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St.

Petersburg State University


Lomonosov Moscow State University
The State Hermitage Museum

Actual Problems
of Theory and History of Art

V
Collection of articles

St. Petersburg
2015
Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет
Московский государственный университет имени М.В. Ломоносова
Государственный Эрмитаж

Актуальные проблемы
теории и истории искусства

V
Сборник научных статей

Санкт-Петербург
2015
УДК 7.061
ББК 85.03
А43
DOI:10.18688/aa155

Редакционная коллегия:
А. Х. Даудов (СПбГУ), С. П. Карпов (МГУ имени М. В. Ломоносова), Г. В. Вилинбахов (Государственный Эрмитаж),
Дж. Боулт (Университет Южной Калифорнии, США), В. А. Булкин (СПбГУ), М. Бюхсель (Франкфуртский университет имени
Иоганна Вольфганга Гёте, Германия), М. М. Дандамаева (Государственный Эрмитаж), И. А. Доронченков (Европейский универ-
ситет в Санкт-Петербурге), Н. К. Жижина (Государственный Эрмитаж), А. В. Захарова (МГУ имени М. В. Ломоносова, отв. ред.
выпуска), Т. В. Ильина (СПбГУ), С. В. Мальцева (СПбГУ, отв. ред. выпуска), А. А. Трофимова (Государственный Эрмитаж),
Р. Нелсон (Йельский университет, США), М. А. Костыря (СПбГУ), О. Г. Махо (Государственный Эрмитаж), А. В. Рыков
(СПбГУ), Е. А. Скворцова (СПбГУ), И. В. Антипов (СПбГУ), Е. Ю. Станюкович-Денисова (СПбГУ, отв. ред. выпуска), И. Стево-
вич (Белградский университет, Сербия), А. Якобини (Римский университет Сапиенца, Италия), А. С. Ярмош (СПбГУ)

Editorial board:
Abdulla Daudov (St. Petersburg State University), Sergey Karpov (Lomonosov Moscow State University), Georgii Vilinbakhov (The State
Hermitage Museum), John Bowlt (University of Southern California, USA), Valentin Bulkin (St. Petersburg State University), Martin
Büchsel (Johann Wolfgang Goethe University in Frankfurt am Main, Germany), Ilya Doronchenkov (European University at
St. Petersburg), Antonio Iacobini (Sapienza University of Rome, Italy), Anastasiia Iarmosh (St. Petersburg State University), Tatiana Ilyina
(St. Petersburg State University), Nadia Jijina (The State Hermitage Museum), Svetlana Maltseva (St. Petersburg State University, editor
in charge of the present volume), Anna Trofimova (The State Hermitage Museum), Robert Nelson (Yale University, USA), Maksim
Kostyria (St. Petersburg State University), Olga Makho (The State Hermitage Museum), Anatolii Rykov (St. Petersburg State University),
Ilya Antipov (St. Petersburg State University), Ekaterina Skvortcova (St. Petersburg State University), Ekaterina Staniukovich-Denisova
(St. Petersburg State University, editor in charge of the present volume), Ivan Stevović (Belgrade University, Serbia), Anna Zakharova
(Lomonosov Moscow State University, editor in charge of the present volume)

Рецензенты:
д. и. н. А. Ю. Алексеев (Государственный Эрмитаж, РФ)
д. иск. профессор А. Кадиевич (Белградский университет, Сербия)
д. иск. профессор А. Корсо (Центр Витрувианских исследований, Италия; Северная библиотека, Афины, Греция)
д. иск. профессор И. И. Тучков (МГУ имени М. В. Ломоносова, РФ)
к. иск. доцент Е. В. Ходаковский (СПбГУ, РФ)

Reviewers:
Andrey Alekseev (The State Hermitage Museum, Russia)
Antonio Corso (Center of Vitruvian Studies, Italy; Nordic Library, Athens, Greece)
Aleksandar Kadijević (University of Belgrade, Serbia)
Evgeny Khodakovsky (St. Petersburg State University, Russia)
Ivan Tuchkov (Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia)

Печатается по постановлению Ученого совета Института истории СПбГУ


и Ученого совета исторического факультета МГУ имени М. В. Ломоносова

А43 Актуальные проблемы теории и истории искусства: сб. науч. статей. Вып. 5. / Под ред. С. В. Мальцевой,
Е. Ю. Станюкович-Денисовой, А. В. Захаровой. — СПб.: НП-Принт, 2015. — 892 с.
A43 Actual Problems of Theory and History of Art: Collection of articles. Vol. 5. / Eds. S. V. Maltseva, E. Iu. Staniukovich-Denisova,
A. V. Zakharova. — St. Petersburg: NP-Print, 2015. — 892 p.

ISSN 2312-2129
DOI:10.18688/aa155

Сборник научных статей содержит материалы 5-й ежегодной Международной конференции «Актуальные проблемы теории
и истории искусства», проходившей в Петербурге 28 октября — 1 ноября 2014 г., по теме «Образы классической древности.
Искусство античного мира и его наследие в мировой художественной культуре». В статьях на русском и английском языках
представлены результаты исследований в области изучения искусства Древнего мира, Византии, Западной Европы и России от
Средневековья до XXI в., а также теории искусства.
Издание предназначено для специалистов. Может быть использовано в учебной, научно-практической деятельности, а также
интересно широкому кругу любителей искусства.
The collection of articles presents the materials of the 5th International Annual Conference, held in St. Petersburg on October 28 —
November 1, 2014. It deals with the actual problems of art history and theory on the basic theme “Images of Classical Antiquity. The Art of
the Ancient World and Its Heritage in the World Culture”. The articles in Russian and in English present the results of research in the art of
the Ancient World, Byzantium, Western Europe and Russia from the Middle Ages to the 21th c. and theory of art.
The edition is addressed to art historians, historians, art students and art lovers.

© Авторы статей, 2015


© Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет
© Московский государственный университет имени М. В. Ломоносова
© Государственный Эрмитаж

На обложке использована картина А. Бихтера «Несс и Деянира», 2007.


On the cover: Alexander Bikhter, “Nessus and Deianeira”, 2007.
СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
CONTENTS

Предисловие .......................................................................................................................................................................... 14

Foreword.................................................................................................................................................................................. 19

А.А. Бихтер. Моя античность ........................................................................................................................................... 24

Alexander Bikhter. My Classical Antiquity ......................................................................................................................... 26

Классическая древность и мир вокруг Эллады


Classical Antiquity and the World around Hellas

Н. К. Жижина. Античность во времени и пространстве


Nadia Jijina. Classical Antiquity through Ages and Distance .......................................................................................... 29

А. А. Трофимова. Античное наследие и его влияние в фокусе современных исследований


истории искусства
Anna Trofimova. Classical Legacy and Its Influence as Focused in Today’s Studies in Graeco-Roman
Art History ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 37

Антонио Корсо. Зарождение и развитие идеализированного представления об Аркадии


в позднеклассическом обществе.
Antonio Corso. The Birth and the Development of the Idealized Concept of Arcadia
in the Late Classical Societies ............................................................................................................................................................50

Дора Кацонопулу. Пафос versus Идеал в скульптуре классической Греции: патетика


в произведениях паросских мастеров.
Dora Katsonopoulou. Pathos versus Ideal in Classical Greek Sculpture and the Parian Output ................................ 55

Е. А. Дружинина. Полихромия или тетрахромия? цвет в греческой живописи V–IV веков


до нашей эры
Ekaterina Druzhinina. Polychrome or Tetrachrome? Colour in Greek Painting of the 5th–4th Centuries BC. ................... 62

Е. Л. Ермолаева. Об одной древнегреческой пародии и античных мозаиках в стиле


«неприбранный пол»
Elena Ermolaeva. Ancient Greek Parody “Convivium Atticum” and Mosaics in the Style “Asarotos oikos”
(“unswept room/floor”). .............................................................................................................................................................. 69

И. В. Палагута. Античные изобразительные и письменные источники в решении проблемы


интерпретации памятников искусства доисторической Европы
Ilia Palaguta. Imagery and Written Sources of Classical Antiquity and the Problem of Interpretation
of Prehistoric European Art .................................................................................................................................................. 77
6 Содержание

Ю. А. Виноградов. Большой саркофаг из Мирмекия. К пониманию семантики изображений


Iurii Vinogradov. A Large Sarcophagus from Myrmekion. On Understanding of the Semantic
of the Imagery. ........................................................................................................................................................................ 86

Б. Д. Зашляпин. «Трон Клавдия»: к проблеме интерпретации аллегорического сюжета рельефа


из Черветери
Boris Zashliapin. “Throne of Claudius”: on Interpretation of Allegorical Relief from Cerveteri................................ 94

Д. С. Васько. О двух пеликах керченского стиля в собрании Государственного Эрмитажа


Dmitrii Vas’ko. Two Kerch Style Pelikai in the Collection of The State Hermitage Museum ....................................107

А. А. Трофимова. Трансформации римского портрета: бюст «Саллюстия»


из собрания Государственного Эрмитажа
Anna Trofimova. A Roman Portrait’s Metamorphosis: the “Sallust” Bust from the Hermitage Collection ..................119

А. И. Ларионов. К вопросу об аутентичности мозаики «Волчица и Близнецы» из Алдборо


в северном Йоркшире
Andrei Larionov. Mosaic from Aldborough, Boroughbridge, North Yorkshire: the Problem
of Its Authenticity .................................................................................................................................................................127

Е. Н. Дмитриева. Седьмая центурия Impronte Gemmarie dell’Instituto и эрмитажные геммы:


о памятниках глиптики из раскопок на юге России в середине XIX века
Elena Dmitrieva. Centuria Séptima of Impronte Gemmarie dell’Instituto, and the Hermitage
Engraved Gems from the North Pontic Area, Excavated in the mid-19th century. .....................................................136

Томас Нобл Хоу, Паоло Гарделли. Археологический парк в Стабиях: междисциплинарный


региональный и международный проект сохранения памятника.
Thomas Noble Howe, Paolo Gardelli. The Archaeological Park at Stabiae: a Regional Interdisciplinary
and Sustainable Approach ...................................................................................................................................................150

А. М. Бутягин. Фрагменты фресок виллы Ариадны в раскопках экспедиции


Государственного Эрмитажа: памятники искусства как массовый материал
Alexander Butyagin. Fresco Fragments from Villa Arianna Excavated by Expedition
of the State Hermitage: Art as a Mass Archeological Material. ......................................................................................160

В. П. Колосов. Эволюция форм дорического фриза. Опыт статистического анализа


архитектурных деталей методами геометрической морфометрии
Vladimir Kolosov. Evolution of Doric Frieze Forms. Methods of Geometric Morphometrics in Statistical
Analysis of Architectural Elements. ...................................................................................................................................169

Классическое наследие в искусстве византийской ойкумены


и за ее пределами
Classical Legacy in the Art of Byzantine Oikoumene and Beyond

А. В. Захарова; С. В. Мальцева. Византия как христианская античность


Anna Zakharova, Svetlana Mal’tseva. Byzantium as Christian Antiquity. ...................................................................176

Рената Розенталь-Хегинботтом. Дионис и его свита в искусстве Палестины


позднеримского периода и эпохи византийского владычества.
Renate Rosenthal-Heginbottom. Dionysos and His Retinue in the Art of Late Roman
and Byzantine Palestine ........................................................................................................................................................188
Содержание
Классическая древность и мир вокруг Эллады 7

Дженни Албани. Возвращенная античность. Византийские перстни с античными


резными камнями.
Jenny Albani. Antiquity Reused. Antique Engraved Gems on Byzantine Rings .........................................................195

Ливия Бевилаква. Фамильное наследство: античные артефакты, вторично используемые


в византийских городах.
Livia Bevilacqua. Family Inheritance: Classical Antiquities Reused and Displayed
in Byzantine Cities................................................................................................................................................................203

С. В. Тарханова. Проблема перестройки синагог в церкви и церквей в синагоги:


археологические свидетельства
Svetlana Tarkhanova. The Problem of Transforming Synagogues into Christian Churches
and Christian churches into Synagogues: Archaeological Evidence. ............................................................................210

Л. Ш. Микаелян. Мотив аканфа и пальметты в раннесредневековой скульптуре Армении


и в искусстве сасанидского Ирана
Lilit Mikayelyan. Acanthus and Palmette Motif in Early Medieval Armenian Sculpture
and in the Art of Sasanian Iran...........................................................................................................................................220

Павла Ганциос Драпелова. Византийские монеты VI–VII веков: античные влияния


и традиции в раннем Средневековье
Pavla Gkantzios Drapelova. Early Byzantine coins: Ancient influences and traditions
in the early Middle Ages. ......................................................................................................................................................230

Сильвия Педоне. Император Феофил (829–842) между классицизмом и экзотикой.


Silvia Pedone. The Emperor Teophilos (829–842) between classicism and exoticism ...............................................238

Эрини Пану. Жест signum harpocraticum в религиозном искусстве.


Eirini Panou. The Signum Harpocraticum in the 8th-century Christian Art of Nubia ...............................................246

З. А. Акопян. Изображение масок в средневековой скульптуре Армении


Zaruhi Hakobyan. Masks in Medieval Armenian Sculpture. .........................................................................................263

А. А. Асрян. Аканфовый орнамент в убранстве собора в Ишхане и его параллели


в позднеантичном и раннехристианском искусстве
Arpine Asryan. Acanthus Ornament of the Ishkhan Cathedral and Its Parallels
in the Late Antique and Early Christian Art. ...................................................................................................................270

А. А. Фрезе. Византийские храмы на восьми опорах XI в. и архитектура Римской империи.


Anna Freze. Byzantine Octagon Domed Churches of the 11th Century and the Roman Imperial
Architecture...........................................................................................................................................................................277

Е. А. Гедеванишвили. Античная первооснова изображения гор в грузинской


живописи XII–XIII веков.
Ekaterine Gedevanishvili. Some Elements of Antiquity in Representation of Mountains
in Georgian Painting
of the 12th and 13th Centuries ..............................................................................................................................................287

Анджела Гаврилович. Изображение трицефала во фресковых композициях церкви


в Новой Павлице — возможные варианты происхождения иконографии.
Anđela Đ. Gavrilović. The Tricephalos in the Painted Dado of the Church of Nova Pavlica —
Possible Origin of Iconography References ......................................................................................................................294

Элени Хархаре. Чудесные пейзажи: элементы греко-римского искусства в работах


Иоанниса Пермениатиса, поствизантийского художника.
Eleni Charchare. Delightful landscapes: Elements of the Greco-Roman Tradition
in the Work of the Post-Byzantine Painter Ioannis Permeniatis ....................................................................................298
8 Содержание

Гармония классики под сводами Древней Руси


The Harmony of Classical Antiquity under the Vaults of Old Russ

Д. Д. Ёлшин. Меандр в кирпичном декоре древнерусских храмов


Denis Jolshin. Meander Motif in Décor of the Old Rus’ Church Masonry. ................................................................304

А. В. Трушникова. Архитектурная типология бесстолпных храмов домонгольской Руси


Alexandra Trushnikova. Architectural Typology of the Old Russian Pillarless Churches
of the pre-Mongolian Period. .............................................................................................................................................313

А. А. Слапиня. Типология и иконография светских сюжетов в декоре деревянных предметов


середины XI — начала XIV века из раскопок в Великом Новгороде: к постановке проблемы
Anna Slapinia. Typology and Iconography of Secular Scenes in the Decoration of Wooden Objects
of mid 11th — beginning of the 14th Century from Archeological Excavations in Novgorod the Great:
Problem Statement. .............................................................................................................................................................323

В. А. Булкин. По поводу сцен VI регистра Васильевских врат


Valentin Bulkin. On the Scenes in the Sixth Tier of Vasil’evskie Gates. .......................................................................333

Вс. М. Рожнятовский. Светоживописные эффекты в интерьере ярославского храма


с росписями XVII века и актуальность световой выразительности декорации
в идейном контексте эпохи
Vsevolod Rozhniatovskii. Luminous Effects in the Interior of the Church of St. Nikola The Wet
in Yaroslavl’ and the Church the Resurrection in the Town of Romanov-Borisoglebsk. ..........................................338

М. В. Степанов. Воссоздание рабочих методов для построения архитектурных форм


двух храмов первой половины XVI века
Mikhail Stepanov. The Reconstruction of Working Methods for Constructing Architectural Forms
Two Temples of the First Half of the 16th Century. ..........................................................................................................348

Античность на ребрах европейского Средневековья


Classical Antiquity on the Ribs of European Middle Ages

А. А. Воронова. Греческие колонии в Далмации: архитектурная христианизация


Ariadna Voronova. Greek Colonies of Dalmatia: Christianization by means of Architecture. ................................359

Александра Ускатеску. Идея Рима после Рима.


Alexandra Uscatescu. The Idea of Rome beyond Rome ..................................................................................................369

Аллан Джордж Дойг. Трон Карла Великого в Аахене: римская идея и ее воплощение.
Allan George Doig. Building, Enacting and Embodying Romanitas: the Throne of Charlemagne .............................376

С. В. Ковалевская. Латинские литургические свитки Южной Италии как особый тип иллюстрированной


рукописи
Svetlana Kovalevskaia. Liturgical Scrolls of Southern Italy as a Special Type of Illuminated Manuscripts ........................... 383

Барбара Форти. Наследие античности. Римская скульптура в Средние века: витые колонны
церкви Св. Карло Борромео в Каве.
Barbara Forti. Classical Heritage. Roman Sculpture in the Middle Ages: the Case of Two Twisted Columns
in the Church of St. Charles Borromeo in Cave ...............................................................................................................392
Содержание 9

Зулейка Мурат. Compendium Historiae in Genealogia Christi и его иконографическая традиция:


наследие античности в средневековой библейской антологии.
Zuleika Murat. The Compendium historiae in Genealogia Christi and its Iconographical Tradition:
Legacy of Classical Antiquity in a Mediaeval Biblical Anthology .................................................................................404

Роберта Чероне. Cives romani in marmoris arte periti: античный мир и обновление модели клуатра
в Риме XIII века.
Roberta Cerone. Cives romani in marmoris arte periti: the Classical World and the Renewal
of the Cloister Model in 13th century Rome ......................................................................................................................412

А. С. Ванюшин. Средневековая архитектура нищенствующих орденов в Польше:


происхождение и особенности
Artem Vaniushin. Mediaeval Architecture of the Mendicant Orders in Poland —
Origins and Characteristics. ..............................................................................................................................................418

Кьяра Понкья. Рекомендации из античности: открытие классической иконографии


в иллюстрациях к «Божественной комедии» эпохи треченто.
Chiara Ponchia. Suggestions from Antiquity. Discovering Classical Iconographies
in the Trecento Divine Comedy Illustrations ...................................................................................................................426

Бернард Холлик. Поэт в образе святого: портрет Овидия работы «кекстонского мастера» —
литературная подоплека.
Bernhard Hollick. The Poet as a Saint: The Caxton Master’s Portrait of Ovid and Its
Literary Background ............................................................................................................................................................433

Искусство античного мира в зеркале Ренессанса


The Art of Classical Antiquity in the Mirror of the Renaissance

Е. А. Ефимова. Архитектурные фантазии на тему античности в рисунке эпохи Ренессанса


Elena Efimova. Architectural Fantasies on Classical Antiquity in the Renaissance Drawings .................................442

Д. А. Чуркина. Образ правителя и классическая традиция при феррарском дворе


в XV — начале XVI века
Daria Churkina. Image of a Ruler and Classical Tradition at the Ferrara Court in the 15th
and Early 16th Centuries. ....................................................................................................................................................451

О. Г. Махо. Античные памятники и подражания им в коллекции гротта Изабеллы д’Эсте


Olga Makho. Original Items and Imitations of Classical Antiquity in Isabella d’Este’s Grotta. ...............................459

М. А. Лопухова. «Ornamenti infiniti» и наследие античности в творчестве Бенедетто да Ровеццано


Marina Lopukhova. “Ornamenti infiniti” and Benedetto da Rovezzano’s Appeal
to the Legacy of Classical Antiquity ..................................................................................................................................467

С. А. Ковбасюк. Шарлатанство в нидерландском искусстве конца XV – первой половины


XVI века: античные реминисценции в ренессансной иконографии обмана
Stefaniia Kovbasiuk. Quackery in the Netherlands Art of Late 15th — First Half of the 16th Century:
Classical Allusions in the Renaissance Iconography of Deceit ......................................................................................475

М. А. Костыря. Образы античных городов и «пейзажи катастроф» в западноевропейском искусстве


XVI века
Maksim Kostyria. Images of Antique Cities and “Fire Landscapes” in West European Art
of the 16th century. ...............................................................................................................................................................484
10 Содержание

Л. В. Фролова (Михайлова). Рецепция античных сюжетов и форм в художественных заказах


императора Максимилиана I Габсбурга
Liudmila Frolova. Reverberation of Classical Subjects and Forms in the Art Commissions
of the Emperor Maximilian I of Habsburg. ......................................................................................................................492

Искусство XVIII–XIX веков в России: русский взгляд


на классические традиции
Russian Art of the 18th–19th Centuries. Russian View of Classical Tradition

Е.А. Скворцова. Иллюстрации к «Разговорам в царстве мертвых»: проблема утверждения


титула императора России в XVIII веке.
Ekaterina Skvortcova. Illustrations to “Dialogues of the Dead”: a Problem of the Validation
of the Title of the Russian Emperor in the 18th Century ..............................................................................................503

Ю. И. Чежина. История лошади: интерпретация античной идеи в конном монументе Петру I


работы Б.-К. Растрелли
Julia Chezhina. The History of the Horse: Interpreting the Classical Idea in Bartolomeo
Rastrelli’s Equestrian Monument to Peter the Great ......................................................................................................513

С. В. Клименко. Триумфальная тема в творчестве Ивана Коробова и Ивана Мичурина.


Интерпретация античной традиции в европейской архитектуре XVII — первой половины XVIII века
Sergei Klimenko. Triumphal Theme in Ivan Korobov’s and Ivan Michurin’s Works.
Interpretation of the Ancient Tradition in European Architecture of the 17th — First Half
of the 18th Century. ...............................................................................................................................................................519

Ю. Г. Клименко. От античных мавзолеев к ротондальным постройкам эпохи классицизма.


Генезис архитектурной формы и конструкции
Julia Klimenko. From Ancient Mausoleums to Rotunda Buildings of the Classicist Period.
The Genesis of Form and Construction ...........................................................................................................................530

А. Н. Яковлев. Трехосные центрические храмы в России эпохи классицизма


и их европейские прототипы
Alexey Yakovlev. Triaxial Centric Churches in Russia of the Classicism period
and their European Prototypes. ............................................................................................................................................540

Е. К. Блинова. Ордерные интерьеры в архитектуре Петербурга


Elena Blinova. Architectural Order in St. Petersburg Interiors. ....................................................................................555

В. С. Наумова. Образы классической древности в художественном собрании графов Разумовских


во второй половине XVIII — первой трети XIX века
Vera Naumova. Antiquity in the Razumovskys’ Art Collection. ..................................................................................563

Е. Е. Колмогорова. Античные мотивы в семейной тематике портретной живописи России


второй половины XVIII — начала XIX века
Ekaterina Kolmogorova. Antique Motifs in Family Subjects of Russian Portraiture in mid-18th —
Early 19th Century............................................................................................................................................................................... 574

В. И. Королева. «Живописцы камей» в России второй половины XVIII — начала XIX века


Valeriia Koroleva. “Artists of Cameos” in Russia in the 1750s — Early 19th Century. ................................................581

Е. В. Карпова. Скульптурные портреты à l’antique: к проблеме иконографических определений


Elena Karpova. Sculptural Portraits à l’antique: to the Problem of Iconographic Identification. .............................590
Содержание 11

О. К. Цехановская. Античная тема в архитектурно-пластическом убранстве российских


парусных кораблей
Olga Tsekhanovskaia. The Antique Theme in Architectural and Sculptural Decor of Russian
Sailing Ships. ........................................................................................................................................................................597

В. С. Торбик. Реставрация полировки русской классицистической мебели. Мифы и реальность


Vladimir Torbik. Restoration of Finishing of Russian Neoclassical Furniture. Myths and Realities .......................609

А. Г. Сечин. Иконическая риторика в картине Александра Иванова «Иосиф, толкующий


сны заключенным с ним в темнице виночерпию и хлебодару»
Alexander Sechin. Iconic Rhetoric in Alexander Ivanov’s Painting Joseph Interprets the Dreams
of the Cup-Bearer and the Baker ........................................................................................................................................617

В. Б. Жижина-Гефтер. Итальянские этюды С. А. Иванова: к проблеме реконструкции памятников


античной архитектуры в первой половине XIX века
Vera Zhizhina-Hefter. Sergei A. Ivanov’s Italian Études: to the Problem of Archaeological
Reconstructions
in the 1800s–1850s. .............................................................................................................................................................626

А. И. Долгова. Модерн и исторические стили в интерьере петербургских особняков


конца XIX — начала XX века
Anastasiia Dolgova. Art Nouveau and Historical Styles in the Interior of St. Petersburg Mansions
in the Late 19th — Early 20th Century. ................................................................................................................................636

Западноевропейское искусство XVII–XIX веков.


Судьба классической традиции: от образца к интерпретации
Western European Art of the 17th–19th Centuries. Classical Tradition’s Destiny:
from Model to Interpretation

Флоор Анна Кёлеман. Художественные галереи в живописных произведениях: что изображено


на картине «Студия Рубенса»?
Floor Anna Koeleman. Studying the Studio: the Art Gallery of Rubens Depicted? ...................................................647

Маргарита-Анна Васкес-Манассеро. Изображения «Двенадцати цезарей» от Тициана


до конца XVII века: образы военного триумфа испанской монархии.
Margarita-Ana Vázquez-Manassero. Twelve Caesars’ Representations from Titian
to the End of 17th Century: Military Triumph Images of the Spanish monarchy ........................................................655

Anna Maria Ambrosini Massari. Johann Zoffany, Classical Art, Italy and Russian Patronage:
Shedding New Light on Models, Men and Paintings
Анна Мария Амброзини Массари. Живопись Иоганна Цоффани, античное искусство,
Италия и русские покровители: новый взгляд ..........................................................................................................664

Джованна Перини Фолезани. Сэр Джошуа Рейнолдс и античное искусство: заметки о живописи
на мифологические сюжеты на примере картины «Младенец Геракл, удушающий змей»,
написанной по заказу Екатерины II.
Giovanna Perini Folesani. Sir Joshua Reynolds and Classical Art: Notes on his Mythological Paintings,
Most Notably The Infant Hercules for Empress Catherine II.........................................................................................672

А. С. Ярмош. Неоклассика в творческой практике мастеров Королевской Копенгагенской


фарфоровой мануфактуры
Anastasia Yarmosh. Neoclassicism in the Art Practice of Royal Copenhagen Porcelain
Manufactory Masters. ..........................................................................................................................................................682
12 Содержание

М. А. Чернышева. Катрмер де Кенси о мимесисе. Классический концепт в классицистической


теории искусства
Maria Chernysheva. Quatremère de Quincy on Mimesis. A Classical Concept in the Neoclassical Theory
of Arts. ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 689

Искусство XX–XXI веков. Лики классической древности


в лабиринте современности
Art of the 20th–21st Centuries. Faces of Classical Antiquity
in the Labyrinth of Modernity

Ежи Малиновски, Ирина Гавраш. Увлечение античностью в польском искусстве 1900-х годов.
Jerzy Malinowski, Irina Gavrash. Inspiration with Antiquity in Polish Art around 1900s ........................................698

П. А. Трусова. Памятники античной архитектуры в пейзажах Мориса Дени конца XIX –


начала XX века: в контексте дискуссии о классической традиции французского искусства
Polina Trusova. Monuments of Antique Architecture in Maurice Denis’ Landscapes at the Turn
of the Century: in the Context of Discussion about Classical Tradition of French Art. ............................................703

Н. Ю. Бартош. Образ Афины в изобразительном искусстве и литературе модерна


Natalia Bartosh. Athena’s Image in Fine Art and Literature of Art Nouveau. .............................................................711

Д. Е. Лавров. Античные влияния в произведениях палехской лаковой миниатюры


Dmitrii Lavrov. Antique Influences on Palekh Lacquered Miniatures ........................................................................721

А. В. Алексеева. Орфизм Гийома Аполлинера. Античный миф и «чистая» живопись Ф. Купки,


Р. Делоне и Ф. Пикабиа
Anna Alexeeva. Guillaum Apollinaire’s “Orphism”. Ancient Myth and Pure Painting of F. Kupka,
R. Delaunay and F. Picabia. .................................................................................................................................................725

О. К. Ментюкова (Иванова). Философия творчества художника и поэта А. Я. Быховского (1888–1978)


Olga Mentiukova (Ivanova). Philosophy of Alexander Bykhovskii’s Creative Work: Art and Poetry (1888–1978). .......733

А. В. Рыков. Античность, авангард, тоталитаризм: к метаморфологии современного искусства


Anatolii Rykov. Antiquity; Avant-garde; Totalitarianism; Toward a Metamorphology of Modern Art. .................745

В. Н. Захарова. «Ренессансная античность» в работах Эрвина Панофского


Vera Zakharova. “The Renaissance Antiquity” in Works of Erwin Panofsky. .............................................................753

И. А. Шик. Рецепция мифа об андрогине в сюрреалистической фотографии


Ida Shik. Androgyne Myth Reception in Surrealist Photography. ................................................................................760

Н. В. Щетинина. Апроприация античных образов в творчестве Джеффа Кунса


Nataliya Shchetinina. Appropriation of Images of Antiquity in the Work of Jeff Koons............................................768

В. Г. Басс. «Русский Палладио»: об одном механизме освоения классики в отечественной


архитектуре XX века
Vadim Bass. “Russian Palladio”: Palladianism as a Mechanism of Adoption of the Classical Heritage
in the 20th Century Russian Architecture. ........................................................................................................................774

Ю. П. Волчок. Знание об античности и архитектуроведение в 60-е годы прошлого века:


arche современной архитектуры
Yury Volchok. Knowledge of Ancient Culture and Architectural Criticism in the 1960s:
Arche in the Modern Architecture. ...................................................................................................................................783
Содержание 13

Л. А. Славова. Традиция классики в скульптуре Ленинграда-Петербурга. Коллекция скульптуры


Русского музея
Liubov’Slavova . The Tradition of Classicism and Sculpture of Leningrad — Saint Petersburg:
The Sculpture Collection of the State Russian Museum. ...............................................................................................793

О. В. Калугина. Античные образы в современной станковой скульптуре России: проблема


интерпретации
Olga Kalugina. Antique Images in Contemporary Russian Easel Sculpture: Problem of Interpretation. ...............801

А. К. Флорковская. Образы античности в московской неофициальной живописи второй


половины 1970-х — 1980-х годов
Anna Florkovskaia. Images of Antiquity in Moscow Inofficial Art of the Second Half
of the 1970s–1980s. .............................................................................................................................................................807
Natalia Shalina. Defining Museums of Contemporary Art: the Phenomenon of Their Popularity
in Recent Decades
Наталья Шалина. Музеи современного искусства: феномен популярности в последние
десятилетия ........................................................................................................................................................................815

Рецензии
Reviews

Дора Кацонопулу. Скопас с острова Парос. Сборник статей по истории античного искусства.
Dora Katsonopoulou. Skopas of Paros and his World: Presentation of a Proceedings volume
on Ancient Classical Art..........................................................................................................................................................830

Mikhail Ovchinnikov. Parallax of Antiquity. «Orgies» by Dmitry Gutov


М. В. Овчинников. Параллакс античности. «Оргии» Дмитрия Гутова. ..............................................................835

Е. Ю. Станюкович-Денисова. Книга М. В. Николаевой «Санкт-Петербург Петра I.


История дворовладений: застройка и застройщики». Москва: Прогресс-Традиция, 2014.
Ekaterina Stanyukovich-Denisova. Sankt-Peterburg of Peter I: The History of Household Possession —
Site Development, Owners and Builders by Mariia V. Nikolaeva. Moscow:
Progress-Traditsiia Publ., 2014 ...........................................................................................................................................838
Классическое наследие в искусстве византийской ойкумены и за ее пределами 203

УДК 7.033.2...1
ББК 85.11
DOI:10.18688/aa155-2-20

Livia Bevilacqua

Family Inheritance: Classical Antiquities Reused


and Displayed in Byzantine Cities
The reuse and display of ancient statuary and spolia in the Byzantine cities in Late Antiquity
has been studied extensively in the last decades. Therefore, in this few pages I will not under-
take a reassessment of the question in its general terms, nor comment upon a very well known
phenomenon1. Focusing on the realm of figural spolia in the Byzantine world, I wish instead to
observe and trace the occurrence and survival of a classical iconographic subject — the myth of
Heracles — which appears on a peculiar urban setting: the city gates of Byzantine Asia Minor.
I will endeavour to trace the occurrence of this iconographic theme by describing a few
examples, and I will start from the very heart of Anatolia. In fact, one relevant case appears
to be particularly interesting in this respect, namely the Byzantine citadel of Ankara. In the
seventh century, the once prosperous Roman city of Ancyra undergoes several sacks by the
hands of the Persians, first, and then of the Arabs. Large areas of the city are set on fire, and
thence abandoned. Following this catastrophic events, the city is partially restored and rebuilt
making use of the materials quarried from the Roman monuments. Like almost all of the Late
Antique cities, in this context of turmoil, the city receives a new fortification2. The fortified
area is radically reduced in extension — compared to the area of the Roman settlement — and
removed to the top of the steep slopes of one of the city’s hills, the one that today has the Turk-
ish name of Altındağ (“Golden Mountain”). When seen from the distance, the new citadel of
Byzantine Ankara would thus appear impregnable, thanks to its string of pentagonal towers,
projecting from the walls in resemblance of ship’s prows. The main gate itself would not be
spottable at first glance, since it was hidden behind a barbican with an elbow-shaped entrance
system. The latter is now called “Zindan Kapı”, “Dungeon gate” in Turkish. Nonetheless, even
in a curtain of walls built almost entirely out of materials quarried from ancient, abandoned

1
Secondary literature on the topic of spolia and their reception is huge. I will mention here only a
few general reference texts, most of them limited to the Byzantine world. Several of the authors cited have
tackled the topic more than once; I am citing their first relevant approach to the matter [50, 33, 12, 7, 35, 43,
9, 11, 1, 22, 18, 29, 44, 8, 38, 4, 15, 23, 41, 37, 47]. Nevertheless, studies on figural spolia in their secondary
setting in the Byzantine art and architecture have not been accurately researched yet, especially as far as spolia
in fortifications are concerned. I dwelled on this topic myself in the Proceedings of the Third Symposium
on “Actual Problems of Theory and History of Art” [6]. The present article includes some remarks that are
being integrated in the context of a wider research project on figural spolia in Byzantium. Specifically, I have
carried out my research on the city walls of Ankara thanks to a TÜBITAK-BİDEB Research Fellowship at the
University of Istanbul.
2
On the history of the Roman settlement of Ancyra, see [24]. As for the Byzantine phase, see [17, 40,
5, 3, 46].
204 Livia Bevilacqua

buildings, the segment hosting the main gate was


visually highlighted through a set of elements of
a different nature: albeit spolia, they bear some
carefully arranged decoration and a row of hu-
man figures.
The seventh-century enceinte is approximate-
ly rectangular in shape (Fig. 1). Its main entrance
is in the middle of the south side, facing the most
gentle and accessible slope of the hill. The south-
ern and western extension to the fortress is an
addition that has been dated to the 9th century,
on the basis of epigraphic evidence [19, 20], and
I will not consider that one on this occasion, al-
though it is still awaiting a more thorough and
comprehensive study.
The decoration that I am going to describe is
displayed on the inner circle, the “İç Kale”, on the
outer wall of the aforementioned projecting barbi-
can (Ill. 31). Three levels or registers of decoration
can be seen: the central, main visual line is pro-
vided by a row of white marble or limestone slabs,
Fig.1: Ankara, the Byzantine citadel, map (after Restle
probably pieces of a balustrade, or socle, of some M. s.v. Ankyra. Reallexikon zur byzantinischen Kunst,
dismissed building, rather than altars. Only the I, Stuttgart, Hiersemann, 1966).
one occupying the central position is most likely
either an altar or a funerary stele. It is decorated with a garland, a rosette, and two protomes
(bucrania), along with two palm-shaped acroteria, common in Roman tombstones’ ornament.
The upper register’s decorative details are scarcely visible today: three rectangular blocks,
of a bluish marble, are arranged alternately to white blocks. They contrast with one another,
not only because of their colour, but also because the former used to bear figural reliefs, now
almost completely worn out. Thanks to some early nineteenth-century photographs, such as
the pictures taken by Sebah and Joaillier, dating back to before 1933 and published in Mam-
boury’s Guide Touristique d’Ankara [32], the nature of this upper level of decoration can be
somehow established. The third marble block from the left clearly reveals a scene, for which
the Photographic Archive of the German Archaeological Institute in Istanbul preserves a de-
tail: while it is catalogued as a “Battle scene” in the DAI database, a winged figure in the centre
would rather point to a triumphal scene3.
The third, and lower register of decoration displays a series of most interesting pieces, all
in a row. To begin with, a fragment of an inscription can be read: in consideration of its shape
and of the quality of its ornamentation, it must have been recovered from the stoa, the via
colonnata of Roman Ancyra, although, reportedly, it cannot be integrated into the text of

3
A similar arrangement of alternating reused reliefs and smooth conches can be seen on the Late
antique walls of Aphrodisias [37].
Классическое наследие в искусстве византийской ойкумены и за ее пределами 205

the other epigraphic findings of that excavated area. It is tempting indeed to read here “…Υ
ΡΩΜΑ...”4.
There follow four little herms, lying on their sides, whose heads have been either broken or in-
tentionally removed, it is impossible to say when. Who do these reliefs portray? Only Guillaume
de Jerphanion has attempted to explain their subject: he has described them as “priapes couchés”,
“reclined Priapi”5, which might have had an apotropaic function. It is likely that Jerphanion,
back in 1928, was not able to get close enough to the curtain, and that he could not observe the
reliefs carefully, otherwise he would not have misidentified this figures. Alas, Jerphanion’s words
have been repeated up until the most recent studies. Seen upright, in reality, the herms intro-
duce themselves plainly (Ill. 32): a man is holding a lion’s head with his left hand, while with his
right he holds to his chest the corners of a cloak, which is in fact a lion’s skin, since we can easily
recognise the animal’s paws. One cannot doubt the fact that Heracles with the Nemean Lion has
been portrayed here, although this is certainly not the most common iconography of the popular
demi-god. If, on the one hand, we are used to seeing him standing, naked, holding a club and
supporting the lion’s skin with his arm, on the other hand, herms such as the ones found in Her-
culaneum show the hero wearing such skin as a mantle, but without the lion’s head in his hand
[42]. To my knowledge, there is only one parallel to this, and it is, again, in Asia Minor.
In fact, Ephesus, too, in Late Antiquity, experiences the same contraction as other Anato-
lian cities. In the 5th century, the passage between the areas of the upper agora and the lower
market area (the latter, apparently, still in use at the time) is marked by the so-called “Gate of
Heracles” [14]. Interestingly, this late antique archway had been built out of spolia, including
two herm-like jambs with the effigy of our hero. Except for the fact that the Ephesian sculp-
tures are larger in scale than the Ankara ones, the two examples are absolutely overlapping. I
think we should ask ourselves whether the display of the effigy of Heracles on these two late
antique city gates is to be considered mere chance or if it might have been deliberate.
Two more major cases of display of the (in one case symbolic) image of Heracles need to be
recalled in this respect, both of them in the very capital city of the Byzantine empire, Constan-
tinople: the triumphal archway of the Forum Tauri (the Theodosian cattle market square) was
precisely composed of a set of columns resembling Heracles’ club: the hand of the hero was
holding them from the top, thus suggesting his real gigantic presence. There are only broken
bits left today of the Theodosian Forum, but the reconstruction drawn by Rudolf Naumann
provides a clear idea of it [36].
It is true that there was a cross carved on the base of one of the columns of the Theodosian
arch, but the Christian sign is here a minor one, compared to the massive predominance of the
Herculean symbol, and may even be a later addition. It is well known how much Theodosius’
imperial ideology — despite his laws against the idols — was entrusted to the symbolic image of
the demi-god6.

4
I was not able to see de visu the findings from the stoa, therefore my considerations are based on the
photographic material available. However, I incline to think that the epigraphic evidence of our fragment is
consistent to the set of remaining fragments of that excavation area. For a correct reading of the text, we shall
wait for the complete publication of all the findings [48].
5
[10, p. 150]. On the relationship of this French scholar with Turkey, and Ankara in particular, see [16].
6
On the Theodosian dynasty, see, most recently, [39].
206 Livia Bevilacqua

One might argue that the Theodosian columns were by no means a reuse, and no city gate
proper. However, the recovery was there ideological indeed, and — being a triumphal arch
— that of the Forum Tauri conveyed the same meanings as the gateways along the city walls,
marking different steps of the same triumphal way of the victorious emperor to the city. As it
is well known, and as it has been widely demonstrated (by Paul Magdalino and Cyril Mango
among others7), the starting point of such triumphal way to central Constantinople, through-
out the Byzantine millennium (or at least until the 12th century), was the Golden Gate. Here,
at an unspecified, later, date — either Middle or Late Byzantine — an outer wall was added,
which was adorned by means of a set of twelve reliefs. They had already disappeared by the
end of the 17th century, but, as we learn from earlier descriptions, along with other mytholog-
ical characters such as Endymion, Selene, Cupid, Pegasus, a selection of the Twelve Labours
of Heracles was also visible, carved on marble slabs recovered from earlier monuments8. In
the context of a wider iconographic program, even in this later case, the scenes depicting
Heracles might have been intentionally chosen to adorn a key point of the city, one especially
striking the Byzantine imagery.
In this respect, the case of Ankara preserves its crucial importance, being — to my knowl-
edge — the best preserved example in Byzantine Anatolia, although the landscape of Altındağ
has changed dramatically in less than a century.
The case of the Forum of Theodosius, as recalled, is emblematic, in that we know exactly
its patron and the ideology which lays behind it. May we infer that the Herculean iconog-
raphy might have been deliberately chosen in Ankara, as well? This latter question brings
about a major problem: the date of the building of the Upper fortress. Very few elements can
be effectively taken into account to this purpose. As I briefly outlined in the beginning, the
dating of the walls within the 7th century is coherent with a refortification of the city against
the Persian and Arab invasions. Most of the scholars (Restle and Foss in primis [40, 17])
have placed the walls into the reign of Constans II (641–668), after the capture of the city
by Muawiya, and in the context of the reorganization of the eastern military districts of the
empire. Archibald Dunn has offered a different hypothesis, on the basis of the resemblance
of Ankara’s inner castle with sixth-century Balkan fortifications, such as Salona: the “saw-
like”, pentagonal-towered system has been applied to both Salona and Ankara, following the
directions of the “Anonymous” sixth-century treatise on the construction of a city [13]. The
Balkans were still part of the Byzantine empire up to the reign of Heraclius (610-641), and
the biographers of this emperor report that the champion of the Christianity against the Per-
sians, was also a keen expert in military art [cfr. 25]. Moreover, the entrance system of the
bastion projecting from the south wall, recalls the “gamma-shaped” gates recommended by
7
The two scholars have devoted a number of major studies to the topography of ancient
Constantinople, and specifically to this problem: [30, recently 31; 34].
8
On the basis of the position of the frames (still in situ), it is possible to envision the arrangement of
the reliefs on two rows, placed symmetrically on the two sides of the outer gate. A few fragments only remain
today, which were recovered during the excavations carried out in the 1920s [28], and which are currently on
display in the Istanbul Archaeological Museum. The reliefs had been described by the British ambassador to
the Porte, Sir Thomas Roe, in early 17th century [49, pp. 386–387], before they disappeared by the end of the
seventeenth century. For an overview of the Theodosian walls of Constantinople, see at least [26, 2]. On the
outer addition to the Golden Gate, and its debated chronology, see also [21, 34].
Классическое наследие в искусстве византийской ойкумены и за ее пределами 207

a number of ancient military treatises on the building of a military camp9, which Heraclius
surely knew about. The illustrations preserved (such as the one in cod. Vat. gr. 1164, fol.
236v, dating to ca. 1020) illustrate later manuscripts, but the idea goes far back into antiqui-
ty. It must be taken into account that the primary sources are generous as far as the reign of
Heraclius is concerned [25], but not so much so when it comes to the reign of Constans II,
thus making a judgement on the reign, and ideological inspiration, of the latter very hard.
Nevertheless, I think that the presence of Heracles’ figures on Ankara’s gate might further
support Dunn’s idea. Mythological elements have been connected in many ways to the ar-
tistic production of the time of Heraclius — I will just mention, but not comment upon,
the complicated problem of the Silver “David” Plates [27]. This problem surely deserves a
deeper investigation.
Be it as it may, as they used to be throughout the Byzantine era, the Herculean reliefs of
the Zindan Kapi still, represent, both in their position and in their meaning, what might be
regarded as a “family inheritance”, entrusted to the generations to come. The walls of the
Byzantine citadel mark today the space of a playground for the children of Ankara — if not
a construction site [45] — and even in this “tertiary” function the figural spolia immured in
the curtain represent a major sign of the legacy of antiquity that still awaits to find its correct
place in history.

Title. Family Inheritance: Classical Antiquities Reused and Displayed in Byzantine Cities.
Author. Livia Bevilacqua – Ph. D., Research Fellow. Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, Dorsoduro 3484/D, 30123 Vene-
zia, Italy. liviabevilacqua@gmail.com
Abstract. A small group of gates of Byzantine city walls were decorated with reused, ancient figural sculpture, including
the figure of Heracles. In some cases, such as the herms arranged horizontally on the main gate to the citadel of Ankara,
this subject had not been identified before. Along with providing a detailed analysis of the decoration of the Zindan Kapı
at Ankara, this paper traces the occurrence of the same iconographical subject, in similar architectural and urban contexts.
Other examples considered as a comparison are the “Gates of Heracles” in Ephesos, the “Golden Gate” in Constantinople
and the arch in the Theodosian Forum in the same capital city.
Keywords: Byzantine architecture; city walls; fortification; Spolia; Anatolia; Ankara; Ephesus; Constantinople.

Название статьи. Фамильное наследство: античные артефакты, вторично используемые в византийских городах.
Сведения об авторе. Бевилаква Ливия – Ph. D., научный сотрудник. Университет Ка’Фоскари, Dorsoduro
3484/D, Венеция, Италия, 30123. liviabevilacqua@gmail.com
Аннотация. В ряде случаев византийские городские ворота украшали античные скульптуры, в том числе фи-
гуры Геракла. Некоторые из этих памятников до сих пор не были исследованы, среди них, например, помещенные
в горизонтально установленных гермах скульптуры главных ворот цитадели Анкары. В данной статье автор, на-
ряду с детальным анализом декора башни-темницы (Зиндан Капи) в Анкаре, прослеживает устойчивое повторе-
ние иконографического сюжета в других памятниках и выделяет некоторые детали, позволяющие установить, чем
был предопределен выбор изображения данного мифологического героя в такого рода сооружениях. В качестве
сравнительного ряда для исследования привлекаются «Ворота Геракла» в Эфесе, «Золотые ворота» и Форум Фео-
досия в Константинополе.
Ключевые слова: византийская архитектура; городские стены; крепостные сооружения; сполии; Анатолия;
Анкара; Эфес; Константинополь.

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9
I am grateful to Prof. Antonio Iacobini for sharing with me his suggestions concerning the gate.
208 Livia Bevilacqua

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