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МОСКОВСКИЙ ГОС УД АРС ТВЕННЫЙ ЛИНГВИС ТИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕ Т

Т. В. Ускова, Ю. В. Юсева

ИМЯ СУЩЕСТВИТЕЛЬНОЕ
АРТИКЛЬ

Учебное пособие
по грамматике английского языка

Москва
2020
УДК 811.111(075.8) Электронные версии книг
ББК 81.2Англ-923 на сайте www.prospekt.org
У75

Институт международного права и правосудия


Кафедра лингвистики и профессиональной коммуникации в области права
Авторы:
Ускова Т. В., доцент кафедры лингвистики и профессиональной коммуникации в об-
ласти права Московского государственного лингвистического университета;
Юсева Ю. В., доцент кафедры лингвистики и профессиональной коммуникации в об-
ласти права Московского государственного лингвистического университета.
Ускова Т. В., Юсева Ю. В.
У75 Имя существительное. Артикль : учебное пособие по грамматике англий-
ского языка. – Москва : Проспект, 2020. – 104 с.
ISBN 978-5-392-31486-7
DOI 10.31085/9785392314867-2020-104
Данное учебное пособие предназначено для студентов 1 курса, обучающихся по
направлению подготовки 40.03.01 «Юриспруденция» (квалификация «бакалавр»),
специальностям 40.05.01 «Правовое обеспечение национальной безопасности» («спе-
циалист») и 40.05.02 «Правоохранительная деятельность» («специалист»), изучающих
английский язык в качестве первого или второго иностранного. Оно может быть ис-
пользовано при обучении студентов других неязыковых специальностей, а также для
широкого круга лиц, изучающих английский язык.
Пособие охватывает такие грамматические темы, как имя существительное и ис-
пользование артиклей с именами существительными в английском языке. Книга
представляет собой учебный комплекс, состоящий из основного учебника с теорети-
ческим материалом и базовыми упражнениями и рабочей тетради для самостоятель-
ной работы. Пособие включает в себя теоретический материал на английском языке
и разнообразные по форме и содержанию упражнения, структурированные по темам.
Грамматический материал подобран с учетом профессиональной подготовки студен-
тов-юристов.
УДК 811.111(075.8)
ББК 81.2Англ-923

Учебное издание
Ускова Татьяна Владимировна,
Юсева Юлия Владленовна
ИМЯ СУЩЕСТВИТЕЛЬНОЕ
АРТИКЛЬ
Учебное пособие
по грамматике английского языка
Подписано в печать 17.12.2019. Формат 60×90 1/16.
Печать цифровая. Печ. л. 6,5. Тираж 1000 (1-й завод 100) экз. Заказ №
ООО «Проспект»
111020, г. Москва, ул. Боровая, д. 7, стр. 4.

© Ускова Т. В., Юсева Ю. В., 2019


© Московский государственный
ISBN 978-5-392-31486-7 лингвистический университет, 2019
DOI 10.31085/9785392314867-2020-104 © Оформление. ООО «Проспект», 2019
M O S C O W S TAT E L I N G U I S T I C U N I V E R S I T Y

T. V. Uskova, Yu. V. Yuseva

NOUN
ARTICLE

Training Manual
of English Grammar

Moscow
2020
Institute of International Law and Justice
Department of Linguistics and Professional Communication in Law
Authors:
Uskova T. V., Associate Professor of the Department of Linguistics and Professional
Communication in Law, Moscow State Linguistic University;
Yuseva Yu. V., Associate Professor of the Department of Linguistics and Professional
Communication in Law, Moscow State Linguistic University.
Uskova T. V., Yuseva Yu. V.
Noun. Article : Training Manual of English Grammar. – Moscow : Prospekt,
2020. – 104 p.
ISBN 978-5-392-31486-7
DOI 10.31085/9785392314867-2020-104
This training manual is intended for 1st year students being pursuing a specialist’s degree
in 40.03.01 “Legal Studies”, 40.05.01 “Legal Support of National Security”, 40.05.02 “Law
Enforcement Activity”, studying English as a first or second foreign language. It can also be
used for teaching students of other professions as well as a wide range of people studying the
English language.
The manual encompasses English noun and article formation and usage. The training
manual is a part of a complex which includes the manual with theoretical material and ba-
sic exercises and a self-study workbook. The manual includes grammar rules in the English
language and exercises different in form and context, which are structured according to the
theoretical topics. The grammar material was selected to cover the grammar topics important
for legal specialists training.

© Uskova T. V., Yuseva Yu. V., 2019


ISBN 978-5-392-31486-7 © Moscow State Linguistic University, 2019
DOI 10.31085/9785392314867-2020-104 © Design. Prospekt, 2019
ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

Настоящее учебное пособие предназначено для студентов 1 курса,


направление подготовки 40.03.01 «Юриспруденция (бакалавриат)»;
специальность — 40.05.01 «Правовое обеспечение национальной без-
опасности» и 40.05.02 «Правоохранительная деятельность». Пособие
также может быть использовано при обучении для широкого круга
лиц, изучающих английский язык.
Пособие по грамматике английского языка охватывает две темы:
имя существительное и артикль. Пособие состоит из 14 уроков, в кото-
рых приводятся общие сведения по каждой теме и объясняются особые
случаи употребления. Цель данного пособия — представить в доступ-
ной форме морфологические особенности имени существительного
и артикля, необходимые для практического использования.
В основе структуры учебного пособия лежит принцип сопоставле-
ния моделей русского и английского языков, а также дифференциация
сходных (для носителя русского языка), но различающихся по сути
грамматических структур английского языка.
Пособие рассчитано на 36 часов.
В соответствии со статьей 1274 Гражданского кодекса РФ авторы
данного пособия использовали в своей работе с обязательным указа-
нием имени автора, произведение которого цитируется, и источника
заимствования, правомерно обнародованные произведения в качестве
иллюстрации в объеме, оправданном поставленной целью.
UNIT 1

1. Nouns
1.1. Nouns are names of objects, i.e. things, human beings, animals,
materials, abstract notions.
1.2. Nouns can be proper (имена собственные) and common (имена
нарицательные). Common nouns can be either countable (исчисляемые)
or uncountable (неисчисляемые). Both countable and uncountable nouns
can be either concrete or abstract.

Noun

Common Proper

Countable Uncountable

concrete abstract concrete abstract

1.3. Some uncountable nouns have a countable equivalent which is a dif-


ferent word:
e.g., work (U)/ job (C); travel (U)/ journey (C).
1.4. Some uncountable nouns can be ‘broken into’ countable parts:
e.g., money (U)/ ponds, dollars, euros (C);
time (U)/ hours, minutes (C);
furniture (U)/ tables, chairs, beds (C).
1.5. Some nouns can be both countable and uncountable depending on
their meaning:
Unit 1 7

e.g., a wood (лес)/ wood (древесина).


1.6. Depending on whether the noun is countable or uncountable, there
are certain words that we use before or after it:
Before the noun (C) Singular (C) Plural (U)
Indefinite articles a book – –
(a/ an) an elephant
Numbers one book two books –
Certain quantifiers either/ each book both/many people much/little interest

After the noun (C) Singular (C) Plural (U)


Singular verb an elephant has – knowledge is
forms
Plural verb forms – two books are –

Task 1. Decide whether the nouns in bold are proper or common. Translate
the sentences into Russian.
l. By the time the clock on the tower struck noon, the streets of the city
were overcrowded. 2. The Tower, built by William the Conqueror, is situated
in the very heart of London, not far from the City. 3. This museum has a nice
collection of fine art. They even have a Rafael. 4. Last year Tom bought
a Ford. It was produced by the company created by Henry Ford in the 20th
century. 5. The Van Dyke we spoke about is in the Louvre. 6. He was a Lan-
nister. And like all Lannisters he was filthy rich. 7. The “Bee” was a pretty
small yacht which was easy to sail. 8. Bees were busy gathering honey. 9. The
rock climbers were happy to reach the summit and see the beauty of the sur-
rounding mountains. 10. Down the valley there was a town called Summit.

Task 2. State whether the nouns in bold type denote countable or uncount-
able objects. Translate the sentences into Russian and compare the number
in Russian and in English.
l. The chest was made of wood and had а tricky lock. 2. The pain was like
а red-hot iron pressing upon her forehead. 3. The king ordered to have irons
put on him. 4. The moon still low in the sky gave sufficient light for them.
5. When he approached the house, James saw а light in the kitchen window.
6. “Will you do me а favour?” “With pleasure.” 7. It was a pleasure to drink
а good wine with friends in a nice little café on Montmartre. 8. Would you
like a glass of water? 9. Jimmy has broken the window. Be careful not to cut
yourself on the glass. 10. A dog would do anything you ask it for a slice
of cheese. 11. He was surprised at the variety of cheeses French shops offered.
12. The boys stood on the bridge throwing stones into the river. 13. The statue
is made of stone. 14. Varys had hardly а hair on his head. 15. Her hair has
gone quite grey. 16. When the submarine exploded, the fish around it got
killed. 17. I prefer fish for supper. 18. The aquarium broken, the kids stood
looking at the fishes flopping on the floor. 19. I have a stone in my shoe.
8 Имя существительное. Артикль

Task 3. Are the underlined nouns countable or uncountable? Explain your


decision.
1. The train went on up the track out of sight, around one of the hills
of burnt timber. Nick sat down on the bundle of canvas and bedding the
baggage man had pitched out of the door of the baggage car. 2. So, I go
in this queue, and I am waiting. So, I saw them taking names and writing
things down, so I had this feeling I was in the wrong place. So, I thought
to myself, “Oh, I’m going from here,” but as I stood at the table this person
said, “Now, then, you are next.”
3. A: Apart from George she hasn’t really met any nice people I know
of. Perhaps I don’t know enough.
B: There was this guy that she was really madly in love with, that went
on and ended up working on an oil rig somewhere.

2. The Gender of Nouns.


2.1. Nouns may be masculine (мужской) ['maskjʊlEn], feminine ['fKmEnEn]
(женский) and neuter ['njuQtə] (средний) gender (род). Names of male
beings are masculine (e.g., man, boy, husband) and names of female beings
are feminine (e.g., girl, woman, wife). All other nouns are neuter (e.g., pen,
hen, rain, dog).
2.2. Most personal nouns have the same form whether male or female
(doctor, teacher, etc.).
2.3. Some nouns have different forms, though. Some of these are:
actor — actress; father — mother; landlord — landlady; boy — girl; gentle-
man — lady; lord — lady; (bride)groom — bride; grandfather — grandmother;
monk — nun; brother — sister; duke — duchess; emperor — empress; hero —
heroine; husband — wife; king — queen.
2.4. It is also possible to indicate the gender of a noun by forming dif-
ferent compounds:
e.g., a man-servant — a maid-servant; a man-driver — a woman-driver;
a boy-friend — a girl-friend; a tom cat — a tabby cat; a he-wolf — a she-wolf.
2.5. Nouns denoting various kinds of vessels (e.g., ship, boat, etc.), the
noun car, as well as the names of countries may be referred to as she (usually
by people who work with them).

Task 4. Write (M) for male, (F) for female or (M/F).


Doctor _____; pilot _____; nurse _____; waiter _____; teacher _____;
wife _____; typist _____; driver _____; student _____; emperor _____;
bride _____; king _____; child _____; lord _____; queen _____; hero-
ine _____; scientist _____; prince _____; landlord _____; widow. _____;
grandfather _____; policeman _____; engineer_____; musician_____

Task 5. Write the masculine or feminine of the following people if there is


a difference.
Unit 1 9

husband ____________; nephew ____________; doctor


____________; politician ____________; policeman ____________;
monk ____________; brother ____________; lawyer ____________;
duke ____________; uncle ____________; waiter ____________; clerk
____________; student ____________; actor ____________; shop as-
sistant ____________.

Task 6. State the gender of the noun and fill in the necessary pronoun.
Explain your choice.
1. Can you find the dog and let _____ out? 2. Italy has decided
to increase _____ trade with China. 3. Jane arrived too late for the ferry
and missed _____. 4. The man who sold this car to me said _____ had only
done 20,000 miles. 5. She had a lovely cat, Fluffy, _____ always slept on
her bed. 6. Leave the ship — _____ is sinking! 7. Now that I’ve put the new
engine in, _____ goes like a bomb.

Task 7. Make short dialogues to illustrate the use of the gender of nouns
in the English language:
1. Pets and other animals;
2. Names of countries, cars or boats;
3. Other problems of indicating the gender of nouns.

Task 8. Translate into English.


1. Летом мы обычно живем загородом и возвращаемся в город
только в сентябре. 2. Когда Джон пришел домой, его волосы были
мокрыми, но он был счастлив, потому что поймал много рыбы. 3. Свет
был плохой, и он не мог читать без очков. 4. Хозяйка показала нам
квартиру, и мы решили ее снять. 5. Герцогиня Кентская прибыла
на свадьбу одна, без мужа. 6. Жених и невеста выглядели очень счаст-
ливыми. 7. Кот вошел в гостиную и внимательно посмотрел на меня.
8. Его подружка очень милая. Она всегда приносит что-нибудь вкус-
ное, когда приходит навестить нас. 9. Мои брат и сестра живут как
кошка с собакой. 10. Волчице приходилось охотиться почти каждый
день, чтобы прокормить детенышей. 11. У герцога было большое хо-
зяйство: повар, четыре горничные и три слуги. 12. Король прибыл
в гавань, чтобы посмотреть на спуск нового корабля. Он был назван
в честь матери короля.
UNIT 2

1. The Possessive Case of Nouns


1.1. To make the possessive form of nouns in writing, we add ‘s (‘apos-
trophe s’) to singular nouns and to irregular plurals that don’t end in -s:
e.g., Tom’s house; the school’s administration; the women’s liberation
movement
and add ‘ (an apostrophe) to regular plurals:
e.g., the boys’ bags.
1.2. The possessive form of nouns is used with people or groups of people
(e.g. companies), other living things, places and times. To make the posses-
sive form of names ending in -s (pronounced [z]) we can add either ‘ or ‘s:
e.g., It’s Derek Jones’ (or Derek Jones’s) car.
1.3. Sometimes we add ‘s to the last word of a noun phrase, which may
not be a noun:
e.g., She’s the boy’s on the left’s sister.
We can say:
The old car of Jo’s is unsafe.
A novel by Jim Kerr’s has been made into a film.
1.4. When we are talking about relationships between people, we can also
use a noun without ‘s:
e.g., An uncle of Mark’s or an uncle of Mark.
1.5. When two or more names are connected by and, only the final name
shows possession:
e.g., Ann and Tom’s apartment is on the third floor.
However, when the objects defined by the possessive noun belong to dif-
ferent people, both names show possession:
e.g., Ann’s and Tom’s fathers are policemen.
1.6. The noun following a possessive form can be left out when we talk
about someone’s home or some shops and services (e.g., the newsagent’s;
the chemist’s; the hairdresser’s; etc.). it is often called independent possessive.
e.g., We’re going to Linda’s for the evening. (= Linda’s home)
I must go to the butcher’s. (= the butcher’s shop) In cases like this
we can also use the singular without ‘s: I must go to the butcher.
We also usually leave out the noun when the meaning is clear in cases like:
Unit 2 11

e.g., ‘Whose hat is this?’ ‘Richard’s.’ (rather than Richard’s hat.)


1.7. Often we can use the possessive ‘s or of + noun with very little dif-
ference in meaning:
e.g., Ireland’s beauty or the beauty of Ireland.
However, sometimes we prefer to use the possessive form or the of form.
In general, we are more likely to use the possessive ‘s form of the noun:
• when the noun refers to a particular person or group of people:
e.g., Carolyn’s illness (rather than the illness of Carolyn)
The children’s coats (rather than the coats of the children)
• when we are talking about time, as in:
e.g., Next year’s holiday prices (rather than the holiday prices of the
next year)
Last night’s TV show (rather than the TV show of last night)
Notice that we can say: We had a two weeks’ holiday in Spain. or We had
a two-week holiday in Spain.
In general, we are more likely to use the of + noun form:
• with an inanimate noun, i.e. referring to something that is not living:
e.g., the cover of the book or the book cover;
the construction of the office block.
• When we are talking about a process, or a change over time:
e.g., the establishment of the committee;
the destruction of the forest.
• When the noun is a long noun phrase:
e.g., She is the sister of someone I used to go to school with.

Task 1. Complete the sentences using possessives where necessary.


1. (Mrs. Smith) __________ husband often gives her flowers.
2. The (boy) _________ hat is red.
3. The (boys) _________ hats are red.
4. The (children) __________ toys are all over the floor.
5. I fixed the (child) _________ bicycle.
6. (Sally) __________ last name is White.
7. (Bess) __________ last name is Young.
8. There are many problems in (today) ___________ world.
9. It would cost me a (month) ______________salary to buy this re-
frigerator.
10. We went to (Jack and Larry) ______________ house for dinner.

Task 2. Underline the answer which is correct or more likely.


1. I was surprised by the announcement of yesterday/ yesterday’s announce-
ment.
2. They left their homes because of the extension of the airport/ the air-
port’s extension.
12 Имя существительное. Артикль

3. The guitar playing of David/ David’s guitar playing has improved enor-
mously.
4. The completion of the road/ The road’s completion was ahead of sche-
dule.
5. At the supermarket, I found I’d bought the shopping list of the last
week/ last week’s shopping list.
6. It’s the responsibility of the firm who built the houses/ the firm who built
the houses’ responsibility.
7. That isn’t much use, it’s the calendar of last year/ last year’s calendar.
8. I was shocked by the opinion of Alice/ Alice’s opinion.
9. He gently patted the shoulder of his brother/ his brother’s shoulder.
10. He’s the friend of a man I know at work/ a man I know at work’s friend.
11. The evacuation of the building/ The building’s evacuation took only
10 minutes.

Task 3. Combine the two sentences, using either possessive or the of form.
1. Andrew died. They were saddened to hear of this. _________________
2. The new rules were introduced. They protested about this._________
3. Bill was rude. They were shocked by this._____________________
4. The railway line was extended. They were happy about this.________
5. There was a fire this morning. They were lucky to escape it.________

Task 4. If necessary, correct these sentences. If they are already correct,


put a √.
A. 1. Tony computers have been stolen. ________________________
2. When the teacher had called out the girl’s names, they all stepped
forward. ___________________________________________________
3. We had to study Charles Dicken’s early novels at school. __________
4. I went to the newsagent’s to buy a paper. _____________________
5. There were hundreds of bird’s nests in the trees. _________________
6. They are my mother-in-law’s favourite sweets. _________________
7. I took the books to Lewis’ house yesterday. ___________________
8. If they had been anyone else’s paintings, I wouldn’t have gone to the
exhibition. _________________________________________________
9. She was a friend of my mothers. ___________________________
10. The worlds airline’s are moving towards a total ban on smoking. __
_________________________________________________________
11. The readers letters page in the newspaper is full of complaints about
the article. __________________________________________________
12. I met a cousin of the Duke of Edinburgh last week._____________

B. 1. I enjoy visiting friend houses. ____________________________


2. When I was in London I stayed at a friend house. ______________
3. My uncle is my father brother. ____________________________
Unit 2 13

4. I have four aunts. All of my aunt homes are within walking distance
of my mother apartment. ______________________________________
5. David’s aunt oldest son is a painter. _________________________
6. Bill wife is a factory worker. _______________________________
7. I walked into my boss office. ______________________________
8. I borrowed the secretary pen to fill in the application form. _______
9. Five astronauts were aboard the space shuttle. The astronaut safe return
to earth was a welcome sight to millions of television viewers. ___________
10. It is the people right to know what the city is going to do about the
housing problem. ___________________________________________
11. Quite a few diplomats are assigned to our city. Almost all of the dip-
lomat children attend a special school. ___________________________
12. A diplomat work invariably involves numerous meetings.___________

2. Compound nouns
2.1. When we want to give more specific information about someone or
something, we sometimes use a noun in front of another noun. For exam-
ple, we can use a noun + noun combination to say what something is made
of, where something is, when something happens, or what someone does:
e.g., rice pudding; hill fog; a morning call; a language teacher.
When a particular combination is regularly used to make a new noun,
it is called a compound noun. We sometimes make compound nouns which
consist of more than two nouns:
e.g., a milk chocolate bar; an air-traffic controller; a dinner-party con-
versation.
2.2. Some compound nouns are usually written as one word (e.g., a table-
cloth), some are separate words (e.g., waste paper), and others with a hyphen
(e.g., a word-processor). Some compound nouns can be written in more than
one of these ways (e.g., a golf course or a golf-course).
2.3. Even if the first noun has a plural meaning, it usually has a singular
form:
e.g., an address book (= a book for addresses) or a car park (= a place
for parking cars).
However, there are a number of exceptions. These include:
• Nouns that are only used in the plural, or have a different meaning
in singular/ plural or countable/ uncountable:
e.g., a clothes shop (compare a shoe shop); a darts match; a glasses case
(= for spectacles); a customs officer; the arms trade.
• Cases such as:
e.g., the building materials industry; the publications department.
When we refer to an institution of some kind (an industry; department;
etc.) which deals with more than one item or activity (building materials,
publications). Compare:
14 Имя существительное. Артикль

the appointment board (= the board which deals with a particular ap-
pointment);
the appointments board (= the board which deals with all appointments).
2.4. To make a compound noun plural we usually make the second noun
plural:
e.g., coal mine(s); office-worker(s); tea leaf/ tea leaves.
However, in a compound noun that consists of two nouns joined by of
or in, we make a plural form by making the first noun plural:
e.g., bird(s) of prey.
Note that we say: a ten-minute speech; a 60-piece orchestra; a five-year-
old child.
But we can say: a two-third (or two-thirds) majority; a five-time (or five-
times) winner.
2.5. Some compound nouns consist of -ing + noun. The -ing form usually
says what function the following noun has:
e.g., a living room; drinking water; a working party.
Other compound nouns consist of a noun + -ing:
e.g., film-making; sunbathing; risk-taking.
2.6. Sometimes a noun + noun is not appropriate and instead we use
noun + ‘s + noun or noun + preposition + noun. In general, we prefer noun
+ ‘s + noun:
• when the first noun is the user (a person or animal) or users of the
item in the second noun:
e.g., a baby’s bedroom; a lion’s den;
• when the item in the second noun is produced by the thing (often
an animal) in the first:
e.g., duck’s eggs; cow’s milk;
(Compare lamb chops, chicken drumsticks when the animal is killed
to produce the item referred to in the second noun)
• when we talk about parts of people or animals; but we usually use
noun + noun to talk about parts of things:
e.g., a woman’s face or a boy’s arm, but a pen top or a computer keyboard.
We prefer noun + preposition + noun:
• when we talk about some kind of container together with its contents:
e.g., a cup of tea (= a cup with tea in it) and a tea cup (= a cup for drinking
tea from).
when the combination of nouns does not necessarily refer to a well-
known class of items:
e.g., a grammar book (a well-known class of books) but a book about cats.
2.7. Some compound nouns are made of nouns and prepositions or ad-
verbs, and related to two- and three-word verbs:
e.g., He broke out of the prison be dressing as a woman. (= escaped) and
There was a major break-out from the prison last night. (= prisoners
escaped)
Unit 2 15

Everyone has put in a lot of effort to make the course successful. and
Universities in Germany and Denmark will have an input into the
project.
Countable compound nouns related to two- and three-word verbs have
a plural form ending in -s:
e.g., read-out(s); push-up(s); intake(s).
However, there are some exceptions:
e.g., runner(s)-up; passer(s)-by.
2.8. We can form other kinds of hyphenated phrases that are placed before
nouns to say more precisely what the noun refers to:
e.g., a state-of-the-art (= very modern) computer; day-to-day (= regular)
control; a head-in-the-sand attitude (= refusing to think about unpleasant
facts); a four-wheel-drive vehicle (= one in which the engine provides power
to all four wheels so that it can go over rough ground easily).

Task 5. When we don’t remember the exact name of something, we describe


it instead. Do you know what is described in the underlined sections? The answers
are compound nouns made from the following words.
bargain; friend; tour; ground; hunters; language; mother;
package; pedestrian; pen; precinct; sign; staff; tongue

1. John works for an airline. He doesn’t fly, but he is one of the people
who work in the airport building. _______________________________
2. He works in the town in that area where there are shops, but no cars
or buses are allowed to go. _____________________________________
3. During the sales in the shops, there were lots of people looking to buy
things at low prices. _________________________________________
4. It’s someone I often exchange letters with, but I’ve never met.____
5. We’re going on a holiday arranged by a travel company. It includes
accommodation, flights, and so on.______________________________
6. Portuguese is the first language that I learnt when I was a baby.______
7. My friend can’t talk. He uses hand and body movements to show what
he means. _________________________________________________

Task 6. What do you call…?


1. a shelf for books_______________________________________
2. a train which carries goods________________________________
3. a test to detect drugs______________________________________
4. a case for putting pencils in_______________________________
5. a film lasting two hours__________________________________
6. the pages of a book that lists the contents_____________________
7. an expert in robotics_____________________________________
8. a shop which sells toys___________________________________
16 Имя существительное. Артикль

9. an essay which is four pages long___________________________


10. an issue of human rights_________________________________

Task 7. Suggest compound nouns to fill in the gaps in the text. One of the parts
of the compound in given in the brackets. Choose the other part from the box.
advertising; answering; breathing, cutting; losing;
mailing; making; recording; selling; turning; waiting

Just after I left university, I met an old friend who offered me the op-
portunity to join his company, Phono, selling a new type of mobile phone.
I organized a(n) ___________________ (campaign) and set up a(n)
_______________ (list) with the names and addresses of people who
might be interested in it. The main ________________ (point) of the
phone was that it included a(n) _______________ (machine), and was the
only one of its kind on the market at the time. At first the demand was so
great that there was a(n) ____________ (list) of people wanting to buy one.
Unfortunately, a year later Sonex brought out its new video phone, and this
was the _____________ (point) for Phono. Demand for our phone plum-
meted (стремительно падать). We did a lot of ______________ (cost)
to try to save money, but it wasn’t long before we knew we were figh-
ting a(n) ________________ (battle) and decided to close the company.
I’ve been out of work for a few months now, but this has given me the
____________ (space) to decide what I want to do next. When I worked
for Phono, I helped produce a(n) ______________ (video) to advertise
the product. I enjoyed this a lot, and that’s why I’d now like to get into
____________ (film).

Task 8. Which of these can also be expressed naturally as a noun + ‘s +


noun pattern?
noun+ preposition+ noun noun + noun noun + ‘s + noun
1. a wool from lamb
2. a headline in a newspaper
3. a nest lived in by a bird
4. insurance for a car
5. a hole in a wall
6. the uniform worn by a nurse
7. a request for help
8. the wheel of a bicycle
9. the voice of a man
10. a cloth for drying dishes
Unit 2 17

Task 9. Complete the sentences on the right with appropriate compound nouns
related to the two-word verbs used in the sentences on the left.
1. The teacher told me off for handing a. Harry had a very strict __________
in my homework late. and was glad to move away from his
parents.
2. The escaped prisoners crept into an b. The children have a secret _______
old barn and hid out until it got dark. at the bottom of the garden.
3. My mind flashed back to the time c. The engine fault was the latest
when I was living in Wales. of several _________ in the
development of the car.
4. She was born and brought up d. I was caught in a sudden _________
in central London. and got soaked through.
5. The rain was pouring down as we e. We received several
got out of the taxi. _____________ that there would be
an attempted break-out at the prison.
6. As I passed by her house, I could f. My father gave me a good ________
see people dancing in the front room. for knocking down his prize roses.
7. The injury has set back his chances g. The man was leaning out of the
of being fit to play in the final. window, shouting at _____________
in the street below.
8. The police were waiting for the h. There are a number of __________
thieves. Someone must have tipped in the film to the time before the
them off. robbery.

Task 10. Try to guess the meaning of the underlined parts of these sentences
from the contest.
1. He made a lot of pie-in-the-sky promises that I knew he wouldn’t keep.
2. The actors gave a very run-of-the-mill performance, and the critics
expressed their disapproval in their reports the following day.
3. We went to a number of out-of-the-way places that few tourists had
visited before.
4. My good-for-nothing brother just sat in front of the TV while I did
all the ironing.
5. He lived hand-to-mouth existence, surviving on just a few pounds
a week.
6. Behind-the-scenes negotiations were going on between the diplomats,
away from the public eye.
7. She stayed quite calm and spoke in a matter-of-fact way about the
attack.
UNIT 3

1. The Number of Nouns


1.1 Number is the form of the noun which shows whether one or more
than one object is meant. Some nouns have the singular and the plural forms
(e.g., a book — books). Other nouns are used either only in the singular (e.g.,
money, knowledge) or only in the plural (e.g., trousers, spectacles).
1.2 Nouns are made plural by adding:
1.2.1
-s to the noun. (pen — pens, etc.)
-es to nouns ending in -s, -ss, -x, -ch, -sh (bus — buses, glass — glasses,
box — boxes, torch — torches, bush — bushes, etc.)
-ies to nouns ending in consonant + y. (baby — babies, lady — ladies, etc.)
-s to nouns ending in vowel + y. (boy — boys, day — days, etc.)
-es to nouns ending in -o (tomato — tomatoes)
-s to nouns ending in: vowel + o (radio — radios), double o (zoo — zoos),
abbreviations (photo — photos) and musical instruments (piano — pianos)
Some nouns ending in -o can take either -es or -s (buffalo, mosquito,
volcano, etc.).
-ves to some nouns ending in -f / -fe. (leaf — leaves) (but: chiefs, roofs,
cliffs, handkerchiefs, safes, gulfs, proofs, griefs, cuffs, beliefs, scarfs, wharfs,
hoofs, etc.)
1.2.2 Compound Nouns form their plural by adding -s / -es:
• to the second noun if the compound consists of two nouns. girl-
friend — girlfriends
• to the noun if the compound consists of an adjective and a noun.
frying pan — frying pans
• to the first noun if the compound consists of two nouns connected
with a preposition. sister-in-law — sisters-in-law
• at the end of the compound if this is not made up of any nouns.
breakdown — breakdowns
1.2.3 Irregular Plurals
• a few nouns form their plural by a change of vowel: man — men,
woman — women, tooth — teeth, foot — feet, mouse — mice, goose —
geese, louse — lice;
Unit 3 19

• a few nouns form their plural by the suffix -en: ox — oxen, child —
children, brother — brethren;
• a few nouns have the same form for the singular and the plural: sheep,
swine, deer, fish, craft, counsel, trout;
• a few nouns ending in -s in the singular remain unchanged in the plu-
ral: means, works, barracks, headquarters, series, species, crossroads.
• Some nouns borrowed from other languages keep their foreign plural
forms: agendum — agenda; analysis — analyses; bacterium — bacte-
ria; basis — bases; crisis — crises; criterion — criteria; datum — data;
phenomenon — phenomena; etc.
2.1 A considerable number of nouns are used only in the singular in Eng-
lish. Special attention must be paid to the nouns which either have both the
singular and the plural forms in Russian or are used in the plural form only:
advice, evidence, fruit, hair, information, jewellery, knowledge, money, news,
spaghetti, trouble, summons, gallows, progress, etc.
As we have already said, such nouns are called uncountable. However,
there are situations when uncountable nouns have to be counted. Many un-
countable nouns can be made countable with the following phrases of quanti-
ty: a piece of cake / information / advice / furniture; a glass / bottle of water /
soda; a jar of jam; a tin of fish; / a box of chocolates; a packet of biscuits /
tea; a slice / loaf of bread; a pot of yoghurt; a pot / cup of tea; a kilo / pound
of meat; a tube of toothpaste; a bar of chocolate / soap; a bit / piece of chalk;
an ice cube; a lump of sugar; a sheet of paper; a bag of flour; a pair of trousers;
a game of soccer; a(n) item / piece of news; a drop / bottle of oil; a can of cola;
a carton of milk; a block of wood, etc.
2.2 There are a few nouns in English which are used only in the plural:
• articles of clothes consisting of two parts: trousers, pyjamas, etc.;
• tools and instruments consisting of two parts: scissors, spectacles,
glasses, tongs, pincers, scales, etc.;
• names of some games: dominoes (but billiards, cards, draughts are
used with a singular verb);
• some other nouns: riches, clothes, credentials, goods, people, police,
swine, cattle, authorities, conditions, contents, foundations, outskirts,
premises, races, resources, sights, stairs, etc.
3. Nouns which can be countable as well as uncountable (See Unit 1, #1.5).
3.1 Some nouns are countable with one meaning and uncountable or
only have a plural form with another:
a stone — stones (камешек) stone (камень, материал)
an iron — irons (утюг) iron (железо), irons (оковы)
a beauty — beauties (красавица) beauty (красота)
a noise — noises (звук) noise (шум)
a light — lights (огонек) light (свет)
a colour — colours (цвет) colours (флаг корабля)
20 Имя существительное. Артикль

a force — forces (сила) forces (армия)


a custom — customs (обычай) customs (таможня)
a draught — draughts (сквозняк) draughts (шашки)
a glass — glasses (стакан) glasses (очки), glass (стекло)
a minute — minutes (минуты) minutes (протокол заседания)
a quarter — quarters (четверть) quarters (съемное помещение)
a compass (компас) compasses (циркуль)
experience (опыт) experiences (впечатления)
scale (масштаб, размер) scales (весы)

3.2 We can use a lot of uncountable nouns as countable nouns to describe:


a kind/ type of something: a new French cheese; French red wines;
a quantity/ unit/ portion of something: two beers, a toothpaste, a shampoo.
4. Group nouns refer to a group of people. These nouns can take either
a singular or a plural verb depending on whether we see the group as a whole
or as individuals. Such group nouns are: audience, class, club, committee,
company, council, crew, family, government, press, public, staff, team, etc.
e.g., The team was the best in the country. (the team as a group)
The team were all given medals. (each member separately as individuals).
5. Russian nouns ворота, сани and часы have a plural form only, howe-
ver in the English language these nouns have both a singular and a plural
forms gate/ gates; sledge/ sledges; watch/ watches; clock/ clocks.

Task 1. Give the plural of:


а) foe, city, pity, hero, phenomenon, proof, chief, stitch, bath, glass, merry-
go-round, belief, radio, shelf, agendum, valley, roof, man-of-war, passer-by
b) foot, boot, ох, fox, man, German, breakdown, child, ship, goose,
noose, deer, cheese, sister-in-law, sheep, gulf, piano, nucleus, mosquito, tray
с) crisis, tomato, datum, mouse, trout, tooth, criterion, swine, analysis,
fish, court-martial, onlooker, calf, cliff, cuckoo, louse, lady, woman, potato

Task 2. Change the number of the поuп in bold type where possible and make
all other necessary changes.
l. The bоy drove the sheep in the direction of the field. 2. During the
2018 World Cup, I made friends with many foreign delegates. Among them
were а Swiss, а German, an Eskimo, аn Englishman and others. 3. I gave my
mom а handkerchief as a birthday present. 4. The boy must have two teeth
pulled out. 5. The villagers thanked the hunter who had killed the wolf that
was ravaging the village flock. 6. The child was playing happily with the new
toy. 7. The school bought а new ‘cello for their orchestra. 8. Не showed me
а photo of his family. 9. She gave the dolphin а fish. 10. This tea is of а fine
flavour. 11. The scout brought some valuable information. 12. I bought а pair
of new gloves and a scarf. 13. Jane saw а mouse in the kitchen. 14. The ох
Unit 3 21

drove а cart of hay. 15. Amateur and professional astronomers are going
to observe this рhеnоmеnоn next week. 16. Her hair was soft and curly.

Task 3. Choose uncountable equivalents from the box.


baggage; evidence; furniture; luck; money; poetry;
progress; research; traffic; travel; weather; work

1. a journey ____________ 7. dollars and euros ____________


2. poems ____________ 8. winning the lottery ____________
3. rainstorm ____________ 9. getting better ____________
4. a carry-on bag ____________ 10. chairs and tables ____________
5. cars and busses ____________ 11.fingerprints on a gun ____________
6. building a wall ____________ 12. studying historical records _________

Task 4. Choose the best words to complete the sentences. Translate the sen-
tences into Russian.
1. Have you got any point/ idea/ chance what you are going to do next?
2. I can’t see much point/ question/ chance in going on with this.
3. If you have any difficulty/ reason/ change getting here, give us a ring.
4. The doctor says there isn’t much difficulty/ change/ chance in his con-
dition.
5. We couldn’t find any idea/ point/ reason not to pay their bill.
6. It seems there is some point/ chance/ question about her qualifications.
7. Do we have much difference/ chance/ idea of winning?
8. There’s not much point/ difference/ change between ‘begin’ and ‘start’.

Task 5. Fill in: is or are.


1. Where _____ your glasses? 2. My advice to you _____ to study harder
for the exam. 3. Could you tell me where the scissors _____? 4. Athletics _____
my favourite sport. 5. Money _____ easy to spend but difficult to earn. 6. Mumps
_____ a common illness. 7. Hats _____ worn in sunny weather. 8. These trousers
_____ too short for her. 9. Tom’s proposals _____ amazing! 10. The weather
_____ awful this morning. 11. This bread _____ stale. 12. Helen’s boots _____
made of leather. 13. Your pyjamas _____ in the chest-of-drawers. 14. Billiards
_____ a popular game all over the world. 15. My luggage _____ carried by the
porter. 16. This work _____ too complicated for Ann, give her a hand.

Task 6. Complete these pairs of sentences using the correct form of one of the
words from the box. Use a/ an where necessary.
beer * cod * iron * experience * noise * deer * work

1. I saw _____________ racing in the field and took a picture of it.


Yesterday, there were ______________ in the field but now they are gone.
22 Имя существительное. Артикль

2. Two pieces of ____________ and some chips, please. The North Sea
is full of __________.
3. I’m thirsty. Let’s have _________ in that pub over there. In Britain
people go to pubs to drink ________, not to watch television.
4. The huge gate was made of ____________. John bought himself
___________ and started ironing his own clothes.
5. She’s had _____________ with children before and would make
a good babysitter. Moving house is ______________ I’d rather forget.
6. Hamlet is one of Shakespeare’s finest ____________. Gareth has
been without _____________ for six months now and jobs are hard to find.
7. She’d been working in her room till ___________ disturbed her. In
addition to car fumes, ______________ can also be a form of pollution.

Task 7. Fill in each space with an appropriate word from the box.
pair of shorts * foundations * scissors * jury * expenses *
media * company * interests * troops * army * supplies

1. You’re very lucky — travelling around the world, staying in nice hotels,
all _____________ paid.
2. The mass ___________ nowadays, TV and the press, have enormous
power.
3. In the summer, you can’t go around wearing long trousers all the time.
You’ll need a nice ______________.
4. Can you pass me those _______________ so I can cut this article
out of the paper?
5. The _________ have weighed all the evidence and have found the
accused guilty.
6. She lives alone and just needs ____________ now and again, someo-
ne to talk to.
7. What are your _____________? I mean, do you have any hobbies?
Do you play any sports?
8. Our _______________ are ready to attack the enemy; they have
a bigger ___________ than we have but it isn’t as well equipped with wea-
pons and tanks.
9. We’re running out of food and water — we’ll have to telephone and ask
for more ______________ to be sent.
10. They laid the __________ of the building months ago but they still
haven’t started to build it.

Task 8. Complete the following sentences with the appropriate verb, article
or pronoun.
1. Physics _________ an interesting subject at school but I wasn’t very
good at ___________.
Unit 3 23

2. Athletics _____________ less popular before the Olympics made


___________ fashionable.
3. Politics __________ by no means the only area where women are
doing better but ____________ is one of the most important.
4. Classics __________ what I wanted to study but my parents persuaded
me that economics ___________ more useful so I did __________ instead.
5. I think you hurt ________ feelings when you forgot to invite her
to your party.
6. The goods ___________ being packed now and __________ will be
delivered first thing tomorrow morning.
7. Could you tell me a bit about ____________ likes and dislikes?
__________ mathematics your best subject?
8. ___________ police _____________ co-operating with ________
authorities in other countries which have a drug problem.
9. The Government __________ planning new taxes but _______
don’t know yet whether their own supporters will accept such a policy.
10. The audience ____________ requested not to bring ___________
refreshments into the auditorium.

Task 9. Translate into English


1. Эти новости очень интересные. 2. Чьи это деньги? — Я не знаю,
кому они принадлежат. 3. Ваши советы мне очень помогли. 4. Товар
только что прибыл. Он еще не разгружен. 5. Там было очень много
людей. 6. Эта лестница ведет к морю. 7. Они сделали успехи в англий-
ском языке. 8. У него достаточно знаний, чтобы выполнить эту работу.
9. Его одежда совсем новая. Где он ее купил? 10. Сестра жены моего
брата работает в банке. 11. У вас есть карта Европы? 12. Муж моей
сестры Елены уехал в Лондон. 13. Многие из этих советов нам очень
пригодились. 14. Мы получили такие же сведения. 15. Его познания
в этой области поразили нас. 16. Произведения Л. Толстого переведены
на многие языки мира. 17. Он получил высокооплачиваемую работу.
18. Какие новости? 19. Какая хорошая погода! 20. Британские власти
ведут расследование. 21. В европейских странах производят разные
вина. 22. Плавая в Красном море, мы могли видеть разноцветных рыб.
23. Как сообщают, каждый год ловят все больше рыбы. 24. Условия
содержания в тюрьме были очень плохими. 25. Музей — это место,
где собраны разные произведения искусства. 26. Он вытряхнул со-
держимое ее сумочки на стол. 27. Фундамент (основание) здания был
заложен десять лет назад.
Unit 4
AGREEMENT BETWEEN SUBJECT AND VERB

1. If the subject of the sentence is singular, it is followed by a singular


verb, and if it has a plural subject, it is followed by a plural verb.
e.g., He goes to school. They go to school.
When the subject of the sentence is complex, the verb agrees with the
main noun in the subject:
e.g., Many leading members of the opposition party have tried to justify
the decision.
The only excuse that he gave for his actions was that he was tired.
2. Some nouns with a singular form can be treated either as singular (with
a singular verb) or plural (with a plural verb). These are known as collective
nouns:
e.g., The council has (have) postponed a decision on the new road.
The committee usually raise their hands to vote.
The school is to close next year.
Other words like these include association, audience, class, club, college,
community, company, crowd, department, electorate, enemy, family, firm, gene-
ration, government, group, jury, orchestra, population, press, public, university,
staff, and names of organisations such as the Bank of England, the BBC,
IBM, Sony.
3. Some nouns are usually plural and take a plural verb. These include
belongings, clothes, congratulations, earnings, goods, outskirts, particulars
(= information), premises (= buildings), riches, savings, surroundings, thanks
and some others. The noun whereabouts can be used with either a singular
or a plural verb.
4. Some nouns always end in -s and look as if they are plural, but when
we use them as a subject of the sentence, they have a singular verb:
e.g., The news from the Middle East seems very encouraging.
Other nouns like this include some academic disciplines, e.g., economics,
linguistics, mathematics; some sports, e.g., gymnastics, athletics; some disea-
ses, e.g., diabetes, measles, rabies.
5. However, compare:
Unit 4. Agreement between subject and verb 25

Academic disciplines General use


Politics is popular at this university. Her politics are bordering on the
fascist. (= political belief)
Statistics was always my worst subject. Statistics are able to prove anything
you want them to. (= numeral
information)
Economics has only recently been The economics behind their policies are
recognized as a scientific study. unreasonable. (= the financial system )

6.
With any of, each of, either of, neither I don’t think any of them knows (or
of, or none of and a plural noun we know) where the money is hidden.
can use a singular or a plural verb.
However, a singular verb is preferred Neither of the French athletes has (or
in careful written English. have) won this year.
With a/the majority of, a number of, A number of refugees have been turned
a lot of, plenty of, all (of), or some (of) back at the border.
and a plural noun we use a plural verb.
But if we say the number of, we use The number of books in the library has
a singular verb. risen to over five million.
With any of, none of, the majority All the furniture was destroyed in the
of, a lot of, plenty of, all (of), some fire.
(of) and an uncountable noun we use
a singular verb.
With each and every and a singular Every room has its own bathroom.
noun we use a singular verb. (For each
of, see above.) The boys have each drawn a picture.
With everyone, everybody, everything Practically everyone thinks that Judith
(and similar words beginning in any-, should be given the job.
some- and no-) we use a singular verb.

7. Some phrases with a plural form are thought of as a single thing


and have a singular verb. These include phrases referring to measurements,
amounts and quantities:
e.g., About three meters separates the runners in first and second places.
The fifty pounds he gave me was soon spent.
8. When a subject has two or more items joined by and, we usually use
a plural verb:
e.g., Jean and David are moving to Canada.
However, phrases connected by and can also be followed by singular verbs
if we think of them as making up a single item:
e.g., Meat pie and peas is Tom’s favourite at the moment.
Other phrases like this include fish and chips, research and development
(or R and D).
9. When a subject is made of two or more items joined by (either) …
or … or (neither) … nor … we use a singular verb if the last item is singular
26 Имя существительное. Артикль

(although a plural verb is sometimes used in informal English), and a plural


verb if it is plural:
e.g., Either a station or the cinema is a good place to meet.
Neither the President nor his representatives are to attend the meeting.
If the last item is singular and the previous item plural, we can use a sin-
gular or a plural verb:
e.g., Either the teachers or the principal is (or are) to blame for the ac-
cident.
10. After per cent (also percent or %) we use a singular verb:
e.g., An inflation rate of only 2 per cent makes a big difference to exports.
Around 10 per cent of the forest is destroyed each year.
However, in phrases where we can use of + plural noun we use a plural
verb:
e.g., I would say that about 50 per cent of houses need major repairs.
Of those interviewed, only 20 per cent (= of people interviewed) admit
to smoking.
But where we use a singular noun that can be thought of either as a whole
unit or a collection of individuals, we can use a singular or plural verb:
e.g., Some 80 per cent of the electorate is expected to vote. (or are ex-
pected)

Task 1. In the following sentences (a) underline the complex noun that is
the subject; (b)circle the main noun in the subject; (c) write the correct form
of the verb.
1. The issues which have been considered in the previous section
____________ (allow) us to speculate on the problems that learners might
encounter.
2. Smuggling illegal immigrants out of Mexico _________ (be) against
the law.
3. The country’s first general election since it won independence
__________ (be) to be held next month.
4. The only people who are interested in the book __________ (seem)
to be lawyers.
5. The view of the manufacturing and tourist industries ________ (be)
that the economy is improving.
6. An early analysis of the results ___________ (show) that the Socialists
have won.
7. Reliance only on written tests of English to measure language ability
__________ (appear) to be cheap option.

Task 2. Complete the following sentences with either was/were or has/have.


If both singular and plural forms are possible, write them both.
1. The crowd _________ growing restless as the day got hotter.
2. Sony __________ announced rising profits for the third year running.
Unit 4. Agreement between subject and verb 27

3. The police ________ issued a warrant for Adamson’s arrest.


4. When she was found, her face was bruised and her clothes _______
torn.
5. The public _________ a right to know how the money is to be spent.
6. Thomas was thought to be in Spain, although his exact whereabouts
__________ unknown.
7. The stairs leading to the exit ______ steep and dangerous, said the
report.
8. Lord Travers’ family ________ lived in the house for twelve gene-
rations.
9. The college __________ spent over $500,000 on a new sports centre.
10. People _________ running in all directions, trying to get away.

Task 3. Correct any mistakes in the sentences or put a √ if they are already
correct.
1. The island’s politics is complex, with over twelve parties competing
for power.
2. Gymnasts from over 40 countries are competing in Madrid this week-
end.
3. Economics has become an increasingly popular course at university.
4. The latest news of the earthquake survivors are very disturbing.
5. Jim’s politics has changed considerably since he was in his twenties.
6. Diabetes are an illness caused by too much sugar in the blood.
7. Recent government statistics show a sharp decline in crime.
8. Women’s gymnastics are no longer dominated by eastern Europeans.
9. Statistics are now compulsory for all students taking a course in en-
gineering.
10. Most years, over three hundred athletes competes in the games.
11. The economics of the plan is worrying investors.
12. Measles is still a fairly serious childhood disease in some countries.

Task 4. Complete the following sentences with either is/are or has/have. If


both singular and plural forms are possible, write them both.
1. A number of shoppers _________ complained about the price in-
creases.
2. I can assure you that everything ________ perfectly safe.
3. Either of the dentists ______ available. Which one would you like
to see?
4. The majority of primary school teachers _______ women.
5. Each of Susan’s colleagues _______ sent her a personal letter of sup-
port.
6. Although some people find cricket boring, each match ______ dif-
ferent.
7. We’ve got two cars, but neither of them _______ particularly new.
28 Имя существительное. Артикль

8. All of the office staff ________ agreed to work late tonight to get the
job finished.
9. A lot of the pollution ________ caused by the paper factory on the
edge of the town.
10. None of the TV programmes __________ worth watching tonight.
11. Researchers have reported that neither of the so-called ‘environmen-
tally friendly’ fuels _________ less damaging than petrol or diesel.
12. I hope everyone _______ a good holiday. See you next term.
13. The number of pupils in school with reading difficulties _______
fallen this year.
14. Some people _______ the strangest hobbies. My brother collects
bottles!
15. None of the information ________ particularly useful to me.

Task 5. Write sentences from these notes. Choose is or are as the verb in each
case. If you can use either is or are, put both.
1. Prime Minister/ her deputy/ opening the debate = Either the Prime
Minister or her deputy is opening the debate.
2. Tom/ his friends/ going to clean the car = Either _______________
3. the children/ their mother/ delivering the letters = Either _________
4. the management/ the workers/ going to have to give way in the disa-
greement = Either __________________________________________

Task 6. The British computer company McWorth announced today that


it is to move some of its operation to Klin, Russia. Here is an extract from the
announcement. Make any necessary corrections to the parts of the verb to be.
The new premises we plan to occupy in Klin are now being built. The
outskirts of this city is an ideal site for a company like ours. R and D are an
important part of our work, and next year fifty per cent of our budget are
to be spent on our Klin centre. Some of our staff in Britain are being asked
to relocate, and eventually around ten per cent of our British workforce are
to move to Russia. However, the majority of our new employees is to be
recruited locally, and we think that the local community are going to benefit
enormously from this development. A number of business leaders and the
local mayor is being invited to a meeting next week. Unfortunately, neither
the Company President nor the Managing Director of McWorth is available
to address that meeting, but I and other senior managers am to attend.

Task 7. Translate into English


1. Ваши деньги на столе. Возьмите их. 2. Мне нужен совет в этом
деле. 3. Почему вы пренебрегли его советами? 4. Все сведения были
очень важные. 5. Эти деньги не мои. 6. Сколько у тебя денег? — У меня
мало денег; их не хватит на покупку принтера. 7. Когда я приехал,
новости были известны всем, и мне не пришлось их рассказывать.
Unit 4. Agreement between subject and verb 29

8. Они провели день на скачках. 9. Не берите эти ножницы, они ту-


пые. 10. Заходи ко мне сегодня вечером. У меня есть хорошая но-
вость. Расскажу. 11. Прибыв в Лондон, они первым делом отправились
осматривать достопримечательности. 12. Лестница сделана из дере-
ва. 13. Я купил эти часы в Лондоне. Они очень хорошие. 14. Ваши
часы спешат. 15. Я не мог войти в сад, так как ворота были закрыты.
16. Сани стоят у ворот. 17. Братья помолились и начали убирать тер-
риторию монастыря. 18. Вот сарай, в котором живут свиньи. — А где
вы держите овец? 19. Трамвай — экологически чистый вид транспорта.
20. Штаб располагался на вершине холма. Все ждали главнокоманду-
ющего. 21. Путешествуя по горам, мы видели много крутых обрывов.
22. Рядом с нашим домом располагается газовый завод. 23. Советники
прибыли, все ждут только судью. 24. Раньше английские аристокра-
ты охотились на оленей, в настоящее время запрещена даже охота
на лис. 25. В нашей лаборатории изучают интересные явления. 26. Мои
любимые цветы — незабудки. 27. Шарфы лежат в гардеробе, а носовые
платки — в комоде.
Unit 5
DETERMINERS

Determiners include the articles, possessive forms of nouns, and other


words that come before nouns. Here is a list of common determiners exclu-
ding articles and nouns in the possessive case:
a lot of/ lots of enough most his/ her, etc.
none/ none of all more that/ those
a little of another much this/ these
any every neither no
both few other
each little several
either many some

Determiners should be used the following way:


determiner meaning/ use
all/ all of the complete amount, the whole number or amount of,
every one of.
Note: We use all of, not all before pronouns: We say all
of them.
another an additional person or thing (used with singular countable
nouns)
any • for quantities which do not or may not exist (in negative
sentences and questions);
• it doesn’t matter which one
both/ both of • two people or things together;
• in the expression both … and to emphasise that something
is true of one thing and another.
Notes:
1. We use both of, not both, before pronouns.
2. Both is always plural
each/ each of every single one of two or more things or people (considered
separately)
Note: We always follow each with a singular noun, but each
of with a plural noun or pronoun and a singular verb.
Unit 5. Determiners 31

either (… or) one or the other of two things or people.


Notes:
1. We use either of, not either, before pronouns (Either
of them);
2. We follow either with a singular noun.
every • each one of a group of things or people;
• to emphasise that you are talking about the whole of sth;
• to indicate that sth happens at regular intervals of time or
distance.
a few/ a few of a small number of; enough (with plural countable nouns)
few/ few of not many, not enough (with plural countable nouns)
a little/ a little of a small amount (with uncountable nouns)
little not much (with uncountable nouns)
a lot of/ lots of a large amount (in positive sentences only)
many/ many of a large number (with plural countable nouns)
Note: In this use, many/ many of is more formal than a lot of.
much/ much of a lot of (with uncountable nouns), used especially
in negative sentences and questions
plenty of/ lots of with uncountable and plural nouns; plenty=more than
enough (There’s no need to hurry. We’ve got plenty of time.)
most/ most of nearly all
Note: We use most of, not most, before pronouns
more a larger amount
Notes:
1. We use more of, not more, before pronouns.
2. We often imply a comparison, without stating it.
3. We use a plural noun or pronoun after more of.
neither (… nor) not one or the other of two people or things (with positive
verbs)
Notes:
1. We use neither of, not neither, before pronouns.
2. We follow neither with a singular noun.
none of not any of three or more things or people (with positive
verbs)
other people or things in addition to the ones already known
Note: We can use others or the others on its own without
a noun.
several/ several of some, but not a large quantity
Note: We use several of, not several, before pronouns.
some/ some of • not many or much
Note: We use some of, not some, before pronouns.
• when we expect the answer yes or no (in questions)
• a large amount of sth (with certain uncountable nouns)

• Others means “other people”; the others means “those not mentioned
already.”
32 Имя существительное. Артикль

e.g., Some people like watching horror films but others hate them.
Two climbers went to the top and the others waited in the tent.
• We do not usually use two determiners together:
e.g., Either other plan is hopeless.
But: Either plan is hopeless. or Both plans are hopeless.
• Singular countable nouns must always have an article or a determiner.
e.g., You don’t have chance of winning.
But: You don’t have a/ any chance of winning.

Task 1. Underline the correct alternative in the sentences below.


1. None of/ Neither of you need worry; I’m not going to ask any of you
for a loan.
2. None/ Each of the children will be met at the station, so they will be
safe.
3. The price is sixty pounds a week, then ten pounds for each/ some
extra day.
4. Every/ Any item has been carefully checked and they are all fine.
5. Each/ Every of the children had the same weight at birth.
6. I have asked them both and neither/ both of them knows the answer.
7. I have every/ all record the group has ever made.
8. Freda had to stop and rest after each/ many hundred meters or so.
9. Sadly, there were few/ a few people at the concert.
10. I’d like to have few/ a few words with you if you don’t mind.
11. Fortunately, I had a little/ little time to spare.
12. She had very little/ few money — just a few/ a little coins.
13. I had never seen so much/ many bright stars in the sky.
14. These days most/ most of crime is against property, not people.
15. The court case cost them few/ several million dollars.
16. My mother has inherited some/ another land in Australia.
17. Can you give me some/ enough idea of the cost?
18. Can you pass me other/ another mug?
19. We only spent a few/ many days in Rome; on the first day we visited
a museum and on the other/ others days we just strolled around.
20. I can get to Edinburgh by plane or train but either/ neither way it is
very expensive.

Task 2. Comment on the use of some or any in the following sentences.


1. Could I get you some fresh orange juice? I have just made some.
2. Yesterday I left the house without any money. 3. The council refused
to give the designer any financial help. 4. Can I offer you some wine? 5. Any
of the staff could have helped you. 6. If you have any questions, call me.
7. Shall I send you some other files? 8. There was never any question that she
would leave her job. 9. Jackie hardly ever has any doubts about her abilities.
10. Could you buy some cheese in town? 11. There is seldom any world news
Unit 5. Determiners 33

on this channel. 12. The detective failed to find any further evidence. 13. Is
there any water in the jug? 14. Would you like some juice?

Task 3. Insert some or any where necessary.


1. My teacher lives ____ distance away from the school. 2. You should
buy ____ new clothes for the New Year, I think. 3. Ruth still has ____doubts
about her marriage, but her boyfriend John hasn’t got any. 4. Mum was sure
we had ____ honey left. At breakfast it turned out we didn’t have ____ . 5. Has
there been ____ discussion of the project? — Yes, ____ people are against it,
I’m sorry to say. 6. There must be ____ way to get in touch with them, but so
far I haven’t found ____ 7. Is there ____ reliable source of information you’ll
use in your investigation, inspector? — I definitely have ____, though I am
not going to reveal ____ to you, sir. 8. ____ people hate seafood. 9. Let’s talk
about it ____ other time. 10. There aren’t ____ markets on Monday. 11. There
is ____ dust on the furniture. — Oh, I haven’t got ____ time for this. 12. Do
you speak ____ French? — No, but I speak ____ English.

Task 4. Fill in the gaps with much, many or a lot of.


1. A: Do we need more bread? — B: Yes, there isn’t _________left.
2. A: You’ve made ________ desserts. — B: Yes, but I’ve invited all my
friends over!
3. A: How ______ milk should I add to the flour? — B: One cup is fine.
4. A: How ______ times a week do you swim? — B: Two or three.
5. A: Have we got _____ tomatoes? — B: Yes, we’ve got lots in the fridge.
6. A: Max is a very good tennis player. — B: Yes, he has won ______
competitions.
7. A: How ___ pepper did you put in the stew? — B: Why? Is it too spicy?
8. A: How ______ onions are left? — B: About five or six.

Task 5. Fill in the gaps with a few or a little.


1. A: Hurry up Brenda; I need to use the phone! — B: OK. Just give me
______more minutes.
2. A: Shall I add some milk to your tea? — B: Yes, please but just ______.
3. A: It’s a lovely day. Let’s have a picnic in the park. — B: Great idea!
I’ll pack ______ sandwiches and some drinks.
4. A: Is Mr. Roberts in? — B: Yes. He arrived ______while ago.
5. A: Have you got many CDs? — B: Only ______.
6. A: I’m going to the supermarket. Do you need anything? — B: Yes,
______ carrots for the vegetable soup.

Task 6. Without changing the meaning of the sentence, replace the italicized
words with a few, (very) few, a little or (very) little.
1. I think that some lemon juice on fish makes it taste better.
_________________
34 Имя существительное. Артикль

2. Many people are multilingual, but not many people speak more than
ten languages. _________________
3. Some sunshine is better than none. _________________
4. January is a cold and dreary month in the northern states. There is
not much sunshine during that month. _________________
5. My parents like to watch TV. Every evening they watch two or three
programs on TV before they go to bed. _________________
6. I don’t watch TV very much because there are hardly any TV programs
that I enjoy. _________________
7. If a door squeaks, several drops of oil in the right places can prevent
future trouble. _________________
8. If your door squeaks, put some oil on the hinges. _________________
9. Mrs. Johnson doesn’t like to wear rings on her fingers. She wears
almost no jewelry. _________________

Task 7. Read the following sentences and give their equivalents in Russian.
1. For each man under the sun life is a game. 2. Every medal has two
sides. 3. Every dog has his day. 4. Everything comes to him who waits.
5. Every man is the architect of his own fortune. 6. Everybody’s business is
nobody’s business. 7. Every little helps. 8. Everything must have a beginning.
9. Everything has an end. 10. He was every inch a gentleman. 11. Every cloud
has a silver lining. 12. This is America! Count every vote!

Task 8. Correct the errors. Some of the sentences do not contain any errors.
1. It’s important for every students to have a book. _________________
2. Each of the students in my class have a book. _________________
3. The teacher gave each students a test paper. _________________
4. Every student in the class did well in the test. _________________
5. Every furniture in this room is made of wood. _________________
6. I gave a present to each of the woman in the room. _________________
7. Each of your suitcases will be checked when you go through customs.
_________________
8. It’s impossible for one human being to know every languages in the
world. _________________
9. I’ve found each of the error in this exercise. _________________

Task 9. Underline the correct item.


1. Both / Either Frank and Joe are on the basketball team.
2. Neither / Both Brenda nor Beth can drive a car.
3. We listened carefully to every / each word the teacher said.
4. Megan practises the piano every / either day after school.
5. None / Either of the students knew how to answer the last question
in the test.
Unit 5. Determiners 35

6. Alisha’s mother bought her two blouses but she doesn’t like either /
neither of them.
7. He had a bottle in every / each hand.

Task 10. Rewrite the sentences using both ____ and, neither ____ nor or
either ____ or.
1. Peter needs a haircut. So does Mary. ________________________
2. Helen has got dark eyes. Sally has got dark eyes, too. ______________
3. Jane is very athletic and so is Rick. _________________________
4. John doesn’t like spicy foods. Arthur doesn’t like spicy food, either.
_________________________________________________________
5. Dana is cooking lunch or else Tom is. _______________________
6. Father is walking the dog or may be my sister is. _______________

Task 11. Fill in the blanks with appropriate pronouns (the) other/another/
(the) others, each other.
1. She was now listening to whoever it was on __________ end of the
line. 2. And now let’s go in and join___________ . 3. However, there were
________ matters for us grown-ups to consider. 4. All European languages
belong to the same family except for Finnish, Hungarian, Basque and one
or two __________ . 5. Bees carry pollen from one plant to __________ .
6. The boxers went on hitting ________ ____________. 7. Some books are
useful to read, ___________ are just a waste of time. 8. He produced two
films. One became a classic, _________ passed unnoticed. 9. My Dad says
he needs ___________ car. 10. Some people are bitterly frustrated when this
happens, __________ are not. 11. One man’s meat is _________ man’s poi-
son. 12. I’ve got ___________ three books to read. 13. On the one hand it is
true, on __________ not quite. 14. In 1900 the Uffizi gallery in Florence
had 2,395 paintings on display. Today it shows just 500. ____________ are
locked away, almost never seen.

Task 12. Look at the results of the UFO survey and then fill in each space
in the text below with an appropriate word.
Survey: Is there life on other planets?
Number of people interviewed: 400
Age: 18+
question yes no
1. Is there life on other planets? 350 50
2. Has earth been visited by other species? 25 375
3. Have you seen a UFO? 3 397
4. Dou you believe those who say they’ve seen a UFO? 15 385
5. Do you have evidence of the existence of UFOs? 0 400
6. Do you believe we will get evidence in the future? 12 388
36    Имя существительное. Артикль

Do you believe in UFOs?


In our survey, we asked (1) __________ hundred people whether
they believed there was life on (2) ___________ planets. The answer (3)
__________ people gave was that there must be (4) _________ planets
in the universe with (5) ___________ kind of life on them. They thought
it was unlikely that (6) _____________ of the planets in the universe were
deserted except for ours. On the other hand, very (7) ________ people
thought we had actually been visited by (8) ________species. Hardly (9)
________ of the people we interviewed claimed that they had seen a UFO
and only (10) ______ believed stories told by (11) ________ people of mee­
tings with aliens. (12) ______ of those who said they had first-hand experie­
nce could offer (13) _________ proof and, sadly, it seemed there was (14)
_________ chance that in future anyone would come up with such proof.
(15) _______ the people in the survey were adults.

Task 13. Translate into English.


1.  Он провел всю свою жизнь, работая на фабрике. 2. Нам нужен
еще стул. 3. У меня нет денег. У тебя есть деньги? 4. Была ужасная
буря, но  нам всем удалось благополучно вернуться. 5. Мы можем
пойти в любой ресторан, который тебе нравится. 6. Ее родители оба
врачи. 7. Я не уверена, есть ли у нее братья. 8. Каждому ребенку дали
подарок. (2 варианта) 9. Позвони мне, если у тебя будут какие-нибудь
проблемы. 10. Я жил и в Нью-Йорке, и в Чикаго, но ни один город мне
не нравится. 11. Тебе нужна большая или маленькая сумка? — Любая
из них подойдет. 12. Я наслаждался каждой минутой фильма. 13. Он
жил как в Англии, так и в Америке. 14. Я не знаю, которую из книг
купить. — Почему бы тебе не купить обе? 15. Ты можешь взять либо
голубую блузку, либо зеленую. 16. В нашей компании сейчас есть не­
сколько вакансий. 17. Обе эти книги мои. 18. Мало кто из покупателей
жаловался. 19. Времени мало, быстро собирай вещи! 20. Мы продаем
больше этих карт (чем других). 21. У Джейн был мозоль на каждой ноге.
22. Каждый студент должен заполнить эту форму. 23. Том навещает
маму каждую неделю. 24. Нам нужно больше этих книг. 25. Я прочитал
несколько ее книг. 26. Никто из родителей не волнуется, что произой­
дет с ребенком. 27. Ни один из моих друзей больше мне не звонит.
28. Остальные ждут в офисе. 29. На улице ждет несколько человек.

LET’S TALK
Conduct a poll among your groupmates and report your findings.
Step 1. Prepare five yes/no questions that ask for opinion or information
about your groupmates likes or dislikes, habits, experiences. Record their re­
sponses.
Sample questions:
1.  Do you read newspapers every day?
Unit 5. Determiners 37

2. Do you have a cat?


3. Do you play any sports?
4. Have you ever windsurfed?
5. Are you going to bed before midnight tonight?
Step 2. Report your findings to the class using expressions of quantity to make
generalizations about what you’ve learned.
Sample report:
1. Only a few students read newspapers every day.
2. Three of my fellow students have cats.
3. Most of my groupmates do sports on a regular basis.
4. None of them have ever windsurfed.
5. Almost each of them is going to be in bed before midnight tonight.
Unit 6
ARTICLE

1.  General Notion


The article belongs to a syntactic class of words called determiners, which
modify a noun. The determiners include:
• the definite and indefinite articles (a/an, the);
• the demonstrative pronouns (this/these, that/those);
• the possessive pronouns (my, your, his, her, its, our, their);
• the following pronouns: which, whose, every, each, some, any, no, (n)
either, enough, much, more, most;
• a noun in the possessive case (Tom’s, boys’)
2.  Functions of the Articles
The articles have morphologic, syntactic and communicating functions.
2.1. The morphologic function of the articles consists in serving as a formal
indicator of the noun: the presence of the article signals that what follows
is a noun.
2.2. The articles have two syntactic functions:
• the article separates the noun phrase from other parts of the sentence;
• the article may connect sentences within a text by correlating a noun
it modifies with some word or group of words in the previous context:
e.g., John has bought a book. The book is interesting.
2.3. The articles also have the communicating function.
A noun with the indefinite article may introduce new information in the
sentence. A noun with the definite article in the initial position usually in­
dicates given information.
3.  Meanings of the Articles with Countable Nouns
3.1. The indefinite article and the absence of article (the zero article)
The indefinite article has the nominating, classifying, numeric and gene­
ralizing meaning. As the indefinite article is used only with singular nouns,
the absence of article before plural nouns has similar meanings (the only
exception being the numeric meaning).
3.1.1. The nominating meaning is giving a name to an object we have
in mind:
e.g., A man entered the room. He was carrying a bag.
Unit 6. Article 39

Helen showed me a picture.


3.1.2. The indefinite article may assign an object to a certain class or
kind of similar objects. This is called the classifying meaning of the indefinite
article:
e.g., Alice is a student at Oxford University.
His aunt, a woman of uncertain age, was also present at the ceremony.
Nouns with the indefinite article in the classifying meaning are usually
predicatives (часть составного именного сказуемого) or appositions (при-
ложение) in the sentence.
The difference between the nominating and classifying meaning can be
confusing. However, it becomes apparent when the given nouns are turned
into the plural. In the case of the nominating meaning plural nouns may be
preceded by words like some, several, a few or by a numeral:
e.g., Two men entered the room. They were carrying several bags. (nom-
inating)
Helen showed me some pictures. (nominating)
In the case of the classifying meaning plural nouns cannot be preceded
by those words or by numerals:
e.g., The girls were students at Oxford University. (classifying)
3.1.3. Sometimes the meaning of oneness becomes predominant. In such
cases, we can speak of the numeric meaning of the indefinite article:
e.g., An hour in the morning is worth two in the evening.
I couldn’t hear a word she spoke.
The indefinite article always has the numeric meaning before the nume-
rals hundred, thousand, million and nouns dozen and score.
3.1.4. In the generalizing meaning the indefinite article indicates that the
following noun denotes a typical member of a class:
e.g., A dolphin is a mammal. (= Every dolphin is a mammal.)
An elephant is strong. (= Every elephant is strong.)
The generalizing meaning remains if we turn the nouns in the above-given
examples into the plural. Plural nouns in the generalizing meaning are used
without any article:
e.g., Dolphins are mammals.
Elephants are strong.
3.2. The definite article.
The definite article is used with both singular and plural nouns. The
definite article has the specifying meaning and the generic meaning.
3.2.1. In the specifying meaning the definite article denotes that the fol-
lowing noun refers to a particular object (thing, person, etc.) or particular
objects as distinct from all others of the same class:
e.g., Lynn followed the boy, but at a little distance.
Nothing was natural in the room except the plants.
3.2.2. The definite article is used in the generic meaning when reference
is made to a class of objects as a whole.
40 Имя существительное. Артикль

e.g., The dolphin is a mammal.


The elephant is strong.

Task 1. Determine the meaning of the indefinite article in the following


sentences.
1. You must have forgotten an old man like me? 2. After a pause, we
hear the full orchestra, loud and accented. 3. She glanced at Peter and saw
а tear in the corner of his eye. 4. A short silence descended before a voice
replied, weaker than before. 5. Why is it а girl has to bе so silly to catch
а husband? 6. Even as a boy he could play football as well as а grownup man
in а good physical condition. 7. I remember now, I thought I felt а bonе,
and I swallowed а large mouthful of bread to send it down. 8. А scientist
must bе ready to spend long hours in the laboratory. 9. James tossed an
empty Styrofoam cup over the rail, his mouth hard, his eyes nonsmil-
ing. 10. Not а word was spoken, not а sound was made. 11. A champi-
on isn’t supposed to lose, is he? 12. Не hesitated а moment at the door
and knocked on it. 13. The man went through а door to an inner office.
14. What can fly faster than an airplane? 15. The director had just finished
an all-morning conference with а local reporter. 16. Edward left for Paris
nearly а year ago. 17. А month or two passed, but Alison didn’t get a reply.
18. In а sheltered corner was а shabby treehouse. 19. It was dark in the
lobby and I could not see what James had brought: а book or а magazine.
20. I was а young and unimportant girl, and nobody paid attention to me.
21. Helen met a young man at а party, named John Greene, а promising
footballer. 22. Here I am, she thought, talking to Diego Maradona, a foot-
baller who won the World Cup.

Task 2. Determine the meaning of the definite article in the following sen-
tences.
1. Then holding the cup and sipping the hot coffee very slowly he looked
at the big map on the table and studied the possibilities of crossing the river.
2. On the morning of May Day, the empty square in front of the church was
no longer empty. 3. It was not London with its red buses and its bridges that
stared up at me from the printed page. 4. The moral Richard draw was that
the painter should seek his reward in the pleasure of his work. 5. The road
led to а park, nice, but unkempt, and not to the house at all. 6. The three
flight attendants started serving the passengers moving slowly down the aisle.
7. It was a hard decision to make, since every person has both the intellectual
and the emotional nature — the mind that reasons and the mind that feels.
8. Ogden invited them to sit down on the flattened log that served as a bench.
9. Ana sat down on the vacant end of the bench. 10. A day of computer games
to the untried mind is like a drug to the untried body. 11. Every portrait that is
painted with feeling is a portrait of the artist, not of the sitter. 12. In hospital
there was nothing to do, but lay staring at the ceiling.
Unit 6. Article 41

Task 3. Explain why in the following passages the italicized noun with the
definite article is followed bу the same noun with the indefinite article.
1. “Good morning,” said the voice, а musical voice with the broad accent
of Lorraine. 2. Quite half of Mrs. Hummond’s exasperation апd fury was
due to the fact that she was being excluded from sharing in а secret. She
raged importantly, and when Sir George was ushered in bу Wace the butler
(demurely grave as only а butler can bе when something is “up” above stairs),
she had just snubbed the unfortunate Sinclair rather ferociously for the se-
cond time in three minutes.
3. Why was the front door opеnеd?
(А husband says.) “It is not as though he had to let the lady out.”
The magistrate interrupted sharply. “The lady? What lady do you mean?”
“Why, the lady who came to see him.”
“Had а lady bееn to see him that evening?”
“But yes, monsieur — and many other evenings as well.”
4. “I’ve got to go to Mass, and then I want to see the priest about this
petition. Don’t you think it might help if a priest signed it?”
5. Bateman brought Isabel the letter he had just received “It’s а very
strange letter,” she said, “I don’t quite understand it.”

Task 4. Fill in the articles where necessary, explain your choice.


1. ____ bird has wings. 2. ____ animal needs ____ regular supply of food.
3. ____ food is necessary for ____ life. 4. ____ tennis is ____ sport. 5. ____
tennis player has to practice ____ long hours. 6. ____ island is ____ piece
of land surrounded by water. 7. ____ gold is ____ metal. 8. ____ bridge
is ____ structure that spans ____ river. 9. ____ health is one of the most
important things in ____ life. 10. ____ adjective is ____ word that modi-
fies ____ noun. 11. ____ tree needs____ water to survive. 12. ____ water is
composed of oxygen and hydrogen. 13. ____ sentence usually contains ____
subject and ____ verb. 14. ____ orange is green until it ripens. 15. ____
basketball is round. 16. ____ basketball is a popular sport.

Task 5. Fill in the articles where necessary.


1. He has ____ sunstroke after spending so much time on ____ beach.
2. We went for ____ walk along ____ coast. 3. I’ll give you ____ advice:
don’t be late again! 4. In ____ days before ____ invention of ____ radio
and television, ____ majority of people made their own entertainment at
home. 5. Many ____ evenings were spent reading ____ novel, playing the
piano or painting ____ picture. 6. In many ways, ____ people were almost
forced to find ____ creative outlet in one form or another. 7. Nowadays
a typical evening’s entertainment would be to spend ____ few hours in front
of ____ television. 8. This is not ____ very productive use of one’s time
and energy and has no doubt contributed to ____ breakdown of communi-
cation within ____ family.
42 Имя существительное. Артикль

Task 6. Fill in the articles where necessary.


1. ____tiger is ____ large carnivorous animal which belongs to ____ cat
family. 2. ____ males are about three feet high and have ____ length of about
twelve feet, including their tail. 3. There are about eight varieties of tiger
found around ____ world. 4. They live in ____ jungle where water and food
is plentiful. 5. ____ tiger will only attack ____ person if it is starving or if it is
threatened. 6. It is ____ easily recognized animal as it has ____ impressive
thick yellow or white coat with distinctive black stripes.

Task 7. Fill in the articles where necessary.


1. I have ____ idea. Let’s go on ____ picnic on Sunday. 2. Did you
have fun at ____ picnic yesterday? 3. You’d better have ____ good rea-
son for being late. 4. Do you think ____ reason Mike gave for being late is
believable? 5. Where’s my blue shirt? — It’s in ____ washing machine. —
That’s okay. I can wear ____ different shirt. 6. I wish we had ____ washing
machine. 7. Have you seen my boots? — They are in ____ closet in ____
front hallway. 8. What’s wrong with your car? — ____ radiator has ____
leak, and one of ____ windshield wipers doesn’t work. — Can you show
me where ____ leak is?

Task 8. Translate into English.


1. Мне нужно повесить картину. У тебя нет молотка? 2. Я купила
картину, но не знаю, куда ее повесить. 3. Где обычно вешают картины?
4. Мне нужно купить словарь. Не подскажите, где находится книж-
ный магазин? 5. Мама испекла торт. 6. Пироги на столе. Возьми себе
пирожок. 7. Эта женщина продает пирожки. Купить тебе пирожок?
Пирожок вкусный? 8. Прошла неделя, но погода так и не улучшилась.
9. Между супермаркетом и кинотеатром находился большой парк.
Парк всегда привлекал детей и стариков. 10. Удивительно, что кошка
и тигр принадлежат к одному семейству. 11. Кот всегда уходил из дома
ночью, чтобы охотиться на мышей. 12. Студенты получают стипендию,
если у них хорошие оценки. 13. Студенты должны сдавать письменные
работы вовремя. 14. Студентов попросили собраться в актовом зале.
UNIT 7

1. Articles with Countable Nouns Modified by Attributes.


Articles are used before nouns with or without any attributes (опреде-
ление).
In accordance with their role in the choice of the articles attributes may
be divided into limiting and descriptive.
1.1. A limiting attribute is used to point out a particular object or a number
of objects of the same class or kind. A noun with a limiting attribute is used
with the definite article.
e.g., She sat down and accepted the cigarette he offered her.
1.2. A descriptive attribute does not affect the use of the article. Therefore,
nouns modified by descriptive attributes can be used with either the definite
or the indefinite articles.
e.g., The big steamer dropped our mail and went on its way.
We saw a big steamer entering the harbor.
2. Modification by Adjectives
2.1. Attributes expressed by adjectives may be limiting or descriptive de-
pending on the context or the situation.
2.2. There are adjectives and adjective pronouns that always have a limi-
ting force because of their lexical meaning: same, only, very, main, principal,
left, right, central, following, present, former, latter, last, next, etc.
2.3. The adjectives alleged, necessary, opposite, previous, lower, upper,
usual, so-called are more often used as limiting attributes.
2.4. Adjectives in the superlative degree are always limiting attributes.
e.g., He was the fastest runner in the team.
She is the most beautiful girl in our class.
However, when most is an adverb of degree (весьма, крайне, чрезвы-
чайно), the combination of most + adjective is a descriptive attribute.
e.g., She is a most beautiful girl.
Note 1. Nouns denoting time (day, night, morning, afternoon, week, year,
etc.) are used without any article when they are modified by next, last in pre-
sent time contexts:
e.g., They got married last year.
44 Имя существительное. Артикль

However, when next and last are followed by an ordinal numeral, the
definite article is obligatory:
e.g., The next three months I studied the art.
There is no article in such combinations as on Monday last; on May last
etc.
Note 2. The adjective only is used as a descriptive attribute with the nouns
daughter, son, child when these nouns mean “somebody’s child, an offspring.”
e.g., Is he an only child?
Isabel was an only daughter of wealthy parents.
Note 3.1. А noun (singular or plural) modified bу the adjective pronoun
other is used with the definite article when two objects or two groups of ob-
jects are contrasted:
e.g., The difference between the two sisters was remarkable: one was gay,
outspoken, а good companion; the other sister was reserved and held herself
aloof from all of us.
Mrs. Donaldson and I remained оп the veranda, and the other guests
went to the pool with Patrick and Sonia.
In the second of the above given examples “the other guests” means “all
the other guests”, “the rest of the guests”. However, when the speaker is not
sure that all the rest of the objects are meant the definite article is not used:
e.g., Some boys and girls were bathing in the sea, other holidaymakers
were sitting or lying on the yellow sand of the beach.
Note 3.2. Other may bе used as а noun pronoun. Тhе definite article is
used with it in the same way as with nouns modified bу the adjective pro-
noun other:
e.g., The twins were not jealous of each other’s success: one was clever
at studies, the other at sports.
I gave him several cigarettes; he lighted one with a shaky hand,
having put the others into his pocket.
Some of his former friends forgot him, others thought he had died
or left the country.
Note 3.3. The indefinite article with other is spelled as one word another.
It has two meanings:
• different
e.g., I have another plan in my mind.
This dress is too small for me. Show me another one.
• one more of the same kind
e.g., Will you have another cup of tea?
In the second meaning another can be used with plural nouns preceded
by few or a cardinal numeral (количественное числительное):
e.g., He gave her another five dollars.
We are going to stay here another few weeks.
Note 4. The adjective pronouns all and whole are used as descriptive pro-
nouns. The use of article depends on the context.
Unit 7 45

e.g., All children like ice-cream.


All the children were taken to the circus.
He never stayed a whole evening with us.
He spent the whole evening watching the telly.
Note 5. There are several set phrases to memorize:
• a best suit (выходной костюм)
• a best seller
• the other day (на днях в отношении будущего)
Note 6. Some adjectives can be used in postposition and function as limi-
ting attributes (absent, present, proper, involved, concerned and some others).
e.g., The delegates present discussed the agenda of the conference.
The people involved were asked to come and testify.
Some nouns+postposed adjectives form set phrases: president elect, heir
apparent, attorney general, notary public, princess royal.

Task 1. Comment on the use of the articles with nouns modified by attributes.
1. The book I’ve recommended now costs more than three pounds.
2. She was a woman of wonderful generosity.
3. He looked up and saw a man standing in front of him.
4. He sent her a note saying he was coming back.
5. I stood by the iron gate leading to the garage and for a moment
couldn’t enter.
6. He looked around and saw a fifteen-year-old boy coming towards him.
7. At the door leading to the veranda Bart read the words «Doctor Smith».
8. The second attempt proved more successful than the first.
9. Japanese is certainly the most difficult language I have tried to learn.
10. My chief is the right man in the right place.

Task 2. Fill in the articles where necessary.


1. It was freezing cold; the old people said that it was ____ coldest winter,
which the country had ever known. 2. I decided to visit the museum ____
following morning. 3. I want you to explain to me why you don’t want to take
the exam. I want ____ real reason. 4. “Messi is ____ best type of a footballer,”
he said, “and I think you ought to know him.” 5. The Dean was talking about
twenty Americans who were being admitted to our university in ____ coming
semester. 6. Downstairs in ____ small imagined living room I imagined ____
small image of ____ man groping for а phone beside him оn ____ table.
7. He picked a stamp album from one of ____ lower shelves, and came back
across ____ room looking for the place in the collection. 8. And clapping me
in ____ friendliest way upon ____ shoulder he went away. 9. Не leaned back
comfortably, allowing his wife to make ____ necessary moves. 10. In the mid-
dle of ____ garden stood ____ old summer house. 11. ____ only difference
in their eating habits was that he used his fork with ____ left hand. 12. There
was not ____ slightest need for anyone to clean the house every day, but his
46 Имя существительное. Артикль

wife got ____ same pleasure from cleaning the house that _____ other people
get from writing ____ song, or winning ____ World Cuр. 13. On ____ upper
side ____ large piece of vegetation sprouted from the crest on ____ band.
14. It seemed ____ loveliest gown she had ever tried on. 15. It was ____ usual
noisy crowded place filled with the smell of stale coffee, ____ very French
smell that haunts its houses with the ghosts of ten million coffee brewings.
16. He opened the door and showed the way into а room which appeared
to bе very richly furnished, but ____ only light was afforded bу ____ single
lamp half turned down. 17. Неr mother would do ____ right thing and allow
her to marry him. 18. Mrs. Packletide was annoyed at the fact that ___ wrong
animal had been hit. 19. Jack was upset — he wasn’t entrusted with ___ work.
20. When Jason entered the room, some of ___ guests were sitting around the
table ___ some were chatting in the kitchen and not one of them showed ____
slightest interest in him. 21. They were preparing their next move and were
merely waiting for ____ next appropriate moment to make it. 24. As he was
running ____ last few yards, he saw Mary’s eyes fixed on something along
____ shore, and turned to see what it was.

Task 3. Fill in the articles where necessary. Explain your choice.


1. I’m calling to apologize for the delay. I’ve missed my plane. Now
I’m planning to catch ____ next flight to Liverpool. 2. At the conference,
we met Jim Brown, who had been a Senator until ____ last election. 3. Use
it ____ next time you come through. 4. Remember to ask him about it ____
next morning. 5. He announced an updated proposal for ____ next session.
6. The negotiations are continuing. 7. The parties hope to reach an agreement
in ____ next few weeks. 8. Terrorist incidents have increased alarmingly over
____ last few years. 9. Church is ____ last refuge of people in the alternate
world. 10. Just promise me ____ next time you see her, you’ll be clear about
your feelings. 11. It’s Tom and Sean battling it out in ____ last half-mile.
12. ____ next day the house was empty. 13. Hundreds of local police depart-
ments have received this training in ____ last year. 14. In any event, some
lessons can be learned from the experiences of Governments in ____ last
few decades of the twentieth century.

Task 4. Complete the sentences with a form of other.


1. I got three emails. One from my mother. _____________ one from
my brother. _____________ letter was from my boyfriend. 2. Look at your
hand. You have five fingers. One is your thumb. _____________ is your
index finger. _____________ is your middle finger. _____________ finger
is your ring finger. And _____________ finger (the last of the five) is your
little finger. 3. Look at your legs. One is your right leg. _____________ is
your left leg. 4. I lost my notebook, so I bought _____________. 5. Some
girls have fair hair. _____________ have brown hair. 6. The Chinese believe
certain animals get on better than _____________.
Unit 7 47

7. I have four dogs. One of them has black fur. _____________ dogs
have white fur. 8. Finding pieces of legislation in _____________ coun-
tries comes second. 9. Undermining either objective may affect the rea-
lization of _____________. 10. They live on _____________ planet
in _____________ solar system. 11. Partnership with _____________
development agencies is crucial. 12. _____________ felt that this pro-
vision was of limited practical application. 13. Wherever one went,
_____________ would always follow. 14. Public health is _____________
reason to consider retrofitting. 15. Talking to me would feel like betraying
_____________. 16. Some countries refer to national environmental issues
while _____________ address global issues. 17. Some of those structures
are more central to decision-making than _____________. 18. For most,
it is _____________ problem in _____________ place.

Task 5. Read each pair of sentences and answer the question that follows.
1. a. One South American country Jane plans to visit is Argentina. Ano-
ther is Brazil.
b. One South American country Tom plans to visit is Peru. The other
is Argentina.
Question: Who is planning to visit more than two countries in South
America?
2. a. Black is one of Ana’s favourite colors. The others she likes are red
and brown.
b. Black is one of Helen’s favourite colors. Others she likes are red
and brown.
Question: Who has only three favourite colors?
3. a. Adam took a chocolate from the box and ate it. Then he took an-
other one and ate it too.
b. Sue took a chocolate from the box and ate it. Then she took the
other one and ate it too.
Question: Whose box of chocolates had only two chocolates?
4. a. Some of the men at the conference on Monday wore black suits.
Others wore brown suits.
b. Some of the men at the conference on Friday wore black suits. The
others wore brown suits.
Question: Mr. Smith wore a blue suit to the conference. Which day did
he visit the conference?

Task 6. Fill in the missing articles where necessary.


1. The Forum identified several common concerns for ___ whole region.
2. Proposals should be participatory in nature, involving all ___ stakeholders.
3. UNICEF believed that all ___children should benefit from all ___available
vaccines that provided major health benefits. 4. ___ whole list was available
to delegations on request. 5. Writing ___ best seller in college is a lot like
48 Имя существительное. Артикль

winning the lottery. 6. Creating healthy cities requires action on all ___ fronts
and within all ___sectors. 7. They cross state boundaries and they can affect
___ whole populations. 8. I was ___ only child for two years. 9. I thought
I saw you ___ other day. 10. He welcomed all ___ delegations and thanked
all ___ countries and organizations which had made financial contributions.
11. You’ll ruin ___ whole life for your amusement. 12. This approach shows
that a political issue underlies ___ whole problem. 13. One of the most kind
and gentle local priests said that Stanley was ___ only child in the neighbor-
hood destined for Hell. 14. That guy could easily turn any two-bit detective
characters into ___ best seller, which would then be optioned for a movie!
15. At the Preparatory Committee in April, we met all ___ objectives we had
set for ourselves and settled all ___ necessary procedural machinery. 16. It
reminds me there’s ___ whole world outside this office. 17. Tell Daddy you’re
happy being ___ only child.

Task 7. Translate into English.


А. 1. Может быть, вы могли бы зайти ко мне домой как-нибудь ве-
чером после работы на будущей неделе? 2. Он объяснил мне правила
и в течение последующих нескольких дней следил, как я выполняю
упражнения. 3. Мы будем ждать тебя на следующей станции. 4. По-
следние шесть месяцев я работаю без выходных. На следующей неделе
я смогу представить свою работу в любой момент. 5. Как зачарованный
он смотрел на еду, оставленную на соседнем столе. 6. Последние гости
только что ушли. 7. На следующий год я буду работать четыре дня в не-
делю. 8. Это была последняя капля, и совершенно неожиданно она
расплакалась. 9. В течение следующих нескольких дней мы должны
приготовить отчет и сдать его преподавателю. 10. На следующей не-
деле мы пойдем в зоопарк. 11. Когда на следующее утро Том объявил
о своем отъезде, все бросились собирать его вещи. 12. После того как он
закончил последнее упражнение, он вытер пот и пошел в душ. 13. В суб-
боту вечером он был в театре на последнем спектакле. 14. Она решила
навестить мать в деревне и вернуться в город на следующий день. 15. По-
следние годы у него появилась привычка долго гулять по ночам.
В. 1. Я давно хотел задать тебе следующий вопрос. 2. Он постоянно
задает мне один и тот же вопрос. 3. В комнату вошли два человека.
Первый нес чемодан, второй — две большие сумки. 4. Это самая ин-
тересная книга в нашей библиотеке. 5. Возьми эту книгу. Она весьма
интересна. 6. Поскольку Бен был единственным ребенком в семье,
к нему было приковано всеобщее внимание. 7. У меня есть еще один
вопрос. 8. Он задал мне два вопроса. Я ответил на первый, но не смог
ответить на другой. 9. Не оставляй яйца в корзине. Положи часть в хо-
лодильник, а остальные отнеси в кладовку. 10. Не хотите ли еще кусочек
торта? 11. Возьмите еще пирожок. 12. Мы проехали еще десять миль
прежде чем увидели заправку.
UNIT 8

1. Modification by Numerals.
1.1. Cardinal numerals (количественные числительные) are used only
as descriptive attributes:
e.g., They received three letters. (Nominating meaning, no article)
The two weeks seemed an age to Helen. (The definite article is required
by the situation)
1.2. No article is used when a cardinal numeral follows a noun:
e.g., Go to room five.
Do exercise ten at page twenty-five.
1.3. Ordinal numerals (порядковые числительные) are usually limiting
attributes.
e.g., Gagarin was both the first human to travel into space, and the
first to orbit the earth.
1.4. An ordinal numeral can mean “one more” or “another”. In this
meaning, the indefinite article should be used.
e.g., The sublime mixture of art and beer known as Art of the Brew is
returning for a third time this Saturday.
Note 1. The numerals first, second and third in combination with certain
nouns, form set phrases: a second prize, a first night, etc. They may be used
with either the definite or the indefinite article depending on the context.
Note 2. Some set phrases are used without any article:
• at first hand,
• at first sight,
• to do something first thing,
• on second thought(s).
2. Attributes expressed by participles, infinitives and clauses can be either
descriptive or limiting depending on the context.
Note 3. Defining/non-defining clauses.
A defining clause gives the necessary information and is essential to the
meaning of the main sentence. The clause is not put in commas.
e.g., She is the actress who played the leading part in this film.
A non-defining clause gives extra information and is not essential to the
meaning of the main sentence. The clause is put in commas.
50 Имя существительное. Артикль

e.g., James, who is very lazy, failed his exam.


Brighton, which is a well-known resort, is in the south of Britain.
3. Modification by Nouns in the Genitive Case.
3.1. When an attribute is expressed by a noun in the genitive case (при-
тяжательный падеж), the article or its absence mostly refers to the noun
in the genitive case. The meanings of articles used with the nouns in the
genitive case are the same as with nouns in the common case:
3.1.1. specifying meaning:
e.g., Johnson didn’t like the man’s manner (= the manner of the man),
so he left the compartment.
3.1.2. nominating meaning:
e.g., He was a neighbour’s son (the son of a neighbour).
3.1.3. generalizing meaning:
e.g., There must be some poison in a lion’s teeth (= the teeth of any lion)
because I sometimes have a pain in my left leg where that lion got hold of me.
3.1.4. generic meaning:
e.g., The/A poet’s talent (= the talent of the/a poet) is born with him, but
I doubt if this can be said of the/an artist.
In the above given examples the nouns in the genitive case function
as determiners to the head noun and take the place of the article and therefore
come first in the noun phrase:
e.g., the boy’s (younger) sister
the (younger) sister
the girl’s new English books
(the) new English books
3.1.5. No article is used if a noun in the genitive case is a proper noun:
e.g., Tom’s book is on the desk.
3.2. A noun in the genitive case may be used as a descriptive attribute
to the head noun. The article (or its absence) refers to the head noun:
e.g., a women’s college, a children’s hospital, sheep’s eyes, cow’s milk, la-
dy’s stockings, a three months’ leave, etc.
Since the noun in the genitive case is used as a descriptive attribute
and not as a determiner, the article refers to the head noun irrespective of the
form of the noun in the genitive case:
e.g., Children drink goat’s milk. (There is no article before goat’s, because
the article should refer to the head noun milk, which is an uncountable noun,
so, no article is used.)
When a noun in the genitive case is used as a descriptive attribute, it may
be preceded by other attributes which refer to the head noun:
e.g., She was given a beautiful doll’s house.
Compare with the nouns in the genitive case used as determiners: attri-
butes placed before them never refer to the head noun:
e.g., They saw the old woman’s house.
They saw the woman’s old house.
Unit 8 51

4. Modification by Nouns in the Common Case.


Nouns in the common case can be used as descriptive attributes. The
choice of article depends on the context. In this function they do not take
plural endings:
e.g., her father was an enthusiastic stamp collector.
In modern English we often come across more than two nouns in the
common case used as attributes:
e.g., The winter tennis tournament ended only yesterday.

Task 1. Fill in the articles where necessary.


1. ____ three boys came running along the path. 2. Turn to ____ page
3 to do ____exercise 5. 3. After the military coup in 1976, he suffered
____third attack. 4. In ____ three weeks since we made that statement,
progress has been rather slow. 5. For workers and apprentices under age
20 the minimum holiday period is ____ five weeks. 6. But оn ____ fifth
day he took the lift to ____ third floor, stepped out and never came back.
7. ____ second requirement is that there be strong institutions concerned
specifically with women. 8. His delegation planned to prepare and submit
____ second revised version of the draft for ____ second reading at the next
session of the Special Committee. 9. The guarantee period takes ____ two
years after transfer of risk. 10. A maximum altitude of ____ four thousand
meters is deemed ideal for the growth of high quality olive plants. 11. ____
three of them dug up a bear somewhere and took him in a carriage to see
the actresses. 12. Foreign women account for over ____ third of all women
registered as employed and are thus particularly affected. 13. ____ third stage
involves a pre-trial conference to discuss the specifics of the upcoming trial.
14. You will then need to look for the “Owner Information” item, which is
normally on ____ second page of settings.

Task 2. Decide whether the clauses are defining or non-defining, add com-
mas where necessary.
1. My keys which were in my handbag have disappeared. 2. Ashton who
is still at school is the captain of our football team. 3. Paris which is the
capital of France attracts many foreign visitors. 4. This parrot which comes
from Africa is a clever mimic. 5. The girls who play with my daughter are
coming round for tea. 6. Pisa where my uncle lives has a famous tower.
7. The woman whose purse was stolen in the underground has called the
police. 8. The house where my aunt’s family lived is being demolished.
9. The Black Sea coast which is in the south of Russia is very beautiful.
10. Hollywood which is on the west coast of the US attracts actresses, sing-
ers and musicians. 11. This cheese I bought at the market tastes delicious.
12. My boyfriend whose name is Ben has moved to Brussels. 13. The pool
where Bob goes to is near his office. 14. They’ll never forget the day when
their daughter got her degree.
52 Имя существительное. Артикль

Task 3. Fill in the articles where necessary. Explain your choice.


1. It’s beneath ___ man’s dignity to listen and give importance to rumours.
2. Head teachers of secondary schools have called for an urgent meeting of the
negotiating committee to settle ___ teachers’ dispute. 3. On the dressing table
they found ___ unpaid dressmaker’s bill. 4. It was ___ peasant’s face, the cheeks
hollow under the high cheekbones. 5. There was a burst of welcoming voices,
___ woman’s laugh, and the sound of it mingled with the banging of doors.
___ woman’s laugh stayed in his mind. 6. The mother wanted to know what
he thought of ___ boy’s character. 7. James answered ___ doctor’s question
reluctantly. 8. He lost himself in search of the ultimate answer to the enigma
of ___ man’s role on this earth. 9. She was ___ headmaster’s daughter. 10. She
wondered looking at ___ Mrs. Carlton’s calm face, how often she had wept
silently into her pillow when her husband had failed to come. 11. John wore
___ telegraph messenger’s coat which was far too big and a cap which was not
quite big enough. 12. “I have often wondered,” he said, “why there is a kind
of a Christian awe about ___ confectioner’s shop.” 13. ___ newspaper’s inter-
national Prize tournament attended by the strongest ice-hockey teams was an
important event in the preparation for the world and European championship.
14. They can carry on an amusing and animated conversation without ___
moment’s reflection to what they are saying. 15. ___ aunt Pitty’s apprehensions
quieted when she saw that Rhett was on his best behavior. 16. She saw ___
girl’s face break into laughter, her hand go up and tousle his hair affectionately.
17. In an interview on ___ BBC Radio’s Women’s Hour, the Prime Minister
said the government had been reluctant to put up interest rates. 18. If any
of ___ Britain’s five major plants are closed it will be clear statement by this
government that Britain is finished as a manufacturing and industrial nation.
19. The room had the look not of ___ writer’s workshop, but of a memorial
to a great name. 20. The popular professor had called the meeting in the hope
that on this one subject at least the representatives of the various parties would
be able to get through ___ hour’s discussion without quarrelling.

Task 4. Translate the following word combinations into English using the
possessive case.
Дочь моей младшей сестры, младшая дочь моей сестры; Пятая сим-
фония Чайковского; прежний секретарь директора; еще один охот-
ничий рассказ, рассказ другого охотника; эта старая дамская шляпа,
шляпа этой старой дамы, старая шляпа этой дамы; традиции студентов
Оксфорда, старые студенческие традиции; первая жена Ивана Грозно-
го; заявление нового правительства, новое заявление правительства;
прибытие в Лондон российского посла в Англии.

Task 5. Translate into English.


А. 1. Когда три сестры выросли, они были вынуждены работать
гувернантками, чтобы заработать на хлеб. 2. Я сказал об этом во вре-
Unit 8 53

мя первой поездки. 3. Мы собрали все вещи на поляне и в качестве


первой предосторожности срубили несколько деревьев. 4. Джорджа
не было уже десять дней. 5. Он поставил первый том романа обратно
в шкаф. 6. Он знал, что должен сделать третью попытку. 7. Он написал
третий роман (еще один). 8. На второй день, когда я снова встретил ее,
она выглядела довольно привлекательно. 9. Она положила три ложки
сахара во вторую чашку чая. 10. Впервые я увидел, что он неуверен
и обеспокоен. 11. В течение первых двух дней из этих пяти она нахо-
дилась в состоянии шока. 12. Впервые ей пришла в голову мысль, что
она может не выздороветь. 13. В полночь Джен не спала, наблюдая,
как две девушки шептались друг с другом. 14. Он вошел в двадцать
шестую кабину. 15. Я сказал это во время первой поездки.
В. 1. Мы можем переночевать у друга моего отца. 2. Он пододвинул
стул к столу Джейн и стал внимательно слушать. 3. После минутной
паузы зал разразился смехом. 4. Памятник писателю — его произведе-
ние. 5. Во время поездки в Лондон он жил в гостинице для студентов.
6. Ей было стыдно просить девушку выполнять обязанности горнич-
ной. 7. Ее сын всегда прекрасно ведет себя на руках у отца. 8. После
войны работы не было, но ему посчастливилось найти работу ночного
сторожа. 9. Жена священника, которая всегда ему помогала, вышла
нас проводить. 10. Я налил себе кофе, чтобы дать себе минуту поду-
мать. 11. Я узнал его с первого взгляда. 12. Я позвоню ему завтра утром
первым делом. 13. Я узнал об этом из первых рук.

Task 6. Fill in the articles where necessary. Explain your choice.


1. Once he passed close to ___ troop truck and the lights flashed and he
saw their faces fixed and sad in the sudden light. 2. Then they heard the
noise of ___ hand grandees and ___ rifle fire. 3. There was ___ telephone
line running along the road. 4. ___ mill hands said that Leslie kept them
working all summer in order to be able to take their money away. 5. Then he
comes back, crooks his finger, gives you ___ cultured pearl necklace and you
fall into his arms. 6. It was necessary that ___ Delaney cards should be filled
during the third period. 7. He might have been given ___ Nobel Prize at one
time. 8. ___ school bell was Kenny’s secret love. 9. I arrived early and was
taken upstairs to admire ___ Haley children.

Task 7. Fill in the articles where necessary.


1. All had survived the crash — Kelly, his wife Margaret, his ten-year-old
twin sons, the pilot and co-pilot and ___ ten enlisted men. 2. You are ___
extraordinary person. You never say ___ moral thing and never do ___ wrong
thing. 3. Then she saw what was in ___ main display case, and she forgot where
she was or where she had come from. 4. After ___ third drink he sat back
comfortably in his chair. 5. ___ most remarkable stroke of fortune brought
me ___ very man that I required. 6. These are just ___ usual papers. 7. He
54 Имя существительное. Артикль

is ___ very soul of truth and honour. 8. She looked at me and for ___ first
time I saw tears on her cheeks. 9. He didn’t ask what ___ right way was in her
opinion. 10. I came down to look and ___ only other person on the river was
a lady, so I guessed you must be it. 11. He asks all ___ right questions. 12. You
look exactly ___ same wonderful boy who used to come to my place. 13. He
toyed with the idea of going to bed as ___ quickest way of getting warm, but
___ second glance at ___ bed dissuaded him. 14. When he drove the car out
of the gate of the hotel grounds, he turned in ___ wrong direction. 15. Gilly
was released from San Quentin at about ___ same time Fred had and ___ two
were inseparable. 16. It was always ___ wrong thing to laugh at Pat. 17. Her fine
black eyes were ___ most noticeable thing about her. 18. You have to remember
that T.B. is ___ most unpredictable disease. 19. Fine indeed, Grant thought,
looking down at the map of Paris ___ next morning. 20. Не might have been
М. Р. had he chosen. Rannock was of course ___ most celebrated man in the
Five Towns, and the idol of ___ populace. 21. I heard they are all in, and they
all took ___ same examination Eli did. 22. You are ___ most loathsome beast
that it’s ever been my misfortune to meet. 23. It was maddening having to stay
inside when outside ___first snow he had ever seen was falling. 24. I am writing
such ___ long letter because it is raining like crazy here and we can’t finish ___
second coat of the deck house. 25. This is ___ second Sunday since my return
and all day it has been windy. 26. ___ next day he had shown Craig his play.

Task 8. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English.


1. Другим частым посетителем дома был мой сосед Том, к которому
Эндрю с первого взгляда почувствовал симпатию. 2. Предполагалось,
что он приедет со мною, но в последний момент он вынужден был
остаться в Москве. 3. Когда поднялся занавес и были произнесены пер-
вые строчки, он испытал странное чувство. 4. Я всегда считал ее весьма
привлекательной девушкой. 5. Я считаю, что это самый замечательный
момент в его жизни. 6. Он был польщен, но в то же время раздражен.
7. Бен улыбнулся ей точно такой же улыбкой, какой он улыбался осталь-
ным. 8. Это единственная задача, которую я не смог решить. 9. Все по-
вернулись к единственной в комнате женщине, которая молча слушала
их спор. 10. Джеймс казался подходящим человеком в данной ситуации.
11. Она прилетела другим рейсом. 12. Анна, самое важное лицо в семье,
повелительным жестом заставила его замолчать. 13. То был крайне не-
приятный разговор для всех них. 14. Он посмотрел на напечатанный
список вопросов, которые ему дал Гейл, и прочитал еще раз первый
вопрос. 15. Они все могут выйти через ту самую дверь, через которую
мы все вышли. 16. Разве это та самая возможность, о которой говорил
Глен? 17. «Она весьма красивая девушка, но недостаточно умна», — по-
думала миссис Браун о Дженни, когда впервые увидела ее на автобусной
станции. 18. Мама сделала Джону замечание уже в третий или четвертый
раз. 19. Он отрыл другую (вторую) дверь и увидел, что она ведет в сад.
UNIT 9

1. The Generic Use of the Definite Article.


1.1. As it has been mentioned above the definite article has the generic mea-
ning when it is used with singular nouns referring to a class of objects as a whole:
e.g., The steam engine was a powerful instrument of human progress.
1.2. The noun man has no article when it is used with generic reference,
the noun woman can be used either with or without the definite article:
e.g., Man is helpless in this case.
(The) Woman rarely loses heart in the face of financial crisis.
1.3. The definite article in the generic meaning is found with collective
singular nouns denoting social classes or groups:
the proletariat, the bourgeoisie, the aristocracy, the nobility, the elite, the
public, the press, etc.
e.g., The British public hasn’t been told the whole truth.
Note 1. The noun public may be used with a plural verb when it has no
generic reference:
e.g., The public are admitted from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m.
Note 2. The noun people takes the definite article when it is used generically:
e.g., The Russian people are very hospitable.
When the noun people means “persons, human beings in general”, it has
no article:
e.g., People who pluck bluebells from the woods are vandals.
The nouns mankind and humanity take no article:
e.g., Mankind lives on a wonderful planet.
1.4. Substantivized adjectives (субстантивированные прилагатель-
ные, т.е. прилагательные, ставшие существительными) are used with
the definite article:
e.g., It is a dirty district where the poor live.
Adjectives denoting names of nationalities are also used with the definite
article: the British, the Swiss, the Irish, etc.

Task 1. Fill in the articles where necessary.


1. For centuries very little was known about ___ American lobster. 2. ___
heart understands when it is confronted with contrasts. 3. He recalled that
56 Имя существительное. Артикль

___ atom bomb was the fruit of research and development within the frame-
work of the Manhattan project. 4. On the top of this ___ average teacher
is not working ten hours a week on top of their stretched working hours
of a decade ago. 5. From a social standpoint ___ man of science does not
exist. 6. ___ soul is distinct from ___ body, its senses are from the mind: it is
not part of the absolute, for the absolute can have no parts. 7. That is because
___ public isn’t really interested in ___ theatre. 3. The SDP — Liberal Allia-
nce is, vote for vote, a greater threat to ___ Conservatives than to Labour.
9. If ___ Belgians win the World Cup; it will be an outstanding achievement.
10. This is just one example of the hundreds of crimes perpetrated by ___
Israelis in the south of Lebanon today. 11. ___ doctor oughtn’t to sin against
his professional etiquette. 12. Had he forgotten that Arnold Jackson had
a tongue of silver, a tongue by which he had charmed vast sums out of ___
credulous public? 13. ___ man crossed ___ space in metallic cylinders that
twisted time and space. 14. Who but ___ English would fill Covent Garden
to listen to an aged prima donna without a voice? Who but ___ English would
pay to see dancers so decrepit that they can hardly put one foot before the
other? 15. In the light of the world’s attitude toward ___ woman and her
duties the nature of Carrie’s mental state deserves consideration. 16. But the
Prime Minister should recognize that he is again face to face with a section
of ___ working class which, having learned through bitter experience in the
past, now knows how to put up a fight. 17. I always think it a pity that fashion
has decided that the doings of ___ aristocracy are no longer a proper subject
for serious fiction. 18. I reflected that there must be a bowl of goose grease
on most farms; it was the all-purpose lubricant and liniment for ___ man
and beast. 19. He had the feeling that I have noticed in some Americans
that America is a difficult and even dangerous place in which ___ European
cannot safely be left to find his way about by himself. 20. The trouble is,
once the weeds are gone, biologists don’t know what will happen or where
___ carp will migrate. 21. Founded by ___ French, ruled for a few decades
by ___ Spanish and finely fought by ___ Americans, it’s a city of contrasts.
22. Milk is very nice, especially with a drop of brandy in it, but ___ domestic
cow is only too glad to be rid of it. 23. When ___ Tories say ___ class strug-
gle no longer exists they hope to persuade ___ workers not to fight for their
just demands. 24. She came out of her sleep, the cough tearing her again
and again till it seemed impossible that ___ human body could endure so
much. 25. ___ artist can express everything. 26. There is no firm evidence
for either of these explanations for the end of ___ dinosaur.

Task 2. Translate into English.


1. Он всегда проявлял большой интерес к культуре не только ев-
ропейцев, но и арабов, африканцев, индейцев. 2. Ни один человек,
рожденный женщиной, не может жить в таких условиях. 3. Если де-
рево гнилое, оно должно быть срублено и брошено в огонь. 4. Мне
Unit 9 57

показали особняк, где у англичан был госпиталь. 5. Я полагаю, что


теперь Меган Маркл принадлежит к аристократии. 6. Для американцев
война с индейцами велась с благородными целями. 7. Греки извест-
ны своим гостеприимством. 8. Католики всегда пытаются выяснить,
не являетесь ли вы католиком. 9. Художник — это творец прекрас-
ного. 10. Женщину справедливо называют душой семьи. Большин-
ство самых прекрасных человеческих качеств воспитывается в семье.
11. Говорят, что англичане очень консервативны. 12. В других местах,
куда она обращалась, требовались только имеющие опыт. 13. В борьбе
за существование, как я показал, сильные и потомки сильных имеют
тенденцию выживать, в то время как слабые и потомки слабых унич-
тожаются и имеют тенденцию погибать. 14. В то время универсальный
магазин находился на самой ранней стадии успешного функциониро-
вания, и таких магазинов было немного. 15. Анализ стоимости жизни
дал неоспоримые свидетельства того, что в капиталистических странах
богатые становятся богаче, а бедные беднее.

Revision.
Task 3. Correct the mistakes.
1. Texas is the leading producer of petroleum and natural gas. It is one
of the world largest storage areas for petroleum. 2. Psychologists have de-
veloped many different kinds of tests. A ‘personality test’ is used to evaluate
an individuals personal characteristics, such as friendliness or trustworthi-
ness. 3. Many mythological stories tell of heroes encounters with giants or
dangerous animals. In one story, the heros encounter with a dragon saves
the village from destruction. 4. Childrens play is an important part of their
lives. It teaches them about their environment while they are having fun. For
instance, they can learn that boats float and can practice ways to make boats
move across water. Toys are not limited to children. Adults have their own
toys, such as pleasure boats, and children have theirs, such as miniature boats.
Adults toys are usually much more expensive than childrens toys.

Task 4. Complete the sentences with the words in italics.


1. (shoe) They sell __________ at this store. It is a __________ store.
2. (flower) My garden has ____________ in it. It is a ____________
garden.
3. (bean) This soup is made from black ____________. It is a black
____________ soup.
4. (baby) People can buy special food in small jars for ____________.
It is called ____________ food.
5. (child) Dr. Adams is trained as a psychologist for ____________. She
is a____________ psychologist.
6. (salad) At a formal dinner there are usually two forks on the table. The
smaller fork is for ____________. It is a ____________ fork.
58 Имя существительное. Артикль

7. (mosquito) In tropical countries, sometimes it is necessary to have


a long net over a bed to protect the sleeper from ____________. It is called
a ____________ net.
8. (two + hour) The plane was late. We had a ____________ wait. We
had to wait for ____________.
9.(ten + year + old) My brother is ____________. I have a ____________
brother.
10. (three + letter) Arm and leg are ____________ words. Each word
has ____________.

Task 5. Fill in the correct forms of the given nouns.


attorney * beach * box * cliff * discovery * laboratory * man * match *
medium * ox * piano * phenomenon * tooth

1. The baby has been crying and not sleeping well at night because he
is getting his first ____________. 2. I need some ____________ to light
the fire. 3. Studies are showing that ____________ process information
differently from women. 4. Maria needed some legal advice for her busi-
ness, so she contacted two ____________. 5. New scientific ____________
are made every day in ____________ throughout the world. 6. The farmer
loaded his cart with ____________ of fresh vegetables to take to market.
The cart was pulled by two ____________. 7. The north side of the island
has no ____________ for people to walk on. No one can climb these steep
walls of rock. 8. The music building at the university has 27 ____________
for students to play on. Students need to sign up for practice times. 9. Thun-
der and lightning are ____________ of nature. 10. People get most of their
news about the world through the mass ____________, that is through
radio, television, the internet, newspapers, and magazines.

Task 6. Choose the correct variant.


1. The United States (have/ has) a population of around 300 million.
2. The news about Mr. Brown (is/are) surprising. 3. The New Your Times (is/
are) an established and respected newspaper. 4. Physics (seek/seeks) to un-
derstand the mysteries of the physical world. 5. Statistics (is/are) a branch
of mathematics. 6. The statistics in this report on oil production (is/are)
incorrect.7. Fifty minutes (is/are) the maximum time allowed for the exam.
8. Twenty dollars (is/are) an unreasonable price for the necklace. 9. Many
people in the world (do/does) not have enough to eat. 10. The police (is/are)
prepared in case there is a riot. 11. Rabies (is/are) an infectious and often
fatal disease. 12. The French (is/are) proud, independent people. 13. French
(is/are) not my native language. 14. Many Japanese (commute/commutes)
to their place of work. 15. Portuguese (is/are) somewhat similar to Spanish,
(isn’t/aren’t) it? 16. The blind (want/wants) the rest of us to treat them the
Unit 9 59

same way we treat anyone else. 17. The poor (is/are) helped by government
programs. 18. The effect of honeybee’s sting on a human being (depend/
depends) on that person’s susceptibility to the bee’s venom. Most people
(is/are) not in danger if they are stung, but there (has/have) been instances
of allergic deaths from a single honeybee sting.

Task 7. Fill in a/an, the or some.


1. The teacher made ___ announcement. 2. I saw ___ bird. 3. I saw ___
birds. 4. Jane borrowed ___ money from her aunt. 5. I had ___ accident.
6. I have ___ homework to do tonight. 7. There is ___ table in the room.
8. There is ___ furniture in the room. 9. There are ___ in the room. 10. My fa-
ther gave me ___ advice. 11. The boy was carrying ___ bag. 12. The porter is
pulling ___ luggage. 13. There was ___ earthquake in Japan. 14. James got
___ letter in the mail. 15. Sue got ___ letter from her sister. 16. Mr. Greene
got ___ mail yesterday. 17. A computer is ___ machine that can solve prob-
lems. 18. The factory bought ___ new machinery. 19. ___ machines are
powered by electricity. Some use other sources of energy. 20. We threw away
___ junk. 21. I threw away ___ old suitcase that was falling apart. 22. Adam
threw away ___ old boots that had holes in them.

Task 8. Translate into English.


1. Иногда режиссер чувствует себя богом, потому что он вершит
судьбы героев. 2. Я никому не позволю обижать ни вдову, ни сиро-
ту, ни нищих или бездомных. 3. Робин Гуд грабил богатых и помогал
бедным. За это его любили все жители Англии. 4. Она увидела такси
и подняла руку, чтобы остановить машину. 5. Она знала, что свинка
тяжелая болезнь. 6. Он не думал, что перенесет корь так тяжело. 7. Он
разрезал помидоры и положил их на кусок черствого хлеба. 8. Они
двое были лучшими в мире музыкантами. 9. Оба соперника потяну-
лись к мячу. 10. Я не могла представить себе, что в восточной стране
женщина может так говорить с мужчиной.
Unit 10
ARTICLES WITH UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS

1. Articles with Names of Substances.


1.1. Names of substances are used in the singular and generally take no
article. The absence of the article has the nominating meaning:
e.g., We didn’t take beer or wine; they are mistake on a trip.
1.2. The definite article is used with the names of substances when we
are speaking about specific or restricted quantity of substance:
e.g., The water in the kettle was boiling.
1.3. Names of substances sometimes become countable when their mea-
ning is changed. In such cases, the general rules of the use of articles with
countable nouns apply. This is the case when:
1.3.1. a kind or variety of substance:
e.g., They don’t sell good coffees in the shop any longer.
1.3.2. a portion of food or drink:
e.g., We sat down at the table and Simon ordered two beers for us
and a coke and an ice for Kit.
1.4. Sometimes countable nouns are treated as names of substances
and are used in the singular with the zero article (after the nouns patch, bit,
piece, scrap):
e.g., She went round the corner of the house to the patch of garden behind
the kitchen.
1.4.1. The following countable nouns are used as uncountable when they
denote food: a duck, a lamb, a chicken, a fish, a turkey, a salmon, a lobster, etc.
e.g., Fried fish is often eaten with chips.
Note. In some cases, there are special words to denote food: a sheep —
mutton, a calf — veal, a pig — pork, a cow — beef.
1.5. Some collective nouns denoting a group of objects thought of as
a whole, behave like names of substances: machinery, furniture, equipment,
crockery, hardware, silverware, table silver, baggage, foliage, etc.
2. Articles with Abstract Nouns.
2.1. Abstract uncountable nouns (like names of substances) take no article
when used in the general sense. The absence of the article has the nominating
meaning:
Unit 10. Articles with Uncountable Nouns 61

e.g., It was obvious that Mr. Low found marriage a very satisfactory state.
2.2. No article is used when an abstract uncountable noun is modified
by a descriptive attribute from the following list:
• adjectives denoting nationality: English literature;
• adjectives denoting social characteristics (feudal, capitalist, racial,
religious, etc.): racial segregation;
• adjectives denoting periods of time, historical periods (modern, con-
temporary, ancient, medieval, daily, further, etc.): modern art, ancient
history;
• adjectives denoting authenticity or reliability (true, authentic, solid,
false, dubious, reliable, real, genuine, etc.): real freedom, true friendship;
• adjectives denoting degree or extent (perfect, great, sufficient, immense,
sheer, utter, huge, tremendous, complete, etc.): immense joy, infinite
power;
• adjectives denoting various genres or trends in art (dramatic, theatri-
cal, classical, romantic, etc.): romantic poetry;
• adjectives referring to man’s social and spiritual life (social, public,
political, intellectual, spiritual, moral, mental, immoral, etc.): public
recognition;
• adjectives characterizing man’s behavior (polite, brusque, formal,
nervous, etc.): nervous attitude;
• adjectives denoting position or location (outside, inner, inside, local,
internal, etc.): inner vision.
2.3. An abstract noun may be used with the indefinite article when a cer-
tain aspect of the notion is meant: the abstract noun expresses a certain qua-
lity, emotion, state etc. In most cases, the noun is modified by a descriptive
attribute which does not fall into the abovementioned list:
e.g., She knew now why a softness had crept into the air; the sea was near.
He was filled with a loathing he had never known.
If an abstract noun is modified by certain or peculiar, the indefinite article
is obligatory:
e.g., There is a peculiar tension about her.
The indefinite article is often omitted if an abstract noun is used in the
following syntactic functions:
• a predicative (предикатив, именная часть составного именного
сказуемого):
e.g., It was gallant courage, and it had stood her in such stead during her
mother’s long illness.
• an attribute expressed by a prepositional phrase (mostly of-phrase):
e.g., She was a woman of wonderful generosity and would give away
everything she possessed.
• an adverbial modifier of manner (обстоятельство образа действия) ex-
pressed by a prepositional group (mostly with the prepositions with or in):
e.g., He shouted at them in helpless rage.
62 Имя существительное. Артикль

2.4. The nouns pity, shame, disgrace, pleasure, relief, comfort, disappoint-
ment are always used with the indefinite article in the following constructions:
• In sentences with formal it as subject when they are used as predi-
catives of the main clause:
e.g., It is a pity you don’t ride or shoot.
• In exclamatory sentences after what:
e.g., What a shame you didn’t write down her address!
2.5. The following nouns are never used with the indefinite article: ad-
vice, assistance, bliss, breeding, cunning, control, evidence, guidance, health,
information, luck, money, nature, news, nonsense, permission, progress, trade,
weather, work.
2.6. The definite article is used with abstract nouns when the abstract idea
denoted by the noun is applied to a definite situation or object:
e.g., In the darkness we could not see her face.
The definite article is always used with substantivized adjectives denoting
abstract notions:
e.g., I don’t believe in the supernatural.
To this group also belong such nouns used with the definite article as the
present, the past, the future, the singular, the plural.
2.7. A number of abstract nouns may be both countable and uncountable.
In the latter case they follow the rules for the use of articles with countable
nouns (Also see Unit 3, # 3.1):
Uncountable Countable
work — работа a work — произведение искусства
nature — природа a nature — характер
decision — решимость a decision — решение
beauty — красота a beauty — красавица

3. Articles with Nouns Referring to Unique Objects.


3.1. Nouns referring to unique objects are generally used with the definite
article. These are: the sun, the moon, the sky, the universe, the atmosphere, the
world, the earth, the ground, the horizon, the cosmos.
3.2. The noun sky is sometimes used in the plural in literary style:
e.g., The skies were overcast with low-flying clouds and the moon was
blotted out.
3.3. The nouns space or outer space are used without any article:
e.g., It’s a fantasy: a woman from somewhere in outer space comes
to Earth.
3.4. There are nouns, which refer to objects (persons or things) which are
treated as unique in their own sphere. For example, the President of a country,
the Queen (of Britain), the Prime Minister, etc.
3.5. A noun referring to a unique object may sometimes be used with the in-
definite article if it introduces new information or the most important part of the
information conveyed by the sentence and it often has a descriptive attribute:
Unit 10. Articles with Uncountable Nouns 63

e.g., From that height the white houses seemed to be pricked by a great
orange sun.

Task 1. Explain the use or absence of articles with names of substances.


1. The alarm of fire was admirably done. The smoke and shouting were
enough to shake nerves of steel. 2. Arline opened the bedroom door and softly
went over between the twin beds, the silk of her dress making a slight rustle
in the quiet room. 3. It sounded like the clank of metal, and seemed to be
coming nearer every moment. 4. He smashed up through eight solid inches
of Antarctic ice like a black missile. 5. It was like ice water pouring through her
veins to realise it. 6. The strong black coffee that she had drunk did not bring
wakefulness in its train unless she wished it to do so. 7. I like French wines
which are so light. 8. I’ll slip across the alley– one ham and one cheese on
rye bread, lettuce and mayonnaise, and may be one bottle of milk and a coke
for later. 9. My eyes adjusted slowly and I saw Ahmed with his elbows on
the counter, sipping a beer and discussing the weather with the bartender.
10. “What’s inside it?” asked Mole. “There is cold chicken,” replied Rat
briefly, “cold tongue, cold ham, meat, ginger beer, lemonade, soda water.”
11. Out in the cold night air, he wiped the sweat from his forehead and pulled
the second hat with which he had provided himself lower over his eyes.

Task 2. Use the indefinite article where necessary. Comment on the nouns
with which it is used.
1. I can’t live in ___ fear that each time my wife or my children leave
the house there is ___ stone or ___ execution team waiting for them.
2. Wouldn’t you like to get yourself something too? ___ beer or something?
3. I ordered ___ ice-cream for her and two coffees. 4. “___ salad?” “No,
thanks, I’m not hungry.” But when she bit the chicken leg again, he reached
over for two of her French fries. 5. In the taxi Dick was taking Rosemary
to ___ tea from which Nicole and the Norths had resigned in order to do the
things Abe had left undone till the last. 6. I was drinking ___ tea, astonished
at the number of good-looking people who apparently did not have to work
for ___ living. 7. He kept ___ pub called the Saracen’s Head and having
invited Sally into the private bar had been disappointed when she would not
partake of ___ small port or ___ glass of sherry. 8. Into the bakery shop, the
most famous and costly of its kind in New York, came ___ customer with
___ order for ___ cake to be baked in the shape of the letter US. 9. This
is ___ light French wine. 10. The convicts make their cigarettes out of ___
coarse, strong tobacco that is sold in square blue packets.

Task 3. Fill in the articles where necessary.


1. “Thanks,” he said and she cut him a slice, reaching up to unhook
___ big cheese that hung in a net from the ceiling. 2. ___ sand was special.
Elsewhere around the airport, on roadways and areas which the public used,
64 Имя существительное. Артикль

___ salt was added to ___ sand as a means of melting ___ ice. 3. Everywhere,
mingled with the smell of cooking were odours of ___ stale eau-de-cologne,
___ strong talcum powder and the sharp smell of ___ antiseptics. 4. There
had still been ___ snow then, ___ snow that had ruined them. 5. Bart heard
Jan calling him. It was ___ water that she wanted. He remembered that he
had forgotten to place ___ water near her bed in the evening. 6. She lay back.
She didn’t want to watch ___ snow any more. 7. At once a draught of ___
cool fresh air suffused the room. 8. I think you are unwise to eat ___ meat.
9. This year the additional demand for ___ fuel and ___ rolled ferrous metal
is to be met by saving of 60%, as compared with the planned 50%. 10. We
were enjoying a breakfast of ___ cake and ___ chicken when gunfire slapped
through the woods. 11. And now the thing that had been Doris — was only
___ clay, just the raw material that would soon be fashioned into something
else. 12. She was chewing ___ gum. I couldn’t bear the fact that she was
chewing ___ gum. 13. “It’s ___ best tea I’ve had for 18 months,” Bart said
tipping the last of a bottle of ___ beer into the glass. 14. Every drug-store
has a food counter with high stools in front of it and there they serve ___
various juices, coffee, ice-cream, sandwiches, omelets and other egg dishes.
15. She had no words, but she went on packing, wrapping sandals in ___
paper. 16. He’s made of ___ iron, that man. 17. He dropped silently back
into ___ blue-black waters. 18. He broke open the carcass of the first bird
and was cutting off thin bits of ___ brown meat from the ribs, but he could
stand it no longer. 19. It’s on the edge of the lake and ___ water comes right
under it at high tide — you can hear it. 20. Bart filled the blackened kettle
and set it beside ___ fire while Jan arranged chops on ___ grilling iron
and placed it on ___ stones he had rolled up to make a fireplace. Soon ___
fat was dripping on ___ fire and ___ meat sizzled tempting.

Task 4. Fill in the articles where necessary.


While all ___ tea comes from ___ same plant, the Camellia sinensis, there
exist hundreds of kinds of ___ teas, with their own individual appearance,
taste, and aroma. Like ___ wine or ___ coffee, every harvest of ___ tea
will vary ___ year to ___ year due to changes in ___ climate, ___ rainfall,
and ___ other seasonal conditions. Thus, ___ tea from ___ same plantation
or garden may taste very different from one year to the next. Moreover, ___
particular tea gains much of its individual character from how ___ leaves are
cultivated and processed.
To make ___ sense of all ___ varieties possible, __ _teas can be placed
in several categories. ___ most common categories used today are green,
white, oolong, black, and fermented. These categories refer to how much ___
tea is oxidized or, in ___ tea terminology, fermented. Before ___ modern
science, Europeans thought ___ teas were ___ result of ___ fermentation
process similar to that of ___ wine or ___ cheese. In actuality, it is ___
oxygen that is responsible for altering ___ tea leaves. By selectively exposing
Unit 10. Articles with Uncountable Nouns 65

___ tea leaves to ___ air, ___ tea farmers and artisans can bring out ___
certain flavors and aromas from ___ leaves.
Generally speaking, the less ___ tea is oxidized, the more gentle and ligh-
ter it will be in ___ taste and ___ aroma. Heavily oxidized ___ teas will yield
___ dark deep reddish brown or earthy infusion, while ___ white will yield
___ pale yellow-green liquor. Of course, there are exceptions to ___ rule.
A gyokuro, ___ highest grade of ___Japanese loose leaf green tea, will have
___ much more intense flavor than ___ smooth, toffee-like full leaf ___
black tea from Sri Lanka.
While common, it should be noted that many popular infusions like
chamomile or linden flower are not ___ real teas because they do not come
from the Camellia sinensis. But because of their popularity, information on
herbal infusions is included below.
___ white tea undergoes the least processing of all teas. Traditionally
cultivated in China, ___ white tea was picked only ___ few days out of ___
year, when ___ white down, known as bai hao, appeared on ___ tender
shoots. ___ tea shoots are allowed to wither, then dry to prevent oxidization.
This process is ___ delicate one, requiring ___ strict attention from ___
tea makers. Nowadays, ___ other tea growing regions as Darjeeling and Sri
Lanka have begun to cultivate ___ white tea, in ___ effort to capitalize off
___ white tea’s growing popularity.
___ white tea tends to have ___ most delicate flavors and aromas. ___
nuances are gentle, even elusive, evoking ___ fresh flavors like bamboo or
asparagus or earthier elements like almonds. Aromas tend towards subtle
floral bouquets.

Task 5. Fill in the articles where necessary.


Hidden Pollution in your House
All this time you may assume that ___ only source of ___ air
pollution is ___ outdoors, like ___vehicle exhaust fumes or from
___factories. But it turns out that ___ source of ___air pollu-
tion which is more harmful to ___ health is inside our house.
Here are ___ four sources of ___ pollution, in our houses:
1. ___ candles can indeed lead to ___ quiet, cozy and romantic atmos-
phere. But ___ most candles are made from ___ paraffin which is harmful
to health, especially to our respiratory system. ___ research team from
South Carolina State University found that ___ paraffin wax releas-
es ___ chemicals associated with ___ liver damage, ___ neurological
problems, and ___ leukemia. ___ black smoke from candles can crea-
te ___ disturbance in ___ lung and cardiac tissue if inhaled excessive.
2. ___ printers release a lot of micro particles derived from ___ ink
and ___toner. These particles can cause ___ lung disorders. ___
number of ___ printers are considered in ___ high emitters category,
___ level of ___ pollution equivalent to __ smoke from ___ vehicles.
66 Имя существительное. Артикль

3. ___ dust is everywhere, like under ___ bed, ___ floor, and even
on ___ dressing table. ___ dust collection consists of many impuri-
ties such as ___ dead skin cells, ___ ticks, and ___ insects that have
died. ___ dust is ___ insect breeding ground. If inhaled, ___ dust can
trigger ___ allergies and ___ headaches, especially in ___ women.
4. Furniture. Fibreboard is made from ___ wood dust held together
with ___ glue and ___ resin. ___ price is much cheaper and often used
as ___ ingredients in ___ bookshelves and ___ desks. But did you know
that this material can emit ___ formaldehyde which is carcinogenic:
trigger ___ rash, ___ nausea, ___ asthma attacks and even ___ cancer.
___ airborne allergies can affect anyone at any time of ___ day. There is
no specification as to what may cause an outbreak of ___ allergy.

Task 6. Fill in the articles where necessary.


At ___ dinner table ___ last night Mrs. Shannon said, “I hope you’ll all
appreciate this steak. It may be ___ last steak you’ll have in this house until
___ prices of ___ beef go down.”
“How much did you pay for it?” her husband asked.
“I’m not going to tell you,” Mrs. Shannon said. “You’ll think
I shouldn’t have bought it.”
“Maybe we should try ___ horse meat,” her son Steve said. “I’ve heard
that it tastes as good as ___ beef, and it’s much cheaper.”
Steve’s sister Sharon was shocked. “Would you eat ___ horse?” she asked.
“I wouldn’t. I’d rather become ___ vegetarian.”
“So would I,” her grandmother agreed. “To me, eating ___ horse would
be like eating ___ friend. But then, I don’t suppose you ___ young people,
have ever known any horses, really.”
“Did you ever own ___ horse, Grandma?” Michael asked.
“No, but I remember when our Milkman had ___ horse. Every mor-
ning ___ milk wagon stopped in front of our door. Whenever I was up early
enough, I used to go and talk to ___ horse. Sometimes I gave him ___ sugar.”
“I would have liked that,” her granddaughter said. “But there aren’t any
milk wagons nowadays.”
“That’s right,” Steve said. “___ people get their milk at ___ store or out
of ___ milk machines.”
“Most people do,” Mr. Shannon said. “But there are ___ trucks that
deliver ___ milk in some places. They don’t come every day, though. They
come about once ___ week.”
“Did you read that article in ___ last night’s newspaper?” Mrs. Shan-
non asked. “It was about all ___ things that ___ milk trucks deliver these
days.”
“I read it,” her husband said. “It seems that ___ milk trucks now deliver
___ bread, ___ butter, and ___ eggs, as well as ___ milk and ___ cream.”
“Why?” Sharon asked.
Unit 10. Articles with Uncountable Nouns 67

“Because ___ milk companies lose ___ money if they deliver nothing
but ___ milk,” Mr. Shannon answered. “People don’t want to pay ___ high
prices to have their milk delivered. ___ milk prices are lower in ___ stores.”
“You can even buy ___ cakes and ___ pies from some of ___ milk trucks
now,” Mrs. Shannon added. “Some even sell ___ powder, ___ towels,
and ___ cosmetics. You can buy all those from ___ milkman who comes
to your door.”
“I wish they’d do that around here,” Michael said. “It would be like
having ___ traveling store.”
“Maybe they will,” his father said. “The drivers seem to like it. One dri-
ver’s sales have gone up thirty-five percent since he started delivering those
other things to his milk customers.”
“It’s profitable, I guess,” Sharon said. “But I still think it would be nicer
to have ___ milk wagon with ___ horse.”

Task 7. Explain the use or absence of articles with abstract nouns and unique
nouns in the following sentences.
1. There was a pain in her eyes, which could hardly be seen without tears.
2. The sorrow and temptation began to wash away in good red anger. 3. And
like them, so did Andrew Rose move from horror back to horror. 4. He was
an active member of the organisations that have been founded to further
the interests of authors or to alleviate their hard lot when sickness or old age
has brought them to penury. 5. What made the reality unbearable was that
Anna understood the chasm between them now. 6. His frequent calls at Aunt
Pitty’s house was the greatest humiliation of all. 7. He had taken the news
with an equanimity that was again unnatural. 8. Anger splashed up in Ethan
before he knew it and he was surprised. 9. Victor laughed. “You’re a disgrace
for military tradition.” 10. And when at last the inevitable happened it came
upon Mr. Warburton with all the shock of the unexpected. 11. She felt that
all things were possible, the future was in her power and she wanted to shout,
sing and dance. 12. He was told strange stories of the past, stories of hazar-
dous expeditions in the unknown, of love and death, of hatred and revenge.
13. A few gulls circled beating in the gun metal sky. 14. He could see the
earth itself was spinning faster. 15. A miserable world, a wet world, but al-
ways and predominantly a white world of softness and beauty and strangely
muffled sound. 16. It would be hours before the air would warm up even
under the hot Mediterranean sun. 17. The moon hung low in the sky like
a yellow skull. 18. He went to the lock and twirled it open and stepped out
on the ground. 19. I put myself in harmony with the universe. 20. “Welcome
to Earth, sir,” said the man.

Task 8. Fill in the articles where necessary.


1. This certainty of the morrow gave ____ zest (особенность) and ____
enthusiasm to ____ life and the County people enjoyed ____ life with ____
68 Имя существительное. Артикль

heartiness that Ellen could never understand. 2. For the first time since she
had come here, ____ peace no longer frightened her, ____ solitude no longer
oppressed her. 3. Larry was strong enough to refuse to sacrifice for Isabel’s sake
____ life that he thought was ____ life for him. 4. And there was ____ peace,
____ peace and ____ quieting majesty of the scene before him. 5. There
seemed to be ____ sadness in her and he wanted to talk to her about his wife
and ____ bitter loneliness in his heart. 6. ____ rage inside him welled; his
body trembled in anger. 7. ____ grossest indecency would not have fallen on
the ears of those three women with such a shock. 8. There were ____ pain
and bewilderment in her face, ____ bewilderment of a pampered child who
has always had her own way for the asking and who now, for the first time, was
in contact with ____ unpleasantness of ____ life. 9. I dwelt in ____ pleasure
as a fish lives in water. To fall asleep was ____ pleasure; to wake, to stretch,
to lace one’s shoes, to walk down ____ street was ____ pleasure. Merely
to exist was ____ pleasure. To speak was ____ pleasure equaled only by ____
silence. 10. That must be what ____ despair looks like, she said to herself, but
it’s more than ____ despair, it is ____ despair and ____ exaltation togeth-
er. 11. He mounted and pedaled off into ____ darkness towards the stables.
12. M-me Chiron regarded him with ____ steady graveness in her deep blue
eyes. 13. They heard a voice, Davidson’s voice, through the wooden partition.
It went on with ____ monotonous, earnest insistence. 14. Kitty could not
easily meet the eyes which rested on her with ____ ironical kindness. 15. As
I lounged in the Park or strolled down Piccadilly, I used to look at everyone
who passed me, and wonder, with ____ mad curiosity, what sort of lives they
led. 16. He looked at Mason with ____ certain impatience. 17. If only she
could find what lay behind ____ moodiness that settles over him at times.
18. We both know ____ fear, and ____ loneliness, and ____ very great dis-
tress. 19. They have ____ little confidence in Rome, none in the provinces.
20. But ____ beauty, ____ real beauty ends where an intellectual expression
begins. 21. In her face were too sharply blended the delicate features of her
mother, a Coast aristocrat of ____ French descent, and the heavy ones of her
florid Irish father. 22. He shook Jan’s hand with ____ brisk, businesslike
manner. 23. There’s ____ serenity over her that I’ve never met in anyone
before. 24. He went to all ____ places where ____ fashionable congregate.
25. It seemed incredible but ____ incredible was commonplace in these times
of ____ madness. 26. Three things will never be believed — ____ true, ____
probable and ____ logical. 27. “The refreshments are on us,” ____ plural did
not escape me. 28. He saw ____ future for himself sitting on hotel room beds
trying to get his thoughts straight. 29. Of what use to be reminded of ____
joys of ____ past when your life had shriveled to a husk?

Task 9. Fill in the articles where necessary.


1. You can’t tell those birds from ____ sky and that’s why the hawks
don’t catch them, don’t see them up there in ____ high blue sky near ____
Unit 10. Articles with Uncountable Nouns 69

sun. 2. He stood quietly and stared at ____ world before him, at the towers
shining in ____ morning sun, at the green of park and meadow, at the
dark green of trees. 3. ____ sun was so full of promise, and ____ sea was
whipped white with ____ merry wind. 4. Far away to the south-east ____
dazzling white sun climbed up above ____ cloudless horizon. 5. We live
in such ____ mysterious universe, don’t we? 6. ____ world is a busy place.
Communication is difficult. 7. The town lay still in ____ Indian summer sun.
8. Once let her make up her mind, get her heart set on something, and you
might as well howl at ____ moon. 9. Jan woke on Saturday to ____ world
thrilling with expectancy. 10. I kept my eyes on ____ horizon, sharp against
the bright blue of ____ winter sky. 11. I remember opening wide my window
and leaning out, hoping ____ fresh morning air would blow away the telltale
pink under the powder.

Task 10. Translate into English.


A. 1. Отец заказал детям мороженое и колу, а себе пиво. 2. Вошла
горничная, неся на подносе чайник с чаем. 3. Крепкий чай с лимоном
и сахаром напомнил ей об отце, которого она не видела уже несколь-
ко лет. 4. Я хочу, чтобы вы исчезли с лица земли. 5. Она налила воду
в кофейник и поставила его на огонь. 6. Жир легче воды. 7. Молчание
раздражало всех. 8. Его душу согревала надежда, которая придавала
ему уверенности. 9. В ее сердце поселилась ревность и жестокая не-
нависть к мужу. 10. Теперь, когда Бен был вдали от шума и величия
центральных улиц, он оказался в тишине и покое окраин. 11. Все на-
деялись, что игроки сборной проявят больше настойчивости и хра-
брости. 12. Она мечтала выступать по телевидению и заработать кучу
денег. 13. Мой голос дрожал от волнения. 14. Джеймс не был ленивым,
и бездеятельность угнетала его.
B. 1. Сидя в детской, мы могли слышать звон хрусталя и стук сере-
бра, доносившиеся из столовой. 2. Она старается похудеть, поэтому
она не ела хлеб уже несколько недель. 3. Холодная вода освежила нас
после долгого пути. 4. Вам доставили чай, который я послала? 5. Ап-
петитный запах жаркого чувствовался во всем доме. 6. Когда Джон
съел овсянку, ему разрешили выйти из-за стола. 7. Кухарка напол-
нила кастрюлю холодным молоком. 8. На поверхности молока об-
разовалась пенка. 9. Шелдон приготовил мне какао. Он подал мне
какао и предложил булочку с маслом. Я взяла какао, но отказалась
от булочки. 10. Когда у него поднялась температура, мама принесла
ему куриного супа. 11. У нас закончились продукты, остались только
рыба и черствый хлеб.
C. 1. Позвонила его сестра. В ее голосе звучала тревога, которую
она не пыталась скрывать. 2. Нам не нравилось внимание, которое они
нам оказывали. 3. Необходимость заставляла его работать как можно
усерднее. 4. Когда она вышла на сцену, страх прошел, но волнение еще
70 Имя существительное. Артикль

оставалось. 5. Отчаяние придало им храбрости, и они с энтузиазмом


принялись решать поставленные задачи. 6. Она отличалась трудолю-
бием, которое всех восхищало. 7. Это горькая правда, с которой нам
придется смириться. 8. В словах матери мы услышали нежность, кото-
рая тронула нас. 9. Нас неприятно удивила холодность, с которой нас
встретили. 10. Ее охватил гнев. 11. Мы планируем полететь к звездам,
чтобы исследовать непознанное. 12. Он внимательно прислушался,
стараясь услышать необычное. 13. Надо забыть о прошлом и надеяться
на будущее. 14. Будущее готовит нам новые испытания.
D. 1. Был зимний полдень. Солнце, которое светило уже несколько
часов, не давало никакого тепла. 2. Осеннее небо было высоким и про-
зрачным. 3. Подул сильный ветер, и она накинула на плечи платок.
4. Луна ярко светила той ночью, и им не пришлось зажигать свет.
5. В небе висела ярко желтая луна. 6. Воздух был наполнен ароматом
цветов. 7. Горный воздух и долгие прогулки помогли ему восстановить-
ся после болезни. 8. Небо было затянуто облаками, солнца не было.

LET’S PLAY
Read the riddles, give answers and explain them.
1. I am purple, yellow, red, and green
The King cannot reach me and neither can the Queen.
I show my colours after the rain
And only when the sun comes out again.
2. Clean, but not water,
White, but not snow,
Sweet, but not ice-cream.
What is it?
3. There was a green house. Inside the green house there was a white
house. Inside the white house there was a red house. Inside the red house
there were lots of babies. What is it?
4. Lighter than what I am made of,
More of me is hidden than is seen.
5. My life can be measured in hours,
I serve by being devoured.
Thin, I am quick
Fat, I am slow
Wind is my foe.
Unit 11
ARTICLES WITH NOUNS IN SOME SYNTACTIC
POSITIONS

1. Articles with Predicative Nouns.


1.1. Singular nouns in the function of a predicative (именная часть ска-
зуемого) are mostly used with the indefinite article and plural or uncountable
nouns are used with the zero article and have the classifying meaning.
e.g., I am a teacher.
We are teachers.
This is milk.
1.2. When a predicative noun is modified by a limiting attribute, the defi-
nite article is used.
e.g., I am the teacher who is to teach you this term.
This is the milk I’ve brought.
1.3. When a predicative noun denotes a unique post (rank, occupation,
state), it is used either with the definite article or without any article.
e.g., He was (the) head of a publishing firm.
Note. With the nouns son and daughter the definite article is generally
used.
e.g., He is the son of a doctor.
However, the indefinite and the zero articles are also possible. The in-
definite article is used to denote the fact that there are more than one son
or daughter in the family, while the zero article denotes the social position
of the person.
e.g., He was a son of a doctor. There were two more sons in the family.
He was son of a doctor. No wonder he followed in his father’s foot-
steps.
1.4. Predicative nouns after the link-verbs to turn (to change an occupa-
tion) and to go take no article.
e.g., He turned sailor.
Nobody expected him to turn traitor.
1.5. When predicative nouns are followed by the adverb enough they ac-
quire an adjectival character and are used without any article.
e.g., He was fool enough to believe that.
72 Имя существительное. Артикль

2. Articles with Nouns in Apposition.


2.1. Singular nouns in apposition (приложение) are usually used with
the indefinite article and plural nouns or uncountable nouns are used with the
zero article and have the classifying meaning.
e.g., Helen, a slim long-legged girl, is one of my classmates.
2.2. If the noun in apposition has a limiting attribute or is known to the
speaker, the definite article is used.
e.g., Helen, the girl who lived next-door, entered the room.
2.3. When an appositive noun denotes a unique post (rank, occupation,
state), it is used either with the definite article or without any article.
e.g., Mr. Brown, (the) head of a publishing firm, is arriving this Monday.
Note. With the nouns son and daughter the use of articles in apposition
is similar to the use of articles with predicative nouns.
2.4. Appositive nouns denoting titles (ranks, posts) are used without any
article when they precede personal names:
e.g., Dr. Mortimer, Lord Byron, Sir Charles, Queen Elizabeth, etc.
However, if the title, rank or post is used without the personal name, the
definite article must be used:
e.g., President Roosevelt arrived in Yalta. But The President received the
ambassadors.
2.5. Appositive nouns denoting family relations take no article:
e.g., Aunt Mary, Uncle Tom, etc.
Other appositive nouns take the definite article when used before per-
sonal names:
e.g., the painter Hogarth, the critic Hudson, etc.
3. The Absence of Articles in Parallel Structures.
There is no article in so called parallel structures (from noun + to + noun):
e.g., from tree to tree; from street to street; from house to house.
There are some set phrases to memorize: arm in arm, hand in hand, man
to man, face to face, shoulder to shoulder, from beginning to end, from north
to south, from floor to ceiling, from right to left.
4. The Absence of Articles with Vocatives.
There is no article with vocatives (обращения):
e.g., Is he all right, doctor?
5. Articles with Exclamatory “What”.
After the exclamatory what the indefinite article is used with singular
countable nouns:
e.g., What a terrible story!
Zero article is used with plural countable nouns and with uncountable
nouns.
Task 1. Explain the use of articles with the italicized nouns in some syntactic
positions.
1. She was a good hostess, and seeing my embarrassment came up to me.
2. Davis, the owner of the bar, came over and Michael made his introduc-
Unit 11. Articles with Nouns in Some Syntactic Positions 73

tions. 3. I feel uncommon nervous about the ceremony, Colonel. 4. This


is Wil Jason, an old friend of mine. 5. Fear was loose in Ward 21 creeping
from mind to mind like a bush fire. 6. Mr. Baker, First National president,
trusted Joe completely. 7. I was still child enough to trust evryone. 8. “What
a touching young man!” she said and her tone was more playful than ever.
9. They found a seat hidden behind a slate-grey fir and sat there hand in hand,
and the silence closed around them. 10. Professor Beans is the man to whom
you’ll be responsible for your undergraduate teaching. 11. Hawkins shall
come as cabin boy. You’ll make a famous cabin boy, Hawkins. 12. Those are
the risks you take. 13. Shakespeare, the great English playwright, wrote lots
of plays and sonnets. 14. The student Patterson was holding her son Jim.

Task 2. Fill in the articles where necessary.


1. Melanie was ____ fool, but there was nothing anybody could do about
it. 2. She was ____ only woman I had ever met who could behave so grace-
fully. 3. Charlie wasn’t ____ fool enough as to put up the back of the As-
sistant Colonial secretary. 4. Hemingway, ____ son of a small town doctor,
was born in Illinois in 1898. 5. Kurt, ____ bartender, gave Bill and Janice
a smile of recognition. 6. Behind him his cousin, the tall George, ____ son
of the fifth Forsyte, had a strange look on his fleshy face. 7. “You staying
here?” — “New boy in town. I am ____ instructor in the ski school.” 8. My
first thought that this should be ____ son of Jane Fowler’s fiancé proved
to be correct. 9. My father was ____ mayor of the village and ____ honorable
man. 10. His laboratory, ____ best institution of this kind, made Cambridge
world known in the field of experimental physics. 11. The door to his office
opened and ____ Professor Fox saw a young man, about 21, enter behind
the secretary. 12. Every Thursday morning ____ Aunt Carrie took the cellar
key from the place where she’d hidden it and herself fetched a bottle of cla-
ret from the cellar. 13. If he had had more conferences with ____ scientist
Krall they would have contributed a great deal towards his understanding
of the vocational high school. 14. James Clerk Maxwell, ____ great physicist
and mathematician, was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, on November 13, 1831.
15. When Mike had seen her, she was ____ girl of eighteen. 16. I was ____
young kid who didn’t know which end was up. 17. Mrs. Black, ____ widow
of an officer, has supported herself and her daughter by means of her talent.
18. And she dressed like — well, like what she was, ____ wife of the assistant
Colonial Secretary at Hong Kong. 19. I’m ____ Assistant General Manager.
That’s why I came personally. 20. Any man who was ____ fool enough to fall
for a simper, a faint or “Oh, how wonderful you are!” wasn’t worth having.
21. He was made ____ executive in his father-in-law’s bank. 22. Edmund
Halley, ____ head of Greenwich Observatory, was among them too. 23. ____
surgeon Laide explained the operation to her carefully. 24. ____ Aunt Pitty
completely forgot that the sight of blood always made her faint. 25. ____
prisoner as he was, Rhett Butler was ____ dangerous man.
74 Имя существительное. Артикль

Task 3. Fill in the articles where necessary.


1. Ed, ____ one-armed man, worked with the writer as ____ telegraph
messenger. 2. What ____ odd, unsatisfactory child you are! I can’t make you
out. 3. The sky pressed down like a metal dome from ____ horizon to ____
horizon. 4. Gretchen didn’t wait for the three-day-old cherry because she
was due at the army hospital just outside the town where she worked as ____
volunteer. 5. And you really live by the river. What ____ jolly life! 6. Since
her return to Hong Kong Kitty had hesitated from ____ day to ____ day
to go to her house. 7. Look here, ____ Doctor! My wife’s got a crazy idea
in her head. 8. Before the first year had passed I had saved a thousand dol-
lars and we had lived in comfort. But at what ____ cost! 9. “Jeff,” Tony said
finally, “how are you as a fisherman?” 10. From ____ time to ____ time this
morning I tried to concentrate, just on music, then on reading. 11. “I am
convinced that with you as ____ teacher, everything will be possible,” An-
tony said. 12. What ____ progress you have made in your language learning!
13. “I didn’t mean to hurt you ____ sweet,” she said. “But we are ____
old friends and we used to say what we meant to each other.” 14. He took
a room in an inn opposite Wolfgang’s so that they could consult with each
other from ____ window to ____ window. 15. After a few moments, ____
other soldier found him lying on his side under the truck, shaking from ____
head to ____ foot, his arms clasped about himself. 16. He’ll write something
better than ____ book “The Match Girl”. 17. It’s ____ same reason I warned
you about. 18. Among them was ____ astronomer Christopher Wren, better
known as ____ architect. 19. What they felt the lack of most bitterly was ____
tobacco. 20. “Good morning, miss,” Michael said to the girl, who glanced
up from her typing, ____ hands on the typewriter.

Task 4. Fill in the articles or possessive pronouns where necessary.


Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, ___ group of ___ young British pain-
ters who banded together in 1848 in ___ reaction against what they con-
ceived to be ___ unimaginative and artificial historical painting of the Royal
Academy and who purportedly sought to express ___ new moral seriousness
and sincerity in ___ works. They were inspired by ___ Italian art of the 14th
and 15th centuries, and ___ adoption of ___ name Pre-Raphaelite expressed
___ admiration for what they saw as ___ direct and uncomplicated de-
piction of ___ nature typical of ___ Italian painting before the High
Renaissance and, particularly, before ___ time of Rafael. Although the
Brotherhood’s active life lasted not quite five years, ___ influence on
___ painting in Britain, and ultimately on ___ decorative arts and ___
interior design was profound.
The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was formed in 1848 by three Royal
Academy students: Dante Gabriel Rossetti, who was ___ gifted poet
as well as ___ painter, William Holman Hunt and John Everett Millais, all
Unit 11.  Articles with Nouns in Some Syntactic Positions     75

under 25 years of age. ___ painter James Collinson, ___ painter and critic
F.G. Stephens, ___ sculptor Thomas Woolner, and ___ critic William
Michael Rossetti (Dante Gabriel’s brother) joined them by ___ invitation.
___ painters William Dyce and Ford Madox Brown, who acted in ___
part as___ mentors to ___ younger men, came to adapt ___ own work
to ___ Pre-Raphaelite style.
Some of ___ founding members exhibited ___ first works anonymous­
ly, signing ___ paintings with ___ monogram PRB. When ___ identity
and youth were discovered in 1850, ___ work was harshly criticized by ___
novelist Charles Dickens, among others, not only for ___ disregard of aca­
demic ideals of beauty but also for ___ apparent irreverence in treating ___
religious themes with ___ uncompromising realism. Nevertheless, ___ lead­
ing art critic, John Ruskin, stoutly defended ___ Pre-Raphaelite art, and ___
members of ___ group were never without ___ patrons.

LET’S TALK
Study the article about the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood and make similar
reports about an outstanding artist, composer, writer, etc. Tell the class.

Task 5. Translate into English.


А. 1. Это несчастный случай, который мог бы случиться с любым.
2. Ньютон стал членом Королевского общества, ведущего научного
общества Великобритании. В течение многих лет Ньютон был прези­
дентом Королевского общества. 3. Я – Джон Браун, человек, который
вам нужен. 4. Она жена управляющего отеля. 5. Скульптор Андерсен
внимательно рассмотрел натурщицу. 6. Считают, что он глава круп­
ного банка. 7. Джейн была дочерью фермера и принесла с собой хо­
рошее приданое. 8. Джеймс дрожал с головы до ног. 9. Питер Браун
был главою хирургического отделения и президентом медицинского
совета больницы. 10. Она была замужем за сэром Джоном, известным
археологом. 11. Я путешествовал из города в город в поисках работы.
В. 1. Доктор Хаус торопился с постановкой диагноза. Его пациент,
маленький сирота, лежал с высокой температурой. 2. Шерлок Холмс,
знаменитый детектив, мог определить характер человека по его по­
черку. 3. Я думаю, что он сможет защитить нас, если он настоящий
мужчина. 4. Его мать, профессор психологии, была назначена деканом
факультета. 5. Тетя Полли всегда ругала Тома за его проделки. 6. Ко­
ролева была счастлива присутствовать на свадьбе внука. 7. Король
Карл I был казнен в Тауэре. 8. Какие прекрасные новости! Нас пригла­
сили на свадьбу профессора Купера и доктора Фара-Фаулер. 9. Какая
смешная шутка! Надо всем ее рассказать. 10. Здравствуйте, доктор,
проходите пожалуйста. 11. Доктор приходил? 12. Вы вызвали врача?
Unit 12
SPECIAL DIFFICULTIES IN THE USE OF ARTICLES

1. Articles with Names of Seasons.


1.1. Names of seasons are generally used without any article, however,
the definite article may be used even in general statements:
e.g., He spent (the) summer in London and in (the) autumn moved to the
country.
Note. In the fall (AmE)
1.2. Names of seasons take no article.
• When used as a predicative:
e.g., It was winter and there was frost in the air.
• When modified by late and early:
e.g., It is early winter.
1.3. The definite article is used:
• When modified by a limiting attribute or the limitation is clear from
the context:
e.g., It was the summer of 2010.
• After the prepositions during, for, through:
e.g., During the winter he often came to see us in our country house.
1.4. When modified by descriptive attribute, the names of seasons take
the indefinite article:
e.g., It was a warm winter.
2. Articles with Names of Times of the Day and Night.
The following nouns fall into this category: day, night, evening, morning,
noon, afternoon, dusk, twilight, midnight, nightfall, daytime, sunrise, sunset.
2.1. No article is used in the following cases:
• when they denote “light” or “darkness”:
e.g., Dusk fall without my noticing it.
• After the prepositions at, after, before, by, till, until, towards, past:
e.g., at night, by evening, past midnight, etc.
• In the function of a predicative:
e.g., It was evening; the light was on.
• When modified by nouns denoting days of the week or the words
yesterday or tomorrow:
Unit 12. Special Difficulties in the Use of Articles 77

e.g., See you tomorrow morning.


• In the following combinations: all day (long), all night (long), day
after day, day in day out, from morning till night, night after night, day
and night, from day to day.
• When modified by late and early:
e.g., It was early morning.
2.2. The indefinite article is used when the names of times of the day
and night are modified by descriptive attributes:
e.g., It was a frosty night.
2.3. The definite article is used:
• When specific night or day is meant:
e.g., The day came when he was to leave her.
• When the noun is used in the generic sense:
e.g., He spend the morning working on his novel and the afternoon walking
in the fields.
• After the prepositions in, during, through:
e.g., in the night, during the day, through the night, etc.
• In combination with other:
e.g., the other day, the other morning, etc.
Note. After for both the definite and the indefinite articles are possible,
but there is difference in the meaning:
e.g., I’ll go to London for the day (a specific day).
I’ll go to London for a day (for one day, not specific).
3. Articles with Names of Meals.
3.1. Names of meals (breakfast, lunch, luncheon, dinner, supper, tea, high/
meat tea) are generally used without articles.
3.2. The definite article is used when the nouns are modified by a limiting
attribute or limitation is clear from the context:
e.g., Do you remember the lunch in the park?
3.3. The indefinite article is used when the nouns are modified by a de-
scriptive attribute:
e.g., We had a quick lunch.
3.4. Names of the meals may be used to denote portions of food served
or to denote a social occasion (a dinner = a dinner party). In this case they
are used as countable nouns:
e.g., He had to pay for two dinners.
4. Articles with Names of Diseases.
Names of diseases usually take no article. Some of them may be used
with the definite article: (the) flu, (the) measles, (the) mumps.
The following expressions must be memorized:
to have a headache
toothache (AmE a toothache)
stomachache (AmE a stomachache)
78 Имя существительное. Артикль

backache (AmE a backache)


a pain in the back, in the knee, etc.
heart trouble, liver trouble
a high blood pressure
a cold, a cough, a sore throat
a heart attack

5. Articles with Certain Nouns.


1. “SEA”
The noun “sea” is usually used with the definite article:
e.g., The sea was rough.
No article is used in the following expressions: to be at sea and to
go to sea.
The noun “sea” is used with the indefinite article if it has a descrip-
tive attribute:
e.g., It was a blue sparkling sea.
2. “SCHOOL”, “HOSPITAL”, etc.
The nouns school, college, hospital, prison, jail, class, university, bed, table,
church, market are used without any article when denote activities associated
with these places:
e.g., You’ll have to spend a few days in bed.
When is John leaving for school?
They go to church every Sunday.
However, when these nouns denote a building or an object, they are used
with the definite or indefinite articles:
e.g., The school was a tall dark building.
We entered the church to have a look at the icons.
3. “TOWN”
The noun town takes no article when it is used in contrast with country
or when it means the business center of a town.
e.g., to be in town, to go to town, to live in town, etc.
In other cases, the noun town is used with the definite or indefinite ar-
ticles.
The noun country is usually used with the definite article (to go to the
country, to be in the country, etc.).
6. Place of Articles.
Articles usually go at the beginning of a noun phrase. However, some
modifiers are placed before the articles.
6.1. Nouns with the definite article follow all, both, half:
e.g., All the children went to the cinema.
The definite article after both is often omitted:
e.g., Both (the) girls were good at playing the violin.
The definite article is not used when all is followed by a numeral:
e.g., All three boys were good at playing the violin.
Unit 12. Special Difficulties in the Use of Articles 79

The definite article is used before the numeral if all is followed by the
preposition of:
e.g., All of the three boys were good at playing the violin.
Memorize the following: half an hour, half a day, half a mile, a half-hour,
a half-day, etc.
6.2. Nouns modified by articles are preceded by double, once, twice. The
following variants are possible:
double + a noun with the definite article:
e.g., It was double the price.
once + a noun with the indefinite article:
e.g., He comes here once a month.
twice + a noun with the indefinite article or the definite article:
e.g., Twice a month he went to the stadium to watch a football match.
He is twice the man he was.
6.3. The fractions (дроби) one-third, three-quarters, etc. come before
nouns with the definite article:
e.g., He did only one-third of the work.
6.4. Nouns with the indefinite article can be placed after or before quite
and rather:
e.g., He is rather a clever man or He is a rather clever man.
6.5. Nouns with the indefinite article follow many (the verb is used in the
singular):
e.g., Many a man is of the same opinion.
6.6. So, as, too, how, however followed by an adjective precede nouns
with the indefinite article:
e.g., Youth lasts so short a time.

Task 1. Fill in the missing articles before names of seasons.


1. They looked in awe at this proof of returning life, moved too deeply
for words that it should have just come this, morning to remind them when
___ winter lay heaviest on them that ___ spring would come again and with
___ spring freedom and reunion. 2. I should remember the rose-garden
in ___ summer, and the birds that sang at dawn. 3. The weather was wet
and cold for quite a week, as it often can be in the west country in ___ early
summer. 4. During ___ summer I always feel uneasy. 5. I am transported
from this indifferent island to the realities of ___ English spring. 6. There
was a good deal of story-telling and comparing notes on ___ past summer
and all its doings. 7. The sun had brought the old men out from wherever
they spent ___ winter. 8. In ___ summer of his sophomore year, when he
got the job after hours and on Saturdays at Harrods Department Store he
was quite happy. 9. The west country must be delightful in ___ spring. 10. In
___ spring of the year 1881 he was visiting his old schoolfellow and client
G. Liversedge. 11. I’m tired to death of Europe and we can come back in ___
early fall. 12. ___ winter passed into spring and ___ gardens on the Riviera
80 Имя существительное. Артикль

were ablaze with colour. ___ spring passed into ___ summer. 13. He shivered.
He always hated ___ winter. 14. And you frightened me with it, that winter
when you and I were here as girls. ___ winter I was engaged. 15. New York is
beautiful at ground level, but on a fine day in ___ early winter from the air,
it is one of the loveliest sights a man can hope to see. 16. You know our blood
gets so thick during ___ winter. 16. Whether in ___ winter or ___ summer,
___ spring or ___ autumn it’s always got its fun and its excitements! 17. ___
winter settled down over the mountains and the long trip from the city to her
ceased to be an adventure for Bart, and became a hardship.

Task 2. Fill in the missing articles if necessary before names of times of the
day and night.
1. Willie ordered brandy for both of them after the coffee, what with
paying for lunch and all the eating and drinking of ____ evening, Gretchen
figured that it must have cost Willie at least fifty dollars since ____ noon.
2. We spent the time from ____ midnight till four in ____ morning at the
Air Ministry. 3. Indeed ____ night itself is only a faint dusting over of ____
day, a wash of silver through the still warm fold of ____ afternoon. 4. Ma-
jor Andrew Fontine sat rigidly at his desk, listening to the sounds of ____
morning. 5. But meanwhile there isn’t either one of them and I’m in the car
in the rain at ____ night. 6. He heard Antoine say accusingly, “Susan, you
said you wouldn’t be back until ____ dusk.” 7. It was ____ early morning
and the air was grateful and cool. 8. It was ____ Saturday morning. He had
been too busy to telephone his sister all week and he felt guilty about it.
9. Oh, Eva has told me you play tennis. Perhaps we can have a game or two
____ tomorrow evening. 10. Marion went out into ____ still smooth night.
There was no moon, but already the sky was silver dusted with stars. 11. ____
all morning this went on and long into ____ afternoon. 12. No, no, let us
play, for it is yet ____ day, and we cannot go to sleep. 13. Accordingly, he
determined to have vengeance and remained till ____ daylight in an attitude
of deep thought. 14. Several times during ____ morning the woman came
into the bathroom. 15. Every day I was up at ____ dawn, clearing, planting,
working on my house, and at ____ night when I threw myself on my bed
I was to sleep like a log all through ____ night. 16. Ever since ____ night his
mother had made that crazy speech about thirty thousand dollars, he had
felt sorry for his father. 17. She didn’t feel as ____ evening progressed that
she was getting to know Dr. D. any better. 18. She intends to spend ____
night at the lake residence. 19. All ____ morning, from the first rest period,
they went up and down the veranda, walking with their slow tread, calling
gaily to those on bed-rest. 20. It was ____ cloudy afternoon with an Italian
butcher selling a pound of meat to a very old woman. 21. She existed, aged
19, seated in front of the mirror on ____ March night in the middle of the
century because her mother had failed to live up to her destiny. 22. On ____
day of her mother’s funeral it had been blowing a gale, with sleet. 23. Adrian
Unit 12. Special Difficulties in the Use of Articles 81

smiled, remembering ____ morning after that terrible night in San Francisco.
24. It was pleasant to drive back in ____ late afternoon. 25. And confidence is
a quality I prize, although it has come to me a little late in ____ day. 26. Do
you remember ____ afternoon when I sprained my ankle and you carried me
home in your arms in ____ twilight? 27. If you are looking for Mr. de Winter
we had a message from Cannes to say he would not be back before ____ mid-
night. 28. At last ____ evening came, and with it hunger and a debate with
himself as to how he should spend ____ night. 29. It was ____ unpromising
afternoon, already half dark, ____ afternoon for early tea and entertainment
on television. 30. ____ days at the shack passed in a happy succession. 31. I’ll
be sitting here all ____ night working an adding machine while you’re rak-
ing in the loot year after year. 32. The cherries had been plucked at ____
midnight and the coldness of the moon had entered into them. 33. Jan woke
on ____ Saturday morning to a world thrilling with expectancy. 34. ____
following evening, having refused Elliot’s telephoned offer to fetch me, I ar-
rived quite safely at Mrs. Bradley’s house.

Task 3. Fill in the missing articles if necessary before names of meals.


1. Before ____ breakfast Michael entered Julia’s room. “The boys have
gone off to play golf. They asked if they need come back to ____ lunch. I told
them that was all right.” 2. She was not out to give the mother ____ perfect
Sunday night supper. 3. She picked at ____ delicious breakfast Doreen had
prepared for her, but she had no appetite for it. 4. I don’t care for ____ late
dinner. 5. “I guess I’ll not try to go out today,” he said to Carrie at ____
breakfast. 6. ____ dinner lasted a long while and was great fun. 7. We sat
in the library after ____ dinner, and presently the curtains were drawn. 8. We
ordered hospital room service and sat crosslegged one on each end of the
bed and shared ____ big turkey dinner from the big snack tray between us.
9. No Forsyte has given ____ dinner without providing a saddle of mutton.
10. Eva had been especially silent during ____ dinner. 11. You don’t think you
swallowed a fishbone at ____ tea? Do you? 12. As soon as he was dressed,
she went into the library and sat down to ____ light French breakfast.
13. I’m afraid I have to cancel ____ dinner tonight. 14. He and the captain
sat a long time over ____ lunch. 15. I’m going to find a place for ____ lunch.
16. She worked, after dressing, to arrange ____ little breakfast for herself,
and then advised with Minnie as to which way to look. 17. It was during the
first part of ____ dinner that he was very quiet. 18. As I sat at ____ breakfast
I looked out at the autumn mist dissolving in the early sunrise. 19. We were
having ____ excellent dinner, cooked by Mary. 20. She stood waiting for the
trolleybus to take her down to the city, where she was meeting Bart for ____
supper. 21. I sometimes go down to New York and I might find the time
to buy the child ___ good dinner. 22. He sat up, and having sipped some
tea, turned over his letters. They contained the usual collection of cards,
invitations to ____ dinner, tickets for private views, programmes of charity
82 Имя существительное. Артикль

concerts, and the like. 23. Carrie had prepared ____ good dinner. 24. It
was two o’clock in the afternoon and Harold was still home at ____ lunch.

LET’S TALK
Study the internet, encyclopedias and other sources. Find as much infor-
mation as possible about eating habits and types of meals in different countries.
Make a report to tell the class.

Task 4. Fill in the missing articles if necessary before names of diseases.


1. Manson was happy having cured Mary of ____ consumption. 2. The
cold water sent ____ spasm through the base of his spine, the stick fell from his
hands. 3. She got kind of quiet, like she had ____ headache. 4. “What’s hap-
pened to your friend?” he said. I told him about ____ influenza. 5. He is only
fifty but the liver has stopped restoring itself, the precipitating factor is ____
alcoholism. 6. I got ____ pneumonia making a picture last January and I’ve
been recuperating. 7. I had heard of a man who had a slight fungus growth on
his thumb and had become obsessed with the idea that it was ____ cancer.
8. I made sure it was ____ chill, Doctor. 9. She clung to him, face distorted
and crimson. ____ cough rocked her. 10. Old and young, talkative and tac-
iturn, rich and poor, they all had two things in common, lice and ____ dys-
entery. 11. After ____ typhoid she was just skin and bone. 12. Yes, you had
found ____ diphtheria and ____ typhoid, and, if I am right, there were some
outstanding, like ____ scarlet fever and ____ smallpox, and others that you
didn’t even suspect. 13. It probably accounts for some of ____ flu you spoke
of, but that is not too serious in itself. 14. The morning after the bridge party
Mrs. Van Hopper woke with ____ sore throat and a temperature of a hundred
and two. 15. Little Nancy has ____ backache and they’ve decided to send
her home. 16. I developed ____ blister on my thumb and had to quit. 17. The
trainer took a fussy interest in him when he came up with ____ small bruise
on his knee. 18. It looked precisely the place to provoke rather than cure
____ nervous breakdown. 19. The last woman who had undressed me had
been my mother, when I was five, and I had ____ measles. 20. She’d hurry
to her room and plead ____ toothache. 21. Case was a forty-year old man
admitted for ____ appendicitis. 22. At the beginning of the year Cooper went
down with ____ fever. 23. He had ____ grippe and I figured that I probably
won’t see him again. 24. The medical history of this man shows that three
years ago he suffered ____ first coronary attack and then ____ second attack
earlier this year.

Task 5. Answer the following questions paying special attention to the use
of articles.
1. How do you usually spend your free time? (use the names of the sea-
sons) 2. Do you do any sports? (use the names of the seasons) 3. When do you
do your homework/cook/clean the apartment/go shopping? (use the names
Unit 12. Special Difficulties in the Use of Articles 83

of times of the day and night) 4. How do you prepare for your exams? (use the
names of times of the day and night) 5. When do you have your meals? (use
the names of the meals) 6. What food do you prefer? (use the names of the
meals) 7. Why did you see the doctor? (use the names of diseases) 8. Why
was he taken to hospital? (use the names of diseases) 9. Do you often go
to the country? (use the names of the seasons and times of the day and night)

LET’S TALK
1. Describe a visit to a new place/town/country for the first time (use the
names of the seasons, times of the day and night, meals). Make a short story,
tell the class.
2. Describe a visit to a hospital (use the names of the seasons, times of the
day and night, meals). Make a short story, tell the class.

Task 6. Fill in the missing articles


1. ___ six months in ___ bed no longer seemed a long time. 2. I’m in my
second year in ___ medical school. 3. It’s worse than ___ prison, because
in ___ prison at least you are all criminals and in ___ prison you can at least
have a cell to yourself. 4. When this is over, I’m going to treat you to the best
lunch in ___ town. 5. She was glad that he had gone to ___ secondary school
because it had been only constructed a year before. She was 17 years of age
and had left ___ school 2 years before. 6. On the morning of the third day
of rain we decided to go down into ___ town. 7. I believe, it’s time you were
in ___ comfortable bed. 8. The ship was floating idly on ___ motionless sea.
9. I’m happy to hear your daughter is doing well at ___ school. 10. She lay
back in ___ wide hotel bed and tried to relax. 11. They were all seated at ___
table waiting for the maid to serve them. 12. He was making his yacht ready
for ___ sea when I last saw him. 13. I had seen them walking together, arms
linked, to ___ sea, coming back rather late and tired and happy to a cold
lunch. 14. He always criticized those who used ___ church only for marrying,
or burying.

Task 7. Rewrite the sentences using the articles where necessary.


1. I thought of all those heroines of fiction who looked pretty when they
cried, and what contrast I must make with blotched and swollen face and red
rims to my eyes. 2. Both readers of course will draw the obvious conclusions
from this. 3. Never before had he seen such cold steely determination in her
eye — such cruel look of indifference. 4. I’ve brutalized many men into shape
but I wouldn’t take a chance on half number of women. 5. He thought of all
people Fox had shaken hands with — the President of the United States,
every living scientist whose name was famous. 6. “It seems to be such large
company,” she said, at one place. 7. Here you are a complete stranger with
an acquaintance of less than half hour and you came up to me with a cock-
and-bull story about your aunts. 8. All complications which led up to it
84 Имя существительное. Артикль

were unknown. 9. Evenings, when still at his post, he would occasionally


read in the evening papers incidents concerning celebrities whom he knew,
whom he had drunk a glass with many time. 10. She was horrified at herself
for having such thought and she turned pink. 11. He had a little office in the
place, set off in polished cherry and grill work, where he kept in a roll top
desk, rather simple accounts of the place-supply ordered and needed. 12. He
was quite disagreeable figure. 13. Sorrow in her was aroused by many spec-
tacle, an uncritical outburst of grief for the weak and the helpless. 14. She
came and sat beside me and I knew the waiting of all five years had been
hard for her. 15. Mr. Cowlishaw found himself in rather difficult position
of speeding his first patient and welcoming another one in the same breath.

Task 8. Translate into English.


A. 1. В течение зимы я часто встречался со своими друзьями. 2. Пой-
дем, нельзя терять время. Мы должны вернуться до рассвета. 3. Она
начала одеваться к обеду, на который была приглашена. 4. Келли была
бледна и жаловалась на головную боль. 5. Вы ходите в церковь? 6. Была
поздняя осень, птицы уже улетели на юг. 7. Подумай о том, какой
огромный завтрак ты съел. 8. У нее болело горло и была высокая тем-
пература. Врач диагностировал у нее грипп и настоял на том, чтобы
отправить ее в больницу. 9. Осенним днем мы пришли к морю, море
было спокойное. 10. Миссис Джонсон пришлось пойти в школу, чтобы
поговорить о поведении ее сына. 11. Прошлым летом мы ездили в Рим.
12. Был теплый весенний день. 13. За ужином ты едва притронулся
к еде. 14. У него случился сердечный приступ, и он не смог поехать
с нами. 15. Каждое утро я иду в больницу и начинаю осмотр больных.
16. После ограбления банка Томпсона отправили в тюрьму. Его мать
не верила в виновность сына и каждое воскресенье после посещения
церкви, она отправлялась в тюрьму, чтобы повидать его.
B. 1. Зима, которую миссис Браун провела в Индии, была самым
счастливым временем в ее жизни. 2. У него была вся ночь впереди.
3. За обедом все говорили о предстоящем событии. 4. У Тома была
сильная простуда, он кашлял и жаловался на то, что у него болит ухо.
5. Рыбаки вышли в море рано утром и вернулись к вечеру, поймав
много рыбы. 6. Они должны были вернуться ранней весной. 7. Ночь
оказалась очень тихой. 8. Я угощу вас наилучшим ужином, какой вы
можете получить в этом городе. 9. Около нашего дома выстроили но-
вую школу. 10. Когда у него заболел зуб, он не стал долго ждать и об-
ратился к врачу. 11. У меня был тяжелый день. 12. Когда у Джонсонов
родились дети, они решили уехать из города и купили дом в деревне.
Каждое утро мистеру Джонсону приходилось ездить в город на работу.
Когда дети подросли, мистер Джонсон стал отвозить их в школу в го-
роде. Миссис Джонсон ездила в город раз в две недели за покупками.
13. Я не забуду день, когда я впервые переступил порог твоего дома.
Unit 12. Special Difficulties in the Use of Articles 85

14. Каждое лето мы ездим на море. 15. Днем и ночью я хочу знать,
где ты находишься. 16. Школа стоит на холме, ее видно издалека.
17. Я хочу увидеть вас завтра утром.
C. 1. Я хожу в театр очень редко. 2. Я в Париже по делам. 3. Мы со-
брались в кино в пятницу вечером. 4. Мой сын учится играть на скрип-
ке. 5. Я собираюсь поехать в Минск на автобусе. 6. Я прибыл на вок-
зал на такси за час до отхода поезда. 7. После смерти бабушки она
унаследовала пианино. 8. Он стоял у такси и курил. 9. Какой чудес-
ный день! Давайте поедем за город. 10. Все студенты сдали экзамен
и ждали результата у входа в аудиторию. 11. Оба студента сдали экза-
мен на отлично. 12. Все пять рейсов отправляются из Шереметьево.
13. Это место имеет довольно плохую репутацию. 14. Все студенты
имеют право брать учебники в библиотеке бесплатно. 15. Он весьма
способный студент.
Unit 13
USE OF ARTICLES WITH PROPER NOUNS
( ИМЕНА СОБСТВЕННЫЕ )

1. Articles with Personal names.


1.1. Personal names are used without any article. Some common names
(mother, father, sister, brother, aunt, uncle, cousin, baby, nurse, cook) are treated
as proper nouns and, therefore, take no article when they are used by mem-
bers of the family. These nouns should be spelled with a capital letter.
e.g., Father wants to talk to you.
1.2. The definite article with personal names is used:
• when a personal name has the plural form to indicate the whole family:
e.g., The Simpsons are coming to dinner tonight.
But, The Simpson family are very friendly.
• when a personal name is modified by an adjective:
e.g., The late Mr. Jones was a nice person.
Note. There is no article if a personal name is modified by old, young,
dear, poor, little, tiny, honest:
e.g., Old Jolyon entered the room.
• when a personal name is modified by a limiting attribute:
e.g., She was not the Mary of our youth.
1.3. The indefinite article is used:
• when a personal name indicates a member of a family:
e.g., The boy was a Simpson! (one of the Simpsons)
• when a personal name indicates the fact that the person resembles
somebody:
e.g., His face always reminded Michael of a Lincoln grown old.
• when a personal name is modified by certain (некий, какой-то):
e.g., A certain John Reed is waiting to see you, sir.
Note. When the personal name is preceded by Mr., Mrs., Colonel, Sir,
etc., the indefinite article before it is equivalent to certain:
e.g., A Mr. Brown phoned in the morning.
1.4. Personal nouns turn into common nouns when they denote things
associated with the names of certain persons. Such nouns follow the rules
of use of articles for common nouns:
Unit 13. Use of Articles with Proper Nouns (имена собственные) 87

e.g., Has the Hermitage got a Dali?


The Mercedes he has bought is not new.
2. Articles with Geographic Names.
2.1. No article is used before:
• names of continents: Africa, Asia, North America.
Note. The Arctic and the Antarctic.
• names of countries, counties, provinces, states: France, Italy, Texas,
Devonshire, etc.
Note 1. Some names of countries can be used with or without an article
(Argentina, but the Argentine; (the) Congo, (the) Lebanon, (the) Senegal)
Note 2. If the name of the country consists of a group of words one
of which is a common noun, the definite article should be used: Russia, but
the Russian Federation, France, but the French Republic, etc.
c. names of cities, towns, villages: London, Washington, Paris, etc.
Note 3. The Hague and the Vatican.
• names of mountains and islands, but not the names of mountain
chains or groups of islands:
e.g., Snowdon, Cyprus.
• names of lakes: Lake Michigan.
• names of waterfalls: Niagara Falls.
• names of bays: Hudson Bay.
• names of peninsulas and capes: Hindustan, Cape Horn.
Note 4. If the noun peninsula is added, the definite article must be used:
the Hindustan peninsula.
2.2. The definite article is used with:
• names of seas, oceans, rivers, straits, canals: the Atlantic, the Medi-
terranean, the Thames, the Bering Strait, etc.
• names of groups of islands and mountain chains: the Alps, the Ha-
waii.
• names of deserts: the Sahara.
• names of mountain passes: the Saint Gotthard Pass.
• geographic names having the plural form: the Midlands, the Nether-
lands, etc.
2.3. Geographic names which take no article may be used with either the
definite or indefinite article in the following cases:
• if it is modified by a limiting attribute, the definite article is used:
e.g., It was not the France of his youth.
• if it is modified by a descriptive attribute, the indefinite article is
used:
e.g., It was a different Paris, unknown to him.
• the definite article is used in the following patterns containing the
preposition of: the Bay of Biscay, the City of New York, the Mount
of Olives, the Isle of Man, the Gulf of Mexico, the Strait of Dover.
3. Articles with Other Types of proper Nouns.
88 Имя существительное. Артикль

3.1. The following groups of nouns take no article:


• names of streets, squares, parks: Broadway, Fleet Street, Trafalgar
Square, Hyde Park;
Note. The Strand, the Haymarket, the Main Street.
• names of airports and railway stations: Kennedy Airport, Waterloo
Station;
• names of universities and colleges: Oxford University, Hertford College;
Note. The University of Oxford.
• names of some magazines and journals: National Geographic;
• names of buildings, bridges: Buckingham Palace, Westminster Abbey,
Tower Bridge;
Note. Some buildings are used with the definite article: the White House,
the Tower, the Old Bailey, the Kremlin.
3.2. The following groups of nouns take the definite article:
• names of hotels, clubs, museums, picture galleries, concert halls,
theatres, cinemas, monuments: the Hilton, the National Gallery, the
British Museum, the Odeon, the Albert Hall, the Lincoln Memorial.
Note. When the name of the hotel, pub, shop, restaurant contains the
name of its founder or owner in the common or the possessive case or in the
plural, no article is used: Bertram’s hotel, Harrods, etc.
• names of ships, boats and other vessels: the Titanic;
• names of parties and institutions: the Conservative party, the House
of Commons;
Note. Parliament, but the British Parliament; (the) Congress.
• names of newspapers and some magazines: the Times, the Economist.

Task 1. Fill in the articles where necessary paying attention to personal


names.
1. Even his closest friends — ___ little John and ___ Scarlett never ques-
tioned him about his intentions. 2. This was ___ Magda with whom you
could be on friendly terms, who made no demands on you, who met you
completely on your own level. 3. And when he allowed ex-Mrs. Burk to di-
vorce him, he permitted her lawyer to write the divorce settlement. 4. She was
not quite certain that ___Edward who wrote to her now was not ___ same
Edward that she had known. 5. A little way off he saw his wife in a long chair
talking with ___ Davidsons. 6. The clerk had put me in the room next to ___
Sloanes. 7. The removal of ___ late Mr. Curry was rapid and professional.
8. I thought it was fine — especially ___ Chopin. 9. ___ Old Osborne on the
contrary was nervous and drank much. 10. It seemed Walter didn’t pay any
attention to ___ tearful Kitty. 11. I was not surprised, therefore, on Monday
night when ___ Mr. Latimer, a very fashionably dressed young man, came up
to my rooms and asked me to accompany him in a cab, which was waiting at
the door. 12. The tenant listed the car on the registration slip as ___ Cadilac.
13. I don’t want to turn into ___ Teddy Bolan. 14. Down in a third-rate hotel,
Unit 13. Use of Articles with Proper Nouns (имена собственные) 89

___ brooding Hurstwood read the dramatic item covering Carrie’s success,
without at first realizing who was meant. 15. There was ___ unimportant Re-
noir and ___ lovely little Manet on the far wall. 16. ___ two Renoirs and ___
Matisse hung on the walls. 17. Who knows — I may be ___ Orson Welles
of the fifties. 18. “I used to know ___ Bill Biloxi from Memphis,” I remarked.

Task 2. Fill in the articles where necessary paying attention to geographic


names.
1. It was not ___ Monte Carlo I had known. 2. The Chimney Corner
was the name of the bar. Michael had liked hanging around there. The pho-
tographs of famous skiers of the past hanging above the great fireplace now
looked like mementos of ___ much earlier America. 3. ___ largest volcano
in ___ world is Mauna Loa in ___ Hawaii. 4. There are ten towns named
___ Hollywood in ___. USA. 5. I hear he’s off to ___ Central Africa. 6. He
decided to take his profit and buy a house on ___Riviera. 7. It snowed in ___
Sahara desert on February 18, 1979. 8. Next morning, back from shopping
in ___ Cannes, Nicole found a note saying that Dick had taken the small
car and gone up into ___ Provence for a few days by himself. 9. What do
you know about ___ Machu Picchu? — It’s ___ ancient city found in ___
Andes Mountains in ___ Peru. 10. My great-grand-father was Governor
of ___ North Carolina. 11. Where is ___Barbados? — In ___ Caribbean.
12. We drove up from ___ Valencia. 13. I spent last summer in a sport camp
on ___ Taman Peninsula in ___ Crimea. 14. ___ Yorkshire is famous
for some delicious foods, including Yorkshire pudding and roastbeef. 15. In
___ Netherlands and ___ Belgium St. Nicholas’ Day, December 6 is the
children’s festival, on the eve of which the saint is supposed to come riding
from ___ Spain with presents for all good children. 16. This year we have
some students from ___ Kameroon and ___ Senegal. Last year we had some
from ___ Lebanon and ___ Argentine. 17. They lived in ___ South China.
18. The President of ___ French Republic is meeting the President of ___
Russian Federation tomorrow morning. The Russian president has already
arrived in ___ France. 19. James entered ___ Oxford university, but his father
went to ___ university of Cambridge. 20. Michael looked quizzically at his
parent. Did he quite understand ___ England of today?

Task 3. Fill in the articles where necessary paying attention to geographic


names.
1. He also emphasized the environmental danger to the stock of toothfish
in the waters of ___ southern Indian Ocean. 2. The latter provision required
strengthening of the monitoring of commercial traffic in ___ Adriatic Sea.
3. He was found washed up dead on the banks of ___ East River. 4. New
York, the largest city in the USA, is situated at the mouth of ___ Hudson
river, sometimes called ___ North river. 5. He had grown up at the shores
of ___ Lake Superior and had sailed small boats ever since he was a kid.
90 Имя существительное. Артикль

6. They sent us a postcard of ___ Lake of Geneva. 7. Enjoying a prime lo-


cation in the heart of ___ Geneva, Hotel Beau Rivage boasts fantastic views
of ___ Lake Geneva and ___ Mont Blanc, being close to the UN’s Palais
des Nations. 8. The bar features a large panoramic terrace offering views
of ___ bay of Menton. 9. Since Spain had lost ___ Gibraltar in 1704, ___
Gibraltar’s exercise of its right to self-determination could not affect ___
Spain’s territorial integrity. 10. Releases from this plant ultimately contami-
nated the water, sediment, and biota of ___ James River, a tributary to ___
Chesapeake Bay. 11. Warm air began to move from ___ Gulf of Mexico
across Texas into New Mexico. 12. The hotel overlooks ___ Grand Canal
and has majestic views of the Church of Santa Maria della Salute and ___
island of San Giorgio. 13. He said he was a Dane, but in ___ Torres Straits
he was known as German Harry. 14. The concept behind this vision is that
the size and population density of ___ future Palestine will be roughly the
same as in extended urban regions like ___ San Francisco Bay area or ___
greater Cairo. 15. Wisconsin was on ___ Wisconsin River, on the north bank,
a matter of seven miles above the junction with ___ Mississippi. 16. ___ Pa-
cific Ocean is rich in mineral raw materials. 17. Production centers of Saudi
Arabia are along ___ Persian Gulf.

Task 4. Fill in the articles where necessary paying attention to geographic


names.
1. She’s lived on ___ Long Island twenty years and never saw New York
City before. 2. He told stories to beautiful girls about his fighting in ___
Solomon Islands, in Casablanca. 3. ___ Rocky Mountains extend from
Mexico to Canada. 4. We were going to climb ___ Monte Solaro, dine
at a tavern we favoured, and walk down in the moonlight. 5. He took her
for a ride on the river under ___ Niagara Falls and held her hand lovingly
when they walked in the sunlight of the Northern summer. 6. We could very
well have done ___ Mount Everest the rate we were doing. 7. On the edge
of ___ Sahara we ran into a plague of locusts and the chauffeur explained
kindly that they were bumble-bees. 8. ___ Alps were raised some 15 million
years ago as ___Africa, drifting northwards, collided with ___ southern edge
of Europe. 9. After full implementation of current legislation, including the
Gothenburg Protocol, commensurate adverse biological effects would oc-
cur in ___ Italian Alps, ___ southern Norway, ___ southern Sweden, ___
southern Pennines in ___ United Kingdom, and ___ Tatras mountains.
10. had a small house in ___ Bermudas. 11. The shell was found overturned,
the next day, near ___ Bear Mountain. 12. The photographer gave us the
picture of me, my hair limp over the rail on the boat to ___ Capri. 13. No
one should leave the park without visiting the outlook station on the rim
of ___ Great Canyon for a view of ___ Lower Falls of the Yellowstone River.
14. By the 15th century, the center of power in the archipelago had moved
to ___ Malay Peninsula, which was indicated by the rise of Melaka and of
Unit 13. Use of Articles with Proper Nouns (имена собственные) 91

trading cities along the northern coast of ___ Java. 15. ___ Kilimanjaro
is a snow covered mountain 19,700 feet high and is said to be the highest
mountain in Africa. 16. The monsoon winds were an important factor du-
ring the days of sailing ships, which brought traders, settlers and colonizers
to ___ Malay Archipelago, particularly from the north, west, and south.
17. We shall try to break through direct for ___ North Cape. 18. The main
part of the United States presents four physical divisions: two elevated
and two lowland regions. The elevated are ___ Appalachian Mountains
in the east, and ___ Rocky Mountains or Cordilleran system in the west.
19. Spain is a country of about 194,883 square miles (including ___ Balearic
Islands and ___ Canary Islands) occupying the larger part of ___ Iberian
Peninsula in southwestern Europe.

Task 5. Fill in the articles where necessary.


1. I’m living at ___ Chelsea now. 2. On the other bank of ___ Po-
tomac lies ___ Arlington National Cemetery, where ___ President Kenne-
dy was buried. 3. Tom and Miss Baker sat at either end of the long couch
and she read aloud to him from ___ Saturday Evening Post. 4. Sensation
at ___ London airport. Attempt to smuggle 12 jewels worth three quarters
of a million. 5. His own ideas of a riotous holiday meant picnicking on
the grass of ___ Green Park with his family and half a dozen paper bags
full of food. 6. After that, if the night was mellow, I strolled down ___
Madison Avenue past ___ old Murray Hotel, and over ___ 33d Street
to ___ Pennsylvania Station. 7. Why, yes, didn’t you know that? Why,
he’s manager of ___ Grand Opera House. 8. Then still keeping a hun-
dred yards behind, we followed into ___ Oxford Street and so down ___
Regent Street. 9. It was close on midnight when a man crossed ___ Place
de la Concorde. 10. I meant it might be nice for you to take a house
in ___ London for the spring season. 11. ___ Jefferson Memorial was built
in memory of the third President of ___ USA, Thomas Jefferson, who
was also the author of the Declaration of Independence. 12. ___ White
House is the President’s residence. 13. At half past six on a Friday evening
in January, ___ Lincoln International Airport, Illinois, was functioning,
though with difficulty. 14. He turned on the radio. Mozart, unworried
and spring-like, accompanied them as far as ___ Bronx. 15. Hurstwood
wrote her one morning asking her to meet him in ___ Jefferson Park, ___
Monroe Street. 16. He remembered having seen her sitting in ___ Bota-
nical Gardens waiting for Bosinney. 17. She asked Charles if he would take
her to ___ National Gallery. 18. The girls of ___ Lotus Club wondered
what had become of him and worried Jan with questions. 19. Across ___
Fifth Avenue, through ___ Madison Square by the winding paths, east
on ___ Twenty Third Street and down ___ Third Avenue wound the long
serpentine company. 20. He has been to ___ Eton and ___ Oxford and he
doesn’t forget to let you know it.
92 Имя существительное. Артикль

Task 6. Fill in the articles where necessary.


1. I presume that it was committed in the cloakroom of ___ House
of Commons. 2. From the instant you land at ___ El Dorado International
Airport, you feel a privileged guest in the warm respective city. 3. And
feeling that he must finish with it now, he took a cab into ___ West End.
4. Then he sat in ___ Bryant Park, a block away, waiting. 5. Well, I am
connected with ___ Wellington — the new hotel on ___ Broadway. 6. ___
National Theatre said on ___ Tuesday it would close one of its three audi-
toriums. 7. The conversation was in ___ German, for it developed that he
had been educated at ___ Gottingen. 8. The largest and tallest among the
buildings was ___ Capitol with its great Hall of Representatives and Senate
Chamber. 9. I know a girl who studies ___ French and she pays 17 shillings
an hour. And I’m going tо take lessons in ___ English language, which is
my native language, so I won’t give you more than a shilling. 10. He had
an idea that anything accepted by a paper was published immediately,
and as he had sent the manuscript in on ___ Friday, he expected it to
come out ___ following Sunday. 11. Every morning her mother had read
two newspapers from cover to cover: ___ Daily Telegraph and ___ Daily
Mirror. 12. Approaching ___ Malta Street, ___ Soho, Soames thought
with wonder of those seven years at ___ Brighton. 13. And he went back
into ___ City to do what still lay before him. 14. He stood by the window
of the sitting-room which gave view over ___ Hyde Park. 15. There were
tearful scenes at ___ Gatwick Airport. 16. They drove off eastward, down
___ Strand and into a little side street, by ___ Charing Cross. 17. I am
a marine biologist. I took a degree in it at ___ Cambridge. 18. They have
a nice home in ___ High Street. 19. He paid careful attention to the an-
nouncements in ___ Times. 20. You want to see ___ Lincoln Park and ___
Michigan Boulevard. They are putting up great buildings there. 21. It must
have been ___ Harward Club. 22. ___ Savoy is a luxury hotel in ___
Strand in London. 23. Charlie was a youngish man of thirty-five, gradu-
ate of ___ Stanford University, member of ___ Nile Club and ___ Unity
Club, a conservative speaker for ___ Republican Party during campaigns,
in short, a rising man in every way.

Task 7. Fill in the articles where necessary.


New Zealand
___New Zealand is ___ island country located in ___ southwestern Pa-
cific Ocean. It is also called Aotearoa or the “Land of the Long White Cloud”
in the language of ___ Maori (rhymes with “dowry”), ___ Polynesian people
who settled ___ islands four centuries before ___ first Europeans arrived.
Geographically, ___ country consists of ___ two large islands and ___ num-
ber of ___ smaller islands. It is separated from ___ Australia to ___ northwest
by ___ Tasman Sea, which is some 2,000 km across. ___ closest neighbors
to ___ north are ___ New Caledonia, ___ Fiji, and ___ Tonga.
Unit 13. Use of Articles with Proper Nouns (имена собственные) 93

___ New Zealand’s total land area, nearly 270,000 km², is about ___
same as that of ___ Colorado and somewhat smaller than ___ Philippines.
___ population, in ___ slight excess of ___ four million, is similar in ___ size
to ___ Costa Rica‘s. ___ two main islands are named ___ North and ___
South islands in English, or Te-Ika-a-Maui and Te Wai Pounamu, respec-
tively, in Maori. ___ Maori legends describe ___ South Island as ___ canoe
and ___ North Island as ___ fish.
___ New Zealand aligned itself with ___ allied nations in ___ World
War I, World War II, and ___ Korean War. In ___ First World War, New
Zealand recorded ___ highest casualties per ___ head of ___ population
of any combatant nation.
___ New Zealand’s landscape ranges from ___ fjord-like sounds of ___
southwest to ___ tropical beaches of ___ far north. ___ South Island is
dominated by ___ Southern Alps, ___ highest peak of which is ___ Aoraki/
Mount Cook, at 3,754 m. ___ closest mountains surpassing it in elevation
are found not in ___ Australia, but in ___ New Guinea and ___ Antarctica.
___ tallest peak on ___ North Island is ___ Mount Ruapehu (2,797 m),
___ active, cone-shaped volcano. ___ smaller islands include ___ Stewart
Island, which lies south of ___ South Island; ___ Waiheke and ___ Great
Barrier islands, near ___ north end of ___North Island; and ___ Chatham
Islands, more than 800 km east of ___South Island.
Temperatures rarely fall below 0 °C or rise above 30 °C. Conditions vary
from wet and cold on ___ South Island’s west coast to dry and continental
___ short distance away across ___ mountains and subtropical in ___ north-
ern reaches of ___ North Island.
___ New Zealand also includes ___ Cook Islands and ___ Niue, each
lying about 2,200 km to ___ northeast and entirely self-governing; ___ Toke-
lau, another island territory situated about 3,200 km to ___ north and mov-
ing towards self-government; and ___ Ross Dependency, ___ New Zea-
land’s claim in ___ Antarctica, located about 2,500 km to ___ south.
Because of its long isolation from ___ rest of ___ world, ___ New Zealand
has ___ unique flora. ___ evergreens such as ___ giant kauri and southern
beech dominate ___ forests. It also has ___ diverse range of birds, including
___ flightless moa (now extinct) and ___ kiwi, ___ kakapo, and ___ takahē,
all of which are endangered.
___ human settlement had ___ huge impact on ___ fauna and ___ flora.
Over 75 percent of ___ forest cover has been burnt or felled, and ___ land
converted into pasture. Many bird species, including ___ giant moa, became
extinct after ___ arrival of ___ Polynesians, who brought ___ dogs and ___
rats, and ___ Europeans, who introduced ___ additional dog and rat species,
as well as ___ cats, ___ pigs, ___ ferrets, and ___ weasels.
___ relative proximity of ___ New Zealand to ___ Antarctica has made
___ South Island ___ gateway of ___ sorts for ___ scientific expeditions
and ___ tourist excursions to ___ icebound continent.
94 Имя существительное. Артикль

LET’S TALK
Study the internet, encyclopedias and other sources. Find information about
natural landmarks in different countries. Make a report to tell the class. Pay
special attention to the use of articles.

Task 8. Translate into English.


1. Он был Симпсон и, как все Симпсоны, он был хороший спорт-
смен. 2. В кабинете меня ждал некий Джон Смит. 3. Джонсоны посе-
лились здесь несколько лет назад и с тех пор стали нашими лучшими
друзьями. 4. Мой брат встречается с Хелен, с которой его познакомил
Том. 5. Лондон стоит на реке Темза. 6. Мы провели лето на Черном
море. 7. Аргентина находится в Южной Америке. 8. В нашем музее
есть редкие картины, есть даже Айвазовский! 9. Нашей компании
принадлежит несколько автомобилей, среди них есть «форд» и два
БМВ. 10. В прошлом году мы поехали в Санкт-Петербург. Мы по-
сетили Эрмитаж и Русский музей. 11. В семье были два Петра, отец
и сын. 12. Если вы окажетесь в Риме, вы должны обязательно побывать
в Ватикане. — Где лучше всего останавливаться? — Можно остано-
виться в гостинице Хилтон или Холидей-Инн, но мы предпочитаем
останавливаться в небольшой гостинице Джованниз. 13. Этой зимой
мы собираемся на Мадагаскар. — Как вы туда доберетесь? — Мы вы-
летаем из аэропорта Домодедово, потом сделаем пересадку в Мадриде
и потом полетим над Индийским океаном. 14. В нашей семье было
принято вставать, когда отец входил в комнату. 15. У каждого человека
должны быть папа и мама. 16. Он зашел в паб «Две стрелы», выпил
два «Будвайзера», расплатился и вышел. 17. Когда я впервые приехал
в Лондон, то удивился, что он не был похож на Лондон из школьного
учебника. Трафальгарская площадь, на которой находятся знаменитая
колона Нельсона и Национальная галерея, оказалась очень маленькой
и тесной.
Unit 14
REVISION

Task 1. Choose the correct verb, then state whether you agree with these
statements. Give your reasons.
1.  The United nations (have/has) an important role in today’s world.
2. Physics (is/are) an interesting subject. 3. Both girls and boys (need/needs)
to be taught cooking. 4. Every boy and girl (need/needs) to have immuni­
zations before going to school. 5. Two hours of homework per day (is/are)
too much for children. 6. Having good computer skills (is/are) necessary if
you want to get a good job. 7. One of the biggest problems in the world today
(is/are) the lack of drinking water. 8. We may come from different countries
and have different customs, but I believe that people across the world (is/
are) more alike than different.

Task 2. Complete the sentences using the correct form of the verb.
1. Nearly 65 per cent of the people in our country (vote)
________________ in local elections. 2. Recently a number of stu­
dents (participate) ________________ in language programs abroad.
3. The number of students who knew the answer to the last question (be)
__________ very low. 4. Every one of the boys and girls in the school (know)
________________ what to do if the fire alarm rings. 5. A lot of people
in Russia (know) ________________ and (understand) ________________
English. 6. Why (be) ___________ the police standing there? 7. Why (broad­
cast) ________ most TV stations ________________ news at the same
hour every night? 8. Some of the most important books for my report (be)
___________ not available in the university library, so I had to search
the net for information. 9. Recently there (be) ___________ times when
I have curiously considered dropping out of university. 10. Not one of the
women in my office (receive) ________________ a promotion in the past
two years. All the promotions (go) _____________ to men. 11. The news
on the radio and TV stations (confirm) ________________ that a serious
storm is approaching our city. 12. Geography (be) ___________ fascinat­
ing. Mathematics (be) ___________ fascinating, too. I love these subjects.
13. Mathematics and geography (be) ___________ are my favourite subjects.
96 Имя существительное. Артикль

14. By law every man, woman or child (have) ___________ the right to free
speech. 15. (be/not) ___________ sugar and pineapple the leading crops
in Hawaii? 16. Why (be) ___________ there a shortage of school teachers?
17. How many states in the US (begin) ________________ with the let-
ter ‘A’? 18. The United State (consist) ________________ of fifty states.
19. What places in the world (have) ___________ no snakes? 20. Politics
(be) ___________ a constant source of interest to me.

Task 3. Fill in (very)few/ a few or (very) little/ a little.


1. Jane learned to cycle very quickly. At first, she fell down ________
times, but now she hardly ever falls down. 2. The police didn’t have a very
good description of the burglar. ________ witnesses could see his face.
3. Pass the sugar, please. I like ________ sugar in my coffee. Sweet coffee
tastes better. 4. You’d better study for tomorrow exam harder. The professor
has ________ patience when students don’t know the answers. 5. Before
the hurricane almost everybody rushed to the shops. When James arrived
at the store, ________ flashlight batteries were left and ________ bottled
water was available. 6. Come round to my house Saturday night. Ron is
bringing his guitar. He’ll play ________ folk music and we’ll sing ________
old songs. 7. To make this dish first cook ________ onions in ________
oil. 8. If you add ________ salt to this dish, it would taste better. 9. There
are many cities in the world with a population over a million, ________
have a population over 10 million. 10. You might achieve success if you put
________ more effort.

Task 4. Rewrite the following sentences correcting all the mistakes.


1. Lightning is flash of light. It is usually followed by thunder. 2. Last
night we had terrible storm. Our children were frightened by thunder. 3. Cir-
cles are round geometric figures. 4. Circle with slash drawn through it is
international symbol meaning “Do not do this.” 5. Romans invaded Bri-
tain in 1043 and, chasing ancient Britons along Thames, they came to first
place where it was easy to cross. They build garrison there — and London
was born. 6. No person can specifically be credited with invention of DVD
media or player that plays it. 7. Julian Morgan said, “Architecture is visual
art, and buildings speak for themselves”, and there is incredibly profound
truth in her words as buildings we design and shape play instrumental role
in shaping our lives and our histories. 8. There was great earthquake in Ja-
pan last month. Earthquake caused severe damage to buildings in Tokyo
and other major cities.

Task 5. Fill in the missing articles.


1. More than half ___ population of Kenya is under ___ age of 15.
2. Cleopatra wasn’t ___ Egyptian, she was ___ Greek. 3. The filming of ___
Titanic cost more than ___ Titanic itself. 4. ___ Venus is ___ hottest planet
Unit 14. Revision 97

in our solar system. 5. ___ hair grows faster in ___ morning than at any
other time of ___ day. 6. Have you ever been to ___Amsterdam? — Yes,
I was there during half term. We stayed at ___ Art Gallery Hotel. 7. Were
you at yesterday’s ___ football match? — No, but I saw it on ___ TV.
What ___ amazing game! 8. What’s ___ name of ___ hotel you’re staying
at? — ___ King’s Cross. It’s ___ old hotel but it’s next to ___ train sta-
tion on William Street. 9. I read that ___ Mayor is going to open ___ new
youth centre. — Yes, ___ next Friday. We should go! 10. Did you do a lot
of sightseeing when you were in ___ Athens? — Of course. We saw ___
Acropolis, ___ Ancient Theatre of Dionysus and we visited ___ extraordi-
nary area called Plaka. 11. This is my friend ___ Irma. — It’s ___ pleasure
to meet you. 12. What ___ language course are you taking this term? — ___
Chinese, but I find it’s ___ very difficult language to learn. 13. Is this ___
Barbara’s dictionary? — No, it’s ___ mine. 14. I called you yesterday but
nobody answered. — We visited my grandmother who’s in ___ hospital.
15. Have you ever seen ___ live tiger or ___ gorilla? — Yes, I have. At ___
city zoo! 16. What did you see on your tour today? — ___ Sydney Opera
House and Blue Mountains.

Task 6. Fill in the missing articles.


1. ___ beef is a kind of ___ meat. 2. It is necessary to protect ___ na-
ture. 3. So, who knows ____ answer to this question? 4. We arrived at ____
Paddington station and got ____ taxi which took us to ____ Oxford Street.
5. There’s ____spot on my shirt! — Here! Take out ____ spot with ____ spot
remover. 6. ____ money doesn’t interest him, but ____ power does! 7. Where
do you work during ____ day? 8. Listen! I hear ____ noise. Do you hear it?
9. I pick up ____ kids from ____ school and take them ____ home when
Helen is at ____ work. 10. Are we going round to ____ Whittons for dinner
on Sunday? 11. ____ audience stood up to greet the footballers. 12. People
say ____ Irish are not hospitable but I disagree. 13. Let’s have ____ break.
Do you want to see ____ movie? — That’s ____ good idea. What movie do
you want to see? — ____ movie at the Odeon Theatre is a comedy. Let’s see
that one. 14. Professor, I have ____ question about your assignment. 15. Take
these letters to ____ post office, will you? 16. What was ____ noise that you
heard? — I think it was ____ mouse. — But we don’t have any mice in ____
house! — Well, maybe it was just ____ wind.

Task 7. Fill in the missing articles.


___ Himalayas are ___ mountains that are located in ___ southern Asia.
They are ___ part of in ___ Nepal, ___ India, ___ Pakistan, ___ Tibet
and ___ Bhutan. ___ mountains are ___ highest in ___ world, reaching
almost 9,000 meters above ___ sea level. ___ Himalayas separate ___ Indian
subcontinent from ___ inner part of ___ Asia. ___ word Himalaya means
“home of snow”.
98 Имя существительное. Артикль

14 mountains are over 8,000 meters high, among them ___ K2 , ___
Nanga Parbat and ___ Mount Everest, at 8,848 meter ___ world’s highest
mountain. ___ Himalayas extend over 1,500 miles (2,400 km) from ___
Indus Valley in ___ west to ___ Brahmaputra Valley in ___ east. They are
between 100 and 250 kilometers wide.
Many of ___ mountain peaks are sacred to ___ people who live in ___
surrounding areas. ___ Hindu and ___ Buddhist pilgrims go there and pray
to God.
___ Himalayas belong to ___ youngest mountain ranges in ___ world.
They were formed when ___ Indian subcontinent, which was originally ___
part of ___ southern landmass, drifted to ___ north and crashed into ___
Asia. This movement started about 70 million years ago and has been going
on up to ___ present day. ___ Himalayas are still becoming taller, moving at
about 7 cm per ___ year. ___ earthquakes and volcanoes are evidence that
___ area is still very active.
___ glaciers and ___ permanent snow fields cover ___ higher regions
of ___ Himalayas. They are ___ source of ___streams that flow into ___ two
big rivers of ___ region. ___ Indus flows to ___ west and through ___ Paki-
stan into ___ Arabia Sea. ___ Ganges and ___Brahmaputra flow to ___ east
and get together in ___ Bangladesh. They form ___ largest delta in ___ world.
Almost every type of ___ climate can be found in ___ different altitudes
of ___ mountain range. ___ lower slopes in ___ south are home to ___
tropical plants and tea. ___ trees grow up to ___ height of 4000 meters. ___
wheat and other cereals are grown in ___ higher regions.
___ Himalayas influence ___ climate in both ___ India and ___ Tibet.
They form ___ barrier for ___ monsoon winds that blow from ___ Indian
Ocean over ___ India. On ___ front side of ___ mountains it rains heavily
while ___ dry air blows across ___ plains of ___ Tibet.
___ Himalayas are very sparsely populated because of ___ harsh cli-
mate. Most people live on ___ lower Indian slopes. Many people earn their
living as sherpas, guiding ___ tourists and ___ mountaineers to ___ peaks
of ___ mountain range.
___ mountains have been ___ natural barrier for ___ thousands of ___
years. They stopped ___ people from ___ China and ___ inner part of ___
Asia to mix with ___ Indian population. Genghis Kahn, ___ emperor of ___
Mongols, was stopped from expanding his empire to ___ south by ___ tall
mountains.
Most of ___ passes that cross ___ Himalayas are over 5,000 high. They
are covered with ___ snow during ___ winter period and almost impossible
to pass.

Task 8. Fill in the missing articles.


Even though ___ architects are not given ___ same respect, ___ in-
fluence and ___ celebrity status as ___ painters or ___ sculptors, but
Unit 14. Revision 99

indeed, it is ___ art and ___ creativity of ___ designs of ___ architect
that is ___ most productive and beneficial for ___ development and ___
progress of ___ society, and ensuring that its natural space has been used
effectively to provide ___ best satisfaction to all ___ needs and ___ re-
quirements of its inhabitants. ___ architecture is indeed one of ___ most
progressive sciences for its continuous innovations and ___ revolutionary
developments that have evolved and rapidly enhance ___ human comfort
and ___ lifestyle.
___ architecture plays ___ instrumental role in our everyday house, from
___ coffee shops, to ___ museums, ___ banks and ___ iconic historical
buildings, ___ architecture surrounds our everyday life with its continuous
and recurring presence everywhere we turn to, it is always present with its
various diverse and effective benefits.
___ architecture is indeed our biggest and greatest link that reminds us
that we had ___ history, ___ generations and ___ civilizations that exis-
ted hundreds of centuries ago are remembered for ___ remarkably iconic
and culturally rich architecture, for instance, ___ Pyramids of Giza in ___
Egypt, ___ Taj Mahal in ___ India, ___ Eiffel Tower in ___ France and ___
Statue of Liberty in ___ USA are ___ few examples of ___ iconic and revo-
lutionary architecture.
Frank Lloyd Wright was extremely correct in describing architecture
as “___ mother art”, and further stating that “Without ___ architecture
of our own, we have no ___ soul of our own civilization.”

Task 9. Fill in the missing articles.


While ___ Tower remains ___ living fortress, changing and adapting
as ___ times demand, it still maintains ___ centuries of ___ colourful tra-
ditions. Best known among them is ___ ceremonial locking and unlocking
of ___ gates of ___ fortress, which has taken place for ___ centuries, and has
become known as ___ Ceremony of ___ Keys. Among ___ other popular tra-
ditions are ___ impressive Gun Salutes on ___ Wharf, ___ Constable’s Dues
and ___ ancient Beating of ___ Bounds.
___ formal locking and unlocking of ___ Tower gates started in ___
mid 1300s, on ___ orders of ___ furious Edward III. ___ King turned up
unannounced at ___ Tower one night in ___ December 1340 and walked
straight in, unchallenged!
After ___imprisoning ___ Constable of ___ Tower, Edward de la Beche,
for ___dereliction of ___ duty, Edward decreed that ___ castle should be
locked at ___sunset and unlocked at ___ sunrise.
In 1826, ___ Duke of Wellington, then ___ Constable of ___ Tower,
ordered that ___ time of ___ ceremony should be fixed at 10pm, rather than
___ more vague ‘sunset’.
This was to ensure that all his soldiers stationed at ___ Tower were inside
___ walls before ___ gates were locked.
100 Имя существительное. Артикль

___ story goes that ___ only time ___ ceremony has ever been disrupted
was when ___ bomb fell on ___ Tower on 29 December 1940. ___ Chief
Yeoman Warder was blown off his feet, but otherwise unhurt.
Since 1826, at exactly seven minutes to ten at ___ night, ___ Chief Yeo-
man Warder of ___ Tower emerges from ___ Byward Tower, wearing ___
traditional red Watch Coat and Tudor Bonnet. In one hand, he carries ___
lantern, still lit to this day with ___ single candle. In ___ other he carries
___ set of keys — ___ Queen’s Keys.
He proceeds at ___ dignified pace to ___ archway of ___ Bloody Tower,
where ___ escort is formed in ___ readiness. This escort is made up of ___
soldiers from ___ military garrison at ___ Tower. It comprises ___ two sen-
tries, ___ sergeant and ___ other guard who represents ___ role of ___
drummer (but who actually plays ___ bugle).
___ Chief Yeoman Warder moves two paces forward, raises his Tudor
bonnet high in ___ air and says: ‘God preserve ___ Queen Elizabeth’.
___ guard answers ‘Amen’, exactly as ___ clock chimes ___ ten, ___
soldier representing ___ drummer sounds ‘The Last Post’ on ___ bugle.
___ Chief Yeoman Warder takes ___ keys back to ___ Queen’s House,
to hand them back to ___ Queen’s representative at ___ Tower, ___ Resi-
dent Governor, and ___ Guard is dismissed.
Naturally, ___ wording changes depending on ___ monarch, as does ___
title of ___ Queen’s/King’s House.
___ area around ___ Tower, including ___ Tower Hill, known as ___
Tower Liberty, is controlled by ___ Tower but its borders have been disputed
with ___ City of London for centuries. It is marked by ___ boundary stones
and every three years on ___ Ascension Day, ___ local children and ___
officials walk ___ streets around ___ Tower and beat ___ stones with ___
willow wands.
___ Beating ___ Bounds is not exclusive to ___ Tower Liberty. It’s ___
ancient custom, still observed in many English parishes. It has ___ roots
in ___ parishes re-affirming their boundaries, stopping at each boundary
mark to beat ___ stones with ___ willow wands. ___ prayers would be said
for ___ protection and ___ blessing for ___ land.
___ King was also inspired to carry out ___ thorough review of ___
security and generally improve ___ Tower’s rather ___ neglected state. Ed-
ward III ordered ___ Sheriffs of London to contribute £40 to ___ improve-
ments at ___ Tower, around £30,000 in today’s money!
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М.: Высшая школа, 1989. 191 с.
2. Гордон Е. М., Крылова И. П. Грамматика современного англий-
ского языка. М.: Высшая школа, 1986. 429 с.
3. Гордон Е. М., Крылова И. П. Употребление артиклей в англий-
ском языке. М.: Международные отношения, 1964. 82 с.
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глийского языка. М.: Внешторгиздат, 1959. 720 с.
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CONTENTS

Предисловие.........................................................................................................................5
Unit 1........................................................................................................................................6
Unit 2.....................................................................................................................................10
Unit 3.....................................................................................................................................18
Unit 4.....................................................................................................................................24
Unit 5.....................................................................................................................................30
Unit 6.....................................................................................................................................38
Unit 7.....................................................................................................................................43
Unit 8.....................................................................................................................................49
Unit 9.....................................................................................................................................55
Unit 10..................................................................................................................................60
Unit 11..................................................................................................................................71
Unit 12..................................................................................................................................76
Unit 13..................................................................................................................................86
Unit 14..................................................................................................................................95
References......................................................................................................................... 101