Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 73

ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ

Государственное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования


УЛЬЯНОВСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ
Институт авиационных технологий и управления

СБОРНИК ТЕХНИЧЕСКИХ ТЕКСТОВ


ДЛЯ ДОМАШНЕГО ЧТЕНИЯ ПО
АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ

Ульяновск 2005
ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ
Государственное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования
УЛЬЯНОВСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ
Институт авиационных технологий и управления

СБОРНИК ТЕХНИЧЕСКИХ ТЕКСТОВ


ДЛЯ ДОМАШНЕГО ЧТЕНИЯ
ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ

Методические указания
по дисциплине «Английский язык»
для студентов дневной формы обучения специальности 16020165
«Самолето- и вертолетостроение»

Составитель: М. А. Морозова

Ульяновск 2005
УДК 42(076)
ББК 81.2англ-9я7
С23

Рецензенты:
кафедра «Иностранные языки» УлГПУ (зав. кафедрой, доцент фило-
логических наук Г. А. Калмыкова); доцент кафедры «Общенаучные дис-
циплины» факультета «Самолетостроение» УлГТУ М. В. Бебякова.

Одобрено секцией методических пособий научно-методического


совета университета

С23 Сборник технических текстов для домашнего чтения по английскому


языку: методические указания по дисциплине «Английский язык» для
студентов дневной формы обучения специальности 16020165 / сост.
М. А. Морозова. – Ульяновск: УлГТУ, 2005. – 71 с.

Представлены оригинальные технические тексты авиационной тематики. Посо-


бие снабжено тематическим словарем.
Предназначено для студентов 1-2 курсов специальности 16020165 «Самолето- и
вертолетостроение».

УДК 42 (076)
ББК 81.2англ-9я7

© Морозова М. А., составление, 2005


© Оформление. УлГТУ, 2005
Учебное издание

Сборник технических текстов для домашнего чтения


по английскому языку
Методические материалы

Составитель: МОРОЗОВА Марина Александровна

Редактор Н. А. Евдокимова
Подписано в печать 26.12.2005. Формат 60×84/16
Бумага писчая. Печать трафаретная. Усл. печ. л. 3,26.
Уч.-изд. л. 2,00. Тираж 100 экз. Заказ .
Ульяновский государственный технический университет
432027, Ульяновск, Сев. Венец, 32.
Типография УлГТУ, 432027, Ульяновск, Сев. Венец, 32.
ВВЕДЕНИЕ

Данное учебное пособие предназначено для студентов 1,2 курсов дневной


формы обучения специальности «Самолето- и вертолетостроение» 16020165.
Пособие разработано для самостоятельной подготовки студентов к до-
машнему чтению. Такой вид практических занятий является одним из основных
способов формирования у студентов навыка технического перевода.
Чтение текстов, отражающих специфику специальности, позволит буду-
щим инженерам подготовиться к эффективному решению задач информацион-
ного обеспечения производства и развития научных исследований, что является
особенно актуальным в условиях усиления интеграционных процессов.
В учебном пособии представлены тексты различной, (общетехнической,
авиационной и т.д.) тематики, относящиеся к различным стилям и имеющие
различную степень сложности, что позволяет преподавателю рекомендовать
студентам индивидуальный план работы в соответствии с уровнем знаний и
учитывать их интересы. В конце пособия дан лексический минимум, что позво-
ляет изучить наиболее важные и частотные для данной специальности лексиче-
ские единицы и успешно подготовиться к итоговому экзамену по английскому
языку.
Conductors and Insulators

Conductors are materials having a low resistance so that current easily passes
through them. The lower the resistance of the material, the more current can pass
through it.
Тhe most common conductors are metals. Silver and copper arc the best of
them. The advantage of copper is that it is much cheaper than silver. Thus copper is
widely used to produce wire conductors. One of the common functions of wire con-
ductors is to connect a voltage source to a load resistance. Since copper wire conduc-
tors have a very low resistance a minimum voltage drop is produced in them. Thus,
all of the applied voltage can produce current in the load resistance.
It should be taken into consideration that most materials change the value of
resistance when their temperature changes.
Metals increase their resistance when the temperature increases while carbon
decreases its resistance when the temperature increases. Thus metals have a positive
temperature coefficient of resistance while carbon has a negative temperature coeffi-
cient. The smaller is the temperature coefficient or the less the change of resistance
with the change of temperature, the more perfect is the resistance material.
Materials having a very high resistance are called insulators. Current passes
through insulators with great difficulty.
The most common insulators are air, paper, rubber, plastics.
Any insulator can conduct current when a high enough voltage is applied to it.
Currents of great value must be applied to insulators in order to make them conduct.
The higher the resistance of an insulator, the greater the applied voltage must be.
Atomic Power Plant
Atomic power plants are modem installations. They consist of several main
units and a great number of auxiliary ones.
In a nuclear reactor uranium is utilized as a fuel. During operation process
powerful heat and radioactive radiation are produced. The nuclear reactor is cooled
by water circulation. Cooling water circulates through a system of tubes, in which the
water is heated to a temperature of 250-300°C. In order to prevent boiling of water, it
passes into the reactor at a pressure up to 150 atmospheres.
A steam generator includes a series of heat exchangers comprising tubes. The
water heated in the reactor is delivered into the heat exchanger tubes. The water to be
converted into steam flows outside these tubes. The steam produced is fed into the
turbogenerator.
Besides, an atomic power plant comprises a common turbogenerator, a steam
condenser with circulating water and a switchboard.
Atomic power plants have their advantages as well as disadvantages. The reac-
tors and steam generators operate in them noiselessly; the atmosphere is not polluted
by dust and smoke. As to the fuel consumption, it is of no special importance and
there is no problem of fuel transportation.
The disadvantage of power plants utilizing nuclear fuel is their radiation. Ra-
dioactive radiation produced in the reactors is dangerous for attending personnel.
Therefore, the reactors and steam generators are installed underground. They are also
shielded by thick (up to 1.5 m) concrete walls. All their controls are operated by
means of automatic devices. These measures serve to protect people from radioactive
radiation.
Types of Current
Current is a flow of electricity through a circuit. Let us consider two riain types
of current: direct and alternating. A direct current (d.c.) flows through a conducting
circuitin one direction only. It flow spro-vided a direct voltage source is applied to
the circuit.
An alternating current (a.c.) is a current that changes its direction of flow
through a circuit. It flows provided an alternating voltage source is applied to the cir-
cuit. Alternating current flows in cycles. The number of cycles per second is called
the frequency of the current. In a 60-cycle alternating current circuit the current flows
in one direction 60 times and in the other direction 60 times per second.
It is easy to transform a.c. power from one voltage to another by a transformer.
Transformers are also used to step down the voltage at the receiving point of the line
to the low values that are necessary for use.
When necessary a.c. can be changed into d.c. but this is seldom necessary.
Among the most common meters used there are the ohmmeter, the ammeter
and the voltmeter. The ohmmeter is used to measure the value of resistance. It con-
sists of a milliammeter calibrated to read in ohms, a battery and resistors. The meter
is connected in parallel and the circuit is not opened when its resistance is measured.
The readings on the scale show the measured value.
The ammeter is used to measure the value of current. When the ammeter is
used the circuit should be opened at one point and the terminals of the meter should
be connected to it. One should take into consideration (hat the positive terminal of
(lie meter is connected to (he positive terminal of (he source; the negative terminal -
to the negative terminal of the source. The ammeter should be connected in series.
The readings on the scale show the measured value.
Capacitors
A capacitor is one of the main elements of a circuit. It is used to store electric
energy. A capacitor stores electric energy provided that a voltage source is applied to
it. The main parts of a capacitor are metal plates and insulators. The function of insu-
lators is to isolate the metal plates and in this way to prevent a short.
In the diagram one can see two common types of capacitors in use nowadays: a
fixed capacitor and a variable one. Тhe plates of a fixed capacitor cannot be moved;
for his reason its capacity does not change. The plates of a variable capacitor move;
its capacity changes. The greater the distance between the plates, the less is the ca-
pacity of a capacitor. Variable capacitors are commonly used by radiomen; their
function is to vary the frequency in the circuit. Fixed capacitors are used in telephone
and radio work.
Fixed capacitors have insulators produced of paper, ceramics and other materi-
als; variable capacitors have air insulators. Paper capacitors are commonly used in
radio and electronics; their advantage is their high capacity: it may be higher than
1,000 picofarad.
Besides, electrolyte capacitors are highly in use. They also have in very high
capacity: it varies from 0.5 to 2,000 microfarad. Their disadvantage is that they
change their capacity when the temperature changes. They can operate without a
change only at temperatures not lower than -40" С.
Common troubles in capacitors are an open and a short. A capacitor stops op-
erating and does not store energy in case it has a trouble. A capacitor with a trouble
should be substituted by a new one.
Aviation for amateurs

All aircrafts are built with the same basic elements: wings to provide lift, en-
gine(s) to provide motive power, a fuselage to carry the payload and controls, and a
tail assembly1 which usually controls the direction of flight. These elements differ in
shape, size, number, and position. The differences distinguish one aircraft type from
another.
Aircraft Components
Angle of Attack (AOA) The angle between the wing and the relative wind. When all
else is held constant, an increase in AOA results in an increase in lift. This increase
continues until the stall2 AOA is reached then the trend reverses itself and an increase
in AOA results in decreased lift.
Angle of Attack
Ailerons -- Located on the outer part of the wing, the ailerons help the airplane turn.
Ailerons are control surfaces which are used to change the bank of the airplane, or
roll the airplane. As the ailerons hinge down on one wing, they push the air down-
wards, making that wing tilt up. This tips the airplane to the side and helps it turn.
This tipping is known as Banking. They are manipulated from the cockpit by moving
the control column (stick) left and right. Right movement rolls the airplane to the
right and vice versa. Roll speed is proportional to the amount of stick deflection.Once
a desired bank is attained, the stick is centered to maintain the bank3.
Airfoil4 Section -- is the cross-sectional shape of the wing. The airfoil section shape
and placement on the fuselage are directly linked to the airplanes performance.
Bank -- The angle between the wings and the horizon, as viewed from the rear of the
airplane. An airplane with its wings level has zero degrees of bank.
Bank Angle
Banking -- Pushing the control stick in the cockpit to the left or right makes the
ailerons on one wing go down and the ailerons on the other wing go up. This makes

1
tail assembly – хвостовое оперение
2
stall – срыв потока, глохнуть (о двигателе), сваливание воздушного судна
3
bank – вираж, поворот
4
Airfoil – аэродинамическая поверхность, профиль крыла
the plane tip to the left or right. This is called Banking. Banking makes the plane turn.
Like a bicycle, the plane tilts, or banks, as it turns. This process is also called Roll.
Cockpit -- Where the pilot sits. All of the controls and instruments are located here.
Control Stick -- The ailerons are connected to the Control Stick which is located in
cockpit. Pushing the stick to the left or to the right makes the ailerons on one wing go
down and the ailerons on the other wing go up. This makes the plane tip to the left or
right. This is called banking. This tipping is also called roll.
Drag1 -- One of the four basic principles of flight. Drag is the force encountered as an
airplane pushes through the air, which tends to slow the airplane down. There are two
types of drag, and an airplane must fight its way through both kinds of drag in order
to maintain steady flight.
Profile or parasite2 drag is the same kind of drag experienced from all objects in a
flow. Cars, rocks, and hockey pucks must all overcome profile drag. This type of
drag is caused by the airplane pushing the air out of the way as it moves forward.
This drag can easily be experienced by putting your hand out the window of a
moving vehicle (experienced en masse if your hand encounters something more
dense than air). The other type, called "induced drag," is the result of the production
of lift (you can't get something for nothing!). This drag is the part of the force pro-
duced by the wing that is parallel to the relative wind. Objects that create lift must
also overcome this induced drag, also known as drag-due-to-lift. Skin friction is a
function of the surface area wetted by the airstream. Any iacrease in surface area will
increase skin friction drag. The other component of profile drag is pressure drag.
Pressure drag is a function of the size of the wake behind an object in an airstream; it
can be reduced by streamlining the object in order to delay separation of the flow. A
side effect of streamlining is an increase in the wetted (exposed) area and hence the
skin friction, so it is important to ensure that a net reduction in drag is actually
achieved when adding streamlining.
Elevators -- The Elevators are movable flaps attached to the horizontal stabilizer used
to change the angle of AOA of the wing which will, in turn, change the pitch, moving
the airplane up and down. It is operated by moving the control stick forward or
backward, which in turn moves the elevator down or up, respectively.
When the pilot "moves the stick forward to make the trees bigger and back to make
them smaller", it is the elevator that does the work.
Engine -- This part of the plane produces thrust or forward movement necessary to
sustain flight. Thrust is one of the four basic rules behind plane flight. The engine
turns the propeller.
Flaps -- Located on the inner part of the wing, the Flaps help the plane fly slower.
This helps to increase the lifting force of the wing at slower speeds, like during
takeoff and landing. These slower speeds make takeoff and landing distances shorter.
The Flaps slide back and forth, and are controlled by a lever in the cockpit. Flaps are

1
drag – сопротивление, торможение
2
parasite-пассивный
moved down from a streamlined position to increase the amount of lift produced at a
particular airspeed.

Flaps
Fuselage -- The Fuselage is the central "body" of the plane. The wings, tail and
engines are all attached to it. In a modern passenger airplane, you sit only in the top
half of the Fuselage. The Fuselage also houses the cockpit where all the controls
necessary for operating and controlling the plane are located. Cargo is also housed in
the bottom half of the Fuselage. The Fuselage is generally streamlined as much as
possible.
Horizontal Stabilizer -- The horizontal stabilizer is a fixed position airfoil that
stabilizes the pitch of the airplane. When a wing produces lift, it also develops a force
that tries to pitch the airplane forward. The horizontal stabilizer prevents this un-
wanted pitch from occurring.
Gravity -- Gravity is the attractive force from the earth that acts upon all mass. It is
one of the four principles of flight.
Landing Gear1-- On conventional aircraft, the Landing Gear consists of wheels or
tires with supports (struts) and shock absorbers which help in takeoff and landing. To
reduce drag while the plane is flying, most wheels fold up into the body of the plane
after takeoff. On many smaller aircraft, the wheels do not fold up after takeoff.
Lift -- An upward force that causes an object to rise. In aircraft it may be produced by
downward-facing propellers, or by a moving wing with an airfoil shape (the specially
curved shape of an airplane wing). Lift is one of the four basic principles of flight.
Forces are produced by the wing as the air flows around it. Lift is the part that is
perpendicular to the relative wind. The other part contributes to drag.
Pitch2-- The angle between the airplane's body (lengthwise) and the ground. An
airplane going straight up would have a pitch attitude of ninety degrees and one in
level flight, about zero degrees.
Pitch
Relative Wind -- The direction that the air is going as it passes the airplane relative to
the airplane. Relative wind has nothing to do with the wind speed on the ground.
Propeller -- This part of the plane produces thrust or forward movement necessary to
sustain flight. This turning blade on the front of an airplane moves it through the air.
Roll -- Roll is the tilting motion the airplane makes when it turns.
Rudder3-- The Rudder, controlled by the rudder pedals, is the hinged 4part on the
back of the tail which helps to turn the aircraft. It is the vertical part of the tail which
controls the sideways movement of the airplane, called the yaw5. The least used of all
controls, most flying can be safely accomplished without it. (One exception is land-

1
Landing Gear – шасси
2
pitch – тангаж, угол тангажа
3
rudder – руль, угол перекладки руля
4
hinged – петля, шарнир, навешивать
5
yaw – поворот горизонтальной плоскости
ing with a crosswind; yaw induced by the rudder must be used to keep the fuselage
aligned with the runway and prevent an excursion into the grass.)
Stall -- What a wing does when a given angle of attack is exceeded (the stall an-
gle of attack). The stall is characterized by a progressive loss of lift for an increase in
angle of attack.
Tail -- The Tail has many movable parts. The pilot controls these parts from the
cockpit. Included in the parts on the Tail are the rudder and the elevators.
Thrust1 The force produced by the engines, thrust works opposite of and counteracts2
drag. Thrust is the forward movement that is necessary to sustain flight. It is one of
the four basic principles of flight.
Trim3 -- When the controls are moved from neutral, it takes a certain amount of
pressure to hold them in position in the airflow. Trim gets rid of this pressure and ef-
fectively changes the "center" of the controls - or the neutral position where there is
no stick pressure.
Vertical Stabilizer -- The vertical stabilizer is the yaw stabilizer for the airplane; it
keeps the nose of the airplane (as seen from above) pointed into the relative wind.
Weight -- The force produced by the mass of the airplane interacting with the earth's
gravitational field; the force that must be counteracted by lift in order to maintain
flight.
Basic Weight - The weight of the basic aircraft plus guns, unusable fuel, oil, ballast,
survival kits4, oxygen, and any other internal or external equipment that is on board
the aircraft and will not be disposed of during flight.
Operating Weight - Is the sum of basic weight and items such as crew, crew baggage,
steward equipment, pylons and racks, emergency equipment, special mission fixed
equipment, and all other nonexpendable5 items not in basic weight.
Gross Weight - Is the total weight of an aircraft, including its contents and externally
mounted items, at any time.
Landing Gross Weight - Is the weight of the aircraft, its contents, and external items
when the aircraft lands.
Zero Fuel Weight (ZFW) - Is the weight of the aircraft without any usable fuel. This
is due to structural limitations of aircraft)
Wing -- The Wings are the "arms" of the airplane. They provide the principal lifting
force of the airplane. They hold the plane aloft by creating lift from the air rushing
over them. Like all plane parts, the Wings should be light and strong, but also flexible
to absorb sudden gusts of wind.
Yaw -- The angle between the fuselage of the airplane and the relative wind as seen
from above the airplane. Yaw is the term pilots use to describe the turning left or
right of the plane. Yaw is the sideways movement of the plane. Normally an airplane
is flown without yaw.

1
thrust - тяга
2
counteract - противодействовать
3
trim - балансировка
4
kit – набор, комплект
5
nonexpendable - нерасходуемые
Yaw Wings
Lift is the aerodynamic force that supports an aircraft in flight, due to the airflow over
the wings or body. Drag is the resistance a vehicle moving through the air
experiences, and pitching1 moments are a result of aerodynamic forces that make the
nose of an aircraft move either up or down.
The shape of a wing looks like an elongated2 water drop laying on its side. This shape
is referred to as an airfoil. Usually the top is curved more than the bottom making the
upper surface slightly longer than the bottom. Since air passing over the top and
bottom must reach the rear of the wing at the same time, the air passing over the top
must not only travel faster, but also changes direction and is deflected downward.
This actually results in lift being generated due to a rate of change of vertical momen-
tum and a difference in static pressure between the top and bottom of the wing.
The production of lift is probably the most important topic in the science of
aerodynamics. It is a wing's ability to efficiently produce a force perpendicular to the
air passing over it that makes heavier-than-air flight possible.
In the big picture, all wings produce lift the same way - they push down on the air,
forcing the air downward relative to the wing. It is this force that we call lift.
Many different types of shapes do this, but the shapes built specifically for this
purpose are called "airfoils ."
Various Airfoils
The wing makes its "magic" by forcing the air down. Some people like to compare it
to water skiing, where water skis and speed are used to force the water down and the
skier up. But that analogy tells only part of the story. Most of the time, the top of the
wing does the majority of the "pushing" on the air (actually, in this case, "pulling" the
air down). The top and the bottom of the wing combine to produce a force, and the
part of this force perpendicular to the relative wind is lift. Since the wing not only
pushes the air down but slows it down as well, some drag (induced drag) is caused.
The chord3 line is an imaginary line drawn from the leading edge to the trailing edge
of an airfoil. Secondly, the relative wind is the airflow which acts on the airfoil and is
paralell to but opposite the direction of flight. The angle between the chord line and
the relative wind is called the angle of attack, which is called "alpha." As the angle of
attack increases, the change of vertical momentum increases. Additionally, as the
angle of attack increases, the coefficient of lift (CL) increases. The result is an
increase in lift. However, there are limits to how much the angle of attack can be
increased. At some higher angle of attack, the lift coefficient begins to decrease. The
angle of attack where the lift coefficient begins to decrease is called the critical angle
of attack. Once the critical angle is exceeded, the wing can no longer produce enough
lift to support the weight of the aircraft and the wing is said to be "stalled." In other
words, the aircraft will stall when the critical angle of attack is exceeded.

1
pitching – продольный момент
2
elongated - обтекаемый
3
chord - хорда
Lift and Drag
A wing must be at a high enough AOA to deflect the air downward and produce the
desired lift. The pilot uses the elevators to change the angle of attack until the wings
produce the lift necessary for the desired maneuver.
Other factors are involved in the production of lift besides the AOA. These factors
are relative wind velocity (airspeed) and air density (temperature and altitude).
Changing the size or shape of the wing (lowering the flaps) will also change the
production of lift. Airspeed is absolutely necessary to produce lift. If there is no air-
flow past the wing, no air can be diverted downward. At low airspeed, the wing must
fly at
a high AOA to divert enough air downward to produce adequate lift. As airspeed
increases, the wing can fly at lower AOAs to produce the needed lift. This is why air-
planes flying relatively slow must be nose high (like an airliner just before landing or
just as it takes off) but at high airspeeds fly with the fuselage fairly level. The key is
that the wings don't have to divert fast moving air down nearly as much as they do to
slow moving air.
As an airplane in flight slows down, it must continually increase its pitch attitude and
AOA to produce the lift necessary to sustain level flight. At high AOAs, the top of
the wing diverts the air through a much larger angle than at low AOAs. As the AOA
increases, a point will be reached where the air simply cannot "take" the upper curve
over the entire distance of the top of the wing, and it starts to separate. When this
point is reached, the wing is not far from stalling. The airflow unsticks further up the
wing as the AOA increases. The top of the wing still contributes to the production of
lift, but not along its entire curve.
As the airspeed slows or as the angle of attack, or both, is increased further, the
point is reached where, because of this separation, an increase in the AOA results in a
loss of lift instead of an increase in lift. Thus, the wing no longer produces sufficient
lift and the airplane that the wing is supporting accelerates downward. This is the
stall.
Air density also contributes to the wing's ability to produce lift. This is mani-
fested primarily in an increase in altitude, which decreases air density. As the density
decreases, the wing must push a greater volume of air downward by flying faster or
push it down harder by increasing the angle of attack. This is why aircraft that fly
very high must either go very fast like the SR-71, capable of flying Mach 3 (three
times the speed of sound), or must have a very large wing for its weight, like the U-2.
Wing Approaching the Stall
Effects of control movements
Knowing what happens when the controls are operated is the most basic skill
of piloting. It is also among the most misunderstood. When an airplane is flying, it
has a good deal of forward speed and airflow over all of its surfaces. Control move-
ments must be understood in terms of this airflow and its effects.
The Elevator
The elevator controls the Angle of Attack [AOA] of the wings, and subse-
quently the pitch. Pulling back on the stick results in a down force on the tail (the
same thing is operating here that was operating on the wings, only in a different di-
rection). If the controls are reversed, the opposite happens.
Effects of Back Stick Movement
Backward stick movement forces the tail down and the nose up. This rotation
occurs around the center of gravity of the airplane. Initially the airplane, even though
its nose is up, is still headed in the same direction - the only thing that has changed is
the angle of attack. But an increase in the angle of attack results in an increase in lift,
so now the airplane starts to go up. Then, like an arrow, it points into the wind, in-
creasing its pitch. This process continues, viewed from the cockpit as an increase in
pitch, until the pilot moves the stick forward to a neutral position and stabilizes the
pitch.
The temptation to think that the stick directly raises or lowers the nose is very
strong, and most of the time, roughly correct. But if the stick is moved back when the
airplane is very close to the stall the aircraft will not pitch up much, if at all. This
back stick movement and increase in AOA will stall the wing, causing a loss of lift
and acceleration downward: now the pitch moves opposite the stick movement.
The Ailerons
The ailerons are a much simpler control than the elevator. Located near the
wing tips on the trailing edge1 of the wing, they are used in unison to change the
amount of lift each wing is producing and roll the airplane.
When the pilot moves the stick side-to-side from center, the ailerons move in
opposite directions. In a roll to the right (as viewed from the cockpit), the right ai-
leron goes up and the left aileron goes down. Each aileron serves to change how that
part of the wing deflects the air and thus increases or decreases the amount of lift
produced by each wing. The down aileron forces the air down harder, resulting in an
increase in lift and the up aileron decreases the downward force, resulting in a de-
crease in lift. In the case of a right roll, the decreased lift on the right side and in-
creased lift on the left side result in a roll to the right.
Aileron Effects
Operating the ailerons causes an effect called adverse yaw. Adverse yaw is the
result of an increase in drag on the wing with the down aileron, or "upgoing" wing.
This wing, since it is forcing the air down harder than the "downgoing" wing and
producing more lift, also produces more drag. The drag pulls the wing back and
causes yaw. If this yaw is not corrected with rudder, the roll is said to be "uncoordi-
nated."
The Rudder
The rudder is controlled by the "rudder pedals" located on the floor of the air-
craft. They are both connected to the rudder so that when one or the other pedals is
depressed, it moves the rudder in the desired direction. The rudder, connected to the
vertical stabilizer, then starts to deflect air much like a wing, only the resulting force
is to the side. This force causes a change in yaw. As mentioned earlier, the rudder is
not used very often, but when it is needed (e.g., in a crosswind), its presence is appre-

1
trailing edge – задняя кромка
ciated.

Engines
An engine produces a force which acts toward the rear of the aircraft which
"thrusts" the aircraft forward. For this reason, the force produced by the engine is
called thrust. Thrust is the most important force acting on an aircraft, because regard-
less of the type of aircraft, ALL need some type of thrust to propel them aloft. Even
unpowered aircraft such as gliders need a tow plane to provide an external force to
pull the aircraft into the air, where it can obtain airflow over the wings to provide the
necessary lift to remain airborne. Hang gliders use foot power to initiate movement
prior to "leaping" off a cliff. The most common means of developing thrust on pow-
ered airplanes comes from propellers or jets. Whether an aircraft has a propeller, a
turbojet, or a turbofan, all of these produce thrust by accelerating a mass of air to the
rear of the aircraft. The movement of this air to the rear creates an unbalanced force
pushing the aircraft forward.
The Wright brothers made many important things come together for their his-
toric first heavier-than-air flight. One of the most vital was an engine that efficiently
produced thrust while not weighing too much. They used propellers - the only effec-
tive means available of transferring an internal combustion engine's output into push
or pull for the airplane. Propellers are essentially revolving wings situated so that the
lift they produce is used to pull or push the airplane.
Most modern high-speed aircraft use a very different type of engine - the jet
engine. Jet engines not only look different from propellers, they operate in a very dif-
ferent manner as well. More like rocket engines, jets produce thrust by burning pro-
pellant (jet fuel mixed with air) and forcing the rapidly expanding gases rearward. In
order to operate from zero airspeed on up, jets use enclosed fans on a rotating shaft to
compress the incoming air (and suck it in if the airplane is not going very fast) and
send it into the combustion chamber where the fuel is added and ignited. The burning
gases keep the shaft turning by rotating a fan before exiting the engine.
Turbojet Engine
Some other jet engines differ from this basic pattern by the way they compress
the incoming air. Instead of forcing it down a restricting tube, the tweet's centrifugal
flow compressor literally flings the air outward into the compressor section exit,
compressing it against the outside wall.
Centrifugal Flow Jet Engine (T-37)
In a turbojet engine, the inlet area is small when compared to that of a propel-
ler. As the air exits the compressor section of the engine, it enters the combustion
chamber where fuel is added. This densely packed air/fuel mixture is ignited and the
resultant "explosion" accelerates the gases out the rear of the engine at a very high
rate of speed. This chemical acceleration of the air (combustion) adds to the thrust
produced by the engine. Most jet fighters have a system called afterburners, which
adds raw fuel into the hot jet exhaust generating even more thrust through higher ac-
celerations of the air. The jet generates large amounts of thrust by chemically accel-
erating the air as the result of combustion. The fact that the jet compresses the air as
much as 40 times (depending upon the number of compressor rings) allows the jet
aircraft to fly at higher altitudes where the air is too thin for Since the fan is mounted
to the same shaft as the core, the by-pass ratio of these engines is determined by di-
viding the amount of air flowing through the fan blades by the amount of air passing
through the engine core.
The engine thrust is controlled by a throttle - one for each engine. As the throt-
tle is moved forward, more fuel is added and the engine rotates faster and produces
more thrust. Thrust is also directly related to engine revolutions per minute (RPM);
the amount of thrust is often referred to as percentage RPM.
There is a price to pay for the ability to fly at higher speeds and altitudes. That
price comes in the form of higher fuel consumption, or is more everyday terms, lower
fuel mileage. As a propeller blade turns faster, the tips begin to reach supersonic
speeds. At these tip speeds, shock waves begin to develop and destroy the effective-
ness of the prop. It would seem, therefore that the most efficient engine would be a
combination of the turbojet and a large, slow turning prop. In recent years, these en-
gines have been developed and are called "high by-pass ratio turbofans." The engines
use a turbojet as a "core" to serve two purposes: 1) produce a portion of the total
thrust, and 2) to turn a huge fan attached to the main shaft. The engine can operate at
higher altitudes because the jet core can compress the thin air. The thrust produced by
the core is supplemented by having a VERY large fan section attached to the main
shaft of the core. The fan draws in huge amounts of air and therefore can turn slow
enough to prevent the flow at the blade tips from becoming supersonic. The overall
result is: 1) the fan mechanically generates a little acceleration to a large amount of
air mass, and 2) the jet core compresses thin air and chemically generates large accel-
erations to relatively small amounts of air.
The wings are not the only "lifting surfaces" on an airplane. The horizontal and
vertical stabilizers are lifting surfaces as well and use aerodynamic lift for the pur-
pose of changing aircraft attitude and maintaining stable flight. Some aircraft also use
the fuselage to produce lift (the F-16 is a good example).
An understanding or at least "intuitive feel" for the production of lift is essen-
tial for safe piloting. Many would-be pilots have been killed because, when encoun-
tering an unexpected stall fairly close to the ground, they did not act to get the wing
flying again (stick forward to decrease the angle of attack below the stall angle of at-
tack) before attempting to pull away from the ground.
Aircraft Performance
Performance generally refers to the motion of the airplane along its flight path,
fore and aft, up or down, right or left. The term "Performance" also refers to how fast,
how slow, how high and how far. It may also refer, in general sense, to the ability of
an airplane to successfully accomplish the different aspects of its mission. Included
are such items as minimum and maximum speed, maximum altitude, maximum rate
of climb, maximum range and speed for maximum range, rate of fuel consumption,
takeoff and landing distance, weight of potential payload, etc. There are specific ma-
neuvers which are used to measure and quantify these characteristics for each air-
plane. In many cases, flight testing takes place in a competitive environment to select
the best airplane for accomplishing a particular mission. Since all of these perform-
ance measurements are strongly affected by differences in the weather conditions
(that is, temperature, pressure, humidity, winds) , there are some very specific and
complex mathematical processes which are used to "standardize" these values.
One of the most important considerations in flight is the balance of forces
maintained between thrust, drag, lift, and weight.
Balance of Forces
An aircraft in flight retains energy in two forms; kinetic energy and potential
energy. Kinetic energy is related to the speed of the airplane, while potential energy
is related to the altitude above the ground. The two types of energy can be exchanged
with one another. For example when a ball is thrown vertically into the air, it ex-
changes the kinetic energy (velocity imparted by the thrower), for potential energy as
the ball reaches zero speed at peak altitude.
When an airplane is in stabilized, level flight at a constant speed, the power has
been adjusted by the pilot so that the thrust is exactly equal to the drag. If the pilot
advances the throttle to obtain full power from the engine, the thrust will exceed the
drag and the airplane will begin to accelerate. The difference in thrust between the
thrust required for level flight and the maximum available from the engine is referred
to as "excess thrust". When the airplane finally reaches a speed where the maximum
thrust from the engine just balances the drag, the "excess thrust" will be zero, and the
airplane will stabilize at its maximum speed.
Notice that this "excess thrust" can be used either to accelerate the airplane to a
higher speed (increase the kinetic energy) or to enter a climb at a constant speed (in-
crease the potential energy), or some combination of the two.
Excess Thrust Energy Exchange
There are energy exchange equations which can be used to relate the rate of
change of speed (or acceleration) to the rate of change of altitude (or rate of climb) .
(These equations are introduced later.) In this way, level flight accelerations (accels.)
at maximum power can be used to measure the "excess thrust" over the entire speed
range of the airplane at one altitude. This "excess thrust" can then be used to calculate
the maximum rate of climb capability for an aircraft.
Takeoff
The takeoff is a critical maneuver in any airplane. The airplane will usually be
carrying a payload (passengers, cargo, weapons) and often a full load of fuel. The re-
sulting heavy weight means that a high speed must be reached before the wings can
generate sufficient lift, thus a long distance must be travelled on the runway before
lift-off. After lift-off, the heavy weight will result in a relatively slow acceleration to
the speed for best angle of climb.
After lining the aircraft up on the runway, the pilot applies the brakes (accom-
plished by applying pressure to the top of the rudder pedals. - each pedal controls its
respective wheel). The throttles are then advanced to military power (100% RPM).
As the engines wind up, the engines and instruments are given a "last minute" check.
(Pilots do a lot of "checks" to ensure that everything is going OK. After all, if some-
thing were to happen, you can't just pull off to the side of the road!) When everything
is ready, the brakes are released and the airplane accelerates down the runway. At a
pre-determined speed, the pilot pulls back on the stick to pitch the airplane upward
about five degrees. Although the nose wheel is off the ground, the main gear remains
on the runway because there is not yet enough airflow over the wings to create suffi-
cient lift to raise the aircraft. After a little while, the airplane reaches the speed (90
knots) at which its wings produce lift slightly greater than its weight and it takes off.
While the airplane climbs away from the runway the pilot must raise the land-
ing gear (this decreases the drag) and the flaps, then let it accelerate to the desired
climb speed. Once this speed is reached, it is maintained by raising the nose slightly
and "trimming" off all control stick pressures.
Straight and Level Flight
If an airplane maintains a given altitude, airspeed, and heading, it is said to be
in "straight and level flight." This condition is achieved and maintained by equalizing
all opposing forces. Lift must equal weight so the airplane does not climb or descend.
Thrust must equal drag so the airplane does not speed up or slow down. The wings
are kept level so the airplane does not turn. Any imbalance will result in a change in
altitude or airspeed. It is the pilot's responsibility to prevent or correct for such an im-
balance.
Proper trim is essential for maintaining this balance. If the pilot, by being "out
of trim," is forced to maintain a given amount of stick pressure, the arm holding the
stick will eventually tire. But in the short term the pilot must very precisely hold that
pressure -- any change will result in a change in attitude. If the airplane is properly
trimmed, the correct stick position is held automatically, and no pressure need be ex-
erted.
Obviously, an airplane cannot remain indefinitely in this ideal condition. Due
to mission, airspace, and fuel requirements, the pilot must change the airspeed, alti-
tude, and heading from time to time.
Speed
Speeding up and slowing down is not simply a matter of changing the throttle
setting (changing the force produced by the engines). Airspeed can also be changed
by changing the drag. Many aircraft are equipped with a "speed brake" for this pur-
pose --a large metal plate that can be extended out into the wind stream, increasing
parasite drag and slowing the airplane.
As an airplane speeds up or slows down, the amount of air passing over the
wing follows suit. For instance, to maintain a constant altitude as the airspeed is de-
creasing, the pilot must compensate for this decreased airflow by changing the AOA
(pulling back on the stick) to equalize the amount of lift to the weight of the airplane.
All this works nicely until stall speed is reached, when an increase in AOA is met
with a decrease in lift, and the airplane, its weight not completely countered by lift,
begins to dramatically lose altitude. Conversely, an increase in airspeed must be met
with a decrease in the AOA (moving the stick forward) to maintain a constant alti-
tude. As airspeed increases or decreases, trim must be changed as well.
Mach number is the most influential parameter in the determination of range
for most jet-powered aircraft. The most efficient cruise conditions occur at a high al-
titude and at a speed which is just below the start of the transonic drag rise. The drag
(and thus the thrust required to maintain constant Mach number) will change as the
weight of the airplane changes. The angle of attack (and thus the drag) of an airplane
will become slightly lower as fuel is used since the airplane is becoming lighter and
less lift is required to hold it up.
Climbs and descents are accomplished by using power setting respectively
higher or lower than that required for level flight. When an airplane is in level flight,
just reducing the power begins descent. Instead of pulling back on the stick to main-
tain altitude as the airspeed slows, the pilot keeps the stick neutral or pushes it for-
ward slightly to establish a descent. Gravity will provide the force lost by the reduc-
tion in power. Likewise, increased power results in a climb.
Airspeed can be controlled in a climb or descent without changing the throttle
setting. By pulling back on the stick and increasing the climb rate or by decreasing
the descent rate, the airspeed can be decreased. Likewise, lowering the nose by push-
ing forward on the stick will effectively increase the airspeed. In most climbs and de-
scents, this is the way airspeed is maintained. A constant throttle setting is used and
the pilot changes pitch in small increments to control airspeed.
If the pilot were to fly a climb such that the airplane was at the best-climb
speed as it passed through each altitude, it would be achieving the best possible rate
of climb for the entire climb. This is known as the "best-climb schedule" and is iden-
tified by the dotted line.
Flying the best-climb schedule will allow the airplane to reach any desired alti-
tude in the minimum amount of time. This is a very important parameter for an inter-
ceptor attempting to engage an incoming enemy aircraft. For an aircraft that is
equipped with an afterburner, two best climb schedules are determined; one for a
Maximum Power climb (afterburner operating) and one for a Military Power climb
(engine at maximum RPM but afterburner not operating). The Max Power climb will
result in the shortest time but will use a lot of fuel and thus will be more useful if the
enemy aircraft is quite close. The Mil. Power climb will take longer but will allow the
interceptor to cruise some distance away from home base to make the intercept.
For cargo or passenger aircraft the power setting for best climb is usually the
maximum continuous power allowed for the engines. By flying the best-climb sched-
ule the airplane will reach it's cruise altitude in the most efficient manner, that is, with
the largest quantity of fuel remaining for cruise.
Range
One of the most critical characteristics of an airplane is its range capability,
that is, the distance that it can fly before running out of fuel. Range is also one of the
most difficult features to predict before flight since it is affected by many aspects of
the airplane/engine combination. Some of the things that influence range are very
subtle, such as poor seals on cooling doors or small pockets of disturbed air around
the engine inlets.
Turns
The aerodynamics of a turn widely misunderstood, since many people think
that the airplane is "steered" by the stick or the rudder pedals (probably the result of
thinking of the airplane as a sort of "flying car.") A turn is actually the result of a
change in the direction of the lift vector produced by the wings.
A pilot turns an airplane by using the ailerons and coordinated rudder to roll to
a desired bank angle. As soon as there is bank, the force produced by the wings (lift)
is no longer straight up, opposing the weight. It is now "tilted" from vertical so that
part of it is pulling the airplane in the direction of the bank. It is this part of the lift
vector that causes the turn. Once the pilot has established the desired bank angle, the
rudder and the aileron are neutralized so that the bank remains constant.
When part of the lift vector is used for turning the airplane, there is less lift in
the vertical opposing weight. If the pilot were to establish a bank angle without in-
creasing the total amount of lift being produced, the lift opposing the weight would
decrease, and the resulting imbalance would cause in a descent. The pilot compen-
sates by pulling back on the stick (increasing the AOA and therefore lift) . By in-
creasing the total lift, the lift opposing the weight can balance out the weight and con-
trol level flight. This increase in total lift also increases lift in the turn direction and
results in a faster turn.
Turn Lift Requirements
As the bank angle increases, the amount of pull required to maintain level
flight increases rapidly. It is not possible to maintain level flight beyond a given bank
angle because the wings cannot produce enough lift. An attempt to fly beyond this
point will result in either a stall or a descent.
Physiologically speaking, the most important part of a turn is the necessity to
pull "Gs". As the back pressure is increased to maintain level flight, the increased
force is felt as an increase in "G" level. In a 30 degree bank, 1.2 G is required to
maintain level flight. The G level increases rapidly with an increase in bank; at 60
degrees, it goes to 2.0 G, and it takes 9.0 G to fly a level 84 degree bank turn. As long
as there is enough airspeed, the G level can be increased in any bank angle by pulling
back on the stick.
Finishing the turn, a simple matter of leveling the wings by using the ailerons
and coordinated rudder, takes time; the airplane continues turning until the wings are
level, so the roll-out must be started a little prior to reaching the desired heading.
Back-stick pressure must also be released as bank decreases or the aircraft will climb.
Maneuverability
Airplanes are not limited to being a relatively fast means of getting some-
where. Long ago thrill-seeking pilots discovered that aircraft have the potential for
providing loads of fun while getting nowhere fast. Aerobatics are an essential skill for
fighter pilots; and the training that it gives to pilots in position orientation and judg-
ment is considered so vital that a great deal of time is spent teaching these maneu-
vers. Maneuverability is defined as the ability to change the speed and flight direction
of an airplane. A highly maneuverable airplane, such as a fighter, has a capability to
accelerate or slow down very quickly, and also to turn sharply. Quick turns with short
turn radii place high loads on the wings as well as the pilot. These loads are referred
to as "g forces" and the ability to "pull g's" is considered one measure of maneuver-
ability. One g is the force acting on the airplane in level flight imposed by the gravita-
tional pull of the earth. Five g in a maneuver exerts 5 times the gravitational force of
the earth.
Maneuverability
Aileron Roll The aileron roll is simply a 360 degree roll accomplished by put-
ting in and maintaining coordinated aileron pressure. The maneuver is started slightly
nose high because, as the airplane rolls, its lift vector is no longer countering its
weight, so the nose of the airplane drops significantly during the maneuver. Back
stick pressure is maintained throughout so that even when upside down, positive seat
pressure (about 1 G) will be felt. As the airplane approaches wings-level at the end of
the maneuver, aileron pressure is removed and the roll stops.
Aileron Roll Loop
Loop A loop is simply a 360 degree change in pitch. Because the airplane will
climb several thousand feet during the maneuver, it is started at a relatively high air-
speed and power setting (if these are too low, the airspeed will decay excessively in
the climb and the maneuver will have to be discontinued.) The pilot, once satisfied
with the airspeed and throttle setting, will pull back on the stick until about three Gs
are felt. The nose of the airplane will go up and a steadily increasing climb will be
established. As the maneuver continues, positive G is maintained by continuing to
pull. The airplane continues to increase its pitch until it has pitched through a full cir-
cle. When the world is right-side-up again, the pilot releases the back stick pressure
and returns the aircraft to level flight.

Antonov-70

The Antonov-70 is a new propfan1 powered medium-size wide-body short


take-off and landing transport aircraft designed a replacement for the An-12 'Cub'.
The An-70 belongs to a new class of short takeoff and landing tactical military trans-
ports.
The An-70 is capable of carrying practically any item from military armament
and equipment nomenclature with a total weight of up to 47 t. The aircraft is capable
of delivering 20-35 t of cargo over the range of 5,000-6,600 km at cruising speed of
750 km/h, air dropping2 of personnel and vehicles including single cargoes of up to
20 t from both high and low altitudes, deliver}' of 300 soldiers and evacuation of
206 wounded and sick. Depending upon the type of operation and takeoff
weight, the An-70 can be operated on both average-strength hard-surface runways
and unpaved 700-900 rn strips with low surface strength. In case of short takeoff
and landing on 700 m unpaved runways, the An-70 is capable of carrying 20-30 t of
cargo over the range of 1,200-3,000 km. Four D-27 engines with counter-rotating
SV-27 propfans ensure high cruising speed and 20-30% fuel saving in comparison
with modern airplanes with turbojet engines.

1
propfan – тяговый вентилятор
2
dropping сбрасывание
The integrated digital complex of onboard1 equipment provides operation of
the aircraft in all latitudes, all and around-the-clock2, in VFR and adverse weather
conditions, flights over unmarked terrain3, protection against antiaircraft means, for-
mation flying, takeoff and landing on unequipped unpaved airfields.
Use of equipment with multiplex channels of data exchange makes it possible
to easily modify and adapt the onboard avionics structure to suit any version.
Onboard aerial delivery system ensures autonomous loading/unloading of a
wide variety of cargoes and their air dropping. The onboard loading equipment com-
prises four overhead rail electric motor hoists with total cargo lifting capacity of 12 t,
two onboard electric winches each with a 1.5-ton tractive force. At customer option,
the aircraft may be equipped with an easily removable upper deck or roller conveyer
for container handling automation.
Onboard monitoring and diagnostic means make possible the autonomous op-
eration of the An-70 aircraft on poorly equipped airfields without use of any special
ground facilities. The aircraft maintenance is based on the "on-condition" strategy.
High technical and operational potential of the An-70 aircraft allows to create
on its basis an entire range of versions and modifications for military and civil use:
AEW aircraft, flying command post, patrol aircraft, tanker and a family of the civil-
aviation An-70T transports.
Development of the An-70 program, which began in 1975, effectively stopped
with the collapse of the Soviet Union. The first flight was on 16 December 1994, but
the prototype was destroyed on 10 February 1995 in a midair collision. Antonov had
a replacement in the air within the year.
An international consortium named the Medium Transport Aircraft (MTA)
was established in 1996 by a number of entities. Among those, besides AN-
TONOV ASTC, were the aircraft series production factories, the aircraft
engine and equipment designers, some business corporations and governmental
representatives.
The MTA consortium arranges and performs all joint research and devel-
opment efforts, manufacturing, economical and foreign trade activities; it provides
for a long-term cooperation and linkage of the financial, material and other resources
in order to solve the problems of the An-70 certification, production, sale, leasing,
and after-sale support.
As of mid-1998 Germany was interested in evaluating a Westernized version
of the An-70 to meet its airlift needs. Germany and other NATO members signed for
the rival A400M. Germany was ready to purchase a license from Ukraine to build the
airplanes at aviation factories in Western Europe. But the Ukrainian side rejected the
proposal, saying 8,000-strong workforce at Antonov and AVIANT need jobs as well.
In June 2000 it was reported that Russia and Ukraine will build the new-
generation Antonov 70 transport aircraft, not with Germany, but with China as had

1
digital complex of onboard – цифровой комплекс бортового оборудования
2
around- the-clock – круглосуточно (ый)
been planned. Russian Defense Minister Igor Sergeyev said that negotiations with
Berlin had resulted in the Germans saying they would not support the joint Ukrain-
ian-Russian An-70 project, Interfax reported. "We won't try to win over the Ger-
mans, but will complete the project with China," Sergeyev said. A Chinese military
delegation visited Ukraine and expressed an interest in the AN-70 transport aircraft.
At the Zhuhai airshow in November 2000, Antonow tried to market the An-70
in China. This would likely involve co-production with AVIC II. The Antonov De
sign Bureau offered cooperation to the Shansiy aircraft building corporation to build
a new airplane using Antonov An-70 as a basic model. The Chinese side left the offer
unanswered, although the proposition was negotiated during Li Peng's visit to
Ukraine in the middle of 2000.
Uncertainty surrounding the Antonov An-70 increased with the
wheels-up emergency landing of the only operable prototype in the morning of
27 January 2001.
Earlier reports blamed immature D-27 engines designed by ZMKB Pro Stu-
pino), as the cause of the crash.
The Aviant plant in Kiev is to produce An-70s for the Ukrainian air force,
which intends to procure 65 such aircraft. The Russian air force has estimated its
needs in 164 An-70s. The Czech Republic has long been closely watching An-70,
having become the first NATO nation to sign an intergovernmental agreement with
Russia on the supply of three such planes in 2005-2007.
Ukraine and Russia have come to terms on sharing rights at a fifty-fifty ratio
to the results of research related to the development of the aircraft (such a decision
was made in 2002).

MiG-23 FLOGGER

Meant as a point defense fighter, the Flogger offered a powerful radar, an infra-
red search and track system, a selection of radar and infrared guided weapons and
tremendous speed (Mach 2.35) to counter its adversaries. The MiG-23 was designed
in 1964-66 as a successor to the MiG-21. In addition to a much more powerful engine,
the MiG-23's most significant new feature was its variable sweep wing. Like the
USAF's swing wing F-l11, the sweep of the wings could be changed in flight. Fully
spread, this gives a shorter takeoff/landing roll while carrying a heavier weapons
load. With the wings fully swept back, the MiG-23 has greater speed. The wing has
three sweep settings: 16, 45, and 72 degrees. The prototype first flew in April 1967
and MiG-23s began entering operational service in 1971.
MiG-23 aircraft acquired by the United States under the Foreign Materiel Ac-
quisition/Exploitation program are designated as the YF-113. The aircraft is in wide-
spread use in Eastern Europe and the Middle East. The MiG-23/27 FLOGGER series
of aircraft has been used extensively by the former Soviet Union and its Warsaw Pact
allies including Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, East Germany, Rumania, and Czechoslo-
vakia. Other countries including Libya, Syria, Egypt, India, Cuba, Algeria, Iraq, Af-
ghanistan and North Korea have imported FLOGGERS.
The MiG-23 series served as fighter-interceptors, with a secondary capability
of ground attack. The MiG-23BN and MiG-27 were fighter-bomber variations. The
Flogger B is a standard interceptor1. Other versions of this aircraft are: C—two
seater; G~improved interceptor; and E—export. The MiG-23MLD FLOGGER K
version was a modification of the MiG23ML FLOGGER G and incorporated
improved avionics, armament, and aerodynamic features. The MiG-23MLD is the
most advanced version of the Flogger. It features a different identification-friend-or-
foe system, a more advanced missile capability and a distinctive notch in the leading
edge of the wing to improve flight characteristics. More than 4,000 MiG-23/27s are
estimated to have been built.
The wings are high-mounted, variable, swept-back, and tapered with blunt2
tips. There is one turbofan engine inside the body. There are rectangular, box-like air
intakes forward of the wing roots and a single exhaust. The fuselage is long and tubu-
lar, except where intakes give a box-like appearance. It has a long, pointed nose and a
stepped canopy. There is a large, swept-back, and tapered belly fin under the rear sec-
tion. The tail is swept-back, has a tapered tail fin, has a curved dorsal3 in the leading
edge and an angular tip. Swept-back, tapered flats have angular tips and are high-
mounted on the fuselage. The MiG-23UB is a two-seat combat trainer version of the
MiG-23 third generation interceptor-fighter. It was fitted with a variable sweep wing
and this feature helped solve the problems of the multi-role combat aircraft capable
of performing front-line fighter, interceptor-fighter4 and low altitude fighter-bomber
missions. The decision on the development of the combat trainer was taken two years
after the first MiG-23 prototype was manufactured at the end of 1967. The MiG-
27UB is a day and night all-weather combat trainer that can carry various armaments,
including the GSh-23L gun, rockets, bombs, the R-3S air-to-air and Kh-23 air-to-
surface missiles.
The development of the two-seater, dubbed "23-51", was made in March 1969,
and in May, it made the first flight (Design Bureau's test pilot M.M. Komarov). The
MiG-23UB state tests were completed in 1970 and the aircraft entered the service, so
the IAIA launched the production run.
The first MiG-23UB was produced on the basis of the MiG-23C one-seater.
The changes were made in the nose fuselage up to frame No. 18. The fuel tank No.l
was decreased to place co-pilot seat and the 470- litre fuel tank was located in the tail
fuselage.
The first production aircraft was tested by Moscow test pilot A.V. Fedotov to-
gether with the factory test pilot E.N. Tcheltsov. Later on, the aircraft were tested by
V.S. Prantskyavitchus, N.N. Ivanov, G.E. Bulanov, G.M. Kurkai, E.M.

1
interceptor - интерцептор
2
blunt - тупой
3
dorsal - задний
4
interceptor-fighter – истребитель-перехватчик
Shastun, V.B. Maksimenkov, V.F. Novikov, O.G. Smirnov, A.F. Sidorenko,
A,I.Kapustin, N.I. Petukhov and others.
The production two-seaters were fitted with extended chord, leading edge ex-
tensions and capable of loading with drop tanks. The MiG-23UB nose fuselage lines
were made like those of the MiG-23M.
The aircraft was powered by R-27F2M-300 engine (lx 6900/10000 kgf) and
the earlier two-seaters were equipped with the RP-21 radar sight similar to that of
the MiG-23 S, but the radar was not reliable and was replaced by a mass balance.
The aircraft, engine and other systems control was performed from both cock-
pits, but the second one had the priority where, normally, the instructor's seat was lo-
cated.
The periscope was placed on the second cockpit to ensure the view while taxi-
ing, taking off, approaching and landing. The KM-1 ejection seats with centralized
ejection sequence control system.
The MiG-23UB armament included the R-3S IR homing air-to-air missile and
the Kh-23 missile to hit the surface targets. The Delta NG station was used for the
Kh-23 missile guidance.
In 1984, the MiG-23UM two-seater was developed, that corresponded the
MiG-23ML and MiG-23P fighters, in terms of structure. The earlier MiG-23UB
were upgraded 1 to the MiG-23UM.The aircraft were fitted with the SOUA ac-
tive stall barrier system and the UUA-1 angle of attack indicator.
The MiG-23UE combat trainer were in service with the AF and Air Defence
of the USSR, Algeria, Angola, Afghanistan, Egypt, India, Libya, Northern Korea,
Syria, Ethiopia, Bulgaria, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Hungary, East Germany, Iraq, the
Congo, Cuba, Laos, Mongolia, Poland, Romania, Somali, Sudan, Czechoslovakia and
South Yemen.
In AF and Air Defence in most of these and CIS countries, the MiG-23 s are
still in service. Part of MiG-23 s of the Russian AF is maintained operational at the
storage bases. One of the aircraft is still used at the IAIA as an "enemy fighter" or an
escort aircraft for the "new born" Su-30s.
The two-seater was designed for training, but the MiG-23UBs and MiG-
23UMs had to perform combat missions as a sort of command post in Afghanistan.
The MiG-23UB production run lasted till 1978. Totally, 769 aircraft of this type were
manufactured in Irkutsk. The MiG-23UBs were delivered to many countries. Over
11,000 MiG-23 air vehicles are now operated by the air forces of more than 20 coun-
tries. More than 60% of their fleets are MiG-23ML, MiG-23MLD, MiG-23MF
and MiG-23MS fighters, 30% are MiG-23BN fighter-bombers and the rest of the
aircraft are MiG-23UB combat trainers. For most air forces, MIG-23 is the main type
of combat aircraft which has been successfully mastered by flying and maintenance
personnel. The aircraft possesses high performance and can be kept in service until
2010-2015. However, the aircraft weapons and avionics designed more than 20 years
ago can not operate on a par with up-to-date analogues. RAC "MiG" offers the most

1
upgraded - модернизированный
rational approach to MiG-23 upgrade. The project ensures the optimal upgrading
method and several basic upgrade versions that could be chosen by customers them-
selves. These versions were tried out during upgrading other MiG aircraft types. They
consist in: integration of new avionics and weapons (including those of Western
make), and continuous upgrade with a stage-by-stage growth of capabilities. It should
be noted that this approach is common for all versions of the MIG-23 family.
Tu-330

The certified and serially produced TU-204 mid-haul1 passenger airliner has
originated an entire family of new Russian transport aircraft. Leading Russian civil
and military research centres analysing customers' demands in cargo transportation
have concluded that nowadays the major problem of cargo air transportation is a lack
of up-to-date multi-purpose medium transport aircraft that can replace a widely used
aircraft AN-12.
The current fleet of native cargo aircraft composed of Ans and Us was defined
in co-operation with aircraft manufacturers of Ukraine and Uzbekistan. For the time
being these companies are on the territory of foreign states and in view of military
and strategic conditions - it seemed not very reasonable to rely upon their participa-
tion in building aircraft of double use (civil and military-transport). The only solu-
tion to solve this problem in contemporary Russia is a manufacturing and timed
launch into service of TU-204-330 (TU-330) medium transport aircraft being a
cargo version of the TU-214 aircraft that are actually ready for production at FSUE
KAPO named after S.P.Gorbunov. TU-330 aircraft is 75% unified with TU-214
aircraft. Its extended transportation and operating capacities make it multi-
purpose. TU-330 aircraft can be powered by various Russian and foreign engines
(PS-90A, RB-211-535FS, PW2240) as well as by NK-93 - new advanced high-
efficient prop-fan engines with the highest bypass ratio2. TU-330 a/c will be built very
quickly since this aircraft is 70% completely similar to TU-214 and TU-204 that are
already in operation. All these aircraft are provided with unified cockpit, engines,
fuel tanks and many other things. They will differ by cargo compartment only".
The TU-204-330 (TU-330) transport a/c building is incorporated into Federal
purpose oriented Program "Development of Civil Aircraft in Russia for 2002-2010
and for the period up to the year 2015" - Resolution of RF Government of 15 Octo-
ber, 2001 ? 728:"item 13. Building of TU-330 - with lifting capacity of 35 t - 2002-
2012,"Tupolev' PSC", KAPO. Certification in 2002." The TU-330 a/c is provided
with government support by way of Government Resolution of the RF No.369 of 23
April, 1994 "On building of mid-class transport aircraft TU-330". Russian Govern-
ment showed comprehensive understanding of the situation in the field of air cargo
transportation. According to GosNIIGA 2/3 of mid-range aircraft total cargo turover3
falls in flight range of 1000 to 4000 km. From the other hand exactly this area is the

1
mid-haul – транспортировка средней дальности
2
bypass ratio – степень двухконтурности
3
turnover – оборот, круговорот
most critical since main mid-range aircraft An-12 being currently in operation is now
intensively written off because its service life is served out. For Military and transport
aviation TU-330VT (TU-330VTS) version of baseline cargo a/c is proposed provided
with advanced communication integrated system currently used in Air Force and with
set of equipment designed for loading, unloading and arrangement of standard wheel,
caterpillar1 combat machinery and staff with possibility of dropping the staff and ma-
chinery; One variant is the TU-330SE ambulance and evacuation a/c, while another is
the TU-330TZ tanker with "buddy" type and "telescope" type refueling. Additional
versions would feature specialized administrative a/c (compartment + two cars); re-
peater a/c; long-range radar detection; jammer a/c2; reconnaissance and target indica-
tion; or patrol a/c.
According to "Tupolev" PSC if TU-204-330 a/c is taken as native mid-class
transport baseline a/c it is necessary to take into account following pre-conditions of
organizational, technological and economical nature: Task for aircraft production
during special period and for reconditioning of loss Ministry of Defense loss should
be given to aircraft manufacturing companies regarding fully native aircraft only.
Both the aircraft itself and vendor items should be independent of foreign supplies
(especially concerning avionics since state- of- the- art radio -electronics is capable
to "insert" in to any very small element a command device that can cause failure of a
system or entire aircraft any time necessary to a potential enemy).
TU-330 a/c is the most compilable with Air Force and Civil Aviation require-
ments by parameter "transported cargo - range": according to Air Force 72% of
transportation are made with cargo of 20-25 tones for the range of 3000 km; accord-
ing to Gos NIIGAIL-76 is currently carrying not more than 25 tones (up to 90% of
all transportation); According to Russian Military Transport Aviation Command
combat training takes not more than 10% of annual flight hours, while 90% are taken
by transportation in the interest of Ministry of Defense. In this case demand of dif-
ferent types of Armed Forces and, Air Forces are mostly satisfied by mid-class mili-
tary transport aircraft. Today it is obsolete An-12, which could be replaced by TU-
330 a/c according to their demanded lift capacity and flight range; They often
compare TU-330 a/c with Ukrainian An-70 a/c. However such comparison
is not very rightful since these are machines of different classes. But if still to fix a
choice upon An-70 a/c than we should realize that Russia could come across the
problems: Even if An-70s will be supplied from Ukraine to Russia and put into op-
eration these two aircraft are of different classes (An-7- could be related to heavy
military transport a/c and TU-330 - to mid-weight military transport a/c); Ministry
of Defense thinks it is necessary for Russia to have "combined" An-70 and TU-330
a/c fleet (approximately 25-30% and 80-70% of each type of the machines respec-
tively);
The cost of the last version of transport AN-70 a/c (max weight of carried
cargo is equal to 47 tones) is estimated within the range of 62-64 mln. USD, cost of

1
caterpillar – гусеница, гусеничная цепь
2
jammer a/c – станция радиопомех
TU-330VT a/c is about 25-27 mln USD. An-70 a/c program recoupment1 is scheduled
after production of 60 machines (Russian share of purchases is 165 aircraft for Air
Force which is quite hardly probable since departments of Russian Ministry of De-
fense are saturated2 by 11-76 and An-124 up to the year 2015, Ministry of Transport
is not going to buy the aircraft); for information - TU-330 a/c program will recoup3
itself at the 12-th a/c production;
The export potential of An-70 transport a/c is quite trifling since in Europe
demands in Mid-class Transport Aircraft is currently meeting under FLA program -
with A-400M a/c ( Western Military Agencies have ordered 193 machines for the
amount of 18 mlrd USD). Heavy Transport Aircraft is not in great demand in Europe
for the time being;
Having many positive characteristics An-70 a/c is rigidly associated with tur-
boprop engine (D-27 of Ukrainian production) while power plant of TU-330 a/c is
more uniform the following engines can be provided: PS-90A, NK-93A, NK-94 op-
erating LNG, foreign RB211-535FS and PW2240;
According to TsAGI conclusion (basing on analysis of Omsk incident and on
22 similar preconditions) AN-70 a/c in case of partial or entire failure of one engine
or during take-off will require wing blow with turboprop engine flow; two engines
failure will cause catastrophic effect (such situations are quite realistic for military
aircraft operating under enemy's fire ). It can not be eliminated since it was laid down
into An-70 a/c concept. Problems of D-27 aerodynamic instability could be added.
The D-27 engines development will require large additional investment and time.
Su-25 FROGFOOT (SUKHOD)

Su-25 FROGFOOT Grach (Rook) Su-39 FROGFOOT


The Su-25, which is no longer in serial production, made its first flight in 1979.
This single seat ground attack aircraft is a very durable airplane - it is fairly heavily
armored ~ and easy to service - all service equipment can be stored in a container and
transported by the airplane itself. It is armed with one twin barrel 30mm gun in the
bottom of the fuselage with 250 rounds. There are 8 pylons under the wings which
can carry about 4,000 kg of air-to-ground weapons, including 57mm to 330mm rock-
ets. There are two small outboard pylons4 for AA-2D/ATOLL or AA-8/APHID
AAMs.
The wings are high-mounted and back-tapered with straight trailing edges.
There are pods mounted at the square tips. There are two turbojets mounted alongside
the body under the wings. There are semicircular air intakes forward of the wings'
leading edges. There are exhausts to the rear of the wings' trailing edges. The fuse-
lage is long, and slender and has a rounded nose. The body tapers to the rear section
that overhangs the exhausts. There is a stepped canopy. The tail is swept-back and fin

1
recoupment - возмещение
2
saturate - насыщать
3
recoup - покупать
4
outboard pylons – наружные (внешние) пилоны
is tapered with a square tip. The flats mid-mounted on the fuselage, unequally tapered
with blunt tips.
Su-25, a multirole twin-engine attack fighter for close air support (this type of
aircraft is called "shturmovik" in Russia) was developed in the 1960s. The Su-25 is
designed for highly precision destruction of ground targets in all weather conditions
by day or night, primarily destruction of armoured targets, bridges, means of trans-
port, firing positions, command and control elements, convoys, motorways, railways,
combat helicopters etc. Its combat capabilities, resistance, striking power and effi-
ciency make it fully comparable with its American counterpart A-10 Thunderbolt. Its
structure, universal electronic equipment and especially wide range of multipurpose
weaponry and the possibility of its application in the most demanding conditions
make the Su-25 suitable for close air support of ground units.
There are two versions of the aircraft with, almost identical parameters, a sin-
gle-seat Su-25K, and a two-seat Su-25UBK which is used for training of pilots for
this type while keeping all the advantages of a single-seat modification and all capa-
bilities of a combat application. Standard equipment of the aircraft is an internal 30
mm AO-17A gun with 250 rounds. Other optional weaponry includes pods with 57
mm up to 330 mm rockets, and a number of air-to surface missiles including Ch-23
(AS-7 Kerry), Ch-25 (AS-10 Karen) and Ch-29 (AS-14 Kedge). A built-in laser target
illuminator in the nose permits homing of air-to-surface missiles, sliding and cluster
bombs and multi-purpose laser-guided weaponry. For longer distances, a laser target
illuminator can be mounted in a pod under the wing. R-60 (AA-8 Aphid) air-to-air
missiles provide self defence against enemy aircraft. For ground targets destruction, it
can be additionally fitted with a SPPU-22 machine gun. Su-25 can take off and land
with armament load on limited runways even without reinforced surface. In moun-
tainous regions at the altitude of about 3,000 m above the sea level, take-off and land
ing runways of 1,200 m are sufficient to permit its operation. This makes it possible
to reduce the distance from the theater of operation, frequently change the take-off
site, and conduct surprise strikes against enemy ground targets.
The upgraded SU-25KM "Scorpion" is enhanced with the most advanced avi-
onics, designed to elevate its unique capabilities and to provide a head-start into the
21st century as a model for close-attack aircraft. Avionics include "Glass cockpit" ar-
rangement; digital map generator1; display and sight helmet2; computerized weapons
system; complete mission pre-plan capability; fully redundant backup modes; ex-
tremely reliable and very easy to maintain. Performance enhancements include:
Highly accurate navigation; pinpoint weapon delivery systems; all weather and
day/night performance; NATO compatibility; high level of situational awareness;
state-of-the art safety and survivability features; advanced onboard debriefing3 capa-
bilities complying with international requirements.
The Su-39 (also known as the Su-25T or Su-25TM) is a Frogfoot variant in-
corporating post-Afghanistan lessons-learned. It is based on the Su-25UB two-seat
1
digital map generator – цифровой генератор карты
2
display and sight helmet – шлем с прицелом и дисплеем
3
debrief – производить опрос
trainder, with the rear seat and cockpit replaced with a fuel cell and extra avionics.
The Su-39 carries the Kopyo-25 multi mode radar in a pod under the fuselage. Ar-
mament includes ground attack missiles such as the AT-16 Vikhr , anti-ship missiles,
and AAMs such as the R-27, R-27ER, R-60, R-73 and R-77. A four-fold reduction in
thermal signature has been achieved through cooling intakes on the upper surface of
aircraft, and a new center body which masks hot turbine blades. Only a few dozen of
these aircraft have been built. Reports in the mid-1990s that the Su-39 designation
had been assigned to a primary trainer derived from the Su-26 and Su-29 aerobatic
competition aircraft, designed to replace the Yak-52, are apparently incorrect.
Two aircraft of the Sukhoi Attack Aircraft Concern (Sturmoviki Sukhogo in
Russian) shown at a static display during the MAKS 2001 air show. The Su-39 (Su-
25TM) had been displayed earlier and was well known, while the Su-25SM upgraded
by the Air Force's 121st aircraft repair plant at Kubinka was shown for the first time.
The Su-25 upgrade is aimed at expanding their combat capabilities, enhancing lethal-
ity and slashing operating and maintenance burden. The plane's navigational accuracy
is improved by an order of magnitude while its ordnance's efficiency is increased two
to three times. The upgrade increases combat payload on the new MBD3-U2T-1
bomb racks up to 5,000 kg and expands their ordnance list allowing R-73E air-to-air
guided missiles and S-13T rockets.
An-24 COKE, An-26 CURL , An-30 CLANK (ANTONOV)

Development of the An-24 began in 1960 in response to an Aeroflot require-


ment for a cheap and simple transport to replace the Li-2 (licensed DC-3), 11-2, and
11-14 aircraft. Two prototypes flew in September 1962, and the An-24 Coke first en-
tered service in 1962. The production version turned out to be a reliable aircraft - An-
24 was shown to be able to maintain an altitude of 3000 m with full payload and only
one working engine. The An-24RT transport aircraft features an additional RU-19-
300 jet engine.
The wings are high-mounted and equally tapered from the engines to the blunt
tips. Two turboprops are mounted in pods beneath the wings, which extend beyond
the wings' leading and trailing edges. The fuselage is long and slender with an up-
swept rear section and a solid, rounded nose featuring a stepped cockpit. The fin is
back-tapered with a blunt tip and angular fairing. Flats are high-mounted on the body,
back-tapered with blunt tips, and have a positive slant. The development of this air-
craft widely used in the regional airlines and abroad started in 1956, when the long-
range Tu-104 and IL-18 went in service. The Aeroflot and AF Li-2, IL-12i and IL-14
did not meet the requirements in terms of load lifting capacities and were obsolete, so
the urgent need appeared in the speed gas-turbine aircraft for local lines and for mili-
tary needs. There existed no serial engines for that type aircraft and the assignments
were set for the O.K. Antonov Design Bureau (airframe) and the A.T. Ivtchenko De-
sign Bureau (engine).
The first An-24 piloted by test pilot G.I. Lysenko made its maiden flight on
October 20, 1959. The aircraft was very successful as the Ivtchenko engines had op-
timum power, weight and service life parameters. The An-24 was used as the basis
for the An-24T transport version followed by the An-26 and An-32, "Toros" ice re-
connaissance aircraft, the An-30 for airphotography and others. A.N. Tupolev told
about the An-24: "This aircraft demonstrated its high capabilities and is an up-to-date
sample of this type of aircraft."
The Irkutsk factory manufactured the An-24T military transport version with a
cargo door in the tail fuselage, overhead-track hoist and airdrop equipment. The An-
24T serial production started within a year. It was also facilitated thanks to the or-
ganisational restructuring when the narrow-specialisation sub-assembly1 was intro-
duced which later on, proved to be effective, when the IAIA manufactured the MiG-
23UB and the Su-27UB). The IAIA had to master the production of glue-and-
welded2 panels for the nacelles3. The technique of the E. O. Paton's Research Insti-
tute was improved and adapted to be used in aircraft manufacturing industry. Some
issues were solved thanks to the experience of the Factory test pilots, V.S.
Prantskyavitchus, E.N. Tcheltsov, V.N. Trubnikov, G,M. Kurkai and others, who
tested the An-24Ts.
In 1962, the passenger An-24 started operation on the local lines and soon it
became one of the most numerous Aeroflot aircraft. The An-24 was in service with
the Air Forces of USSR, Bulgaria, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Hungary, East Germany,
Iraq, the Congo, Cuba, Laos, Mongolia, Poland, Romania, Somali, Sudan,
Czechoslovakia and South Yemen. The Xian Yunshuji Y-7 is a reverse-
engineered Chinese version of the Antonov An-24.
The An-26 is a development of An-24RT. One of the main modifications was a
rear loading ramp. More than 1,100 of this versatile transport aircraft were built be-
fore production ended in 1978. The Coke's replacement, the An-26 Curl, has many
of the same features as the Coke. An-26 by Antonov is designed for tactical transport
of passengers and material on short and medium distances. A development of An-24,
it was finished in 1969. It has a large rear loading ramp to facilitate loading of car-
goes. The engines are more powerful in comparison with the An-24. A pressurized
cabin makes it possible to fly at high levels. It has fairly modern navigation and
communication devices, an ADF automatic radio direction finder, DME distance
measuring system, marker and ILS/GS instrument landing system, and a radio altime-
ter. The avionics and instrumentation permits all-weather operation and safe landing.
The An-26Z version is fitted with special devices and instrumentation for air recon-
naissance and control of combat activities.
The An-30 (Clank) by Antonov is a development of An-24RT. The aircraft,
whose development was finished in 1974, is modified and equipped for ground map-
ping and surveying tasks. The main identification feature is the nose, which has been
completely redesigned, with glazing and a built-in navigator's compartment. The in-
ner space of the fuselage has also been remodelled. Its floor area has removable
cover plates over apertures for photogrammetrical cameras for vertical, panoramic
1
sub-assembly – узловая сборка
2
of glue-and-welded – сварные панели
3
nacelles – кожух, гондола
and lateral photographing. A dark room for handling the films and their storage is
provided. The sensor apertures in the underside and in both sides of the rear fuselage
are covered by remotely-controlled doors. During flight, cameras are operated by two
photographers. The An-30 can also be equipped with a variety of other devices, in-
cluding magnetometer and microwave radiometer for long-distance surveys. They
can be used to evaluate various situations on the surface, ice or snow cover, devel-
opment of vegetation etc. for civilian purposes. The devices can be installed in fixed
or gyro-stabilised mountings. A navigation computer closely co-operates with the
terminal of the NAVSTAR/GPS satellite navigation system, which enables an ex-
tremely accurate automatic navigation of the aircraft along the pre-programmed
course, at given altitude and speed, including guidance to the point of departure of
the photographing. The pressurised cabin permits to fly at high levels. The avionics
includes fairly modern navigation and communication devices, an ADF automatic
radio direction finder, DME distance measuring system, marker and ILS/GS instru-
ment landing system, and a radio altimeter. The avionics and instrumentation enable
all-weather operation and safe landing.
The Russian production run stopped in 1978 after, totally, 1100 aircraft of this
type were produced (the Irkutsk factory manufactured 164 An-24Ts out of these
within 1967 through 1971).
MiG-AT

In Russia, demand for replacement of a trainer airplane became more acute ow-
ing to the breakup of the Warsaw Pact and the Council for Mutual Economic Assis-
tance. As the L-29 and L-39 airplanes and their spare parts were manufactured mainly
in Czechoslovakia, they soon became difficult to obtain for the Russia's Air Force.
The MiG-AT trainer has a wing span of 10.16 meters, and its maximum take-
off weight is 8,150 kg. The aircraft's range is up to 3,000 km., and the maneuvering air
speed is 850 km/h. In addition to the primary trainer version, the MiG-AT family is
designed for potential evolution into a combat trainer, a light single-seat tactical
fighter, a naval combat trainer and a combat air patrol aircraft.
The developers of the MiG-AT airplane sought to fundamentally reduce the
cost and time of training pilots, substantially improve flight safety and make air-
plane operation simple and easy. The MiG-AT can be used both for the first flight of
a pilot cadet and the final training stages. When the aerodynamic configuration was
considered by the experimental design bureau, an unswept wing version was chosen
for its considerable advantages in total weight, effectiveness and flight safety. The
MiG-AT design uses the classic configuration with a low unswept wing having a sub-
stantial dog tooth extension. The wing is provided with drooping ailerons and multi-
position flaps and slats ensuring high lift qualities. An ordinary kinematics main land-
ing gear retracts into a well provided in the wing.
The MiG-AT advanced trainer has been under development by MiG Corp. since
the early 1990s. This aircraft is designed to provide basic, general and advanced lev-
els of pilot training, allowing in-service flight crews to maintain their skills while also
giving hands-on experience for day and night combat operations and in all-weather
conditions.
The MiG-AT is being developed and manufactured in the framework of an in-
ternational project that also involves French engine manufacturer Snecma, as well as
France's Thales Avionics. Creating a truly international industry team with world-
class partner companies increases the advanced trainer's prospects for export sales.
Also involved in the MiG-AT program are leading Russian aviation companies and
research centers, including GosNIIAS (responsible for integration of the avionics and
development of software), the TsAGI Central Aerohydrodynamics Institute, (aerody-
namic configuration development), MNPK Avionika (flight control system), Zvezda
(K-93 ejection seat), and the Gromov Flight Test Institute (flight tests).
The MiG-AT trainer incorporates a number of new features. In particular, it
marks the first time a Russian aircraft is equipped with a domestically built digital
fly-by-wire flight control system1. Until now, all Russian fly-by-wire flight control
systems have used analog computers, significantly limiting their / capacity and per-
formance. The application of a digital fly-by-wire flight control system on the MiG-
AT provides a very advanced platform for a weapons system of this category. The
MiG-AT's flight control system was developed by Moscow-based MNPK Avionika,
and is one of the core elements of the new generation trainer aircraft's development
effort. The flight control system is reprogrammable and can recreate handling quali-
ties of a variety of aircraft types ~ from highly agile fighters to heavy transports. As a
result, a single aircraft can be efficiently used for different categories of pilots, reduc-
ing training costs for both military and civil services. Another feature of the MiG-
AT's flight control system is its flight envelope protection, which prevents the trainer
from entering potentially dangerous maneuvers ~ thus increasing safety for new or
inexperienced pilots.
The MiG-AT is the first aircraft equipped with the unique lightweight Zvezda
K-93 ejection seat - an upgraded version of the internationally-known K-36 series of
ejections seats. The K-93 seat is qualified for zero-zero and inverted flight ejections ~
with the inverted ejection capability effective from heights above 50 meters. Zvezda
developed a minimal deployment time sequence for the seat, which includes ejec-
tion through the canopy. A pair of modular LARZAC 04R20 turbofans power the
MiG-AT. The engines deliver a thrust of 1,430 daN, and have been de-
signed and manufactured by France's Snecma. MiG-AT customers have the option of
selecting either the TopFlight avionics system from France's Thales Avionics or Rus-
sian-build equipment for use on the trainer. The aircraft's cockpit ergonomics2 meet
the standards of next-generation fighter aircraft. Display systems in the cockpit use
full color LCD (liquid crystal display) instruments. Flight controls were designed
with the HOTAS concept (hands on throttle and stick) operating concept, ensuring
increased capability and less workload for the pilot.

1
fly-by-wire flight control system – электродистанционная система управления полетом
2
ergonomics – эргономика кабины соответствует (отвечает) требованиям, предъявляемым к истребителям
следующего поколения
In early 2002 the Russian air force gave the Yak-130 the victory in the compe-
tition to equipment military aviation with new airplanes that can play the role of
training and light combat aircraft. Its competitor, the MiG-AT, although it also would
be supported by the air force, now can count on only foreign orders. Since December
2002 Air Force has been successfully testing certification tests of this trainer aircraft
together with MiG Russian Aircraft Corporation on approved program. By October
2003 this program entered into final stage," - said Commander-in-chief of Russian
Air Force. According to his words now "is tested aerodynamics, stability, flight con-
trol system, flight-technical and take off/landing characteristics of the trainer air-
craft." Also is executed general program of testing onboard equipment for both Rus-
sian and export version of aircraft, said V.Mikhailov. "Already now we can say that
after certification tests MiG-AT will be evaluated as trainer aircraft for Russian Air
Force training schools," - said he. By late 2003 neither the Russian nor the French
militaries had the intention to buy the MiG-AT instructional airplane. So, the sample
may safely go to the aviation museum where one of the MiG-29 shipborne planes is
already exhibited.
SYSTEMS
1
Сrucial battles are being fought inside the Washington Beltway to allow the $9
billion engineering and manufacturing development phase of the joint-strike
fighter2 (JSF) to go ahead. Two teams of contractors submitted EMD bids3 in Febru-
ary 2001 and the Pentagon is expected to give a decision in the autumn.
Selection of the winning team will be top of the new administration's agenda if
it decides to go ahead with the programme as proposed by its predecessor4. Stakes5
are high, the project is likely to stretch for 30 years and involve production of more
than 5,000 airframes6.
Augustine's law
Media hype surrounding JSF has obscured the underlying philosophy behind
the programme7 and the major technological issues to be addressed in the near future.
At the heart of the programme is Augustine's law number XVI, named after Norm
Augustine, the former CFO of Lockheed Martin, who predicted that unless the Penta-
gon overhauled8 its procurement9 policies to halt cost escalation of military equip-
ment, the US defence budget would buy just a single aircraft in 2054. He was talking
about a single airframe, not an aircraft type.
The huge cost of the Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit and Lockheed Martin F-
22 Raptor were wake-up calls for the Pentagon and the world's defence minis-

1
crucial - решающий
2
joint-strike fighter – объединенный ударный истребитель
3
bid – предложение цены
4
predecessor - предшественник
5
stake - ставка
6
airframe – корпус (планер самолета)
7
Media hype surrounding JSF has obscured the underlying philosophy behind the programme – беззастенчивая
рекламная компания СМИ, окружающая JSF
8
overhaule – осматривать, пересматривать
9
procurement - обеспечение
tries. Consequently the Pentagon and the programme partners set specific purchase
prices for each airframe and for through-life programme costs. Some astronomical
numbers, based on the initial requirement for 3,000 airframes, are involved but it
is hoped to save large sums by using common components and procurement proc-
esses for the conventional take-off and landing (CTOL), carrier-borne (CV) and
short take-off and vertical landing1 (STOVL) versions. USAF says it wants 1,763
CTOL, the US Navy wants 480 carrier2 versions and the USMC wants 609 STOVL
aircraft to replace Harriers and Hornets.
The UK wants 150 aircraft to replace its existing Royal Navy Sea Harriers and
the RAF's Harrier GR7s, a requirement generated by the 1998 strategic defence re-
view3 (SDR) that established Joint Force 2000, now Joint Force Harrier, that brings
together the two service's jump jets4 in one highly mobile strike force. Although the
STOVL JSF is the UK's preferred choice, the FCBA airframe choice has to be made
almost at the same time as the selection of the new carrier's design. The two deci-
sions are inextricably5 linked.
The Pentagon set prices for the basic airframe, engine and avionics of the JSF
versions as $28m for the CTOL, between $31 and $38m for the CV version and be-
tween $30 and $35m for the STOVL version. These prices were at 1994 rates.
The first concept demonstrator aircraft flew in late 2000 with Boeing's X-32
(above and left] flying first. Lockheed Martin's X-35 (far left) has already gone
supersonic.
The aircraft was to have enough low-observable or stealth6 characteristics for it
to be used very early in an air campaign conducted in the face of heavy enemy air de-
fences. It was to carry a range of ordnance7 internally and stores on four external hard
points. There was to be 70 to 90 per cent commonality between all variants to reduce
manufacturing, support and training costs.
Flying testbeds8
To understand the technical challenges involved it is necessary to appreciate
the programme's structure. The Joint Programme Office (JPO) was set up to manage
the project in a revolutionary fashion. The JPO is the customer for the JSF rather than
the individual services, although inter-service politics have permeated the pro-
gramme at every stage to date.
In 1996 the JPO contracted the teams to build concept demonstrators - flying
testbeds to prove the two designs can fly as advertised and to cost. These $750m
contracts also allow the contractors to prove they can build the three variants on the
same production line. Particular attention is being paid to the STOVL versions that are
judged by the JPO and elsewhere to be the most risky element. A low airspeed carrier
1
short take-off and vertical landing – короткий взлет (отрыв от земли) и вертикальное приземление
2
carrier - тягач
3
strategic defence review – обзор сил стратегической обороны
4
jump jets – ступенчатый реактивный самолет
5
inextricably - неразрывно
6
stealth – неуловимый для радаров (стелс)
7
ordnance – приказ (указ)
8
testbeds – набор тестов
approach and handling characteristics have to be demonstrated.
Following this is the so-called HMD phase to build the preferred weapon-
system-concept phase. This is a working prototype combining airframe, sensors and
weapons to prove they can be integrated. Selection of the company to work on EMD
is shorthanded1 in the press as the winner-takes-all2 contest. Roth teams will have pre-
pared EMD bids as part of the concept demonstrator phase even before the demon-
strator aircraft have flown.
EMD is projected to cost $9 billion and the JPO is touring the world asking po-
tential customers to make contributions in return for influence in the design and
work share on the project.
Britain is being asked for $2 billion over four years. The Pentagon originally
projected this spring for a decision on EMD but this has slipped to autumn. Under the
JPO's original timelines3, initial production will start in 2005 and the first operational
aircraft will be delivered in 2007. Production is predicted to last at least until 2027.
С-17s join UK JRRF in Boeing lease deal

Boeing C-17 leasing agreement


fulfils UK forces’ short-term
strategic airlift requirement.
In September 2000 the United Kingdom signed a contract to lease four Boeing
C-17 Globemaster III aircraft to fulfil its short-term strategic airlift requirement and to
allow the Royal Air Force to become the first foreign user of the giant transport air-
craft. The contract, worth more than $1 billion over its four-year life, will enable the
UK joint rapid reaction force (JRRF) to move large outsized cargo to crisis zones at short
notice.
In the past the UK has had to hire such aircraft on the open market but now
this capability will be under national command, directed from the UK's permanent
joint headquarters4 (PJHQ) in Northwood. Boeing began building the first UK C-17
at its Long Beach plant last June and it is intended that all four aircraft will be oper-
ating from RAF Brize Norton by September 2001. The C-17s will get their first test
during the autumn when they will move tanks and helicopters to the middle east for
a major British-Omani exercise.
Rapid deployment capability
Britain's defence procurement minister Baroness Symons said, "this is a sig-
nificant step towards providing, in the short-term, the rapid deployment capability
promised in the strategic defence review conclusions. The review confirmed that the
RAF had a long-term requirement to replace its ageing5 air transport fleet and also
identified a shortfall in strategic airlift capability in the interim. The short-term re-
quirement will be met by the lease of four Boeing C-l 7 aircraft. The longer term re-

1
shorthanded - стенография
2
winner-takes-all – победителю все
3
timelines – график времени
4
permanent joint headquarters – штаб вооруженных сил
5
ageing - устаревший
quirement will be met by the purchase of 25 airbus A400М."
Sir Robert Walmsley, the UK's chief of defence procurement, said "with the C-l
7 we are joining the successful partnership of the United States Air Force and the
Boeing company, and the UK is benefiting from the success of this established
management team. It is this partnering arrangement, very much in tune with smart
procurement, that has helped us conclude this complex contract within a very de-
manding timescale1 ."
To ensure the smooth entry into service of the C-17, the UK's defence pro-
curement agency and the RAF have established a project team at Wright-Patterson
AFB in Ohio as part of the USAF's C-17 programme office, at the USAF's main C-l 7
base at Charleston AFB, South Carolina, and at Boeing's C-17 production centre at Long
Beach in California.
Payload potential
The UK's aircraft will be the same as those being delivered to the USAF. Each
of the C-17s will be capable of carrying a variety of heavy equipment, from a Chal-
lenger tank or three Warrior armoured vehicles to three of the British army's new
Apache attack helicopters or 13 Land-Rover light trucks.
The C-17 is powered by four Pratt & Whitney F117-PW-100 turbofans2, with
a total thrust of 166,8001b (742.2kN, giving a maximum cruise speed of 403mph
(648km/h). The aircraft has a wing span of 169ft 9in (51.74m) and fuselage length
of 174ft (53.04m) making it the largest aircraft to see RAF service since the old Bel-
fast transports during the 1960s and 1970s.
It has a flight-deck crew of two plus one load-master, with additional seats on
the flight deck for observers or relief aircrew. It carries up to 102 troops/paratroops;
48 litter and 54 ambulatory patients and attendants; 18 pallets3; and a maximum pay-
load 170,9001bs (76,644kg) or 70 tons - the equivalent of ten double-decker buses.
Maintenance and spare-parts management, as well as aircrew and mainte-
nance personnel training, will be provided through foreign military sales4 (FMS) con-
tracts with the USAF. Ground crew began training at Charleston AFB last September
and aircrew started training at Altus AFB, Oklahoma, the following month. The cost
of crew training and logistic support from the USAF is in addition to the cost of leas-
ing the aircraft from Boeing. At the end of the contract with the UK, the aircraft will
be returned to Boeing.
Concept of operations
The leasing of the C-17 is central to the UK's expeditionary warfare strategy,
with the rapid deployment of air, land and sea forces to crisis zones around the
world.
Britain's JRRF can draw on elements of each of the country's three services to
spearhead5 intervention missions such as during the recent operations in Sierra Leone.

1
timescale – временной промежуток
2
turbofans – турбовентиляторный двигатель
3
pallet – платформа для перевозки и хранения грузов
4
foreign military sales – международная военная торговля
5
spearhead – возглавлять, лидер
Once lightly equipped lead elements have made an initial entry into a theatre of op-
erations, there is a requirement to move in more heavily armed troops and equip-
ment.
Brigadier Peter Wall, commander of the British Army's 16 Air Assault Brigade6,
explained the part the new transporters will play. "If we're allocated the C-17, it will
transform our ability to take heavy elements to within C-130 Hercules range of an area
of interest," he said. "The potential is to use a strategic airlifter to operate in a tacti-
cal way."
NEW TRAINERS
As a new generation of combat aircraft -the Eurofighter, Joint Strike Fighter, Rafale,
Gripen and F-22 - enter service, air forces will be looking to field training aircraft to
prepare new pilots to fly and fight in this century's warplanes.
The introduction of glass cockpits, off-bore sight air-to-air missiles1, precision
guided air-to-ground weapons and helmet-mounted sights2 will change the way pilots
will be trained and manu facturcrs are busy developing the next generation of trainers
to meet these requirements. And air forces that cannot afford top-line
fighters see the armed trainer as a method of acquiring a limited combat capability
at a price they can afford.
HAWK LIFT
A programme to upgrade the best-selling BAE Systems' Hawk, that is in use by
over a dozen air forces, under the Hawk lead-in-fighter (LIFT) programme, is under-
way. The first examples have been built for Australia where local production has
begun. South Africa has selected a version of the Hawk for its Gripen pilots and a lo-
cal production line is to be set up there too. India also is negotiating a $1 billion deal
for a production line to build Hawks. The Indian air force needs the trainers because
it recently acquired Mirage 2000 and Sukhoi Su-27/32 fighters.
BAE Systems' acquisition3 of a stake4 in South Africa's Denel means it is pos-
sible that the company will run down UK Hawk production and rely on off-shore5
facilities to meet new orders. Production of the carrier-landing version, the T-45 Gos-
hawk, for the US Navy is underway by Boeing.
AERO VODOCHODY L-159 The Czech-Boeing joint venture is in the final stages
of moving the L-159 into production. Orders from the Czech Republic's air force un-
derpin6 the programme and give Boeing a trainer product to offer alongside the Super
Hornet, F-15 Eagle and the Joint Strike Fighter. The L-159 has evolved7 from Aero
Vodochody's family of trainer aircraft. It includes a glass cockpit and western en-
gines, avionics and weapon systems.
EMBRAER
6
16 Air Assault Brigade – шестнадцатая воздушная штурмовая бригада
1
off-bore sight air-to-air missiles – самонаводящиеся (внеприцельные) ракеты воздух-воздух
2
helmet-mounted sights – встроенный в шлем прицел
3
acquisition – приобретение
4
stake – заинтересованность, инвестиции
5
off-shore – удаленный, вынесенный
6
underpin - фундамент
7
evolve - развивать
Advanced versions of the popular Tucano turboprop continue to be produced.
The EMB-314 Super Tucano has been ordered by the Brazilian air force for training
and armed surveillance roles. Original Tucanos have been license-built in the UK and
Egypt, with export prospects for the new version likely to result in 200 orders.
MiG-AT
Russia's great hope for the training market is the MiG-AT, being produced to re-
place its ageing Czech-made Aero L-39s. French industry is involved in the pro
gramme, providing engines and avionics for the fly-by-wire1 aircraft. The first proto-
type flew in 1997 and also is being offered with Russian-made engines to customers
who cannot afford versions equipped with western products.
MAKO
Germany's Daimler-Chrysler Aerospace (DASA), now the European Aeronau-
tics Defence and Space company's (EADS) military aircraft division has been devel-
oping the AT-2000 MAKO as a private venture. The MAKO is being marketed in
Spain, Greece and the middle east with the United Arab Emirates as the launch cus-
tomer.
The UAE's recent purchase of more than 100 new Mirage 2000 and F-16
Fighting Falcon combat aircraft has boosted2 the country's pilot-training require-
ments.
The MAKO's stealth characteristics and combat capability mean it is also com-
peting for orders in the light combat aircraft market.
GOLDEN EAGLE
This joint venture between South Korea and Lockheed Martin is designed to
meet requirements for fighter-pilot training aircraft. The T-50/A-50 Golden Eagle has
evolved from the US-South Korean project to co-produce F-16 fighters - almost all the
design and development work being undertaken in South Korea. A prototype will
fly next year and series production begins a year later. Economic problems in South
Ko and the rapprochement3 between the two Koreas has raised doubts about the
programme but the South Korean government remains bullish4 about its commit-
ment to the development of the aircraft. Recent interest from Indonesia has boosted
the Golden Eagle's prospects.
PILATUS
The Swiss company's PC-7 and PC-9 turbo-prop trainers have won many ex-
port orders and remain in production. New production methods have been intro-
duced and an Israeli company has offered new weapon-system upgrades.
T-6 TEXAN
Raytheon's T-6A Texan II aircraft, a development of the basic Pilatus PC-9, is
in production for the USAF and US Navy, Greece and the Canadian NATO training
programme. Some 454 and 328 are under contract to the USAF and USN respectively.
The turbo-prop aircraft won the 1995 USAF-USN joint primary aircraft training

1
fly-by-wire – система электронного дистанционного управления
2
boosted – поднимать, расширять, развивать
3
rapprochement – возобновление дружеских отношений
4
remains bullish – сохранять оптимистический настрой
system (JPATS) programme, the Pentagon believing it provides a cost-effective solu-
tion to its training needs.
AERMACCHI
Italy's Aermacchi has been co-operating with Russia's Yakolev on the AEM-
130 twin-jet engine trainer to meet Russian air force requirements for new trainers.
The AEM-130 is flying in prototype form - no production orders have been received.
It is offered with optional Russian, Slovakian and western engines and avionics. Aer-
macchi continues to market the MB339B jet trainer and is proposing a digital-cockpit1
version for the Italian air force.
SOIM
Romania's Avioane has teamed with Elbit, Israel's avionics specialists, to pro-
duce the IAR-99 SOIM or Hawk that boasts western-style avionics and weapon sys-
tems. A large part of the upgrade involves cockpit improvements, following on
from Elbit's earlier work with Romania's Aerostar on the MiG-21 Lancer upgrade.
The future
The training-aircraft market will provide much work over the next decade.
Many air forces have to replace old models and competition is likely to be fierce2
with the survival of several of the con tending companies at stake.
In Panama, Iraq, Bosnia, Kosovo, Lebanon and most recently in Gaza and the
West Bank, the Boeing AH-64 Apache attack helicopter has proved itself to be a po-
tent war machine. Early in the 1990s the US Army began a programme to modernise
the Apache to ensure its effectiveness well into this century.
Central to the plans to give the Apache sharper claws was the introduction of
the Longbow milli-metric radar that allows the helicopter to see targets at night or
in bad weather at long range, to allow missiles to be directed to their targets with
pin-point3 accuracy. Digital communications allow the data collected by the radar to
be shared with other helicopters or ground-based headquarters. There are two main
variants of the AH-64.
Apache attack helicopters: the AH-64A Apache, and the next-generation ver-
sion, the AH-64D. When equipped with millimetric radar, the aircraft is known as
the AH-64D Apache Longbow. Without radar, it is the AH-64D Apache.
AH-64D Apache Longbow
The AH-64D Apache Longbow is the newest version of the Apache and is
the only version currently in production at the Boeing company's Mesa plant in Ari-
zona.
Production of new-build helicopters is underway for the US Army, the Royal
Netherlands Air Force and the UK's Army Air Corps at a rate of six plus helicopters a
month. The Mesa facility is designed to accommodate a rate of more than 121

1
digital-cockpit – кабина пилота с цифровой электроникой
2
fierce – грубый, насильственный, страстный
3
pin-point – точное попадание
AIRBUS A300-600 WIDE-BODIED LONG RANGE AIRLINER, EUROPE

The Airbus Industries A300-600 is a large capacity, wide-bodied medium and


long range airliner. The aircraft is an advanced development of the original A300
B2/B4 series of aircraft first built in the 1970s and entered service in 1984. The cur-
rent production A300-600R entered service in 1988. 592 A300 aircraft have been or-
dered and 546 delivered. The freighter version, the A300-600F, was delivered to Fed-
eral Express, the launch customer in 1994. Federal Express has a fleet of 48 A300-
600F aircraft.
Airbus Industrie is a consortium formed by EADS and BAE Systems. EADS,
the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company, was formed by a merger1 of
Aerospatiale-Matra of France, Daimler-Chrysler Aerospace of Germany and CASA
of Spain (former members of Airbus).
A key design feature is the exceptionally wide 5.64m (222in) diameter cross-
section of the fuselage. The large cross-section gives passenger comfort and flexibil-
ity in cabin layout from six abreast to nine abreast seating. The A300-600 carries in-
dustry standard LD3 containers side by side in its holds.
The A300-600 provides reduced operating cost per seat, giving airlines a low
risk and economically efficient introduction into the widebody airliner market. The
A300-600 is also built in a freighter version and an all-passenger or all-cargo con-
vertible version. A new A300-600F General Freighter variant has a loading system
and sliding doors for handling large items of freight. The launch customer is Air
Hong Kong, with an order for eight aircraft. The first was delivered in 2004.
The flight deck and the nose of the aircraft are manufactured by EADS France
(formerly Aerospatiale Matra). EADS Germany (formerly DaimlerChrysler Aero-
space Airbus), EADS Spain (formerly CASA), BAE SYSTEMS and Fokker manu-
facture large equipped sections of the aircraft, which are transported by a Beluga air-
craft to the EADS France manufacturing facility at Toulouse for assembly. The as-
sembled aircraft are flown to Hamburg for completion of the outfitting and then re-
turned to Toulouse for final checking and for customer acceptance tests.
FLIGHT DECK
The flight deck accommodates a crew of two and there are also two observers'
seats. The cockpit is fitted with liquid crystal displays and six cathode ray tube dis-
plays. The pilots' communications systems include HF and VHF communications, a
selective calling system for use in a densely saturated communications environment,
an interphone and passenger address system, a ground crew calling system and a
cockpit voice recorder.
The front deck windscreens are fitted with an electrical heating anti-ice system
and the deck side windows have an electrical demisting system.
AVIONICS AND FLIGHT SYSTEMS
The aircraft's radio navigation suite includes an automatic direction finder, two
VHF omnidirectional 2radio rangers, two instrument landing systems, two distance
1
merger - слияние , соединение
2
omnidirectional - всенаправленный
measuring equipment, marker beacon receivers and two radio altimeters. The aircraft
is also equipped with a traffic alert and collision avoidance system and a ground
proximity warning system.
The avionics suite includes two digital air data computers supplied by Honey-
well, a digital automatic flight control system with dedicated dual flight control com-
puters for the flight director and autopilot. An ARINC 717 data recorder is fitted with
a digital flight data acquisition and recorder.
ENGINES
The aircraft has two turbofan engines mounted in underwing pods. The A300-
600 engines are the Pratt & Whitney PW 4000, or the General Electric GE CF6-
80C2A1 rated at 56,000 to 61,500lb slst.
The integrated wing tanks have a capacity of 62,000l of fuel. An additional fuel
tank in the tail plane brings the total fuel capacity to 68,150l, and optional fuel cells
in the cargo area can maximise the total fuel to 73,000l.
LANDING GEAR
The A300-600 has hydraulically controlled retractable tricycle type landing
gear designed by Messier-Bugatti. The main landing gear units retract inward into the
fuselage and the nose unit retracts forward. The mainwheels are fitted with skid pro-
tected hydraulic disc brakes. A standby braking system is powered by a separate set
of hydraulics.
FUSELAGE
The main cabin is configured in a twin-aisle layout with 6,7,8 or 9 abreast1
seating arrangements. There are six main cabin passenger doors, with two outward
parallel opening, plug type passenger doors on each side of the aircraft forward of the
wing and one on each side at the rear of the fuselage.
A Honeywell auxiliary power unit, type 331-250F is installed in the tailcone
with an integrated fire protection system. The APU provides bleed air to the pneu-
matic system, for the main engine start and for the aircraft's air conditioning system.
The APU also drives an auxiliary generator for ground operations and in flight
power.
A300-600 FREIGHTER
The freighter version, the A300-600F has a reinforced cabin floor and the air-
craft can carry a maximum payload of 54,750kg and the range with the maximum
payload is 4,850km. A large cargo door has been installed on the main cabin port
side. Federal Express and CityBird of Belgium were the first two customers for the
A300-600 Freighter aircraft
AIRBUS A310 TWIN ENGINE WIDE-BODIED AIRLINER, EUROPE
More than 250 Airbus A310-300 twin engine wide-bodied airliners have been
built since 1983. The A310 is in service worldwide with airlines including Air India,
Aeroflot, Air Calin, Cyprus Airways. Czech Airlines, Kuwait Airways, Air Afrique,
Pakistan International Airlines and SATA. The aircraft is also in service with the Air
Forces of Belgium, Germany and France and with the Defence Force of Canada.
1
abreast - в ряд , на одной линии
Versions include the basic A310-200, the longer range A310-300 (introduced
in 1985), a cargo version (over 100 have been converted) and the MRTT multi-role
tanker transport, a military tanker version which has been ordered by the German Air
Force (first delivery was in December 2003). The Canadian Air Force is to modify
two of its five A310’s to the MRTT configuration.
Airbus Industrie is a consortium formed by EADS and BAE Systems. EADS,
the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company, was formed by a merger of
Aerospatiale-Matra of France, Daimler-Chrysler Aerospace of Germany and CASA
of Spain (former members of Airbus).
The aircraft has a shorter fuselage than the A300 aircraft but the same 5.64m
fuselage diameter. The A310 is a 200 seater aircraft with low operating costs. The
large fuselage diameter allows the aircraft to carry industry standard LD3 cargo con-
tainers side by side underfloor.
FLIGHT DECK
The aircraft has an advanced digital flight deck built by EADS France (for-
merly Aerospatiale Matra) and accommodating the pilot and co-pilot. The flight deck
displays include an aircraft monitoring system, flight guidance, navigation and en-
gine, management and monitoring. The flight deck also houses the electronic flight
instrument system (EFIS) and a flight data recorder. The aircraft's digital automatic
flight control system contains a flight control computer, a thrust control computer and
a duplicated augmentation1 computer. The flight control computer provides autopilot,
flight director and speed reference functions.
FUSELAGE
The aircraft is of mainly high strength aluminium alloy construction with some
sections of carbon fibre or glass fibre re-inforced plastic composites. The wide-
bodied cabin is very quiet and can accommodate 6,7,8 or 9 abreast seating in a double
aisle layout. There are four passenger doors at the port and starboard side to the front
and rear of the cabin. A typical 2 class seating arrangement accommodates 220 pas-
sengers.
The cabin and flight deck are air-conditioned using power from a ground unit,
from engine compressed air or from the aircraft's auxiliary power unit.
SAFETY
The aircraft's safety features include system redundancy. The aircraft operates
three fully independent hydraulic systems operating simultaneously with fully inde-
pendent circuits and with fire-resistant hydraulic fluid. If any circuit were to fail then
full flight control of the aircraft is retained.
The Honeywell 331-250 auxiliary power unit can be started and operated
throughout the flight of the aircraft. Two electrical generators are engine driven and a
third generator is driven by the auxiliary power unit. Each of the three generators has
sufficient power capacity to operate all the aircraft's systems and equipment for sus-
tained safe flight.
ENGINES

1
augmentation – пополнение , интенсификация
The aircraft is fitted with two Pratt & Whitney PW4152 or General Electric
CF6 -80C2A2 engines. The engine pylons built by EADS France are compatible with
all the engine options offered.
The A310-300 is the extended range version of the A310 aircraft and has extra
fuel capacity in the tailplane trim 1tank. The total fuel capacity is 61,070l. There are
two refueling2 points, one on the outer section undersurface of each wing.
The typical long range cruise speed is 0.80 Mach and the range with the maxi-
mum number of passengers is 8,050km. New advanced technology wings with re-
duced span and area were developed for the A310 and the delta shaped vertical wing-
tip fences reduce aerodynamic drag and increase the aircraft's fuel efficiency.
LANDING GEAR
The aircraft is fitted with hydraulically operated tricycle type landing gear.
With double wheels and Messier Bugatti anti-skid carbon brakes
AIRBUS ACJ CORPORATE JETLINER, EUROPE

Airbus has developed the ACJ business jet that can easily be converted to
commercial passenger service. The Airbus Corporate Jetliner is based on the airframe
of the A319, a twin engine, single aisle, medium range airliner. Airbus Industrie,
headquartered in Toulouse, is owned jointly by EADS and BAE Systems.
The A319 airframe is a short-bodied version of the successful Airbus A320
family of aircraft. The main differences between the ACJ and the A320 are the length
of usable cabin, two less fuselage plugs shortening the length by nearly 4m or 12ft, a
modified rear cargo door and the deletion of a bulk hold door and forward overwing
emergency exit.
In June 2003, Airbus increased the baggage capacity on new ACJ models from
3m³ to 10m³ by modifications to the auxiliary fuel tanks arrangement.
40 ACJ have been ordered and over 30 delivered. It is operational with: launch
customer Qatar Airways, based at Doha; EADS Deutschland GmbH in Stuttgart;
Twinjet Aircraft with headquarters in Bedfordshire, UK; Aero Services in France; Al
Kharafi group of Kuwait; DaimlerChrysler of Germany; Blue Moon in the USA; Pri-
vatAir of Switzerland; Air Luxor (Masterjet) of Portugal; Alpha Tours of Dubai; and
with a number of other governments and private customers. Two aircraft are in ser-
vice with the government of Italy, one with the Venezuelan Air Force, two with the
French Air Force, one with the government of the United Arab Emirates and one with
the Royal Thai Air Force (delivered in July 2004). One ACJ was ordered in Septem-
ber 2004 by AZAL of Azerbaijan and an additional aircraft was ordered in May 2005
by the Kharafi Group. In May 2004, National Air Services (NAS) of Saudi Arabia
ordered two A319 Executive (an ACJ variant).
In October 2002, the ACJ received Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) ap-
proval for scheduled and private operation in the USA.
FUSELAGE

1
trim – балансировка , триммирование
2
refueling - заправка
The primary structures of the Corporate Jetliner are of composite construction
with aramid fibre (AFRP), glass fibre (GFRP) and carbon fibre (CFRP) reinforced
plastics.
CABIN
The spacious 24m long cabin has a floor area of nearly 80m². The cabin layout
can include executive suites, equipped offices and meeting rooms, a bedroom, a fam-
ily living room or sitting room area and bath or shower room according to the needs
of the individual client or corporate customer.
The cabin can also be designed to allow public transport flights, so that the air-
craft can be operated to allow private or commercial flights. In other words, the inte-
rior can be easily converted to provide seamless commercial passenger service.
The cabin environment gives an exceptionally quiet and comfortable flight.
The air conditioning system provides a constant fresh air flow at low velocity as the
air conditioning manifold is situated in the fuselage recess and maintains the cabin
pressure at 8.33lb/in².
The ACJ is fitted with airstairs to allow self sufficiency at airfields with limited
airport facilities.
FLIGHT DECK
The ACJ 17 hour flight deck has twice the volume of typical business jets and
easily accommodates the pilot and copilot. The aircraft is fitted with Thales/SFENA
fly-by-wire controls. The fly-by-wire system incorporates flight envelope protection,
reduces costs and pilot workload as well as improving the aircraft's performance. The
aircraft has CAT IIIB automatic landing capability.
Each pilot has a side-stick controller allowing single hand control. The fly-by-
wire system incorporates many safety features including a high level of redundancy,
use of dissimilar redundancy with different computers, different microprocessors, dif-
ferent vendors, division and separation of each computer, the segregation of power
supplies and the maximum segregation in signalling lines.
The Thales/VDO electronic flight and information system (EFIS) includes a set
of primary flight and navigation displays for each pilot. The primary flight display
provides speed, altitude and heading data. Two Thales/VDO electronic central air-
craft monitoring (ECAM) displays are mounted in the centre section between the pi-
lot's and co-pilot's instrument panels.
Rockwell Collins supplies the communications and navigations suite including:
ACARS (aircraft communications addressing and reporting system), ADF (automatic
direction finding), VHF omni-directional radio range navigation aid with data from
the distance measuring equipment (VOR/DME), multi-mode receivers (MMRs),
TCAS ll collision avoidance system and weather radar, as well as optional items such
as satellite communications and data-links.
The aircraft is offered with two IAE V2527M-A5 engines or two CFM Interna-
tional CFM 56-5B7 developing 111.9kN. The fuel tanks have a capacity of 6,260 US
gallons (23,860l) giving the aircraft a range of over 6,500km with eight passengers.
The aircraft is approved for 180 minutes ETOPS operations (extended range twin en-
gine operations).
The total usable fuel capacity can be increased to 10,640 US gallons by install-
ing up to six auxiliary fuel tanks.
The aircraft is fitted with full authority digital engine control (FADEC).
FADEC increases engine life and lowers costs through providing fuel control thrust
setting computation, engine limit protection, automatic start sequencing and monitor-
ing, thrust reverse control and feedback, flight deck indications and engine health
monitoring.
SAFETY STANDARDS
The Airbus Corporate Jetliner meets the FAR Amendment 56 standards for
protection against sudden decompression, damage tolerant and fail safe structure,
structural fatigue evaluation, bird strike damage protection, emergency exits and ac-
cess doors and ice protection.

ANTONOV AN-124-100 LONG-RANGE HEAVY TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT,


RUSSIA

The An-124 Ruslan, designed by the Antonov ASTC in Kiev, Ukraine, is a


very large cargo aircraft with a payload capacity of up to 150t. It is manufactured by
Aviant State Aviation Plant, Kiev, and Aviastar, Ulyanovsk, Russia. The aircraft is
designed for long-range delivery and air dropping of heavy and large size cargo, in-
cluding machines, equipment and troops. The aircraft is based on the An-124 Ruslan
military transport in service in the Russian Army, which has the NATO reporting
name Condor.
The An-124 entered service in 1986 and over 55 aircraft have been built. The
An-124-100 received Type Certification in 1992. Volga-Dnepr Airlines of Russia has
nine An-124 aircraft and one on order from Aviastar, which is scheduled to be deliv-
ered in by the end of 2004. This and another aircraft for Polet are being assembled
from parts in stock. Aviant State Aviation Plant in Kiev has completed an An-124-
100 which is being sold to the United Arab Emirates. This is also from parts in stock.
Eight An-124-100 aircraft are operated by Antonov Airlines, based at London Stan-
sted Airport, in partnership with Air Foyle HeavyLift.
A new version, the An-124-100M, has been developed by Aviastar. The air-
craft payload has been increased from 120t to 150t, the take-off weight increased
from 392t to 420t and the flight range with 120t cargo increased from 4,750km to
6,500km. The crew has been reduced to four. A digital antiskid1 braking system has
been fitted with monographite wheel brake disks. The aircraft will have a new avion-
ics suite supplied by Honeywell of the USA and Aviapribor and Leninets of Russia.
In September 2004, the governments of Russia and the Ukraine announced that
series production of the An-124 would be restarted. Up to 80 An-124-100M upgraded
aircraft are to be jointly manufactured by Aviastar and Aviant between 2006 and
2020.

1
antiskid - противоюзовый
The unique transport capabilities and the high performance of the aircraft have
been proven in operation. The An-124 has served several nations in the transportation
of economically important cargoes, for example: 90t hydraulic turbines, large size
Liebherr autocranes, American Euclid dump trucks, the fuselage of Tu-204 passenger
transporter, a 109t railway locomotive, and a sea yacht more than 25m long.
One An-124-100 is being converted for use as the first stage in a launch system
for putting satellites into low Earth orbit. The An-124-100 will be used as an airborne
launch platform for the Polyot two-stage launch vehicle. A Russian / Ukranian joint
venture company, Air Launch, is behind the project. Launches are planned to begin in
2005.
STRUCTURE
The aircraft fuselage has a double-deck layout. The cockpit, the relief crew
compartment and the passenger cabin for 88 seats are on the upper deck. The lower
deck is the cargo hold. The flight deck has crew stations arranged in pairs for six
crew, the pilot and co-pilot, two flight engineers, the navigator and communications
officer. The loadmaster's station is located in the lobby deck.
The An-124 aircraft is fitted with a relatively thick (12%) swept back super-
critical wing to give high aerodynamic efficiency and consequently a long flight
range. To decrease the trim drag, the aircraft was designed with a low margin of static
stability.
The construction includes extruded skin panels on the wing, extruded plates for
the centre-section wing panels and monolithic wafer plates for the fuselage panels.
The aircraft structural members are made of composites that make up 1,500m² of the
surface area, giving weight saving of 2,000kg.
High rough-field capacity multi-leg landing gear and the loading equipment
ensure self-sufficient operation of the aircraft on prepared concrete runways and on
poorly equipped unpaved strips at forward airbases close to the areas of operations
where the cargo is needed. The landing gear is self-orienting and incorporates a
kneeling mechanism which allows an adjustable fuselage clearance to assist the load-
ing and unloading of self-propelled equipment. The aircraft has paradropping and
cargo-handling equipment and a 1,000-test point on-board automatic test system as
well as two auxiliary power units equipped with electric generators and turbopumps
for independent operation of the aircraft.
AVIONICS
All systems are quadruple1 redundant. 2The on-board equipment provides the
capability to execute airlift and paradrop missions by day and at night, in visual flight
rules and instrument flight rules (VFR and IFR) weather conditions and in prolonged
operation beyond the main basing airfield. The systems include an integrated flight
control and navigation system, communications facilities and paradropping and car-
gohandling equipment. There are 34 computers functioning aboard the aircraft, com-
bined into four main systems: navigation, automatic piloting, remote control and
monitoring.
1
quadruple - учетверенный
2
redundant – избыточный , резервный
The integrated flight control and navigation system comprises an autonomous
navigation system, altitude and airspeed indicating system, short-range radio naviga-
tion and landing system, global positioning system, automatic radio compass, inte-
grated flight control system, ground surveillance radar, forward-looking weather ra-
dar, optical and TV sight and IFF equipment.
Standard communications facilities include an aeronautical-space communica-
tions radio station, HF radio set, VHF/UHF radio set, intercom, voice warning and
documentation system.
CARGO
The two cargo hatches are a distinctive structural feature. The fuselage nose
can be hinged upward to open the front cargo hatch and there is a rear cargo hatch in
the rear fuselage to speed up the cargo loading and unloading operation.
The on-board system of cargo handling equipment makes it possible to load
and unload the aircraft without the help of ground facilities. The paradropping and
cargo-handling equipment comprise two travelling cranes, two winches, rollgang and
tiedown equipment. The aircraft is often compared to the US Lockheed Martin C-5
Galaxy. The An-124 has a transportation capability 25% higher than that of the C-5A
and 10% higher than the C-5B.
WORLD RECORDS
Since 1989, An-124 airplanes have been making charter freight flights on the
international airlines and the aircraft has set 30 world records, the most significant of
which are: 171,219kg cargo was lifted to 10,750m altitude in 1985; a 20,161km
closed route was flown in 25.5hrs in 1987; and an average speed of 689.1km/hr was
achieved in a round-the-world flight over the South and North Poles in 1990.

BOEING 747-400F FOUR-JET INTERCONTINENTAL FREIGHTER, USA

The Boeing 747-400F Freighter is the all-cargo transport variant of the Boeing
747-400 family of aircraft. Boeing has stated that there are about 260 747 freighters
in operational service, carrying about half of the world's freighter air cargo. The 747
family of freighters make up two thirds of the world's wide-body freighter fleet.
Boeing was received the first order for the 747-400 Freighter in 1989, from
Cargolux Airlines International, based in Luxembourg. In April 2004, Cargolux
placed an order for its 14th 747-400 freighter. Cargolux has reported that the freight-
ers are operated on average over 16 block-hours per day.
Over 100 747-400F have been ordered and more than 60 are currently in ser-
vice with air cargo companies worldwide. Orders include: Asiana Airlines (six), Atlas
Air (16), Cargolux Airlines (14), Cathay Pacific (six), China Airlines (21), China
Cargo Airlines (two), China Southern (two), EVA Air (three), GE Capital (five),
Guggenheim Aviation (six), ILFC (four), Japan Airlines (two), KLM (three), Korean
Air (17), Nippon Cargo Aircraft (eight), Singapore Airlines (17) and UPS (eight).
EXTENDED RANGE FREIGHTER
The longer range 747-400ER (Extended Range) Freighter was launched in
April 2001. The 747-400ER Freighter has a maximum take-off weight of 412,770kg.
To support the additional take-off weight, the 747-400ER Freighter is built with a
strengthened fuselage, strengthened landing gear with larger tyres and also some sec-
tions of the wings have been additionally strengthened. The increased take-off
weight, compared to the existing 747-400 freighter, allows the 747-400ER to fly an
additional 972km or to carry an additional 9,980kg payload on a long range flight at
maximum take-off weight.
In June 2004, Korean Air ordered two 747-400ER to add to its fleet of five, for
delivery in 2005.
BOEING 747-400 COMBI

The 747–400 Combat provides airlines with long-range passenger and cargo
capability. Boeing delivered 61 747-400 Combi aircraft to 13 customers between
1989 and 2002. The Combi has a large side-cargo door behind the left wing and
equipment that removes passenger seats and installs cargo tracks, allowing the option
of carrying cargo in containers on the main deck behind passengers.
BOEING 747 LARGE CARGO FREIGHTER
Boeing is developing the 747 Large Cargo Freighter for transportation of the
large composite structures of the Boeing 787 Dreamliner for final assembly. Ever-
green Aviation Technologies Corp (EGAT) is converting three 747-400 passenger
jets to Large Cargo Freighters at its facility in Taipei, Taiwan. The entire aft fuselage
of the plane will be modified to swing open for loading and the upper fuselage will be
enlarged to provide a volume of 65,000ft³ (1,845m³), three times the capacity of the
747-400 freighter. The aircraft are planned to begin transportation of Dreamliner
parts in 2007.
FLIGHT DECK
The cockpit accommodates two pilots and has additional two seats for observ-
ers or for crew under training.
The automatic flight control system, with three triple independent flight control
computers and dual digital air data computers, includes autopilot, flight director and
automatic tailplane trim functions. The flight control system automatically manages
all phases of the flight except take-off. The crew can pre-select the flight plan using
standard air traffic control language on the Flight Management Control System. The
database on the Flight Management Control System includes data on waypoints, air-
ports and relevant geographical areas.
The flight deck is fitted with large size cathode ray tube displays showing pri-
mary flight data and navigation data, three multifunction control and display panels
and two engine indication and crew alert display screens.
The communications system includes dual VHF and HF transmitter/receivers
with selective calling. A color weather radar operates at I-band and G-band.
The navigation suite includes a dual VHF omnidirectional radio ranger, a triple
instrument landing system with a marker beacon receiver, dual automatic direction
finders, dual distance measuring equipment, triple ring laser gyro inertial reference
systems, ground proximity warning system and a traffic alert and collision avoidance
system (TCAS).
CARGO
The fuselage cross-section of the 747-400 freighter is optimized to carry the
maximum cargo with a minimum total container weight. The freighter is fitted with
large cargo door and a nose cargo door which allow efficient use of the aircraft's large
internal volume and a shortened loading and unloading time. The aircraft carries up
to 30 pallets on the main deck and 32 standard LD-1 containers and additional bulk
cargo in the lower cargo hold.
The 747-400F has the same upper deck as the 747-200F and includes a revised
upper deck floor for two additional 3.1m-high pallets on the main cargo deck.
The upper deck access ladder was relocated, and the guide rails and the tie
down systems revised to accommodate the additional pallet position in the nose of the
747-400F. The changes result in an additional 21.9m³ of cargo deck space on the
main deck compared to the 747-200F.
An additional 19.8m³ of container cargo volume is available in the lower hold:
two additional standard LD-1 or LD-3 containers can be positioned in the aft lower
hold and two additional containers can be fitted in the forward lower hold.
The holds are equipped with an improved powered cargo handling system.
747-400 SPECIAL FREIGHTER
In January 2004, Boeing launched the Special Freighter Conversion Program.
33 firm orders and 29 options have been received for the freighter. Cathay Pacific is
the launch customer for the 747-400 Special Freighter with an initial agreement to
convert six, with options on a further six, 747-400 passenger airplanes into freighters.
Deliveries are planned to begin in December 2005. In May 2004, it was confirmed
that Nippon Cargo Airlines would be the second customer with an order for four Spe-
cial Freighters. In June 2004, Korean Air ordered up to 20 conversion kits. Except for
the first aircraft, the conversions will be carried out by Korean Air's Aerospace divi-
sion. In May 2005, Air France ordered the conversion of three of its Combi aircraft to
the Special Freighter configuration. Other customers include three aircraft for Japan
Airlines (JAL) and four for Guggenheim Aviation Partners.
To convert the 747-400 passenger jet to a freighter configuration, a side cargo
door, supplied by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI), is fitted. The layout is identical
to the production freighter. The main deck has capacity for 30 pallets and the upper
deck can seat up to 19 people. The main deck floor is specially strengthened and
lined. There is a new cargo handling system and revised avionics.
The Special Freighter will have an estimated capacity of 113,490kg
(250,200lb) and a range of 7,600km (4,100nm).
ENGINES
The aircraft is of wide fuselage, low wing design with four podded underwing
turbofan engines. Optional engine fits include Pratt & Whitney PW4062, General
Electric CF6-80C2B5F and Rolls-Royce RB211-524H2-T turbo-fan engines, devel-
oping between 252kN and 276kN. There are four main fuel tanks in the wings, a cen-
ter wing tank, a tailplane tank and reserve fuel tanks in the outer wing sections. The
maximum fuel capacity is 216,846 liters. The auxiliary power unit is installed in the
tail section.
BOEING 767-300F WIDE-BODIED FREIGHTER, USA

The 767-300F freighter is a derivative of the successful 767-300ER extended


range passenger twinjet airliner. Boeing launched the 767 freighter in January 1993.
The aircraft was rolled out in May 1995 and the first 767 freighter entered service
with Atlanta based United Parcel Service in October 1995.
42 aircraft have been ordered and the freighter is in service with all All Nippon
Airways (ANA), Asiana Airlines, GECAS, LAN Chile and United Parcels Service
(UPS).
The 767 freighter cost is minimised through the use of a two-person flight deck
and two fuel efficient high-by-pass ratio engines, a configuration which contrasts
with older cargo aircraft with three person flight crews and four engines.
The aircraft shares common pilot type ratings with Boeing 767 and Boeing 757
aircraft allowing a pilot trained on one model to qualify for flight on another model
with minimal additional instruction.
DESIGN
The airliner is of wide-bodied, low swept back wing design with twin podd1ed
underwing turbofan engines and is constructed of aluminium alloys and composite
materials. The freighter aircraft is equipped with a reinforced version of the tricycle
type hydraulically retractable landing gear fitted on the 767-300 airliner. The
freighter has a similar external appearance to the 767 passenger airliners except that it
has no passenger windows and doors.
Canadair manufactures the rear fuselage. Fuji is responsible for the construc-
tion of the wing and body fairings and the main landing gear doors. Kawasaki manu-
factures the forward and central sections of the fuselage, the exit hatches and wing
ribs. Mitsubishi is subcontracted to manufacture the rear section body panels and the
rear doors. Northrop Grumman manufactures the wing centre sections, the lower cen-
tre fuselage and the fuselage bulkheads. Vought Aircraft is responsible for the manu-
facture of the horizontal tail section. The large manufactured sections of aircraft are
transported to the Boeing production facilities at Everett in Washington for final as-
sembly and systems integration.
A smooth fiberglass 2lining has been fitted on the interior of the main deck fu-
selage. A fixed rigid barrier is installed at the front of the main deck, serving as a re-
straint wall between the cargo area and the flight deck. A door in the barrier wall pro-
vides in-flight access from the flight deck to the cargo area.
FLIGHT DECK
The all-digital flight deck accommodates the pilot and co-pilot and is also fitted
with one, or optionally two, observer seats.

1
Pod - подвеска
2
Fiberglass - стекловолокно
The avionics suite includes a Honeywell RDR-4A colour weather radar, an
FCS-700 flight control system and a Honeywell EFIS-700 electronic flight informa-
tion system. The navigation system includes a Honeywell VHF omnidirectional
ranger, an instrument landing system, marker beacon transponders, an automatic di-
rection finder, distance measuring equipment, a radio magnetic inductor type RMI-
743, radar altimeter, a Honeywell inertial reference system, flight management con-
trol system and a digital air data computer.
CARGO SYSTEMS
The 39.8m-long main deck with 336.5m³ container capacity accommodates 24
contoured pallets, size 235.5cm x 317.5cm. The lower deck hold with 117.5m³ capac-
ity accommodates 30 standard LD-2 containers or 15 LD-1 containers plus bulk
cargo.
The main deck and the lower holds are equipped with automated and powered
cargo handling equipment. The cargo operators control the loading and unloading
procedures using interior and exterior, master and local, control panels with joystick
controls.
The power drive units of the automated cargo are distributed throughout the
cargo areas and move the cargo containers into and out of the aircraft. The power
drive units are fitted with cargo sensors. The system's microprocessor based control
system uses the sensor data to move only the power drive units necessary to load each
cargo container. The automated control prevents unnecessary use of the power drive
units and the power drive units weigh less than those installed on previous aircraft.
The cargo handling system is equipped with built in test equipment.
The main deck cargo system allows virtually all types of pallets and containers
to be carried. The freighter has a large cargo door on the main deck of the forward
fuselage. The configuration is suited to easy transfer of pallets and containers com-
monly used in widebody and single aisle freighters allowing the airline operator to
interline freight from one aircraft to another.
The cargo compartments are environmentally controlled with pressurised
heated or cooled fresh air, so the aircraft is suitable for transporting livestock and per-
ishable goods. The aircraft is fitted with a Honeywell dual air cycle air conditioning
system.
ENGINES
The aircraft is fitted with twin high by-pass ratio turbofan engines, either Gen-
eral Electric CF6-800C2B7F, Pratt & Whitney PW4062 or Rolls-Royce RB211-
524H. The two podded engines are mounted underwing and each providing a maxi-
mum thrust between 264.7kN and 281.6kN
BOEING 767 WIDEBODY JET AIRLINER, USA

The Boeing 767 is a family of wide-bodied twin aisle, twin engine airliners.
The aircraft is the most widely used aircraft on cross Atlantic routes. The 767 first en-
tered service in 1982 with United Air Lines. Boeing has delivered more than 900
767s that are flown by more than 80 operators around the world. The 767 has accu-
mulated more than nine million flights.
The 767 and Boeing 757 have a common type rating and common crew quali-
fication. More than 26 airlines operate both 757 and 767 aircraft allowing the airlines
flexibility in flight crew assignment and in reduced operating logistics requirements
such as reduced spares inventories. The aircraft have the same flight crew operating
instructions, similar maintenance schedules, manuals and inspection routines.
The Boeing 767 is used as the platform for the 767 AWACS Airborne Warning
and Control System, in service with the Japanese Defense Agency, and for the mili-
tary tanker transport aircraft that has been ordered by the Italian Air Force and the
Japanese Air Self Defence Force.
VARIANTS
Four models of the 767 are available:
The 767-200ER is an extended range version announced in 1983 seating 181 to
224 passengers. The range is up to 12,325km. The aircraft first flew in 1984 with first
delivery in 1984 to El Al airlines.
The Boeing 767-300ER, around 6.43m (21ft) longer than the 200ER, provides
seating for 218 to 269 passengers and has a range up to 11,389km. First flight was in
1986 with first delivery in 1988 to American Airlines.
The 767-300 Freighter, launched in 1993 and first flight in 1994, has a freight
volume capacity of 16,034m³ and a range of 5,560km. First delivery was in 1995 to
United Parcel Service.
The 767-400ER, around 6.43m (21ft) longer than the 300ER, is the latest
member of the 767 family and the first flight took place in October 1999. The
stretched aircraft provides seating for 304 passengers in two-class cabin layout and
245 seats for passengers in a three-class layout. The 767-400ER entered service with
Continental Airlines (total order 16) in September 2000 and with Delta Airlines (total
order 21) in October 2000. The 767-400ER features aerodynamic improvements, in-
cluding new raked wing tips, increased takeoff weight capability, a new main landing
gear, and a new upgraded flight deck. The new, highly backswept (raked) wing-tip
extensions increase the 767's 156ft wingspan to 170ft 4in (52m). The 7ft 8in (2.4m)
wing extensions are designed to increase the aerodynamic efficiency of the wing and
thus improve the range.
FLIGHT DECK
The flight deck, which accommodates the pilot and co-pilot is similar to that of
the 757. The aircraft's flight instrument system is the Honeywell EFIS-700.The navi-
gation suite includes Honeywell VHF omnidirectional radio, an integrated instrument
landing system, and a marker beacon receiver, an automatic direction finder, distance
measuring system and a radio magnetic indicator RMI-743. There are dual digital
flight management systems and triple redundant flight control computers. The aircraft
carries CAT IIIb landing certification.
Rockwell Collins has developed a Large Format Display System, which has
been fitted in the 767-400ER. The system incorporates six 203mm x 203 mm (8in x
8in) liquid crystal displays.
The 767 aircraft in service with All Nippon Airways, Britannia Airways and
Transbrasil are fitted with the Honeywell RDR-4A colour weather radar.
ENGINES
The aircraft has two turbofan podded engines mounted below the leading edges
of the wings. The available engines are General Electric CF6-80 engines rated at
225kN to 276kN, Pratt and Whitney PW 4052, 4056, 4060 and 4062 rated at 233 to
282kN and the Rolls Royce RB211 rated at 251kN and 265kN.
The auxiliary power unit is installed in the tailbone.1
LANDING GEAR
The aircraft is equipped with hydraulically operated, retractable tricycle type
landing gear. The forward retracting nose unit supplied by Menasco has twin wheels.
The inward retracting main landing gear supplied by Cleveland Pneumatic is fitted
with two four wheeled bogies. The wheels are supplied by Honeywell. The main
landing gear has steel disc brakes and a hydraulically actuated tail skid.
BOEING 777 TWIN-AISLE TWINJET AIRLINER, USA

The Boeing Commercial Airplanes Group introduced the Boeing 777 family of
aircraft in 1989. The aircraft fills the size gap between the Boeing 767 and Boeing
747. Over 665 of the Boeing 777 family have been ordered (by more than 37 custom-
ers) and over 500 delivered since the aircraft entered service in May 1995. The air-
craft is built at the Boeing plant in Everett, Washington.
VARIANTS
The 777-200 was the first of the family of aircraft in production and entered
service in May 1995. It has a range of up to 10,900km and seats a maximum of 440
passengers or between 305 and 328 in a typical three-class configuration.
The 777-200ER (Extended Range) flies the same number of passengers as the
777-200 but to a range of 14,260km. The aircraft has a higher fuel capacity and
strengthened wing, fuselage, engine pylons, landing gear and empennage (tail unit).
The aircraft first flew in October 1996 and first entered service in February 1997 with
British Airways. Recent orders include ten 777-200ER for KLM, the first of which
was delivered in October 2003 and nine 777-200ER for Korean Airlines ordered in
December 2003.
The Boeing 777-300 is a stretched version of the 777, seating 328 to 394 pas-
sengers in a typical three class seating arrangement or 550 passengers in a single
economy class arrangement. The 777-300 is the latest derivative of the 777 family
and the first aircraft was delivered to Cathay Pacific in May 1998.
The 777-300ER (Extended Range) was launched in February 2000 and first
flight took place in February 2003. The 300ER set a maximum take-off weight
(MTOW) record for a twin-engine aircraft in May 2003. The aircraft received US and
European certification in March 2004 and was delivered in May 2004 to launch cus-
tomer, Air France. The higher fuel capacity, compared to the 777-300, provides a

1
tailbone – задняя часть
range of 13,335km with 359 passengers. The aircraft is powered by a new, more
powerful GE90-115B engine rated at 511kN (115,000lb). New highly tapered raked
wingtip extensions have been fitted to reduce take-off field length, climb perform-
ance and fuel efficiency. Boeing has received firm orders for over 107 aircraft from
ten customers including four (plus nine options) from Emirates in July 2004 and 18
(plus 13 options) from Singapore Airlines in August 2004.
In July 2004, Boeing announced that an enhanced 777-300ER with even longer
range will be available from the end of 2005, following improvements to engine effi-
ciency and design changes to reduce drag and weight. The new version will have a
maximum range of 14,594km (7,880nm).
The 777-200LR (Long Range) Worldliner is an ultra long-range version and is
designed to be the longest range aircraft in the world. The aircraft program was origi-
nally known as the 777-200X and was launched in February 2000. Work on the air-
craft was halted in October 2001 but restarted in March 2003. First flight took place
in March 2005. The range is 17,446km carrying 301 passengers. The aircraft is pow-
ered by two 489kN engines, type General Electric GE90-110B. An additional fuel
tank installed in the rear cargo bay brings the fuel capacity to 195,280L. The aircraft
will also be fitted with new raked wingtip extensions. Launch customer will be Paki-
stan International Airlines (PIA), which will receive the first 777-200LR Worldliner
in January 2006. Orders have also been received from EVA Airways (three), Air
Canada (up to 18), Air India (eight), Qatar Airways and ILFC (two).
In May 2005, Boeing launched the 777F freighter with an order for five aircraft
plus three options from Air France. The freighter will be able to carry a revenue pay-
load of 103t (229,000lb) up to 9,195km (4,965nm) and is due to enter service by the
end of 2008.
FLIGHT DECK
The two-pilot flight deck is fitted with a five-screen electronic flight informa-
tion system with five, 8in (203mm) colour liquid crystal displays, including two pri-
mary flight displays, two navigation displays and an engine indication and crew alert-
ing system (EICAS) display. The central control panel between the two pilots holds
three multipurpose control and display units for the aircraft information management
system, systems information, flight management functions, thrust control and com-
munications.
A two-bunk flight crew rest area is installed on the port side of the flight deck.
An optional installation is a crew rest module in the underfloor section. The crew rest
module houses six bunks and occupies the same floor area as a standard 96in cargo
pallet.
The aircraft has Boeing's fly-by-wire controls with flight envelope protection
and automatic pilot and stabilisation functions. The fly-by-wire system sends back-
driven signals to the pilots' rudder pedals and control columns to provide the pilot
with sensory awareness of the activities of the automated systems.
The aircraft has a triple redundant digital autopilot and flight director designed
by Rockwell Collins. The BAE Systems (formerly Marconi Avionics) triple digital
primary flight computers provide the control limits and flight envelope protection
commands. Each of the three primary flight computers contains three different and
separately programmed 32 bit microprocessors, a Motorola, Intel and AMD, to man-
age the fly-by-wire functions.
The Boeing 777 was the first aircraft with an ARINC 629 digital data bus
linked to the main and standby navigation systems. The navigation system includes a
Honeywell ADIRS air data and inertial reference system with a six-ring laser gyro-
scope, a Honeywell terrain collision avoidance system (TCAS) and a Honeywell and
BAE Systems twelve-channel global positioning system. The aircraft is equipped
with a Honeywell all colour weather radar.
The aircraft can be fitted with a Honeywell and Racal satellite communications
system.
CONSTRUCTION
Boeing manufactures the flight deck and forward section of the cabin, the
wing, tail and the engine nacelles. Boeing subcontracts the manufacture of compo-
nents and systems, which are transported to Boeing for final assembly and tests. Sub-
contractors include Alenia in Italy, ASTA in Australia, BAE Systems in UK, Bom-
bardier Shorts in UK, Embraer in Brazil, Japanese aerospace companies, Kaman in
USA, Korean Air, Northrop Grumman in USA and Singapore Aerospace.
ENGINES
The aircraft has two pod-mounted turbofan engines below the leading edges of
the wings. The General Electric, Pratt & Whitney and Rolls Royce Trent engines are
rated at 327 to 436kN thrust.
The main fuel tanks are installed in the wing torsion box with the reserve and
surge tanks on the inboard side of the wing. The fuel capacity of the 777-200 is
117,350l. Smiths Industries supplied the ultrasonic fuel quantity gauge system.
A centre section tank installed in the 777-200ER and the 777-300 increases the
fuel capacity to 171,175l. The ultra-long range aircraft, Boeing 777-200LR has addi-
tional fuel tanks in the rear cargo hold to bring the total fuel capacity to 195,285l.
LANDING GEAR
The aircraft has retractable tricycle type landing gear. Measco and Messieur
Bugatti developed the main landing gear under a joint agreement, which features six-
wheeled bogies. Control of the steering rear axles is automatically linked to the steer-
ing angle of the nose gear. The main landing gear is fitted with Honeywell Carbenix
4000 brakes. Initial activation of the brakes during taxiing applies the brakes to alter-
nate groups of three wheels only in order to minimise wear on the brakes. The nose
gear is twin-wheeled and is steerable
BOEING BUSINESS JET (BBJ) LONG RANGE BUSINESS JET, USA
The Boeing Business Jet or BBJ is a member of the 737 family of airliners, one of
the most successful and reliable jet aircraft in the world. The BBJ engineering and
operations are based on the safety and reliability of the 737 aircraft, which logs more
than 14,000 take-offs every day, i.e. one take-off every six seconds, and has com-
pleted over 100 million flight hours. The delivery of the first Boeing Business Jet
BBJ was in October 1998. More than 98 (83 BBJ and 15 BBJ2) have been ordered
and over 84 BBJ aircraft are in service worldwide. The BBJ has accumulated more
than 90,000 flight hours. Two BBJs are in service with the Royal Australian Air
Force, one with the government of South Africa and three with the Abu Dhabi Amiri
Flight. In July 2005, one BBJ of the US Air Force was delivered to the Columbian
government for presidential and VIP transport.
The BBJ can fly more than 6,000 nautical miles non-stop, for example Johannesburg
to London or Los Angeles to Paris and provides interior space nearly three times lar-
ger than other comparable long range executive jets. In April, 2002, a BBJ flew a re-
cord 6854nm from Seattle, USA to Jeddah, Saudi Arabia at an average cruise speed
of 0.78 Mach. In May 2004, the BBJ became the first non-commercial aircraft to
cross the North Atlantic using Future Air Navigation System (FANS) technology.
FANS rationalises communication between airplane crews and air-traffic controllers,
providing greater safety and fuel efficiency.
CABIN
The spacious 807ft² cabin can be customised to meet individual or business require-
ments for 8 to 149 passengers. The interior configuration installed by completion cen-
tres with interior designers can include an executive office, conference rooms, private
offices and bedrooms. Personal environments can be created for example with a liv-
ing room, dining room, two bedrooms and two bathrooms.
Fresh air is constantly circulated throughout the cabin. There are two temperature
control zones for the passengers and crew.
The BBJ is self-sufficient at airports with reduced ground support and limited facili-
ties. The aircraft has built-in airstairs and easily loaded cargo holds.
CONSTRUCTION
Boeing Commercial Airplanes with headquarters in Seattle, Washington, provides the
aircraft to Boeing Business Jets, which delivers them in a green configuration (no
paint or interior) to the completion centre selected by the customer for interior instal-
lation and painting.
The design of the fuselage is based on that of the proven Classic 737-700 combined
with the centre section, strengthened aft section, wings and landing gear of the 737-
800.
Optional winglets from Aviation Partners Inc yield a typically 5% increase in range
through an up to 7% reduction in the turbulence-induced drag at the wingtips.
FLIGHT DECK
The glass cockpit incorporates many features of the Boeing 777 cockpit. The cockpit
is being fitted with a Rockwell Collins Flight Dynamics HGS-4000 head up display
and six Honeywell flat-panel liquid crystal flight displays. The HGS-4000 has im-
proved low visibility takeoff guidance, runway deceleration cueing and advanced
display features. The flight deck includes an integrated dual global positioning sys-
tem and a flight management system based on dual flight management computers
supplied by Smiths Industries. The main instrument panel is equipped with six Hon-
eywell flat panel liquid crystal displays.
The aircraft's communications suite includes triple VHF and dual HF systems and a
Coltech selective calling unit. L-3 Communications supplied the 120min cockpit
voice recorder (CVR) and the flight data recorder (FDR).
The avionics is based on the Rockwell Collins Series 90 avionics suite with a dual
automatic direction finding (ADF), TCAS II traffic alert and collision avoidance sys-
tem and a predictive windshear unit.
The flight systems include dual Rockwell Collins navigation receivers incorporating
a global positioning system (GPS), instrument landing system (ILS) and a VHF
omni-directional radio range navigation aid with data from the distance measuring
equipment (VOR/DME). The enhanced ground proximity warning system (EGPWS)
is supplied by Honeywell (formerly AlliedSignal) and the airborne navigation data
recorder, the digital flight data acquisition unit and a quick access recorder are sup-
plied by Teledyne. The Honeywell/Thales MCS-7000 satellite communication system
has been certificated for the BBJ. Flight Dynamics is developing an Enhanced Vision
System (EVS) for the BBJ.
ENGINES
The aircraft has two CFM International CFM56-7 turbofan engines, each providing
117.4kN. The wing tanks hold 26,025l of fuel and optionally from three to nine auxil-
iary fuel tanks (belly tanks) can be installed providing a total of up to 40,480l of fuel.
The BBJ is certified and capable of 180mins extended range, twin engine operations
(ETOPS) providing access to more direct and shorter routes.
SERVICE
The Boeing Business Jet Company provides maintenance and warranty agreements
with 24-hour customer support worldwide. Routine parts are provided by a next-day
shipment service and a two-hour shipment for aeroplane-on-the-ground (AOG) or-
ders. There are three service centres in Europe (Lufthansa Technik in Hamburg,
Germany; and Jet Aviation in Basel and Geneva, Switzerland), two in the United
States (Associated Air in Dallas, Texas and DeCrane Aircraft Systems Integration
Group in Georgetown, Del) and one in the Middle East (Alsalam Aircraft)

KAMOV KA-226 SERGEI LIGHT MULTIPURPOSE HELICOPTER,


RUSSIA
Kamov announced the development of the new Ka-226 Sergei light multipur-
pose helicopter in 1990. Kamov developed the helicopter to meet the requirements of
the TsENTROSPAS Russian Emergency Ministry, the Moscow City Government
and Gazpromavia Airlines.
Search and rescue, medical evacuation, disaster relief and patrol variants have
been developed for the Russian Emergency Ministry. Air ambulance, police helicop-
ter, fire fighting and rescue variants have been developed for departments of the
Moscow Government. A number of variants have been developed for gas field sup-
port operations for Gazprom.
Full-scale production lines for the Ka-225 have been set up at the Strela Pro-
duction Association, based at Orenburg, and at the KumAPP Air Production Associa-
tion, based in Kumertau. The Ka-226 entered service in 2002.
KAMOV KA-226 DESIGN
The design of the helicopter is based on the development of the proven "flying
chassis" Ka-26 general purpose helicopter. Kamov has delivered 850 Ka-26 helicop-
ters for the domestic and export markets since 1965.
The Ka-226 has interchangeable mission pods rather than a conventional cabin
within the main fuselage.
The small size of the helicopter allows it to be used in urban environments and
in congested areas close to the operational area of interest or the mission area. The
co-axial contra-rotating rotor helicopter, characteristic of Kamov designs, is easy to
fly and highly manoeuvrable. The absence of a tail rotor eliminates the threat of tail
rotor accidents to ground crew.
KAMOV KA-226 COCKPIT
The flight deck is normally configured for single pilot operation and a second
seat and dual controls are optional. Kamov will install the avionics and flight deck
instruments to the operator's choice. A typical fit for Categories A and B visual and
instrument flight rules (IFR) for poor weather operation includes a Honeywell Ben-
dix/King avionics suite and a Bendix/King VHF radio KY196A. The navigation suite
can include a Bendix/King KN53 Instrument Landing System, a KR87 automatic di-
rection finder, a LCR 92 laser attitude heading reference system and a KLN90B
global positioning system.
The instruments, displays, controls and night vision equipment allow safe night
time flight. The helicopter is equipped with weather reconnaissance radar and thermal
imaging systems for night patrol, reconnaissance and search operations.
The cabin is lightly pressurised, with ventilation and warm air heating.
KAMOV KA-226 CABIN
The cockpit and passenger sections of the cabin are fitted with crash resistant
energy-absorbing seats.
The space to the rear of the flight deck is fitted with a quick-change and de-
mountable cargo compartment or pod. This allows the fast installation of standard or
special accommodation and mission equipment.
A standard cargo and passenger compartment can accommodate two bench sets
for six passengers with a baggage / cargo compartment to the rear. A seventh passen-
ger can be seated next to the pilot.
The cargo pod can also be fitted for passenger transportation with individual
energy absorbing seats, mixed cargo and passenger or dedicated cargo transportation.
A kit container for crew kit, rescue and medical packs is suspended from the star-
board side of the helicopter. The cargo pod can be fitted with a winch ramp.
The ambulance version of the helicopter pod accommodates two stretcher pa-
tients, two seated patients and one medical personnel. For rescue missions the pod
will accommodate six stretcher casualties.
With the cargo or passenger pod detached, the helicopter chassis can be fitted
with other equipment such as surveillance equipment or an agricultural 1,000-litre
chemical or seed hopper and spraybar. A positive pressure differential in the cabin
protects the crew against contamination. The helicopter can also be operated without
a passenger pod and with the open volume between the main landing gear fitted with
a cargo net or cable for a slung load. The maximum underslung payload is 1,300kg.
KAMOV KA-226 PERFORMANCE
The helicopter has demonstrated long endurance and low fuel consumption
flight, important performance parameters for patrol and rescue operations. The main
770-litre capacity fuel tanks provide a flight endurance of 4.24hr. With the 320-litre
auxiliary tanks this is increased to 6.45hr.
A performance advantage of the helicopter, when working from bases at alti-
tudes high above sea level and in mountainous terrain, is the high dynamic ceiling of
5,000m and static ceiling at 2,000m.
The helicopter has an 18,000hr life with a schedule service life of 25 years.
KAMOV KA-226 ENGINES
Two Rolls-Royce Allison 250-C20R/2 turboshaft engines are installed side by
side over the fuselage aft of the rotor mast. The engines conform to the requirements
of Category A FAR-29 for one engine inoperable safe flight. The engines are each
rated at 335kW. Other engine options including Progress ZMKB AI-450, Turbomeca
Arrius 2G and the Klimov VKK-800, which can be fitted to suit the customer's oper-
ating requirements.
The engines each drive individual driveshafts to the reduction gearbox supplied
by OKBM Company in Voronezh.
The engine air intake is fitted with a hot air de-icing system. The de-icing sys-
tems include an alcohol windscreen de-icer, an electrical de-icer for the pitot tube,
and electrothermal de-icing for the rotor blades.
The main fuel tanks have a capacity of 770 litres. Two optional external tanks
provide an additional 320 litres of fuel.
Gidromash, based in Nizhny Novgorod, supplies the landing gear which con-
sists of the main rear units mounted under the stub wings and the forward two-
wheeled unit under the nose. The non-retractable landing gear has oleopneumatic
shock absorbers and pneumatic brakes.
Company of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia) for authorized service and warranty work.

TUPOLEV TU-214 MEDIUM TO LONG RANGE AIRLINER, RUSSIA

The Tu-214 medium to long range airliner is a development of the Tupolev Tu-
204 with higher weight and longer range. The aircraft was designed by Tupolev JSC
of Moscow, Russia and is manufactured at the Kazan Aircraft Production Organisa-
tion (KAPO) in Tatarstan.
The Tupolev Tu-214 was certified in December 2000 against the Russian AP-
25 standards. The aircraft entered service in May 2001 with the Dalavia Airline of
Khabarovsk, on scheduled Russian domestic and international routes. The aircraft has
also entered service with the Russia State Transport organisation. In addition, orders
for the aircraft have been placed by Uralskie Airlines, Atlant-Sojuz and Slovak Air-
lines (two aircraft).
CONFIGURATIONS
The aircraft is available as a single class or two class passenger airliner, a com-
bination cargo/passenger aircraft and a VIP/VVIP aircraft.
The baseline single class configuration of the Tu-214 provides 210 passenger
seats in a single aisle 3 x 3 seat arrangement. A two-class arrangement provides 164
seats with 16 business class seats and 148 economy seats.
The Tu-214C3, the 214 Combi passenger Cargo Convertible, is for mixed
cargo and passenger operation.
VIP PRESIDENTIAL AIRCRAFT
The layout of the VIP aircraft is tailored to the customer's requirement. A typi-
cal layout of the Tu-214 VIP presidential aircraft includes a lounge, a bedroom with
en suite shower-room and a sitting room with an office area with business class seat-
ing. The Tu-214 VIP has a maximum range of 9,200km.
CARGO-PASSENGER TU-214 C3
The Cargo-Passenger aircraft can transport up to 164 passengers or 25.2t of
cargo in 26 LD3-46 standard containers. The aircraft can be converted by airport
ground crew from the passenger version to a mixed cargo/passenger version or to the
all cargo version in, typically, four or five hours.
Eighteen containers can be loaded in the main passenger cabin and eight con-
tainers loaded in the cargo compartment.
The aircraft is fitted with a 3,405mm x 2,180mm cargo door and the internal
cargo lift for automated loading and unloading of standard containers is installed be-
neath the cargo hatch.
The cargo containers are delivered by an airport loading system to the rear
cargo compartment. The aircraft is equipped with a fully automatic container loading
system with manual back-up. The first eight containers are automatically lifted to the
passenger compartment and automatically secured in the designated positions. A fur-
ther five containers are secured in the cargo compartment. Unloading the containers
is carried out in the opposite order.
FLIGHT DECK
The ergonomically designed dark-cabin cockpit accommodates the pilot, co-
pilot and flight engineer. A fourth seat is available for an observer or instructor. The
aircraft has triplex digital fly-by-wire controls with triplex analogue back-up and has
an automatic approach and landing system.
The electronic flight and information system provides two large colour flight
and navigation information CRT displays for both pilot and co-pilot. The engine and
systems data are displayed on two colour CRTs on the central panel between the pi-
lots.
The aircraft is equipped with digital computer systems and the integrated flight
and navigation system provides automated navigation and ICAO III-d Category take-
off and landing.
ENGINES
The Tu-214 is powered by two underwing PS-90A turbofan engines installed
in composite cowlings. The aircraft has integral fuel tanks in the wings, in the
cargo/baggage hold and also in the tailfin. A torsion box in the tailfin operates as the
fuel tank for automatic centre of gravity trimming during flight.
The engines are rated at 16,000kg static thrust at sea level and 17,600kg with
emergency power. The range of the aircraft with a full passenger load is 5,650km.
LANDING GEAR
The Tu-214 has hydraulically retractable tricycle type landing gear, the nose
unit fitted with twin wheels and the main units with four wheels. The nosewheel unit
retracts forward and the main units retract inward under the wing and fuselage fair-
ings. The landing gear is equipped with carbon disc brakes.

NASA's Space Shuttle: Dynamo or Dinosaur?


By Robert Bridge The Moscow News
NASA's shuttle program is at risk of being sent to the galactic junkyard1 as
Tuesday's launch of Discovery was marred by another less than perfect per-
formance

The spectacular launch of Discovery from the Kennedy Space Center - the first shut-
tle mission in two and a half years - seemed picture-perfect to the thousands of spec-
tors crowded along the beaches of Florida with cameras and binoculars. NASA's 107
newly installed video cameras, however, relayed a different story.

Once again, at least four frozen foam chunks2 detached from the external fuel tanks
during the violent liftoff phase; video images captured at least one of these pieces
striking the shuttle and causing an uncertain amount of exterior damage. It has been
reported that a wide gash is visible on the sensitive nose section of the craft.

This was the same set of circumstances which caused the Columbia shuttle to disinte-
grate during its re-entry phase in February 2003 after debris punctured a hole in its
wing, thus exposing the damaged shuttle to fatal temperatures and gases. Seven as-
tronauts died in the accident.

Colonel Eileen Collins, Discovery's chief commander and first woman to lead a shut-
tle mission, expressed rather blunt criticism about NASA's inability to solve the fal-
ling foam riddle.

"We thought we had that problem licked," Collins said aboard the shuttle. "I don't
think we should fly again unless we do something to prevent this from happening
again."

The vexing problem forces the shuttle crew to concentrate on salvaging the craft for
the intense re-entry phase, as opposed to performing other planned experiments.

1
junkyard – мусорная свалка
2
chunk – крупный , большой
In a further blow to NASA pride, the Russian Space Agency publicly stated it would
rescue Collins and her crew "if it came to that."

Discovery docked with the International Space Station [ISS] on Thursday morning
with a shipload of groceries, oxygen and other essentials.

On Saturday morning, NASA astronaut Stephen Robinson and Soichi Noguchi, who
is representing Japan's Aerospace Exploration Agency, ventured on a spacewalk and
experimented with space age cement designed to fill in cracks and chips suffered to
the heat-resistant tiles covering the shuttle's body.

"There are just no words to describe how cool this is," Robinson uttered while enjoy-
ing the thrill of his virgin walk in deep space.

The astronauts maintained contact with David Wolf, a veteran of four spacewalks, at
Mission Control in Houston, Texas.

On Monday, Robinson and Noguchi during a 7-hour spacewalk replaced a 600-pound


gyroscope, crucial for controlling the shuttle's movement in space.

NASA is downplaying the foam issue but the repercussions from this unexpected re-
occurrence could make Discovery the last shuttle mission.

For the first time in space history, Robinson will carry out on Wednesday repairs on
the belly of the shuttle. He must pull out or cut off two protruding gap fillers in Dis-
covery's heat shield. These strips could add to the intense heat on the shuttle during
re-entry.

The space shuttle Atlantis had been scheduled for a mission in September, but the
goal was crushed to space dust following the latest setbacks. There are tentative plans
for another launch next year, but that may be simply space dreaming. NASA's shuttle
program is
MAKS-2005 Closes with Record Breakers

By Anna Arutunyan
Moscow concluded its seventh annual International Aviation and Space Salon
(MAKS-2005) on ЛSunday, setting two aviation speed records and making deals to
sell up to $4 billion worth of aviation technology.
The aviation show kicked off1 on August 16 at an air strip in the town of Zhukovsky
near Moscow, displaying the might 2of some 200 military and civilian aircraft, and 49
models including new Tu-204-300 passenger planes, the Mi-38 helicopter, and an

1
kick off - начинать
2
might - возможности
An-148 cargo plane. The highlight of the program was the new aircraft flown by the
Russian Air Force - indeed, the elite Strizh pilots were nearly overrun following their
flights by fans begging for autographs.
The Su-27 fighter jet managed to set two records on Sunday, when it attained a speed
of 1510 km/hr flying a 100 km route, and a speed of 1644 km/hr on a 1000 km route.

The show also featured aircraft from 42 countries around the world and 654 aviation
companies (a considerable increase from the 12 countries and 203 companies fea-
tured in 1997). Still, the Kommersant daily estimated that 94 percent of those were
Russian companies, while only 22 out of the 200 aircraft featured were foreign made.

While any display of aviation can be noted as a demonstration of patriotism and


pride, like many major national events, the show, including President Vladimir
Putin's opening speech, was closed to the public until Friday. This left the average
Russians - who had to put out a hefty 1,200 ruble ($42) just for the tickets - only three
days to watch the maneuvers. Security measures, including 6,000 police officers,
meanwhile, did not stop activists from the radical left National Bolshevik Party from
showing up just in time for Putin's speech to throw out pamphlets and cry out "free-
dom." About six of them were reportedly detained. Despite a steep ticket price and
only three days of access, some 650,000 viewers showed up, 50,000 more than last
year.

But the real record-setters were the companies that signed million-dollar deals thanks
to the display. Officially, the deals reached nearly $1 billion. According to a state-
ment made to news agencies by deputy director of the Federal Military Cooperation
Service Vladimir Paleshchuk, "the deals signed in the course of MAKS-2005 are
close to being worth $1 billion. In September we will sign two more contracts."

Kommersant, however, cited several deals in the making and pushed the number up
to $4 billion, according to its own estimates. Among the signed deals were a $300
million contract for AL-55I aviation engines between Rosoboron-export and India
NAL. King Abdullah II of Jordan, who visited the show, sealed a deal for two Il-
76MF transport planes for an estimated $100 million. A consortium of Russian com-
panies signed another deal to sell $260 worth of jets made by Russian Regional Jet.
But according to the daily, many deals are still hanging: Ilyushin Finance Co. report-
edly signed seven deals to produce 56 aircraft worth a whopping 1$1.6 billion.

Whatever the shortcomings in national aviation, Russian newspapers described the


show as a demonstration that domestic aircraft could now finally compete with inter-
national production. Experts called the event the culmination of a "trend" in interna-
tional cooperation, while others noted that MAKS was no longer merely a show, but
a platform for real contracts.

1
whopping - огромный
Winged Taxi over Moscow

By Sergei Borisov The Moscow News


In 2006, people who are in a hurry will be able to wave down not only a passing taxi
cab but also a plane or a helicopter

The Mayor's Office is determined to advance the once announced Moscow Air Taxi,
offering a new kind of transport to dwellers and guests of the capital. This will be the
first project of this kind in Russia. In the United States, as well as in some Europea-
countries, similar projects were launched long ago.

To all appearances, the clientele is not going to be recruited from ordinary citizens. A
one-hour flight on such an air taxi will cost $650, according to Konstantin Zorin,
deputy general director of the Atlant-Soyuz airline. But managers of the company are
convinced that the real cost of a flight will be much less. It is simple arithmetic: $650
is the price to fly for one hour on a particular kind of helicopter. If you take, for ex-
ample, Sokol, a Polish helicopter, it will cost $1000. The flight price will be divided
proportionally between all passengers aboard. The chopper can carry 10 people. A
shorter, less than an hour-long flight will be cheaper. Thus, everything will depend on
the helicopter type, the number of passengers and the flight length. The organizers of
the air taxi believe its cost will only slightly exceed the price of a trip in a compart-
ment car of a train.

Atlant-Soyuz, a company founded by the Moscow government, is responsible for the


development and implementation of the air taxi program. Among other companies
participating in the project are Rastech, Aviakominfo and Ecos. The main aim of the
program is "improving Moscow's transportation infrastructure and increasing its eco-
nomic efficiency," Zorin told reporters at the MAKS-2005 air show held this August
in Zhukovsky, where outlines of the ambitious plan were unveiled. Among the pro-
ject's aims is the revival of inter-regional passenger transportation between Moscow
and cities of the Central Federal District.

The main objectives of the air taxi program are transportation of passengers by heli-
copters and planes, charter flights, regular passenger flights and applied aviation
work. The developers think the project could help create more comfortable conditions
of running business for those who want to save time. Businessmen are the main target
group of the new enterprise, especially those who work with partners in the Central
Federal District. But tourists have not been forgotten either. Heliports and helicopter
landing pads, according to the conception, should link the capital with airports in the
Moscow region and main regional and area centers of the central part of Russia.

It is hoped that the development of air taxi transportation will positively influence
restoration and improvement works in regional airports, as well as create new work-
places.
The first flights within Moscow and to towns within a 600-km radius of the city are
scheduled for 2006. The city's authorities are ready to invest $350 million in the pro-
ject in 10 years. Atlant-Soyuz intends to purchase 35 planes and 37 helicopters for the
project.
In all, 20 helicopter pads are planned to be constructed. They will be situated on top
of commercial centers and multi-story parking lots of the capital. The pads are also to
be built on rivers in places where they do not obstruct navigation. "In all, two to three
flights will be conducted from each pad per day during daylight hours; therefore, they
will hardly bother local residents," Zorin told journalists.
The plan can be implemented in two steps. The first step, the pilot project, will in-
clude the creation of the infrastructure, as well as the communication network be-
tween ground and air components of the new system. The second step is meant to
improve the program. While realizing the pilot project, the organizers want to use ex-
isting helicopter pads. The main destinations for passengers who choose helicopters
will be to Moscow airports, heliports, helicopter pads within the limits of the city and
administrative and recreation centers within a 400-km radius off the capital.
At the same time, new helicopter pads and heliports will be built on the territory of
Moscow and the Moscow region, head of Atlant-Soyuz PR department Georgy
Bautin told The Moscow News. Planes will also be used as air taxis. According to the
plan, at the pilot stage inhabitants of Central Federal District's 14 towns should get an
opportunity to fly to Moscow's Vnukovo airport and back. Planes will also implement
booked and charter passenger transits.
One of the most important problems is safety, and not only for passengers and pilots.
Expecting numerous questions from Muscovites, Zorin told reporters that taxi flights
in the city would be only conducted on helicopters over non-residential areas and riv-
ers. All the tracks are being negotiated with military and security services. For safety
reasons, the altitude will be no more than 900 meters. When conducting a market re-
search on helicopters and planes to be used as air taxis, specialists are said to have
paid the main attention to reliability, meeting the security demands for flights over
Moscow, economic efficiency and ecological safety. The organizers are also working
out anti-terrorist measures. A system is being developed for banning take-offs of heli-
copters and planes without a special command from the control station.
ОБЯЗАТЕЛЬНЫЙ ЛЕКСИЧЕСКИЙ МИНИМУМ

accident – 1) происшествие, 2) несчастный случай, 3) авария; серьезное повреж-


дение, 4) катастрофа
acquisition - 1) обнаружение, 2) приобретение, 3) стяжание
actuator - 1) силовой привод; рукоятка привода
afterburning - догорание топлива
ailerons - элерон
air intake- воздухозаборник
airman - сущ. 1) летчик, пилот, 2) специалист в авиатехнике
airship - дирижабль, воздушный корабль
athodyd - прямоточный воздушно-реактивный двигатель
attack plane - штурмовик
attitude - пространственное положение, ориентация
attitude gyro - гировертикаль
automatic direction finder - автоматический радиопеленгатор; радиокомпас
axial compression - осевое сжатие
beam splitter – 1) светоделитель, 2) расщепитель луча; расщепитель пучка
best time track - лучшее время пути
bottle - тех. опока
buoyancy -1) оживление (на рынке и т.п.), 2) повышательная тенденция (на бирже)
local deceleration - местное замедление
bypass engine - двигатель двухконтурный, двигатель реактивный турбовентилятор-
ный двухконтурный
bypass principle - принцип обхода
bypass ratio - отношение обхода
cargo winch - грузовая лебедка
chamber - 1) камера, 2) камерный
coating - обшивка (наружная); покрытие; облицовка
cockpit - кабина (в самолете)
colour cathode-ray tube - цвет электронно-лучевой трубки
consumption - потребление; затрата, издержки, расход
controls - рычаги
cost-effective manufacture - рентабельное производство
cutting - резка
data - данные, факты, сведения; информация
deploy - развертывать
design - конструкция
digital avionic system - цифровая система авиаэлектроники
digital engine control - цифровой электронный регулятор режимов работы
двигателя
dismantle - разбирать, демонтировать
doppler hover indicator - доплеровский индикатор парения
duct combustion chamber – канал камеры сгорания
ductile - гибкий, эластичный, пластичный
to effect propulsion - производить ракетный двигатель
electronic countermeasures - радиоэлектронное подавление
Elevator – 1) подъемник, 2) элеватор, 3) лифт, 4) возд. руль высоты
emergency dropping -чрезвычайное понижение
endurance – 1) стойкость; усталостная прочность, 2) долговечность; срок службы
3) износостойкость
engine downwash -снос потока двигателя
erase –стирать, уничтожать
exact replica -точная модель (копия)
to exceed -1) превосходить, 2) превысить, 3) превышать
exhaust – 1) выхлоп; выпуск || выпускать, 2) выхлопная (выпускная) труба,
3)вытяжное устройство
to expose by -1) экспонировать, 2) подвергать облучению, облучать, 3) воздейство-
вать, подвергать воздействию
false alarm rate - частота ложных тревог
to file -1)подшивать регистрировать, 2) обрабатывать напильником, затачивать на-
пильником; опиливать
finishing engine – доводка двигателя
flight simulator - тренажер пилотажный
fuel consumption - топливопотребление
fuel efficiency – 1) кпд топлива, 2) автотопливная экономичность (двигателя), 3) тер-
мический кпд
fuel figure - показатель топлива
fuel fraction - топливная доля
glider - планер (летательный аппарат)
glue – 1) клей, 2) клеить; приклеивать; наклеивать; склеивать(ся)
ground personell - наземный персонал (для обслуживания полетов)
g-suit - костюм противоперегрузочный
gyro - сокр. от gyroscope(1) гироскоп, 2) авиагоризонт, 3) гирокомпас; гиродатчик)
handling – 1) управление; оперирование (чем-л.); манипулирование, 2) перемеще-
ние, 3) погрузочно-разгрузочные операции
hangar - 1) ангар, 2) склад
hardenable - упрочняемый, закаливающийся
heading - направление (полета)
high solidity - высокая прочность
hydraulic jack - гидроцилиндр; гидравлический домкрат
identification - обозначение; маркировка; индекс
illumination- 1) освещение, 2) освещенность
instrument pane - диспетчерский
internal shaft - внутренний вал
jet liner - реактивный самолет
to land - совершать посадку, приземляться (о воздушном судне)
landing forecasts en route - прогноз (погоды) на посадку в пути
lift – 1) подъем, 2) гидро- или аэродинамическая подъемная сила, 3) подъемная ма-
шина; подъемник, лифт
lift-fan engine –винтовой двигатель
lifting airfoil - подъем крыла
long-range bomber - бомбардировщик дальнего действия
machine tool - станок
machine shop - машинный цех
to maintain -1) обслуживать, 2) поддерживать, 3) содержать в исправности, 4)
сохранять, 5) эксплуатировать
maintenance – 1) поддержание, 2) техническое обслуживание и (текущий) ремонт;
регламентные работы, 3) уход за оборудованием
emitted energy- испускаемая энергия
major repairs - капитальный ремонт
make- 1) делать; изготовлять(ся); производить, 2) форма; модель
mass flow – поток массы, расход
message - сообщение; посылка; сигнал; передаваемый блок информации
milling – 1) дробление; измельчение; размалывание, размол, 2) обогащение
motion platform - платформа движения
multi-spindle machining - многошпиндельный станок
net thrust - чистая сила тяги
nonconventional procedures - нетрадиционные процедуры
nozzle - сопло
numerical - числовой; цифровой, численный
to occur -1) встречаться, попадаться, 2) происходить, случаться, иметь место
trip – 1) поездка, 2) рейс; пробег, 3) полет; (орбитальный) перелет
oleo shock absorber - масляный амортизатор
to overhaul – капитально ремонтировать
overspeeding - раскрутка
oxidizer - окислитель, окислительное средство
parking place - автостоянка
performance - работа; функционирование; действие; исполнение; выполнение
Pitch – шаг (напр. заклепок, спирали, резьбы воздушного винта)
retaliation - отплата, расплата
plasma welding - плазменная сварка
pneumatic drill - пневматическая дрель
point of destination - конечный пункт маршрута
position plotter- путепрокладчик
power plant - 1) силовая группа, 2) силовая установка, 3) электростанция
power supply - электроснабжение, энергоснабжение
power-to-weight ratio - мощность удельная
to propel - приводить в движение
propulsion -1) приведение в движение, сообщение движения вперед, 2) тяговое уси-
лие, тяга, 3) ракетный двигатель
puffer - распылитель
pulling propeller - натяжение пропеллера
to pump up – подавать насос
radar – 1) радиолокация, 2) радиолокационная станция, РЛС, радиолокатор
range - диапазон; интервал; пределы
reciprocating engine - поршневой двигатель
reduced observables technology - уменьшенная технология демаскирующих при-
знаков
re-evaluation - переоценка
reflected energy - отраженная энергия
refuelling point - точка заправки
reingestion - дозаправка
relay - реле
removal rate - скорость удаления
research program - экспериментальная программа
rib - ребро; фланец; буртик;
rig - устройство; оборудование; установка
rotary wing - несущий винт
rudder – 1) руль, 2) угол перекладки руля
runway - взлетно-посадочная полоса, ВПП
satellite navigation devices - спутниковые навигационные устройства
science - наука
set-up -1) набор, 2) настройка, 3) структура, 4) установка, 5) устройство
shop -1) цех, 2) мастерская; (небольшой) завод, 3) склад
signal processing hardware - сигнал, обрабатывающий аппаратные средства ЭВМ
slat - предкрылок
solid-state device – полупроводниковый элемент
space probe – 1) космический зонд, 2) беспилотная исследовательская космическая
ракета
spacecraft - космический корабль
spark erosion - электроэрозионный
spoiler – 1) спойлер, срывник (СПК), 2) возд. интерцептор
stage - помост; платформа; площадка
stealth configuration - конструкция на основе стэлс
STOL aircraft - [shot takeoff and landing aircraft] воздушное судно укороченного
structural integrity hub - структурный центр целостности
supersonic aircraft - сверхзвуковой самолет
surveillance -1) наблюдение; контроль, 2)обзор
tapered tube - коническая трубка
target designation - целеуказание
terminal area - зона аэродрома
terrain -1) местность; территория, 2) почва; грунт
to hover - парить
to rivet - клепать
track -1) дорога; путь, 2) маршрут; трасса
twin-rotor helicopter - двухвинтовой вертолет
unit -. компонент; элемент; сборочная единица; узел; блок; модуль; секция
uplatch - замок убранного положения шасси
veer off - отклонитесь от курса
vehicle - транспортное средство (автомобиль, ЛА, вагон, тележка)
voltage regulator - регулятор напряжения, потенциометр
vortex -1) вихрь, 2) встряхивать
weight - вес; масса
weldable - свариваемый, поддающийся сварке
wide body - широкое тело
winch – 1) лебедка || поднимать (груз) лебедкой, 2) ворот || поднимать (груз) воро-
том; перемещать (груз) с помощью ворота, 3) изогнутая рукоятка; коленчатый рычаг
wiring - (электро)проводка
built-in test equipment - встроенное испытательное оборудование
ЗАКЛЮЧЕНИЕ

В условиях всевозрастающей потребности современного производства в


информированных и высококвалифицированных специалистах нет необходи-
мости говорить о роли иностранных языков в подготовке специалистов, отве-
чающих данным требованиям. Иностранные языки, а особенно английский
язык является орудием эффективного информационного поиска и успешного
решения маркетинговых задач.
Работа с пособием вооружает будущих инженеров практическими навы-
ками для самостоятельной работы со специальной технической, научной, пуб-
лицистической литературой. Современные специальные тексты, собранные в
одном пособии, помогают эффективно организовать учебную деятельность
студентов и избавляют их от необходимости тратить время на поиск специаль-
ной литературы, соответствующей уровню их подготовки.
В пособии собраны и обработаны аутентичные тексты, что отвечает со-
временным требованиям к обучению иностранному языку. Пособие учит сту-
дентов не только умению видеть смысл и научное содержание иноязычного
текста, но и критически относиться к информации, содержащейся в иностран-
ном источнике, которая в ряде случаев носит откровенно рекламный характер и
не соответствует действительности.
БИБЛИОГРАФИЧЕСКИЙ СПИСОК

1. // Aerospace technology. – 2005. - № 2. – P. 3-4.


2. // Aerospace technology. – 2005. - № 4. – P. 6.
3. // Aerospace technology. – 2005. - № 7. – P. 5.
4. // Aerospace technology. – 2005. - № 8. – P. 3 – 5.
5. // Aviation week and space technology. – 2004. - № 4. – P. 10.
6. // Aviation week and space technology. – 2005. - № 1. – P. 14.
7. // Aviation week and space technology. – 2005. - № 2. – P. 20.
8. // Aviation week and space technology. – 2005. - № 3. – P. 6.
9. // Computer and video. – 2004. - № 9. – P. 4.
10. // Computer and video. – 2005. - № 1. – P. 10.
11. By Robert Bridge. NASA's Space Shuttle: Dynamo or Dinosaur? / Robert
Bridge.// The Moscow News. – 2005. - № 28. – P. 10.
12. By Sergei Borisov. Winged Taxi over Moscow / Sergei Borisov. // The Moscow
News. – 2005. - № 30. – P. 15.
13. By Anna Arutunyan. MAKS-2005 Closes with Record Breakers / Anna
Arutuyan. // The Moscow News. – 2005. - № 34. – P. 25.
14. Григоров, В. Б. Учитесь читать литературу по специальности (авиастрое-
ние): учебное пособие / В. Б. Григоров. – М.: Высшая школа, 1988.– 135 с.
СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
ВВЕДЕНИЕ .................................................................................................................. 5
CONDUCTORS AND INSULATORS ........................................................................ 6
ATOMIC POWER PLANT .......................................................................................... 6
TYPES OF CURRENT ................................................................................................. 7
CAPACITORS .............................................................................................................. 7
AVIATION FOR AMATEURS.................................................................................... 8
ANTONOV-70 ............................................................................................................ 21
MiG-23 FLOGGER..................................................................................................... 23
TU-330......................................................................................................................... 26
Su-25 FROGFOOT (SUKHOD) ................................................................................. 28
An-24 COKE, An-26 CURL , An-30 CLANK (ANTONOV) ................................... 30
MiG-AT....................................................................................................................... 32
SYSTEMS ................................................................................................................... 34
С-17S JOIN UK JRRF IN BOEING LEASE DEAL.................................................. 36
NEW TRAINERS ....................................................................................................... 38
AIRBUS A300-600 WIDE-BODIED LONG RANGE AIRLINER, EUROPE......... 41
AIRBUS A310 TWIN ENGINE WIDE-BODIED AIRLINER, EUROPE................ 42
AIRBUS ACJ CORPORATE JETLINER, EUROPE ................................................ 44
ANTONOV AN-124-100 LONG-RANGE HEAVY TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT,
RUSSIA....................................................................................................................... 46
BOEING 747-400F FOUR-JET INTERCONTINENTAL FREIGHTER, USA ....... 48
BOEING 747-400 COMBI ......................................................................................... 49
BOEING 767-300F WIDE-BODIED FREIGHTER, USA ........................................ 51
BOEING 767 WIDEBODY JET AIRLINER, USA................................................... 52
BOEING 777 TWIN-AISLE TWINJET AIRLINER, USA ....................................... 54
BOEING BUSINESS JET (BBJ) LONG RANGE BUSINESS JET, USA ............... 56
KAMOV KA-226 SERGEI LIGHT MULTIPURPOSE HELICOPTER, RUSSIA .. 58
TUPOLEV TU-214 MEDIUM TO LONG RANGE AIRLINER, RUSSIA.............. 60
NASA'S SPACE SHUTTLE: DYNAMO OR DINOSAUR?..................................... 62
MAKS-2005 CLOSES WITH RECORD BREAKERS ............................................. 63
WINGED TAXI OVER MOSCOW ........................................................................... 65
ОБЯЗАТЕЛЬНЫЙ ЛЕКСИЧЕСКИЙ МИНИМУМ ............................................... 67
ЗАКЛЮЧЕНИЕ ......................................................................................................... 71
БИБЛИОГРАФИЧЕСКИЙ СПИСОК...................................................................... 72