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Technically Speaking

Valve-body components
and operation

Direct-Shift Gearbox
Vehicle Applications: Part 5
2004-up New Beetle,
New Jetta, Golf GTI

Essential Reading: Figure 1 he DSG valve body is definitely
one of the simplest we have
Rebuilder seen in transmissions (see fig-
Shop Owner ures 1 through 5 here and on page
Center Manager 18). It contains only five valve line-
Diagnostician ups, two checkballs, three damper as-
R&R semblies, two pressure senders
(pressure sensors/transducers) and
Author: 13 filters (see figures 2, 3 and 5).
Wayne Colonna, ATSG The two checkballs and pressure
Transmission Digest senders are in the K1- and K2-clutch
Technical Editor pressure circuits, which are being
continues page 18

Figure 2

valve Clutch-cooling

Copyright © 2007 ATSG

10 Transmission Digest
Technically Speaking

continued from page 10 It is no secret that the manufac- whole transmission. Our politi-
used for precise clutch-pressure turers are doing everything they cians do not give a hoot about
control and release. These sensors can to get us to the place where all America, just their back pocket. It
are integral to the TCM and are we can do is unit replacements – sure would be nice if our automo-
staked into the channel-plate por- very un-American, in my opinion. tive associations had more clout on
tion of the valve body (see Figure If you prevent the middle-class The Hill. OK, I am done; back to
4), making these sensors non-serv- working man from earning a liv- tech. Thank you for giving me a
iceable separately. This also means ing, you weaken a country. It is not few minutes to blow off some
that the TCM cannot be easily re- typical of me to get on a soapbox steam.
moved from the valve body even if like this, but the things we are see- With the valve body as simple
you remove all the bolts (see ing in the automotive business as it is, it does not take much effort
Figure 6 on page 20). So it appears have me very concerned. to identify and trace hydraulic cir-
that if a pressure sender fails, you Try to buy transmission parts cuits, as I did in Figure 7. This be-
will be buying a TCM/valve-body for a Nissan Murano; it cannot be comes helpful in identifying case
assembly to correct the problem. done. You are forced to buy a continues page 20

Figure 3 Figure 4
Valve-Body Details

Figure 5
Valve-Body Details
N371 safety valve

N233 safety valve

Hydraulic-pressure Hydraulic-pressure
sender 1 (G193) sender 2 (G194)

Multiplexer ball-seat
valve flat faces

6mm ball

Copyright © 2007 ATSG Copyright © 2007 ATSG

18 Transmission Digest
Technically Speaking

Figure 6 passages for testing. For example, you look at Figure 11, you can see
if you look below the multiplexer how one can inspect these gear ac-
valve in the hydraulic circuit tuators for leaks with compressed
shown in Figure 8 on page 22, the air through their respective case
shift rails inside the transmission passages.
are represented. From left to right You also will notice that there
you have the 3-1 shift rail, the N-5, are slots and holes within the cen-
the R-6 and then the 4-6. Each end ter of the case as shown in Figure
of these shift rails sits inside a 12. These are openings for various
cylinder containing a piston seal sensors built into the TCM, which
known as a gear actuator (see fig- are identified in Figure 13 on page
ures 9 and 10 on page 24). When 26. Four of those sensors are called
“travel sensors.” They
monitor the position of the
Figure 7
four shift rails by reading
the magnet travel senders
3 that are affixed to each of
the rails (see figures 14
and 15).
The other sensors and

N371 safety
senders identified in fig-
solenoid & ures 13 and 15 are:
valve • The input-speed
K2-pressure sender (G182) is a Hall-ef-
2 Pressure
sender G194 5
Sender 1 fect sensor that reads the
outside of the K1/K2-
clutch drum, which rotates
N88 signal
at engine speed. This sig-
nal is used to calculate
1 Pressure clutch slip for a more-pre-
Sender 4
G193 cise control of clutch apply
N233 safety
solenoid & and release. In the event of
K2 K1 K1 N91 valve a failure, the redundancy
4 1 6 signal
N91 Signal backup is an engine-speed
Ext. cooler
t coolerin
In signal, which the transmis-
N371 D sion computer receives
utch Cool
Clutch cool damper
over the CAN (controller
N90 signal
N90 Signal area network) bus.
Damper • The multiplate-clutch
oil-temperature sender
N218 Signal
N218 signal (G509) is also inside the
N89 signal
N89 Signal
N88 Signal
N88 signal
same housing as the input-
speed sender, and it meas-
N217 Signal
N217 signal N233
N233Da ures the temperature of the
damper oil as it comes from the
2 outlet ports in the drum
Pump Out
Pump out
assembly. From this input,
N the transmission computer
Pump in regulates the flow of
clutch-cooling oil and initi-
ates further measures to
protect the gearbox. It
2 6
6 N N 3
3 4 4 RR 55 11
measures temperatures
rapidly and works within
Multiplexer N90
N90 N89
N89 N91
N91 N88
signal a range from –55° C to
Copyright © 2007 ATSG
+180° C. As a backup
text continues page 24

20 Transmission Digest
Technically Speaking

Figure 8
Hydraulic Details

# 3 main line-pressure
Press. control solenoid N217

slide valve


filter # 4 cooling-pressure
control solenoid N218
Gear lube
spray Exhaust

piston N371 safety
solenoid & valve
Sump and internal filter

N233 safety
solenoid & valve

G194 press.
Exhaust Exhaust sender

G193 press. To K2 clutch

To K1 clutch

N88 N89 N90 N91

K2 reg. sol.
K1 reg. sol.

N88 – 1st and 5th Multiplexer

N89 – 3rd and neutral
N90 – 2nd and 6th
N91 – 4th and reverse
3 1 N 5 R 6 4 2

First gear
Copyright © 2007 ATSG

22 Transmission Digest
Technically Speaking

should this sensor fail, the trans- • Input-shaft speed sensor 1 mounted on each shaft. These sig-
mission computer uses signals (G501) and input-shaft speed sen- nals are used in conjunction with
from the gear-oil temperature sen- sor 2 (G502) are both Hall-effect the input-speed signal (G182) to
sor G93 and the control-unit tem- sensors inside the transmission determine the output slip of
perature sensor G510, both inside computer. These sensors are excit- clutches K1 and K2. Besides using
the transmission computer. ed by the wheel-speed sensors these signals to tailor clutch-slip
control, it also can determine
whether the right gear ratio has
Figure 9 Figure 10 been selected. If sender G501 fails,
only second gear can be achieved.
If sensor G502 fails, only 1st and
3rd can be achieved.
Output-speed sensors G195 and
G196 are also Hall-effect sensors
inside the transmission computer.
They, too, are excited by a wheel-
speed sensor mounted on the shaft.
By having two output-speed sig-
nals that are offset, the computer
can detect direction of travel. The
Figure 11 G195 sends a “high” signal and the
G196 sends a “low” signal. As a re-
dundancy should these sensors
To external 2nd-gear fail, ABS wheel-speed signals are
4th-gear shift cooler shift substituted for both direction of
1st-gear travel and road speed.
3rd-gear • Gear-oil temperature sender
Clutch shift
G93 and control-unit temperature
circuit Pump out sender G510 are both inside the
(to PR) Mechatronic transmission-control
K2 clutch unit. With this unit being placed
Pump in
K1 clutch inside the transmission, the oil
temperature can be monitored.
6th-gear These two sensor signals are used
shift to check the Mechatronic’s temper-
Reverse- ature, they are used to start a
gear shift
shift warm-up program and they check
each other for faults. If an over
gear shift temp is detected, measures are ini-
tiated to reduce oil temperature as
rapidly as possible to avoid exces-
sive heat generation in the
continues page 26

Figure 12

Molded seals are

used inside each
of the shift-fork

Copyright © 2007 ATSG

24 Transmission Digest
Technically Speaking

Figure 13 Figure 14
Electrical Details Output-speed
sensor G195
Travel sensor
Travel sensor G490
G489 Output-speed
sensor G196

Control-unit temp.
sensor G510
sensor G502 Gear-oil temp.
sensor G93

sensor G501 Mechatronic unit. At temperatures
Travel sensor
that exceed 138° C, the
Travel sensor Mechatronic unit initiates a reduc-
G487 tion in engine torque. Above 145°
C, oil no longer is supplied to the
Copyright © 2007 ATSG K1 and K2 clutches, placing the
transmission in neutral.
This concludes the series on the
Figure 15 DSG 02E gearbox designed to give
Electrical Details you an idea of the type of trans-
missions we can expect to see more
of. Its compact design and the
elimination of a torque converter
are quite favorable for the manu-
So now we have CVTs, DSGs,
six-speed front- and rear-wheel-
drive transmissions, AWD trans-
missions and, yes, there is now an
eight-speed rear-wheel-drive
transmission by ZF. It looks as if
we could do well in the transmis-
Output-shaft sender
(G195 and G196)
sion business if we could buy
parts. Is the right to rebuild being
taken from us one transmission at
a time? TD

Input-shaft Input-shaft Input-speed

sender 1 (G501) sender 2 (G502) sender (G182)
Multiplate-clutch The Bottom Line:
oil-temperature Tell us your opinion of this article:
sender (G509) Circle the corresponding number on the free information card.
96 Useful information.
97 Not useful information.
Magnet travel sensors 98 We need more information.
mounted on each of
the four shift rails
generate signals for
the computer to
detect the position of
the gear actuators.

Travel sensor 1 (G487) detects 1st- and 3rd-gear positions

Travel sensor 2 (G488) detects 2nd- and 4th-gear positions
Travel sensor 1 (G489) detects 6th- and reverse-gear positions
Travel sensor 1 (G490) detects 5th- and neutral-gear positions
If a sensor should fail, that section of the gearbox will be
isolated for non-use.
Copyright © 2007 ATSG

26 Transmission Digest