the risk of having their
hearing impaired.
2. Prepare to give a talk on the following points.
1. Sources of noise pollution are numerous in modern society.
2. Obnoxious noise is both a health and a social hazard. City residents have cause for
concern. They must face up to the challenges of big modern cities.

3. Discuss the following in pairs.


The argument: Loud music at disco parties provides an emotional outlet (эмоциональная
разрядка) for young people.
The counter-argument: Loud music adds to the stress.
NOTE: in this and similar assignments remember to use clichés of agreement, disagreement,
persuasion, e. g. I see your point, I go along with you on this point, there is something to it, I
admit that …, it makes sense, it doesn’t make sense (to me), I have my doubts about it,
preposterous, in my view (opinion), on the contrary, it’s the other way round, I’d like to
make another point, let’s regard it from a different angle, I’m convinced that…, I assure
you that…, it’s logical to suppose that…, you have to admit that…, you can’t deny that…,
etc.

Text 2 Midday Jams Even Tougher for Drivers to Swallow

SEATTLE — Trapped in the parking lot that was once Interstate 5, Brad
McGinnis surrenders all hope of getting back to work on time.
He had planned his lunch hour to the minute. He would leave his computer
consulting job at 12:45, make the 20-minute drive home, spend 15 minutes in the
house to eat a salami sandwich and grab some papers he'd left on his bedroom
dresser, then make the 20-minute drive back. If he was lucky, he'd have five
minutes to relax or make a phone call before going back to work.
All the careful planning went out the window when a phalanx of brake lights
greeted him on the drive back. "For a few minutes I shouted at the drivers ahead of
me," McGinnis, 29, says. "Then I gave up. I got on my cell phone and told my boss
I’d be late."
McGinnis discovered what commuters nationwide are learning the hard way: a
third rush hour — in the middle of the day — is creeping up on drivers.
A USA TODAY analysis of Department of Transportation data and state traffic
surveys shows that congestion on the nation's streets and highways is surging
during midday hours, particularly in larger cities.
21
The lunchtime logjams aren't as pronounced as backups during the morning and
evening rush hours. But they are unpredictable, often triggered by a single car
accident or breakdown. And they rival traditional backups in commuter frustration.
"In a lot of ways, the third rush hour is more aggravating for drivers because they
aren't expecting it," says Ellen Markham, a Washington-based traffic engineering
consultant. Midday motorists are "hoping to гun a quick errand over lunch and
finding themselves stuck in gridlock.
Several factors are driving a third rush hour.
One is simple math: there are more Americans, they own more cars and they’re
driving more than ever.
Twenty years ago a typical household had one car, now we have two. It’s
inevitable that the more vehicles out there, the longer and more frequent the traffic
jams.
In addition, the number of older drivers has steadily increased during the past
three decades. About 14% of all registered drivers are 65 and older, Transportation
Department data show. In 1965, elderly drivers accounted for only 8% of all
motorists.
Many of these older drivers make their daily trips in the afternoons, hoping to
avoid backups during the rush hours, experts say. But instead of avoiding traffic tie-
ups, older drivers may unwittingly be helping to create them.
Albert Boswell, 68, of Atlanta says he now runs most of his errands about 10 a.m.
"It got so bad at lunch I was wasting most of my day in the car," says Boswell, who
retired three years ago. "Unless you drive in the middle of the night, there aren't too
many hours in the day when you're not bumper to bumper."
Compounding the problem is the lengthening workday. According to a study by
the Families and Work Institute, the typical workweek has grown from 40 hours in
the 1970s to about 47 hours today. Men are approaching 50-hour workweeks, the
survey said.
Faced with less time to run personal and household errands before and after work
millions of people are running their errands in the middle of the day, usually by car.
Annette Tolson’s workday helps explain what is turning lunch hours into rush
hours. The Seattle dental hygienist drops her three children off at school by 7:40
a.m. She arrives at work at 8:30, works three hours, then takes a 10-minute drive to
her gym. With children to take care of after work, she says, it's impossible to find
time before or after work for exercise.
"I can eat at my desk," she says. “I can't lift weights there."
(From The USA Today.)

Reading Comprehension

Find in the text and paraphrase or explain.


1. Midday jams … tougher … to swallow.
2. Trapped in the parking lot that was once Interstate 5 …
3. Brad McGinnis surrenders all hope …
4. He had planned … to the minute.
5. …congestion … is surging …
6. The lunchtime logjams aren’t as pronounced as backups during the morning …
7. But they are … often triggered by …
8. And they rival traditional backups in commuter frustration.
9. …to run a quick errand …
10. … finding themselves stuck in gridlock.
22
11. In 1965, elderly drivers accounted for only 8% of all motorists.
12. …older drivers may unwittingly be helping to create them.
13. Compounding the problem is …
14. I can't lift weights there.

Speaking

1. Prepare to speak about and discuss.


1. Congested roads are the curse of modern cities.
2. Midday jams are especially frustrating because commuters are not expecting them.
3. Several factors contribute to midday gridlock.
4. The evening rush hour is by far the most dangerous time.
5. Traffic fumes pollute the air.

2. Roleplay. Work in pairs. Study your roles for a few minutes and decide what you will
say.
Imagine that you are long-time friends (probably went to school together). One of you is an
ambitious, self-assured IBM executive, single mother, one son aged 16. The other is married.
You are a vivacious (живая, жизнерадостная), buxom (полная, цветущая) non-working
mother of three ranging in age from 16 to 7. You meet in a café and among other things chat
about big-city problems as you face them in your day-to-day lives and cope.

Text 3 In a City That Is Deemed Safe, Counting the Murders


At the end of each year, the New York Police Department reports the number of
killings — there were 540 in 2005. Typically, much is made of how the number has
fallen in recent years — to totals not seen since the early 1960s. But beyond
summarizing the trends, the police spend little time compiling the individual details.
The oldest killer was 88; he murdered his wife. The youngest was 9; she stabbed
her friend. The women were more than twice as likely as men to murder a current
spouse or lover. But once the romance was over, only the men killed their exes. The
deadliest day was on July 10, 2004, when eight people died in separate homicides.
More homicides occurred in Brooklyn than in any other borough. More happened
on Saturday. And roughly a third are unsolved.
Among all the city's victims, the oldest was 91; she died during a robbery.
Whites and Asians, who seldom murdered, were also infrequently killed: together,
they represented 75 or fewer victims each year. Most homicides occurred outdoors.
The deadliest hour was 1 to 2 a.m. And a small but unsettling number of children
were among the victims, including 21 infants and 32 children ages 1 to 10, most of
whom died at the hand of a parent.
“If the average New Yorker is concerned about being murdered in a random
crime, the odds of that happening are really remote. If you are living apart from a
life of crime, your risk is negligible,” said Michael J. Farrell, deputy commissioner
for strategic initiatives.
Criminologists confirm that assessment. “People will be shocked to see how safe
it is to live in New York City," said Andrew Karmen, a sociology professor at John
Jay College of Criminal Justice. “Victims and offenders are pretty much pulled
from the same background. Very often, young victims have young killers. Very
often, the victim and killer knew each other."

23
"The problem of crime and violence is rooted in neighborhood conditions — high
rates of poverty, family disruption, failing schools, lack of recreational opportuni-
ties, active recruitment by street gangs, drug markets," Professor Karmen said.
"People forced to reside under those conditions are at a greater risk of getting
caught up in violence, as victims or as perpetrators."
Yet, plenty of times, events can diverge from the norm. At least a quarter of the
city's murders were committed by strangers, and in those instances, most were the
result of a dispute.
(From The New York Times.)

Reading Comprehension

Find in the text and paraphrase or explain.


1. …much is made of how the number has fallen …
2. The women were more than twice as likely as men …
3. …only the men killed their exes.
4. Most homicides occurred outdoors.
5. And a small but unsettling number of children …
6. … the odds of that happening are remote.
7. … your risk is negligible.
8. The problem … is rooted in neighborhood conditions …
9. … as victims or as perpetrators.
10. …events can diverge from the norm.

Speaking

1. Prepare to speak about and discuss.


1. It is perfectly safe to live in a big city. Police report a downward trend in crime.
2. If you don’t live a life of crime, your risk is negligible.
3. Social factors are at the root of the problem of crime and violence.
4. However, events can diverge from official statistics.
5. City residents have cause for concern. They must face up to the challenges of big modern
cities.
6. Big modern cities offer more amenities, better education and job opportunities, a more varied
life than small towns or rural areas.

2. Roleplay. Work in pairs. Study your roles for a few minutes and decide what you will
say.
Imagine you are on two weeks’ holiday in a lovely tiny village, “a rural idyll”, and wish you
did not have to return to the hustle and bustle of city life. However, your landlord’s son, 21,
envies you your opportunities. As you two argue your point, the benefits and shortcomings of
life in the country and in the city are taken stock of.

3. Look at the picture and tell a story…


… about the traffic jam and the motorists trapped in it. The people were nervous and then
frustrated as things got from bad to worse. Why had the situation occurred? And how do
you think it was sorted out?
To keep the narrative going and make it more dramatic you need to create suspense. So
instead of saying: “She got stuck in a traffic jam.” you can say: “What happened (to her)
24
was that she got stuck in a traffic jam.” And instead of saying: “She demanded an
explanation.” you can say “What she did was demand an explanation.” Some other
narrative techniques to involve the listener in the story are And what do you think she did?,
You can guess how she felt after that, And then do you know what she did?, Imagine her
shock when …, After that …, You’ll never guess what happened next, Finally/eventually

Work in small groups, then report your stories to the rest of the class and compare them.

4. Express your opinion on the following quotation:


“Don’t spend time searching for an obstacle. Perhaps there isn’t one.” (Franz Kafka)

5. Summarize the Russian article in English.

Жемчужины мира: Токио

Токио – город контрастов, удивительный и впечатляющий, огромный, в то


же время компактный. Здесь небоскребы нереальной высоты соседствуют с
волшебными парками и прудами, где обитают почти ручные карпы, черепахи,
цапли и утки.
Японцы бедны на землю, так что застройка чрезвычайно плотная, улочки
ровно на одну машину, а то и мотоцикл. Небоскребы по соседству с
двухэтажными домиками, суперскоростные поезда “Шинкансен” со
старенькими велосипедами, сочно-зеленые деревья рядом со стеклом
небоскребов и гранитом улиц не перестают удивлять туристов. Токио – город
огромный, невероятно оживленный, но в то же время совершенно безопасный
и доброжелательный. Японцы живут вдоль дорог и буквально в дорогах. Сеть
железных дорог развита невероятно. Все четко и понятно. Для быстрого и
удобного перемещения используются все виды транспорта: метро,
внутригородские и пригородные электрички, а где-то и автобусы. Разобраться
в схемах совсем не сложно, все надписи дублируются на английском языке.
Отдельно необходимо сказать про суперскоростные поезда "Шинкансен"
(bullet train), или поезда-пули. Некоторые из них развивают скорость до 350
км/ч. Японцы доброжелательны, отзывчивы, абсолютно неагрессивны,
уважительно относятся друг к другу, к старшим, просто к посторонним. При
сумасшедшей населенности города, при максимально возможной плотности
транспорта на улицах нет никакой толкотни, давки. У японцев есть одна
страсть, даже мания – это шопинг. По магазинам они ходят постоянно. И
мужчины, и женщины очень модно и стильно, со вкусом, одеты.
Токио (в переводе на русский "Восточная столица"), столица Японии, ее
административный, финансовый, культурный и промышленный центр.
Расположен город в юго-восточной части острова Хонсю, на равнине Канто в
бухте Токийского залива Тихого Океана. Площадь –2187 кв.км. Население,
согласно данным ООН за 2003 год, составляет 34997 миллионов человек.
В середине XX века экономика Японии стала стремительно развиваться, что
было охарактеризовано как "Экономическое чудо", а в 1966 году она стала
второй крупнейшей экономикой в мире. С 1970-х годов Токио захлестнул
наплыв рабочей силы из сельских районов, что повлекло за собой дальнейшее
развитие города. К концу 1980-х годов он стал одним из самых динамично
развивающихся городов мира.
(«Мы говорим».)
25
The words below will help you summarize the article.
экономическое чудо – an economic marvel
динамично развивающийся город – a thriving city

Listening and Speaking

Audiotext 2 Go by Train and Relax

1. Listen to the text one time and report the gist of it.
2. Listen again and reproduce the text in detail.
3. Answer the following questions:
- Do you agree that the article makes a strong case for the InterCity train?
- Could you survive without a car? Is public transport an adequate substitute for it?
Is there no solution to the problem?

Audiotext 3 Police Chiefs to Cut Help for TV Crime Shows

1. Listen to the text one time and report the gist of it.

The words and phrases below will help you understand the text:
Acpo – The Association of Chief Police Officers
Metropolitan Police Commissioner – Уполномоченный по внутренним делам Большого
Лондона
set out guidelines (for) – устанавливать ориентиры, вырабатывать установки
endorse /In'dLs/ v – утверждать (постановление, законопроект)
lurid /'lVqrId / depictions – зловещие описания, изображения

2. Listen again and reproduce the text in detail.


3. Answer the following questions:
- Why must crime reconstruction shows be scrapped from TV?
- Are programmes that cover current investigations truly useful to the police? Are
they ethical?

Writing

Write an essay on one of the following topics:


1. The Woes of Big Modern Cities
2. Excessive Noise Is Both a Health and a Social Hazard
3. Life in the City and in the Country
4. The City of the Future

NOTE
To produce a coherent narrative begin with a clear opening that will state your premise. Then
make an effective case for it by supplying well-founded arguments and relevant examples.
Finally write a conclusion to sum up your reasoning.

26
The words and phrases below might be helpful to ensure the logical sequence of your
ideas: to begin with, first of all, initially, first, second/secondly, after that, then, next,
afterwards, later on , further on, finally, eventually, in the end; to conclude: in conclusion, to
sum up, all in all, overall; to add: not only … but also, besides, in addition to, moreover, what
is more, not to mention, let alone; to compare: similarly, likewise, equally, in the same way;
to contrast: whereas, in spite of, despite, even though, in contrast (to), by contrast (with); to
allow an alternative option: on the other hand, however, (and) still, (and) yet, regardless of;
to clarify: that is to say, specifically, in other words, to put it plainly; to exemplify: for
example, for instance, such as, like; to explain: because, so, since, for, on the grounds that,
seeing that, considering that, given that, now that, because of, due to, owing to, in view of; to
make a reference: as to, regarding, concerning, with (in) respect/regard/reference to.

Grammar Revision: Verbals

Exercise 1. Translate from Russian into English. Work in pairs and check with the
key.

27
1. Я устала предупреждать тебя. Я повторяю и 1. I'm tired of warning you. I keep repeating that
повторяю, что Роберт коварный Robert is a cunning man and it's no use.
человек, и все впустую.

2. «Я не хочу сказать, что вам надо 2. “I don't mean that you should keep from
воздержаться от работы, – сказал врач working,” the doctor said to his patient. “But in
своему пациенту. – Но в любом случае any case try not to wear yourself out too much.”
старайтесь не слишком утомляться».

3. Мистер Браун терпеть не может менять 3. Mr. Brown hates changing his routine. He is used
раз и навсегда заведенный уклад. Он привык to jogging in the morning before he has breakfast
немного пробежаться утром, прежде чем and leaves for work.
позавтракать и идти на работу.

4. Я не возражаю против того, чтобы ты 4. I don't object to your seeing Fred once in a
иногда виделся с Фредом. Но избегай while. But avoid being frank with him. He is not
откровенных разговоров с ним. Он не reliable.
надежен.

5. Я не могу понять, почему вы так отрицательно 5. I don't see why you are so hostile to our plan.
настроились по отношению Isn't it even worth discussing?
к нашему плану. Неужели его не стоит даже
обсуждать?

6. Ничто не мешает Джонсону принять 6. There is nothing to prevent Johnson from


участие в нашей экспедиции. Лично taking part in our expedition. Personally I
я ничего не имею против того, чтобы don't mind his joining us.
он присоединился к нам.
7. Писатель мечтал опубликовать свое 7. The writer dreamed of publishing his last
последнее произведение, но ему не
удалось сделать это. work but was unable to do it.
8. Jane has been ill-tempered all day today.
8. Джейн сегодня весь день злая. What's the use of discussing such a serious
Какой смысл обсуждать с ней
сейчас такой серьезный вопрос? question with her now? She is sure to lose her
Она обязательно выйдет из себя и temper and run away without even listening
убежит, даже не выслушав нас. to us.
9. Анна такой мягкий человек. Она не 9. Ann is so gentle. She is incapable of
способна ни в чем отказывать детям. denying her children anything.
10. Позвольте мне привлечь ваше 10. Let me draw your attention to the solution
внимание к решению (вопроса),
предложенному мистером suggested by Mr. Baker.
Бейкером.
11. Отслужив в армии, Сэм вернулся в 11. Having done his military service, Sam
родной город и женился на девушке, с returned to his home town and married the
которой был помолвлен. girl he was engaged to.

12. Лицо девушки, заполнявшей бланк 12. The face of the girl, filling in a form at the
у стола, казалось миссис Палмер desk, seemed vaguely familiar to Mrs.
смутно знакомым. Palmer.

28
13. «Простите, что я беспокою вас. Не могли 13. “I’m sorry to trouble you. Could you help
бы вы помочь мне перейти улицу?» – me across the street?” an old woman asked
попросила Джона старушка. John.
14. «Извините, что я доставила вам столько 14. “I’m sorry to have put you to so much
хлопот. Вы мне очень помогли. Большое trouble. You’ve been most helpful. Thank you
спасибо!» – воскликнула старушка. ever so much!” exclaimed the old woman.
15. Когда полицейский стал расспрашивать 15. When the policeman began to question the
жильцов об инциденте, все заявили, что ничего tenants about the incident, everybody claimed
не видели. to have seen nothing.
16. «Пожалуйста не забудьте подписать все 16. “Please remember to have all the papers
бумаги», – сказа л секретарю управляющий. signed,” the manager said to the secretary.
17. «Сколько нам будет стоить починить 17. “How much would it cost us to have the
ножку этого стула?» – спросила продавца leg of that chair repaired?” Martha asked the
shop assistant.
Марта.

Exercise 2. Translate into English.


1. Узнав, что сын решил поступить по-своему (to have his way), мистер
Джексон вышел из себя. «Вот награда за все, что я для него сделал!» –
воскликнул он.
2. Статья, написанная этим молодым ученым, заслуживает внимания. Мы
обязательно опубликуем ее в нашем журнале.
3. Отец, стоявший в конце прилавка (a counter), казалось, не замечал Джона.
4. Не посмотрев расписания, Стив не знал точно, когда отходит поезд, и
решил взять такси.
5. Нэнси настаивала, что ей нужно ехать домой, потому что у нее много
дел. На самом деле ей уже надоело гостить у миссис Майлз.
6. Оба инженера работали над проектом увлеченно (с энтузиазмом), не
думая об ином вознаграждении, кроме успеха.
7. Смит сейчас занят: он редактирует рукопись.

29
8. «Спасибо вам за то, что вы предоставили нам необходимые сведения. Без
вашей помощи нам было бы трудно подготовить новое издание этой
книги», – сказал редактор.
9. «В сущности, я ничего не имею против того, чтобы Браун участвовал в
нашей экспедиции, – сказал Джексон. – Никто не запрещает ему
присоединиться к нам».
10. « Ты помнишь, как мы здесь гуляли в наш медовый месяц (honeymoon)?
– спросила Алис у мужа. – Невероятно! Здесь практически ничего не
изменилось».
11. «Перед отъездом в деревню не забудь выключить все электроприборы»,
– сказал сестре Саймон.
12. «Попробуй поговорить с мальчиком, – сказала мужу Анна. – Может, он
хоть тебя послушает».
13. Когда сестра подошла к Крису, он притворился, что спит.
14. Фирма заявила (to claim), что поставила все оборудование. Однако,
когда инженер открыл коробки, оказалось, что не хватает двух
компьютеров.
15. Гости были счастливы, что приехали как раз к началу церемонии
венчания. Электричка пришла с большим опозданием.

30
UNIT 2

POPULAR FICTION
Text The Snob

It was at the book counter in the department store that John Harcourt, the student, caught a
glimpse of his father. At first he could not be sure in the crowd that pushed along the aisle, but
there was something about the color of the back of the elderly man's neck, something about the
faded felt hat, that he knew very well. Harcourt was standing with the girl he loved, buying a book
for her. All afternoon he had been talking to her, eagerly, but with an anxious diffidence, as if
there still remained in him an innocent wonder that she should be delighted to be with him. From
underneath her wide-brimmed straw hat, her face, so fair and beautifully strong with its expression
of cool independence, kept turning up to him and sometimes smiled at what he said. That was the
way they always talked, never daring to show much full, strong feeling. He had just bought the
book, and had reached into his pocket for the money with a free, ready gesture to make it appear
that he was accustomed to buying books for young ladies, when the white-haired man in the faded
felt hat, at the other end of the counter, turned half-toward him, and Harcourt knew he was
standing only a few feet away from his father.
The young man's easy words trailed away and his voice became little more than a whisper, as
if he were afraid that everyone in the store might recognize it. There was rising in him a dreadful
uneasiness; something very precious that he wanted to hold seemed close to destruction. His
father, standing at the end of the bargain counter, was planted squarely on his two feet, turning a
book over thoughtfully in his hands. Then he took out his glasses from an old, worn leather case and
adjusted them on the end of his nose, looking down over them at the book. His coat wаs thrown
open, two buttons on his vest were undone, his hair was too long, and in his rather shabby clothes
he looked very much like a working-man, a carpenter, perhaps.
Such a resentment rose in young Harcourt that he wanted to cry out bitterly, 'Why does he
dress as if he never owned a decent suit in his life? He doesn't care what the whole world thinks of
him. He never did. I've told him a hundred times he ought to wear his good clothes when he goes out.
Mother has told him the same thing. He just laughs. And now Grace may see him. Grace will meet
him.' So young Harcourt stood still, with his head down, feeling that something very painful was
impending. Once he looked anxiously at Grace, who had turned to the bargain counter. Among those
people drifting aimlessly by with hot red faces, getting in each other's way, using their elbows, but
keeping their faces detached and wooden, she looked tall and splendidly alone. She was so sure of
herself, her relation to the people in the aisles, the clerks behind the counters, the books on the
shelves, and everything around her. Still keeping his head down and moving close, he whispered
uneasily, 'Let's go and have tea somewhere, Grace. '
'In a minute dear,' she said.
' Let's go now. '
'In just a minute, dear,' she repeated absently.
'There's not a breath of air in here. Let's go now.'
'What makes you so impatient?'
'There's nothing but old books on that counter. '
' There may be something here I've wanted all my life, ' she said, smiling at him brightly and not
noticing the uneasiness in his face.
31
So Harcourt had to move slowly behind her, getting closer to his father all the time. He could
feel the space that separated them narrowing. Оncе he looked up with a vague, sidelong glance. But
his father red-faced and happy, was still reading the book, only now there was a meditative
expression on his face, аs if something in the book had stirred him and he intended to stay there
reading for some time.
Old Harcourt had lots of time to amuse himself, because he was on a pension after working
hard all his life. He had sent John to the university and he wаs eager to have him distinguish
himself.
Every night when John came home, whether it was early or late, he used to go into his father's
and mother's bedroom and talk to them about the interesting things that had happened to him
during the day. They listened and shared this new world with him. They both sat up in their night-
clothes and, while his mother asked all the questions, his father listened attentively with his head
cocked on one side and a smile or a frown on his face. The memory of all this was in John now,
and there was also desperate longing and a pain within him growing harder to bear аs he glanced
fearfully at his father, but he thought stubbornly, 'I can't introduce him. It'll be easier for everybody
if he doesn't see us. I'm not ashamed. But it’ll be easier. It'll be more sensible. It'll only embarrass
him to see Grace.'
By this time he knew he was ashamed, but he felt that this shame was justified, for Grace's father
had the smooth, confident manner of a man who had lived all his life among people who were rich
and sure of themselves. Often when he had been in Grace’s home talking politely to her mother,
John had kept on thinking of the plainness of his own home and of his parents' laughing, good-
natured untidiness, and he resolved desperately that he must make Grace's people admire him.
Hе looked up cautiously, for they were about eight feet away from his father, but at that
moment his father, too, looked up and John's glance shifted swiftly far over the aisle, over the
counters, seeing nothing. As his father's blue, calm eyes stared steadily over the glasses, there was
an instant when their glances might have met. Neither one could have been certain, yet John, as he
turned away and began to talk hurriedly to Grace, knew surely that his father had seen him. He
knew it by the steady calmness in his father's blue eyes. John's shame grew, and then humiliation
sickened him as he waited and did nothing.
His father turned away, going down the aisle walking erectly. In his shabby clothes, his
shoulders very straight, never once looking back. His father would walk slowly along the street, he
knew, with that meditative expression deepening and becoming grave.
Young Harcourt stood beside Grace, brushing against her soft shoulder, and made faintly
aware again of the delicate scent she used. There, so close beside him, she was holding within her
everything he wanted to reach out for, only now he felt a sharp hostility that made him sullen and
silent.
'You were right, John,' she was drawling in her soft voice. 'It does get unbearable in here on a
hot dау. Dо let's go now. Have you ever noticed that department stores after a time can make you
really hate people? ' But she smiled as she spoke, so he might see that she really hated no one.
'You don't like people, do you?' he said sharply.
'People? What people? What do you mean?'
'I mean,' he went on irritably, 'you don't like the kind of people you bump into here, for
example. '
'Not especially. Who does? What are you talking about?'
'Anybody could see you don't,' he said recklessly, full of a savage eagerness to hurt her. 'I say
you don't like simple, honest people, the kind of people you meet all over the city.' He blurted the
words out as if he wanted to shake her, but he was longing to sау, 'You wouldn't like my family.
Why couldn't I take you home to have dinner with them? You'd turn up your nose at them because

32
they have no pretensions. As soon аs my father saw you, he knew you wouldn't want to meet him.
I could tell by the way he turned. '
His father was on his way home now, he knew, and that evening at dinner they would meet.
His mother and sister would talk rapidly, but his father would say nothing to him, or to anyone.
There would only be Harcourt's memory of the level lооk in the blue eyes and the knowledge of his
father's pain as he walked away.
Grace watched John's gloomy face as they walked through the store, and she knew he was
nursing some private rage, and so her own resentment and exasperation kept growing, and she said
crisply, 'You' re entitled to your moods on a hot afternoon, I suppose, but if I feel I don't like it
here, then I don't like it. You wanted to go yourself. Who likes to spend very much time in a
department store on a hot afternoon? I begin to hate every stupid person that bangs into me,
everybody near me. What does that make me?'
'It makes you a snob. '
'So I'm a snob now? ' she asked angrily.
'Certainly you're a snob,' he said. They were at the door going out into the street. 'I've always
known how you'd feel about people I like who didn't fit into your private world,' he said.
'You're a very stupid person,' she said. Her face was flushed now, and it wаs hard for her to
express her indignation, so she stared straight ahead as she walked along.
They had never talked in this way, and now they were both quickly eager to hurt each other.
With a flow of words she started to argue with him, then she checked herself and said calmly,
'Listen, John, I imagine you're tired of my company. There's no sense in having tea together. I think
I'd better leave you right here.'
'That's fine," he said. Good afternoon.'
'Goodbye.'
'Goodbye.'
She started to go, she had gone two paces, but he reached out desperately and held her arm,
and he was frightened, and pleading, 'Please, don't go, Grace.'
All the anger and irritation had left him; there was just a desperate anxiety in his voice as he
pleaded, 'Please forgive me. I've no right to talk to you like that, I don't know why I'm so rude or what's
the matter. I'm ridiculous. I'm very ridiculous. Please, you must forgive me.'
He had never talked to her so brokenly, and his sincerity, the depth of his feeling, began to stir
her. While she listened, feeling all the yearning in him, they seemed to have been brought сlosеr to-
gether, by opposing each other, than ever before, and she began to feel almost shy. 'I don't know
what's the matter. I suppose we're both irritable. It must be the weather,' she said. 'But I'm not angry,
John.'
He nodded his head miserably. He longed to tell her that he was sure she would have been
charming to his father, but he had never felt so wretched in his life. He held her arm tight, as if he
must hold it or what he wanted most in the world would slip away from him, yet he kept thinking,
as he would ever think, of his father walking away quietly with his head never turning.

(By Morley Callaghan)

Proper names

Callaghan /'kxlqgqn/

Harcourt /'hRkqt /

33
Notes

1. 'diffidence n – неуверенность, застенчивость, робость

2. faded adj – выцветший

3. bargain counter – прилавок (или отдел) товаров по сниженным ценам

4. vest n – жилет

5. impend /-'pend/ v – угрожать, нависать (об опасности)

6. sidelong glance – косой (сбоку) взгляд

7. meditative /'medItqtIv/ adj – задумчивый

8. stir v – возбуждать, волновать

9. drawl /-L- / v – растягивать слова

10. reckless adj – безрассудный

11. level /'levql/ adj – спокойный, хладнокровный (взгляд, голос)

12. exasperation / Ig"zRspq'reISn / n – раздражение

13. crisp adj – зд. решительный (о манере, голосе)

14. flush /- A -/ v – вспыхнуть, приливать к лицу (о крови)

15. yearning /'jE:- / n – острая тоска

16. wretched /'retSId/ adj – несчастный, жалкий, гнусный

Vocabulary Study

snob n сноб: A snob is a person who attaches inordinate importance to social position and
wealth.; snobbery n снобизм; snobbish adj снобистский: snobbish behaviour, language.

aisle / aIl / n проход ( между рядами ): Would you like an aisle or a window seat (on a plane)?

eager adj страстно стремящийся; с нетерпением ожидающий; упорно добивающийся;


нетерпеливый; be eager for sth: They were eager for knowledge. He is eager for the concert to
begin.; be eager to do sth: They were eager to come with me.; eagerness n нетерпение: In his
eagerness to reach the door first he stumbled (споткнулся).

34
gesture n жест: She held out her hand in a gesture of welcome.; make gestures
жестикулировать: He made a gesture of refusal.

accustomed adj привыкший, приученный: Her accustomed smile only annoyed him.; be
accustomed to sth/doing sth: He is accustomed to sleeping late. She is not accustomed to criticism.

delight /dI'laIt/ n восторг, восхищение; удовольствие: It's always a great delight to be


with them. She felt great delight at meeting her old friend.; take delight in (to delight in) sth
восхищаться, наслаждаться чем-л.: He takes delight in surfing the Internet.; delight (sb) v
восхищать, доставлять наслаждение: His singing delighted them.; be delighted with sth/to
do sth восхищаться, быть в восторге: The audience were delighted with the young actor’s
superb performance. They were delighted to hear the good news.; delightful adj
восхитительный, замечательный: It’s a delightful evening.

do up упаковывать, заворачивать; завязывать застегивать(ся) (на крючки, пуговицы и т.n.): The


clerk did up a parcel. She did up her hair. This dress does up at the back. Ant. undo разворачивать,
развязывать(ся), расстегивать(ся): The boy was eager to undo the packet to see what was inside.

vague /veIg/ adj неясный; неопределенный; смутный: I’ve a vague idea I’ve seen him somewhere.
We looked at the vague shapes of buildings.; be vague (about sth) смутно представлять себе или
помнить; уклончиво отвечать: He was vague about the date of the meeting.

amuse /q'mju:z / v забавлять, смешить, развлекать: He amused his guests with jokes. The children
amused themselves for hours in the garden.; be amused by/with: I was highly amused by their
escapades.; amusement n развлечение, увеселение; забава; веселье: There are plenty of
amusements – plays, movies, football matches in big cities. He read the letter with a look of
amusement in his eyes.; amusing adj забавный, смешной: an amusing fellow, story, clown, situation,
etc.

stubborn adj 1. упрямый: The stubborn child refused to obey.; 2. упорный: stubborn refusal,
denial, battle, resistance; Не was stubborn in the defence of his idea. She has a stubborn cold. – У
нее застарелая простуда.

embarrass /Im'bxrqs/ v смущать, приводить в замешательство: His remarks embarrassed me.


They were embarrassed because there was not enough food for all the guests.; embarrassment n
смущение, замешательство: To my embarrassment he told them the whole story. John is a great
embarrassment to us.

'confident (of) adj уверенный: I am confident of success. He is confident that everything will go
well.; 'confidence (in) n 1. доверие: I haven't much confidence in what he says. Syn. trust;
2. уверенность: David lacks confidence in himself.

tell v отличать, различать: tell one thing from another: It`s impossible to tell John from Paul,
they look so alike. I can’t tell them apart. Syn. distinguish; tell (by) узнавать, определять (по):
It was so dark. I couldn’t tell it was you. You can always tell him by his height. Syn. determine.

tight /-aI-/ adj тугой, натянутый; тесный: Is the rope (веревка ) tight? These shoes are tight. This
jacket is tight асross (at) the shoulders.
35
sincere /sIn'sIq/adj искренний, неподдельный: a sincere friend, piece of advice, dislike for sb,
etc.; She made a sincere effort to improve.; be sincere with: Не is always sincere with his friends.
Ant. insincere; sincerity /sIn'serItI/ n искренность: She spoke with sincerity. Ant. insincerity.

reach v 1. протягивать(ся), вытягивать(ся): Не reached his hands across the table. The boughs
(ветви) reached out towards the sun.; 2. дотягиваться, тянуться к чему-л. to reach for the bread,
one's hat, etc.; 3. простираться до какого-л. места: This land reaches as far as the river. 4. доходить
до какого-л. места: His beard reaches (to) his waist. The coat reaches (to) his knees.; reach n 1.
предел досягаемости, досягаемость: within easy reach неподалеку: Nancy prefers living within
easy reach of the shops; beyond (out of) reach вне досягаемости: Put that bottle out of the boy’s
reach.; 2. область влияния, охват; кругозор; сфера: The subject of their conversation was clearly
beyond Roy’s reach.

tidy adj опрятный, аккуратный: a tidy room, person, handwriting, etc. Ant. untidy неопрятный,
неаккуратный; tidiness n опрятность; tidy (up) v приводить в порядок, прибирать: to tidy (up) a
room, a garden, oneself, etc.

humiliation /hju:"mIlI'eISn/ n унижение, унизительное положение: He suffered the


humiliation of defeat.; humiliate /-'mI-/ v унижать, оскорблять: She was humiliated by the rudeness
of the remark. I was humiliated by the children's behaviour.

ridiculous /r I'dIkjVlqs / adj смехотворный, смешной; нелепый: It is ridiculous to expect me to


believe such lies. Don't make yourself ridiculous. That is a ridiculous idea.; 'ridicule v высмеивать:
“My father discouraged me by ridiculing my performances” (Benjamin Franklin). ridicule n
осмеяние, насмешка: His idea deserves ridicule rather than punishment.; expose (hold up) to
ridicule подвергать осмеянию: The writer exposes to ridicule the hypocrisies of backroom politics.

sensible adj 1. разумный, благоразумный, здравомыслящий: a sensible idea, course of actions,


rule, person, etc.; The sensible thing to do would be to give up the idea.; 2. ощутимый, заметный:
a sensible increase, growth (of sth), rise in sth, etc.

plain adj 1. понятный, ясный: The meaning is quite plain. I made it quite plain that I refused.; to
put it plainly попросту говоря; 2. простой, незамысловатый: plain furniture, dress, style, food,
water, coffee, etc.; She wore a plain black dress. The food was plain but good.; 3. некрасивый: She
was a very plain girl.

aware / q'weq/ adj сознающий, знающий, осведомленный; be aware (of) сознавать,


отдавать себе полный отчет (в): He was quite (perfectly, keenly) aware of the risks
involved/that the project was risky.; awareness n понимание, осознание: The
purpose of the article is to increase public awareness of the scale of the problem.

resent (sth ) /rI'zent /v негодовать, возмущаться; обижаться: Teenagers resent their parents’
control over them and rebel.; resent bitterly, deeply, strongly; resentment n негодование; чувство
обиды, протеста: She was keenly aware of his resentment and hostility growing.; resentful adj
возмущенный, обиженный; затаивший злобу: a resentful attitude/look/ remark.

36
entitle (to) /In'taItl/v давать право (на что-л.); be entitled (to privileges, benefits,
etc.) иметь право (на привилегии, льготы и т.п.): He claimed that he was entitled to
a free seat at the concert.

37
Exercise 1. Translate from Russian into English. Work in pairs and check with the key.

1.Я очень хочу, чтобы ты познакомился с 1. I am eager for you to meet my new friends.
моими новыми друзьями.

2. Ваш сын не привык упорно работать. 2. Your son is not accustomed to working
Боюсь, что вы избаловали его. hard. I’m afraid you have spoilt him.
3. Все восхищались новой картиной 3. Everybody was delighted with the new
молодого художника. picture by the young painter.
4. У девушки был восхитительный голос, 4. The girl had a delightful voice and
и всем очень хотелось, чтобы она спела everybody was eager for her to sing some
еще. more.

5. Если бы Джек не был смущен, он бы 5. If Jack weren’t embarrassed, he wouldn’t


не давал такие уклончивые ответы. be giving such vague replies. Why are you
Зачем ты заставляешь его говорить making him say what he doesn’t like?
то, что ему неприятно?
6. Послушай моего совета. Откажись от 6. Take my advice. Give up this ridiculous
этой нелепой затеи. Мне кажется, ты очень idea. I think you have a very vague idea of the
смутно представляешь себе последствия. consequences.
7. Джейн позабавило то, что ей рассказали. 7. Jane was amused by what she was told.
8. Этот рассказ ни забавный, ни умный. 8. The story is neither amusing nor clever.
9. Бессмысленно с ним спорить. Он 9. It’s no use arguing with him. He is as
такой же упрямый, как и его брат. stubborn as his brother.
10. Я был удивлен, когда услышал, как он 10. I was surprised to hear him confidently
уверенно рассказывал о своем успехе. talking about his success.
11.Молодой врач чувствовал, что 11. The young doctor felt that the patient had
пациент не доверяет его диагнозу. no confidence in his diagnosis.
12. Мне сказали, что профессор Сноу 12. I was told that Professor Snow could
легко может узнать по акценту easily tell by a man’s accent what part of
человека, из какой части Англии он родом. England he came from.
13. Иногда бывает трудно отличить 13. It is sometimes difficult to tell a copy of a
копию картины от оригинала. painting from the original.
14. Люси упаковала свои вещи 14. Lucy had done up her things and was now
и теперь писала записку Джону. writing a note for John.
15. У меня очень плотное расписание 15. I’ve got a very tight schedule today. But if
сегодня. Но если ты зайдешь во время you call at lunch-time, I’ll try to spare you
обеденного перерыва, я постараюсь half an hour.
уделить тебе полчаса.
16. Нельзя отрицать, что Брайан 16. There is no denying that Brian spoke in
говорил со всей искренностью. Он дал all sincerity. He gave you sensible advice,
вам разумный совет, которому стоит which is worth taking.
последовать.
17. Никто кроме Тома не заметил, как Сид 17. No one but Tom noticed Sid reach for the
потянулся за сахарницей, стоявшей на sugar bowl on the table.
столе.
18.1 18. Наконец путешественники добрались 18. At last the travellers reached the town.
до города. Они шли десять часов и очень They had been walking for ten hours and were
устали и хотели пить. very tired and thirsty.
19. Эта пустыня простирается до 19. This desert reaches as far as the ocean
побережья океана. coast.
20. «Я не вижу оснований для насмешек. 20. “I see no reason for ridicule. John’s
38
Предложение Джона вполне разумно. suggestion is quite sensible. I’m all for it,”
Я целиком и полностью за него», - said the teacher.
сказал учитель.

Exercise 2. Translate into English.


1. Анне не терпелось распечатать письмо и узнать, наконец, то, что ее интересовало.
2. Купив все, что ей было нужно, женщина подошла к прилавку в конце зала и
попросила продавца завернуть все вещи.
3. «Можешь расстегнуть пальто, здесь так жарко», – сказала Ольга.
4. Мои знания в то время не были достаточно глубоки, и я лишь смутно понимал, о чем
говорит докладчик.
5. Отец любит забавлять детей, рассказывая им всякие истории, которые происходили с ним
в детстве.
6. Молодой человек с уверенностью отвечал на все вопросы.
7. Профессор Хиггинс (персонаж из известной пьесы Бернарда Шоу) по произношению
человека мог легко узнать, в какой части Лондона он живет.
8. У маленького Бобби плохое настроение, потому что eмy жмут ботинки.
9. Если веревка натянута недостаточно туго, вам будет трудно нести этот ящик.
10. Не надо делать ребенку замечания в присутствии посторонних. Это его
унижает.
11. Джон прямо, не смущаясь, высказал свою точку зрения. Некоторым не
понравилась его откровенность, но все видели, что он искренен.
12. «Я не хочу ни чая, ни кофе. Дайте мне, пожалуйста, просто воды», –
попросил Майк.
13. Эта равнина простирается до гор.
14. Регистрируясь на рейс, пожилая дама попросила место рядом с проходом, чтобы во
время полета иметь возможность встать и размять ноги (get up and stretch her legs).
15. Мать, по-видимому, сознавала, что ее чрезмерная забота вызывает у сына чувство
протеста, но ничего не могла с собой поделать.
16. «Как пенсионер вы имеете ряд социальных льгот (welfare benefits), которые, например,
дают вам право на бесплатный проезд в общественном транспорте (free public transport)»,
– объяснили мистеру Смиту.
17. Девушка протянула руку за книгой, лежащей на столе. Потом начала читать стихи – медленно,
красивым голосом. Она держала книгу в правой руке, изредка жестикулируя левой.
18. Комната, хотя и неприбранная, выглядела очень уютно.
19. Джон вполне благоразумный человек, и намерения его совершенно очевидны.
20. Интересно, что Дон Кихот (Quixot) и Пиквик высмеяны их авторами, но читатели сначала
полюбили этих литературных героев, а затем стали уважать их.
21. Стивенс был глубоко возмущен повышением, которое получил коллега. Его опять обошли (to
be passed over) .

Exercise 3. Find in the text the words listed below, then close the book and reproduce them
in the context of the story:
eagerly, delighted, accustomed, resentment, stubbornly, sensible, embarrass, confident, plainness, untidiness,
humiliation, hostility, eagerness, entitled.

Reading Comprehension
39
1. Find in the text and paraphrase or explain.
1. ... the crowd that pushed along the aisle ...
2. … with an anxious diffidence …
3. … an innocent wonder …
4. … its expression of cool independence …
5. … easy words trailed away …
6. … a dreadful uneasiness …
7. Such a resentment rose in young Harcourt …
8. So young Harcourt stood still, ... feeling that something very painful was impending.
9. … something in the book had stirred him …
10. They listened and shared this new world with him.
11. ... he resolved that he must make Grace's people admire him.
12. … humiliation sickened him.
13. ... she was holding within her everything he wanted to reach out for ...
14. You'd turn up your nose at them because they’ve no pretensions.
15. You're entitled to your moods.
16. I begin to hate every stupid person that bangs into me.
17. I've always known how you'd feel about people I like who didn't fit into your private world ...
18. I’m ridiculous. I’m very ridiculous.
19. He had never talked to her so brokenly.
20 … he had never felt so wretched in his life.

2. Find in the text and translate into Russian.


1. His father, standing at the end of the ... counter, was planted squarely on his two feet.
2. He could feel the space that separated them narrowing.
3. He was eager to have him (his son) distinguish himself.
4. ... there was also desperate longing and a pain within him growing harder to bear ...
5. John had kept on thinking of the plainness of his own home and of his parents' laughing, good-
natured untidiness.
6. Neither one could have been certain.
7. He knew it by the steady calmness in his father's blue eyes.
8. It does get unbearable in here on a hot day. Do let's go now.
9. As soon as my father saw you, he knew you wouldn’t want to meet him. I could tell by the
way he turned.
10. There would only be Harcourt's ... knowledge of his father's pain as he walked away.
11. If I feel I don't like it here, then I don't like it.
12. "What does it make me?" – "It mаkеs you a snob."
13. She started to go, she had gone two paces, but he reached out desperately and held her arm.
14. ... they seemed to have been brought с1оsеr together.
15. ... yet he kept thinking, as he would ever think, of his father walking away quietly with his
head never turning.

40
Discussion
1. Do you think that the following attributes apply to the characters of the story? Give
arguments to support your opinion.
Anxious, self-conscious (легко смущающийся, застенчивый), hesitant,
irresolute, unsure of himself, self-assured, confident, humble (лишенный чувства
собственного достоинства, раболепный), cowardly /'kaVqdlI/ (трусливый),
bold (смелый), vain, 'arrogant (заносчивый, высокомерный), selfish, selfless, mean
(низкий, презренный: a mean thing to do), broad-minded (с широкими взглядами),
narrow-minded (ограниченный, недалекий), socially inferior, socially superior,
snobbish, with a clear conscience, remorseful.

2. What do you think of the situation described in the story? Choose the words that may
help you from the list below and give arguments to support your statements.
Amusing, probable, improbable, plausible /'- L -/ (правдоподобный), implausible, true-to-life,
realistic, commendable /kq'mend -/ (похвальный), regrettable, embarrassing, humiliating,
unaccountable (необъяснимый), commonplace (банальный, избитый).

Stylistic Analysis
1. Write a summary of the short story “The Snob.”

2. Speak about the author’s message, comment on the title.

3. Analyse the author’s speech, the characters’ speech. Explain the large number of
literary words in the text. What purpose do they serve?

4. Notice the use of the indefinite article with abstract nouns in the description of John’s
state of mind as the story unfolds: an anxious diffidence, a dreadful uneasiness, a
resentment, a sharp hostility, a savage eagerness, a desperate anxiety. Also notice the
repeated use of the conjunction as if. What conclusion can you make about John’s
feelings and his character?

5. What devices does the author use to contrast John’s and Grace’s attitudes?

6. Analyse the role of epithets and repetitions in the description of John’s father. How
does the author contrast John with his father, John’s family with Grace’s?

7. How is dramatic intensity created in the story?

Grammar: Means of Expressing Reason


Formal: for the reason that, the reason (why), on the grounds that, that is why, seeing
(that), considering (that), given (that)

e. g. The candidate’s application was turned down on the grounds that he didn’t have
sufficient work experience.

Informal: because, since, as, as long as, for

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Note. When the clause of reason precedes the main clause, the two clauses must be separated
with a comma.

e. g. My parents don’t care what job I do as long as I’m happy. The motorist had to wait for
nearly an hour because there were road blocks on the M5. Because there were road blocks
on the M5, the motorist had to wait for nearly an hour.

Note that “for” always comes after the main clause to give reason as a kind of afterthought.
The two clauses must be separated with a comma and a pause is made in oral speech.

e. g. The motorist had to wait for nearly an hour, for there were road works on the M5.

Reason can also be expressed with because of, due to, owing to, because of the fact that,
due to the fact that, owing to the fact that

e. g. Due to road works on the M5, the motorist had to wait for nearly an hour. Due to the
fact that there were road works on the M5, the motorist had to wait for nearly an hour.

Notice the use of the comma after the above prepositional phrases.

Exercise 1. Translate into English.

1. Билл очень груб и невнимателен к людям. Вот причина, по которой многие


избегают общаться с ним.

2. Поскольку главный свидетель заболел, разбирательство дела (the hearing) было


перенесено на следующую неделю.

3. Благодаря его искренней помощи и умным советам мы смогли преодолеть все


бюрократические препоны (red tape).

4. Из-за сильного тумана все рейсы были отменены.

5. Сойдя с поезда, мужчина некоторое время постоял в нерешительности. Но так как на


перроне не было ни одного носильщика, ему ничего не оставалось, как нести свои
чемоданы самому.

6. «Поскольку вы так уверены в своей правоте, займитесь этим вопросом сами и


доведите дело до конца», – потребовал директор.

7. Все мои планы в отношении летнего отдыха на Средиземном море были сорваны по
той причине, что я забыл продлить (renew) визу.

8. «С учетом того, что объем продаж компании возрос в этом полугодии, мы можем
говорить о преодолении кризисной ситуации», – заявил генеральный директор.

9. «Вкладывать средства в эту компанию – сумасшествие! С учетом сегодняшней


конъюктуры (market condition)!» – воскликнул седовласый джентльмен.

10. Фирма отказала сотруднику в его просьбе о повышении зарплаты на том


основании, что круг его обязанностей в настоящее время сократился.

Exercise 2. Find in your reading materials 10 cases of the grammar under study.

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Phrasal Verbs
сarry out – to fulfill, conduct (a plan, order, duty, experiment);

carry off/through – to perform a duty, action successfully;

carry on – to continue, esp. in spite of an interruption or difficulties;

be/get carried away – to be/get excited

come across – to find by chance;

come across (to) – to be well received (by an audience, readers);

come about – to happen;

come by – to obtain;

come up with – to think of, produce (a plan, reply, remark, solution, etc.)

cut across – to take a shorter way;

cut back on – to reduce (expenses, production);

cut down on – to reduce (consumption);

cut in – 1. to interrupt, 2. to move into a line of people or things out of turn;

cut off – 1. to disconnect, 2. to isolate

Fill in the correct particle(s).

1. Hadn’t you better go to bed? You look tired. We can carry … our most interesting
conversation tomorrow, I’m sure.

2. Despite the many obstacles, the team managed to carry … the project.

3. You shouldn’t have said that! – I’m sorry. I got carried … .

4. The scientists carried … a series of experiments.

5. The boy couldn’t come … an excuse when the teacher asked him why he was late. 6.
Elaborate niellowork (чернение серебра) of this kind is hard to come … these days.

7. The composer came … the libretto for his opera among the old magazines in the attic.

8. George carefully explained to his business partner how the dangerous state of affairs came
….

9. The film is a money-maker. Who could’ve thought it would come … so well!

10. If you are set on slimming, you’d better cut … on pastry.


43
11. Then the crisis struck and the company was forced to cut … its overseas operations.

12. Water supply was cut … and there was a rush to the supermarket to stock up with
drinking water.

13. The little van cut … from behind and nearly caused a crash.

14. John has a nasty habit of cutting … when somebody is talking.

Listening Comprehension
Audiotext 4 Snobs
1. Listen to the text one time and report the gist of it.

The words below will help you understand the text:

embassy n – посольство

ambassador /-'bx-/ n – посол

2. Listen again and reproduce the text in detail.


3. Listen to the passages that your teacher will read and try to fill in the gaps with the
exact words of the text as you remember them.

4. Do you agree?

- It is not uncommon for people of all ranks and incomes, high and low alike, to be prone to
snobbery.

-The vice of snobbery may backfire.

- Over the years advertisers have developed innocent appearing ways of cashing in on
people’s weaknesses.

MODERN ISSUES
The Spirit of Sport: the Good and the Bad
Read the texts with the help of a dictionary and do the assignments below.

Text 1 Shooting the Rapids


A mountain torrent roars and rushes down steep, thickly wooded slopes, the water jumping as it hits
submerged rocks and meets tributaries . Suddenly a raft comes hurtling round the bend, manned by
five people. It hits "rebounding" water, tips up almost vertical and rights itself just in time, and
then plunges into a seething whirlpool.
The crew are all soaked to the skin in freezing water, exhausted and in continuous danger.
And they are doing it for fun.
They are part of an army of young men and women who every spring and autumn go
"shooting the rapids" in various parts of Russia, mainly the wild mountain regions of Siberia.

44
The sport has all the ingredients of "roughing it", with the added spice of danger. Or, as one
said: "It is pleasant to live in a tent and eat and drink round a campfire, but it gets boring if there is
nothing else to do."
In 1959 the sport was banned because of the number of fatal accidents but, as one of the
sportsmen said, “You can close a stadium but you can't stop a river from flowing.” So people went
anyway, and, because of lack of control, the number of accidents soared.
Now the sport is highly organized under the control of, and partly financed by, the state and
a number of public organizations.
When a group starts out on a trip they notify their local organization. If they have not arrived
at the scheduled finishing point in time, a search is made at the еxреnsе of the home organization.
Rivers and sections of rivers are graded from one to six, with six being the most
dangerous.ach group has a "commander" and discipline is usually strict to encourage swift
reaction to commands at dangerous moments. One commander said the sport was the most
important thing in his life. "It's like a disease," he said. "I can't live without it."
But it is a sport in which you cannot stand still. With the main attraction being the challenge, you
cannot keep going year after year to low-grade rivers.
"It becomes boring," said one – as though that word could ever really be used about this sport.
(From The Moscow Tribune.)

Vocabulary Study

Exercise 1. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following words and phrases.
1. спускаться на плотах по горным порожистым рекам
2. крутые склоны, поросшие густым лесом
3. покрытые водой камни
4. поворот, излучина
5. выпрямляться
6. кипящий водоворот
7. промокнуть до нитки
8. для развлечения, забавы ради
9. мириться с лишениями, обходиться без обычных удобств
10. с привкусом опасности
11. количество несчастных случаев резко возросло
12. заранее намеченное место финиша
13. организовать поисковую экспедицию
14. поделенный по степени трудности
15. жесткая дисциплина.
16. стимулировать быструю реакцию
17. вызов
18. реки низкого уровня сложности

Exercise 2. Translate into Russian.


1. The hill wаs too steep for them to climb.
2. The garden slopes down to the river.
3. The roof of the house slopes steeply.
4. Export orders continued to fall (rise) steeply.

45
5. Stand the geranium in water and let it soak in.
6. The oil soaked through the paper bag.
7. She soaked the clothes before washing them.
8. We are having a great time soaking up the sun.
9. The plane will arrive according to (on/ahead of/behind) schedule.
10. We are working to a tight schedule.
11. When is the next meeting scheduled to take place?
12. The questions in the textbook are graded according to difficulty.
13. The teacher graded the test papers.
14. I was told about it in strict secrecy.
15. Social psychology, strictly speaking, deals with the behaviour of people in groups.
16. Anything you tell us is in the strictest confidence.

Speaking
1. Prepare to speak about and discuss.
1. Rafting is a dangerous sport: it involves risks, injury, death. The accident rate is high.
2. The threat is exaggerated. There are other risk sports that people give their leisure to.
3. It is the spice of danger that makes risk sports attractive.
4. Thrill-seekers set ever more challenging targets for themselves.
2. Prepare to give a talk on the following points.
1. It is unwise to ban risk sports: man will always have a desire to explore the limits of his
skill and endurance (выносливость).
2. Sports are excellent tests of human skills.
3. Sport has both physical and psychological advantages.

3. Discuss the following in pairs.


The argument: People need risk sports to put their skills to the test and add flavour to their
life.
The counter-argument: Most people’s lifestyles and philosophies are middle-of-the-road (not
extreme).

Text 2 Brent Police Join Forces with Charity to Use Table Tennis
As a Weapon Against Drug Culture

SEVERAL weeks ago in Brent, northwest London, a 15-year-old boy was shot in the back.
The bullet lodged in his spine and he may never walk again. Four weeks previously seven-
year-old Toni-Ann Byfield and her father, a crack dealer, were gunned down in a bedsit in
the same borough. They both died. The criminal subculture is based around drugs, with guns
the weapon of choice.
46
When police officers turned to community leaders for help, they were told that one of the
main factors contributing to the lawlessness was the scant provision of sports facilities in the
community, corroborating a mass of research linking delinquency with boredom and neglect.
Which is why Brent Police have just invested £12,000 in Table Tennis for Kids, now called
TTK Green-house (TTK), a charity set up last year after donations were received from
readers of The Times in response to an article about Darius Knight, an exceptionally talented
youngster from Battersea who was forced to play in a garden shed because of a lack of funds.
Detective Superintendent Glen Allison believes that youth diversion is a key component
of delivering on his brief to cut crime. "We have seen provision for young people diminish
both within Brent and across the nation," he said. "We recognise that sophisticated policing
must target the underlying social factors that contribute to criminality, and table tennis is one
of the tools that will address this.
" The money will be used to equip seven schools with tables and provide them with high-
level coaches who will use the after-school sessions to teach not only table tennis but other
principles that will be of value beyond the sports hall. “We don't just see this as a means of
combating idleness and boredom,” Michael De Giorgio, whо leads TTK, said, "We will also
have a mentoring component that utilises the interest that the youngsters have in sport to
instill such things as fair play, teamwork and respect for the rules, which will benefit both the
individual and the community."
'This will be a real opportunity to develop relationships with young people,” he said. "The
cycle of crime which culminates in drugs and guns invariably begins at a young age. We
need to root it out early. And we also need to teach young people how to avoid being the
victims of crime by educating them about personal safety."
"In a case study of three male students who attend the table tennis club, I found that there
was a dramatic increase in both punctuality and attendance at school lessons. Also, the
youngsters have learnt to interact in a non-confrontational way" — one problem student in
particular has gained considerable confidence and now finds it much easier to fit in."
Karl Edwards, the PE teacher at Geoffrey Chaucer School in Elephant and Castle, is simi-
larly impressed by the impact of the club, operating at his school. “I recently went there to
present Wahab Adam, 15, with a prize for making it to the top of the club ladder – an
innovation that has been adopted by all TTK funded clubs. The ladder fosters healthy
competition." Edwards said. "It enables the youngsters to set goals, and by publishing the
results on the internet, the youngsters have the opportunity to monitor their progress."
The successes of the charity are impressive and real, but they must be considered against
the backdrop of rising violent crime, social deprivation and hopelessness among huge swaths
of the capital's disaffected youth. The stakes could scarcely be higher.
(From The Times.)
Reading Comprehension
Find in the text and paraphrase or explain.
1. The criminal subculture …
2. … the main factors contributing to the lawlessness …
3. … scant provision of sports facilities …
4. … linking delinquency with boredom and neglect.
5. … a charity set up last year …
6. … because of a lack of funds.
7. … youth diversion …
47
8. … target the underlying social factors …
9. … one of the tools that will address this…
10. … as a means of combatting idleness …
11. … to instill such things as fair play, teamwork …
12. … personal safety.
13. … a dramatic increase in …
14. … gained considerable confidence…
15. … much easier to fit in.
16. … impressed by the impact of the club …
17. … making it to the top of the club ladder …
18. … to set goals …
19. … against the backdrop of rising violent crime … .

Speaking
1. Prepare to speak about and discuss.
1. Juvenile delinquency is linked to social factors.
2. Carefully organized youth diversion is the key factor in addressing the issue.
3. Sport helps build character, shape personality.

2. Roleplay.
Work in pairs. Study your roles for a few minutes and decide what you will say.
An interview. Interviewer: a newspaper correspondent collecting material for an article on teens’
antisocial behaviour and sport as a means to combat it.
Interviewee: a PE teacher involved in a recent project answers questions about it,
supplies examples and facts of the kids’ physical and mental improvement.

Text 3 Steroid Users Tell of Effects Both Mental And Physical

Mario Vassallo is a former semipro football player, a former steroid user and now the lead
researcher in a Central Michigan University study of the addictive effects of steroids.
"From my own personal experience," he said, "and 36 of the 38 guys I interviewed said the
same thing: Once you take start taking steroids, within the first three days, it's a different life
you're leading.
"You feel invincible, on top of the world. Within two weeks, you feel your workouts
change. You used to do an hour and a half and get tired. You can change to two hours a day
and feel ready to go back and do the same thing. And the pump you get, you don't want to
lose it."
The question he was answering was simple. People associated with the Bay Area
48
Laboratory Co-operative, or Balco, which is at the center of a federal investigation into the
distribution of steroids, say that they dealt only in vitamin and mineral supplements. So if
prosecutors are right and what Balco really sold was a designer steroid, tetrahydrogestrinone,
is it possible that its customers could not have known what they were taking?
Some of the athletes who testified before a federal grand jury in San Francisco have told
reporters that they have never taken steroids. Their powerful physiques, they said, came from
hard workouts and careful eating. And the slimmer physiques that some reporters think they
have spotted since the investigation began, they said, came from hard workouts and careful
eating.
Jason Giambi, The Yankees' first baseman, for example, said reports that he had lost 20
pounds, or 9 kilograms, over the winter were exaggerated. He lost 4, he said, by giving up
fast food and "cleaning up" his excess fat. But some have hedged. Barry Bonds's lawyer told
Reuters that his client, Balco's most famous customer, might have unknowingly taken
steroids hidden in its nutritional shakes.
Reactions to that from doctors who are steroid experts are mixed.
Dr. Harrison Pope Jr., chief of the biological psychiatry laboratory at McLean Hospital at
Harvard University, said it was possible "in theory" that an athlete would not know he was
taking a steroid because users experience different effects. Some have bouts of rage, for
example, while others do not.
"But if somebody is an elite athlete," Pope said, "it would seem rather implausible that they
would not be very precisely interested in what they were taking."
Steve Downs, chairman of the World Natural Bodybuilding Federation, which sponsors
drug-free bodybuilding contests, said some top athletes "have had their hands held all the
way through their careers." If they are told a product is legal, he said, "they just close their
eyes and take whatever's pushed at them.”
Patrick Keogan, who is a former steroid user and was once arrested on charges of selling
designer steroids, begs to differ. "No one," he said, "is that ignorant." In the 1990s, Keogan
put in five years in a gym trying to bulk up, spending $200 a week on legal supplements from
the health food store where he worked. He could never get himself to weigh more than 150
pounds or lift more than 185 pounds.
Within 20 weeks of starting on steroids, he weighed 200 pounds, he said.
Eventually, Keogan was injecting three drugs a day; experts say injectable steroids cause
fewer problems than pills. Hospitalized with the bloody urine of kidney damage, "I just laid
off the orals and doubled my injectables," he said.
Everyone noticed his bouts of rage. "It was happening in traffic, even at work," Keogan
said. "The cops were even called there. On the rare occasion I went a day without going after
somebody, I'd make a mental note of it: 'Hey! I didn't go after anybody today.'”
Keogan quit after he jumped out of his car to fight someone and realized that he had left his
car rolling forward with the door open and his baby in the back seat. Quitting with a
psychiatrist's help "turned me into the incredible shrinking man," he said. He dropped back to
160 pounds. His hair, thinned by steroids, did not return.
In the long term, steroids raise cholesterol levels and blood pressure, creating the risk of
heart attack and stroke. The liver can malfunction, so jaundice yellows the eyes and skin.
Adolescents stop growing because the growth plates in the bones close prematurely.
The most devastating effects may not appear for years. But the immediate effects are so
obvious that the athletes cannot say, “I didn't know.”
(From The USA Today.)
Reading Comprehension
Find in the text and paraphrase or explain.
1. … addictive effects of steroids.
49
2. You feel invincible …
3. … your workouts change.
4. And the pump you get …
5. …they dealt in vitamin and mineral supplements.
6. … athletes who testified before a federal grand jury…
7. Their powerful physiques …
8. … his excess fat.
9. … nutritional shakes.
10. Some have bouts of rage …
11. … it would seem rather implausible …
12. … was once arrested on charges of selling …
13. … kidney damage.
14. … a … shrinking man.
15. … steroids raise cholesterol levels …
16. The most devastating effects … .

Speaking
1. Prepare to speak about and discuss.
1. Steroids are addictive.
2. Athletes take steroids to give themselves a competitive advantage.
3. Steroids are a double-edged sword /sLd/.
4. Athletes are not always aware that they have been given steroids.
2. Roleplay.
Work in pairs. Study your roles for a few minutes and decide what you will say.
An interview. Interviewer: a newspaper correspondent collecting material for an article on the use
of steroids in sports.
Interviewee: a former professional boxer and steroid user talks from experience about
his reasons for using steroids, their addictive effects and health risks (physical/mental)
involved.
3. Express your opinion on the following quotations:
“The real character of a man is found out by his amusements.” (Reynolds)
“A life that hasn’t been tested isn’t worth living.” (Anonymous)

4. Summarize the Russian article in English and comment on the issue raised.

50
Бывшим спортсменам не хочется двигаться

Когда-то, выступая в беге за сборную штата и в соревнованиях между колледжами,


Хоуи Зеберски ни перед чем не останавливался, лишь бы победить. Теперь он не
надевал кроссовки почти десять лет. Он знает, что никогда не сможет бегать так
быстро, как когда-то. Так зачем же стараться?
«Если сначала бегаешь на высоком спортивном уровне, очень трудно перейти на бег
трусцой, — говорит 32-летний 3еберски, который во время учебы в университете
почти каждую неделю участвовал в соревнованиях. – Не имея цели, трудно выйти на
дорожку. Незачем гнаться».
Немногим известно, что большинство из тех, кто был хорошим спортсменом в
школьные и студенческие годы, не сохранили форму, повзрослев. Они уступили тем,
кто в молодости занимался спортом только ради здоровья.
Бывшие атлеты часто начинают дряхлеть, как только выбывают из турниров, как
только перестают ощущать опеку тренеров, утверждают физиологи и ученые,
исследующие спорт. Многие из них выдыхаются физически и духовно. Другие
отчаиваются, когда теряют форму.
«Надо понимать, что они были на пике славы, а оказались на невысоком холмике, и с
этим трудно примириться», — говорит Дэн Гоулд, директор Института изучения
юношеского спорта при Мичиганском университете. По его словам, внешняя
мотивация — вещь непростая. Он выяснил, что атлеты, выступавшие ради призов и
внимания к себе, больше рискуют опуститься, повзрослев, чем те, кто приучил себя не
лежать на диване, а заниматься спортом, то есть люди с внутренней мотивацией.
Автор книги «Энергичный старт для здоровых детей» Стивен Виргилио соглашается
с ним. Люди, не испытавшие стресса от занятий спортом, чаще приходят в спортзалы,
говорит он. А тем, кто в юном возрасте принимал участие в соревнованиях, трудно
даже поддерживать форму. «В школе и колледже они занимаются спортом, чтобы
побеждать, а не укреплять здоровье, — говорит доктор Виргилио. — И что проис-
ходит, когда состязания заканчиваются? Они чувствуют, что для них закончилось все».
В юности Джон Диадато каждый день играл в бейсбол либо просто с друзьями, либо
за школьную команду. Окончив школу и расставшись с тренером, он не знал, чем себя
мотивировать. Остался без перчатки и без славы.
Он не один, кто, поправившись с 75 килограммов до 120, удивляется, как же он так
распустился. «В школе я всегда был худым, всегда в движении, — говорит Диадато,
которому теперь 41 год. — Если бы кто-нибудь тогда сказал мне, что я буду весить на
20 килограммов больше нормы, я бы обозвал его сумасшедшим».
Он думал, что вновь займется спортом, но годы пассивной жизни привели к разоча-
рованию. «Я решил, что зашел слишком далеко, с этим было очень трудно смириться»,
— говорит он.
В мае Диадато вышел на пенсию, завершив 20-летнюю службу в полиции, и понял,
что оправданий больше нет. Он вступил в организацию желающих похудеть Weight
Watchers и теперь каждый день по 40 минут играет в баскетбол, ездит на велосипеде.
Он жалеет, что дошло до этого.
(«Известия: «Дайджест Мировых СМИ».)

Listening and Speaking


Audiotext 5 Mountaineering

51
1. Listen to the text one time and report the gist of it:
The words below will help you understand the text.
mountaineering – mountain climbing
hardships – трудности, лишения
rope – веревка, канат
2. Listen again and reproduce the text in detail.
3. Do you agree?
- Mountaineering is a risky sport.
- Mountaineering is a sport without rules and that is what makes it attractive.
- Teamwork is essential for survival in this sport.
- Mountaineering requires high mental and physical qualities.

Audiotext 6 Do Something Now


1. Listen to the text one time and report the gist of it.
The words below will help you understand the text:
wobble v – дрожать (зд. «как желе»)
novelty /'nPv(q)ltI/ n – новизна
2. Listen again and reproduce the text in detail.
3. Do you agree?
- It is possible to prevent premature ageing.
- Young people are naturally fit. So they have no incentive to wear themselves out with
regular exercise.
- The only way to offset this generation’s couchpotato culture is through sport (a couchpotato
is a person who spends much time glued to the TV or the computer, a person whose lifestyle
is 'sedentary – cидячий).
- You must assess your fitness level and adjust the fitness programme to suit your needs.

Writing

Write an essay on one of the following topics:


1. On the Lure of Risk Sports
2. This Sporting Life
3. Sport: Its Uses and Abuses
52
4. Sport as a Remedy for Juvenile Delinquency

Grammar Revision: Unreal Condition, Wishes


Exercise 1. Translate from Russian into English. Work in pairs and check with the key.
1. «Ребенок не был бы так упрям, если 1. “The child wouldn’t be so stubborn if you
бы ты постоянно не запрещала ему didn’t all the time forbid him to do one thing
делать то одно, то другое», – объяснил or another,” Brown explained to his wife.
жене Браун.
2. Нелли была в восторге от платья. 2. Nelly was delighted with the dress. She
Она подумала, что купила бы его, если thought she she
thought would buy it if it weren’t too tight
бы оно не было слишком тесно в плечах. across the shoulders.
3. «Если бы Джон был действительно 3. “If John were really a sincere man, nothing
искренним человеком, ничего не would
would have
have prevented him from coming and
помешало бы ему прийти и рассказать telling
tellingus theнам
usthe whole truth,” thought Mary.
всю правду», – подумала Мэри.
4. «У меня болит горло, – пожаловался “I`ve
4. “I’ve
gotgot a sore throat,” complained Ted.
a sore
Тед . – Если бы я принял лекарство “ If I had taken
“If I had taken the medicine yesterday,
вчера, сейчас я был бы в полном I`d be fine
порядке». I’d be fine today.”

5. «На вашем месте я бы постарался “If “If


5. I were
I were you,you,
I I would try to convince your
убедить партнеров, что единственное partners
partnersthat
thatthe
theonly sensible decision was
разумное решение – отказаться от to
to give
give up
up the
the old
old plan,” urged Mr. Bayliss.
старого плана», – настаивал мистер
Бейлис.
6. «Если бы ты время от времени 6. “If you tidied up your desk from time to time,

приводил в порядок свой письменный you wouldn’t have to look so long for

стол, тебе не приходилось бы так долго the papers you need,” Ann reproached her

искать нужные бумаги, – упрекнула brother. “I wish you could understand that.”

Анна своего брата. – Жаль что ты этого


не понимаешь».
7. «Жаль, что я забыла свой сотовый 7.“I“Iwish hadn’t left my cell phone at home.
wishI Ihadn`t
телефон дома. Я бы сейчас могла I could leave
I could a message
leave a for my people now, and
оставить сообщение для моих родных и no oneandwould
no oneworry
и about me,” thought Emma.

53
никто бы обо мне не беспокоился», –
подумала Эмма.
8. “I wish you wouldn’t leave your pills on the
8. «Хорошо было бы, чтобы ты не “I wish you
оставлял свои таблетки на нижней bottom
bottomshelf.
shelf.Little Freddy can easily reach
полке. Маленький Фредди может them,”,”Jane
Janesaid to her husband.
them
легко дотянуться до них», – сказала
мужу Джейн.
9. «Если бы не вы, у меня бы не хватило 9. “But
“But forfor
youyou it it hadn’t been for you) I
(if(if
would not have had the courage to go on the
мужества пойти на сцену», – призналась have had the
stage,” confessed the girl.
девушка. the girl.
10. “But for him (if it weren’t for him) Kate
10. «Если бы не он, Кейт все еще была “But for him
would still be(if
in ithospital!” exclaimed Mrs.
бы в больнице!» – воскликнула миссис still be in Браун.
Brown.
Браун.

Exercise 2. Translate into English.


1. «Если бы партнер вовремя предоставил нам все сведения, эксперимент не закончился
бы провалом», – посетовал мистер Нил.
2. «Не делай из себя посмешища, – уговаривала Джейн мужа. – Если бы ты сейчас
уступил, еще не поздно было бы все исправить».
3. Развернув пакет, девочка пришла в восторг. Это был именно тот подарок, который ей
так хотелось получить. Она лишь пожалела, что не открыла его при подруге.
4. «Дом замечательный. Мне здесь очень нравится, – прошептала Виктору невеста. –
Жаль только, что ты выбрал такую простую мебель для гостиной».
5. Пройдя еще несколько километров, путешественники остановились. Вдали смутно
виднелась деревня, но в темноте было трудно отличить один дом от другого.
Вот если бы кто-нибудь вышел им навстречу, думали они.
6. Если бы не его снобизм, к Гарольду относились бы совсем иначе. Очевидно,
он считает, что его аристократическое происхождение дает ему право на всякого рода
привилегии.
7. Молодой Харкурт жалел, что привел Грейс в универмаг.
8. Если бы Джон не был таким снобом, он бы не ощущал социальной разницы между
собой и Грейс.
9. Вряд ли внешний вид отца Джона так уж сильно шокировал бы Грейс.
10. Джон Харкурт не испытывал бы такие угрызения, если бы познакомил Грейс с отцом.

54
UNIT 3

POPULAR FICTION

Text The Ant and the Grasshopper

When I was a very small boy I was made to learn by heart certain of the fables of La Fontaine,
and the moral of each was carefully explained to me. Among those I learnt was "The Ant and the
Grasshopper", which is devised to bring home to the young the useful lesson that in an imperfect
world industry is rewarded and giddiness punished. In this admirable fable the ant spends a labo-
rious summer gathering its winter store, while the grasshopper sits on a blade of grass singing to
the sun. Winter comes and the ant is comfortably provided for, but the grasshopper has an empty
larder; he goes to the ant and begs for a little food. Then the ant gives her classic answer:
"What were you doing in the summer time?"
"Why, I sang. I sang all day, all night."
"You sang. Why, then go and dance."
I do not ascribe it to perversity on mу part, but rather to the inconsequence of childhood,
which is deficient in moral sense, that I could never quite reconcile myself to the lesson. My
sympathies were with the grasshopper and for some time I never saw an ant without putting my
foot on it. In this summary (and as I have discovered since, entirely human) fashion I sought to
express my disapproval of prudence and common sense.
I could not help thinking of this fable when the other day I saw George Rаmsау lunching
by himself in a restaurant.
I never saw anyone wear an expression of such deep gloom. He was staring into space. He
looked as though the burden of the whole world sat on his shoulders. I was sorry for him; I
suspected at once that his unfortunate brother had been causing trouble again. I went up to him
and held out my hand.
"How are you?" I asked. "I’m not in hilarious spirits," he answered. "Is it Tom again?" He
sighed.
"Yes, it's Tom again."
"Why don't you chuck him? You've done everything in the world for him. You must
know by now that he's quite hopeless."
I suppose every family has a black sheep. Tom had been a sore trial to his for twenty years.
He had begun life decently enough: he went into business, married and had two children. The
Ramsays were perfectly respectable people and there was every reason to suppose that Tom
Ramsay would have a useful and honourable career. But one day, without warning, he announced
that be didn't like work and that he wasn't suited for marriage. He wanted to enjoy himself. He
left his wife and his office. He had a little money and he spent two happy years in the various
capitals of Europe. Rumours of his doings reached his relations from time to time and they were
shocked. He certainly had a very good time. They shook their heads and asked what would
happen when his money was spent. They soon found out: he borrowed. He was charming and
careless of other people's feelings. I have never met anyone to whom it was more difficult to
refuse a loan. He made a steady income from his friends and he made friends easily. But he
always said that the money you spent on necessities was boring; the money that was amusing to
spend was the money you spent on luxuries. For this he depended on his brother George. He did
55
not waste his charm on him. George was a serious respectable man and insensible to such
enticements. Once or twice he fell to Tom's promises of amendment and gave him considerable
sums in order that he might make a fresh start. On these Tom bought a motorcar and some very
nice jewellery. But when circumstances forced George to realise that his brother would never
settle down and he washed his hands of him, Tom, without a qualm, began to blackmail him. It
was not very nice for a respectable lawyer to find his brother shaking cocktails behind the bar of
his favourite restaurant or to see him waiting on the box-seat of a taxi outside his club. Tom said
that to serve in a bar or to drive a taxi was a perfectly decent occupation, but if George could
oblige him with a couple of hundred pounds he didn't mind for the honour of the family giving it
up. George paid.
Once Tom nearly went to prison. George was terribly upset. He went into the whole
disreputable affair. Really Tom had gone too far. He had been wild, thoughtless, selfish, but he had
never before done anything dishonest, by which George meant illegal; and if he were prosecuted he
would assuredly be convicted. But you cannot allow your only brother to go to gaol.
For twenty years Tom raced, gambled, philandered with the prettiest girls, danced, ate in the
most expensive restaurants, and dressed beautifully. He always looked аs if he had just stepped out
of a bandbox. Though he was forty-six you would never have taken him for more than thirty-five.
He was a most amusing companion and though you knew he was perfectly worthless you could
not but enjoy his society. He had an unfailing gaiety and incredible charm. I never grudged the
contributions he regularly levied on me for the necessities of his existence. I never lent him fifty
pounds without feeling that I was in his debt. Tom Ramsay knew everyone and everyone knew
Tom Ramsay. You could not approve of him but you could not help liking him.
Poor George, only a year older than his scapegrace brother, looked sixty. He had never taken
more than a fortnight's holiday in the year for a quarter of a century. He was in his office every
morning at nine-thirty and never left it till six. He was honest, hard-working and worthy. He had a
good wife, to whom he had never been unfaithful even in thought, and four daughters to whom he
was the best of fathers. He made a point of saving a third of his income and his plan was to retire
at fifty-five to a little house in the country where he proposed to cultivate his garden and play golf.
His life was blameless. He was glad that he was growing old because Tom was growing old too. He
rubbed his hands and said:
"It was all very well when Tom was young and good-looking, but he's only a year younger
than I аm. In four years he'll be fifty. He won't find life so еasу then. I shall have thirty thousand
pounds by the time I'm fifty. For twenty-five уears I've said that Tom would end in the gutter. And
we shall see how he likes that. We shall see if it really pays best to work or be idle." Poor George! I
sympathised with him. I wondered now as I sat down beside him what infamous thing Tom had
done. George was evidently very much upset.
"Do you know what's happened now?" he asked me.
I was prepared for the worst. I wondered if Tom had got into the hands of the police at last.
George could hardly bring himself to speаk.
"You're not going to deny that all mу life I'VE been hardworking, decent, respectable and
straightforward. After a life of industry and thrift I can look forward to retiring on a small income in gilt-
edged securities. I've done my duty in that station of life in which it has pleased Providence to place
me."
"True."
"And you can't deny that Tom has been an idle, worthless, dissolute and dishonorable rogue
all his life. If there were any justice he’d be in the workhouse."
"True."
George grew red in the face.
56
A few weeks ago he became engaged to a woman old enough to be his mother. And now
she's died and left him everything she had. Half a million pounds, a yacht, a house in London and
a house in the country."
George Ramsaу beat his clenched fist on the table.
"It's not fair, I tell you; it's not fair. Damn it, it's not fair. "
I could not help it. I burst into a shout of laughter as I looked at George's wrathful face, I
rolled in my chair; I very nearly fell on the floor. George never forgave me. But Tom often asked
me to excellent dinners in his charming house in Mayfair, and if he occasionally borrows a trifle
from me that is merely from force of habit. It is never more than a sovereign.

(By W. Somerset Maugham)

Proper Names

W. Somerset Maugham /'sAmqset 'mLm/


La Fontaine /'la:fqn'ten/
Ramsay /'rxmzI/

Notes

1. giddiness / 'gI- / n – легкомыслие, ветреность


2. laborious /lq'bLrIqs/ adj – трудолюбивый, работящий
3. larder n – кладовая
4. ascribe (sth to sth) v – приписывать (что-л.чему-л.)
5. perversity /-'vE: -/ n – извращенность
6. inconsequence /-'kPn -/ n – непоследовательность
7. deficient (in sth) /dI'f ISqnt /adj – лишенный чего-л.
8. burden n – бремя
9. enticement /-'taI -/ n – очарование, соблазн
10. amendment /-'mend - / n – исправление
11. qualms /kwRmz / n – сомнения в своей правоте, угрызения (совести)
12. blackmail v – шантажировать
13. box-seat n – место на козлах, сиденье водителя
14. gaol /dZeIl/ n – chiefly British, variant of jail
15. philander /fI'lxndq/ v – флиртовать, волочиться
16. band-box n – картонка (для шляп, лент и т.п.)
17. scapegrace n – повеса, шалопай
18. a fortnight n – Br.: two weeks
19. to end in the gutter – умереть в нищете
20. infamous /'Infqmqs/ n – имеющий дурную репутацию, бесчестный, пакостный
21. gilt-edged securities – ценные бумаги (shares that are considered safe)
22. rogue /rqVg/ n – негодяй
23. Mayfair /'meIfeq / n – a fashionable district of the West End, London, often used as synonym
of "fashionable and wealthy society".
24. sovereign /'sPvrIn / n – соверен, золотая монета в 1 фунт стерлингов, теперь вышедшая
из обращения.

57
Vocabulary Study

moral /'mPrql/ n мораль, поучение: the moral of a story, fable; moral adj
1. моральный, нравственный: a moral lesson; moral standards, principles, values,
support; 2. добродетельный, высоконравственный: a moral life, moral behaviour; Ant.
immoral; morals n нравы, нравственность: a person of loose morals, a decline in public
morals; morality n нравственное поведение, основы морали, этика: religious morality,
Christian morality; morale /mq'rRl/ n моральное состояние, настрой, тонус: the high
morale of the troops; Regular exercise helps boost one’s morale.

industry /'IndqstrI/ n трудолюбие: Both talent and industry are needed for success;
industrious /In'dAstrIqs/ adj трудолюбивый: industrious workers.

admirable /'xdmqrqbl / adj замечательный, восхитительный; admire /qd'maIq/ v


восхищаться, любоваться кем-л./чем-л.: She was admiring herself in the mirror.;
admiration (for sb/sth) n восхищение: She was filled with admiration for his industry.;
win sb’s admiration вызывать восхищение.

provide v 1. обеспечивать, предоставлять provide sth for sb, provide sb with sth: The
refugees were provided with tents. Tents were provided for the refugees. ; provide (for)
2. обеспечивать кого-л., заботиться о ком-л.: provide for one’s family, the retired, the
disabled, single mothers; The widow was well provided for.; 3. предусматривать (о
соглашении, договоре, законе и т. п.): The treaty provides for cuts in arms.; provision n
1. обеспечение, снабжение: the provision of tents for the refugees; 2. обеспечение,
предоставление (услуг, социальных пособий): the provision of welfare benefits for the
people; 3. положение, условие (договора, конституции и т. п.): the provisions of a treaty,
the constitution.

reconcile /'rekqnsaIl / v 1. мирить(ся): They became reconciled after a fierce quarrel.;


reconcile sb with sb: Bob’s parents tried to reconcile him with Tony.; 2. reconcile oneself
(be reconciled) to sth примирить(ся): They could not reconcile themselves to the loss. He
couldn’t easily be reconciled to the prospect of changing his lifestyle.; 3. примирять,
приводить в соответствие, согласовывать:It is impossible to reconcile these two theories.
We could not reconcile his fine conduct with his bad reputation.; reconciliation /"rekqnsIlI
'eISn /n примирение.

approval /-'u:- /n одобрение: He gave his approval to our plan. Ant. disapproval
неодобрение: He expressed his disapproval of my decision.; approve of /-'u:- / v одобрять
кого-л./что-л.: He doesn't approve of his wife's smoking. His choice can't be approved of. Ant.
disapprove of не одобрять: They disapproved of the MP’s election tactics.; approve sth (a
resolution, plans) утверждать (резолюцию, планы): Parliament approved the bill in its second
reading.

prudence /'- /n 1. благоразумие, предусмотрительность; 2. осторожность,


осмотрительность; 3. расчетливость, бережливость: I admire her for her prudence and
common sense.; 'prudent adj благоразумный, предусмотрительный, расчетливый: It is
prudent to wear sturdy boots when travelling.
58
suspect / sq'spekt / v подозревать: They suspected Tony. The police suspected murder.; suspect
sb of sth подозревать кого-л. в чем-л.: The visitor told Sherlock Holmes that the police
suspected his wife of the crime.; suspect /'sAs -/n подозреваемый, подозрительный человек:
The police arrested the suspect; suspicion / sq'spI- / n подозрение; arouse suspicion
вызывать подозрение: His strange behaviour aroused everybody's suspicion. ; suspicious
/sq'spISqs / adj 1. недоверчивый, подозрительный: As he grew old, he became more suspicious.;
2. вызывающий подозрение, подозрительный: a suspicious look, person, etc.

hilarious / -'leqrIqs / adj (шумно-)веселый: a hilarious party.

rumour /'ru:-/ n слух, молва, толки: Rumour has it that ... – Ходят слухи, что...;
There's a rumour that ... – Говорят, что...; rumour v распространять слухи: It is
rumoured that the company is on the brink of bankruptcy.

loan n заем, ссуда, что-л. данное для временного пользования: This car is a
loan, not a gift.; loan v давать взаймы, ссужать: He loaned me $50.; borrow
(from) v занимать, брать в долг (у кого-л.): borrow money, a bike, a shirt from a
friend; lend (lent, lent) (to) v давать взаймы кому-л.: lend money, a bike, a shirt
to a friend; owe /ou / v 1.быть должным, задолжать кому-л. : How much do I owe
you? He owes her $25 for the ticket. ; 2. быть в долгу (перед кем-л.); быть обязанным
(кому-л.): Не owes everything to his mother. I owe it to you that I am still alive.

luxury /'lAkSqrI / n роскошь: to live in luxury; Telephone used to be a luxury. Ant.


necessity /- 'e - / необходимость: They gave him food and other necessities. A
fridge is a necessity nowadays.; luxurious /lAg'zjVqrIqs / adj роскошный: a
luxurious hotel; luxurious surroundings.

settle (down) in v 1. поселять(ся), водворять(ся), обустраивать(ся), привыкать (к новому


месту, работе): settle (down) in a house, in a town, etc.; He settled down for good in London. I
haven’t yet settled in in my new job: I still find it rather strange.; 2. settle down успокаивать(ся),
обретать равновесие: The excitement settled down. – Волнение улеглось. Go away for a
moment while I try to settle the baby down.; 3. settle down to sth приниматься за что-л./ делать
что-л. (как правило, действие длительное и совершается спокойно): Не settled down to a quiet
life. We settled down to a quiet discussion of English traditions.; settle down to do sth
приниматься делать что-л.: She took a seat and settled down to wait.

prosecute /'prPsIkju:t/ v преследовать судебным порядком: He was prosecuted for car theft
/stealing a car.; prosecution n 1. судебное преследование: They could face prosecution over
the incident.; 2. обвинение (сторона в судебном процессе): A famous lawyer has been asked to
appear for the prosecution.

convict / - '- / v признавать виновным, осудить: The criminal was convicted of murder.;
convict / '- / n осужденный, заключенный, каторжник: an escaped convict.

grudge sb sth v неохотно давать, жалеть что-л. кому-л.: They grudged him the very food he
ate. He grudged paying so much for such poor service.

59
levy (on) /'levI / v облагать (налогом): to levy a tax on imports.

worthy /'wWDI/ adj достойный (кого-л./чего-л.): He is a worthy opponent.; Her children are
worthy of her. The results are worthy of praise. Ant. unworthy недостойный.

idle /aIdl/ adj праздный: When this child is left idle, he makes mischief (безобразничает).; idle
gossip; idle curiosity; idleness n праздность, безделье: He lives in idleness.

thrift n бережливость, экономность; thrifty adj бережливый, экономный: a thrifty housewife.

habit привычка: Recently he has got a habit of rising early. Note the use of the gerund; get into
the habit (of doing sth) – приобрести плохую привычку, приучить кого-л. к плохой
привычке (делать что-л.): The children have got into the (bad) habit of switching on the T.V. as
soon as they come in from school.; Note: приучать кого-л. делать что-л. – train sb to do sth:
How can I train the child to be tidy?; get sb out of the habit (of doing sth) – отучить кого-л.:
Can't you get this child out of the habit of repeating everything I say?; from force of habit в силу
привычки.

Exercise 1. Translate from Russian into English. Work in pairs and check with the key.

1. Путешественники долго любовались 1. The travellers admired a lovely view for


прекрасным видом. a long time.
2. Произведения старых мастеров всегда 2. The works of Old Masters will always
будут вызывать наше восхищение. win our our admiration.
подозревать
3. «Ничто не заставит меня подозревать 3. “Nothing will make me suspect you of
вас в этом
этом преступлении. Вы не способны that crime. You are incapable of
совершить убийство!» – воскликнула Элен. committing murder!” exclaimed Helen.
4. Инспектор знал, что странное поведение 4. The inspector knew that the chemist’s
аптекаря вызвало у всех подозрение, но strange behaviour had aroused everybody’s
он понимал, что этот человек невиновен. suspicion but he understood that the
man was not guilty (was innocent).
5. «Поведение вашего секретаря кажется 5. “Your secretary’s behaviour seems
мне подозрительным. Он давно у вас suspicious to me. Has he been working
работает?» – спросил Джексон у for you long?” Jackson asked his partner.
партнера.
6. Своим успехом художник был обязан 6. The artist owed his success to hard
упорному труду и таланту. work and talent.
7. «Спасибо, доктор, – сказал Смит. – “Thank you, doctor,” said Smith. “I owe
Вам я обязан тем, что теперь здоров». it to you that I’m well now.”
8. «Я не одобряю твою привычку 7. “I don’t approve of your habit of rising
вставать так поздно», – ругал Уилсон so late,” Wilson scolded his nephew.
племянника.
9. Мать старалась убедить Ричарда, что его 9. Richard’s mother tried to convince him
стиль жизни недостоин разумного that his life style was not worthy of a
взрослого человека. Она потребовала, sensible grown-up man. She demanded
чтобы он, наконец, принялся за серьезное
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дело. that he (should) get to do some serious
work at last.
10. «Пять лет прошло с тех пор, как мы 10. “Five years has passed since we
переехали в Суффолк и поселились в moved to Suffolk and settled (down) in a
небольшой деревушке», – писала Джейн. little village,” wrote Jane.
11. Трудолюбие должно быть 11. Industry must be rewarded and
вознаграждено, а праздность наказана. idleness punished.
12. Мэри не могла примириться с 12. Mary couldn’t reconcile herself to the
мыслью, что ее брат бездельничает. thought that her brother was idle.
13. Вряд ли возможно примирить эти две 13. It is hardly possible to reconcile these
точки зрения. two viewpoints.
14. Надо отучать ребенка от привычки 14. You should get the child out of the
лгать и приучать его быть правдивым. habit of lying and train him to be truthful.
Моральные принципы необходимо Moral principles must be instilled in
прививать в детстве. childhood.
15. «Почему бы тебе не сходить в спорт- 15. “Why don’t you go to the gym? It’s
зал? Это так поднимает настроение, – so uplifting,” urged Kate. “It certainly
уговаривала Кейт. – У меня это точно boosts my morale.”
поднимает тонус».
16. То, что несколько десятилетий назад 16. What several decades ago was
считалось предметом роскоши, теперь стало considered a luxury has now become a
стало необходимостью. necessity.
17. Нарушение авторского права, продажа 17. Copyright violations, counterfeit
контрафактной продукции преследуются по product sales are prosecuted (are subject
закону. to prosecution).

Exercise 2. Translate into English.


1. «Как отучить этого упрямого ребенка от привычки читать, лежа в
постели?» – воскликнула Нэнси.
2. Дик считал унизительным просить у Toмa денег взаймы.
3. Он гордился тем, что никогда ничего не был должен родственникам своей
жены.
4. Смит был совершенно уверен в своих знаниях и очень смутился, обнаружив
ошибку.
5. С ТИЛЬ Свифта всегда восхищал литературных критиков.
6. Джексон не одобрял намерения своего партнера, подозревая его в
неискренности.
7. В людях нас часто восхищают такие качества, которых недостает нам самим.
8. Около четырех лет тому назад человек по имени Стоун поселился в этой
деревне и начал учительствовать.
9. Джордж вел высоконравственный образ жизни, прекрасно обеспечивал
свою семью и был уверен, что судьба вознаградит его за трудолюби е,
благоразумие и бережливость.
10. Распространение наркотиков преследуется по закону.

61
11. «А вам не показалось подозрительным поведение Брауна?» – спросил
офицер.
12. В проекте бюджета (a draft budget) на следующий год
предусматривается широкая программа социальных услуг для семей с
низким доходом(low-income).
13. «Я не понимаю и не могу одобрить твое враждебное отношение к
человеку, которому мы стольким обязаны», – упрекнул Сид жену.
14. «Не говорите Джону о своих подозрениях, – предостерег Ричард. –
Это унизительно для него, а вам будет неловко, если окажется, что вы
ошибаетесь».
15. По слухам, новый фильм этого режиссера не удался.
16. У Марка появилась неприятная привычка входить в комнату, не
постучав в дверь.
17. «Как можно бездельничать, ко гда у тебя еще масса дел!» –
воскликнула Мэри с возмущением.

Exercise 3. Find in the text the words and phrases listed below, then close
the book and reproduce them in the context of the story:
industry, provide for, reconcile, disapprove, suspect, rumo ur, luxury, settle
down, worthy, idle, thrift, grudge, from force of habit.

Reading Comprehension

1. Find in the text and paraphrase or explain.


1. … the ant spends a laborious summer gathering its winter store ...
2. Winter comes and the ant is comfortably provided for …
3. … the other day I saw George lunching by himself in a restaurant.
4. I’m not in hilarious spirits …
5. Why don't you chuck him?
6. You must know by now he is quite hopeless.
7. I suppose every family has a black sheep.
7. Tom had been a sore trial to his for twenty years.
8. Rumours of his doings reached his relations from time to time …
9. He was charming and careless of other people's feelings.
10. I have never met anyone to whom it was more difficult to refuse a loan.
11. He always said that the money you spent on necessities was boring …
12. … the money that was amusing to spend was the money you spent on luxuries.
13. For this he depended on his brother George.
14. George was... insensible to such enticements.
15. Once or twice he fell to Tom's promises of amendment …
16. ... gave him considerable sums in order that he might make a fresh start.
17. He washed his hands of him.
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18. Tom, without a qualm, began to blackmail him.
19. He had an unfailing gaiety ...
20. He always looked as if he had just stepped out of a band-box.
21. I never grudged the contributions he regularly levied on me for the necessities of his existence.
22. He had never taken more than a fortnight's holiday in the year for a quarter of a century.
23. He made a point of saving a third of his income …
24. For twenty-five years I've said that Tom would end in the gutter.
25. We shall see if it really pays best to work or be idle.
26. … what infamous thing Tom had done.
27. If there were any justice, he’d be in the workhouse.
28. … as I looked at George’s wrathful face … .

2. Find in the text and translate into Russian.


1. I could not help thinking of this fable when the other day I saw George …
2. Though you knew that he was perfectly worthless you could not but enjoy his society.
3. You could not approve of him but you could not help liking him.
4. I could not help it. I burst into a shout of laughter.

Discussion

1. Do you think that the following attributes apply to the characters of the story? Give
arguments to support your opinion.
Noble, petty, broad-minded, narrow-minded, selfish, selfless, considerate, inconsiderate,
industrious, idle, ruthless /'u:- / (безжалостный), honest, dishonest, cynical, cowardly,
bold, grateful, ungrateful, wicked /'wIkId / (злобный, безнравственный), incorrigible /-'kP-/
(неисправимый), responsible, irresponsible, conscientious /"- SI'enSqs/ (совестливый,
добросовестный), scrupulous, unscrupulous, harmless, cruel, jealous (of), envious.

2. What is the author's attitude towards the characters and the situation? Choose the words
that may help you from the list below and give arguments to support your statements.
Tolerant, intolerant, sympathetic, benevolent /- 'ne- / (благодушный, благожелательный),
condescending (снисходительный), hostile, indignant, satirical, ironical, tragic, humorous,
derisive /-'raIsIv/ (насмешливый).

Stylistic Analysis

1. Write a summary of the short story “The Ant and the Grasshopper.”
2. What is the author’s message? How can you tie it in with the moral of the fable by La
Fontaine? Which of the two brothers do you think is the center of the author’s
attention: the ‘Ant’ type or the ‘Grasshopper’ type?
3. Analyse the composition of the story. What purpose does the opening passage serve?
Do you feel intrigued? Why?

63
4. What is the stylistic device used in the title? What is implied in it? Could you have
anticipated the kind of ending the author gives to the story?
5. The story is told in the first person. What is the role of the narrator? Analyse his
speech.
6. What stylistic devices are used in the sentences “He looked as though the burden of the
whole world sat on his shoulders.”, “he looked as if he had just stepped out of a bandbox.”
and “I never grudged the contributions he ...”? How is the narrator’s attitude to the
brothers revealed through these words?
7. Analyse the paragraph beginning with the words “Once Tom nearly went to prison…”
Prove that the device of represented uttered speech in it is interlaced with the story-
teller’s narrative. What purpose does the device serve?
8. How does the author contrast Tom with George? Pick out the epithets that describe the
brothers.
9. How is the effect of suspense achieved in the story?
10. Point out the instances of repetition and climax. What purpose do they serve?

Grammar: Means of Expressing Concession

Informal: though (though can also be used at the end), even though, although, but
e. g. Although Tom was an irresponsible man, his friends liked him for his charm and gaiety.
Tom was an irresponsible man; his friends liked him, though. Tom was an irresponsible man,
but his friends liked him.

Formal: in spite of/despite + noun/gerund, in spite of/despite the fact that…, regardless of +
noun/gerund, regardless of the fact that…, regardless of how / what / why…
e. g. Despite his many faults, people liked Tom. Despite the fact that Tom was sinful and
irresponsible, people liked him.
yet, nevertheless, however
e. g. Tom was careless of other people’s feelings. Nevertheless, they coudn’t help enjoying his
company.
no matter how / what
e. g. No matter how selfish Tom was, people took to him. No matter how hard George tried to
get Tom to settle down, it was all no use.
whatever, for all + a noun
e. g. Whatever his sins (For all his sins), Tom was regarded by many as a jolly good fellow.

Belles-Lettres Style: adjective + though / as + subject + verb


e. g. Sinful though /as he was, his friends always forgave him.
Note that a comma must be used to separate a concessive clause from the main clause.

Exercise 1. Translate into English.

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1. Как ни убеждала себя Сью, что нет оснований для беспокойства, взять себя в руки не
удавалось.
2. У Ли сильный акцент. Как бы медленно он ни говорил, его все равно трудно
понимать.
3. Хотя сейчас только четыре часа дня, но на дорогах уже страшные пробки.
4. «Хоть я и не одобряю твое решение, все же должен признать, что ты имеешь право на
собственное мнение», – сказал отец Роберту.
5. Мистер Гринвуд был уверен, что жена верна ему. И все же ревновал ее ко всем
мужчинам.
6. Теперь Том был очень богат. Однако иногда, очевидно, в силу привычки одалживал
небольшие суммы у друзей.
7. Невзирая на то, что Джордж сам был очень обеспеченным человеком, он завидовал
брату.
8. «Что бы ни говорили, – воскликнул Лэрри, – привычки подобного рода нельзя
поощрять!»
9. Несмотря на то, что девушка решилась, наконец, порвать с этим человеком,
осуществить свое намерение оказалось для нее не так просто.
10. «Я хочу, чтобы ты знал, – сказал Стив другу, – что бы ни случилось, ты всегда
можешь рассчитывать на меня».

Exercise 2. Find in your reading materials 10 cases of the grammar under study.

Phrasal Verbs

draw out – 1. to withdraw money from a bank account, to encourage sb to be less shy;
draw up – to compose or write in a set form (about a contract, a list, a plan)

fall apart – to break down, collapse;


fall back on/upon – to turn to sb/sth for support;
fall in with – to agree with someone else’s ideas, way of behaving, etc.;
fall out (with) – to quarrel;
fall through – to fail to be completed

get away with – to escape, to go unpunished;


get on – to be/continue on harmonious terms

go about – 1. to set about, to undertake, 2. to perform or do ( in your usual way);


go along with to agree with;
go at = go for – to attack;
go into – 1. to investigate thoroughly, 2. to join/enter a group, area of activity, business;
go out – to become extinguished;
go over – 1. to repeat, 2. to examine thoroughly = go through;

65
go on/by – to base an opinion or decision on sth

Fill in the correct particle(s).

1. After all the major differences were settled, the two companies’ lawyers drew … the contract.
2. Richard’s wife urged him to go to the bank and draw … some money.
3. Their views on education fell … ours.
4. The siblings fell … over their inheritance.
5. The rickety chair fell … .
6. Unfortunately our plans fell … at the last minute.
7. If the worst came to the worst, he always had his friends to fall … .
8. These boys must not be allowed to get … shoplifting.
9. Sally is not the gossiping type. So she gets … well with the neighbours.
10. Only a few of the school-leavers decided to go … teaching.
11. He watched the candle go … .
12. How do you go … writing your novels?
13. The nurse went … her chores in a responsible way.
14. The examiner went … the students’ papers.
15. We have some slight grounds for suspicion but, I’m afraid, not enough evidence to go … .
16. When the old man got drunk, he went … the boys. On such nights they tried to keep out of
his way.

Listening Comprehension

Audiotext 7 Unidentified Flying Objects

1. Listen to the text one time and report the gist of it.

The words below will help you understand the text:


a UFO /'ju'ef 'qV / n – an unidentified flying object
saucer / 'L / n – блюдце (a flying saucer)
hover /'hP- / v – парить, зависать
barmy = crazy
craft n – судно, корабль (aircraft, spacecraft; Note: an aircraft – many, few aircraft)

2. Listen again and reproduce the text in detail


3. Listen to the passages that your teacher will read and try to fill in the gaps with the
exact words of the text as you remember them.
4. Discuss the following:
- Serious-minded people are sure they have seen UFOs.
66
- There are people who claim they have met the creatures that flew those strange aircraft.
- Are you a UFO sceptic or do you accept the possibility that aliens have visited Earth?

MODERN ISSUES

It Takes All Sorts to Make a World

Read the texts with the help of a dictionary and do the assignments below.

Text 1 Estée Lauder Restructure is Far From a


Cosmetic Change
Proper Names
Estée Lauder / e'ste 'l Ldq/
Leonard /'lenqd/
Ronald /'rPnqld /

ELIZABETH HURLEY'S problems with her boyfriend Hugh Grant filled the headlines
at precisely the moment she became the new advertising face of Estée Lauder, the US
cosmetics conglomerate. But her personal travails have proved a mere irritation compared
with the strange doings of the Lauder family.
It is the interaction of three key personalities which has led directly to 12 per cent of one of
the most exclusive family-owned companies in the US being offered for sale to the public
today, with the aim of raising about $385 million.
There is Estée, the founder now in her late 80s but still in control and there are her two
sons, in their 50s and greying although still known in the company as “the boys”. Leonard,
the elder, has proved to be a steady, even brilliant, chief executive of the company, while
Ronald the deeply indebted younger son, wants little to do with it. Put simply, the share issue
is designed to solve the problem of Ronald's debts.
Ronald likes to spend money on a huge scale. He has been buying art since he was a
young man and no longer has enough space in his two-floor Park Avenue apartment in
Manhattan to accommodate his collection of medieval, 20th century and Chinese paintings
and statuary. Insiders estimate he has spent about $100 million on it all.
He owns several estates, including a Long Island country house with a 24-seat private
cinema. He once spent $2.5 million to buy out a neighbour who planned to build a house that
would have partially blocked the sea view from his estate in upstate New York.
Ronald owes Estée Lauder and its bankers, JP Morgan, $209 million. He has no wish to
fulfill his mother's dream that he should share the company with Leonard, so the logical step
was to restructure the company's share holdings and allow him to withdraw some of his
wealth in cash.
When it was mooted last year, Leonard did not like the idea. This was hardly surprising
since, unlike his brother, he has devoted most of his life to the family firm. Leonard became
chief executive in 1982 and, under his benign and patrician leadership, sales have risen
nearly fourfold to $3 billion. Nearly 40 cents of every dollar spent on US department-store
cosmetics goes to Estee Lauder.
The company was started by his mother in 1946. She sold homemade creams in a New
York beauty parlour before deciding to sell them through department stores rather than

67
pharmacies as the established perfume brands did. By the time Ronald was growing up,
however, the business was well-established and the Lauders were rich.
His mother appears to have refused him nothing. “She is very indulgent of him,” one family
friend commented to The Wall Street Journal recently. “Leonard is her buddy, and Ronald is
her child.” Although he travelled a lot, Ronald stayed close to his mother, with houses that
neighbour hers in New York State and Palm Beach. He took little direct part in running the
company — although his $3.5million salary as a senior director is still $500.000 higher than
Leonard's.
In 1992, Ronald asked Leonard for a large loan to fund his growing European investments
on top of the $68 million loan he already had from the company. It was a step too far and
Leonard would not cooperate, lawyers were brought in for the first time to handle
negotiations between the normally close-knit family. Ronald got his way as usual and a $125
million loan was arranged with JP Morgan, backed by his preferred stock.
(From The Times.)

Vocabulary Study

Exercise 1. Find in the text the English equivalents for the words and phrases listed below
and reproduce them in the context of the article.
1. странные дела (похождения) семьи Лаудер
2. выставлены на продажу
3. с целью добыть (деньги)
4. трезвомыслящий/надежный (человек)
5. предназначен для решения проблемы
6. в огромных масштабах
7. разместить коллекцию
8. произведения живописи эпохи Средневековья
9. владеет недвижимостью
10. частный кинотеатр на 24 места
11. загораживать вид на море
12. исполнить мечту матери
13. получить назад часть состояния наличными
14. объем продаж увеличился в четыре раза
15. она потакала ему
16. Рональд добился своего

Exercise 2. Translate into Russian.


1. A motley crew they are, their doings as dark as they are ludicrous (John Simon).
2. God will punish him for his misdoings.
3. The sign on the house says ‘For Sale’; shall we find out the price?
4. Will the new product be on sale as early as next month?
5. I got this suede jacket cheap at a sale.

68
6. He was looking for a steady, hard-working woman, but such women were hard to come by,
he was known to say.
7. “I hear you got yourself a steady girl-friend, Jimmy?” Uncle Ted inquired. “Oh, yeah,”
Jimmy smiled awkwardly.
8. Tom entertained on a lavish scale disregarding the expense.
9. Roy is a real estate agent. He specializes in buying and selling real estate.
10. Four hundred inmates were crowded into a prison intended to accommodate 200.
11. The restaurant accommodates 50 customers.
12. It soon became known that George had withdrawn $5,000 from his bank account.
13. The value of the real estate has increased ten-fold since he so foolishly sold it.
14. They were very indulgent parents giving their children all that money could buy. They
indulged their children’s every whim.

Speaking
1. Prepare to speak about and discuss.
1. Estee Lauder is a household name, isn’t it? What line of business do they specialize
in?
2. Why did that family business decide to go public? How did the company expect to
benefit from the i.p.o. (initial public offering)?
3. The Lauders are a close-knit family, aren’t they? Speak about the relationships in the
family: between Leonard and his mother, Ronald and his mother, Ronald and Leonard.
4. Describe the brothers – the thrifty one and the spendthrift. Who do they remind you of?

2. Roleplay. Work in pairs. Study your roles for a few minutes and decide what you will say.
Imagine you are the two brothers. Leonard is having it out with Ronald. The younger
brother has crossed the line. Leonard resents his extravagance and is anxious about the family
business. He refuses to indulge any more of Ronald’s whims. Still, keep in mind what sort of
people and what sort of family they are. And, of course, you know the outcome, don’t you?

Text 2 Artists Persuade Strangers to Share Secrets for All to See


NEW YORK—The woman in the storefront crooked her finger and silently beckoned.
"What, me?" a man on the other side of the glass asked nervously, glancing over his
shoulder. "I have nothing to tell."
The woman, dressed in white like a 19th-century washerwoman, put her fingers to her lips
and, with a wooden clothespin, underlined the words stenciled on the glass: "Air Your Dirty
Laundry. 100% Confidential. Anonymous. Free!"
With that, the man picked up a clipboard with a blank sheet of paper and an envelope
stamped "secret", and began to write. After a few seconds, he sealed his words — about a
fleeting folly, perhaps? A mean-spirited act that had tormented him for decades? — and
placed it in a bucket on the sidewalk. Only when he was well out of sight did the woman
open the envelope, read the message and then tape it to a window full of secrets for the world
to see.
Such exhibitionism is all part of "Inside/Out," a performance piece that opened on May 4 in
69
a storefront at 112 West 44th Street in Manhattan. The two performing artists, Laura Barnett
and Sandra Spannan, invite anyone and everyone to share their darkest recesses.
As Ms. Barnett posted the anonymous missives, Ms. Spannan painted portraits from a
storefront porch.
"Inside/Out," a one-week engagement, is one of several performance spaces operated by the
nonprofit arts group Chashama.
It's hard to resist the temptation to compare sins. On the first evening, there was this:
"I am dating a married man & getting financial compensation in exchange for the guilt. I’m
25 & he's a millionaire. It pays to be young."
And this:
"The hermit crab was still alive when I threw it down the trash chute."
"I haven't slept with my husband in a year & I am about to start an affair with…"
"I haven't yet visited my dead parent's grave."
People come up with unsavory truths about themselves. Some confess that they are slobs
in their personal habits, scruffy and slothful, their homes a mess littered with all sorts of
indescribable junk. Many are disagreeable to spouses, spiteful and nagging (women), grumpy
and aggressive (men), stressed-out, irritable and rude (both).
Laura Barnett and Sandra Spannan collected and displayed confessions from passing people
and painted their portraits as well.
"My goal was to have people reveal their innermost thoughts and in a way that is entirely
confidential," said Ms. Barnett, 41, who works as a casting director and producer, and
teaches theater in Brooklyn. "What I found through this project is that no matter how much
corporate culture tries to homogenize its citizens, people to the core try to reveal themselves
on a basic level."
Not that the women aren't often overwhelmed. "Some of those things are really, really sad,"
Ms. Barnett said. "And afterwards, I need to take a bath."
(From the New York Times.)

Reading Comprehension

Find in the text and paraphrase or explain.


1. …a fleeting folly …
2. … a mean-spirited act that had tormented him …
3. Only when he was well out of sight …
4. … did the woman open the envelope …
5. … to share their darkest recesses.
6. … they are slobs in their personal habits …
7. … scruffy and slothful …
8. … their homes a mess littered with all sorts of indescribable junk.
9. …spiteful and nagging (women) …
10. … grumpy and aggressive (men) …
11. My goal was to have people reveal their innermost thoughts.
12. … to the core …
13. Not that the women aren’t often overwhelmed.

Speaking
70
1. Prepare to speak about and discuss.
1. Why the bizarre paraphernalia: a wooden clothespin, a bucket, a 19th century
washerwoman’s white clothes? What is the significance of them?
2. In what way are passers-by expected to ‘air their dirty laundry’? Why are people urged to
reveal embarrassing personal secrets? Why do they feel the need to do it?
3. What do people write about themselves?
4. Do you think it is possible to speak about the therapeutic /"Terq'pju:tIk / value of these
outpourings / - 'pL- / ( излияний )?
5. Do you agree that the project is the same kind of exhibitionism as TV reality shows?
6. Can you speak about your own weaknesses? Are you aware of any?
7. What is your strong point?

2. Roleplay. Work in pairs. Study your roles for a few minutes and decide what you will say.
You go for a job interview. Routine questions are asked and answered. Then out of the
blue they query “What’s your weak point?” This, of course, is a loaded question. Do not
be put off. Give a clever (and witty) reply. A sense of humour is a plus. And here is a list
of positions you might choose to apply for: a teacher or a lecturer, a social worker, a civil
servant, an interpreter, a translator, a TV presenter, an interior designer, an advertising
copy writer, a newspaper reporter, a personal assistant, a company executive. You will
have to invent your own weak points (e. g. bored by repetitive tasks, a late sleeper and so
on).
3. Look at the picture and tell a story …
… about the young couple in it who had moved into a new flat and were home-decorating. A
lot of things needed doing. Let your imagination take over and talk about the details of their
relationship, their short-term plans and long-term ambitions, the events that you think might
happen and things that would probably not happen.
To keep the narrative going and make it more dramatic you need to create suspense. So
instead of saying: “He bumped into her at the supermarket” you can say: “What happened (to
him) was that he bumped into her at the supermarket”. And instead of saying: “He asked for
her phone number” you can say “What he did was ask for her phone number”. Some other
narrative techniques to involve the listener in the story are And what do you think she did?, You
can guess how she felt after that, And then do you know what he did?, Imagine his surprise
when …, After that …, You’ll never guess what happened next, Finally/eventually ….
Work in small groups, then report your stories to the rest of the class and compare
them.
4. Summarize the Russian article in English and comment on the issue raised.

Вся жизнь – игра, и гены в ней актеры


Джейсон Даллас всегда объяснял свое желание рисковать особенностями характера.
Затем он узнал, что ученые из научно-исследовательского центра Фреда Хатчисона в
Сиэтле обнаружили у мышей связь между наследственностью и стремлением к риску.
Теперь Даллас убежден, что у него генетическая предрасположенность к риску, и
ученые считают, что не без оснований.
«Это у меня в крови, — говорит Даллас. — Мне часто доводилось слышать эти слова,
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но теперь я понимаю, что они значат».
Новые открытия в области генетики человека заставляют задуматься о том,
насколько люди способны контролировать себя. Недавно были обнаружены гены,
которые, предположительно, предопределяют склонность к полноте, способность
танцевать или пристрастие к курению.
Некоторым может понравиться подкрепленная научными доказательствами мысль,
что они неповинны в своих не слишком положительных качествах, поскольку она
позволяет им снять с себя ответственность и освобождает их от чувства вины и неуве-
ренности в себе. Другие испытывают чувство обреченности, так как ДНК нельзя
исправить, в отличие от традиционных причин, которыми принято объяснять личную
несостоятельность, например, недисциплинированность или тяжелое детство. А кого-
то разочарует то, что их достижения ни в коей мере не зависят от их собственных
стараний.
Родителям тоже приходится переосмысливать свою роль. Возможно, в непутевости
их чад виновато не столько неправильное воспитание, сколько плохая
наследственность. Может быть, будущий нобелевский лауреат появился вовсе не
благодаря их педагогическим талантам?
Вопрос в том, что повлечет за собой признание ключевой роли наследственности:
всеобщую терпимость и великодушие или всплеск предрассудков.
Правда ли, что поведение передается с ДНК?
Может показаться, что у биологов есть объяснение непонятного человеческого
поведения. А вера в то, что генетика сможет прояснить метафизические аспекты
человеческого существования, для некоторых людей становится чем-то вроде
логического продолжения надежды на излечение. Возможно, потому, что доверие к
этой науке возросло.
Говорит Стивен Пинкер, психолог из Гарвардского университета: «У нас есть
неоспоримые доказательства того, что некоторые характеристики передаются по
наследству. Думаю, что они влияют на наше поведение в быту».
Друзья и родственники, обеспокоенные поведением, которое кажется им нездоровым
или ведущим к саморазрушению, иногда подозревают, что попытка списать все на
гены — лишь удобное объяснение.
Однако в наркологическом центре Хейзелден в штате Миннесота к учению о
наследственности относятся серьезно. «Когда человек узнает, что риск возникновения
пристрастия к алкоголю почти наполовину обусловлен наследственностью, он может
избавиться от чувства вины, которое препятствует выздоровлению», — утверждает
главный врач центра Марвин Сеппала.
Когда наследственность берет верх над детскими переживаниями, через призму
которых принято рассматривать нестандартное поведение, родители, раньше
винившие себя в отклонениях, которыми страдают их дети, тоже чувствуют некоторое
облегчение.
Некоторые тучные люди надеются, что новые научные данные помогут смягчить от-
рицательное отношение к людям с избыточным весом.
Другие люди опасаются, что, как только определенные типы поведения, которые
раньше приписывались личному выбору, будут восприниматься как наследственные,
следующим шагом станет не терпимое отношение к другим, не похожим на
окружающих людей, а стремление вмешаться.
(Известия: «Дайджест Мировых СМИ». )
The words below will help you summarize the article.
рисковать – to take risks
наследственность – heredity /-'redItI/
ген – a gene
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нобелевский лауреат – a Nobel /nqV'bel/ prize winner

Listening and Speaking

Audiotext 8 Late to Bed and Late to Rise? It’s Not a Sign of Sloth

1. Listen to the text one time and report the gist of it.
The words below will help you understand the text:
almanac /'Llmqnxk /n – альманах
be a drag (on sb/sth) – быть обузой (для кого-л./чего-л.)
virtue n – добродетель
have bearing (on sth) – иметь отношение (к), влияние (на)
assessment n – оценка (reassessment – переоценка)
outspoken adj – откровенный, прямой (высказывая свои мысли)
prejudice /'preGqdIs / n – предрассудок
owl /aVl/ n – сова
lark n – жаворонок
species /'spJSJz / n – биологический вид
Note: a species – two / many / few species
DNA – ДНК
2. Listen again and reproduce it in detail.
3. Do you agree?
- Sleeping habits were a measure of a person’s character in the past.
- In modern times this approach does not apply any more.
- The most important factor in determining to which type a person belongs
(owls or larks) is not will power or ambition but DNA.

Audiotext 9 For Generation ‘X’ a Self-Help Magazine

1. Listen to the text one time and report the gist of it.
The words and phrases below will help you understand the text:
stack v – складывать ( в книгохранилище, стеллажах)
doomed to failure – обреченный на неудачу
seek solace /'sPlqs/ – искать утешение
bimonthly (magazine) /baI'-/ adj – выходящий два раза в месяц
scorn (sth) v – отнестись к чему-л. с пренебрежением
testimony /'testImqnI/ n – зд. свидетельство, рекомендация
tip n – совет, подсказка
2. Listen again and reproduce it in detail.
3. Do you agree?

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- A divorce magazine is a great help to new divorcees.
- Divorced people need to be taught survival skills.
- Lawyers, psychologists, accountants – the divorce industry – have
an opportunity to market themselves through this magazine.
- With the divorce rate steadily climbing, a divorce magazine of this kind
is sure to have a high circulation.
- Some failed marriages last for years for four main reasons:
1) attachment or force of habit; 2) fear: a known evil can be preferable to an imaginary evil;
3) secret rewards: some people like to fight, to relate their misery to their friends; 4) love: if you
really love someone you can tolerate the fact that you also hate him.

Writing
Write an essay on the following topic.
“A person’s home is as much a reflection of his personality as the clothes he wears, the food he
eats and the friends with whom he spends his time”.
Follow these guidelines:
- a person’s social background;
- educational background and cultural standards, tastes, pastimes;
- traits of character, habits (tidy, untidy, a compulsive cleaner, scruffy clothes, slovenly habits;
carefree, easy-going, gregarious, a loner, reserved, self-contained; eccentric, conventional, etc.).

Grammar Revision: Perfect Continuous Tenses

Exercise 1. Translate from Russian into English. Work in pairs and check with the key.

1. «Вы подготовили текст моего 1. “ Have you written the text for my presentation
выступления на презентации? Я жду уже speech? I’ve been waiting for twenty
двадцать минут», – потребовал директор. minutes,” demanded the director.
2. «Мы здесь уже неделю, и все это время 2. “We’ve been here for a week and it’s
идет дождь. Еще не было ни одного been raining all this time. There hasn’t been
солнечного дня»,– пожаловалась Элис. a single sunny day,” complained Alice.
3. Вдруг что-то заставило его обернуться. 3. Suddenly something made him turn
Желтое такси появилось из-за угла. Неужели round. A yellow taxi had emerged from
оно следовало за ним? around the corner. Had it been following
him?
4. Вот уже час, как он играет на скрипке. 4. It is an hour since he has been playing
the violin.
5. Вот уже несколько дней, как Сью была 5. It was several days since Sue had been
больна. Все это время ее преданная подруга ill. All that time her faithful friend had been
ухаживала за ней. nursing her.
6. Уже пять месяцев, как Митчелл заведует 6. It is five months since Mitchell has been
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лабораторией и научилась многому за это running the laboratory and has learned a lot
время. in that time.
7. Элиза была совершенно измучена: весь 7. Eliza was exhausted: all day she had
день она бегала по поручениям. been running errands.
8. Лица у мальчишек были раскрасневшиеся, 8. The boy’s faces were flushed, and their
и мать заподозрила что-то неладное. «Вы mother suspected that something was
дрались?» – спросила она. Теперь она уже wrong. “Have you been fighting?” she
была уверена, что они дрались. asked. She was sure now that they had
been fighting.
9. «Я вот все думаю, знаешь ли, почему бы 9. “I’ve been thinking, you know, why
нам не устроить нашу свадьбу на корабле?» don’t we have our wedding party on board
– предложил Тед своей невесте. a ship?” Ted suggested to his fiancée.
10. «Вы попусту тратили все это время. Все 10. “You’ve been wasting your time. All
ваши проекты – чепуха! – кричал начальник your projects are rubbish!” John’s chief
на Джона. – Вы уволены». shouted at him. “You are fired.”

Exercise 2. Translate into English.


1. «Вот уже полчаса, как этот упрямый человек ищет свой синий галстук. Ну, теперь мы точно
опоздаем на прием!» – воскликнула миссис Эдамс.
2. На протяжении шести долгих лет ученый пытался решить эту проблему, когда, наконец, его
труд был вознагражден: он сделал замечательное открытие.
3. «Чем ты так долго занимаешься?» – спросила девушка своего друга, молодого писателя. «Я
привожу в порядок рукописи. Сегодня в пять я должен быть у редактора», – объяснил он.
4. Уже три с половиной года выплачивал Джексон свой долг банку, но все еще был должен
огромную сумму.
5. Джеймс заявил, что последние два года работает в издательстве. Однако, как позднее
выяснилось, он солгал.
6. С тех пор как дочь обосновалась в городе, миссис Браун с нетерпением ждет от нее вестей.
7. Поселившись в городе, Мэри долго не могла свыкнуться с тем, что ее родные и друзья были
так далеко. А ведь прошло уже восемь месяцев, как она жила здесь.
8. «Ты такой грязный», – вздохнула жена. «Ну конечно, ведь я работал в гараже»,–
оправдывался Билл.
9. «Почему у тебя синяки под глазами (shadows under the eyes)? – спросила Анна подругу. – Ты
плакала?»

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10. Уже почти год жила Лилиан в Голливуде, работала в небольшом кафе и ждала, ждала, когда
какой-нибудь режиссер или продюсер, покоренный ее красотой, предложит ей роль в своем
фильме.

4. Вот уже час, как он играет на скрипке. - It is an hour since he has been playing the violin

5. Вот уже несколько дней, как Сью была больна. Все это время ее преданная подруга
ухаживала за ней. - It was several days since Sue had been ill. All that time her faithful
friend had been nursing her.

6. Уже пять месяцев, как Митчелл заведует лабораторией. - It is five months since Mitchell
has been running the laboratory

Уже три с половиной года выплачивал Джексон свой долг банку, но все еще был
должен огромную сумму. – It was three and a half years since J. had been paying off his debt
to the bank and still owed a large sum of money.

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UNIT 4

POPULAR FICTION

Text I Spy

Charlie Stowe waited until he heard his mother snore before he got out of bed. Even then
he moved with caution and tiptoed to the window. The front of the house was irregular so that it
was possible to see a light burning in his mother's room. But now all the windows were dark. A
searchlight passed across the sky, lighting the banks of cloud probing the dark deep spaces
between, seeking enemy airships. The wind blew from the sea, and Charlie Stowe could hear
behind his mother's snores the beating of the waves. A draught through the cracks in the window-
frame stirred his night-shirt. Charlie Stowe was frightened.
But the thought of the tobacconist's shop which his father kept down a dozen wooden
stairs drew him on. He was twelve years old, and already boys of the County School mocked him
because he had never smoked a cigarette. The packets were piled twelve deep below. Gold Plate
and Players, Do Reszko, Abdulla, Woodbines, and the little shop lay under a thin haze of stale
smoke which would completely disguise his crime. That it was a crime to steal some of his father's
stock Charlie Stowe had no doubt, but he did not love his father: his father was unreal to him, a
wraith, pale, thin, and indefinite, who noticed him only spasmodically and left even punishment
to his mother. For his mother he felt a passionate demonstrative love; her large boisterous
presence and her noisy charity filled the world for him; from her speech he judged her the friend of
everyone, from the rector's wife to the "dear Queen", except the "Huns" the monsters who lurked
in Zeppelins in the clouds. But his father's affection and dislike were as indefinite as his
movements. Tonight he had said he would be in Norwich, and yet you never knew. Charlie
Stowe had no sense of safety as he crept down the wooden stairs. When they creaked he clenched
his fingers on the collar of his nightshirt.
At the bottom of the stairs he came out quite suddenly into the little shop. It was too dark to
see his way, and he did not dare touch the switch. For half a minute he sat in despair on the
bottom step with his chin cupped in his hands. Then the regular movement of the searching light
was reflected through an upper window and the boy had time to fix in memory the pile of
cigarettes, the counter, and the small hole under it. The footsteps of a policeman on the pavement
made him grab the first packet to his hand and dive for the hole. A light shone along the floor and
a hand tried the door, then the footsteps passed on, and Charlie cowered in the darkness. At last he
got his courage back by telling himself in his curiously adult way that if he were caught now there
was nothing to be done about it, and he might as well have his smoke. He put a cigarette in his
mouth and then remembered that he had no matches. For a while he dared not move. Three times
the searchlight lit the shop, while he muttered taunts and encouragements. "May as well be hung
for a sheep", "Cowardly, cowardly custard", grown-up and childish exhortations oddly mixed.
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But as he moved he heard footfalls in the street, the sound of several men walking rapidly.
Charlie Stowe was old enough to feel surprise that anybody was about. The footsteps came
nearer, stopped; a key was turned in the shop door, a voice said, "Let him in," and then he heard
his father, "If you wouldn't mind being quiet, gentlemen. I don't want to wake up the family."
There was a note unfamiliar to Charlie in the undecided voice. A torch flashed and the electric
globe burst into blue light. The boy held his breath; he wondered whether his father would hear
his heart beating, and he clutched his nightshirt tightly and prayed, "0h God, don't let me be
caught". Through a crack in the counter he could see his father where be stood, one hand to his
high stiff collar, between two men in bowler hats and belted makintoshes. They were strangers.
"Have a cigarette," his father said in a voice dry as a biscuit. One of the men shook his head.
"It wouldn't do, not when we are on duty. Thank you all the same." He spoke gently, but without
kindness; Charlie Stowe thought his father must be ill.
"Mind if I put a few in my pocket?" Mr. Stowe asked, and when the man nodded he lifted a
pile of Gold Flake and Players from a shelf and caressed the packets with the tips of his fingers.
"Well," he said, "there's nothing to be done about it, and I may as well have my smokes." For a
moment Charlie Stowe feared discovery, his father stared round the shop so thoroughly; he might
have been seeing it for the first time. "It's a good little business," he said, "for those that like it. The
wife will sell out, I suppose. Еlsе the neighbours'll be wrecking it. Well, you want to be off. A
stitch in time, I'll get my coat."
"One of us’ll come with you, if you don't mind," said the stranger gently.
"You needn't trouble. It's on the peg here. There, I'm all ready."
The other man said in an embarrassed way: "Don't you want to speak to your wife?" The
thin voice was decided. "Not me. Never do today what you can put off till tomorrow. She'll
have her chance later, won't she?"
"Yes, yes," one of the strangers said and he became very cheerful and encouraging. "Don't
you worry too much. While there's life..." And suddenly his father tried to laugh.
When the door had closed Charlie Stowe tiptoed upstairs and got into bed. He wondered
why his father had left the house again so late at night and who the strangers were. Surprise and
awe kept him for a little while awake. It was as if a familiar photograph had stepped from the
frame to reproach him with neglect. He remembered how his father had held tight to his collar
and fortified himself with proverbs, and he thought for the first time that while his mother was
boisterous and kindly, his father was very like himself, doing things in the dark that frightened him.
It would have pleased him to go down to his father and tell him that he loved him, but he could
hear through the window the quick steps going away. He was alone in the house with his mother,
and he fell asleep.

(By Graham Greene)

Proper Names

Graham /'greqm/ Greene


Charlie Stowe /stqV/

Notes

1. County School – a secondary school maintained by the County Education Authority (county
/-aV -/ – графство).
2. Gold Flake, Players, etc. – different brands of cigarettes.
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3. The "Huns" – a name by which the English called the Germans during the First World War.
4. Zeppelin /'- / – a large airship used by the Germans for military purposes during the First World
War.
5. Norwich /'nLrItS/ – a city in eastern England.
6. "May as well be hung for a sheep" – One may as well be hanged for a sheep as for a lamb
(ягненок). This proverb means: commit a big crime rather than a small one if the punishment is
the same.
7. "Cowardly, cowardly custard" – an expression used by children to make fun of somebody
who is afraid.
8. a mackintosh /'mx - /n – a coat made to keep out the rain, formerly one treated
with rubber.
9. A stitch in time – the first words of the proverb "A stitch in time saves nine", i.e. if you do
something in time you will save much effort afterwards.
10. Never do today what you can put off till tomorrow – Mr. Stowe reverses the proverb
"Never put off till tomorrow what you can do today."
11. While there is life – the first words of the saying "While there is life there is hope."

Vocabulary Study

spy (on sb, into sth. ) /spaI/ v шпионить: Sally was ever spying on her neighbours, spying into her
neighbours’ affairs and gossiping about them.; spy n шпион; espionage /'espIqnRZ/ n шпионаж

caution /'kL - / n осторожность, предусмотрительность; use/show/exercise caution


проявлять предусмотрительность, осторожность: When crossing a busy street we must use
caution.; cautious (about/of ) осторожный, предусмотрительный: She is cautious of
telling secrets.; cautiously adv осторожно, предусмотрительно: She opened the door
cautiously so as not to wake the baby.; precaution n предосторожность, предостережение;
take precautions принимать меры предосторожности: They took every precaution to make
sure that the fashion show went smoothly without a hitch (помеха).

snore v храпеть: He heard his mother snore.

tiptoe /'tIptou /v ходить на цыпочках, красться: He hoped nobody saw him tiptoe to the door
and out.; tiptoe n кончики пальцев ног; on tiptoe на цыпочках.

searchlight n прожектор.

probe v 1.зондировать; 2. исследовать, расследовать (into): The boy probed the anthill with
a stick.

seek (sought, sought) v искать чего-л.: seek the truth, freedom, political asylum /q'saIlqm /
(политического убежища); seek to do sth стремиться сделать что-л.: The painter sought to
convey the beauty of the English countryside.

draught /drRft / n сквозняк: You may catch a cold if you sit in a draught.

stir v 1. шевелить(ся), двигать(ся): She stirred in her sleep. It’s too cold to stir from the
house.; 2. мешать, помешивать: She sat there staring into space, stirring and stirring her cold
79
tea.; 3. волновать, возбуждать: The story stirred her sympathy.

mock (at) v издеваться, надсмехаться над кем-л.: They mocked at my fears.; mockery
издевательство, осмеяние.

stale n 1. несвежий, черствый: stale bread, biscuits, beer; 2. спертый, тяжелый: stale air; 3.
избитый, утративший новизну: stale jokes, news.

crime n (uncountable) преступность: It is the business of the police to prevent and detect
crime. The crime rate is high.; crime (countable) преступление: commit a crime
совершить преступление:If a person commits a crime, he must expect to be punished.;
criminal adj преступный: criminal activities; criminal n преступник: The judge sent the
criminal to prison for four years.

steal /- J - / (stole, stolen) v красть: Mу bicycle was stolen while I was in the shop.; thief
/- J -/ n (pl. thieves) вор: The thief tried to leave the shop unnoticed.; theft n кража: The
man was accused of theft and sent to prison.; rob sb/sth v грабить, обкрадывать: rob a
man, a bank, a shop; rob sb of sth: They knocked him down and robbed him of his watch.;
robbery n грабеж: He was charged with robbery.; armed robbery вооруженное
ограбление.

stock n 1. товары, ассортимент товаров; have in/out of stock иметь/не иметь в продаже:
“Do you have any blue shirts in stock?” – “No, I'm afraid, they are out of stock.”; 2. запас
чего-л.:a good stock of food; 3. основной капитал (компании), фонды: joint stock
акционерный капитал; a joint stock company акционерная компания; stock v
1. иметь в наличии, в продаже, снабжать: They stock all types of shoes. The shop is well
stocked with goods.; 2. хранить: They've stocked their crops in the barn.

'boisterous adj шумливый, неистовый (о человеке): The girl was lively and boisterous.

charity /''CxrItI / n 1. милосердие: Charity was not her strong point.; 2.


благотворительность: Charity begins at home (a saying) – Своя рубашка ближе к телу.

judge n 1. судья; 2. ценитель, знаток: He is a good judge of horses; judge (sb/sth by sth) v
судить (о ком-л./чем-л. по чему-л.): Don't judge а man by his looks.; judging from... судя
по...: Judging from what you say he ought to succeed.; court /- L-/ n суд (учреждение); in court в
суде: The case was heard in court.; bring sb to court отдавать кого-л. под суд: Smith was
brought to court for attempted murder.; a court hearing судебное разбирательство (заседание);
trial / traIql/n суд, судебный процесс: The trial lasted three days.; a trial of sb суд над кем-л.:
Note the preposition "of": The trial of Clyde Griffith came as a shock to everyone.; put sb on trial
привлекать к суду, судить; take legal action against sb возбудить дело против кого-л.; file a
(law)suit against sb возбудить иск против кого-л.; find sb (not) guilty (of) признать кого-л.
(не)виновным: The jury found Griffith guilty of murder.; plead (not)guilty (to) признать себя
(не)виновным: The accused pleaded guilty to murder.; acquit /q'kwIt/ v оправдать; convict /- '- / v
осудить: The court acquitted (convicted) O.J. Simpson.; pass /impose a sentence on sb вынести

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приговор; sentence sb (to death, 5 years in jail, etc.) v приговорить (к), определить меру
наказания.

safety n безопасность, сохранность: Do nothing that might endanger the safety of other people.;
safety rules/regulations правила безопасности; observe safety regulations соблюдать
правила безопасности; ensure safety гарантировать, обеспечивать безопасность: То ensure
safety at the plant all safety regulations must be strenuously observed.; safety violations
нарушение правил (техники) безопасности: The coast guard barred the ship from leaving the
port after inspectors found fire and safety violations aboard the ship.

dare v сметь, отваживаться: I wonder how he dared (to) say that.; Note: “dare” can be used in
two ways: like a modal verb and like an ordinary verb; Remember: the English for «как вы
смеете?» is “How dare you?”: How dare you deny this?

despair /dI'speq/ n отчаяние: Defeat after defeat filled him with despair.; give way to despair
поддаваться отчаянию, приходить в отчаяние: John shouldn’t have given way to despair; he
should have fought and won.; desperate /'desp(q)rqt /adj 1. отчаянный, безрассудный: Hе
was filled with desperate courage.; 2. безнадежный, безысходный: a desperate situation, a
desperate state of affairs.

fix v 1. назначать на какое-то время (for some time): We've fixed the date for the wedding. The
meeting is fixed for tomorrow. Syn. set; 2. устанавливать, укреплять: You shouldn't have fixed the
shelf on this wall.; 3. чинить, ремонтировать: Arnold fixed his bike. Note that ‘Arnold had his bike fixed’
means «Арнольду починили велосипед».

light (lit, lit / lighted, lighted) v 1. зажигать: He lit a cigarette.; 2. освещать: Our streets are lit by
electricity.; be brightly (badly, poorly, dimly «тускло») lit; 3. светиться, оживлять(ся): Suddenly
a smile lit (up) her face.

breath /breT/ n дыхание, вздох; take a breath сделать вдох:Take a deep breath, stick out your tongue
and say "AH".; take (draw) breath перевести дух; Note the absence of the article: After running
they stopped to take breath.; hold one’s breath затаить дыхание: All Europe held its breath to see
who would win the election.; breathe /brJD/ v дышать: It is healthy to breathe deeply.

put off (till, until) v переносить, откладывать: I’ll have to put off going to the dentist till Monday.
Syn. postpone.

awe /L/ n благоговение, страх, трепет; be overawed (by sb/sth) быть охваченным
благоговейным страхом, трепетом, восторгом (перед кем-л./чем-л.): Jon Forsyte was overawed
by his mother.

reproach (sb for/with sth) /-'prqVC/ v укорять, попрекать, упрекать: He reproached her with
laziness. He reproached her for being lazy.; reproach n упрек, попрек, укор: When he came home
drunk, his wife greeted him with loud reproaches.

neglect /-'glekt/ n пренебрежение, небрежность; neglect (sb/sth) v пренебрегать, не обращать


(должного) внимания на что-л./кого-л.: The father neglected his son’s education.; neglect to do
sth не делать чего-л. нужного, упускать, не выполнять своего долга, запускать: She neglected
to return his call.; negligence /'ne-/ n небрежность, халатность: criminal negligence.

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Exercise 1. Translate from Russian into English. Work in pairs and check with the key.

1. Если бы Питер был более 1. If Peter were a more cautious man, he would
предусмотрительным человеком, он бы не not have done it.
совершил этот поступок.
2. Это совершенно новая область 2. This is quite a new area of research. Only the first
исследования. Здесь сделаны лишь первые
cautious steps have been taken here.
осторожные шаги.
3. «Я запрещаю тебе издеваться над Тедом, - 3. “I forbid you to mock at Ted,” exclaimed Mary.
воскликнула Мэри. – Ты “пилишь” его с “You’ve been nagging him since morning.”
утра».
4. Печенье было очень черствое. Оно уже
месяц пролежало в шкафу. 4. The biscuits were very stale. They had been in
5. Елене хотелось бежать отсюда. Душная the cupboard for a month.
комната, грубые, избитые шутки были 5. Helen wished she could run from here. The
нестерпимы для нее. stuffy room, the rude stale jokes were unbearable
6. Ходили слухи, что Чейз и Браун to her.
совершили преступление. Они ограбили 6. It was rumoured that Chase and Brown had
банк и вынесли сорок тысяч долларов. committed a crime. They had robbed a bank and
7. «Вы никогда не убедите меня, что этот got away with forty thousand dollars.
человек – вор, – сказал мистер Форд. – Он 7. “You’ll never convince me that the man is a
не способен совершить кражу. Я уверен, thief,” said Mr. Ford. “He is incapable of
что его оправдают». committing a theft. I am sure he will be acquitted.”
8. За продажу контрафактных дисков Марка
привлекли к суду. В результате его осудили 8. For selling counterfeit DVDs Mark was put on
и приговорили к восемнадцати месяцам trial. As a result he was convicted and sentenced to
тюремного заключения. eighteen months in jail.
9. Суд над Смитом давно бы закончился,
если бы не всплыли новые обстоятельства. 9. The trial of Smith would have ended long ago if
10. «Мистер Эванс – хороший знаток no new circumstances had emerged.
живописи, – сказала Анна главному 10. “Mr. Evans is a good judge of art,” Ann said to
редактору. – Я очень дорожу его мнением». the editor-in-chief. “I value his opinion very much.”
11. О человеке нужно судить по его делам, а
не по словам. 11. A man should be judged by his deeds, not his
12. Если бы правила безопасности words.
действительно были соблюдены, не было 12. If the safety regulations had really been
бы никакой аварии. observed, there would have been no accident.
13. «Как вы смеете над ним издеваться! Он
уважаемый человек, достойный член 13. “How dare you mock at him! He is a
общества», – с негодованием воскликнул respectable man, a worthy member of society,”
Джексон. Jackson exclaimed with indignation.
14. Джейн была уверена, что сестра не посмеет
нарушить обещание. 14. Jane was sure that her sister wouldn’t dare to
15. Чарльзу не хватает силы воли. Он никогда break her promise.
не научится преодолевать трудности, если 15. Charles is lacking in will power. He will never
будет так легко поддаваться отчаянию. learn to overcome difficulties if he gives way to
16. Не может быть, чтобы они уже назначили despair so easily.
дату свадьбы. 16. They can’t have fixed the date for their wedding.
17. Фред уже неделю откладывал визит к врачу,
хотя понимал, что состояние его здоровья 17. Fred had been putting off going to the doctor for a
серьезно. week though he realised that his condition was
18. Джон считал, что ему не в чем себя serious.
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упрекнуть. Его семья была хорошо 18. John believed that he had nothing to reproach
обеспечена. himself with. His family was comfortably provided
for.

Exercise 2. Translate into English.

1. В полиции Брауна предупредили, что если он еще раз совершит подобный проступок (an
offence), он предстанет перед судом.
2. Суд над этим преступником длится уже три недели.
3. «Судя по выражению его лица, он в плохом настроении», – предположила соседка.
4. Билла Робертса признали виновным в ограблении банка и приговорили к десяти годам
тюремного заключения.
5. У путешественников заканчивался запас еды и питья, и им пришлось срочно вернуться.
6. «В целях обеспечения безопасности у нас на фабрике было заменено все устаревшее (obsolete)
оборудование», – объявил директор.
7. «Как вы смеете скрывать от меня правду? Мне давно все известно!» – воскликнула Клара.
8. Улицы города были ярко освещены.
9. Сегодня в воздухе чувствуется дыхание весны.
10. В голосе Анны чувствовалась издевка. Никогда раньше она не разговаривала с ним в таком
тоне.
11. Если бы соседи подозревали Смита в совершении убийства, они давно бы предупредили
полицию.
I2. Майкл был отдан под суд за преступление, совершенное три года назад. Все это время ему
удавалось скрываться.
13. «Суд предлагает вам признать свою вину», – заявил судья.
14. «Я бы не советовал вам полагаться на вкус Элен. Она совсем не разбирается в музыке», –
предостерег редактора Дональд.
15. «Я знаю, что собрание предполагалось назначить на 15 марта. Узнайте точно, на какое число
его перенесли», – приказал своему секретарю директор.
16. «Ты заметил, как ее лицо осветилось улыбкой? Должно быть, она получила приятное
известие», – прошептала миссис Тейлор.
17. За кражу художественных произведений из городского музея Паркера приговорили к трем
годам лишения свободы.
18. За нарушение техники безопасности мистера Стэффорда обвинили в преступной халатности и
пригрозили довести дело до суда.
19. «Не стоит упрекать Сэма в отсутствии предусмотрительности. В сложившихся
обстоятельствах он не мог поступить иначе», – убеждал коллег Ричард.
20. Симпсона судили за убийство бывшей жены. Американская общественность ожидала, что он
будет осужден. Однако после длительного судебного процесса Симпсон был оправдан.
21. Затаив дыхание, зрители наблюдали за выступлением акробатов.

Exercise 3. Find in the text the words and phrases listed below, then close the book and
reproduce them in the context of the story:
caution, stale, crime, steal, safety, dare, in despair, hold one’s breath, awe, reproach, neglect.

Reading Comprehension

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1. Find in the text and paraphrase or explain.

1. A searchlight passed across the sky, lighting the banks of cloud and probing the dark deep spaces
between, seeking enemy airships.
2. But the thought of the tobacconist's shop which his father kept down a dozen wooden stairs drew him on.
3. ... the little shop lay under a thin haze of stale smoke which would completely disguise his crime.
4. ... his father was unreal to him, a wraith, pale, thin and indefinite, who noticed him only spasmodically
and left even punishment to his mother.
5. ... her large boisterous presence and her noisy charity filled the world for him; from her speech he judged
her the friend of everyone.
6. ... his father's affection and dislike were as indefinite as his movements.
7. ... he said he would be in Norwich, and yet you never knew.
8. The footsteps of a policeman on the pavement made him grab the first packet to his hand and dive for the
hole.
9. At last he got his courage back by telling himself in his curiously adult way that if he were caught now
there was nothing to be done about it, and he might as well have his smoke.
10. There was a note unfamiliar to Charlie in the undecided voice.
11. … two men in bowler hats and belted makintoshes.
12. … his father said in a voice dry as a biscuit.
13. “...The wife will sell out, I suppose. Else the neighbours'll be wrecking it…”
14. Surprise and awe kept him for a little while awake.
15. It was as if a familiar photograph had stepped from the frame to reproach him with neglect.

2. Translate into Russian.

1. Charlie Stowe was old enough to feel surprise that anybody was about.
2. “If you wouldn't mind being quiet, gentlemen…”
3. Through a crack in the counter he could see his father where he stood, one hand to his high stiff collar ...
4. “It wouldn’t do, not when we are on duty....”
5. … he might have been seeing it for the first time. "It's a good little business," he said …
6. It was as if a familiar photograph had stepped from the frame to reproach him with neglect.
7. It would have pleased him to go down to his father and tell him that he loved him.

Discussion

1. Do you think that the following attributes apply to the characters of the story? Give
arguments to support your opinion.
If said of Charlie: brave, cowardly, cautious, reckless (безрассудный, опрометчивый ), lacking
in willpower, hesitant, tenacious /- 'neI - / (упорный ), self-conscious (застенчивый ), trying to
assert himself (самоутвердиться).
If said of Charlie's father: confident, unsure of himself, hesitant, cowardly, brave, reckless,
reserved ( сдержанный ), boisterous, quiet, tenacious.
If said of Charlie's mother: quiet, boisterous, affectionate, reserved, emotional, hesitant, self-
assured, outspoken ( громко выражающая свои мнения), overbearing (властная).
2. Trace the differences between Charlie's father and mother. Comment on Charlie's
attitude to his father before and after the incident in the shop. Is it possible to say that
Charlie was a chip off the old block («яблоко от яблони», весь в отца)?

Stylistic Analysis.

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1. Write a summary of the short story “I Spy”.
2. What is the author’s message? Comment on the title.
3. Analyse the author’s speech. What words help place the episode in time and space? Comment
on the role of historical words in creating the setting of the story. What words lend atmosphere
to the narrative? Trace the words and phrases that describe the boy’s emotions and analyse
them.
4. Comment on the characters’ speech. What do the father’s speech mannerisms reveal about
his character? Pick out instances of repetition in Charlie’s and his father’s words.
What can be inferred about Charlie and his father from them?
5. How does the author convey the father’s growing confidence?
6. What stylistic devices does the author use to contrast Charlie’s father with his mother?
7. What is the significance of the stylistic device of personification in the closing paragraph?

Grammar: Reporting a Conversation or an Interview

Remember to observe the rules of reported speech:


- the sequence of tenses
- a direct word order in rendering questions
- replacement of this/these with that/those, here with there, now with then, tonight with that
night, yesterday with the day before, tomorrow with the following day/the day after, etc.

Choose appropriate reporting verbs to introduce the speaker’s statements: accuse (sb of doing); add;
admit (that…, doing /to doing); advise; agree; allow (sb to do); apologize (to sb for doing); argue
(that…); ask; assert; assure; beg; boast (to sb that …, of/about); claim (that…, to do); command
(sb to do); complain (to sb that…, of/about); concede (that…) /kqn'sJd/ (допустить, уступить,
признать); confess; deny (that…, doing); doubt (sth, if/whether); exclaim; explain (that…, to sb
that…); encourage (sb to do); forbid (sb to do); insist (that…, on doing); inform (sb that…,
of/about); lament (sth, the fact that, over) /lq'ment/ (сетовать); maintain (that…); offer (to do);
order (that…, sb to do); point out (that…, to sb that…); promise (that…, to do); refuse (sth, to do
); reassure; remark; remind (sb of/about, sb that…, sb to do ); reply (that…, to sb that…);
reproach (sb for doing); retort (that…) (резко ответить); suggest (that…, doing); threaten (sb, to
do); urge (sb to do); want to know (if, when, how, etc.); warn (of/about, sb to do); wonder (if,
whether, when, what, etc.); etc.:

e. g. “This tap is still dripping,” Aunt Mary said. – Aunt Mary complained that the tap was still
dripping.
“If you don’t get this tyre fixed, you may have an accident,” Jeff said. – Jeff warned us to get that
tyre fixed, otherwise we might have an accident.
“Come on! Take another piece of cake!” – Linda urged me to take another piece of cake.
“Establishing a permanent base on the Moon will allow testing technologies and operating
techniques for future missions to Mars,” said Pr. Morrison. “That is a costly and difficult venture
and the payoff is distant,” said Pr. Barber. – Pr. Morrison maintained that establishing a permanent
base on the Moon would allow testing technologies and operating techniques for future missions to
Mars, whereas Pr. Barber argued that it was a costly and difficult venture and the payoff was
distant.

Exercise 1. Report the following statements using appropriate verbs.


Model: “Everybody always blames me.” – He complained that everybody always blamed him.

1. “I’ll fetch your stuff from the office.”


2. “How come Alex couldn’t tell the police more?”
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3. “You’ve got to tell the police all you know!”
4. “My head hurts. I don’t want to discuss the cause of the accident right now.”
5. “Come on, smile. Look at the bright side. At least you’ve got a week off work.”
6 . “Don’t you say anything to anybody. Leave it to me.”
7. “True, but not everyone is as brainy as me.”
8. “Don’t worry. I was probably imagining things. Sorryto have bothered you.”
9. “Have some more wine. You look like you need it.”
10. “I just want to stop things getting out ofhand.”
11. “I’m just trying to do what’s best for you.”
12. “You do it again and I’ll pack you off double quick.”
13. “I didn’t spy on you.”
14. “I can’t go now. There’s too much happening.”
15. “You should know. They’re forecasting a storm.”
16. “Let’s go for a walk along the seafront.”
17. “Do you want me to check around the house for you?”

Exercise 2. Find in your reading materials 10 cases of the grammar under study.

Phrasal Verbs

hold on – 1. to wait (often on the telephone), 2. to continue;


hold up – 1. to delay, 2 . to use violence in order to rob, 3. to present as an example;
hold with (Usu. not to) – (not)to approve, agree with

let down – 1. to lengthen (ofclothes), 2. to disappoint, fail sb;


let out – to make wider (ofclothes);
let in for – to cause sb/oneselfto have sth unwanted (trouble);
let off on – to ease up on;
let up – t o lessen, gradually cease;
let up on – to treat sb less severely, be lenient with sb

Fill in the correct particle(s).


1.The building ofthe new road has been held … by bad weather.
2. I don’t hold … some ofthe strange ideas you believe in.
3. The rain held … steadily all afternoon.
4. The teacher held the essay … as a model for the students.
5. I hope you realise what you are letting yourself … You are asking for trouble.
6. I decided to let … that coat. It’s too short for you.
7. Let … the gas so we don’t exceed the speed limit.
8. When will this rain let …?
9. Why don’t you let … the poor child?
10. Our partners are reliable. They will never let us … .

Listening Comprehension

Audiotext 10 An interview with Paul Costelloe, a British fashion designer,


about his views on television

1. Listen to the text one time and report the gist of it.
The words below will help you understand the text:
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raunchy / 'L - / adj – «слишком откровенная» (о пьесе)
razzmatazz / 'rxzmq 'txz / n – шумное действо, прикрывающее отсутствие глубокого содержания
2. Listen again and reproduce the text in detail.
3. Listen to the passages that your teacher will read and try to fill in the gaps with the exact
words of the text as you remember them.

4. Do you think you would go along with Paul Costelloe on all the essential points?
- Soap operas
- Children’s programmes
- Cooking programmes
- TV personalities’ attitudes
5. Report the interview with Paul Costelloe. Use appropriate introductory verbs and make all the necessary changes.

MODERN ISSUES

Need Parenting Help?

Read the texts with the help of a dictionary and do the assignments below.

Text 1 Parents Turn to Coaches for Aid


WOBURN, Massachusetts — When Lisa D'Annolfo Levey feels she has reached the end of
her patience with her two young sons, Skylar, 7, and Forrest, 4, she does what more and more
American parents are doing these days. She picks up her phone and calls her parent coach for
advice on how to cope.
Ms. Levey, 40, started her coaching sessions last year because, she said, "I was really just
struggling with the intensity of life, feeling like I'm not enjoying my time with my children
and why do I feel so down?"
Parent coaching, the newest self-help approach for overstressed parents, is catching on for
several reasons. It is cheap, with many coaches charging $75 an hour and at least one Internet
coaching service charging $30 a month. It is usually done by phone, letting parents squeeze
in sessions without hiring baby sitters or taking time off. And it is capitalizing on the parental
penchant for seeking secrets from professionals, though many parent coaches specify they
are not therapists.
“This is so American,'' said Dr. Alan E. Kazdin, director of the Child Study Center at Yale
University School of Medicine. "We want a quick answer, we want to do it ourselves."
Several parents said coaches have helped them change their children's behavior, or at least
not get so upset or harbor unrealistic expectations.
"My children were beating me down," said Jane Sept, 37, of Salem, Oregon, the mother of a
6-year-old boy and a 3-year-old girl. "They were winning the war with the whining and just
the constant needing me and not being able to do anything themselves."
“When I was a child it was my parents who set the rules. My brothers and I ate what was on
our plate, even if it was boiled tongue or crumbed brains, and if we didn't say our pleases and
87
thank yous we'd be given a tweak on the ear.
Now parenting is like haggling at a market stall. If you eat two more pieces of broccoli you
can have pudding. If you put your toys away now you can have two stories tonight.
And it works the other way, too. 'Here's the deal. Mummy,' is Ruby's latest expression. 'I
put my toys away now and I get three stories, OK?’ ”
A recent survey found that parents have lost the art of playing with their children. But it's
not the art of playing we have lost, it's the art of role playing. We've forgotten how to be the
boss.
After a parenting class and reading failed to solve the problems, Jane and her husband,
David, 54, sought help from Leslie Mayer, a parent coach in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
"Some of the stuff was hard to hear, and sometimes I would actually dread the call," Ms.
Sept said. "But she would give me things to work on."
Some psychologists and child development experts are skeptical.
"These guys are really risking giving bad advice, even though it may be well intended," said
Dr. Mark W. Roberts, a psychologist who directs clinical training at Idaho State University.
“Any time you try to do therapy on the phone it can easily blow up in your face."
(From The New York Times.)

Vocabulary Study
Exercise 1. Find in the text the English equivalents for the words and phrases listed below and reproduce them in the context of the
article.
1. звонит своему инструктору по вопросам воспитания
2. почему я чувствую себя подавленной
3. в состоянии крайнего стресса
4. подход … приобретает популярность
5. взимать плату за услуги
6. втиснуть сеансы, не нанимая няню и не беря отгулы
7. воспользоваться увлечением (слабостью к…) родителей
8. конкретизировать, уточнить
9. питать (возлагать)… надежды
10. сломить (сопротивление), заставить уступить
11. страшиться телефонного разговора
12. намерения могут быть благими

Exercise 2. Translate into Russian.


1. She did tremendously well in the exam, but then she had been coached for months.
2. He looked back upon childhood as the only truly stress-free period in his life.
3. After the gruelling passage the stressed-out passengers poured out ashore.
4. The driving test proved to be a stressful experience.
5. Skateboarding has caught on and is by far the most popular pastime with teenagers.
6. Do you mind repeating what you said? I didn’t quite catch on.
7. The politician capitalized on his opponent’s error and won the debate.
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8. Now that we’ve generally agreed, let’s get down to specifics and make a plan. Specify the amount of money needed for the construction of the
house.
9. The man demanded $85 for a used bike, but I beat him down to a lower price.
10. The road to Hell is paved with good intentions.

Speaking

1. Prepare to speak about and discuss.


1. More and more stressed-out parents in the USA fall back on phone coaching sessions.
2. The guilt-stricken working mother is a sign of the times.
3. Phone coaching sessions are as addictive as psychic sessions (сеансы с экстрасенсами: a psychic – экстрасенс) and no less misguiding.
2. Prepare to give a talk on the following points.
1. This generation of children are more indulged and pampered than any generation before.
2. Spanking (to spank – отшлепать) is frowned upon as outdated tactics and an infringement of children’s rights.
3. It is about time parents swung back to a more dogmatic style of parenting. “Spare the rod, spoil the child” (the Bible).
3. Discuss the following in pairs.
The argument: Parent coaches are charlatans who rip off gullible parents.
The counter-argument: Parent coaches are professionals who offer badly needed advice.

Text 2 Reaching the Limit with Rude Children


After decades of indulgence American society seems to have reached its limit as far as
tolerance for wild kid behavior is concerned.
In October, an Associated Press/Ipsos poll found that nearly 70 percent of Americans said
they believed that people are ruder now than they were 20 or 30 years ago, and that children
are among the worst offenders.
In 2002, only 9 percent of adults were able to say that the children they saw in public were
"respectful toward adults," according to surveys by Public Agenda, а nonprofit public
opinion research group. In 2004, more than one in three teachers told Public Agenda they had
seriously considered leaving teaching or knew a colleague who had left due to "intolerable"
student behavior.
Even Madonna has proclaimed herself a proud "disciplinarian" in a recent issue of the
British magazine Harpers & Queen, saying that, as a mom, she takes a tough line on tidiness:
"If you leave your clothes on the floor, they're gone when you come home."
Children have always been considered, basically, to be savages. The question, since the late
17th century, has been whether they are born that way or are shaped by society.
But what seems to have changed recently, according to child-rearing experts, is parental
behavior — particularly among the most status-conscious and ambitious — along with the
kinds of behavior parents expect from their kids. The pressure to do well is up. The demand
to do good is down, particularly if it's the kind of good deed that doesn't show up on a college
application.
Once upon a time, parenting was largely about training children to take their рroper place in
their community, which, in large measure, meant learning to play by the rules and cooperate.
Rude behavior, particularly toward adults, was something for which children had to be
chastised. That has also changed, said Dan Kindlon, a Harvard University child psychologist.
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Most parents, Dr. Kindlon said, would like their children to be polite, considerate and well
behaved. But they're too tired, worn down by work and personally needy to teach them
proper behavior at home.
Parenting today is also largely about training children to compete — in school and on the
soccer field — and the kinds of attributes they need to be competitive are those that help
break down society's civility.
Parents who want their children to succeed more than anything, Dr. Kindlon said, teach
them to value and prioritize achievement above all else — including other people.
"We're insane about achievement," he said. "School-work is up 50 percent since 1981, and
we're so obsessed with our kids getting into the right school, getting the right grades, we let a
lot of things slide. Kids don't do chores at home anymore because there isn't time."
"We always want to blame the kids, but if there's something wrong with their incivility, it's
the way their parents model for them." Some experts say the answer is to stop focusing on
the surface of children's bad behavior and to start curing instead the social, educational and
parental ills that feed it.
This may mean less “quality” time with children and more time getting them to do things
they don't want to do, like sitting for meals, making polite conversation and — Madonna was
right — picking their clothes up off the floor.
(From The New York Times.)

Reading Comprehension

Find in the text and paraphrase or explain.


1. … as far as tolerance for wild kid behavior is concerned.
2. … children are among the worst offenders.
3. … due to “intolerable” student behavior.
4. … she takes a tough line on tidiness.
5. … whether they are born that way or are shaped by society.
6. … according to child-rearing experts …
7. … among the most status-conscious and ambitious …
8. The demand to do good is down …
9. … children had to be chastised.
10. … worn-down by work …
11. … they need to be competitive …
12. … break down society’s civility.
13. … teach them to value and prioritize achievement …
14. … we are so obsessed with our kids getting …
15. Kids don’t do chores at home anymore …
16. … less “quality time” with children … .

Speaking

90
1. Prepare to speak about and discuss.
1. Children are no longer taught the basic rules of public behaviour.
2. In the past parenting was about instilling moral values in one’s offspring.
3. Parents’ priorities have changed. Achievement takes priority over civil behaviour.
4. Children respond to respect. But where do respect and understanding end and permissiveness (вседозволенность) begin?

2. Roleplay. Work in groups of four. Study your roles for a few minutes and decide what you will
say.
Imagine you are taking part in a TV talk show. The topic under discussion is Parenting Issues. You are
an anxious parent, a child development expert, a parent coach and the presenter. Passions run high. At the
close of the show the presenter sums up the opinions and makes recommendations. (Some of the Golden
Rules of Parenting: (1) Every child needs respect – every child needs to be listened to; (2) Children learn by
example, so act as you want your child to act; (3) Lower your voice, do not shout – it fills your child with
fear not respect; (4) Focus on her/his behaviour not person – do not say “You are a bad boy/girl”, say
“Your behaviour is bad”; (5) Use alternative strategies to physical violence; (6) Have fun with your
children.)
3. Express your opinion on the following quotation:
“One must be tender and indulgent with young people. They need to have freedom. If you interfere in their friendships and little affairs, you bring on
the very things you wanted to avoid.” (R. Aldington)
4. Summarize the Russian article in English and comment on the issue raised.

Трудно одному
Сила и слабость единственных и неединственных детей

Плохо это или хорошо – быть единственным, легче ему или труднее? С одной
стороны, он получает всю любовь взрослых, ни с кем ею не делясь. С другой – весь
деспотизм родительского чувства, все надежды и упования взрослых, а вместе с ними
их страхи, тревоги и неврозы также достаются ему одному. И выдержать это без
братско-сестринской поддержки бывает иногда нелегко.
Кому живется веселее и легче – единственным или неединственным детям в семье?
Чтобы дать ответ на вопрос, мы провели в одном из московских детских садов
короткий эксперимент.
КТО И ГДЕ ИХ ОБИЖАЕТ
В ходе эксперимента мы попытались смоделировать для детей наиболее острые
моменты общения – ситуации переживания обиды или гнева. «Жили-были два
человека, им было интересно и весело вместе, но однажды один из них обиделся на
другого...» Обида – переживание собственной слабости, унижения, безответности,
незащищенности.
КТО И КАК ИХ РАЗДРАЖАЕТ
Следующий вопрос, который нас также очень интересовал – на кого может быть
направлена агрессия ребенка, кого он считает более слабым, чем он сам? «Жили-были
два человека... но однажды случилось так, что один из них ударил другого...» Гнев,
агрессия – это эмоции экспансии, захвата, силы, установления и расширения
собственного контроля над теми, кто слабее или ниже по рангу. И что же оказалось?
Единственные дети, судя по количеству ответов, гневаются чаще. Интересно, на кого
же? Прежде всего – на других детей на улице или в детском саду. Затем, как ни
странно, на дедушку, который, как правило, олицетворяет собой абсолютную любовь к
внукам и безответность. Единственные дети очень часто ссорятся с мамой, папой и
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бабушкой.
Что же касается детей неединственныx, то именно братья и сестры оказываются
жертвой их агрессии чаще других, - хотя большинство малышей этой подгруппы
призналось, что желания кого-то ударить у них вообще не возникало. И никогда
агрессия не направляется у них на старших! Поскольку известно, что нередко агрессия
– это ответная реакция на давление извне, понятно, что единственным детям
приходится себя чаще сдерживать, поэтому и потребность в агрессивной разрядке у
них выше.
Единственный ребенок бессознательно использует взрослых как недостающих ему
равных партнеров. При этом нарушается социальная иерархия – ведь действительно
равных себе в семье он не имеет. Вот и возникают между ребенком и родителями
псевдодемократические отношения с нарушенной дистанцией, нередко – избыточным,
неоправданным сближением (симбиозом). Отношения, которые впоследствии
подрастающему ребенку пригодиться никак не могут.
Но ссориться случается каждому, а что же потом? К чему приводят конфликты? Дети
из обеих подгрупп единогласно согласились в том, что после ссоры наступает
примирение. Однако были и ответы отличающиеся: так, только в группе единственных
подразумевался вариант, согласно которому поссорившиеся друзья «так и не
помирились», и только дети, имеющие брата или сестру, считают, что стоит кому-то
извиниться первым.
Таким образом, мы вновь убеждаемся в том, что дети, растущие на одной территории
вместе с другими детьми, способны более гибко вести себя и лучше распознавать
особенности социальной иерархии, выясняя отношения «на равных» действительно с
равными.
Следующий тоже очень важный вопрос – из-за чего же ссорятся дети с другими
людьми? Оказалось, что у единственных детей поводов больше, чем у тех, кто имеет
брата или сестру, то есть в целом последние более миролюбивы и толерантны. Чаще
всего единственные дети обижаются, если у них кто-то «украл» (не позаимствовал, не
одолжил, а именно украл!) игрушку. Очень обидно им, если родители не купили что-то
обещанное или просто желанное. Иногда они расстраиваются, если родители что-то
запрещают или другие дети отнимают игрушку. Что же касается детей не одиноких в
семье, то они тоже готовы вступить в ссору из-за «украденной» или не поделенной с
другими игрушки или из-за родительских запретов. Однако дети, имеющие брата или
сестру, чаще прощают обиду быстро и не видят ничего предосудительного в том,
чтобы попросить прощения самому.
Таким образом, получается, что в целом поводов для ссор у детей единственных
больше, причем они очень болезненно переживают имущественные недоразумения.
Это и понятно: ведь если в семье растут двое и больше детей, то суверенность личных
вещей сохранить намного сложнее. Поэтому дети раньше привыкают не придавать
слишком большого значения вещам (которые недолговечны), но зато прислушиваются
к советам родных.
Можно сказать, что дети, растущие вместе с братьями и сестрами, оказываются
более социально взрослыми и потому более подготовленными к столкновению с
людьми, которые не являются родственниками.
(«Наш малыш» Журнал для хороших родителей.)

Listening and Speaking

Audiotext 11 Schools Now Offer Classes to Hone Emotional Literacy


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1. Listen to the text one time and report the gist of it.
The words and phrases below will help you understand the text:
hone v = to sharpen
homicide /'hPmIsaId / n – the killing of one person by another
the New York City borough of Brooklyn – one of the administrative units of New York City
2. Listen again and reproduce the text in detail.
3. Answer the following questions:
- How would you define “emotional literacy”?
- Don’t you think that emotional literacy is best taught by example at home?
- Can courses in emotional literacy help cure social ills?
- It is a common belief that a man’s character is determined in the first seven years of his life. Do you know that there are facts that
refute this?

Audiotext 12 Age of Innocence Lost to Children

1. Listen to the text one time and report the gist of it. What is the bottom line of Dr. Lewis’s theory?
The words below will help you understand the text:
miss out on sth - to lose a chance
couchpotato n – someone who sits glued to the TV or the computer
minor n несовершеннолетний
dub v «окрестить»
John Major – British Prime Minister from November 1990 to May 1997, replaced M. Thatcher as the leader of the Conservative Party and like the
latter upheld middle-class values in his home policy.
R. Branson – a British billionaire
Enid Blyton – an English writer, the author of children’s stories
2. Listen again and reproduce the text in detail.
3. Describe the five groups that Dr Lewis singles out. What does he mean by pinning the tags on them? Does the theory make sense to you?

Writing
Write an essay on one of the following topics:
1. The Objectives of Parenting
2. The Rigours of Parenting
3. The Principles of Good Parenting

Grammar Revision: Modal Verbs

Exercise 1. Translate from Russian into English. Work in pairs and check with the key.

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1. Пароход должен был выйти из порта в среду, но задержался 1. The ship was to leave the port on Wednesday, but its
из-за ремонтных работ. departure was delayed to make the repairs.
2. Как мы условились, я должна была зайти за Анной к ней в 2. As we had agreed, I was to call for Ann at her office and bring
офис и привести ее к себе. her to my place.
3. «Управляющий еще не пришел. Он должен быть здесь в 3. “The manager hasn’t come yet. He is to be here at eleven.
одиннадцать часов. Вам придется немного подождать», – сказал You’ll have to wait a little,” the secretary said to me.
мне секретарь.
4. Миссис Палмер пожаловалась, что ей пришлось долго ждать, 4. Mrs. Palmer complained that she had had to wait for a long
когда горничная приберет ее номер «люкс». time for the maid to tidy up her suite.
5. Несмотря на множество проблем, Стивенс сумел 5. In spite of many problems Stevens was able to publish the
опубликовать статью. article.
6. «Не может быть, чтобы мой секретарь пренебрег своими 6. “My secretary can’t have neglected his duties,” insisted Mr.
обязанностями», – настаивал мистер Сильверс. Sylvers.
7. «Возможно, я потеряла кошелек в магазине. Не думаю, что 7. “I might have lost my purse in the shop. I don’t think it could
его могли украсть»,– размышляла старушка. have been stolen,” the old woman wondered.
8. Процесс над Дрейпом уже, должно быть, длится три месяца, и 8. The trial of Drape must have lasted for three months, and he is
очень мала вероятность, что его оправдают. most unlikely to be acquitted.
9. «Вам не надо было (не было необходимости) беспокоиться. 9. “You needn’t have gone to so much trouble. I’ve taken all
Я уже приняла все меры предосторожности», – проворчала precautions,” muttered Mrs. Cribbs.
миссис Крибс.
10. «Вы не должны были соглашаться на их предложение. Оно 10. “You shouldn’t have agreed to their suggestion.
нелепо! – укорял Сэм своего партнера. – Должно быть, они уже It’s ridiculous!” Sam reproached his partner. “They must have
уехали. Вы понимаете, во что вы нас втянули?» left by now. Do you realise what you’ve let us in for?”

Exercise 2. Translate into English.


1.«Bы не должны так упрямиться. Вы же знаете, что не правы», – уговаривала друзей Вера.
2. Все знают мистера Уилсона как уравновешенного, разумного человека. Но вчера он не
смог справиться с эмоциями. Должно быть, его очень сильно рассердили.
3. «Неужели ты должен молчать? Кто может запретить тебе высказать свою точку
зрения?» – настаивал Фред.
4. Согласно договору товары должны быть поставлены в июне.
5. «Врач не сможет принять вас сегодня. Вам придется записаться на следующую
неделю (make an appointment for)», – объяснила Брауну секретарь.
6. Вы должны были принять все меры предосторожности. Почему вы не сделали
этого?
7. Вам долго пришлось ждать, пока пассажиры не вышли из самолета?
8. Вам не нужно было упрекать Генри. Он этого не заслужил.
9. Мистера Грина нельзя просить участвовать в этой экспедиции, так как он только
что вернулся из длительной командировки. Ему необходима передышка.
10. Вам не надо (нет необходимости) приходить сюда каждый день. Как только дата
будет назначена, мы вам сообщим.

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11. «Мне сказали, что я могу находиться в суде во время разбора (hearing) дела», –
сказал Франк.
12. Можно мне укрепить полку на этой стене?
13. Не может быть, чтобы Ричарда интересовали эти слухи.
14. «Вам не следовало переносить отъезд. Это может вызвать подоз рение», – сказал
Джексон.
15. Стив, должно быть, очень искренний человек. Однако в данном случае подобная
откровенность может причинить ему вред.

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UNIT 5

POPULAR FICTION

Text The Sphinx Without a Secret

One afternoon I was sitting outside the Café de la Paix watching the splendour and
shabbiness of Parisian life, and pondering over my vermouth at the strange panorama of pride
and poverty that was passing before me, when I heard some one call my name. I turned round,
and saw Lord Murchison. We had not met since we had been at college together, nearly ten years
before, so I was delighted to come across him again, and we shook hands warmly. At Oxford we
had been great friends. I had liked him immensely, he was so handsome, so high-spirited, and
so honourable. We used to say of him that he would be the best of fellows, if he did not always
speak the truth, but I think we really admired him all the more for his frankness. I found him a
good deal changed. He looked anxious and puzzled, and seemed to be in doubt about something.
I felt it could not be modern scepticism, for Murchison was the stoutest of Tories, and he
believed in the Pentateuch as firmly as he believed in the House of Peers; so I concluded that it
was a woman, and asked him if he was married yet.
"I don't understand women well enough," he answered.
"Mу dear Gerald," I said, "Women are meant to be loved, not to be understood."
"I cannot love where I cannot trust," he replied.
"I believe you have a mystery in your life, Gerald," I exclaimed; "tell me about it."
"Let us go for a drive," he answered, "it is too crowded here. No, not the yellow carriage,
any other colour – there, that dark green one will do"; and in a few moments we were trotting
down the boulevard in the direction of the Madeleine.
"Where shall we go to?" I said.
"Oh, anywhere you like!" he answered – "to the restaurant in the Bois; we will dine there,
and you shall tell me all about yourself.
"I want to hear about you first," I said. "Tell me your mystery."
He took from his pocket a little silver-clasped morocco case and handed it to me. I opened
it. Inside there was the photograph of a woman. She was tall and slight, and strangely
picturesque with her large vague eyes and loosened hair. She looked like a clairvoyante and
was wrapped in rich furs.
"What do you think of that face?" he said; "is it truthful?"
I examined it carefully. It seemed to me the face of some one who had a secret, but whether
that secret was good or evil I could not say. Its beauty was a beauty moulded out of many
mysteries – the beauty, in fact, which is psychological, not plastic – and the faint smile that just
played across the lips was far too subtle to be really sweet.
"Well," he cried impatiently, "what do you say?"
"She is the Gioconda in sables." I answered. "Let me know all about her."
"Not now," he said; "after dinner," and began to talk of other things.
When the waiter brought us our coffee and cigarettes I reminded Gerald of his promise. He
rose from his seat, walked two or three times up and down the room, and sinking into an
armchair, told me the following story:

96
"One evening," he said, "I was walking down Bond Street about five o'clock. There was a
terrific crush of carriages, and the traffic was almost stopped. Close to the pavement was
standing a little yellow brougham, which for some reason or other, attracted my attention. Аs I
passed by there looked out from it the face I showed you this afternoon. It fascinated me
immediately. All that night I kept thinking of it, and all the next day. I wandered up and down
that wretched Row, peering into every carriage, and waiting for the yellow brougham; but I
could not find ma belle inconnue, and at last I began to think she was merely a dream. About a
week afterwards I was dining with Madame de Rastail. Dinner was for eight o'clock; but at half
past eight we were still waiting in the drawing room. Finally the servant threw open the door, and
announced Lady Alroy. It was the woman I had been looking for. She cаmе in very slowly,
looking like а moonbeam in grey lace, and, to my intense delight, I was asked to take her in to
dinner. After we had sat down, I remarked quite innocently, ‘I think I caught sight of you in
Bond Street some time ago, Lady Alroy.’ She grew very pale, and said to me in a low voice,
'Pray do not talk so loud; you may be overheard.' I felt miserable at having made such a bad
beginning, and plunged recklessly into the subject of the French plays. She spoke very little,
always in the same low musical voice, and seemed аs if she was afraid of someone listening. I
fell passionately, stupidly in love, and the indefinable atmosphere of mystery that surrounded
her excited my most ardent curiosity. When she was going away, which she did very soon after
dinner, I asked her if I might call and see her. She hesitated for a moment, glanced round to see
if any one was near us, and then said ‘Yes; tomorrow at a quarter to five.’ I begged Madame de
Rastail to tell me about her; but all that I could learn was that she was a widow with a beautiful
house in Park Lane, and as some scientific bore began a dissertation on widows, as
exemplifying the survival of the matrimonially fittest, I left and went home.
"Thе next day I arrived at Park Lane punctual to the moment, but was told by the butler that
Lady Alroy had just gone out. I went down to the club quite unhappy and very much puzzled,
and after long consideration wrote a letter, asking if I might be allowed to try my chance some
other afternoon. I had no answer for several days, but at last I got a little note saying she would
be at home on Sunday, at four, and with this extraordinary postscript: 'Please do not write to me
here again; I will explain when I see you.' On Sunday she received me, and was perfectly
charming; but when I was going away she begged of me, if I ever had occasion to write to her
again, to address my letter to 'Mrs Knox, care of Whittaker's Library, Green Street.' 'There are
reasons,' she said, 'why I cannot receive letters in my own house.'
"All through the season I saw a great deal of her, and the atmosphere of mystery never left her.
Sometimes I thought that she was in the power of some man, but she looked so unapproachable that I could not
believe it. It was really very difficult for me to come to any conclusion, for she was like one of those strange
crystals that one sees in museums, which are at one moment clear, and at another clouded. At last I
determined to ask her to be my wife; I was sick and tired of the incessant secrecy that she imposed on all my
visits, and on the few letters I sent her. I wrote to her at the library to ask her if she could see me the following
Monday at six. She answered yes, and I was in the seventh heaven of delight. I was infatuated with her: in
spite of the mystery, I thought then – in consequence of it, I see now. No, it was the woman herself, I loved.
The mystery troubled me, maddened me. Why did chance put me in its track?"
"You discovered it, then?" I cried.
"I fear so," he answered. "You can judge for yourself."
When Monday cаmе round I went to lunch with my uncle, and about four o'clock found myself in the
Marylebone Road. Mу uncle, you know, lives in Regent's Park. I wanted to get to Piccadilly, and took a
short cut through a lot of shabby little streets. Suddenly I saw in front of me Lady Alroy, deeply veiled and
walking very fast. On coming to the last house in the street, she went up the steps, took out a latchkey, and let
herself in. 'Here is the mystery, ' I said to myself; and I hurried on and examined the house. It seemed a sort of
97
place for letting lodgings. On the doorstep lay her handkerchief, which she had dropped. I picked it up and put
it in my pocket. Then I began to consider what I should do. I came to the conclusion that I had
no right to spy on her, and I drove down to the club. At six I called to see her. She was lying on a
sofa, in a tea-gown of silver tissue looped up by some strange moonstones that she always wore.
She was looking quite lovely, 'I am so glad to see you,' she said; 'I have not been out all day,' I
stared at her in amazement, and pulling the handkerchief out of my pocket, handed it to her.
'You dropped this in Cumnor Street this afternoon, Lady Alroy, ' I said very calmly. She looked
at me in terror, but made no attempt to take the handkerchief. 'What were you doing there? ' I
asked, 'What right have you to question me? ' she answered. 'The right of a man who loves you,'
I replied; 'I came here to аsк you to be my wife. ' She hid her face in her hands, and burst into
floods of tears. 'YOU MUST tell mе,' I continued. She stood up, and, looking me straight in the
face said, 'Lord Murchison, there is nothing to tell you.' – 'You went to meet some one!' I
cried; 'this is your mystery. ' She grew dreadfully white, and said, 'I went to meet no one.' – 'Can’t
you tell the truth?' I exclaimed. 'I have told it,' she replied. I was mad, frantic; I don't know what
I said, but I said terrible things to her. Finally I rushed out of the house. She wrote me a letter
the next day. I sent it back unopened, and started for Norway with Alan Colville. After a month
I came back, and the first thing I saw in the Morning Post was the death of Lady Alroy. She
had caught a chill at the Opera, and had died in five days of congestion of the lungs. I shut
myself uр and saw no one. I had loved her so much, I had loved her so madly. Good God! How
I had loved that woman!"
"You went to the street, to the house in it?" I said.
"Yes," he answered.
"One day I went to Cumnor Street. I could not help it; I was tortured with doubt. I knocked
at the door, and a respectable-looking woman opened it to me. I asked her if she had any room
to let. 'Well, sir, ' she replied, 'the drawing-rooms are supposed to be let, but I have not seen the
lady for three months, and as rent is owing оn them, you can have them.' – 'Is this the lady?' I
said, showing the photograph. 'That's her sure enough,' she exclaimed; 'and when is she coming
back, sir? ' – 'The lady is dead', I replied. 'Oh, sir, I hope not!' said the woman; 'she was my best
lodger. She paid me three guineas a week merely to sit in my drawing-rooms now and then.' –
'She met some one here?' I said; but the woman assured me that it was not so, that she always
came alone, and saw no one. 'What on earth did she do here?' I cried. 'She simply sat in the
drawing-room, sir, reading books, and sometimes had tea,' the woman answered. I did not know
what to say, so I gave her a sovereign and went away. Now, what do you think it all meant?
You don't believe the woman was telling the truth?"
"I do."
"Then why did Lady Alroy go there? "
"My dear Gerald," I answered, "Lady Alroy was simply a woman with a mania for
mystery. She took rooms for the pleasure of going there with her veil down, and imagining she
was a heroine. She had a passion for secrecy, but she herself was merely a Sphinx without a
secret."
"Do you really think so?"
"I am sure of it," I replied.
He took out the morocco case, opened it, and looked at the photograph. "I wonder?" he
said at last.
(By Oscar Wilde)

Proper Names

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Lord Murchison /'mE:CIsqn/
Lady Alroy /' PlrOI/
de Rastail /de rq'staI /

Notes
1. sphinx – in Greek mythology, a winged monster with a woman's head and a lion's body who
proposed a riddle (загадка) to people and killed all who could not guess it; and when
Oedipus solved it threw herself from the rock on which she sat and died
2.Café de la Paix /ka:'fe dqlq 'pe / – a fashionable cafe in Paris
3.Pentateuch /'pentqtju:k/ – the first five books of the old Testament (Ветхий Завет); here
taken to mean the Bible as a whole
4.the House of Peers – the House of Lords
5.the Madeleine /'mxdleIn/ – a beautiful 18-th century church situated in Place de la Madeleine
in Paris
6. the Bois – Bois de Boulogne /'bwa: dq bu:lLn/ – a large park in the west of Paris
7. you shall tell me – "shall" is a modal verb here, it implies the speaker's will or command
8.a mo'rocco case – сафьяновый футляр
9. clairvoyante / kleq'vOIqnt/ – ясновидица
10.Gioconda /'dZI' qVkPndq/ – (Mona Lisa) Leonardo da Vinci's portrait of Lisa, the
wife of a Florentine, Francescо del Gioconda, which is famous for its subtle smile
11.Bond Street – a fashionable shopping street in London, near Piccadilly, West End
12. brougham /'bru:qm/ – двухместная карета, запряженная в одну лошадь
13. Row – Rotten Row, a fashionable riding path in Hyde Park
14. ma belle inconnue (Fr.) – my lovely stranger
15. Park Lane – a street in the West End that skirts the East side of Hyde Park and connects
Piccadilly and Oxford Street. Park Lane is a centre of wealth and fashion, with many handsome
residences
16. care of Wittaker’s library, Green Street – “care of” (abbreviated c/o) is written on letters
before the name of a person to whose house, office, etc. a letter for another person is sent
17. season – the London season, i.e. early summer when the Royal Court is in London and there is
great activity in fashionable society (balls, concerts, receptions, etc.)
18. a guinea /'gInJ/ – a 21 shilling gold coin; a shilling = 12 pence; a sovereign /'sPvrIn/
– a one pound gold coin. Coins formerly used in Great Britain.

Vocabulary study
splendour /'splendq / n блеск, великолепие: He was overwhelmed by the splendour of the high snow-capped mountains.
ponder (on/upon, over) v обдумывать, взвешивать, размышлять: The prisoner pondered how to escape.
shabby adj поношенный, убогий: a shabby overcoat, hat; shabby surroundings; You look rather shabby in these
clothes.; shabbiness n ничтожность, убогость.
honour /'Pnq / n честь, слава: He won honour for his courage.; dishonour бесчестье , позор; in
honour of sth/sb в честь чего-л., кого-л.: A ceremony in honour of those killed in battle.; guard of honour
почетный караул: They watched the changing of the guard of honour.; a point of honour вопрос чести;
honourable adj благородный, честный: honourable conduct Ant. dishonourable бесчестный,
неблагородный, позорный.
picturesque /'pIkCq'resk /adj 1. живописный: picturesque rocky mountains; 2. колоритный: a
picturesque French café; 3. яркий, образный (о языке): picturesque language.

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loosen /'lu:s(q)n / v ослаблять, развязывать, распускать (волосы): He loosened his tie but didn’t take it
off.; loose /lu:s/ adj 1. свободный: The animals broke loose and left the field.; 2. просторный, широкий
(об одежде), распущенный (волосы): a loose sweater; She prefers wearing her hair loose.;
3. распущенный, беспринципный: loose morals; 4. неточный, слишком общий: a loose translation.
mould /-qV - / v 1. отливать в форму, формовать (into): to mould a figure out of clay; 2. формировать
(личность): to mould one’s/sb’s personality; A teacher helps mould the minds of students.
psychology /saI'kPlqdZI / n психология: What mark did you get in psychology? Jane understands her
husband's psychology very well.; psychological психологический: Derek has a taste for psychological
drama.
subtle /sAtl / adj 1. утонченный, неуловимый, тонкий: a subtle smile, taste; 2. острый, тонкий (замечание,
ум): subtle views, arguments, remarks; subtlety n 1. утонченность, тонкость; 2. острота, тонкость (ума,
замечания): the subtlety of an argument.
fascinate /'fxsIneIt / v очаровывать, пленять; be fascinated with/by: She was fascinated by the lovely
scenery.; fascinating adj обворожительный, очаровательный, пленительный: The scenery was fascinating.
keep (kept, kept) v держать, хранить; keep doing sth продолжать делать что-л., не переставать: Мy shoelace
keeps coming undone.; keep up sth продолжать, поддерживать в хорошем состоянии: You are doing well. Keep up the good
work. He was able to keep up the property. Keep up your courage.; keep up with sb/sth не отставать, идти в ногу с
кем-л/чем-л.: You are walking too fast. I can't keep up with you. The young doctor read medical journals to keep up
with the latest achievements in the field.; keep sb from doing sth помешать кому-л. сделать что-л., удержать кого-л.
от чего-л.:We must keep them from getting to know our plans. Syn. prevent sb (from) doing sth; keep away from sth/sb
держаться в стороне чего-л./кого-л.: to keep sb waiting заставлять кого-л. ждать: I’m sorry I’ve kept you waiting.
innocent /'- / adj 1. невинный, невиновный Не was innocent of the crime. Note the preposition of; Note that the
English for «признать кого-л. невиновным» is “to find sb guilty”; 2. невинный, безвредный: innocent amusements,
pleasures; 3. невинный, простодушный: an innocent child, smile, look; Don't be so innocent as to believe his words.;
innocence n невинность, чистота, невиновность, простодушие: What cause do you have to doubt his
innocence?
plunge v 1. нырять, окунаться: The men plunged into the icy mountain lake.; 2. погружаться
в (тираду, рассуждения): The father plunged into a tirade /taI'reId / about his son’s rude
behaviour.; 3. резко падать (о ценах, доходах и т.п.): As oil prices plunged, the stock
market collapsed.
fit adj 1. ГОДНЫЙ, ПОДХОДЯЩИЙ, соответствующий: The food was not fit to eat. The man is not fit for the
position.; 2. достойный, подобающий: It's not fit that you should mock at your mother so.; think
(see) fit (to do sth) считать нужным, подобающим: He didn't see fit to adopt my suggestion.
Do as you think fit.; 3. бодрый, здоровый: He has been ill and is not fit for work (fit to travel)
yet.; feel (keep) fit чувствовать себя/быть бодрым, здоровым: His father is 80, but he feels
quite fit.; make oneself fit оздоравливаться, закаляться: Exercise more, eat less, don`t smoke –
make yourself fit! Ant. unfit; fit v 1. приходиться впору, подходить по размеру:The shirt doesn't fit me.
I’m a size 10. It's a size too big.; 2. fit (in, into, in with) соответствовать, “вписываться”: This
word does not fit into the sentence. Everybody felt that John did not fit (did not fit in with their sort
of people/into their world).; fit n пригонка (по размеру): The dress is a good /bad fit. – Платье
хорошо/плохо сидит.
occasion 1.особый случай, событие: His debut at Carnegie Hall was a memorable
occasion.; for the occasion для такого случая; on this/that occasion, on the occasion of
sth по такому случаю, по случаю чего-л.: Is he going to arrange anything special on the
occasion of his birthday?; 2. повод, основание A birthday is no occasion for tears. Note the difference
in meaning in the words an incident, an accident, an occasion, а саsе: incident: to have a
funny/sad/strange incident; Errors are inescapable incidents in the course of scientific research.;
accident: Car accidents are frequent on icy roads. The road accident rate has slightly dropped.;
case: a lawyer’s case, a doctor’s case; Mr. Brown thought he had a mild case of flu.; We suspected
the wall was hollow (полая) and this proved to be the case.; occasional adj случающийся время
от времени, иногда: an occasional letter, visit; occasional rain/showers; She makes an
occasional mistake, but she is very reliable.

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infatuate /In'fxCVeIt/ v вскружить голову, внушить безрассудную страсть, свести с ума; be
infatuated with sb быть влюбленным до безумия, ослепленным; infatuation (for) n слепое
увлечение, безрассудная страсть: Their infatuation blinded them to the fundamental differences
in their views.
let sth (to sb) v сдавать внаем: This house is to (be) let.; To let – сдается внаем (надпись).;
The room is let to a student.; rent sth (from sb, to sb) v брать в аренду у кого-л., сдавать в
аренду кому-л.:We don’t own our house; we rent it from Mr. Cage. Mr. Hill rents his land to us
at £500 a year.; rent n арендная плата, квартирная плата (за арендуемую квартиру):
The rent suddenly went up and they had to look for cheaper accommodation.
pick v собирать, снимать (плоды), срывать (цветы): He picked her a rose. They've gone
(fruit) picking today.; pick one's words тщательно подбирать слова: He spoke with difficulty
picking his words.; pick out выбирать, отбирать: The woman picked out the best piece of
silk.; pick up 1. поднимать, подбирать, забирать: The girl bent to pick up the shiny piece of
glass. There will be a bus at 5 to pick you up and take you to the airport.; 2. приобретать (знания,
друзей и т.п. ): Where did you pick up that habit? Where did you pick up your excellent English?
assure /q'SVq / v уверять, убеждать, заверять: I assure you that there's no danger. He tried to assure
the nervous old lady that flying was safe.; assurance n 1. уверенность, заверение: In spite of all
his assurances, he didn’t come. He gave me his assurance that he would come.; 2. уверенность,
убежденность: The poet lacked assurance in front of the large audience.; 3. самонадеянность,
наглость: He had the assurance to claim that he had done everything himself.; self-assurance n 1.
уверенность в себе; 2. самонадеянность; self-assured adj 1. уверенный в себе: The actors
adored the director: he was brilliant, he was competent, he was self-assured. 2. самонадеянный,
самоуверенный.

Exercise 1.Translate from Russian into English. Work in pairs and check with the key

1. Сэм так привык к своей убогой, тускло 1. Sam was so used to his shabby, dimly lit
освещенной комнате, что и не мечтал room that he didn’t dream of moving to a
перебраться в другое место. different place.
2. Благородный поступок моряка заслуживает 2. The sailor’s honourable act deserves
восхищения. Его следует наградить. admiration. He ought to be decorated.
3. Вам будет трудно работать с детьми, если вы не 3. You will find it hard to work with children
изучите психологию ребенка. if you don’t study Child Psychology.
4. Мальчику пришлось бежать, чтобы не отстать от 4. The boy had to run to keep up with his
взрослых, но он не жаловался и не плакал. elders. But he didn’t complain. Nor did he cry.
5. Молодой врач понимал, что если не будет читать 5. The young doctor realised that if he didn’t
последние публикации, он не сможет идти в ногу read the latest publications, he wouldn’t be
с достижениями современной able to keep up with the achievements of
медицины. modern medicine.
6. Вам следовало убедить Джека держаться 6. You should have persuaded Jack to keep
подальше от этих подозрительных людей. away from those suspicious people.
7. Друзья уверяли Билла, что никто из них не 7. Bill’s friends assured him that none of them
сомневается в его невиновности. doubted his innocence.
8. У Марка всегда был такой невинный вид, что 8. Mark always looked so innocent that it
людям и в голову не приходило заподозрить его в never occurred to people to suspect him of
мошенничестве. cheating.
9. Эти фрукты не годятся в пищу. Они испортились. 9. This fruit isn’t fit to eat. It has spoilt.

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10. Этот рассказ не для детских ушей. 10. This story isn’t fit for children to hear.
11. Ничего удивительного, что Роберт счел 11. No wonder Robert saw it fit to put off the
необходимым перенести встречу на среду. appointment till Wednesday.
12. Когда Дэн принес новую куртку домой, 12. When Dan brought the new jacket home, it
выяснилось, что она не подходит ему по размеру. turned out that it didn’t fit him.
13. Случай был такой забавный, что мальчики не 13. The incident was so funny that the boys
могли не рассмеяться, несмотря на строгие взгляды couldn’t help laughing in spite of the teacher’s
учителя. stern glances.
14. «Должно быть, этот пациент – особый случай в 14. “This patient must be a special case in
вашей практике», – заметил Фред. your experience,” remarked Fred.
15. «Почему Пит еще не пришел? Неужели с ним 15. “Why hasn’t Pete come yet? Can he have
произошел несчастный случай?» – воскликнула тетя had an accident?” exclaimed Aunt
Салли. Sally.
16. Я знал, что приезд миссис Рассел всегда был 16. I knew that Mrs. Russell’s arrival had
особым событием в их доме. always been a special occasion in their home.
17. «Это ваш собственный дом или вы его 17. “Is this your own house or are you renting
арендуете?» – спросил Фергюсон. it?” asked Ferguson.
18. «Мы жили здесь в прошлом году, – напомнила 18. “We lived here last year,” Laura reminded
мужу Лаура. – Интересно, сдала ли уже хозяйка her husband. “I wonder if the landlady has let
нашу комнату». our room yet.”
19. «Мне было прекрасно видно, как он поднял с 19. “I could very well see him pick up the
земли кошелек и положил его к себе в карман», – purse and put it into his pocket,” said
сказала Анна. Ann.
20. «Ты должен был выбрать голубое платье для 20. “You should have picked out the blue
Бетти», – упрекнула миссис Харви зятя. dress for Betty,” Mrs. Harvey reproached her
son-in-law.

Exercise 2. Translate into English.


1. Должно быть, Сид стыдился деда: его поношенная одежда, не совсем правильная
речь смущали мальчика.

2. Гости были очарованы живописным видом, который открывался с балкона.


3. Вы обязаны выступить на процессе. Это вопрос чести.

4. Почему ты сторонишься нас последнее время?


5. Никто не понимал, почему Джейн все время смеется.

6. Мне так жаль, что я заставил вас ждать .


7. Джейн сказала мужу, что еще не заплатила за квартиру (арендуемую) в этом
месяце.

8. Продавщица положила на прилавок несколько шляп, и Нэнси выбрала голубую.

9. Собака сорвалась с цепи и накинулась на грабителя.

102
10. Две недели семья с нетерпением ожидала прогулки за город, а Элис даже сшила
себе новое платье по такому случаю.

11. За время своей долгой работы в больнице врачу приходилось иметь дело со
многими интересными случаями.

12. Политические взгляды мистера Тодда сформировались под влиянием той


социальной среды, в которой он вырос.
13. «Вообще эта комната сдается, но сейчас там никто не живет»,– сказала
хозяйка.
14. С самым невинным видом Сид подкрался к сахарнице (sugar-bowl) и
быстро схватил два куска.
15. «На вашем месте я бы постарался отговорить Петра от участия в лыжных
соревнованиях. Он еще не совсем в форме», – настаивал доктор.
16. «Я восхищаюсь Линдой. Она всегда идет в ногу с модой», – похвалила
подругу Анна.
17. «Если бы вы лучше разбирались в психологии, вы бы не доверились этому
бесчестному человеку», – посетовал Кларк.
18. «Уверяю вас, вам незачем беспокоиться, – успокоила коллег Мэри. – Все
необходимые меры приняты».
19. Мы видели, как автобус забрал часть людей на остановке, а остальным
пришлось ждать следующего.
20. Алексу, должно быть, легко даются языки. Он схватывает десятки
выражений без особых усилий.
Exercise 3. Find in the text the words listed below, then close the book and
reproduce them in the context of the story:
shabby/shabbiness, honourable, picturesque, mould, psychological, subtle,
fascinate, keep (doing), innocently, infatuate, let, assure.

Reading Comprehension

1. Find in the text and paraphrase or explain.


1. I was sitting outside the Café de la Paix watching the splendour and shabbiness of Parisian
life, and wondering … at the strange panorama of pride and poverty that passed before me…
2. … Murchison was the stoutest of Tories, and believed in the Pentateuch as firmly as he
believed in the House of Peers.
3. No, not a yellow carriage, any other colour – there that dark green one will do. 4) … we will
dine there, and you shall tell me all about yourself.
5. Its beauty was a beauty moulded out of many mysteries — the beauty, in fact, which is
psychological, not plastic and the faint smile that just played across the lips was far too subtle
to be really sweet.
6. She is the Gioconda in sables.
7. Prey do not talk so loud; you may be overheard.
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8. I … plunged recklessly into the subject of the French plays.
9. … and as some scientific bore began a dissertation on widows as exemplifying the survival
of the matrimonially fittest, I left and went home.
10. Sometimes I thought that she was in the power of some man.
11. I was infatuated with her; in spite of the mystery, I thought then – in consequence of it, I
see now.
12. It seemed a sort of place for letting lodgings.
13. I shut myself up and saw no one.
14. I could not help it; I was tortured with doubt.
15. ... the drawing-rooms are supposed to be let, ... as the rent is owing оn them, you can have
them.
16. … she herself was merely a sphinx without a secret.
17. "I wonder?" he said at last.

2. Find in the text and translate into Russian.


1. We used to say of him that he would be the best of fellows, if he did not always speak the
truth.
2. I think we really admired him all the more for this frankness.
3. … the faint smile that just played аcross her lips was far too subtle to be really sweet.
4. Аs I passed by there looked out from it the face I showed you this afternoon.
5.… I was dining with Madame de Rastail.
6. Dinner was for eight o'clock.
7. … the servant threw open the door and announced Lady Alroy.
8. At last I determined to ask her to be my wife.
9. … it was the woman herself I loved.
10. Can't you tell the truth?
11. … the drawing-rooms are supposed to be let.

Discussion

1. Do you think the following attributes apply to the characters of the story? Give arguments to
support your opinion.
If said of Lady Alroy: mysterious, subtle, refined (изысканная ), distinct (особенная, отличная от
других), inscrutable ( загадочная, непостижимая), unapproachable (неприступная ), odd
(странная), unconventional (необычная, нетрадиционная, не подверженная условностям), imaginative, unpredictable.
If said of Lord Murchison: honourable, straightforward (прямой, честный), high-principled,
conscientious, scrupulous (щепетильный), lacking in imagination, romantic, idealistic,
conventional, self-righteous /"- 'raICqs / (уверенный в своей правоте), uncompromising,
predictable.
2. Analyse the reasons for Lady Alroy’s odd behaviour.
3. Trace the differences in Lady Alroy’s and Lord Murchison’s characters. Do you
suppose they might have made a good match if they had had a chance to get married?
Remember the title: wasn’t their relationship doomed from the start?

Stylistic Analysis

104
1. Write a summary of the short story “The Sphinx Without a Secret”.
2. What is the author’s message? Analyse the title. What is implied in the title? Indicate
the stylistic devices that create the picturesque image.
3. What words lend atmosphere to the description of Parisian life?
4. Comment on the narrator’s speech. Does he sound detached, matter-of-fact? Does he
express opinions, pass judgments, assess Lord Murchison and Lady Alroy?
5. Indicate the stylistic devices in the sentences beginning with “… he was so handsome, so
…”; “… for Murchison was the stoutest of Tories …”; “My dear Gerald,” … “Women are
meant ….” What can be inferred from them about the narrator’s opinion of Lord
Murchison?
6. Prove that Lord Murchison’s speech is emotionally charged, intense. Trace instances of
climax in the text.
7. Describe Lady Alroy’s appearance, clothes, jewelry. Point out the words that serve to
create Lady Alroy’s aura of mystery. Analyse the epithets, similes and the allusion.

Grammar: Parenthesis

Parenthesis serves as a linking device to ensure text cohesion. A list of useful clichés is provided in
Unit 1.
Parenthesis also serves to lend emotive (modal) colouring to the text.

Parenthetical words: doubtless, surely, surprisingly, fundamentally, essentially, basically,


interestingly, paradoxically, luckily, allegedly, predictably, etc.
Parenthetical phrases: in my (his, her, etc.) view, in my (his, her, etc.) opinion, to my mind, no doubt,
no wonder, in a sense, strangely enough, last but not least, in fact, as a matter of fact,
frankly speaking, to cut a long story short, in a nutshell, in short, to put it plainly, etc.
Parenthetical clauses: it seems, one might suppose, as (was) stated above, etc.
A coma must be used to separate parenthetical words and phrases:
e. g. Allegedly, he was detained for trading in pirated software. As a matter of fact, I don’t believe it.
It seems he had been set up.

Exercise 1. Make up 10 examples of your own on the basis of “The Sphinx Without a Secret” to
illustrate the use of parenthesis for emotive purposes.

Exercise 2. Find in your reading materials 10 cases of the grammar under study.

Phrasal Verbs

look after – to take care of;


look back on/upon – to consider the past, remember;
look down on – to have or show a low opinion of;
look forward to – to anticipate with pleasure;
look on/upon sb/sth as – to regard as;
Look out! – Watch out! Be careful!;
look out for – to be alert in order to see/find sth/sb;
look through – to look at quickly;
look up – to find information (in a reference book, diary, timetable, etc.);
look up to – to respect sb, admire

105
make out – 1. to distinguish, 2. to write out;
make sth up to sb – to compensate sb for sth;
make up – 1. to invent, 2. to put cosmetics on, 3. to become friends again (after a
quarrel), 4. to constitute;
make up for – to compensate for

pass away – to die;


pass for – to be accepted as or believed to be;
pass by – to leave out, disregard, overlook;
pass on – 1. to move on, 2. to give from person to person;
pass out – to faint

Fill in the correct particle(s).


1. Look …! You could fall off the edge here.
2. If you don’t know the word, look it … in the dictionary.
3. He looks … everyone, who isn’t as wealthy as he is.
4. Can you look … him … a friend after he let you down like that?
5. Children need a role model to look … .
6. Look … the tulips. Don’t slice them off as you’re mowing.
7. One hundred years make … a century.
8. I could barely make … the traffic lights through the rain.
9. You don’t really hate each other, so why don’t you kiss and make …?
10. How can I make (it) … to you for all the trouble I’ve put you to?
11. He made the cheque … for $1000 and handed it to me.
12. You look great! You could pass … a teenager.
13. Let us now pass … to the next subject.
14. It’s so stuffy in here. Quick! Open the window. I think I’m going to pass … .

Listening Comprehension

Audiotext 13 Human Animal Displayed by Zoo

1. Listen to the text and report the gist of it.


The words below will help you understand the text:
tame adj – ручной, прирученный
baboon /bq'bu:n / n – a dog-like monkey
see-through adj – transparent
weird /wIqd / adj – strange, odd
species /'spJSJz / n – биологический вид
Note the plural form: a species – two, many, few species. Also: a means – means, a series – series
habitat /'hxbItxt/ n – среда обитания
life expectancy – продолжительность жизни
106
makeshift adj – самодельный
2. Listen again and reproduce the text in detail.
3. Listen to the passages that your teacher will read and try to fill in the gaps with the exact
words of the text as you remember them.
4. Discuss the following questions:
- What is the purpose of the experiment?
- Does it make sense to you? Discuss the mentoring aspect of the experiment.
- How would it feel to put yourself on display for the whole world to gawk at (таращиться)?

MODERN ISSUES
Healthy Eating
Read the texts with the help of a dictionary and do the assignments below.

Text 1 Children Go Hungry to School

One of the busiest times in most factory and works canteens, apart from lunch hour, is the
mid-morning break. The quantity of cakes, rolls and biscuits consumed is enormous. The
reason for this is that most people have left home without eating, or simply drinking a cup of
tea.
The reasons for not eating breakfast vary from not having time to not feeling like food first
thing in the morning.
Research conducted in many countries, and with a wide range of people of all types and
ages, has shown that all – regardless of sеx and occupation – were able to work or play more
effectively and more efficiently, both physically and mentally, when they had started the day
on a good breakfast.
A survey of more than 800 Britons showed that people were seriously lacking in a wide
range of essential nutrients in their daily diet.
Breakfast with high protein foods to start the day is important, especially on cold winter
mornings. By breakfast-time most people have been without food for ten to 12 hours. This
applies also to children and young people.
About 30 per cent of girls and 20 per cent of boys go to school on an empty stomach, and
fewer than one in ten children eat a cooked breakfast.
Girls aged between 13 and 16 are most likely to go school on an empty stomach with
about 35 per cent having nothing or only a drink.
The survey of 18,000 children aged between 11 and 16 throughout Britain was conducted
by the Schools Health Education Unit of Exeter University.
Spokesman for the unit John Balding said: “The percentage of girls coming to school
having eaten no solid food at all could give cause for concern if it is believed that school
work is enhanced by having some food in the system.”

107
Establish the routine of a good meal, then there will be less inclination to fill up with cakes,
biscuits and sweets.
If you are slimming a breakfast will help your cause.
There is no great effort involved in getting breakfast ready. Everything can be left in
readiness before going to bed. An egg cooks while you finish dressing, bacon can be grilled in
a very short time. A grapefruit can be prepared the previous evening, so can such fruits as
prunes and stewed apples.
Ensure that you have at least one protein food, such as eggs, meat or fish. It's fairly common
knowledge today that most breakfast cereals (excluding those with added nuts) have little
nutritional value, merely a palatable way of consuming milk and sugar and most of us have
too much of the latter anyway.
Try a muesli – a mixture of oats, nuts, honey and fruit, and for a change add youghurt.
Beans and rice, chips, bread and chips, fish and chips, all provide excellent protein. If time is
short, have a roll and hard-boiled eggs (done the previous night) or cold sausages.
(From The Times.)

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Vocabulary Study

Exercise 1. Find in the text the English equivalents for the phrases listed below
and reproduce them in the context of the article.
1. исследование, проведенное во многих странах … показало…
2. ...работать более эффективно (с лучшим результатом) и качественнее (с большей
трудоспособностью) …
3.обследование более 800 британцев ...показало...
4. … люди испытывают серьезный недостаток в целом ряде необходимых питательных
веществ …
5. завтрак из продуктов с высоким содержанием белка …
6. … идут в школу натощак …
7. процент девочек, приходящих в школу…
8. … давать повод для беспокойства …
9. заведите режим (правильного питания) …
10. если вы пытаетесь сбросить вес (стать стройным) …
11. сухие завтраки в своем большинстве имеют небольшую питательную ценность …
12. … более приятная (вкусная, аппетитная) форма (потребления продуктов).

Exercise 2. Translate into Russian.


1. Не made an effective speech.
2. His efforts to improve the school have been very effective.
3. Our efficient new machines are much cheaper to run.
4. What this office needs is an efficient secretary.
5. The scientist has conducted (done, carried out) some research on the diseases of the blood.
6. He was an experimental rather than an analytical research worker.
7. They made a survey of over 500 children grouping around the ages of 12, 15 and 18.
8. One survey conducted by the Gallup Poll (институт общественного мнения США)
revealed that 61 per cent of all adults could not remember having read one book during the year
just passed.
9. She lacked the skills required for the job.
10. He is lacking in courage.
11. The plants died through/for lack of water.
12. Growing children and adolescents need more protein-rich foods than grown adults.
13. We tend far too much to select our food for its eye appeal and taste, not its nutritional value.
14. Most British housewives know that a brown egg has no nutritional advantages over a white
one, but they still chase after brown ones.
15. Please do it according to routine.
16. These two babies have different daily routines.
17. I don't want any cake. I'm slimming.
18. Our chances of winning are slim.

Speaking
1. Prepare to speak about and discuss.
1. Few people enjoy a hearty (обильный) breakfast first thing in the morning. There are
different reasons for that.

109
2. There is nothing like a good nourishing (питательный) breakfast to make you fit for the day.
No great effort is involved in getting breakfast.
3. If you are set on slimming a heavy breakfast can hardly help your cause.
2. Prepare to give a talk on the following points.
1. Dieters favour low-fat, protein-rich foods; they keep away from cakes, biscuits and sweets.
2. Protein is your prime body-builder. Go easy on carbohydrates. Cut your fat intake.
3. The ideal human form is slim. Great sacrifices are made to fight obesity / qV'bJsItI/
(ожирение, тучность).
4. Dieting is bad for young people: it results in malnutrition (недоедание, недостаточное
питание).
3. Discuss the following in pairs.
The argument: Body-fixated teen girls starve themselves to death. Fashion shows, films and T V
contribute to the problem. For public health’s sake the media ought to show more average women.
The counter-argument: The media promote the perfect body shape and spur young girls to diet
and exercise and that is healthy.

Text 2 Poor Diet and Lack of Exercise Blamed for Rise in Obesity

Obesity in England is nearing epidemic proportions with one in five adults now dan-
gerously overweight, costing the economy and NHS £2.6bn a year, the national audit office
warns today.
More than 31,000 people a year are dying prematurely — 6% of all deaths — because of a
lifestyle of fatty diets, over-reliance on the car аnd energy-saving devices such as lifts and
escalators.
In addition to the 21% of women and 17% of men in England regarded as obese, another
32% of women and 46% of men are overweight. This means nearly six in 10 adults — more
than 20m people – should change their lifestyles, say the report's authors.
England, where obesity levels have tripled in 20 years, already has one of the worst records
in Europe. Studies have also shown alarming rises in children's weight. As many as one in 10
children aged four or under is obese, while one in four is overweight, research in the British
Medical Journal revealed last week.
Poor diet and physical inactivity account for about 400,000 deaths every year. Obesity is
likely to become the biggest cause of death within the next few years. Diseases such as
diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer have been linked to obesity.
The report says treating obesity and related illnesses cost the NHS about £500m in 1998.
The loss to the economy, through 18m days of sickness and 40m days of working life
through early death of workers, was £2.1m. But this took no account of conditions where
proportions due to obesity could not be calculated, including back pain, one of the most
common causes of absences.
The report illustrates changing lifestyles by using earlier studies which suggested the
number of 17-year-olds walking to school fell from 59% to 49% between 1986 and 1996
while car journeys to schools doubled. Average television-watching in England doubled from
13 hours a week to 26 оver 30 years to the mid-1990s and a recent government-funded study
of the diet of 4 to 18-year-olds revealed average consumption of fruit, vegetables and fruit
juice was 188 grams a day, less than half the 400g recommended for adults.

110
Life expectancy
The report says problems of obesity and excess weight increase with age, so that while less
than 30% of 16 to 24-year-olds are above normal levels, seven in 10 over-65s have a
problem. The prevalence of obesity grows among lower socio-economic groups. Obesity is
reducing life expectancy by nine years on average, according to the report. But only one in
seven health authorities has a plan to prevent or treat obesity and only 40% of GPs attempt
to identify patients at highest risk of excessive weight gain.
The report urges the government to take a more active role in public education to stem the
epidemic, to overhaul the school lunch system and get the food industry to cooperate with
health bodies.
The report calls on the government to build on existing Whitehall initiatives, including the
NHS plan on nutrition, on increased participation in sport and on supporting healthier
methods of transport. The NAO is particularly worried by inconsistency between certain
food industry sponsorship of schools and initiatives designed to promote balanced diets.
Schools have participated with businesses in schemes to provide free books and maths
equipment in return for tokens from crisps and biscuit packets. This type of commercial
involvement which has the effect of directly promoting sales of particular products, mау
encourage children and their families to buy more snack foods with a high fat, salt and sugar
content.

Fat facts
Main findings
• Obesity in England has tripled since 1980
• 1 in 5 adults is now obese
• Two-thirds of men and over half of women are either obese or overweight
• Obesity costs the NHS at least £500m a year and the economy another £2bn a year
Trimming tips
• Take at least 30 mins of light to moderate exercise, such as a brisk walk, five times a week
• Eat a piece of fruit or drink fruit juice with every meal
• Eat two portions of salads or vegetables for main meals
• Rice, pasta or potatoes should take up about a third of your plate for main meals
• Eat fish 2-3 times a week
• Use semi-skimmed or skimmed milk
• Avoid salt
• Keep sweets, etc. for special occasions
(From The Times.)

Reading Comprehension

Find in the text and paraphrase or explain.


1. Obesity in England is nearing epidemic proportions …
2. 31,000 people a year are dying prematurely …
3. … over-reliance on the car …
4. … energy saving devices …
5. … obesity levels have tripled in 20 years …
6. … alarming rises in children’s weight.
7. Poor diet and physical inactivity account for 400,000 deaths …
8. … certain types of cancer have been linked to obesity.
9. The loss to the economy …

111
10. … car journeys to schools doubled.
11. … average consumption of fruit …
12. … lower socio-economic groups.
13. … to stem the epidemic …
14. … to overhaul the school lunch system …
15. … initiatives designed to promote balanced diets.
16. … has the effect of directly promoting sales …

Speaking

1. Prepare to speak about and discuss.


1. Obesity is an acute problem in Britain. What are the statistics on obesity?
2. The issue of overweight and obesity is no less topical in Russia.
3. The causes of obesity. Consider the age and social factors.
4. Obese people are likely to suffer long-term damaging health effects. Obesity is set to be a
No 1 killer.
5. Financial costs of obesity are huge.
6. A wide range of measures are necessary to tackle the problem of obesity.

2. Discuss the following in pairs.


The argument: Being fat has nothing to do with what we eat: it depends on the kind of
metabolism we have.
The counter-argument: A balanced diet is the secret of a healthy body size.

Text 3 Devil Food Made Me Do It

MAKОТО`S MOTHER is too busy to fix him breakfast. Like millions of Japanese
salarymoms, she juggles household duties and the rigors of a full-time job, leaving her 11-
year-old son to make his own instant noodles each morning. Just add hot water.
Haruko's parents dine at home most evenings, but their daughter seldom joins them. To
prepare herself for high-school entrance exams, she attends nighttime cram school; dinner is
a cheeseburger and soda from some takeout joint. Japanese children "consume incredible
amounts of soft drinks and junk food," says Hiroshi Osawa, a retired psychology professor at
Iwate University. The question is whether more than their waistlines is at stake. Yes, says
Osawa: “There is a connection between diet and violence." Thus, the trendiest explanation
for Japan's alarming juvenile crime wave these days: blame junk-food junkies.
Many nutritionists say the junk-food theory is grounded in science. A diet high in sugar but
low in vitamins and minerals, they explain, can result in a dangerous chemical imbalance.
First, consumption of sweets spikes up a child's blood-sugar level, signaling the body to
release sugar-neutralizing insulin to regain equilibrium. But often the body overshoots,
causing blood-sugar levels to plummet, making the child tired and irritable. Then the body
reacts again, producing adrenaline and triggering instant hyperactivity, — even violence. The
pattern is believed to be so common that Japanese have coined a new term to describe it:
kireru, or "snapping."
Recently, researchers from Tsukuba University teamed up with police in Ibaraki Prefecture
to explore the links between junk food and juvenile crime. Their survey of 270 young
112
delinquents found them 25 percent more likely than other children to eat junk food and three
times as likely to skip breakfast. A survey of 12,000 students by teachers in Hiroshima found
that 10 percent of them reported eating breakfast and dinner alone, implying an unsupervised
diet. A recent editorial in the Asahi Shimbun called on the “entire society” to pay attention to
how children eat, adding that "these days supper-table scenes in Japan look so lonely and
dreary."
It is also essential to have balanced, wholesome, home-cooked meals.
To help harried parents cope, the Tokyo Shimbun recently published "menus to prevent
snapping." Based on advice from one of Japan's most famous nutritionists Yukio Hattori, the
paper recommends 18 dishes, including yams and apples in lemon broth, sardine rolls and
stewed seaweed. Hattori laments that "wholesome, home-cooked meals without additives"
have fallen out of favor, and pleads with mothers "to cook at least once a day with a lot of
vegetables."
(From Newsweek.)
Reading Comprehension

Find in the text and paraphrase or explain.


1. … salarymoms …
2. … the rigours of a full-time job …
3. … she attends nighttime cram school …
4. … junk food …
5. …more than their waistlines is at stake.
6. … alarming juvenile crime wave …
7. Many nutritionists say that …
8. … the junk-food theory is grounded in science.
9. … can result in chemical imbalance …
10. … causing blood sugar levels to plummet …
11. … triggering instant hyperactivity …
12. … young delinquents …
13. … three times as likely to skip breakfast.
14. … an unsupervised diet.
15. … wholesome, home-cooked meals.
16. … pleads with mothers to cook …

Speaking

1. Prepare to speak about and discuss.


1. What is the bottom line of the Japanese professor’s theory?
2. Is the theory scientifically grounded? How credible is it? Surely, the gloom is overdone.
3. There is a connection between physical well-being and emotional well-being.
4. We are raising a fast-food generation.

2. Look at the picture and tell a story …


…about the plump lady in it, her weight-loss regime and the lures distracting her from it.

3. Express your opinion on the saying


113
“The best doctors in the world are Doctor Diet, Doctor Quiet and Doctor Merryman.”

4. Summarize the Russian article in English and comment on the issue raised.

Американцев убедили бросить курить

Американцев убедили бросить курить. Теперь их уговаривают поменьше есть и


побольше двигаться.
Американцы тратят в год 33 миллиона долларов на специальные диетические
продукты, курсы для толстяков — короче, на весь комплекс мер, связанных со стре-
млением похудеть, стать стройнее и здоровее. И все же более 20 процентов
американцев за последнее десятилетие изрядно поправились, и сейчас не менее 30
процентов населения считается тучным.
Когда доктор Куп был приведен к присяге в 1981 году в качестве главного хирурга
Соединенных Штатов, в стране курили даже больше и, главное, повсеместнее, нежели
нынче в России. Курили в кинотеатрах, спортивных залах, на вокзалах и в самолетах.
Курили в ресторанах, такси, междугородных автобусах и поездах.
Когда доктор Куп покидал в 1989 году пост главного хирурга, в поездах не осталось
вагонов для курящих, рестораны отвели им самые темные, неудобные места. Половина
автомобилей сейчас выпускается без пепельниц.
Впрочем, наученные горьким опытом «сухого закона», породившего до сих пор не
искорененную организованную преступность в США, американцы не пытались
сразить курение голыми административными мерами. Запреты и штрафы вошли в
норму только в последние пять-семь лет, и то под давлением пассажиров, посетителей,
клиентов.
Однако трудно ожидать помощи общественности против переедания. Америка любит
поесть. Кулинарные книги всегда были среди бестселлеров. С недавних пор на смену
типографскому шрифту пришла электроника. Компакт-диски и дискеты с рецептами
приготовления и картинками блюд всех стран мира занимают видные места на полках
компьютерных магазинов. Далеко не все газеты имеют специальные секции, посвя-
щенные политике или даже школьному образованию, однако без кулинарии не
обходится ни одно периодическое издание.
Америка считается страной с очень дешевой едой. То есть в долларовом выражении
хлеб, молоко, мясо, сахар и многие другие основные продукты в России по-прежнему
в 2 – 4 раза дешевле. Однако значительно более высокая оплата труда делает их
неизмеримо доступнее для абсолютного большинства простых американцев.
И потому число толстых растет. Программа всеобщего похудения потребует на
первом этапе примерно 30 миллионов долларов – для организации рекламы, массовых
мероприятий, научных исследований и разработок, опросов общественного мнения.
Согласно статистике здравоохранения, тучность является причиной 300 тысяч
преждевременных смертей в год. Толстяки значительно чаще обращаются в больницы,
на них, в сравнении с тонкими, уходит куда больше средств из фондов социального
страхования.
Активисты движения предлагают внедрить в общественное сознание щадящие
принципы поддержания формы в отличие от ведущих спортивных фирм, которые
рекомендуют три раза в неделю физические упражнения на грани возможностей и
изнеможения, а также болезненный отказ от многих вкусных вещей. Будет прекрасно,
если все американцы начнут шагать относительно быстрым шагом по 15 минут в день
и снизят свой вес на 5—10 килограммов.
(«Известия»)

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The words below will help you summarize the article.
диетические продукты – health foods
привести к присяге – to swear in (He was sworn in)
Главный хирург США – The US Surgeon General
Сухой закон – The Prohibition /"prqVq'bISn /

Listening and Speaking

Audiotext 14 ‘I Liked Feeling Full’


1. Listen to the text one time and report the gist of it.
The words and phrases below will help you understand the text:
one stone = 6.34 kg Note the plural form: five stone
bouts of sickness – приступы тошноты
hulk n – большой, неповоротливый человек
bereaved /bI'rJvd/ adj – переживающий утрату (смерть) близкого человека
affluent /'xflVqnt/ adj – богатый, изобильный
wreak havoc /rJk 'hxvqk/– устраивать кошмар

Proper Names
Susanne Pearce
John Pendlebury
Linda Nicholson

2. Listen again and reproduce the text in detail.


3. Discuss the following questions:
- Describe Suzanne’s, John’s and Linda’s lifestyles: sedentary, moderately active or
very active.
- Are Suzanne, John and Linda well versed in nutritional value?
- What may be people’s reasons for overeating?
- What solutions did Suzanne, John and Linda come up with?
- How can you work out your daily calorie allowance and avoid self-imposed
starvation?
- What is a balanced diet?
- How can you maintain a healthy balance between energy intake and energy
expenditure?

Writing

Write an essay on one of the following topics:


1. A Balanced Diet is the Secret of a Healthy Body Size
2. A Healthy Life Style
3. The Health Risks of Obesity
4. On Bringing Up a Healthy Child

Grammar Revision: The Passive Voice

115
Exercise 1. Translate from English into Russian. Work in pairs and check with the key.

1. В этом районе почти все пятиэтажные 1. In this district almost all five-storey houses
дома уже снесены и построено много have been pulled down and a lot of high-rises
многоэтажных. И еще много домов have been built. And many more houses are
строится. being built.

2. Здесь строится новый супермаркет. – 2. A new supermarket is being built here. –


Его давно строят? – Да, строительство Has it been built long? – Yes, the construction
продолжается полтора года и должно has lasted a year and a half and is to be
быть закончено к Новому Году. – А completed by New Year’s. – And has the new
бассейн уже построили? – Да, давно swimming-pool been built? – Yes, it was built
построили. long ago.
3. С тех пор как из библиотеки исчезло 3. Since a number of books disappeared from
несколько книг, Виктора подозревают в the library, Victor has been suspected of
воровстве. stealing them.
4. «Мне кажется, за нами шпионят», – 4. “I think we’re being spied on,” whispered
прошептал Фред. Fred.
5. Какой на Джиме поношенный костюм! 5. What a shabby suit Jim is wearing! He
О нем надо лучше заботиться. must be taken better care of.
6. Осторожно! Нас слушают. 6. Be careful! We are being listened to.
7. Было объявлено, что собрание 7. It was announced that the meeting had been
перенесли на следующую неделю. put off till the next week.
8. Ученику объяснили новое правило. 8. A new rule was explained to the pupil.
9. «Мне описали, в каком пальто он 9. “It was described to me what coat he would
будет», – сказал водитель. be wearing,” said the driver.
10. В номере не работал душ, и мистеру 10. The shower was out of order in Mr.
Палмеру предложили переехать в другой Palmer’s room and it was suggested that he
номер. move to another room.

Exercise 2. Translate into English.


1. Линда всегда нервничает, когда за ней наблюдают.
2. Осторожно! На вас смотрят.
3. Инженера спросили, почему в цехе (shop) не соблюдались правила безопасности.
4. Мистер Гринвуд в высшей степени благородный человек. На него можно
положиться.
5. Анне объяснили, что для работы в отделе кадров (the personnel department) компании
требуется значительно более опытный человек.
6. Роберт не мог понять, почему над ним издеваются, почему все так враждебны по
отношению к нему.
7. Письма уже отослали? – Нет, их как раз печатают. Их давно печатают.
8. В этих башнях никогда не жили. Они строились в восьмом веке как символы
богатства и власти.
9. Том решил выяснить, когда и кому был сдан в аренду этот дом. Он сам бы с
удовольствием снял его.
10. Было объявлено, что из-за отсутствия главного свидетеля слушание дела
откладывается.
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11. Хотя мне детально описали внешность нового учителя, я все равно не узнала его.
12. Мистеру Тодду предложили взять на работу нового сотрудника, человека
надежного и весьма компетентного.
13. Все согласились, что решение по вопросу о дополнительных инвестициях было
достигнуто.
14. Ричарду предложили съездить на фабрику и на месте разобраться во всех деталях
этого запутанного дела.
15. «Объем продаж нашей компании значительно возрос за последние полгода, –
сказал директор. – Наша продукция была прекрасно разрекламирована»

117
UNIT 6

POPULAR FICTION

Text A Canary For One

The train passed very quickly a long, red stone house with a garden and four thick
palm-trees with tables under them in the shade. On the other side was the sea. Then there
was a cutting through red stone and clay, and the sea was only occasionally and far
below against the rocks.
"I bought him in Palermo," the American lady said. "We only had an hour
ashore and it was Sunday morning. The man wanted to be paid in dollars and I gave
him a dollar and a half. He really sings very beautifully."
It was very hot in the train and it was very hot in the lit salon compartment. There
was no breeze came through the open window. The American lady pulled the
window-blind down and there was no more sea, even occasionally. On the other side
there was glass, then the corridor, then an open window, and outside the window were
dusty trees and an oiled road and flat fields of grapes, with gray-stone hills behind
them.
There was smoke from many tall chimneys – coming into Marseilles, and the train
slowed down and followed one track through many others into the station. The train
stayed twenty-five minutes in the station at Marseilles and the American lady bought a
copy of The Daily Mail and a half-bottle of Evian water. She walked a little way along
the station platform but she stayed near the steps of the car because at Cannes, where it
stopped for twelve minutes, the train had left with no signal of departure and she had
gotten on only just in time. The American lady was a little deaf and she was afraid that
perhaps signals of departure were given and that she did not hear them.
The train left the station in Marseilles and there was not only the switch-yards and
the factory smoke but, looking back, the town of Marseilles and the harbor with stone
hills behind it and the last of the sun on the water. As it was getting dark the train passed
a farmhouse burning in a field. Motor cars were stopped along the road and bedding
and things from inside the farmhouse were spread in the field. Many people were
watching the house burn. After it was dark the train was in Avignon. People got on and
off. At the newsstand Frenchmen, returning to Paris, bought that day's French papers.
On the station platform were negro soldiers. They wore brown uniforms and were tall
and their faces shone, close under the electric light. Their faces were very black and
they were too tall to stare. The train left Avignon station with the negroes standing
there. A short white sergeant was with them.
Inside the lit salon compartment the porter had pulled down the three beds from
inside the wall and prepared them for sleeping. In the night the American lady lay
without sleeping because the train was a rapide and went very fast and she was afraid
of the speed in the night. The American lady's bed was the one next to the window.
The canary from Palermo, a cloth spread over his cage, was out of the draft in the
corridor that went into the compartment wash-room. There was a blue light outside the

118
compartment, and all night the train went very fast and the American lady lay awake
and waited for a wreck.
In the morning the train was near Paris, and after the American lady had come out
from the wash-room, looking very wholesome and middle-aged and American in spite
of not having slept, and had taken the cloth off the birdcage and hung the cage in the
sun, she went back to the restaurant for breakfast. When she came back to the lit salon
compartment again, the beds had been pushed back into the wall and made into seats,
the canary was shaking the feathers in the sunlight that came through the open window,
and the train was much nearer Paris.
"He loves the sun," the American lady said. "He'll sing now in a little while."
The canary shook his feathers and pecked into them. "I've always loved birds,"
the American lady said. "I'm taking him home to my little girl. There – he's singing
now."
The canary chirped and the feathers on his throat stood out, then he dropped his
bill and pecked into his feathers again. The train crossed a river and passed through
many outside of Paris towns. There were tram-cars in the towns and big advertisements
for the Belle Jardiniere and Dubonnet and Pernod on the walls toward the train. All that
the train passed through looked as though it were before breakfast. For several minutes
I had not listened to the American lady, who was talking to my wife.
"Is your husband American too?" asked the lady.
"Yes," said my wife. "We're both Americans."
"I thought you were English."
"Oh, no."
"Perhaps that was because I wore braces," I said. I had started to say suspenders
and changed it to braces in the mouth, to keep my English character. The American
lady did not hear. She was really quite deaf, she read lips, and I had not looked
toward her. I had looked out of the window. She went on talking to my wife.
"I'm so glad you're Americans. American men make the best husbands," the
American lady was saying. "That was why we left the Continent, you know. My
daughter fell in love with a man in Vevey." She stopped. "They were simply madly in
love." She stopped again. "I took her away, of course."
"Did she get over it?" asked my wife.
"I don't think so," said the American lady. "She wouldn't eat anything and she
wouldn't sleep at all, I've tried so very hard, but she doesn't seem to take an interest in
anything. She doesn't care about things. I couldn't have her marrying a foreigner." She
paused. "Some one, a very good friend, told me once, "No foreigner can make an
American girl a good husband."
"No," said my wife, "I suppose not."
The American lady admired my wife's traveling-coat, and it turned out that the
American lady had bought her own clothes for twenty years now from the same
maison de couture in the Rue Saint Honoré. They had her measurements, and a
vendeuse who knew her and her tastes picked the dresses out for her and they were
sent to America. They came at the post-office near where she lived up-town in
New York, and the duty, was never exorbitant because they opened the dresses there
in the post-office to appraise them and they were always very simple-looking and
with no gold lace nor ornaments that would make the dresses look expensive.
Before the present vendeuse, named Therése, there had been another vendeuse
named Amélie. Altogether there had only been these two in the twenty years. It had
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always been the same couturier. Prices, however, had gone up. The exchange,
though, equalized that. They had her daughter's measurements now too. She was
grown up and there was not much chance of their changing now.
The train was now coming into Paris. The fortifications were leveled but grass had
not grown. There were many cars standing on tracks – brown wooden restaurant-cars
and brown wooden sleeping-cars that would go to Italy at five o'clock that night, if that
train still left at five; the cars were marked Paris-Rome, and cars, with seats on the roofs,
that went back and forth to the suburbs with, at certain hours, people in all the seats and
on the roofs, if that were the way it were still done, and passing were the white walls and
many windows of houses. Nothing had eaten any breakfast.
"Americans make the best husbands," the American lady said to my wife. I was
getting down the bags. "American men are the only men in the world to marry."
''How long ago did you leave Vevey?" asked my wife.
"Two years ago this fall. It's her, you know, that I'm taking the canary to."
"Was the man your daughter was in love with a Swiss?"
"Yes," said the American lady. "He was from a very good family in Vevey. He
was going to be an engineer. They met there in Vevey. They used to go on long walks
together."
"I know Vevey," said my wife. "We were there on our honeymoon."
"Were you really? That must have been lovely. I had no idea, of course, that she'd
fall in love with him."
"It was a very lovely place," said my wife.
"Yes," said the American lady. "Isn't it lovely? Where did you stop there?"
"We stayed at the Trois Couronnes," said my wife.
"It's such a fine old hotel," said the American lady.
"Yes," said my wife. "We had a very fine room and in the fall the country was
lovely."
"Were you there in the fall?"
"Yes," said my wife.
We were passing three cars that had been in a wreck. They were splintered
open and the roofs sagged in.
"Look," I said. There's been a wreck."
The American lady looked and saw the last car. "I was afraid of just that all night,"
she said, "I have terrific presentiments about things sometimes, I'll never travel on a
rapide again at night. There must be other comfortable trains that don't go so fast."
Then the train was in the dark of the Gare de Lyon, and then stopped and porters
came up to the windows. I handed bags through the window, and we were out on the
dim longness of the platform, and the American lady put herself in charge of оnе of
three men from Cook's who said: "Just a moment, madame, and I`ll look for you name."
The porter brought a truck and piled on the baggage, and my wife said good-bye
and I said good-bye to the American lady, whose name had been found by the man from
Cook's on a typewritten page in a sheaf of typewritten pages which he replaced in his
pocket.
We followed the porter with the truck down the long cement platform beside the
train. At the end was a gate and a man took the tickets.
We were returning to Paris to set up separate residences.
(By Ernest Hemingway)

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Notes

1. Palermo /pq'lE:mqV/ – the largest city and port of Sicily


2.lit salon (Fr.) – sleeping car /lI 'sxlPn/
3.There was no breeze came through – there was no breeze
coming through
4.Marseilles /ma:'seIlz/ – the second largest city of France
and its chief Mediterranean port
5.Cannes /kxn (kRn)/ – a fashionable resort in the French Riviera.
6.gotten (Am.) – got (Brit.)
7. Avignon /RvJ'njPn/ – a city on the left bank of the Rhone.
8 rapide /ra'pid/ (Fr.) – a fast train
9 Belle Jardiniere /ZRdI'njeq/ – a large department store in Paris.
10 Dubonnet, Pernod – names of alcoholic drinks popular in
France.
11. braces (Brit.) – suspenders (Am.) – подтяжки
12. Vevey /vq'veI/ – a town in Switzerland on the Lake of Geneva
13. maison de couture (Fr.) – ателье
14. rue Saint Honoré /ru: 'seInt PnP're/ – a street in Paris
15. vendeuse /van'dE:z / (Fr.) – saleswoman
16. up-town in New York (Am.) – the residential part of
the city (Cоmр. down-town – the business part of the
city)
17. couturier /kVtV'rje:/ (Fr.) – dressmaker (портниха)
18. fall n (Am.) – autumn (Brit.)
19. Trois Couronnes (Fr.) /trVq kV'rLn/ – Three Crowns
20. Gare de Lyon /gR dq ljPN/ – a railway station in Paris
21. Cook's – Cook's travel agency
22. to set up separate residences – to start living apart, here: to arrange for a
divorce

Vocabulary Study

slow down v замедлять, снижать темп: Slow down before you reach the crossroads. All this
conversation slows down the action of the play. Business slows down at this time of
year.; slowdown n замедление, спад: a production slowdown.

deaf /-e-/, adj 1. глухой: the deaf глухие; the deafmute глухонемые; become
(go) deaf: He’s gone completely deaf.; 2. глухой, отказывающийся слушать: Larry is deaf to all
advice.; turn a deaf ear to не обращать внимания на, не внимать: He turned a deaf
ear to our objections.; deafness n глухота; deafen v оглушать: We were almost
deafened by the uproar.

spread /-e-/ (spread, spread) v 1. расстилать(ся), простирать(ся), раскидывать(ся): The


desert spreads for hundreds of miles.; 2. распространять(ся), разносить(ся): Flies
spread disease. The rumour spreads through the village.; 3. размазывать, намазывать: The
girl spread butter on a slice of bread. (The girl spread a slice of bread with butter.);
spread n распространение: the spread of disease (knowledge, education).

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stare (at) v смотреть пристально; таращить глаза, глазеть: Do you like being stared
at? She was staring into the distance.

in spite of prep несмотря на, невзирая на: in spite of (the) danger (bad weather,
difficulties, etc.); in spite of the fact that ... несмотря на то, что...: In spite of the
fact that the report was short, it covered the subject completely. Syn. despite (sth, the
fact that …).

wholesome /'hoVlsqm/adj 1. здоровый, полезный: wholesome food; Swimming is a


wholesome pleasure.; 2. благотворный: Such films are not wholesome for young
children.

character n 1.характер: a person of strong (weak, fine, noble, etc.) character;


a man of character человек с сильным характером; a man of no character
бесхарактерный человек: Should character building be the main aim of education?;
2. качество, природа, характер: Do you understand the character of the work you'll have to
do?; 3. действующее лицо, герой, персонаж: good (bad) characters –
положительные (отрицательные) герои: I find all the characters in this new play
amusing and interesting.; characteristic adj характерный, типичный; Note the
prep.: It's characteristic of him (характерно для него); characterize v
характеризовать:Your work is characterized by lack of attention to detail.

get over sth преодолеть что-л., пережить, оправиться (после болезни, шока и т.д.): Frank
didn't remarry. He never got over the shock of losing Jane.; She can't get over her
shyness.; get through with sth закончить что-л., покончить с чем-л.: Аs soon as I
get through with my work, I'll join you.; get away with sth удрать с добычей, делать
что-л. безнаказанно, “сойти с рук”: If I cheat (жульничать) in the examination, do
you think I might get away with it?

measure /'meZq/n 1. мера: An inch (дюйм) is a measure of length.; Her joy was
beyond measure.; 2. мера, мероприятие: What measures do you propose?; drastic
measures крутые меры; urgent measures срочные меры; take measures
принимать меры: They took strong measures against dangerous drivers.; measure v
измерять, мерить, снимать мерки (for): The tailor measured me for a suit.;
measured adj 1.размеренный: measured tread (поступь); 2. обдуманный,
взвешенный: measured speech; measurements n размеры, мерки: the
measurements of a room; take sb’s measurements снимать мерки с кого-л.

exorbitant /Ig'zL -/ adj чрезмерный, непомерный: The hotel charges exorbitant


prices. He makes exorbitant demands on my time.

appraise /q'- / v оценивать, расценивать: They appraised the house carefully before
offering to buy it.; appraisal n оценка; Note the difference in meaning in the words
estimate, appraise, assess, evaluate: estimate (at) – calculate approximately (usually
implies a subjective inexact judgment): I estimate her age at 35. It is difficult to
estimate the possible results in advance.; appraise 1. stresses expert judgment: to
appraise works of art before putting them up for sale; 2. Br E to evaluate the
performance of employees; assess implies authoritative judgment: assessing the impact
of higher taxes on lower-income households; evaluate implies considered judgment in
ascertaining value: evaluating a student’s thesis for content and organization.

122
wreck n 1. крушение, авария: the wreck of the Titanic; 2. крах, крушение (надежд):
the wreck of all hopes; wreck v потерпеть крушение: The ship was wrecked on the
rocks. We were wrecked off the coast of Africa.; wreckage n обломки крушения: The
passengers were trapped in the wreckage for two hours.

charge n 1. ответственность, попечение, надзор; be in charge of sth нести


ответственность за что-л., возглавлять, руководить чем-л.: Who is in charge
here?; take charge (of) брать на себя ответственность, контроль (за): James took
charge of the project.; put sb in charge of sb поручить кому-л. надзор над кем-л.,
передать кого-л. на попечение кого-л.: Mary was put in charge of the baby. The
baby was put (left) in her charge. ; 2. обвинение; bring a charge of sth against sb
предъявить какое-л. обвинение против кого-л.: The police brought a charge of
murder against him. What are the charges brought against him?; on a charge of sth
по обвинению в чем-л.: He is arrested on a charge of theft.; 3. цена, расходы, издержки:
The charge for a front-row seat is £ 5.; free (of charge) бесплатный: The health
service must be free of charge and available to all.; charge sb with sth v обвинять
кого-л. в чем-л.: He was charged with murder. Note the preposition: to be charged
with sth, to be guilty of sth, to blame sb for sth, to accuse sb of sth; charge for sth
назначить цену, просить (за работу, услуги): How much do you charge for
mending a pair of shoes?

Exercise 1. Translate from Russian into English. Work in pairs and check with the key.

1. Несмотря на все наши объяснения, 1. In spite of all our explanations the manager
управляющий оставался глух к нашим remained deaf to our requests.
просьбам.
2. Мальчик так испугался, что не слышал того, 2. The boy was so frightened that he did not hear
что ему говорили. Казалось, он оглох от страха. what he was being told. He seemed to have
gone deaf with fear.
3. Пожилая дама потребовала, чтобы 3. The elderly lady demanded that the driver
водитель такси снизил скорость. Она (should) slow down. She was afraid of an
боялась аварии. accident.
4.Со здания фабрики огонь быстро перекинулся 4. From the factory building the fire quickly spread
на соседние дома. to the neighbouring houses.
5. Дети наблюдали, как мистер Адамс намазывал 5. The children watched Mr. Adams spreading jam
джем на тост. on toast.
6. Врачи приложили огромные усилия, чтобы 6. The doctors made enormous efforts to check the
остановить распространение заболевания. spread of the disease.
7. На что вы так пристально смотрите? Что 7. What are you staring at? What has happened
там произошло? there?
8. Несмотря на то, что профессор устал, он 8. In spite of the fact that the professor was tired,
отказался прервать работу, пока не доведет he refused to interrupt his work until he got
эксперимент до конца. through with the experiment.
123
9. Я не хочу сказать, что очень хорошо 9. I don’t mean I’m a very good judge of
разбираюсь в характерах, но чем лучше я узнаю characters but the better I come to know
Стивенса, тем меньше мне хочется иметь с Stevens, the less I feel like dealing with him.
ним дело.
10. Это так характерно для Питера подозревать 10. It is so characteristic (typical) of Peter to
всех в неблаговидных поступках. suspect everybody of dishonourable actions.
11. Вряд ли Джейн быстро оправится после 11. Jane isn’t likely to get over the shock quickly.
шока. На вашем месте я бы увез ее куда- If I were you, I would take her to some place to
нибудь отдохнуть и сменить обстановку. have a rest and a change.
12.Когда Нэб, наконец, покончила с почтой, 12. When Nab got through with her mail at last,
солнце уже село и накрапывал дождик. the sun had set and it was drizzling.
13. Джонни постоянно врет и жульничает. 13. Johnny is always lying and cheating. He
Нельзя, чтобы ему это сходило с рук. Нам mustn’t get away with it. We should take measures.
надо принять меры.
14. Домовладелица заявила, что Тед задол- 14. The landlady claimed that Ted owed her three
жал ей квартплату за три месяца и пригро- months’ rent and threatened to take drastic
зила принять крутые меры. measures.
15. The dressmaker carefully took Christine’s
15. Портниха тщательно сняла мерки с
measurements and wrote them down on her pad.
Кристин и все записала в блокнот. О фасоне
They had agreed about the style of the dress
платья они договорились еще раньше.
before.
16. Мистер Томпсон, должно быть, уже
16. Mr. Thompson must have been in charge of
давно возглавляет этот отдел.
this department for a long time.
17. Ричарда арестовали по обвинению в
17. Richard was arrested on a charge of murder.
убийстве. Однако несколько дней спустя
However, a few days later the charge against
обвинение против него было снято.
him was dropped.
18. В офисе никого не было. А на столе
18. There was no one in the office. And on the
лежал отчет о работе сотрудников отдела,
table lay a report on the work of the department
основанный на ежегодных аттестациях.
personnel based on yearly appraisals.
19. Ущерб, нанесенный галерее пожаром,
19. The damage caused to the gallery by the fire
был оценен в 600.000 долларов.
was estimated at 600,000 dollars.
20. «Ваша оценка сложившейся ситуации
20. “I regard your assessment of the situation as
представляется мне необъективной и по-
biased and politicized,” the editor-in-chief
литизированной», – критиковал журналиста
criticized the journalist.
главный редактор.

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Exercise 2. Translate into English.
1. Мистер Джонсон оглох в результате контузии (a shellshoсk) во время войны, и
слух у него так до сих пор и не восстановился.
2. Оглушающий шум разбудил ребенка.
3. Как выяснилось, несмотря на плохие погодные условия, рейс не отменили
4. Мне кажется, для Эндрю не характерно долго предаваться отчаянию. Он человек
дела.
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5. В работе возникли некоторые трудности, но я убежден, что мы их преодолеем,
если примем срочные меры.
6. Час – мера времени.
7. Если бы ты тщательно измерил комнату, то не ошибся бы в размере ковра.
8. Кто возглавляет реконструкцию этой части города?
9. Они оставили детей на попечение опытной няни до тех пор, пока не приедет
бабушка.
10. Мистер Джонсон предъявил обвинение в краже против Фрэнка Моррисона.
11.Хорошо, что ты вовремя снизил скорость. По таким дорогам нужно ездить
с максимальной осторожностью.
12. Джейн расстелила скатерть (a tablecloth) и в центре стола поставила
вазу с полевыми цветами, которые собрала только этим утром.
13. Как и следовало ожидать, весть о прибытии губернатора (governor)
быстро разнеслась по городу.
14. Том и не заметил, что уже почти час просидел, пристально всматриваясь
в огонь, не в силах оторваться от этого великолепного зрелища.
15. Несмотря на то, что этот инженер имел достаточно большой опыт работы,
он сознавал, что не годится на руководящую должность.
16. Если бы он был человеком с сильным характером, он бы ни за что не
уступил. Ему следовало настоять на своем .
17. Гарольд предложил жене немного пройтись, как только она управится с
домашними делами.
18. Не может быть, чтобы маленькому воришке этот поступок сошел с рук.
19. «Суд обвинил нашего сотрудника в преступной небрежности, – с
негодованием воскликнул Кларк. – Я считаю это обвинение против него
совершенно беспочвенным (groundless)».
20. Получив картину в подарок, Линда, не долго думая, оценила и продала ее.
21. Выступления конкурсантов (contestants) оценивались по пятибалльной
системе (шкале).
22. По официальным оценкам, 40% урожая погибло в результате засухи
(drought).
23. «Как вы оцениваете расстановку политических сил в стране сразу после
выборов?» – спросил корреспондент лидера правоцентристской (centre-
right)партии.

Exercise 3. Find in the text the words and phrases listed below, then close the
book and reproduce them in the context of the story:
deaf, spread, wholesome, in spite of, character, get over, measurements,
exorbitant, appraise, wreck, put sb in charge (of).

Reading Comprehension

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1. Find in the text and paraphrase or explain.
1. The American lady pulled the window-blind down and there was no more sea, even
occasionally.
2. There was smoke from many tall chimneys – coming into Marseilles.
3. … the train had left with no signal of departure and she had gotten on only just in time.
4. Their faces were very black and they were too tall to stare.
5. …and after the American lady had come out from the wash-room, looking very wholesome
and middle-aged and American in spite of not having slept …
6. "Perhaps that was because I wore braces," I said. I had started to say suspenders and changed
it to braces in the mouth to keep my English character.
7. The American lady did not hear. She was really quite deaf she read lips, and I had not looked
towards her.
8. "... American men make the best husbands," the American lady was saying.
9. "Did she get over it?" asked my wife.
10. She wouldn't sleep at all...
11. “I couldn't have her marrying a foreigner."
12. They (dresses) came at the post-office near where she lived up-town in New York ...
13. Prices, however, had gone up. The exchange, though, equalized that.
14. The fortifications were leveled but grass had not grown.
15. Nothing had eaten any breakfast.
16. "American men are the only men in the world to marry."
17. "How long ago did you leave Vevey?" asked my wife. "Two years ago this fall."
18. Then the train was in the dark of the Gare de Lyon ...
19. ... we were on the dim longness of the platform ... .

2. Find in the text and translate into Russian.


1. Then, there was a cutting through red stone and clay, and the sea was only occasionally and
far below against the rocks.
2. ... there was not only the switch-yards and the factory smoke but, looking back, the town of
Marseilles and the harbor with stone hills behind it and the last of the sun on the water.
3. Motor-cars were stopped along the road and bedding and things from inside the farmhouse
were spread in the field.
4. Their faces were very black and they were too tall to stare.
5. The canary from Palermo, a cloth spread over his cage, was out of the draft in the corridor
that went into the compartment wash-room.
6. "There – he is singing now."
7. "... she doesn't seem to take an interest in anything."
8. "No foreigner can make an American girl a good husband." "No," said my wife, "I suppose
not."
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9. ... the American lady had bought her own clothes for twenty years now from the same
maison de couture …
10. … the duty was never exorbitant.
11. They were splintered open and the roofs sagged in.
12. “I have terrific presentiments about things sometimes …”

Discussion

1. Do you think that the following attributes apply to the characters of the story? Give
arguments to support your opinion.
If said of the American lady: sentimental, cruel, overbearing, domineering (деспотическая,
властная), intelligent, silly, narrow-minded (ограниченная), self-assured, self-righteous.
If said of the American lady's daughter: obedient, unable to oppose her mother, submissive
(покорный), lacking in willpower.
2. Say what you think the American couple might have thought and felt as they listened
to the American lady.
3. Comment on the author's idea in writing the last sentence: "We were returning to
Paris to set up separate residences."

Stylistic Analysis
1. Write a summary of the short story “A Canary for One”.
2. What is the author’s message?
3. Analyse the author’s speech. Do you find elaborate vocabulary or syntax in it? In
what way does the author create the sensation of suppressed emotion and the effect of
suspense? Pick out instances of repetition in the text and comment on the role they
play.
How does the description of the scenery in the story set the tone for the scene in the
train compartment?
What are the stylistic devices used in the sentences “All that the train passed through
looked as though it were before breakfast” and “Nothing had eaten any breakfast”?
What purpose do they serve?
Comment on the shift to a first person narrative in the middle of the story. In what
way is the husband’s emotional reaction to the American lady made clear in that part
of the story?
4. How significant is the image of a caged canary for the characterization of the
American lady? How do the devices of repetition, climax, represented speech
contribute to the portrait? Comment on the American lady’s speech mannerisms.
5. What is the connotation of the word “wreck” in the story?

Grammar: Emphasis
Structures Used in English for Purposes of Emphasis

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Inversion is used in formal speech
- to emphasize the circumstances of the action in sentences beginning with only, seldom,
rarely, scarcely, hardly, barely, little, not only, no sooner … than, nowhere, not till/until,
never, nor/neither, on no occasion, in no way, on no account, under/in no circumstances:
e. g. Never did he wish to wound her pride. Hardly had he opened the door when a cat
rushed out and past him.
- to emphasize the result of the action in sentences beginning with so, such:
e. g. So simple-hearted was Denny that Mary felt she couldn’t let him down. Such was his
surprise that he gasped and then held his breath.
- to emphasize the place after adverbial expressions of place in descriptive narratives:
e. g. Deep, deep in the wood lay an emerald-green lake. On the outskirts of the city stood a
grey monstrosity, the now hollow building of a factory.
Inversion is used in informal speech
- to emphasize the direction of the action in sentences beginning with the adverbs of place
here, there, away, off, out, in, etc:
e. g. Here comes the postman. Off ran the kids. Note that the subject is expressed by a noun
(not a pronoun). Compare: Off ran the kids. – Off they ran.
The emphatic construction It is/was (not) … that/who …is used to emphasize any part
of the sentence in both formal and informal speech:
e. g. It’s not me! It’s Billy who broke the cup. It was not the punishment that he feared but
the deep antagonism that was growing between them. It was not until late afternoon that they
set off.
The auxiliary verbs do/does, did are used in affirmative sentences in the Present and Past
Indefinite to emphasize emotional reactions in both formal and informal speech:
e. g. She did want to talk to him but was too embarrassed to start. “I do want to talk to
you,” she whispered. “Do talk to me!” he exclaimed.
The word ever is used with question words in emotionally charged informal questions:
e. g. Whatever are you up to? Wherever have you been?

Exercise 1. Rephrase the sentences to emphasize the important parts.


1. Things have not happened to me: on the contrary, I have happened to them.
2. His life was so fascinating that details of it filled several hundred pages.
3. His childhood ended at the age of fourteen, when he began to work as a clerk.
4. He moved to London a year or so later to join his mother.
5. A huge supermarket stood at the corner of the street.
6. He had hardly stopped painting when a loud knock was heard at the door.
7. Please indulge me. Tell me about your personal feelings about my book.
8. In my desperation I took David to a psychiatrist. The psychiatrist examined him.
Then he examined me.
9. This time it was I who stopped him, “Where are you going?”

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10. “What are you planning for us? Does everything have to go exactly to plan?” Jane
shrieked.
11. She said what she really wanted was a mink coat. It was such an exorbitant demand
that he immediately lost his temper.
12. I realized now that secretly I had been waiting for his marriage to crash. This could
scarcely enhance my image of myself.
13. Billie’s the most ungrandmotherly grandmother I’ve known. She hasn’t the time. She
hasn’t the temperament.
14. He no longer had to listen to the banging and hammering of the shipyard.
15. Elizabeth was not only as tall as her husband, she also had a carriage with something
of defiance in its straightness.

Exercise 2. Find in your reading materials 10 cases of the grammar under


study.

Phrasal Verbs
pull down – to demolish;
pull sth off – to accomplish sth despite difficulties;
pull through – 1. to succeed despite difficulties, 2. to regain health

put aside – to save (money, time, etc.);


put down to – to attribute to;
put on – to produce, perform;
put off – to postpone;
put out (be put out) – to annoy (be annoyed);
put up – to provide lodgings for;
put up with – to suffer without complaining

run into – 1. to meet unexpectedly, 2. to experience (difficulties);


run out of – to exhaust the supply of

see about – to make arrangements about;


see to – to attend to; see through – to understand the true character of

Fill in the correct particle(s).


1. Roy was very ill but his friends hoped that he would pull …
2. David insisted that the project was not feasible but they pulled it …
3. An old office building in this neighbourhood is being pulled … to make room for a
new swimming pool.
4. They are putting … a new musical this season.
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5. Did our early arrival put you …?
6. “Why don’t you put the rest of the cake …for tomorrow?” suggested Granny.
7. Everybody put his bad temper … his recent illness.
8. He had to go to a hotel as his friends couldn’t put him … for the night.
9. The travellers ran … their supply of drinking water and had to turn back.
10. We saw … his superficial charm.
11. “I’ll see … the rooms and you see … the luggage,” Mr. Smith said to his wife the
moment they were in the hotel lobby.

Listening Comprehension

Audiotext 15 Travelers Find Ways to Evoke a Bit of Home on the Road

1. Listen to the text one time and report the gist of it.
The words below will help you understand the text:
a talk show host = a talk show presenter
suite /swJt/ n – a set of rooms, esp. in a hotel
gear (in workout gear) /gIq/ n – оборудование, снаряжение
hectic adj – лихорадочный, напряженный
memento /mq'mentqV /n – напоминание, памятная вещица
keepsake n – подарок на память, памятная вещица
locket n – медальон
2. Listen again and reproduce to the in detail.
3. Listen to the passages that your teacher will read and try to fill in the gaps
with the exact words of the text as you remember them.
4. Discuss the following questions:
- Is homesickness a serious problem? What are the symptoms of homesickness?
- Do you find the demands of some hotel guests and airline passengers exorbitant?
- Why do hotels and airline companies go out of their way to cater to them?
- How do they pamper their regulars?
- Are you a creature of habit too?
- Is it possible to conclude that consumer attitudes are changing? Experts speak
about the emergence of an “experience” economy. What do they mean?

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MODERN ISSUES

The “Beauty Premium”: Young, Trendy and Successful

Read the texts with the help of a dictionary and do the assignments below.

Text 1 Plastic Surgery Might Be a Good Career Move

Ginny Clark of Manhattan got a face-lift last April. She had several reasons for
seeking out the procedure. Ms. Clark, 62, said she "wanted to look 20 years
younger.'' She was socializing with a rather youthful crowd — dating a man 10
years younger than she was, and often dining out with friends in their 30s and 40s.
What's more, as a stock trader for the investment firm Cantor Weiss, Ms. Clark
was working with a lot of younger people—a circumstance that gave her pause.
Most of her peers, including a brother nine years her junior, were retiring from their
Wall Street jobs. But Ms. Clark had no intention of quitting; a younger look, she
believed, would extend her career.
"Being a dinosaur in the business," she said, cosmetic surgery "gives you a leg up
if you want to stick around."
Ms. Clark is among a growing number of people seeking out cosmetic surgery to
get ahead in the workplace. From 2000 to 2004, the number of facial plastic surgery
procedures and injections increased 34 percent, according to the American
Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, a professional organization.
In 2004, the academy reported, 22 percent of men and 15 percent of women who
sought plastic surgery did so for work-related reasons.
Surgeons say they believe that sharp increases in the number of procedures
performed on men result directly from workplace pressures. Doctors say they have
seen increases in requests for operations from real estate agents, lawyers, airline
pilots and business executives, among others.
Dr. Jeffrey D. Rawnsley, an associate professor of facial plastic surgery at the
University of California, Los Angeles, who is also in private practice in Los
Angeles, said: "People see themselves having to work longer and older, and they
feel that they need to keep up: 'If I'm going to have to work 15 more years, I need to
look young.'"
The surgery academy reported in 2004 that the average cost of a face-lift in the
United States was $6,505; a brow-lift, $3,439; facial and neck liposuction, $2,288;
and Botox injections, $441 a visit.
For many years, studies have suggested that attractive people — and presumably a
young look is considered attractive — are more successful than others in most
aspects of life. And good looking people may also earn more than their homelier
comrades. A paper published last year by researchers from Harvard and Wesleyan
University in Middletown, Connecticut, concluded that there was a “sizable beauty
premium” in the labor market. A 1994 study by the the University of Texas and
Michigan State University found that men and women “with above-average looks
receive a pay premium,” while “workers with below-average looks receive a pay
penalty.”
Many patients say they have seen increases in both their work performance and
their pay after surgery.
“I’ve always been a confident person, and this just helped,” said Alan Horowitz, a
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real estate agent from Morristown, New Jersey, who had a neck-lift by Dr.
Matarasso last year and who said that business had improved noticeably afterward.
But an ultratight face-lift or too much collagen pumped into your lips could cause
your career investment to backfire.
Most people who undergo a cosmetic procedure for work reasons prefer not to let
colleagues in on the secret, said Wendy Lewis, a consultant based in New York,
who advises clients who are considering cosmetic surgery. Still, she often advises
the career-minded to acknowledge that they have had at least a little bit of work
done, on the grounds that people can see the results anyway.
(From The New York Times.)

Vocabulary Study

Exercise 1. Find in the text the English equivalents for the phrases listed below and
reproduce them in the context of the article.
1. Она общалась с молодыми …
2. … встречалась с мужчиной моложе ее на 10 лет;
3. … ходила в рестораны с друзьями …
4. Большинство людей ее ровесников … уходили от дел (на пенсию).
5. Но у нее не было намерения увольняться.
6. … пластическая операция помогает в карьере (дает толчок) …
7. … идти на пластическую операцию, чтобы продвинуться по службе.
8. … по причинам, связанным с их трудовой деятельностью.
9. … агенты по работе с недвижимостью …
10. … зарабатывать больше своих менее привлекательных (невзрачных)
товарищей.
11. … выше среднего уровня, ниже среднего уровня …
12. … коллаген, закачанный в ваши губы, может сыграть с вами злую шутку
(нанести удар по вам же).
13. … доверить свой секрет коллегам …
14. …на том основании, что … .

Exercise 2. Translate into Russian.


1. Socializing during business hours is frowned upon.
2. Tom has a steady girlfriend. He has been dating her (they have been dating) for over
a year.
3. US youths are more likely to have jobs while still in school than their peers in other
countries.
4. When the young woman realized that she had been passed over in promotions a
second time, she gave in her notice and quit.
5. You shouldn’t keep telling everyone we have a leg up on the competition.
6. Dan’s parents urge him to work hard and get ahead in the world.

133
7. His plan to smuggle in alcohol and cigarettes and sell them at black market prices
backfired on him: he was detained at the border and taken into custody.
8. She was a homely child, lively and resilient, which fully compensated for her
homeliness.
9. Dick let them in on his secret, and they used the information to blackmail him.
10. I’m taking the day off on the grounds of ill health (on the grounds that I’m ill).

Speaking
1. Prepare to speak about and discuss.
1. Ageing poses a challenge to achievers.
2. A young look gives one an edge on older colleagues.
2. Prepare to give a talk on the following points.
1. The “beauty premium” is a result of the self-confidence effect.
2. Career-minded men and women alike are prepared to run risks to stave off old age.
3. Botched plastic surgery procedures may mark one for life.
3. Discuss the following in pairs.
The argument: Plastic surgery. The game is worth the candle.
The counter-argument: The risks outweigh the benefits.

Text 2 The Blondes Who Are Still Bombshells

Look at the pictures of two of Britain’s most glamorous modelling stars captured at
the height of their fame in 1977 and 27 years on. Read the article about them and
comment on their looks and lifestyles. Report the interviews they gave to the paper
(remember to use appropriate reporting verbs and make all the necessary changes).

Astonishingly, 27 years have passed since Jilly Johnson and Nina Carter posed in their
high-cut leotards and silver boots.
But as the picture on the right reveals, time has been remarkably kind to the famous
blondes, now both 52.
Re-creating one of their most successful modelling shots, they look just as lithe and
seductive as they did in 1977.
Jilly, a grandmother told Closer magazine: ‘Nina and I agreed to do this photo shoot
because we thought it would be a real laugh.
‘We were worried about re-creating this pose for fear we’d look like mutton dressed as
lamb – but I think we look pretty good.’
What’s the secret behind the youthful looks of the former bombshells? Nina, a mother
of two, says: ‘It wasn’t until I reached my forties that I began to get the balance right. I
discovered moderation – in all things.
‘I try to live by a few basic rules. You need a healthy diet, plenty of exercise and lots of
fresh air.

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‘I regularly go to the gym to have everything as lifted as possible. I work out three
times a week with a personal trainer.
‘I’m fortunate in that my tummy has remained pretty flat. My weakness when it comes
to food is desserts.
‘I don’t believe in three meals a day. I’ll eat when I’m hungry. I never eat after seven if
I can help it.’
She is dismissive about plastic surgery. ‘No, I wouldn’t do anything like that. I’m not
keen on the idea of injecting poison into wrinkles,’ she says.
‘I just don’t like the idea of going under the knife and I’ve never yet seen a facelift that
looks 100 per cent natural. It’s a dangerous road to go down.’
Jilly says: ‘I’m very naughty. I’ve got a swimming pool and a gym at home but I don’t
use either as much as I should.
My jelly belly is creeping up on me. My boobs have a mind of their own. None of us
can defeat the laws of gravity, of course, but I’m going to have a bloody good try.’
As for plastic surgery, she would ‘never say never.’
(From The Daily Mail.)

Text 3 More Young Men Become Obsessed with Their Looks

The young men of Britain are having a terrible time. It's bad enough that
they're failing at school, or taking too many drugs, or behaving like lager-swilling
hooligans. But now comes even worse news: they're turning into girls.
According to a survey this week, a majority of both men and women think that
men are the smartest dressers at work. Inspired by high-profile trend-setters such as
David Beckham, who recently hit the town in a chic floral shirt, unbuttoned to show
a flash of firm, brown tummy, young men in particular are taking unprecedented
trouble with their appearance.
They're even cleaner and sweeter-smelling than young women, too. Men have for
several years outspent women on toiletries. They splash out on shower gels,
moisturisers and after-shave lotions. And millions of feminine nostrils have reason
to be grateful.
This sounds like thoroughly good news. Why shouldn't men feel proud that
women are acknowledging their sartorial skills? After all, we've spent enough time
acknowledging women's success in what were once male bastions. There are more
female graduates than males. More women than men qualify as doctors and
solicitors. They form an ever-growing proportion of company directors and new
business founders.
It has become a cliché to say the future is female. But now men have marched into
that most traditional of female territories and held the high ground. Yet the rise and
rise of the well-dressed man may not be quite the triumph that it seems. It may, in
fact, be a sign of a worrying new effeminacy. It's not just that young women's
magazines regularly refer to handsome men as 'top totty' — though they do. It's in
the whole way men are behaving.
Just look at that supposed paragon of manhood, David Beckham. Saturday night,
he meekly walked a couple of steps behind his trouser-wearing better half as they
entered The Ivy restaurant in London's West End. As the paparazzi cameras flashed,
his £20,000 diamond earrings glittered prettily, shining as brightly as his £50,000
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wedding band.
British men implicitly distrust pretty boys. To the Brits, a well-groomed man
denotes a clinical, almost obsessive narcissism. The lad looks as if he’s just stepped
out of the salon because he probably has. Like David Beckham, you feel he’s got a
manicure set and he’s not afraid to use it. But there’s no denying polished men
attract pretty women, which makes scruffy lads dislike them all the more.
A survey published in March says over 70 per cent of British men spend less than
£5 per month on grooming products. In fact, they must be either nicking their
girlfriends’ Clarins cream or lying. For the truth is that the male grooming market in
the UK is so buoyant that the skin-care company Dermatologica projects the men’s
grooming market to overtake women’s.
Research into the male grooming market came up with these vital statistics: 67 per
cent of UK men under 40 use a moisturiser; 76 per cent use a blemish concealer and
72 per cent of men use a styling gel or mousse. Men spend an average 30 minutes
grooming before work and 45 minutes before a night out. The net worth of the UK
men’s grooming market is £ 700m and all the major beauty houses want a bite at
the cherry.
(From The Daily Mail.)

Reading Comprehension

Find in the text and paraphrase or explain.


1. … behaving like lager-swilling hooligans.
2. …high-profile trend-setters …
3. … are taking unprecedented trouble with their appearance.
4. Men have outspent women on toiletries.
5. They splash out on shower gels, etc.
6. … their sartorial skills.
7. But now men have … held the high ground.
8. … a sign of a worrying new effeminacy.
9. … the supposed paragon of manhood.
10. … his trouser-wearing better half …
11. … a well-groomed man …
12. … obsessive narcissism.
13. But there’s no denying …
14. the male grooming market … is … so buoyant …
15. all the major beauty houses want a bite at the cherry.

Speaking

1. Prepare to speak about and discuss.


1. Men are not immune to fashion.

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2. The men’s grooming market is on the rise.
3. Men’s obsession with looks is not a sign of effeminacy. It is a mistake to claim that the
traditional men’s and women’s roles have become reversed in the modern world.
4. A polished appearance gives a sense of emotional and physical well-being.
5. People get to be more fashion-conscious in the new millennium.
6. Life is bland without adventure and variety. Fashion spices it up.
7. Fashion helps ease the stress of the daily grind.
8. The fashion and grooming products industry contributes to economic prosperity.

2. Roleplay. Work in groups of four. Study your roles for a few minutes and decide
what you will say.
Imagine you are taking part in a TV talk show. The topic under discussion is The
Modern Trendy Man. You are a macho tough guy, a trendy guy in a funky get-up, a
fashion designer and the presenter. Passions run high. At the close of the show the
presenter sums up the opinions and makes recommendations. Note: to get sb/oneself up
in (as) – to dress sb/oneself in a particular (bizarre) way, get-up – «прикид»; funky
(clothes) – unconventional, fashionable in a way that is unusual and shows a lot of
imagination; flaky (guy, habits, ways) – eccentric, crazy; to create a stylish modern look;
a stylish dresser (men and women who are stylish dressers), to dress stylishly, to be
stylishly dressed.
3. Express your opinion on the following quotation:
“Be careless in your dress if you must, but keep a tidy soul.” (M. Twain)
4. Report in English the extract from an interview with Jennifer Lopes.

В КОЛЛЕДЖЕ ЕЕ ПРОЗВАЛИ ГИТАРОЙ – ЗА ИДЕАЛЬНЫЙ


МУЗЫКАЛЬНЫЙ СЛУХ И ОЧЕВИДНОЕ СХОДСТВО ФИГУРЫ С ЭТИМ
ИНСТРУМЕНТОМ. СТАВ ВЗРОСЛОЙ, ОНА СДЕЛАЛА СЕБЕ ИМЯ КАК
ПЕВИЦА И ПРОСТО КАК КРАСИВАЯ ЖЕНЩИНА – ТЕПЕРЬ К
ПЛАСТИЧЕСКИМ ХИРУРГАМ ПРИХОДЯТ ДЕВУШКИ С ПРОСЬБОЙ
СДЕЛАТЬ ИМ ГРУДЬ «КАК У ДЖЕННИФЕР ЛОПЕС». САМАЯ
СКАНДАЛЬНАЯ ПОП-ЗВЕЗДА НА ПОВЕРКУ ОКАЗАЛАСЬ
РАССУДИТЕЛЬНОЙ И УМНОЙ ЖЕНЩИНОЙ. В ИНТЕРВЬЮ ОНА
РАССКАЗАЛА О КОМПЛЕКСЕ ДИВЫ, САДИСТАХ-ПАПАРАЦЦИ И О
ТОМ, ЧЕМ ЕЙ ПРИХОДИТСЯ РАСПЛАЧИВАТЬСЯ ЗА УСПЕХ.
Раздражает ли Вас шумиха вокруг собственного имени?
Сложный вопрос. До некоторого момента это забавно, потом я начинаю
расстраиваться. Но людям нужны сплетни о звездах, а звездам нужна
популярность. Если обо мне перестанут говорить, я, пожалуй, начну
беспокоиться. Если о тебе ходят слухи и сплетни, значит, ты интересен –
таков закон шоу-бизнеса. Отказ от личной жизни – своеобразная расплата за
популярность. Могу, по крайней мере, сказать, что из всего написанного обо
мне всего один процент правды.
Говорят, что Вы сделали карьеру благодаря внешности. Что Вы
используете сексуальные наряды, чтобы эпатировать и привлекать
внимание.
Возможно, в это трудно поверить, но я одеваюсь так, потому что это мне
действительно нравится, потому что я именно так себя хорошо чувствую. Я
крашу волосы, потому что это нужно для роли, а не затем, чтобы появиться на
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обложке очередного таблоида. Мне кажется, публика не так глупа, чтобы
воспринимать только оболочку. И в конце концов, я просто девушка! Я
люблю моду, люблю новые прически, люблю макияж!
Для Вас важно чувствовать себя красивой?
Красота – это то, что внутри. Мне кажется, самое важное – найти баланс
между умом, телом и духовной составляющей. Кто-то когда-то сказал мне:
«До двадцати лет у тебя то лицо, которое тебе дала природа, после двадцати –
то, которое ты заслужила» (на самом деле это слова Коко Шанель – Ред.).
Мне очень нравится эта мысль: лицо – отражение нашего внутреннего мира.
У Вас фигура, далекая от канона тощей топ-модели...
О, вы бы знали, сколько упреков я выслушала в свой адрес! Кто-то
обязательно считал меня недостаточно худой. Как только я появилась в Гол-
ливуде, мою фигуру начали критиковать – идеалом красоты тогда была худая
блондинка Хизер Локлир. Теперь моему агенту запрещено говорить со мной о
диете под страхом увольнения (смеется). На самом деле, я никогда не сходила
с ума по этому поводу – к примеру, у меня тощие коленки.
Ваша жизнь сильно изменилась после того, как Вы стали звездой?
Все меня об этом спрашивают, буквально все! Совсем не изменилась.
Поверьте, я та же девчонка из Бронкса, какой была и 15 лет назад. Конечно,
все эти чудесные наряды, дорогие туфли, которые я ношу, и внимание к моей
скромной персоне… Сначала я чувствовала себя словно принцесса, но и
принцессам, знаете ли, не приходится расслабляться. Известность не
свалилась мне на голову в один прекрасный день – чтобы заслужить ее, я
работала и продолжаю работать как проклятая. Разница в том, что, когда
начинала, я была похожа на чистый белый лист. Режиссер смотрел на меня и
видел наивную молоденькую девочку, которая пришла на очередное
прослушивание. Сейчас же я могу выбирать. Я, как вы говорите, звезда, но
тут есть и одна загвоздка – режиссер, глядя на меня, видит только
сексуальную певицу, которой слишком много уделяется внимания в прессе.
Папарацци Вас, видимо, совсем достали.
С каждым днем становится все хуже и хуже. Для них это своего рода игра
«поймай вора». Недавно они подстроили автомобильную аварию, лишь бы
меня сфотографировать.
По какому критерию Вы выбираете фильмы, в которых снимаетесь?
Для меня не имеет значения жанр – я готова сыграть даже в боевике, лишь бы
был хороший сценарий. Я должна почувствовать, что понимаю свою героиню,
что мне будет интересно рассказать ее историю. Я могу подождать – играть в
20 фильмах за год мне неинтересно.
Расскажите о том, что может Вам поднять настроение.
Не знаю. Белое платье из чистого хлопка. Туфли от Valentino. Долгий-долгий
сон – и чтобы проснувшись, я обнаружила завтрак, приготовленный
любимым. И шопинг, конечно!
Чувствуется, одежда все-таки – любимая Ваша тема для разговоров.
Одежда очень важна для внутреннего самоощущения. Недаром, начиная
работу над новой ролью, я прежде всего думаю о костюме своей героини.
Одна и та же женщина выглядит совершенно по-разному, если она одета в
сексуальное платье и туфли на каблуках – и в джинсы с кроссовками. Даже
походка ее меняется!
Голливудские актрисы часто жалуются на то, что после тридцати их
пытаются отправить на пенсию.
Для меня физического возраста просто не существует. Я до сих пор ощущаю
себя маленькой девочкой. Во мне столько же энергии, сколько в целом классе
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выпускниц колледжа!
Приятно ощущать себя ролевой моделью?
Я не совсем понимаю значение этого термина. Но если молоденькие девочки
и женщины хотят быть на меня похожими, это, безусловно, приятно.
Что Вы можете сказать журналистам «желтой» прессы в ответ на их
ложь?
Ничего. Моя популярность, мой успех – это лучший ответ и идеальная месть.
( Спутник ТВ: подготовлено MA&A)
The words below will help you summarize the article.
хороший слух (музыкальный) – a good ear for music
дива – diva /'dJvq/
папарацци – paparazzi /'pRpq'rRtsI/
прийти на прослушивание – to come for an audition

Listening and Speaking

Audiotext 16 On the Moon or on the Runway, Spacewear Designed to


Dazzle

1. Listen to the text one time and report the gist of it.
The words below will help you understand the text:
advent /'- /n – появление, приход, пришествие
gravity /'grx - /n – сила притяжения
seaweed n – водоросли
current n – течение (морское)
deadline (for) n – крайний срок
submission n (to submit) – подача (заявок на рассмотрение) ( подавать)
2. Listen again and reproduce the text in detail.
3. Discuss the following questions:
- What challenges does tourist travel in space present to the fashion-conscious?
- Did the idea of a space fashion contest catch on?
- Will space fashion designers focus on comfort, durability and a serviceable
color scheme as the principle requirements or will they let their imaginations
run away with them?

Writing
Write an essay on one of the following topics:
1. Looks Do Matter
2. Over the Hill at 50?
3. Fashion: the Sustainability of the Throw-Away Culture

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Grammar Revision: the Complex Object

Exercise 1. Translate from Russian into English. Work in pairs and check with the
key.

1.Никто не ожидал, что процесс так затянется. 1. Nobody expected the trial to last so long. However,
Однако новые обстоятельства дела заставили some new circumstances made the court revise the
суд пересмотреть решение. verdict.
2. Позвольте мне помочь вам измерить ткань. 2. Let me help you measure the cloth.
3. Чарли слышал, как волны бились о берег. 3. Charlie heard the waves beating against the beach.
4. Я видел, как она вошла в комнату, подняла 4. I saw her come into the room, pick up something
что-то с пола, расстелила скатерть на столе from the floor, spread the table-cloth on the table
и снова вышла. and leave again.
5. Трое подростков видели, как объект в 5. Three teenagers saw an elliptical object hover and
форме эллипса завис и затем приземлился в then land in the field.
поле.
6. Мальчик не слышал, что отец позвал его 6. The boy did not hear his father call him home.
домой. Он смотрел, как ремонтируют He was watching a car being repaired.
машину.
7. Полицейский приказал убрать мусор с про- 7. The policeman ordered the rubbish to be swept
езжей части. away from the road.
8. Директор школы приказал проверить все 8. The headmaster ordered all the fire extinguishers
to be checked in the school.
огнетушители в школе.
9. The girl waited for her mother to spread butter on
9. Девочка ждала, когда мама намажет масло
a slice of bread and (to) hand it to her.
на хлеб и протянет ей.
10. It was a hectic week, and Mr. Johnson asked for
10. Это была очень напряженная неделя, и
hamburgers and coffee to be brought to his office.
мистер Джонсон попросил, чтобы ему в офис
приносили гамбургеры и кофе.
11. We asked for the towels to be replaced in the
11. Мы попросили, чтобы в номере как мож- room as soon as possible.
но скорее сменили полотенца.

Exercise 2. Translate into English.


1. Когда Чарли подошел к окну, он увидел, как прожектор (a searchlight) освещает темное пространство между
облаками.
2. Я слышал, как Вы упрекали Анну в неискренности.
3. Никто не хочет, чтобы собрание переносили на пятницу.
4. К сожалению, не все студенты слышали, как профессор упомянул об этих фактах в своей лекции.
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5. Неожиданно пассажиры почувствовали, как поезд начал замедлять ход и остановился.
6. Мать наблюдала, как девочка намазывает масло на ломтик хлеба.
7. Кто-нибудь заметил, как Анна вышла из комнаты? Последнее время ее поведение кажется мне
подозрительным.
8. «Мистера Нила будет трудно уговорить. Однако необходимо заставить его сдать нам этот дом
на лето», – настаивала Джейн.
9. Джеф не ожидал, что в этой маленькой гостинице берут так дорого.
10. «Я слышал, как вы предложили направить им письмо, – сказал директор. – Действуйте
так, как находите целесообразным».
11. «Пусть мальчик сам поднимет игрушку. Заставьте его это сделать», – посоветовала
молодой матери старая женщина.
12. Ничто не заставит Елену примириться с создавшимся положением. Она не такой
человек, чтобы предаваться отчаянию.
13. Позвольте мне дать Вам один хороший совет: никогда не придавайте значения слухам.
14. Я никогда раньше не слышала, чтобы она разговаривала с кем-либо в таком тоне. В ее
голосе чувствовалась уверенность.
15. Пожилой господин принес старинную вазу и попросил, чтобы ее оценили.
16. Супруги попросили, чтобы обед был подан в номер.
17. Все присутствующие терпеливо ждали, когда суд вынесет свое решение.
18. Миссис Браун осталась дома, чтобы наблюдать, как будут делать ремонт на кухне.
19. Он слушал, как преступника допрашивают, и не мог понять, что заставило этого
приятного на вид молодого человека совершить преступление.
20. Директор приказал немедленно сделать две копии документа.
21. Владелец гостиницы приказал подготовить самый лучший номер для молодоженов.

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UNIT 7
POPULAR FICTION
Text The Verger

There had been a christening that afternoon at St. Peter's, Neville Square, and Albert Edward
Foreman still wore his verger's gown. He kept his new one, its folds as full and stiff as though it
were made not of alpaca but of perennial bronze, for funerals and weddings (St. Peter's, Neville
Square, was a church much favoured by the fashionable for these ceremonies) and now he wore
only his second-best.
The verger busied himself quietly, replacing the painted wooden cover on the marble font,
taking away a chair that had been brought for an infirm old lady, and waited for the vicar to have
finished in the vestry so that he could tidy up in there and go home. Presently, he saw him walk
across the chancel, genuflect in front of the high altar, and come down the aisle; but he still wore
his cassock.
"What's he 'anging about for?" the verger said to himself. "Don't 'e know I want my tea? "
The vicar had been but recently appointed, a red-faced energetic man in the early forties, and
Albert Edward still regretted his predecessor, a clergyman of the old school who preached
leisurely sermons in a silvery voice and dined out a great deal with his more aristocratic
parishioners. He liked things in church to be just so, but he never fussed; he was not like this new
man who wanted to have his finger in every pie. But Albert Edward was tolerant. St. Peter's was
in a very good neighbourhood and the parishioners were a very nice class of people. The new
vicar had come from the East End and he couldn't be expected to fall in all at once with the
discreet ways of his fashionable congregation.
"All this 'ustle," said Albert Edward. "But give 'im time, he'll learn."
When the vicar had walked down the aisle so far that he could address the verger without
raising his voice more than was becoming in a place of worship he stopped.
"Foreman, will you come into the vestry for a minute. I have something to say to you."
"Very good, sir."
The vicar waited for him to come up and they walked up the church together.
"A very nice christening, I thought, sir. Funny 'ow the baby stopped cryin' the moment you
took him."
"I've noticed they very often do," said the vicar, with a little smile. "After all I've had a good
deal of practice with them."
The vicar preceded Albert Edward into the vestry. Albert Edward was a trifle surprised to find
the two churchwardens there. He had not seen them come in. They gave him pleasant nods.
They were elderly men, both of them, and they had been churchwardens almost as long as
Albert Edward had been verger. They were sitting now at a handsome refectory table that the old
vicar had brought many years before from Italy and the vicar sat down in the vacant chair
between them. Albert Edward faced them, the table between him and them, and wondered with
slight uneasiness what was the matter. He remembered still the occasion on which the organist
had got into trouble and the bother they had all had to hush things up. In a church like St. Peter's,
Neville Square, they couldn't afford a scandal. On the vicar's red face was a look of resolute
benignity, but the others bore an expression that was slightly troubled.
"He's been naggin' them, he 'as," said the verger to himself. "He's jockeyed them into doin'
something, but they don't 'alf like it. That's what it is, you mark my words."
But his thoughts did not appear on Albert Edward's clean-cut and distinguished features. He
stood in a respectful but not obsequious attitude. He had been in service before he was appointed
to his ecclesiastical office, but only in very good houses, and his deportment was irreproachable.
He was tall, spare, grave, and dignified. He looked, if not like a duke, at least like an actor of the
old school who specialised in dukes' parts. He had tact, firmness, and self-assurance. His
character was unimpeachable.
The vicar began briskly.
"Foreman, we've got something rather unpleasant to say to you. You've been here a great many
years and I think his lordship and the general agree with me that you've fulfilled the duties of
your office to the satisfaction of everybody concerned."
The two churchwardens nodded.
"But a most extraordinary circumstance came to my knowledge the other day and I felt it my
duty to impart it to the churchwardens. I discovered to my astonishment that you could neither
read nor write."
The verger's face betrayed no sign of embarrassment.
"The last vicar knew that, sir," he replied. "He said it didn't make no difference. He always said
there was a great deal too much education in the world for 'is taste." "I went into service when I
was twelve, sir. The cook in the first place tried to teach me once, but I didn't seem to 'ave the
knack for it, and then what with one thing and another I never seemed to 'ave the time. I've never
really found the want of it. I think a lot of these young fellows waste a rare lot of time readin'
when they might be doin' something useful."
"But don't you want to know the news?" said one of the churchwardens. "Don't you ever want
to write a letter?"
"No, me lord, I seem to manage very well without. And of late years now they've all these
pictures in the papers I get to know what's goin' on pretty well. Me wife's quite a scholar and if I
want to write a letter she writes it for me.”
The two churchwardens gave the vicar a troubled glance and then looked down at the table.
“Well, Foreman, I've talked the matter over with these gentlemen and they quite agree with me
that the situation is impossible. At a church like St. Peter's, Neville Square, we cannot have a
verger who can neither read nor write."
Albert Edward's thin, sallow face reddened and he moved uneasily on his feet, but he made no
reply.
"Understand me, Foreman, I have no complaint to make against you. You do your work quite
satisfactorily; I have the highest opinion both of your character and of your capacity; but we
haven't the right to take the risk of some accident that might happen owing to your lamentable
ignorance. It's a matter of prudence as well as of principle."
Albert Edward had never liked the new vicar. He'd said from the beginning that they'd made a
mistake when they gave him St. Peter's. He wasn't the type of man they wanted with a classy
congregation like that. And now he straightened himself a little. He knew his value and he wasn't
going to allow himself to be put upon.
"I'm very sorry, sir, I'm afraid it's no good. I'm too old a dog to learn new tricks. I've lived a
good many years without knowin' 'ow to read and write, and without wishin' to praise myself,
self-praise is no recommendation, I don't mind sayin' I've done my duty in that state of life in
which it 'as pleased a merciful providence to place me, and if I could learn now I don't know as
I'd want to."
"In that case, Foreman, I'm afraid you must go."
"Yes, sir, I quite understand. I shall be 'appy to 'and in my resignation as soon as you've found
somebody to take my place."
But when Albert Edward with his usual politeness had closed the church door behind the vicar
and the two churchwardens he could not sustain the air of unruffled dignity with which he had
borne the blow inflicted upon him and his lips quivered. He walked slowly back to the vestry and
hung up on its proper peg his verger's gown. He sighed as he thought of all the grand funerals
and smart weddings it had seen. He tidied everything up, put on his coat, and hat in hand walked
down the aisle. He locked the church door behind him. He strolled across the square, but deep in
his sad thoughts he did not take the street that led him home, where a nice strong cup of tea

143
awaited him; he took the wrong turning. He walked slowly along. His heart was heavy. He did
not know what he should do with himself. He did not fancy the notion of going back to domestic
service; after being his own master for so many years, for the vicar and churchwardens could say
what they liked, it was he that had run St. Peter's, Neville Square, he could scarcely demean
himself by accepting a situation. He had saved a tidy sum, but not enough to live on without
doing something, and life seemed to cost more every year. He had never thought to be troubled
with such questions. The vergers of St. Peter's, like the popes of Rome, were there for life. He
sighed deeply. Albert Edward was a non-smoker and a total abstainer, but with a certain latitude;
that is to say he liked a glass of beer with his dinner and when he was tired he enjoyed a
cigarette. It occurred to him now that one would comfort him and since he did not carry them he
looked about him for a shop where he could buy a packet of Gold Flakes. He did not at once see
one and walked on a little. It was a long street, with all sorts of shops in it, but there was not a
single one where you could buy cigarettes.
"That's strange," said Albert Edward.
To make sure he walked right up the street again. No, there was no doubt about it. He stopped
and looked reflectively up and down.
"I can't be the only man as walks along this street and wants a fag," he said. "I shouldn't
wonder but what a fellow might do very well with a little shop here. Tobacco and sweets, you
know."
He gave a sudden start.
"That's an idea," he said. "Strange 'ow things come to you when you least expect it."
He turned, walked home, and had his tea.
"You're very silent this afternoon, Albert," his wife remarked.
"I'm thinkin'," he said.
He considered the matter from every point of view and next day he went along the street and
by good luck found a little shop to let that looked as though it would exactly suit him. Twenty-
four hours later he had taken it, and when a month after that he left St. Peter's, Neville Square,
for ever, Albert Edward Foreman set up in business as a tobacconist and newsagent. His wife
said it was a dreadful come-down after being verger of St. Peter's, but he answered that you had
to move with the times, the church wasn't what it was, and 'enceforward he was going to render
unto Caesar what was Caesar's. Albert Edward did very well. He did so well that in a year or so
it struck him that he might take a second shop and put a manager in. He looked for another long
street that hadn't got a tobacconist in it and when he found it, and a shop to let, took it and
stocked it. This was a success too. Then it occurred to him that if he could run two he could run
half a dozen, so he began walking about London, and whenever he found a long street that had
no tobacconist and a shop to let he took it. In the course of ten years he had acquired no less than
ten shops and he was making money hand over fist. He went round to all of them himself every
Monday, collected the week's takings, and took them to the bank.
One morning when he was there paying in a bundle of notes and a heavy bag of silver the
cashier told him that the manager would like to see him. He was shown into an office and the
manager shook hands with him.
"Mr. Foreman, I wanted to have a talk to you about the money you've got on deposit with us.
D'you know exactly how much it is? "
"Not within a pound or two, sir; but I've got a pretty rough idea."
"Apart from what you paid in this morning it's a little over thirty thousand pounds. That's a
very large sum to have on deposit and I should have thought you'd do better to invest it."
"I wouldn't want to take no risk, sir. I know it's safe in the bank."
"You needn't have the least anxiety. We'll make you out a list of absolutely gilt-edged
securities. They'll bring you in a better rate of interest than we can possibly afford to give you.
A troubled look settled on Mr. Foreman's distinguished face. "I've never 'ad anything to do
with stocks and shares and I'd 'ave to leave it all in your ‘ands," he said. The manager smiled.
"We'll do everything. All you'll have to do next time you come in is just to sign the transfers."

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"I could do that all right," said Albert uncertainly. "But 'ow should I know what I was
signin'? "
"I suppose you can read," said the manager a trifle sharply.
Mr. Foreman gave him a disarming smile.
"Well, sir, that's just it. I can't. I know it sounds funny-like, but there it is, I can't read or write,
only me name, an' I only learnt to do that when I went into business."
The manager was so surprised that he jumped up from his chair.
"That's the most extraordinary thing I ever heard."
"You see, it's like this, sir, I never 'ad the opportunity until it was too late and then some'ow I
wouldn't. I got obstinate-like."
The manager stared at him as though he were a prehistoric monster.
"And do you mean to say that you've built up this important business and amassed a fortune of
thirty thousand pounds without being able to read or write? Good God, man, what would you be
now if you had been able to? "
"I can tell you that, sir," said Mr. Foreman, a little smile on his still aristocratic features. "I'd be
verger of St. Peter's, Neville Square."

(By W. Somerset Maugham)

Proper Name
Albert Edward Foreman /'xlbqt 'edwqd '- /

Notes
1. verger n – церковный служитель
2. font n – купель
3. vicar /'vIkq / n – викарий, приходской священник
4. vestry n – ризница
5. chancel /'CRnsl/ n – алтарь
6. genuflect /'dZenju:flekt/ v – преклонять колени
7. the high altar /'Lltq/ – святой престол
8. cassock /'kxsqk/ n – ряса, сутана
9. parishioner /pq 'rIS(q)nq/ n – прихожанин
10. congregation n – прихожане, молящиеся
11. hustle /hAsl/ n – (слишком) энергичная, суетливая деятельность; толкотня
12. churchwarden n – церковный староста
13. refectory /rI'fektqrI / n – трапезная
14. sallow adj – желтоватый, болезненный
15. lamentable adj – прискорбный
16. obsequious / qb'sJkwIqs/ adj – раболепный, подобострастный
17. ecclesiastical office /I"klJzI'xstIkql/ – церковная должность
18. deportment n – умение себя держать, манеры
19. demean oneself /-'mJn/ v – ронять свое достоинство
20. fag n = cigarette (sl.)
21. transfer /'trxn - / n – документ о передаче (прав, имущества)
22. rate of interest – процентная ставка

Vocabulary Study

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fold n складка, сгиб: The curtain hung in heavy folds. He tore the paper carefully along the
fold.; fold v складывать(ся), сгибать(ся), загибать: Does the chair fold?; a folding chair; fold
one’s hands сложить руки: The little girl folded her hands in prayer. Ant. unfold v
1. раскрывать, открывать разворачивать: He quickly opened the envelope and unfolded the
letter.; 2. распускаться (о почках): Spring flowers unfolded everywhere.; 3. разворачиваться,
раскрываться: The story unfolds as the film goes on.

regret /- ' - / v сожалеть, горевать о чем-л.; regret sth/doing sth: I enjoy living in the city, but I
do regret my garden. He regretted selling his country house.; regret to say/to inform (formal):
We regret to inform you that your application has been rejected.; regret n 1. сожаление, горе:
We heard with regret that you had failed the audition.; 2. раскаяние: Her face showed no sign of
regret for what she had done.; regretful adj 1. полный сожаления: You sounded a little
regretful that he hadn’t been there.; 2. раскаивающийся; regrettable adj прискорбный: a
regrettable mistake/incident/episode; It is regrettable that so many people have lost their jobs
because of this.

leisurely /'leZq - / adj неспешный, неторопливый: We took a leisurely trip around Europe.;
leisure n досуг; at leisure не спеша: Do it at your leisure. – Сделайте это, когда вам будет
удобно.; leisure time свободное время.

discreet /- '-/ adj осторожный, осмотрительный, деликатный, сдержанный: a discreet silence


Ant. indiscreet; discretion /-'e - / adj 1. благоразумие, сдержанность, деликатность: act with
discretion, show (utmost) discretion; Discretion is the better part of valour (доблесть). –
Следует избегать ненужного риска.; 2. свобода действий, усмотрение: at the discretion of
sb; I leave it to your discretion.

worship v: 1. поклоняться, почитать: He worships the ground she walks on.; 2. бывать в
церкви: He worships regularly.; worship n 1. культ, почитание: Sun worship;
2. богослужение: place of worship – церковь, храм.

afford / q'- / v: can (be able to) afford sth/to do sth быть в состоянии позволить себe: At last
we can (are able to) afford a new car/to buy a new car. You can afford to be tolerant.;
affordable adj доступный: affordable prices, an affordable risk.

benign /bI'naIn/adj 1.добрый, милостивый: a benign smile; 2. мягкий (о климате),


благотворный: the benign influence of pure air; 3. доброкачественный (об опухоли): a benign
tumour /'tju:mq/ ( a malignant / mq'lIgnqnt / tumour недоброкачественная опухоль); benignity
/bI'nIgnItI / n доброта, благодушие, благосклонность.

nag (at) v придираться, постоянно ворчать, «пилить»: His wife nags (at) him all day. She kept
nagging her husband for a new car/to go to the Ritz.

dignity /'dIgnItI/n достоинство, чувство собственного достоинства: the dignity of honest


labour; beneath one’s dignity ниже своего достоинства; dignified /'dIgnIfaId/ adj 1.
обладающий чувством собственного достоинства; 2. величественный, величавый: a
dignified manner, a dignified old man Ant. undignified.

impart /- '- / v 1. давать, придавать: impart a subtle flavour; 2. сообщать, передавать (знания,
новости): The good teacher imparts wisdom to his pupils.

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risk n риск: The usual risks of the desert: rattlesnakes, the heat and lack of water.; be at risk
подвергаться риску, опасности: The disease is spreading, and all children under 5 are at risk.;
at one’s own risk на свой страх и риск: Anyone swimming in this lake does it at his own risk.;
at the risk of one’s life рискуя жизнью; take/run a risk / risks рисковать, рискнуть: Jerome
didn’t believe in taking risks.; take the risk of doing sth: She couldn’t take the risk of leaving
the baby alone.; risk v рисковать; risk sth (one’s life, health, career, etc.): His action risked a
sharp reprisal.; risk doing sth Note the use of the gerund: If he spoke the truth, he would risk
being fired.; risky adj рискованный: Anything that promises to pay too much can’t help being
too risky.; the risk factor фактор риска: The report emphasizes that the interaction of many risk
factors is responsible for heart disease.

inflict (on) /- '- / v 1. наносить (удар и т. п.), причинять боль, страдания: to inflict losses on
the enemy. The tsunami inflicted widespread damage.; 2. навязывать: Mary inflicted the
children on her mother for the weekend.

sustain /- ' - / v 1. поддерживать, подпирать: sustain a buoyant economy; 2. испытывать,


выносить, выдерживать: sustain injuries, a loss, severe damage; I can’t sustain the blistering
heat.; 3. подкреплять, поддерживать: sustain life; A light meal will not sustain us through the
day.; sustenance /'sAstqnqns/ n 1. поддержание, поддержка; 2. средства к существованию; 3.
питание, пища: The urban homeless are often in desperate need of sustenance.; sustainable /- '
-/ adj устойчивый, стабильный (рост): sustainable economic growth.

abstain (from) /qb'steIn/ v 1. воздерживаться от чего-л.: abstain from smoking; abstain from
traditional political rhetoric; 2. воздерживаться (при голосовании); abstainer n
1. непьющий, трезвенник; 2. воздержавшийся (при голосовании); abstention (from) n
1. воздержание (от чего-л.); 2. неучастие в голосовании: 48 votes for, 20 against, and 2
abstentions; abstinence /'xbstI- / n воздержание, умеренность, полный отказ от употребления
спиртных напитков; abstinent /'xbstI- / adj 1. умеренный, воздержанный; 2. трезвый,
непьющий; abstemious / qb'stJmjqs/ adj воздержанный, умеренный (в пище, питье): an
abstemious person, abstemious meals, an abstemious way of life.

Exercise 1. Translate from Russian into English. Work in pairs and check with the key.

147
1. Картина заслуживала внимание. 1. The painting deserved attention. The
Особенно хороши были свободно loose folds of the drapery were
ниспадавшие фалды драпировки. particularly good.
2.Мне не нравятся эти складки. Мне 2. I don’t like the folds. I think they are
кажется, они вышли из моды. out of fashion.
3. С сожалением доводим до Вашего 3. We regret to inform you that the
сведения, что наша компания прерывает company terminates the contract with you.
контракт с Вами.
4. Фаррелы не жалели о том, что переехали 4. The Farrels didn’t regret moving to
в город. town.
5. В своем выступлении мэр подчеркнул 5. In his speech the mayor stressed the
необходимость расширить сеть досуговых need to extend the network of leisure-time
учреждений в городе. facilities in the city.
6. «Не очень-то это было деликатно с ее 6. “It wasn’t too discreet of her to call him
стороны звонить ему в офис», – подумал at the office,” thought the young man with
молодой человек с раздражением. irritation.
7. Древние египтяне поклонялись богам и 7. The ancient Egyptians worshipped gods
священным животным. and sacred animals.
8. «Я не могу позволить себе отсутствовать 8. “I can’t afford three weeks away from
на работе в течение трех недель», – с work,” the manager thought with regret.
сожалением подумал управляющий.
9. Политик прекрасно сознавал, на что 9. The politician was fully aware of what
идет, но все-таки решил рискнуть. he was letting himself in for. Still, he
decided to take the risk.
10. «Не навязывай мне свои идеи», – 10. “Don’t inflict your ideas on me,” my
запротестовал брат. Он любил делать все brother protested. He liked doing things
по-своему. his way.
11. Республиканская армия нанесла 11. The republican army inflicted a
неприятелю сокрушительный удар. crushing defeat on the enemy.
12. Все говорили о необходимости 12. Everybody was talking about the
построения стабильной экономики. necessity of building a sustainable
economy.

Exercise 2. Translate into English.


1. «Пожалуйста, проследите, чтобы все складки на юбке были одной ширины (width)», –
Анна попросила портниху.
2. «Если ты хочешь посидеть в саду, я вынесу тебе складной стул», – предложила бабушке
Мэри.
3. Я видела, как он аккуратно сложил письмо и положил его в конверт.
4. Роберт распечатал письмо и прочел следующее: «С сожалением доводим до Вашего
сведения, что в связи с финансовыми осложнениями компания вынуждена сократить
Вашу должность».
5. С каким удовольствием, размышлял Питер, совершит он эту неспешную прогулку по
развалинам крепости.
6. Теперь, когда все решения были предоставлены ему (на его усмотрение), мистер
Дженкинс не сомневался, что вопрос будет улажен в ближайшее время.
7. «Неужели мы можем позволить себе заплатить 240 тысяч фунтов за дом? Где же мы
возьмем такие деньги?» – в недоумении спрашивала себя миссис Джеральд.
8. Психологи утверждают, что постоянные придирки, ворчание вызывают у детей
отчуждение (to alienate sb). Они рекомендуют разумное и своевременное наказание.

148
9. Ему было приятно думать, что в этой глухой деревне он в безопасности: он устал
рисковать.
10. Величавая манера официанта смущала Лиззи. Никогда раньше не приходилось ей
бывать в столь роскошном ресторане.
11. Долг учителя состоит не только в передаче некоего объема знаний, но и в
формировании личности учащегося.
12. Пожар быстро перекинулся на соседние дома. Ущерб, нанесенный деревне, был
огромен.
13. Законопроект утвердили практически единодушно. Лишь два человека воздержались
от голосования.
14. Отец непрестанно проповедовал умеренный образ жизни как залог здоровья и успеха.

Exercise 3. Find in the text the words listed below, then close the book and reproduce them
in the context of the story:
regret, leisurely, discreet, worship, afford, dignified, risk, sustain, dignity, inflict.

Reading Comprehension

1.Find in the text and paraphrase or explain.


1. … its folds as full and stiff as though it were made not of alpaca but of perennial bronze …
2.… a church much favoured by the fashionable…
3. … a clergyman of the old school who preached leisurely sermons in a silvery voice…
4. He liked things in church to be just so …
5. … he was not like this new man who wanted to have his finger in every pie.
6. … he couldn't be expected to fall in all at once with the discreet ways of his fashionable
congregation.
7. On the vicar's red face was a look of resolute benignity …
8. He looked, if not like a duke, at least like an actor of the old school who specialised in dukes'
parts.
9. He wasn't the type of man they wanted with a classy congregation like that.
10. Albert Edward was a non-smoker and a total abstainer, but with a certain latitude …
11. His wife said it was a dreadful come-down …
12. … he was going to render unto Caesar what was Caesar's.
13. … he was making money hand over fist.
14. “… you'd do better to invest it.”
15. The manager stared at him as though he were a prehistoric monster.

2. Find in the text and translate into Russian.


1. … now he wore only his second-best.
2. … an infirm old lady …
3. … in the early forties …
4. … but he never fussed …
5. … without raising his voice more than was becoming in a place of worship …
6. … the bother they had all had to hush things up.
7. … his deportment was irreproachable.
8. “… I didn't seem to 'ave the knack for it …”
9. “I've never really found the want of it.”
10. “It's a matter of prudence as well as of principle.”
11. … he wasn't going to allow himself to be put upon.
12. … Foreman set up in business as a tobacconist and newsagent.
13.… when he found it, and a shop to let, took it and stocked it.
14. … collected the week's takings …

149
15. “I've never 'ad anything to do with stocks and shares …”

Discussion

1. Do you think that the following attributes apply to the main character of the story?
Give arguments to support your opinion.
primitive, vulgar, ignorant, illiterate, ill-bred, uncouth /-'ku:T/ (неотесанный), unsophisticated,
commonplace, humble, slothful.
2. Compare the new vicar and the old one. Do you agree with the main character that the
old vicar was better suited to St. Peter’s?
3. Do you suppose that Foreman’s success story is another in a series of ‘life’s little
ironies’?

Stylistic Analysis

1. Write a summary of the short story “The Verger.”


2. What is the author’s message?
3. Analyse the author’s speech. Compare the author’s speech and the main character’s.
Comment on the phonetic, grammatical and lexical peculiarities of Foreman’s speech.
Point out the contrast between his manner of speaking and that of the new vicar.
4. Pick out instances of simile in the description of Foreman. How is his character
revealed through them?
5. Analyse the epithets used to describe Foreman, the old vicar and the new one.
6. Find in the text words relating to the church. How important are they to the texture
of the story?

Grammar: Ellipsis in Oral Speech

Ellipsis is the omission of the subject or the predicate, or both, from a sentence when the
meaning can be understood without them.
Ellipsis, as well as the use of contracted forms, is common in casual talking. Likewise, it is
not uncommon for a direct question to take the form of a statement (uninverted word
order), with the intonation the only marker of the direct question.

Exercise1. Study the following dialogues and then report them. Use appropriate
introductory verbs and make all the necessary changes.
1. “Joanne Elliott?”
“Yes.”
“You reported an incident?”
“Yes.”
“I’m PC Short, this is PC Andrews. Nice house. So you wanted to report a robbery?”
Note: PC – Police Constable
(From Death Duty by Claire Littleford)
2. “You want me to put on a tape?”
“Sure.”
“You have some great music, but some of these people I’ve never heard of. Who’s Bessie
Smith?”
“Old-time blues, real old-time.”
“Janis Joplin I know; Al has a couple of her tapes. She’s incredible.
“The woman sings straight from her… – she sings with feeling.”

150
(From With Child by Laurie R. King)
3. “You got the diamonds?”
“Right here.”
“You got the kid, Zack?”
“Don’t be a fool. Trade him for a sack of glass pebbles? We examine the stones first. Takes
time. One piece of glass, one piece of paste – you’ve blown it. If they are OK, then you get
the boy.”
(From The Negotiator by Frederick Forsyth)

Exercise 2. Reread the article “The Blonds Who Are Still Bombshells” in Unit 6 and
analyse the speech of the interviews.

Exercise 3. Find in your reading materials 10 cases of the grammar under study.

Phrasal Verbs

set about – to begin to do;


set aside – to save for a special purpose;
be set on – to be determined to do sth;
set out – 1. to start a journey, 2. to lay down (a plan, guidelines), explain (facts, reasons);
set up – to establish (an organization, business)

stand by – 1. to be present or near, 2. to remain loyal to, aid or support, 3. to wait for sth,
such as broadcast, to resume;
stand for – 1. to represent, symbolize, 2. to advocate or support, 3. to put up with (usu.
negative);
stand out – 1. to be easy to see or notice because of being different (against, from, in a
crowd), 2. to be much better or the best (as);
stand up for – to defend against attack, support;
stand up to – to resist

take in – 1. to understand, 2. to reduce the size, make smaller or shorter, 3. to deceive or


swindle;
take on – 1. to undertake or begin to handle, 2. to hire;
take over – to assume the control or management of;
take to – 1. to develop as a habit or practice, 2. to become fond of or attached to

turn away – to send away, dismiss;


turn down – 1. to diminish the speed, volume, intensity, etc. of, 2. to reject a person,
advice, a suggestion

work out – 1. to calculate the answer to, 2. to have an answer which can be calculated,
3. to (cause to) have a good result, 4. to plan or formulate, 5. to exercise (in a gym);
work up – 1.to intensify gradually, 2. to make oneself feel upset, excited or nervous

Fill in the correct particle(s).


1. A special commission was set … to monitor the hygienic standards of the city
hospitals.
2. The new police circular set … guidelines for police cooperation with the media.
3. He’s set … going. No use nagging him to stay.
4. After dinner the family set … solving the problem.
5. The immigrant worker made a point of setting … a little of his money every week.

151
6. Nick will stand … me in my hour of need.
7. Among detective story writers Arthur Conan Doyle stands … as a real master.
8. Before I vote for him, I want to know what he stands … .
9. Two keen minds that they are, they took … each other.
10. Who do you think will take … now that the head cook has resigned?
11. “This jacket is too big in the bust. Can you take it …?” Stella asked her dressmaker.
12. Marco was heading south. He knew they always took … more workers during the
harvest.
13. John has taken … drinking too much lately.
14. My doctor says I’m too tired and he advises me not to take … any more work.
15. The Joneses politely turned … the invitation.
16. The poor location of the condominium turned … many prospective buyers.
17. Don’t worry too much. We’ll see how things are going. Everything might work … yet.
18. The film works … to a thrilling climax.
19. The new strategy may not work … .
20. Henry carefully worked … every detail.
21. I work … three times a week with a personal trainer.

Listening Comprehension

Audiotext 17 A Culture Without Books?

1. Listen to the text one time and report the gist of it. What is the bottom line of the
article?
The words below will help you understand the text:
ramblings n бессвязная болтовня (to ramble about)
inherently/-'hIqrqnt- / adv – by its nature

Proper Names
Alan Moore
Yutaka Mikami

2. Listen again and reproduce the text in detail.


3. Listen to the passages that your teacher will read and try to fill in the gaps with the exact
words of the text as you remember them.
4. Discuss the following questions:
- Do you find this new “culture without books” inferior/superior to the traditional
notion of culture or is it merely different?
- Do you expect this new brand of culture to catch on? Will the book eventually be
regarded as a relic of the past and replaced by high-tech media?
- Is the computer an adequate substitute for the book? Can computer games move
people emotionally and intellectually in the manner of great art? Is the computer a
more efficient source of information than the book?

MODERN ISSUES

Work: Employer v Employee

152
Read the texts with the help of a dictionary and do the assignments below.

Text 1 Boredom Can Drain Workers, Workforce

Employees are surfing the Internet at work, calling in sick when they really feel fine and
abandoning successful careers to go back to school.
Blame much of the distraction on workplace boredom. Long considered a frivolous complaint,
on-the-job boredom is getting new attention as a serious issue threatening morale, retention and
productivity. Employers are cracking down on workers who goof off on the Internet, bringing in
creativity gurus and trying such strategies as job rotations as a way to break up routines.
Those who fail to take such steps can pay a price. Nearly 45% of hiring experts say their firms
lost top workers because the company was unable to provide them challenging growth
opportunities.
"The passion sort of left the job," says Sheryl Ross, 41, who left a horse-training career to join
high-tech Firm PostX in Cupertino, Calif. "I was running into the same issues again and again."
Bosses are taking action because boredom has been linked to high turnover, a lack of
innovation and competitive disadvantage. Nearly 90% of executives polled by staffing service
Robert Half International think employers are doing more to boost creativity among employees
than they did five years ago. "A lot of people are in jobs they find boring or repetitive, and they
can feel trapped," says Beverly Potter, author of Overcoming Job Burnout: How to Renew
Enthusiasm for Work. "Boredom is when your capabilities are greater than the task you're doing.
It's actually stressful.”
Several trends are triggering workplace boredom:
Graying baby boomers. Many boomers have put in 20 years on their job and reached career
pinnacles. A number are looking at another decade or more of employment. Doing the same job
can lack challenge and stimulation.
Job layoffs mean workers do more. Employees are doing more tasks, which adds to the
busywork that can sap creative energy. They're working more hours, eating lunch at their desks
and getting fewer breaks from the office.
A few workers say some cases call for drastic action.
"I was getting up on Monday morning and not looking forward to work. I even took
management classes, and it didn't work," says Gordon Safran, 63, who sold his optical chain to
open an inn in Burton, Ohio. "Now, my wife says I'm back like when we were first married. It's
all new again."
Many experts say boredom tends to strike in spring. Nice weather makes workers eager to
spend time away from their offices. On sunny days, you want to be outside.
"When you know what to expect and your workload is small, there`s no incentive to finish."
says Matt Peyerl, 27, an auditor in Bismarck, N.D. "Sometimes, boredom just comes from doing
the same thing for years. It's fear of boredom that has yet to come," he says.
Boredom triggers include lack of enough work, jobs that are too easy, repetition, never-
ending demands and interruptions that break creative flows.
Experts suggest various tips for coping. Employees should learn to challenge themselves by
setting their own goals and rewards, they say. Some also suggest simple fix-its, like trying to
alter daily routines.
But a major shake-up isn't always needed. Workers should be careful to distinguish between a
few days of boredom that will pass on their own and more severe problems that can indicate a
serious situation.
"You have to motivate yourself," says Gerald Eastman, 44, of Plano, Texas, who handles
liquidation of assets from failed institutions. "It's very simple to do things you know need to be
done or to ask for more work that you can do."
Managers also can help.
"It's critical that an employer take a genuine interest in employees and what turns them on."

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says Connie Glaser, coauthor of the book When Money Isn't Enough. "In order to motivate peo-
ple, you have to show them they're part of a bigger picture," she says.
Adds Arthur Pell, author of The Complete Idiot's Guide to Managing People: “A change in
behavior is one sign of boredom. If a person comes in later, is making errors in their work and
makes up excuses, that's a real candidate for boredom.”

Warning signs
When it comes to boredom and burnout on the job, here
are some warning signs:
- Feeling tired even when getting adequate sleep.
- Avoiding people at work and in private life.
- An attitude toward work that comes off as, ‘Why bother?’
- Getting sick more than in the past.
- Using alcohol or drugs to feel better.
- Feeling there is little to look forward to in work.
- Feeling frustrated with work.
- Seeing no visible results from the work that is done.
- Having no responsibility for a project or effort.
- Management doesn’t take an interest in the work that is done.
(From The USA Today.)

Vocabulary Study

Exercise 1. Find in the text the English equivalents for the phrases listed below and
reproduce them in the context of the article.
1. … звонят сообщить, что не придут на работу из-за болезни …
2. … душевный настрой (моральное состояние, тонус) …
3. … отсутствие текучести кадров (сохранение/удержание рабочей силы) …
4. Администрация принимает жесткие меры по отношению к сотрудникам, которые …
5. … перспективы карьерного роста.
6. … высокая текучесть кадров …
7. … стимулировать творческий потенциал …
8. … чувствуют себя загнанными в ловушку.
9. … являются причиной скуки на работе.
10. Поколение шестидесятых.
11. … достигли карьерных высот.
12. Увольнения …
13. … скука имеет тенденцию проявляться …
14. … нагрузка (на работе) …
15. … нет стимула …
16. Причины скуки …
17. … советы (подсказки), как справиться.
18. … ставить перед собой цели …
19. … менять режим дня.
20. … придумывает оправдания … .

Exercise 2. Translate into Russian.


1. Trapped in the cave by a fall of rock, the men kept up their morale by singing together.
2. The police cracked down on speeding.
3. The military government declared its intention of cracking down on all political activity.
4. The company plans to boost production by 20% next year.

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5. We need a holiday to boost our spirits.
6. That holiday has been a boost to our spirits.
7. This medicine will protect you against the disease, but after six months you’ll need a booster.
8. Large price increases will trigger (off) demands for larger wage increases.
9. Monotonous work involving repetitive tasks is a serious stress trigger.
10. The factory had to lay off half the workforce for three months.
11. The students complained about heavy workloads.
12. His interest gave me (an) incentive and I worked twice as hard.
13. To boost production the administration thought up a scheme of incentive bonuses for the
workforce.
14. When he at last came into Rome, he felt he had reached his goal.

Speaking

1. Prepare to speak about and discuss.


1. Boredom triggers range from overwork to lack of incentives.
2. Employers have grounds for concern. Workplace boredom affects both the individual
and the company.
3. There are no quick and easy fix-its to the situation.
2. Prepare to give a talk on the following points.
1. Workplace boredom is stressful.
2. The 9 to 5 office job of the past has now become a 24/7 commitment.
3. The ranks of down-shifters (people who want to work less and earn less) are growing.
3. Discuss the following in pairs.
The argument: Workplace boredom is not a frivolous complaint.
The counter-argument: Boredom at work? The whole thing is overblown.

Text 2 Help Desk: Your Career Problems Solved


Dear Help Desk
Some time ago I agreed redundancy terms with my boss after eight years with the same
company. The agreement was that if I worked for a further six-month period I would get certain
benefits. This was confirmed in writing. Now the period is over and my boss is saying that, since
I have had time to get another position, he has reduced the amount to be paid. My attempts to
argue my case for what was agreed have only resulted in several bitter rows. He has told me that
if I fight his decision not only will he withdraw his reduced offer but he will also make it
difficult for me to get another job. I have a week to agree or face the consequences. I am not
sleeping due to anxiety about this situation and, at 50 years old, I am finding getting another job
very hard. My wife thinks I should accept what I am offered and go without making a fuss. What
would be your advice?
George N

Phillip Wood, head of Employment Unit, Maxwell Batley Solicitors, says:


You have two choices. You could refuse the reduced amount and sue your employer for the
original agreed amount, or accept the reduced amount now and then sue for the balance on the
basis that you only did so under duress. Given your employer's threats (which could constitute
blackmail), it may be better to pursue the latter course once you have found and started another
job.
Nick Shannon, occupational psychologist, Acker Deboeck & Company, says:

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Your boss is playing it tough in the hope that you will go quietly for less money than was agreed.
He is pressuring you to accept his revised offer bу imposing a time limit and threatening to make
it difficult for you to find another job. However you have the upper hand as you have written
evidence of the original agreement. What your boss is doing is not only unethical, it is illegal.
Why is your boss attempting to do this to you? Perhaps his own situation is not secure and he
thinks that by saving some money on your redundancy he will establish some credit. You can
turn the tables and avoid the unpleasantness of confronting him again by referring the matter
upwards. Set out your situation clearly in a letter to your boss's superior, enclosing a copy of the
original terms that were agreed, with a copy to your boss. Insist that the company stick to what
was agreed, and ask for a prompt resolution. In the meantime you might contact your solicitor to
find out what the legal proceedings are should it become necessary.
Andrew Marshall, president of the British Men's Counselling Association, says:
Some people relish a fight, finding it brings out the best in them, while others feel ground down
and depressed. It sounds like you belong in the second camp, and if you are not sleeping now,
how will you feel if this dispute takes 18 months to grind through the courts? I was in the same
situation where I was made redundant and not being offered what my contract stipulated.
Believing that each of us has only so much emotional energy, I thought I would do better using
mine to look to the future. It is an old cliché, but as one door closes another opens; I decided I
could not move on if the old door was left ajar by litigation. So I asked a lawyer friend to
negotiate on my behalf. He significantly improved the offer and I was able to leave with my
dignity intact. The crisis made me reassess my working life and I have changed direction into
something far more personally rewarding. Good luck at turning your problem into an
opportunity.
(From The Independent.)

Reading Comprehension

Find in the text and paraphrase or explain.


1. I agreed redundancy terms …
2. I would get certain benefits.
3. … have only resulted in … bitter rows.
4. … not only will he withdraw the reduced offer …
5. … face the consequences.
6. … go without making a fuss.
7. … sue your employer for the original amount …
8. … you only did so under duress.
9. However you have the upper hand …
10. … written evidence of the original agreement.
11. You can turn the tables …
12. … referring the matter upwards.
13. … should it become necessary.
14. Some people relish a fight …
15. … while others feel ground down and depressed.
16. 18 months to grind through the courts.
17. … my contract stipulated.
18. … if the old door was left ajar by litigation.
19. … to negotiate on my behalf.
20. … to leave with my dignity intact.
21. The crisis made me reassess my working life …
22. … something far more personally rewarding.

Speaking
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1. Prepare to speak about and discuss.
1. How would you assess the situation?
2. How would you rate each of the three recommendations? Give your arguments
for/against the 1st option, the 2nd option, the 3rd option.
3. Your solution to the dilemma.

2. Roleplay. Work in groups of four. Study your roles for a few minutes and decide what you will
say.
Imagine you are taking part in a TV talk show. The topic under discussion is Changing Attitudes.
You are 64, have a full-time job you are enjoying, and dread the idea of being pensioned off.
Your opponent is in his early 50s, a downshifter who has “paid off his debts and dumped his
briefcase in order to enjoy simple pleasures”. Running the show is the presenter aided by an
occupational psychologist.

Text 3 For American Women, Mum’s Not the Word


Call it a conspiracу of silence: Many American women being interviewed for corporate jobs
take off their wedding rings, pretend they do not want children, lie about any they have and
swear their work is their life.
For women who feel that the only way to succeed in what is still considered a man's world is to
deny being female, this is the logical road to take. For Felice Schwartz, founder of Catalyst, a
national organization that works with businesses to effect change for women, it is not only
abhorrent, it is illogical.
Making business user-friendly for women is no longer just “fair and right,” Ms. Schwartz says.
"There is bottom-line motivation" translating into dollars and cents, she says, "because women
will not stop having babies or leave the work force."
The primary reason executives don't want to assimilate women at every level is because they
cling to an image of the past. Ms. Schwartz contends that image tells them that women should
be home rearing children, when the reality is that the pool of able-bodied males is no longer
adequate to meet personnel needs, she says adding that it is becoming an issue of change or die.
(From The USA Today.)

Reading Comprehension

Find in the text and paraphrase or explain.


1. Mum’s not the word.
2. Call it a conspiracy of silence.
3. … to effect change for women …
4. Making business user-friendly for women …
5. There is bottom-line motivation …
6. … they cling to an image of the past.
7. … the pool of able-bodied males …
8. … to meet personnel needs … .

Speaking

1. Prepare to speak about and discuss.


1. Women are sometimes still discriminated against in hiring and promotions.
2. Working women are expected to meet both work commitments and family commitments.

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3. Business must be made woman-friendly.
4. Women executives are highly competitive.
2. Express your opinion on the saying “A shady business never yields a sunny life”.
3. Summarize the Russian article in English and comment on the issue raised.

Простор для творчества в нейлоновых стенах


Немногие помещения так мало располагают к вдохновению, как зал заседаний
корпорации. Он, как правило, стерилен, залит неоновым светом, а главное в нем —
блестящий стол. Украшать его может фикус в углу или глупый плакат, превозносящий
прелести коллективного труда. Почему-то считается, что у тех, кто заседает в такой
атмосфере, должны рождаться блестящие идеи. Но чаще всего, как только присутс-
твующих ознакомят с повесткой дня, их мысли возвращаются к вчерашнему ужину.
Чтобы развеять эту тоску, было изобретено «Облако» — надувной зал заседаний,
внешним видом оправдывающий свое название. Его сделала своими рука-
ми шведская изобретательница мебели Моника Форстер.
В 2001 году Форстер предложили создать более крупное «Облако» для выставки видео-
искусства. «Они хотели показывать изображения на экранах, помещенных в очень
спокойной обстановке, — рассказывает она. — Тогда я сделала огромное надувное
помещение, входя в которое люди теряли связь с внешним миром и видели только то, что
им показывали».
Сотрудники шведской дизайнерской фирмы Snowcrash подметили, что посетители
выставки, входившие в творение Форстер, необычно пристально смотрели на
расположенные внутри экраны. Казалось, что окружавшая посетителей воздушная ткань
заставляла их сосредоточиться на главном. При первой же возможности фирма попросила
Форстер создать продукт, который стимулировал бы новаторство сотрудников
корпораций.
Компрессор, надувающий «Облако», находится в звуконепроницаемом корпусе и
справляется с работой за три минуты. Когда в зале отпадает необходимость, его можно
быстро сдуть и упаковать в небольшую сумку.
Площадь надутого «Облака» — 20 квадратных метров. Этого достаточно, чтобы
разместить пять-шесть человек. Стены сделаны из прочного нейлона, который можно
стирать.
«Облако» создано для того, чтобы превратить скучные заседания в творческие
дискуссии.
Форстер считает, что «Облако» можно также использовать для размышлений в
одиночестве. «Посмотрите на людей, выходящих оттуда, они всегда улыбаются», —
говорит она.
Это похоже на перекур, только безопаснее для здоровья и намного дороже.

(Известия: Дайджест Мировых СМИ.)


The words below will help you summarize the article.
надувной – inflatable
надуть – inflate
сдуть – deflate
нейлон – nylon
звуконепроницаемый – sound-proof

Listening and Speaking

Audiotext 18 Allowing Cellphones on Planes May End Disconnected Bliss


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The words below will help you understand the text.
bliss n блаженство
retreat n – a place into which one can go for peace or safety (уединение, отдохновение)
nap v – sleep for a short time esp. during the day

Proper Names:
Jason Green
John Ratey
Melissa Eskins

1. Report the gist of the article. What is the core idea of the article?
2. Listen again and reproduce it in detail.
3. Discuss the following questions.
- How do business travellers view the prospect of cellphone service in flight?

- In what way would cellphone use give rise to more stress?

Writing
Write an essay on one of the following topics:
1. The Challenges and Stresses of a Career
2. Women in Business Have to Play It Tough

Grammar Revision: the Article

Exercise. Fill in the gaps with articles if necessary.


1. … man and …woman were sitting in front of me on … bus. They were arguing about where
they should go for … dinner. … woman wanted to go to … Chinese restaurant, but … man said
he didn’t like … Chinese food.
2. Do you remember … name of … shop which advertised … sale of men’s shoes.
3. In … days of Copernicus, everybody believed that … earth was … centre of … universe.
4. Mr. Ogden likes … sugar, but not … cream, in his coffee.
5. … coffee was all right, but …cream was sour.
6. I heard him order … coffee and … bun.
7. ... science has contributed much to … human progress.
8. Would you call … psychology … science?
9. I will never forget … kindness you have shown me.
10. … tolerance is … precious quality.
11. He treated them with … tolerance that could hardly be expected from one of his rank and
temperament.
12. The alarm woke me to … darkness, but … darkness made paler by … wide expanse of the
uncurtained windows.
13. It all started on … Monday at … end of November. … dull day at … dull time at … end of
… year.
14. There was … naivety and … carefulness about her. She was like … sixteen-year-old.
15. Get … twenty-two bus. I’ll expect you about seven.
16. He invested most of his money in … antiques. He has … houseful of … old and valuable
stuff.
17. He put in … central heating and that wrecks … old furniture.
18. They appointed him … secretary for … half-year trial period.
19. … valley surrounding … Nile River is one of … most fertile in … world.

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20. We had to go into … town to pick up … supplies that I had ordered by … telephone in the
morning.
21. Henry drove for two hours before he reached … town.
22. He isn’t … professional musician but he plays … violin very well.
23. In 1922, Albert Einstein was awarded … Nobel Prize for his work on … quantum theory.
24. … Amazon River originates in … Peruvian Andes and flows east to … Atlantic.
25. … Irish emigrated to …United States in large numbers after … potato famine in … 1840s.
26. It is generally believed that … giraffe is … voiceless animal; however, … professor from …
University of Capetown recently reported that, when he was doing … research in the Transvaal,
he heard … bull giraffe growl.
27. Casey wanted to go to … Georgetown University to study … law. However, he didn’t have
the qualifications.
28. … Kelleys own … summer cottage at … Lake Crater.
29. We stopped at … crossroads to wait for … country cart to pass in front of us.
30. I’ll never get him on … vacation, he is such … workaholic.

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