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Properties of the Z-Transform

Linearity:

a 1 x 1 [n] + a 2 x 2 [n] ←→ a 1 X 1 (z) + a 2 X 2 (z), RoC = R x 1 R x 2

Time Shifting Property:

x[n n 0 ]

←→

z n 0 X(z),

RoC = R x (except possible addition/deletion

of

z = 0 or z = )

Exponential Weighting:

z

n

0

x[n] ←→ X(z

0

1

z), RoC = |z 0 |R x

The poles of the Z-transform are scaled by |z 0 |

Linear Weighting

nx(n)

←→

,

z dX(z) dz RoC = R x (except possible addition/deletion

of z = 0 or z = )

Time Reversal

1

R x

x[n] ←→ X(z 1 ), RoC =

Convolution

x[n] y[n] ←→ X(z)Y (z), RoC = R x R y

Multiplication

2πj X(v)w(

1

z

v

x[n]w[n] ←→

)v 1 dv

Inverse Z-Transform Examples

Using long division: Causal sequence

1

az 1 , RoC = |z| > |a|

1

=

1 + az 1 + az 2 + az 3 + · · ·

IZT (1 + az 1 + a 2 z 2 + a 3 z 3 + · · · ) = a n u[n]

Using long division: Noncausal sequence

1

Here the IZT is computed as follows:

This results in:

1

IZT ( 1 az 1 ) = IZT (

1

az 1 , RoC = |z| < |a|

z

a + z )

IZT (a 1 z + a 2 z 2 + a 3 z 3 + · · · ) = a n u[n 1]

Inverse Z-transform - using Power series expansion

X(z) = log(1 + az 1 ), |z| > |a|

Using the Power Series expansion for log(1 + x), |x| < 1, we have

X(z) =

The IZT is given by

1

(1) n+1 a n z n

n

x[n]

(1) n

n+1 a n

=

= 0, n 0

, n 1

Inverse Z-transform - Inspection method

a n u[n]

GivenX(z)

=x[n]

←→

=

=

1 1 az 1 , |z| > |a|

1 2 z 1 , |z| > |
1

1

1

( 2 ) n u[n]

1

2 |

Inverse Z-transform - Partial fraction method

Example 1: All-Pole system

X(z) =

1

1

3

z 1 ) , |z| >

(1

1

3

z 1 )(1 1

6

Using partial fraction method, we have:

X(z)

A

A

A

A

1

2

1

2

x(n)

=

=

=

=

=

=

A

1

z 1 +

1 1

3

|z| >

(1

(1

1

3

1

3

1

6

2

1

1

1

A

2

1 1

6

z 1 ,

z 1 )X(z)| z=

z 1 )X(z)| z=

1

3

1

6

2( 3 ) n u[n] 1( 6 ) n u[n]

Example 2: Pole-Zero system

X(z)

=

=

=

x[n]

=

1 + 2z 1 + z 1 3 z 1 +

2

1

2

2

z 2 , |z| > 1

(1 + z 1 ) 2 2 z 1 )(1 z 1 )

1

(1

2 +

2

1 + 5z 1 2 z 1 )(1 z 1 )

9

z 1 +

8

1 z 1

(1 1

1 1

2

1

2δ[n] 9( 2 ) n u[n] + 8u[n]

Example 3: Finite length sequences

X(z)

=

z 2 (1

2 1 z 1 )(1 + z 1 )(1 z 1 )

1

2 z 1

= z 2 f rac12z 1 +

= δ[n + 2]

1

2 δ[n + 1] δ[n] +

1

2 δ[n 1]

Inverse Z-Transform Problem

z

z2 +

z

1. Given X(z) = sequences for x[n].

z

z1

z3 , determine all the possible

Hint: Remember that the RoC must be a continuous region