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What is WAS

à Provides the infrastructure for running applications that run your business.
à Common environment and programming model for your applications.
àPlatform for developing and Deploying web services and SOA based apps
à Secure, Scalable, reliable transaction engine for ERP
à IBM WebSphere is architected to enable you to build business-critical applications
for the Web
à WebSphere includes a wide range of products that help you develop and serve
Web applications.
à They are designed to make it easier for clients to build, deploy, and manage
dynamic Web sites more productively
à WAS implements J2EE specification

WebSphere Application Server provides the environment to run your Web-enabled e-


business applications. An application server functions as Web middleware or a middle
tier in a three-tier e-business environment. The first tier is the HTTP server that
handles requests from the browser client. The third tier is the business database (for
example, DB2 UDB for iSeries) and the business logic (for example, traditional
business applications, such as order processing). The middle tier is WebSphere
Application Server, which provides a framework for a consistent and architected link
between the HTTP requests and the business data and logic.
With the Base and Express packages, you are limited to single application server
environments. The Network Deployment package allows you to extend this
environment to include multiple application servers that are administered from a
single point of control and can be clustered to provide scalability and high availability
environments.

The typical application flow is as follows:


1. A Web client requests a URL in the browser (input page).
2. The request is routed to the Web server over the Internet.
3. The Web server immediately passes the request to the Web server plug-in.
All requests go to the Web server plug-in first.
4. The Web server plug-in examines the URL, verifies the list of host name
aliases from which it will accept traffic based on the virtual host information,
and chooses a server to handle the request.
5. A stream is created. A stream is a connection to the Web container. It is
possible to maintain a connection (stream) over a number of requests. The
Web container receives the request and, based on the URL, dispatches it to
the proper servlet.
6. If the servlet class is not loaded, the dynamic class loader loads the servlet
(servlet init(), then doGet() or doPost()).
7. JNDI is used for lookup of either datasources or EJBs required by the servlet.
8. Depending upon whether a datasource is specified or an EJB is requested,
the JNDI directs the servlet:
– To the corresponding database and gets a connection from its connection
pool in the case of a data source.
– To the corresponding EJB container, which then instantiates the EJB when
an EJB is requested.
9. If the EJB request involves an SQL transaction, it goes back to the JNDI to
look up the datasource.
10.The SQL statement is executed and the retrieved data is sent back either to
the servlet or to the EJB.
11.Data beans are created and handed off to JSPs in the case of EJBs.
12.The servlet sends data to JSPs.
13.The JSP generates the HTML that is sent back through the plug-in to the Web
server.
14.The Web server sends the output page (output HTML) to the browser.

Functionality of WAS

WebSphere Application Server supports asynchronous messaging through the use


of a JMS provider and its related messaging system.(JMS 1.1 Messaging
Provider)

WebSphere Application Server provides authentication and authorization


capabilities to secure administrative functions and applications, using LDAP

WebSphere Application Server works with a Web server (such as the IBM HTTP
Server) to route requests from browsers to the applications that run in
WebSphere Application Server. Web server plug-ins are provided for
installation with supported Web browsers. The plug-ins direct requests to the
appropriate application server and perform workload balancing among servers
in a cluster.

Web services enable businesses to connect applications to other business


applications, deliver business functions to a broader set of clients and
partners, interact with marketplaces more efficiently, and create new
business models dynamically.

Delivers a high performance and extremely scalable transaction engine for


dynamic e-business applications

Packaging

WebSphere Application Server is available in multiple packaging options.

WebSphere Application Server - Express V6.0

à Single Server environment.(No Clustering or multi server management)


à J2EE 1.4 support
àMedium-sized business
àContains Rational Web Developer application tool
à Doesn’t handle EJB and JCA
à Limited to 2 CPU’s

WebSphere Application Server V6.1 (Base)

àSlightly differs in packaging and licensing


à Contains Application Server toolkit
à Includes a trial version of Rational Application Developer
àUnlimited CPU’s

WebSphere Application Server Network Deployment V6

àExtends Base version


àClustering capabilities
àEdge Components which provide high performance and availability (Caching Proxy
and Load Balancer)
àHA for distributed configurations
àLarge Enterprise applications
àScalability, Availability and Performance
àWeb Server plug-in supports weighted WLM

àAll V6 application servers have the same core and base functionality
àWebSphere Application Server - Express V6 node can be upgraded to a WebSphere
Application Server V6 node(.Can be done without any software upgrades .Only a
paper license upgrade is required)
àWebSphere Application Server- Express V6 and WebSphere Application Server V6
node can be federated into a WebSphere Application Server - Network Deployment
V6 cell (Can be done without any software upgrades .Only a paper license upgrade is
required)

Differences b/n WAS Version

WAS 5: J2EE 1.2/1.3 support


JDK 1.3 support
Web Services based on Apache engine

WAS 6.0: J2EE 1.2/1.3/1.4 support


JDK 1.4 support (JDK 1.4.2)
Web Services based on J2EE 1.4
High Availability Manager
Java Based Messaging Engine
EJB 2.1, JMS 1.1, JCA 1.5, Servlet 2.4, and JSP 2.0
Supports Java Server Faces (JSF)
Creates Archive of the existing WAS configurations and the archive can
be
used to create new configurations.
Profiles and all profiles use same WebSphere binaries(Less storage)
Node groups
Service integration functionality provides both message-oriented and
service
Oriented applications

WAS 6.1: J2EE 1.2/1.3/1.4 support


JDK 5.0 support
JSF-a framework for Web applications
Integrated Console
Security changes
Secure and Scalable runtime

Edge Components

Using Edge components can reduce Web server congestion, increase content
availability, and improve Web server performance. As the name indicates, Edge
components usually run on machines that are close (in a network configuration
sense) to the boundary between an enterprise’s intranet and the Internet.

Web container
àA Web container, which processes HTTP requests, servlets, and JavaServer Pages
(JSPs)

à Web container transport chains:


Requests are directed to the Web container using the Web container inbound
transport chain. The chain consists of a TCP inbound channel that provides the
connection to the network, an HTTP inbound channel that serves HTTP 1.0 and 1.1
requests, and a Web container channel over which requests for servlets and JSPs are
sent to the Web container for processing

à Servlet processing
When handling servlets, the Web container creates a request object and a response
object, then invokes the servlet service method. The Web container invokes the
servlet’s destroy method when appropriate and unloads the servlet, after which the
JVM performs garbage collection.

à HTML and other static content processing


Requests for HTML and other static content that are directed to the Web container
are served by the Web container inbound chain. However, in most cases, using an
external Web server and Web server plug-in as a front-end to a Web container is
more appropriate for a production environment.
_
àSession management
Support is provided for the javax.servlet.http.HttpSession interface as described in
the Servlet application program interface (API) specification.
_
à Web services engine
Web services are provided as a set of APIs in cooperation with the J2EE applications.
Web services engines are provided to support Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP).

EJB Container

àThe Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container provides all the runtime services that are
needed to deploy and manage enterprise beans. It is a server process that handles
requests for both session and entity beans.

àThe enterprise beans, packaged in EJB modules, installed in an application server


do not communicate directly with the server. Instead, the EJB container provides an
interface between the enterprise beans and the server. Together, the container and
the server provide the enterprise bean runtime environment.

àThe container provides many low-level services, including threading and


transaction support. From an administrative viewpoint, the container manages data
storage and retrieval for the contained enterprise beans. A single container can host
more than one EJB Java archive (JAR) file.

WAS Services
J2EE Connector Architecture services
Transaction service
Dynamic cache service
Message listener service
Object Request Broker service
Administrative service (Java Management Extensions)
Diagnostic trace service
Debugging service
Name service (Java Naming Directory Interface)
Performance Monitoring Interface service
Security service (JAAS and Java 2 security)
Service Integration Bus service

The Web server:

A Web server handles the HTTP protocol. When the Web server receives an HTTP
request, it responds with an HTTP response, such as sending back an HTML page. To
process a request, a Web server may respond with a static HTML page or image,
send a redirect, or delegate the dynamic response generation to some other program
such as CGI scripts, JSPs (JavaServer Pages), servlets, ASPs (Active Server Pages),
server-side JavaScripts, or some other server-side technology. Whatever their
purpose, such server-side programs generate a response, most often in HTML, for
viewing in a Web browser.

Understand that a Web server's delegation model is fairly simple. When a request
comes into the Web server, the Web server simply passes the request to the
program best able to handle it. The Web server doesn't provide any functionality
beyond simply providing an environment in which the server-side program can
execute and pass back the generated responses. The server-side program usually
provides for itself such functions as transaction processing, database connectivity,
and messaging.

While a Web server may not itself support transactions or database connection
pooling, it may employ various strategies for fault tolerance and scalability such as
load balancing, caching, and clustering—features oftentimes erroneously assigned as
features reserved only for application servers.

Eg: Apache HTTP Server, Sun ONE Web Server, iPlanet Web Server

The application server:

As for the application server, according to our definition, an application server


exposes business logic to client applications through various protocols, possibly
including HTTP. While a Web server mainly deals with sending HTML for display in a
Web browser, an application server provides access to business logic for use by client
application programs. The application program can use this logic just as it would call
a method on an object (or a function in the procedural world).

Such application server clients can include GUIs (graphical user interface) running on
a PC, a Web server, or even other application servers. The information traveling back
and forth between an application server and its client is not restricted to simple
display markup. Instead, the information is program logic. Since the logic takes the
form of data and method calls and not static HTML, the client can employ the
exposed business logic however it wants.

In most cases, the server exposes this business logic through a component API, such
as the EJB (Enterprise JavaBean) component model found on J2EE (Java 2 Platform,
Enterprise Edition) application servers. Moreover, the application server manages its
own resources. Such gate-keeping duties include security, transaction processing,
resource pooling, and messaging.

Like a Web server, an application server may also employ various scalability and
fault-tolerance techniques.

Difference between AppServer and a Web server :


(1) Webserver serves pages for viewing in web browser, application server provides
exposes businness logic for client applications through various protocols
(2) Webserver exclusively handles http requests.application server serves bussiness
logic to application programs through any number of protocols.

(3) Webserver delegation model is fairly simple,when the request comes into the
webserver,it simply passes the request to the program best able to handle it(Server
side program). It may not support transactions and database connection pooling.

(4) Application server is more capable of dynamic behaviour than webserver. We can
also configure application server to work as a webserver.Simply applic! ation server
is a superset of webserver.

In J2EE application modules are packaged as EAR, JAR and WAR based on their
functionality .These files are simply zipped files using java jar tool. These files are
created for different purposes.

.jar files:

JAR files (Java ARchive) allows aggregating many files into one, it is usually used to
hold Java classes in a library. i.e. Math.jar These files are with the .jar extension.
The .jar files contain the libraries, resources and accessories files like property files.

.war files:
WAR files (Web Application aRchive) stores XML, java classes, and JavaServer pages
for Web Application purposes. These files are with the .war extension. The war file
contains the web application that can be deployed on the any servlet/jsp container.
The .war file contains jsp, html, javascript and other files for necessary for the
development of web applications.

.ear files:

EAR files (Enterprise ARchive) combines JAR and WAR files to make a combined
archive for Enterprise Applications. The .ear file contains the EJB modules of the
applications
1. Roles & Responsibilities
2. Explain your work in your previous environment (Your script)
3. What is wsadmin / jacl scripting
WSADMIN is a scripting interface (or command-line interface) into
WebSphere Application Server that permits the automation of many different tasks
that we can do using a (web interface) or graphical user admin console.

JACL scripting is the scripting language that is supported by the


WebSphere Application Server to administer or write any custom-based task.

What are the different wsadmin objects.


AdminConfig
AdminControl
AdminApp
AdminTask
Help

How do you invoke wsadmin command


Go to the appropriate <profile_home> and type wsdmin.

How do you execute a jacl script


>wsadmin -f myScript.jacl

What did you use wsadmin / jacl scripting for.

4. Explain

Session affinity:
Most servers use the term "Session Affinity" to indicate that within a
cluster of servers, requests from the same client always get routed back to the same
server. (or) In a clustered environment, any HTTP requests associated with an HTTP
session must be routed to the same Web application in the same JVM.

Session Persistance:
You use session persistence to permanently store data from an HTTP
session object to enable failover and load balancing across a cluster of WebSphere
Applicaiton Servers.

Sessiontracking:
Session tracking enables you to track a user's progress over multiple
servlets or HTML pages, which, by nature, are stateless.

How do you set session time out :


You can specify an interval of time after which HTTP sessions expire.
click Servers > Application servers > server_name > Web container
settings > Session management > Session Timeout

What are the different levels at which session timeout can be set
application level, web module level, server level

5. How do you upgrade WAS


GUI Upgrade
Silent Upgrade
Logs files and their paths for both

6. Back Ups

How do you take back ups in WAS


backupConfig.sh [filename] -nostop

What is the out put file


WebSphereConfig_yyyy-mm-dd.zip

How do you restore back ups


restoreConfig.sh <filename.zip> -nostop

What is the Backup policy in your previous company


Incremental Backups every week.

7. Explain profiles and what is the equivalent command in WAS 5.x


In WAS 5.x ----> wsInstance.sh -name instanceName -path
instanceLoacation -host hostName -create | delete

8. What are the different kinds of sync operations


1. Automatic synchronization.
2. Manual synchronization.
3. Startup synchronization.

How do you disable auto sync


System Administration > nodeagent > file synchronization service >
Uncheck automatic synchronization.

What is the default interval for auto sync


60 seconds.

9. What are the different UserRoles in WAS


1. Monitor 2. Operator 3. Configurator 4. Administrator
10. Explain JNDI in WAS

Each application server hosts a name service that provides a Java


Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) name space. The service is used to register
resources hosted by the application server. The JNDI implementation in WebSphere
Application Server is built on top of a Common Object Request Broker Architecture
(CORBA) naming service (CosNaming).

JNDI provides the client-side access to naming and presents the


programming model that application developers use. CosNaming provides the
server-side implementation and is where the name space is actually stored. JNDI
essentially provides a client-side wrapper of the name space stored in CosNaming
and interacts with the CosNaming server on behalf of the client.

Simple
Simple name
The simple name binding is guaranteed to succeed if lookup is within
the same server or when connected directly to the name space of the server
containing the target of the lookup. It can be used in a servlet or EJB, if it is certain
that the object is located on the same application server. Here is an example of a
simple name:
ejb/webbank/Account

Corba
Corbaname
The corbaname binding is always guaranteed to work. However, it
requires that you know the correct path to the object at deployment time. Here is
an example of a corbaname:

corbaname::myhost1:9812/NameServiceServerRoot#ejb/webbank/Account

Complex names
Compound name/remote/complex
Applications that do not run in the same server cannot use simple
name lookup because the simple name is not local to the application. Instead, an
application of this type must look the object up directly from the name server. Each
application server contains a name server. System artifacts such as EJB homes are
bound relative to the server root context in that name server. The fully qualified
(compound name) JNDI name is always guaranteed to work.
Here is an example of a compound name:
cell/nodes/node1/servers/server1/ejb/webbank/Account

When do you use dumpNameSpace.sh


Run the dumpNameSpace command against any bootstrap port to
get a listing of the names bound with that provider URL.
11. Explain JDBC Connection Pooling
Each JDBC data source has a pool of JDBC connections that are
created when the data source is deployed or at server startup. Applications use a
connection from the pool then return it when finished using the connection.
Connection pooling enhances performance by eliminating the costly task of creating
database connections for the application.

Each data source that you configure contains a pool of database


connections that are created when the data source instance is created-when it is
deployed or targeted, or at server startup.

Connection Timeout
This value indicates the number of seconds a request for a connection
waits when there are no connections available in the free pool and no new
connections can be created.
Max Connections
Specifies the maximum number of physical connections that you can create in
this pool.
Min Connections
Specifies the minimum number of physical connections that you can create in
this pool.
Reap Time
Specifies the interval in seconds between runs of pool maintenance thread.

Unused Timeout
Specifies the interval in seconds after which an idle or unused connection is
discarded.
Aged Timeout
Specifies the interval in seconds before a physical connection is discarded.
Which one should be the highest and which one should be the lowest in
the reap/unused/aged timeouts.
Aged timeout should be the highest and Reap timeout should be
lowest.
Purge Policy
Specifies how to purge connections when a stale connections or fatal
connection error is detected.
What are stale connection exceptions
When an application receives a stale connection exception on a
database operation, it indicates that the connection currently held is no longer valid.
(or)
Whenever a troubled connection is encountered, a
staleConnectionException is raised. (A troubled connection is an inconsitent
connection object in a connection pool)

12. Explain the Deployment steps of a J2EE application to WAS


13. How would you go about when a new application comes into ur
environment (resources, settings, heaps etc)

14. What is rollover update


It is used to rollover the updates to all the cluster members in a
cluster whenever any changes are made to even one of the cluster member.

15. What is ripple start


RippleStart combines stopping and starting operations. It first stops
and then restarts each member of the cluster.

16. Explain 2 Troubleshooting scenarios

17. How would you set up introscope profiles/probes


Wily's Introscope is an enterprise application performance monitoring
tool. It provides an overview of application and server health and statistics.

18. VerboseGC

VerboseGC is the logging mechanism implemented by the JVM


to diagnose memory/storage problems. Here Garbage collection identifies and frees
previously allocated storage that is no longer in use. An understanding of the way
that the Garbage Collector works will help you to diagnose problems.

Verbose logging is intended as the first tool to be used when


attempting to diagnose garbage collector problems; more detailed analysis can be
performed by invoking one or more (trace garbage collector) traces.

How do set it up
In Admin Console goto Servers > Application Servers > Java
and Process Management > Process Definition > Java Virtual Machine > Check
Verbose Garbage Colletion option.

What files have verbosegc information


That particular server's (<profile_home>/logs/servername/)
native_stderr.log

What tool did you use to analyse verbosegc logs


GCAnalyzer

19. What is process definition.


A process definition specifies the run-time characteristics of an
application server process. A process definition can include characteristics such as
JVM settings, standard in, error and output paths, and the user ID and password
under which a server runs.

What is the effect of changing max heap and min heap size of a jvm
Max Heap Size: When you have established the maximum
heap size that you need, you might want to set the minimum heap size to the same
value; Using the same values is not usually a good idea, because it delays the start
of garbage collection until the heap is full. The first time that the Garbage Collector
runs, therefore, becomes a very expensive operation. Also, the heap is more likely to
be fragmented and require a heap compaction. Again this is a very expensive
operation.
Min Heap Size: The recommendation is to start your
application with the minimum heap size that it needs. When it starts up, the
Garbage Collector will run often and, because the heap is small, it runs efficiently.

Whats the max heap allowed by AIX


Minimum heap size allowed
AIX: 4 MB
LINUX: 4 MB
WINDOWS: 4 MB

Maximum heap size allowed


AIX: Half the available memory with a minimum of 16 MB and a maximum of
512 MB
LINUX: Half the available memory with a minimum of 16 MB and a
maximum of 512 MB
WINDOWS: Half the real (physical or RAM) memory with a minimum of 16 MB
and a maximum of 2 GB

What are the effects of large initial heap/max heap


The time between garbage collections will increase, but the garbage
collection will take longer, which indirectly effects the turn-around-time of the
applicaiton performance.
(or)
Because it delays the start of garbage collection until the heap
is full. The first time that the Garbage Collector runs, therefore, becomes a very
expensive operation. Also, the heap is more likely to be fragmented and require a
heap compaction. Again this is a very expensive operation.

20. Heap Dumps/ Core dumps

What is a heap dump


Heapdump is a JVM facility that generates a dump of all live
objects that are on the Java heap at a certain point in time; that is, those that are
used by the Java application. When the java heap is exhausted
the JVM will generate a heap dump by default.
By default, you get heapdumps only on OutOfMemoryErrors. You do
not get heapdumps in crashes or through a signal to the JVM.

It shows the objects that are using large amounts of memory on the
Java heap, and what is preventing them from being collected by the Garbage
Collector.

What is a core dump/thread dump


Java thread dumps provide detailed information about all active
Java threads. It is useful in several situations, most notably for hung servers.

How to generate Heap dump both WAS 5/6

By default, you get heapdumps only on OutOfMemoryErrors. You do


not get heapdumps in crashes or through a signal to the JVM. In order to manually
generate a heapdump, you must first enable signal-based heapdumps by setting the
IBM_HEAPDUMP=TRUE and IBM_NOSIGHANDLER=TRUE environmental variables
and through wsadmin follow the below process:

>set myheap_dm [$AdminControl queryNames type=JVM,process=server1,*]


>$AdminControl invoke $myheap_dm generateHeapDump

How to generate core dump/thread dump both WAS 5/6


Through wsadmin
>set mythread_dm [$AdminControl completeObjectName
type=JVM,process=server1,*]
>$AdminControl invoke $mythread_dm dumpThreads

Whats the difference between kill -3 command executed on WAS5 JVMs


and WAS 6 JVMS
kill -3 command generate core dumps.
What tools did you use to analyse core dump/thread dump
IBM ThreadAnalyzer
What tools did you use to analyse heap dumps
IBM HeapAnalyzer
In what scenarios is a core dump/thread dump useful
It is useful in several situations, most notably for hung servers or hung
thread situations or thread deadlock situations.
In what scenarios is a heap dump useful
It is useful in situations, most notable for memory leak
problems or memory allocation problems for exaple OutOfMemoryExceptions.
What are the respective extensions (jdk 1.3 and 1.4)
jdk 1.4 heap dump format generates a .phd format

21. How do you make a jvm run as a service in windows and why.
WASService.exe. The reason we can utilize this service on
Windows platform is because the Windows OS automatically starts this service
whenever the system is up and we can flexibily start and stop the server from
windows services.
22. What is activity log and how do you view it.
These are IBM Service logs which are in binary format, which logs
activity of various WebSphere Application Server components. Log Analyzer is used
to view the activity.log files.

23. How do you set up traces.


In Admin console Troublshooting > logs and trace > servername >
choose Diagnostic trace

24. What is a PMR and explain how you worked with IBM on a PMR
PMR: Problem Management Record ---- PMR is created wehn a customer
submits a request to fix a software problem via ESR. A PMR number is assigned to
track the request. You can attach files to your PMR to provide the IBM engineer more
information to better assist you.
ESR: Electronic Service Request --------

25. What all parameters did you tune in WAS (other than JDBC connection
pool and heap sizes)
We can tune some of these other aspects such as
1. Application server (parameter : )
2. JVM tunings (parameter : )
3. Applications (parameter : )
4. Database (parameter : )
5. JMS (parameter : )
6. Security
7. Hardware capacity and settings (parameter : )
8. Operating System (parameter : )
9. Web Servers (parameter : )

26. What other connection pools do you know in WAS other than JDBC
connection pool
J2C connection pool
MQ connection pool
Thread pool

27. How do you enable global security in WAS


1. Configure User registries (it can be custom, LDAP, or local
OS)
2. Configure Authentication mechanisms (LTPA)
3. Configure Authorization (if there is any)
and then check Enable global security.

How do u configure an LDAP


1. In the Deployment Manager Admin Console, select Security -> Global
Security > User Registries -> LDAP.
2. Provide the details for the fields in the Configuration panel as listed below:
Serverid, Serverpassword, Type, Host, Port, Base DN, Bind DN,
Bind password (please get this info from LDAP admin)
3. Click Apply
4. Save the configuration for WebSphere.
5. We need to define the configuration for Global Security in the
Administrative Console. Navigate to Security -> Global Security.
6. "Check" 'Enable global security' option
7. "Uncheck" 'Enforce Java 2 Security' option
8. From the Active User Registry drop-down list select LDAP as the active
user registry.
9. Click Apply; this will validate the settings.
10. Save the configuration for WebSphere, and then restart the server.

How do u configure LTPA


Global Security > Authentication mechanism > LTPA > provide the password
and Apply

How do u configure SSO


Global Security > Authentication mechanism > LTPA > SSO > check
'Enabled' option

What is the limitation of SSO


It is applicable only to a single domain. It cannot span multiple
domains. Example: mail.google.com (every resource under google.com can be
accessed) but outside of that domain SSO cannot be applied.

How do you make SSO work across multiple cells


The LTPA token keys must be exported to the target cell and the LTPA
token key from the target cell must be imported into the current cell.

Does WAS support multiple LDAPs?


Yes, from 6.0 version onwards

28. What is SSL


Secure Socket Layer is the technology to establish secure
communication along with data integrity and encryption over the network or between
the nodes (machines)

29. Did you ever work with certificates


Yes,

30. What is the utility that comes with WAS / IHS to manage certificates
ikeyman.sh

31. What is the defualt key store location for WAS


<profile_home>/etc
32. How do you change the port number for admin console

Logging into the admin console


http://<hostname>:<admin_port>/admin
ex: http://localhost:9060/admin

Without logging into the admin console

C:\WebSphere\profiles\dmgr\config\cells\dmgr_cell\nodes\dmgr_node\serviceindex.
xml (dmgr starts but cannot open the admin console because the port hasn't been
changed in virtual host xml file)
C:\WebSphere\profiles\dmgr\config\cells\dmgr_cell\virtualhosts.xml

33. How do you disable security for Deployment manager without logging
into the console
security.xml , enable=false

34. If you have to change the ports of a jvm manually without logging into
the admin console which file would you edit.
serverindex.xml

35. Explain virtual hosts concept


A virtual host is a configuration that enable a single host machine to
resemble multiple host machine.

What are the two virtual hosts that come with WAS installation
admin_host, default_host

36. What is the plugin configuration file and where is it located


The plug-in configuration file (plugin-cfg.xml) contains routing information for
all applications mapped from the web server to the application server.

How do u regenerate the plugin config file


The GenPluginCfg command is used to regenerate the plug-in
configuration file. Depending on the operating platform, the command is:
Linux and Unix: GenPluginCfg.sh
Windows: GenPluginCfg.bat

When do u regenerate the plugin config file


The plug-in configuration file needs to be regenerated and propagated
to the Web servers when there are changes to your WebSphere configuration that
affect how requests are routed from the Web server to the application server.
These changes include:
_ Installing an application
_ Creating or changing a virtual host
_ Creating a new server
_ Modifying HTTP transport settings (i.e HTTP ports)
_ Creating or altering a cluster

When do you manually edit the plugin config file


When enabling SSL (specifying the key file name), LoadBalanceWeight,
and minimum number of connections.

What is the information in a plugin config file


Plugin config file contains routing information along with information
on virtual hosts , clusters (cluster members), and URIs.

When the request comes to a webserver how does the webserver know
the JVM that is capable of handling that request.
The webserver first takes the request and if it can't serve, it
forwards the request to the plugin config file . The plugin config file routes the
request to the appropriate application server (or cluster member or jvm)
according to the mapping information it has.

What is the refresh interval of plugin.


60 seconds

If a change is made to the plugin config should the webserver be


restarted?
Not Required because the plugin's automatic refresh interval is 60
seconds.

37. What webserver did you work on


I have on on IBM HTTP and Apache web servers.

What is the configuration file for IHS


httpd.conf

If changes are made to the config file should the webserver be restarted
Yes. The webserver must to restarted so the changes made to the config
file become effective.

What changes are made to this config file (automatically) during plugin
installation on the webserver
The plugin's binary module file (.dll) path and the plugin's
configuration file (plugin-cfg.xml) path will be copied to the httpd.conf file
automatically.

38. What is collector tool


The collector tool gathers information about your WebSphere Application
Server installation and packages it in a Java archive (JAR) file that you can send to
IBM Customer Support to assist in determining and analyzing your problem.
Information in the JAR file includes logs, property files, configuration files, operating
system and Java data, and the presence and level of each software prerequisite.
Collector tool can be run by only root or administrator.

Syntax
It must be invoked from a temporary work directory >
C:\IBM\WebSphere\AppServer\bin\collector.sh | bat

Use
It can be used to send it to the IBM Customer Support to assist in
determining and analyzing your problem.

Output file
The output will a .jar file. For example: node31-dmgr_cell-dmgr_node-
dmgr-WASenv.jar

39. When on a system there is an existing installation of websphere


federated to the DM. You make one more installation and federate this to
another/same DM.

Will it work??
We can federate it to the same DM. This works.

If it doesnt, how will you make it work

40. What is the difference between horizontal/vertical clustering.


Clustering is a mechanism which provides workload management (WLM) and
failover for applications that reside on the application server cluster.
Horizontal clustering: For high availability and horizontal scalability.
Vertical clustering: For high availability and vertical scalability.
Disadvantage: Single point of failure.

When would you use them


For workload management (WLM) and failover requirements.

41. When an application is deployed, where can the application binaries be


found
In the Applications folder when the application is deployed. Ex:
C:\IBM\WebSphere\profiles\dmgr\config\cells\dmgr_cell\applications

42. Unix commands


43. How do you create a JDBC resource

To view this administrative console page, click Resources >JDBC Providers


> New.
Step 1: Select the database type. Choose a supported database type.
Step 2: Select the JDBC provider type. Choose a supported JDBC Provider
type.
Step 3: Select the implementation type. Choose a supported implementation
type.
Step 4: Apply
Step5: Now create the required Data Sources

To view this administrative console page, click Resources > JDBC


Providers > JDBC_provider > Data sources > New

44. What is the difference between webserver handling in WAS 5 and 6


45. New features in WAS 6

46. What is the pre requisite for syncnode command


The nodeagent on the node must be in a stopped state when this
command is executed.

47. What are the logs in IHS


access.log, error.log

48. How do you change the log format in IHS


In httpd.conf file change the following line to your required parameters
----- LogFormat"%t %h %u %m"

49. What are the configuration files in IPlanet web server


magnus.conf, obj.conf

50. What is TAI, and how do you enable it.


TAI = Trust Association Interceptor. Trust association is used to connect
reversed proxy servers to WebSphere Application Server.
(or)
Trust association enables the integration of IBM WebSphere Application
Server security and third-party security servers.

Global Security > LTPA > TrustAssociation > Check Enable trust association
and Apply

1) What is the recommended free disk space in /tmp to install WAS.


1 GB
2) What is the default installation location of WAS in Linux.
Opt/IBM/WebSphere/AppServer
3) What is the default installation location of WAS in Sun Solaris.
Opt/IBM/WebSphere/AppServer
4) What is the default installation location of WAS in AIX
Usr/IBM/WebSphere/AppServer

5) List any 10 parameters in response file


-W silentInstallLicenseAcceptance.value="true"
-P wasProductBean.installLocation="C:\IBM\WebSphere\AppServer"
-OPT disableOSPrereqChecking="true"
-OPT installType="installNew"
-OPT createProfile="true"
-OPT profileType="deploymentManager"
-OPT PROF_enableAdminSecurity="true"
-W nodehostandcellnamepanelInstallWizardBean.nodeName="krishna_node"
-W nodehostandcellnamepanelInstallWizardBean.hostName="localhost"
-W winservicepanelInstallWizardBean.winServiceQuery="true"
-W winservicepanelInstallWizardBean.accountType="localsystem"
-W winservicepanelInstallWizardBean.startupType="manual"

6) Write the complete command to execute a response file.


<was-setup>./install –options “<absolute path of response file>” – silent

7) Which registry file will get updated after installation of WAS.


vpd.properties

8) What is the use of SOAP Connector port and what is the default soap port number
for DMGR profile.
Client Applications like wsadmin uses Simple Object Access Protocol and
that is listening to the port 8879. If we want federate a profile by using
SOAP protocol and SOAP connector port number, we can federate a profile.

9) What is the default Http transport port number for Application Server profile and
what is the use.
9080, (if ssl was enabled 9443) If we want to invoke applications running
on AppServer we are using HTTP transport port

10) What is the default Bootstrap port number in App.Serv profile and what is the
use.
2809. To access the EJB’s, JNDI use bootstrap port to obtain initial context
root.

11) Installation was successful and when I am trying to start server it is giving
“Invocation Target Exception” why you will get this issue and how you are trouble
shooting this issue.
May be the problem with hostnames, hostnames are mismatched. Add the
host name in etc/hosts file which you had given at the time of installation.

12) What are different profile templates in WAS 6.0?


Dmgr, default and managed

13) Write the complete command to create an App.Serv profile through command
line.
C:\IBM\WebSphere\AppServer\bin>wasprofile.bat -create -profileName
AppSrv04 -profilePath "C:\IBM\WebSphere\AppServer\profiles\AppSrv04"
-template Path "C:\IBM\WebSphere\AppServer\profileTemplates\default"
-nodeName app_node04 -cellName cell04 -hostName krishamurthy

14) Write a complete command to delete a profile.


C:\IBM\WebSphere\AppServer\profiles\AppSrv01\bin>wasprofile.bat
-delete -profileName AppSrv01

15) If you get a problem before creating a log’s directory at the time of installation,
at that time where you can check the status of installation
tmp/log.txt

16) What is the difference between managed node and unmanaged node
Manged Node contains node agent, we can administer federated profiles
servers and applications from dmgr admin console. For unmanaged the will
be no nodeagent.

17) What is the impact for the federated profile servers, if DMGR is down.
No impact on servers and applications

18) In which xml file, we can change the port numbers.


Serverindex.xml

19) What is a server.


Server provides a runtime environment for your web app’s Or Enterprise
applications.
Server receives user request, process that request and execute that request
and response will be generated to the end users.

20) If we stop the nodeagent, what will be the impact for end users.
There is no impact for end users

21) How to take backup with out stopping servers.


./backupConfig.sh –nostop

22) What are the different user registries under global security in 6.0 and 6.1.
Local OS, Custom, LDAP. Federated repository was added in 6.1

23) What is the necessity of global security?


To provide security for the admin console.

24) What is the port number for LDAP server with SSL and without SSL?
389 and 636

25) How to disable Global Security


./wsadmin.sh -conntype NONE
Securityoff exit

26) How to know how many profiles are available.


/AppServer/bin>./wasprofile.sh –listProfiles

27) What are the advantages and disadvantages of Local OS,Custom and LDAP user
registries?
Global Security: In 6.0 we have 3 ways to provide security for admin
console.
1) Local os user registry.
2) Custom user registry.
3) LDAP (Light Weight Directory Access Protocol) user registry.
a) Custom user registry: Here we have to create two files named:
Users. Registry
Groups. Registry
We can create this file any where but we have to configure this absolute path to the
application servers.
b) LDAP: It is a mechanism & not a server. Here we are integrating seperate
directory servers.
if SSL is enabled the port number is 636, if it is not enabled 389.
-> In local os user registry we have to create user accounts and that user
accounts have to configure to websphere application servers.
where as in the custom user registry specifying user names and passwords in
a normal file and we are specifying the absolute path of that file into the websphere
application server. whenever we are going for LDAP user registry we have to specify
user id & password & type of directory server, port number (default is 389), if SSL is
enabled we have to specify port number as 636 and we have to specify Base
distinguished name which indicates authentication for users and we have to specify
Bind distinguished name and Bind password which specify authorization for user and
we have to select "Advanced Light Weight Directory Access Protocol user registry
settings" there we have to specify user filter classes and group filter classes
(automatically it will be there) and finally we have to restart the server.

28)What is the full form of JDBC.


JDBC (java Database Connectivity) is an API (Applicationprogram Interfaces), that is
useful to write a java program to connect any database, and retrieve the data form
the database and utilize the data in the java program.
Making a connection to a database
Creating SQL or MySQL statements
Executing that SQL or MySQL queries in the database
Viewing & Modifying the resulting records
We have 2 types of JDBC drivers in was. Those are Type2(Thick) and
Type4(Thin/Native Protocol) jdbc drivers.Type2 JDBC drivers require the database
client software on the client node to connect to the database server.Type4 JDBC
drivers connect directly to the database server.

29) What is the full form of JAR and what a jar file contains?
An EJB module which contains enterprise java beans class files and EJB
deployment descriptors are packed as JAR files with .jar extension.

30)Write the name of the jar file necessary to configure Oracle 9i & Oracle 10g
Database.
In oracle 10g & 9i We have only one jar file i.e OJDBC14.JAR (for log) & Class12.jar
(for 9i) and In DB2 we have 3 or more jar files. i.e
DB2JCC.JAR,DB2JCC_LICENSE_C4.JAR, DB2JCC_LICENCE_CIS42.JAR.
-> The .jar file is nothing but a collection of .class files. It is necessary to
communicate with the database. So we should configure this jar files with database.

31) What is a connection pool?


Connection pooling is a place where a set of connections are kept and are used by
the different programmers with out creating connections to the database(it means
there is a ready made connection available for the programmers where he can use).
After using the connection he can send back that connection to the connection pool.
Number of connections in connection pool may vary.
32) What is meant by Federation
33) What are the different types of console roles available and explain about each
role?

34) what is your goal and role in was?


Goal -
a. Goal is to provide infrastructure for the demands
b. goal is to provide stable environment
c. goal is to provide high availability
d. goal is to provide scalability
e. goal is to provide 0 downtime
Role-
a. involve in infrastructure architecting a.k.a design
b. involve in implementing architectures
c. involve in solving infrastructure issues
d. involve in solving application environment issues
e. involve in solving issues which become hurdles in providing high availability
f. involve in solving issues which become hurdles in scaling

35) what is incident management?


Incident = Issue. Hurdle. Risk. Downtime. Security Breach.
Incident Management = Risk Plan. Potential incidents management.

36) Do you know how to configure ticketing tool with WAS?


This is a meaningless question. You need more information to address this question.
Ticketing System - is it part of IBM? Does it fall in Web Sphere Umbrella? Is it an
application running on WAS? Is it a Web based app? or Java Client?
Unless you know these, it’s a blind question.

37) when you configure LDAP with application server, if the users are unable to
connect to WAS. How do you trouble shoot this scenario?
You don’t trouble shoot, you *troubleshoot*
The issue is - U have LDAP, running on Server x. Server y, WAS bind to server x.
if a problem occurs, u need to dig like this -
A) Ldap up or not
B) If yes, can server y reach server x [simple ping or telnet on ldap port]
C) If yes - Ur infrastructure is clear
D) Any firewall between server y and server x. talk to firewall team, ask them to
enable trace between server y and x. any droppage of packets?
E. if everything is clean, talk to ldap admin, enable trace on that specific group who
are getting auth errors.
F) Look into systemout.log, find out what exactly the error message you get.
G) U have to login to admin console and verify the authentication. u can *test* ldap
auth from console. Feb 7 (2 days ago) Raju

38) What is the difference between Signed Certificate and Self-signed certificate?
Which one you prefer?
http://webdesign.about.com/od/ssl/a/signed_v_selfsi.htm

39) In Windows 2003 box, an application server process is not responding. How do
you trouble shoot this issue. Even when you are unable to kill the process.
*trouble shoot* - On any server, app server freeze - may because of resource
crunch, or process failing to release a resource, jvm could not complete a specific
thread, blablabla.
a. do u have enuf rights to kill the process?
b. check the processor utilization thru task manager
c. kill -3, if not responding, try again, again and again
d. verfiy the disk space.
e. verify error log and out log.
Blabla

40) how many types of scripting you have done or you know?
such questions cannot be asked in a forum, or its difficult to answer. if i were you, i
wud say, perl scripting, php, python, jython, tcl, jacl, ant, shell, blabla. Feb 7 (2
days ago)

41) when you are on call support when you got a severity 1 ticket, how do you take
action. Explain in detail.
Open the ticket, read the message what the problem is about.
login to targeted server(s), check logs, depending on error, propagate first hand info
to stakeholders. sit on the issue, fix it, close it.
42) What is a fix pack, refresh pack and when you will go for fix pack installation and
when you will go for refresh pack installation?
fix pack fixes certain issues.
refresh pack is a mile stone for a release.
a refresh pack takes you to a release, say
6.0.0.1 is a release. if you apply rp2, it becomes a release 6.0.2. if you apply fp35, it
becomes 6.0.2.35, which is not a release. Feb 7 (2 days ago) Raju

43) when you find in a particular server 'cpu starvation' error message what you will
do?
whenever there is not enough physical memory available to allow the high
availability manager threads to have consistent runtimes. When the CPU is spending
the majority of its time trying to load swapped-out processes while processing
incoming work, thread starvation might occur.
Goto InfoCenter, search for starvation.

To achieve good performance and avoid receiving these error messages, it is


recommended that you allocate at least 512 MB of RAM for each Java process
running on a single machine.

High CPU usage in a large cell configuration when security is enabled


With certain configurations and states, the amount of time spent in discovery
becomes substantial.
If a large the number of processes are defined within a core group, a proportionally
large number of connections must be established to support these processes.
If a large number of inactive processes are defined within a core group, a
proportionally large number of connections are attempted during each discovery
interval.
If global security is enabled, the DCS connections are secured, and the impact of
opening a connection greatly increases .
To decrease the CPU time spent in discovery:
In the administrative console, click Servers > Core groups > Core groups settings ,
and then select the -> DefaultCoreGroup.
Under Additional Properties, click Custom properties > New.
Enter IBM_CS_UNICAST_DISCOVERY_INTERVAL_SECS in the Name field and 120 in
the Value field.
Click OK.
Then click New again and enter IBM_CS_SS_SECURE_TOKEN in the Name field
andfalse in the Value field.
Click OK and then Save to apply these changes to the master configuration.
Restart the server for these changes to take effect.
Transient high availability heartbeat failures und
11.If we said to analyze thread dumps can you do?
Ya!! Why not

44) How comfortable with scripting?


100% pakka comfortable
45) Did you worked with JACL or Jython scripts?
I prefer one scripting style. Why wud I use two scripting styles? At a given point of
time, scripting interface accepts only one language.

46) When you found hung thread error messages what you will do? Will you kill the
process. If yes, in which case you have to kill the process?
Lucky you and lucky me, we have IBM's InfoCenter. Is it not easy to perform a
simple search on InfoCenter like this *hung thread*?
http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/wasinfo/v6r0/index.jsp?
topic=/com.ibm.websphere.nd.multiplatform.doc/info/ae/ae/ttrb_confighangdet.html
Configuring the hang detection policy
The hang detection option for WebSphere Application Server is turned on by default.
You can configure a hang detection policy to accommodate your applications and
environment so that potential hangs can be reported, providing earlier detection of
failing servers. When a hung thread is detected, WebSphere Application Server
notifies you so that you can troubleshoot the problem.
Add the following properties:
Name: com.ibm.websphere.threadmonitor.interval
Value: The frequency (in seconds)
Default: 180 seconds (three minutes).
Name: com.ibm.websphere.threadmonitor.threshold
Value: The length of time (in seconds).
Default: The default value is 600 seconds (ten minutes).
Name: com.ibm.websphere.threadmonitor.false.alarm.threshold
Value: The number of times (T) that false alarms can occur before automatically
increasing the threshold. Feb 7 (2 days ago) Raju

47) Explain about your enivronment, servers, webservers, etc.,


Think about ur company and thier business. Cook a story. Serve it on the table with
some masala, salt and pepper.

48) What is a document server and what is the use of it.


this is the funniest question one can ask.
what is a document server? in general a document server is a repository of
documents in an enterprise.
what is the use of it? its the central repository and depending access polices agency
wide authorized and authenticated *users* can access documents.
ex.,
u have prepared a document on ur environment. u need a place to put that
document so that ur team can access it, ur manager can access it. above that,
another team who wants to read that document can access that, above that, some
infrastructure team can access it, above that datacom people can access it and so
on.
what is the best place to put it?
on ur desk top? or attach to mail? or dump it in a shared location.
if its a shared location, what that could be? will you dump it in a zunkyard shared
location or in a proper shared location? first | < previous | next > | last
report spam reply

49) TYPES OF SEVERIATIES?


Severities will be of different types like Severity 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
Depending upon the type of issue it will be classified.

50) WHAT TYPE OF ISSUE'S CONTAIN SEVERIATY1 TICKET'S?


Severity 1 tickets are the most rare tickets which will get and
which we have to get in our administration.
If our process is not running smooth, that means your application not responding,
application server is not responding or entire environment falls then we will get
severity 1 ticket.

51.WHAT IS THE DIFF B/W COREDUMP & THREAD DUMP?


there is not much difference between these two.
In thread dump we can find, what are the active threads that are there at that
particular time. Where as core dump contains information about dead locks,
hang threads also

52.WHEN THE SERVER HUNG HOW WILL IDENTIFY IN SYSOUT.LOG?


Its very simple in systemout.log we will find a particular thread is hung from this
many milli seconds will be found. The thread name will be WSVR****

53. HOW TO TAKE BACKUP THE APPLICATION?


Taking backup of the application can be done by using export option
in the admin console or directly from the directory location.
54. WHAT'S THE RELATION B/W WIILY INTROSCOPE & WAS(LIKE
AGENT/AGENTLESS)?
Wily introscope is a third party tool which is used to monitor the server
environments,
not only WAS anything.

55) Difference between Websphere 5.1, 6.1 and 7.0


Profiles
WebSphere 5.1:No Concepts of profile ,there are 4 types of Installation
-Express,Base ,Network Deployment and Enterprise.
Websphere 6.1:Cell Profile,Deployment Manager profile,Application Server
profile,Custom Profile
Websphere 7.0 Cell(DeploymentManager and managed
node),Management,Application Server,Custom profile,Secure Proxy.
Note:Under Management there are three types of profiles available :Administrative
agent

Deployment Manager
Job Manager

Note:The Main use of Job Manager is to queue jobs to application server in a flexible
management environment

Managing Profiles
WebSphere 5.1 :Websphere multiple installation instance can be created using
wsinstance script

WebSphere 6.1:There are two ways of managing a profile


1.Profile Management Tool(GUI)

2.Manage profiles(Command interface for managing profiles )


WebSphere 7.0: same as 6.1

Security Roles
WAS 5.1:Administrator,operator,configurator
WAS 6.1:Administrator,operator,configurator,Deployer,Admin Security Manager,ISC
Admin
WAS 7.0:Administrator,operator,configurator,Deployer,Admin Security Manager,ISC
Admin,Auditor

WebServers supported
WAS 5.1:Apache HttpServer,Domino Server,IHS,Microsoft IIS,Sun Java System Web
Server,HTTP Server for iseries
WAS 6.1:Apache HttpServer,Domino Server,IHS,Microsoft IIS,Sun Java System Web
Server
WAS 7.0:HTTPServer for Z/Os and all web servers supported in 6.1

User Registries/Repositries
WAS 5.1:Local Operating System,Standalone LDAP registry,Standalone Custom
registry
WAS 6.1:Federated repositories,Local Operating System,Standalone LDAP
registry,Standalone Custom registry or file based registry
WAS 7.0:Same as 6.1

lOGGING AND TRACING


WAS 5.1Diagnostic trace
JVM logs
Process logs
IBM Service logs
WAS 6.1
Apart from the logs available in 5.1 there is a Change log detail levels which will
enable the Message level and trace level of the JVM
WAS 7.0Same as V 6.1

Managing WebServers
WAS 5.1:Web Servers cannot be managed through Websphere Admin Console
WAS 6.1:WebServers can be Administered using the Websphere Admin Console
(Stopping, Starting, Generation and propagation of Plug-in can be done). Web
Servers can be created in Managed node or in Unmanaged node
WAS 7.0 same AS V 6.1

JMS
WAS 5.1:JMS Fail Over Support and scalability is not available
WAS 6.1:JMS Fail over support and scalability is available.SIB(Service Integration
Bus Concept is being introduced)
WAS 7.0:Same as V 6.1

Monitoring
WAS 5.1:N/A
WAS 6.1:TPF(Tivoli Performance Viewer) is embedded in the Websphere Admin
Console for monitoring WebSphere Objects
WAS 7.0same as V 6.1

Intelligent Run Time provisioning


WAS 5.1N/A
WAS 6.1N/A
WAS 7.0Intelligent run time provisioning is a new concept introduced in V7.0 At run
time the server uses the activation plan to start only those components that are
required inside the application server

Components like Web Container , EJB Container , Web Service and SIP Container are
dynamically activated

SIP and Portlet Container


WAS 5.1:N/A
WAS 6.1SIP(Session Initiation Protocol) extends the application server to allow to
run SIP applications written to JSR 116 Specification

The Portlet applications can deployed which is compliant with JSR 168

WAS 7.0same as V 6.1

wsadmin scripts
WAS 5.1:JACL is the scripting language which is used
WAS 6.1:JACL will be deprecated from 6.1 and Jython scripting will be used.
WAS 7.0:Same as V 6.1
Posted by TechnoTips at 4:18 AM 0 comments
Reactions:

Thursday, September 25, 2008


create Heapdump using wsadmin
//Refrence of JVM
objectName=AdminControl.queryNames('type=JVM,process=WebSphere_Portal,*')

wsadmin>print objectName
WebSphere:name=JVM,process=WebSphere_Portal,platform=dynamicproxy,node=a
hdp2csmwas78,j2eeType=JVM,J2EEServer=WebSphere_Portal,version=6.0.2.21,typ
e=JVM,mbeanIdentifier=JVM,cell=wpcell
//genrate heapdump
wsadmin>AdminControl.invoke(objectName, "generateHeapDump")
Posted by TechnoTips at 4:24 AM 0 comments
Reactions:

1)What is 5 Tier Architecture?


in J2E we can write 5 tier archi like

1. Client Tier- Browser, Applet, Client Applications


2. Presentation Tier- Servlets, JSP
3. Business Tier- EJB or Some Business Objects
4. Integration Tier- JDBC
5. Backend Tier- Databases, JMS

2)we know that 3 tier have


1.UI(User interface) or (presentation) logic
2.BL (Business)
3.DL (Database)

2)Tell me about the Architecture of Web Application (how it will happen Workload
Management & clustering)
when there request coming from the browser the webserver will handled that
request , It will handled over to the plug-in, then the plug-in will looks in to the plug-
in cfg.xml file for
the requested url
and It will redirect the request to the avaliability of the servers in the cluster.
The plug-in mainly perform the work load management.If any server is processing
any request then the plug-in will route the request to the avaliability of the servers
based on their weight and based on the algorithams.

3)what are the main point while installing an IHS?


The main use of installing any external web server is to proces the dynamic content
request
4)what the file path of httpd.conf?
/opt/IBM HTTPSERVER/conf/httpd.conf
window
c:\programfiles\IBM HTTP SERVER\conf\httpd.conf

5)What are Java Programming languages?


Servlets,jsp,ENB,Struts,JSF,HIbernate

6)What is Object pool?


How to take back up ? while taking back is it necessary to stop the server?
execute backupConfig.sh command to take the backup ,yes it is required to stop the
servers,
by default when you execute this command it will stop all the servers on the node so
yhe partially
synchronized information will not be saved .

what are the Deployment ways ? steps ?


1.Hot fix
2.wsadmin
3.AdminConsole
4.Using third party tolls like ,Teamsite ,Cruise Control, MKS etc.

1)what is thin driver and thick driver.why it is cal...


thick driver - type 1 and type 2 JDBC drivers are called thick drivers. The reason for
it is - it provides JDBC access via ODBC
drivers. ODBC binary code and in many cases database client code must be loaded
on each client machine that uses such a driver.
and as the program is connected to database by an extra layer in the clint hence
thay are called thick drivers.
Thin drivers: This style of driver converts JDBC calls into the network protocol used
directly by DBMSs allowing a direct call
from the client machine to the DBMS server and providing a practical solution for
intranet access. hence their conenction to DB
is more direct and without any intermediate stage making them thin drivers. type 4
driver.
Basic difference between thin and thick client

Oracle has a thin client driver which mean you can connect to a oracle database
without the Oracle client installed on your machine.

Thick client would need the Oracle Client database drivers etc.. Drivers include JDBC-
ODBC bridge drivers JDBC drivers depending on tns resolution.

Dominic
thin driver is 4 type driver in java which r provide the connectivity between
oracle and java.the main advantage is this driver is we connect the databse to java
without create DSN.and it provide the all the host computer connectivity in the
network.so its r most important driver which we use in the java.
2)What is Connection Pooling
Connection pooling is a place where a set of connections are kept and are
used by the different programers with out creating conncections to the database(it
means there is a ready made connection available for the programmers where he
can use). After using the connection he can send back that connection to the
connection pool. Number of connections in connection pool may vary.

1)How many JDBC drivers are there ?


A) 2
B) 4
C) 3
D) 1
2)Which of the following is false for the Type 1 JDBC bridge driver?
A) A Type 1 driver is a JDBC-ODBC bridge driver
B) This type of driver enables a client to connect to an ODBC database via Java calls
and JDBC
C) Both the database and middle tier need to be Java compliant.
D) ODBC binary code must be installed on each client machine that uses this driver.
Explanation: Neither the database nor the middle tier needs to be java compliant.
3)Which of the following statement is true for the Type 2 JDBC driver?
A) A Type 2 driver converts JDBC calls into calls for a specific database.
B) This driver is referred to as a "native-API, partly Java driver."
C) As with the Type 1 driver, some binary code may be required on the client
machine, which means this type of driver is not suitable for downloading over a
network to a client.
D) All of the above
4)What is the difference between EAR, JAR and WAR file

Answered by Jey on 2005-05-08 11:23:41: In J2EE application modules are


packaged as EAR, JAR and WAR based on their functionality
JAR:
EJB modules which contains enterprise java beans class files and EJB deployment
descriptor are packed as JAR files with .jar extenstion
WAR
Web modules which contains Servlet class files,JSP FIles,supporting files, GIF and
HTML files are packaged as JAR file with .war( web achive) extension
EAR
All above files(.jar and .war) are packaged as JAR file with .ear ( enterprise archive)
extension and deployed into Application Server.

5)Full form of java jar file?


In: JAVA Programming [Edit categories]
JAR = Java ARchive
6)Re: URL of Oracle thin driver.
Topic: JDBC
Luigi Viggiano PREMIUM, Jun 4, 2001 [replies:1]
briefly: jdbc:oracle:thin:@hostname:port:oracle-sid
1. in green the Oracle sub-protocol (can be oracle:oci7:@, oracle:oci8:@,
racle:thin:@, etc...) is related on the driver you are unsign and the protocol to
communicate with server.
2. in red the network machine name, or its ip address, to locate the server where
oracle is running.
3. in blue the port (it is complementary to the address to select the specific oracle
service)
4. in magenta the sid, select on wich database you want to connect.

1) Find Java Archive files using an Eclipse plug-in

jmalasko writes "


Discover JAR Class Finder, a plug-in utility with improved compatibility for Rational
Application Developer,
WebSphere Integration Developer, and Eclipse.
This plug-in finds JAR files containing a given class for the Java build path and helps
fix NoClassDefFound exceptions.
1) Explain about web sphere?
The word web sphere popularly refers to IBM middleware technology products. Web
sphere is known for its turn key operation in e business applications. It has run time
components and tools which can help in creating applications which run on WAS.
WAS refers to web sphere application server.

2) Explain about web sphere commerce?


IBM web sphere commerce has a single platform which offers complete ecommerce
solutions to developers. It can be very productive if you are planning to do business
with consumers, business and indirectly through channel partners. This can be used
to perform business with consumers, business and channel partners altogether.

3) Detail about the architecture of web sphere?


Web Sphere is built on three main components they are
• Database
• J2EE application server
• A web server
The databases which it supports are
• DB2
• Oracle
• Cloudscape
Application server is IBMWAS and the supported web servers are
• IBM server
• Microsoft IIS
• Sun web server

4) State some of the features present in web sphere?


Some of the features which are present in web sphere are: -
• Order management
• Web sphere commerce accelerator
• Analytical and business intelligence
• Open standards such as Java, EJB, etc
• Web sphere commerce payments and customer care, etc

5) Explain about IBM Web Sphere edge server?


Web sphere edge server is used to improve the performance of web based systems.
It can be used as forward or proxy server. Basically four components are present in
the web sphere they are Network dispatcher, Caching proxy, Content distribution and
application service at the edge.

6) Explain about extended deployment?


Web sphere application server extended deployment increases the functionality of
the server in two main areas they are manageability and performance. Dynamic
virtualization between servers is possible with the help of XD. A stand alone
distributed cache was added to it under the performance header, it is known as
Object Grid.

7) Explain about the security features present in WAS?


Security model for web sphere is primarily based on JAVA EE security model. It also
depends upon the operating system. User authentication and authorization
mechanisms are also provided in WAS. Light weight third party authentication
mechanism is the main security feature present in WAS.

8) Explain about asymmetric clustering?


Asymmetric clustering applications are primarily used in electronic trading systems
employed in banks. Some of the features are, partitions can be declared during run
time and are usually run on a single cluster at a time. Work specific to a particular
can be routed to that cluster.

9) Explain the various Administrator benefits using Web sphere?


Web sphere almost reduces the work of server administrator as he can manage load
on servers efficiently without any hassles. It also gives him flexibility to divide the
load and applications among different server farms. He can also predict about the
incoming load on servers. Email alerts, restart options, memory leak detection, etc.

10) Explain about caching proxy of IBM Web sphere Edge sphere?
A caching proxy can be configured in forward direction or as a proxy. Content
requested by the user is cached by edge before sending or adhering to the query.
Page fragments arising from JSP or servlets are cached by Edge and the caching
process is slow. Performance and scalability of J2EE applications can be increased by
edge.

11) Explain about the network deployment feature present in WAS?


Managing singletons will be a thing of the past and it also provides hot recovery of
singletons which makes you forget about your GC collected singletons. Transaction
logs can stored on a shared file system. For clustering run time operations
deployment manager`s role was eliminated. J2EE failover support and cell
configuration support is also present.

12) Explain about IBM web sphere integration developer?


Web sphere integration developer provides an IDE to build applications based on
service oriented architecture. Web sphere process server and web sphere ESB were
built with WID. WID was built with RAD Eclipse based technology.

13) Explain about compute Grid?


Compute grid is also known as Web sphere batch. Web sphere extended deployment
offers a Java batch processing system called as Compute Grid. This forms an
additional feature to Web sphere network environment. Various features are
provided which help a developer to create, manage and execute batch jobs. Job
scheduler, xJCL, batch container and batch programming controller.

14) Explain about web sphere MQ Real time transport?


This feature is very useful in instant messaging across different clients through
intranet and internet. This supports high volume and high performance across
different clients. It uses the concept of light weight transport which is again based on
IP rather than the queue process.

15) Explain about Web sphere MQ JMS Provider?


Web sphere MQ and Web Sphere Business integration manager Broker are very
useful in providing Java messaging services to wide range of clients (publisher –
subscribe, point to point). Java classes are chiefly responsible for translating the API
calls to API`s defined by web sphere. It is very useful to have knowledge of Web
sphere MQ for proper configuration.

16) Explain the attribute CHANNEL in web sphere MQ?


CHANNEL specifies the name of the server connection channel. Generally this is Web
Sphere MQ network abstraction. The default standard used by CHANNEL is SVRCONN
which is the server connection channel. This server is generally used to communicate
to the queue manager by the client.

17) Is the naming of connection factory independent of the name specified by JMS
client?
Yes, the naming of connection factory is independent of the name specified by JMS
client. This is made possible by WAS (Web sphere application server) with its
resource references. It isolates the application from object names. This feature is
important because it gives us the flexibility to change the administered object
without changing the JMS client code.

Tell me your self

1) Explain us in what way your education background will help you and the
organization?
When answering this question explain to him about your education background and
some extra courses you learnt during the process.

You need to correlate your education background with the job opening. It would be
added advantage if you can explain to him about the necessary features of the job.

2) Tell us something about yourself (One of the most common question asked)?
Make sure that you tell about yourself in detail. Keep it small and simple explain to
him about all your interests, previous job, passion, hobbies, projects, etc. Just brief
him about all your interests and passion without going into detail, if asked state him
about it in detail.

3) Why did you choose this specific course or stream of study when there are these
many options available to you?
When answering this question explain to him about why you choose this course or
stream of study. What made you to choose this course, it would be an added
advantage if you speak about the different projects you did. Also state or explain
about your goal and higher education pursuits.

4) What will be the future of this industry?


You need to explain the current trend of the industry and then explain to him about
future developments. This is very important because it shows you that you are going
hand in hand on the developments of the industry.

5) Explain specifically why we need to hire you?


Explain to the interviewer about the necessary skills you have which were mentioned
in the job requirement and also tell him about your team playing skills, soft skills, etc
which can fetch you the job. If you have interest in pursuing higher studies then do
explain about that.

6) Explain us about your previous project and its benefits


As the question states you need to explain to him about your project and its benefits.
Do remember a project is done by a team and it has features such as Environment,
team members, technical descriptions, usage, etc. This is very important as he will
mention to the technical HR about your project.

7) What was the reason you left your previous job?


While explaining this question you need to make sure that you don’t speak about the
negative features of your previous job which made you to leave the company instead
explain about those negative features in a convincing manner and you can state that
those reasons are hindering your growth.

8) What is your goal and what do you like to achieve in the near future?
Explain to him about the goal which you would like to pursue in the near future and
how the company can help you achieve that goal. Have a goal which is reasonable
and achievable because it gives you a feeling of accomplishment.
9) What was your biggest job or project accomplishment?
For this question you would be explaining to him about the most challenging project
you undertook and the benefits you obtained by completing it within the deadline.
This will explain to the interviewer about your necessary skills, management skills
and team play.

10) Can you go to tours often?


When answering this question have it in mind that your answer will be kept in the
record. If you cannot take tours due to various reasons state them in a pleasant
tone. The answer which you give will be kept in the record. Also make it a habit to
take small tours or travelling because every job demands that.

11) What do you know about this organization?


Before answering this question make sure that you do enough research about the
organization before applying to it. Also do remember that the interviewer knows
much more about this organization than you do. Try to have as much information
about the job position also.

12) Did you miss deadlines or target?


Be honest when answering this question because your previous employer will have
everything on record and your current employer may request for it. Explain to
him/her about the deadlines you have met during the process.

1)How to identify unused indexes in DB2 for Linux, UNIX, and Windows
database has gone into production, the existence of too many indexes turns
out to be a cause for decreased database performance. Many indexes mean.
During database application development, developers tend to define a large
number of indexes on tables to guarantee that each and every query performs well.
After application development has been finished and a database has gone into
production, the existence of too many indexes turns out to be a cause for decreased
database performance.
Many indexes mean more work for the database system when executing UPDATE,
INSERT, and DELETE (UID) operations. In addition, regular maintenance activities
like RUNSTATS and REORG also run considerably longer in cases where many
indexes are present. Therefore, to achieve the best database performance, it is
critical to be able to determine which indexes are necessary for query execution and
which indexes you can safely drop without impacting query runtimes. This article
explains several methods that a DB2® for Linux®, UNIX®, and Windows® (DB2
LUW) database administrator (DBA) can use to identify unused and seldom used
indexes.

What is a JAR file?

The JAR file format is based on the popular ZIP file format, and is used for
aggregating many files into one. Unlike ZIP files, JAR files are used not only for
archiving and distribution, but also for deployment and encapsulation of libraries,
components, and plug-ins, and are consumed directly by tools such as compilers and
JVMs. Special files contained in the JAR, such as manifests and deployment
descriptors, instruct tools how a particular JAR is to be treated.

A JAR file might be used:

For distributing and using class libraries


As building blocks for applications and extensions
As deployment units for components, applets, or plug-ins
For packaging auxiliary resources associated with components
The JAR file format provides many benefits and features, many of which are not
provided with a traditional archive format such as ZIP or TAR. These include:

Security. You can digitally sign the contents of a JAR file. Tools that recognize your
signature can then optionally grant your software security privileges it wouldn't
otherwise have, and detect if the code has been tampered with.

Decreased download time. If an applet is bundled in a JAR file, the applet's class files
and associated resources can be downloaded by a browser in a single HTTP
transaction, instead of opening a new connection for each file.

Compression. The JAR format allows you to compress your files for efficient storage.

Transparent platform extension. The Java Extensions Framework provides a means


by which you can add functionality to the Java core platform, which uses the JAR file
for packaging of extensions. (Java 3D and JavaMail are examples of extensions
developed by Sun.)

Package sealing. Packages stored in JAR files can be optionally sealed to enforce
version consistency and security. Sealing a package means that all classes defined in
that package must be found in the same JAR file.

Package versioning. A JAR file can hold data about the files it contains, such as
vendor and version information.

Portability. The mechanism for handling JAR files is a standard part of the Java
platform's core API.
Compressed and uncompressed JARs

The jar tool (see The jar tool for details) compresses files by default. Uncompressed
JAR files can generally be loaded more quickly than compressed JAR files, because
the need to decompress the files during loading is eliminated, but download time
over a network may be longer for uncompressed files.

The META-INF directory

Most JAR files contain a META-INF directory, which is used to store package and
extension configuration data, such as security and versioning information. The
following files or directories in the META-INF directory are recognized and interpreted
by the Java 2 platform for configuring applications, extensions, and class loaders:

MANIFEST.MF. The manifest file defines the extension- and package-related data.

INDEX.LIST. This file is generated by the new -i option of the jar tool and contains
location information for packages defined in an application or extension. It is part of
the JarIndex implementation and used by class loaders to speed up the class loading
process.

xxx.SF. This is the signature file for the JAR file. The placeholder xxx identifies the
signer.

xxx.DSA. The signature block file associated with the signature file stores the public
signature used to sign the JAR file.
The jar tool

To perform basic tasks with JAR files, you use the Java Archive Tool (jar tool)
provided as part of the Java Development Kit. You invoke the jar tool with the jar
command. Table 1 shows some common applications:

Table 1. Common usages of the jar tool

Function Command
Creating a JAR file from individual files jar cf jar-file input-file...
Creating a JAR file from a directory jar cf jar-file dir-name
Creating an uncompressed JAR file jar cf0 jar-file dir-name
Updating a JAR file jar uf jar-file input-file...
Viewing the contents of a JAR file jar tf jar-file
Extracting the contents of a JAR file jar xf jar-file
Extracting specific files from a JAR file jar xf jar-file archived-file...
Running an application packaged as an executable JAR file java -jar app.jar

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

what is a connection pool?


Connection pooling is a technique used for sharing server resources among
requesting clients. This article focuses on support for connection pooling of both
database resources and non-database resources in a J2EE environment. Siva
examines the JDBC 2.0, JMS 1.02, JNDI 1.2 Standard Extension APIs with regard to
connection pooling and looks at some existing vendor implementations of those APIs.
He then looks at the upcoming J2EE Connector Architecture 1.0 that would support a
vendor-independent/pluggable approach to managing resource connections.

1) How many JDBC drivers ?name them? Answer


There are 4 JDBC drivers are available:
*JDBC-ODBC Bridge Driver:-Popular name is Type-1 Driver.In
this connection some native code or native database client
code must be loaded on each client machine due to this
process it is slower than other drivers.It uses
JDBC-Bridge-ODBC means between JDBC and ODBC one bridge is
work that establise the connection between application and
DataBase... It is suitable for automatic installation and
downloading java technology application is not important.
*Native API partly Java Driver:-Known as Type-2 Driver.It
enables driver converts JDBC calls into calls on the client
API for Oracle or any other databases.This driver need to
load some binary code on client machine like JDBC-ODBC
Bridge Driver.
*Network Protocol Driver:-Known as Type-3 Driver.
*Jdbc net pure Java Driver:-Known as Type-4 Driver.
The JDBC Driver provides vendor-specific implementations of
the abstract classes provided by the JDBC API. This driver
is used to connect to the database.

there are:
Type 1 : JDBC-ODBC Bridge Driver
Type 2: Native API Partly Java Driver
Type 3: Network protocol Driver-
Type 4: JDBC Net pure Java Driver
2) what is JDBC? Answer
JDBC(java Database Connectivity) is an API(Application
program Interfaces), that is useful to write a java program
to connect any database,and retrieve the data form the
database and utilize the data in the java program.
1.Making a connection to a database
2.Creating SQL or MySQL statements
3.Executing that SQL or MySQL queries in the database
4.Viewing & Modifying the resulting records
3) How warnings are retrieved in JDBC? Answer
while using jdbc, warnings can occur at any time
while getting connection
while creating statement
while getting resultset, at each , we can get using
getWarnings() method.

->Web Sphere relates to IBM Family.


->We have different servers in market such as:
JBOSS --}
Web Logic -- }Application Servers
Web Sphere --}
Tomcat -- Partial Application Servers i.e not pure Web Server
&Not pure Application Server.
->JBoss is a open source software
->The concepts of Web Logic & Web Sphere are same but only the terminology is
different.

->In 6.0 Version we have 3 types of packages.


1) Express Package --}
2) Base Package --} Used for Stand alone Environment
3) Network Deployment -- Distributed Environment
-> In java we have 3 parts.
1)J2SE (core java)
2)J2EE (servlets, jsp's(web applications) ,Ejb's(enterprise java beans.
3)J2ME
-> We will make the web application as .WAR (web Archieve)file.
-> And we will make enterprise applications as .EAR file.

-> For installation we have 2 modes:


1)GUI.
2)Silent Mode.
Silent Mode there is a file called Response File this is what we have to
customize.

->ServerIndex.Xml file is used to find out the port number.


Servers are listening to this port number, not application.
-> Whenever we change port number and restart the server it will be updated in
portdef, no need to change here again.
Profile: A profile is nothing but an environment where we can create Servers. There
are 3 types:
1) Application Profile.
2) Deployment Profile.
3) Custom Profile.
-> The default profile is Application Server profile.
-> The custom profile will give us an empty node.
-> The soap connecter port number of deployment manager is 8879.
-> Independantly a custom profile will have no use. We have to get connected with
dmgr.
-> Before federation we have to check whether, .Dmgr is opening or not.
.Dmgr is under running or not.
In dmgr host we maintain dmgr just to monitoring and configuring the
administration.
->In ND package we have 3 types of Templates:
1) Dmgr Template
2) Default Template
3) Managed Template.
-> By default the dmgr profile won't give any servers. It is not at all a server,
used just to configure.
-> The AppServer gives server1 as default server. In application server we
have no option to create server. It is
just a stand alone profile.
Node: is a collection of servers. it reduces administration burden. It is a single point
of servers. If we start Node, n-number of servers will get started, if we stop all will
be stopped.
Federation: In Dmgr01 we should have an eligible node to create servers but Dmgr
node is not eligible, at that time we can connect App-node which is eligibe to create
servers from the appsrv01 Then we can create servers using App-Node in dmgr01.
If we want to do federation we have to ping the Dmgr Server.
Dmgr was introduced for single point of admin.
In dmgr admin console, number of servers will be there under same
environment.
We can create number of servers under dmgr console using Add-node.
When ever we do federation a node agent will be created to communicate between
Appserv & Dmgr.
Node Agent: It will acts as a communication between which node we are federating.
Cell Profile: is the combination of deployment profile and application profile.
in both 6.0 & 6.1 the cell is available in deployment manager.
Whenever we create cell profile automatically there will be deployment profile &
application profile and federation also will be done automatically.
The complete administration will be under the cell profile only.

Global Security: In 6.0 we have 3 ways to provide security for admin console.
1) Local os user registry.
2) Custom user registry.
3) LDAP (Light Weight Directory Access Protocol) user registry.
2) custom user registry: Here we have to create two files named:
users.registry
groups.registry
We can create this files any where but we have to configure this absolute path to the
application servers.
3)LDAP: It is a mechanism & not a server. Here we are integrating seperate directory
servers.
if SSL is enabled the port number is 636, if it is not enabled 389.
-> In local os user registry we have to create user accounts and that user
accounts have to configure to websphere application servers.
where as in the custom user registry specifying user names and passwords in
a normal file and we are specifying the absolute path of that file into the websphere
application server. whenever we are going for LDAP user registry we have to specify
user id & password & type of directory server, port number (default is 389), if SSL is
enabled we have to specify port number as 636 and we have to specify Base
distinguished name which indicates authentication for users and we have to specify
Bind distinguished name and Bind password which specify authorization for user and
we have to select "Advanced Light Weight Directory Access Protocol user registry
settings" there we have to specify user filter classes and group filter classes
(automatically it will be there) and finally we have to restart the server.

->Web Sphere application server is a middleware component.


-> In 3-Tier Architecture we have 3 levels.
In level 1 (Tier-1) we have HTTP server (or web server)
In Tier-2 we have Application server
In Tier-3 we have Data base.
Whenever we integrate database with application server every applications are able
to communicate with the database.
->A database is a collection of data.
-> A schema is a collection of Tables.
-> In oracle 10g & 9i We have only one jar file i.e OJDBC14.JAR (for log) &
Class12.jar (for 9i) and In DB2 we have 3 or more jar files. i.e
DB2JCC.JAR,DB2JCC_LICENSE_C4.JAR, DB2JCC_LICENCE_CIS42.JAR.
-> The .jar file is nothing but a collection of .class files. It is necessary to
communicate with the database. So we should configure this jar files with database.
JDBC: providers create connection between web application server & database server
for communication.But data source provide communication for applications inside
WAS with particular database inside the DB server.
->We can say HTTP Servers as web servers also.
The responsibility of http servers is to serve static content only. It will give
quick response to static content than app servers.
To communicate between http servers & app servers we have a concept
called "PLUG-INS".(it is a intermediatory component)
By using round robin algorithm (default), here we have a concept routing
table, which is taken care by the http server.
-> Plug-ins contain Plugin-cfg.xml contains complete information about
application server environment i.e how many clusters are there, how may cluster
environments are there, weight of cluster etc.
Virtual Host: Here we will have wc-default host port number also. We can create or
change this ports by using Virtual hosts concepts. All applications and application
servers has to listen to this ports.
->If we want to access an application under multiple domains, or by using
multiple ports, (simply multiple domains,multiple ports). After following all the steps
we have to restart the server.
->multiple domain names can access the same application.
->All the applications will go through the http server only at the time of
trouble shooting we can by pass this http server for some purposes.
Clusters: A logical group of related components is a "Cluster".
->Here, if server1 fails to deploy one application servers will take care of that,
which is called as clustering but this will not supported by Base & Express.
Q)What is high availability, why we have to go for clusters?
At any cost the application should be available at all times, it should not go
down. To overcome this problems we go for clusters.
->We have 2 types of clusters:
1) Vertical Clusters.
2) Horizontal clusters.
1) Vertical Clusters: Here we are deploying app1 through cluster, so if server1
fails we can access through server2. But if the host i.e, the total physical machine
get crashed then we can not access. This is the disadvantage with the vertical
clusters.
2) Horizontal clusters: Here we are deploying apps in multple hosts or
physical boxes. Here if one host gets crashes, the end user can access.
Hence, to achieve high availability we are going for clusters.
-> coming to performance, vertical cluster gives more performance than the
horizontal because transmission of response takes time.
-> vertical is preferred in development, test environment.Horizantal is used in
production environment.
-> Here if the application is not running under server2 we have to add the
server2 ports into the virtual hosts.
Plugin-cfg.xml: The plugin-cfg.xml contains information about application server
environment like how many clusters, how may cluster members, application uri, port
numbers, routing algorithms, weight of cluster members.
-> An application contains:
Servlets, Jsp's, Html, css, javascript } web resources.
Ejbs} Ejb components.
->if we deploy any application, at that time all web resources will go under
web container and Ejb components will go under Ejb container.
->if any request is looking for web resource, at that time web container itself
will, generate the response.

Tell me about your Day-to-Day activities?


Tell me about the Architecture of Web Application (how it will happen
Workload Management & clustring)
when ther request coming from the browser the webserver will handled that
reuest , It will handled over to the plug-in, then the plug-in will looks in to the
plug-in cfg.xml file for the reuested url and It will redirect the request to the
avaliability of the servers in the cluster. The plug-in mainly perform the work
load management.If any server is processing any request then the plug-in will
route the request to the avaliability of the servers based on their weight and
based on the algorithams.

what are the main point while installing an IHS?


The main use of installing any external web server is to proces the dynamic content
request
what the file path of httpd.conf?
/opt/IBM HTTPSERVER/conf/httpd.conf
window
c:\programfiles\IBM HTTP SERVER\conf\httpd.conf

What are Java Programming languages?


Servlets,jsp,ENB,Struts,JSF,Hibernate

How to take back up ? while taking back is it necessary to stop the server?
execute backupConfig.sh command to take the backup ,yes it is required to stop the
servers,by default when you execute this command it will stop all the servers on the
node so yhe partially synchronized information will not be saved .

what are the Deployment ways ? steps ?


1.Hot fix
2.wsadmin
3.AdminConsole
4.Using third party tolls like ,Teamsite ,Cruise Control, MKS etc.

what is soap and soap port?


SOAP is an XML-based messaging protocol. It defines a set of rules for structuring
messages that can be used for simple one-way messaging but is particularly useful
for performing RPC-style (Remote Procedure Call) request-response dialogues. It is
not tied to any particular transport protocol though HTTP is popular. Nor is it tied to
any particular operating system or programming language so theoretically the clients
and servers in these dialogues can be running on any platform and written in any
language as long as they can formulate and understand SOAP messages. As such it
is an important building block for developing distributed applications that exploit
functionality published as services over an intranet or the internet.

what is a webcontainer?

A container that implements the Web component contract of the J2EE architecture.
This contract specifies a runtime environment for Web components that includes
security, concurrency, life-cycle management, transaction, deployment, and other
services. A Web container provides the same services as a JSP container as well as a
federated view of the J2EE platform APIs. A Web container is provided by a Web or
J2EE server

What is the error HTTP 403 indicates and how to solve these issues?

This is due to SSL certificate or some security settings in the server might have
issues.
Introduction

Your Web server thinks that the HTTP data stream sent by the client (e.g. your Web
browser or our CheckUpDown robot) was correct, but access to the resource
identified by the URL is forbidden for some reason.

This indicates a fundamental access problem, which may be difficult to resolve


because the HTTP protocol allows the Web server to give this response without
providing any reason at all. So the 403 error is equivalent to a blanket 'NO' by your
Web server - with no further discussion allowed.

By far the most common reason for this error is that directory browsing is forbidden
for the Web site. Most Web sites want you to navigate using the URLs in the Web
pages for that site. They do not often allow you to browse the file directory structure
of the site. For example try the following URL (then hit the 'Back' button in your
browser to return to this page):
This URL should fail with a 403 error saying "Forbidden: You don't have permission
to access /accounts/grpb/B1394343/ on this server". This is because our
CheckUpDown Web site deliberately does not want you to browse directories - you
have to navigate from one specific Web page to another using the hyperlinks in
those Web pages. This is true for most Web sites on the Internet - their Web server
has "Allow directory browsing" set OFF.

403 errors in the HTTP cycle

Any client (e.g. your Web browser or our CheckUpDown robot) goes through the
following cycle:

Obtain an IP address from the IP name of your site (your site URL without the
leading 'http://'). This lookup (conversion of IP name to IP address) is
provided by domain name servers (DNSs).

Open an IP socket connection to that IP address.

Write an HTTP data stream through that socket.

Receive an HTTP data stream back from your Web server in response. This data
stream contains status codes whose values are determined by the HTTP
protocol. Parse this data stream for status codes and other useful information.

This error occurs in the final step above when the client receives an HTTP status code
that it recognises as '403'.

Fixing 403 errors - general

You first need to confirm if you have encountered a "No directory browsing" problem.
You can see this if the URL ends in a slash '/' rather than the name of a specific Web
page (e.g. .htm or .html). If this is your problem, then you have no option but to
access individual Web pages for that Web site directly.

It is possible that there should be some content in the directory, but there is none
there yet. For example if your ISP offers a 'Home Page' then you need to provide
some content - usually HTML files - for the Home Page directory that your ISP
assigns to you. Until the content is there, anyone trying to access your Home Page
could encounter a 403 error. The solution is to upload the missing content - directly
yourself or by providing it to your ISP. Once the content is in the directory, it also
needs to be authorised for public access via the Internet. Your ISP should do this as
a matter of course - if they do not, then they have missed a no-brainer step.

If your entire Web site is actually secured in some way (is not open at all to casual
Internet users), then an 401 - Not authorized message could be expected. It is
possible, but unlikely, that your Web server issues an 403 message instead.

Some Web servers may also issue an 403 error if they at one time hosted your site,
but now no longer do so and can not or will not provide a redirection to a new URL.
In this case it is not unusual for the 403 error to be returned instead of a more
helpful error. So if you have recently changed any aspect of your Web site setup
(e.g. switched ISPs), then a 403 message is a possibility. Obviously this message
should disappear in time - typically within a week or two - as the Internet catches up
with whatever change you have made.

If you think that the Web URL *should* be accessible to all and sundry on the
Internet and you have not recently changed anything fundamental in your Web site
setup, then an 403 message indicates a deeper problem. The first thing you can do is
check your URL via a Web browser. This browser should be running on a computer to
which you have never previously identified yourself in any way, and you should avoid
authentication (passwords etc.) that you have used previously. Ideally all this should
be done over a completely different Internet connection to any you have used before
(e.g. a different ISP dial-up connection). In short, you are trying to get the same
behaviour a total stranger would get if they surfed the Internet to your Web page
URL.

If this type of browser check indicates no authority problems, then it is possible that
your Web server (or surrounding systems) have been configured to disallow certain
patterns of HTTP traffic. In other words, HTTP communication from a well-known
Web browser is allowed, but automated communication from other systems is
rejected with an 403 error code. This is unusual, but may indicate a very defensive
security policy around your Web server.

Fixing 403 errors - CheckUpDown

The first question is whether the Web page for your URL is freely available to
everyone on the Internet. If this is not the case, then you may need to provide two
items 2. Web Site User ID and 3. Web Site Password for your CheckUpDown
account - but only if your site uses HTTP Basic Authentication. The Web Master or
other IT support people at your site will know what security and authentication is
used.

If however your Web page is open to all customers and there have been no
fundamental changes recently to how your Web site is hosted and accessed, then an
403 message should only appear if your Web server objects to some aspect of the
access we are trying to get to your Web site. Because it indicates a fundamental
authority problem, we can only resolve this by negotiation with the personnel
responsible for security on and around your Web site. These discussions
unfortunately may take some time, but can often be amicably resolved. You can
assist by endorsing our service to your security personnel. Please contact us (email
preferred) if you see persistent 403 errors, so that we can agree the best way to
resolve them.

If the “page can’t display “error comes then what you will do in the
production system?

a) There must be some network issue or server not receiving the request.

Need to check the server availability.

What is the error HTTP 404 indicates and how to solve these issues?

The 404 or Not Found error message is an HTTP standard response code indicating
that the client was able to communicate with the server but the server could not find
what was requested..

What is the difference between page not found and HTTP 404? How to solve
these issues?

a) The “Page not found” error is, the request is not reaching the server. HTTP
404 errors is request is reaching to server but whatever it is expecting it’s not found
at expected location

What is meant by ear expander utility?

EAR Expander utility is used to expand the application binaries into any path,
normally we will use this to expand it in other than the default path.

Once expanded we will update the same app binaries from WAS admin console to
update WAS.

The EARExpander expands Ear files into the format desired by the application server
runtime, as described in the application installation instructions. EARExpander can
also collapse the expanded format back to a normal Ear (.jar or .zip) format.

Invoking the tool


The tool is located in the following directory:

product_installation_root/bin/EARExpander.bat

To view syntax, open a command line and invoke the tool without arguments. Here
is a typical result. The line breaks have been changed for better formatting in this
documentation.

C:\seaa0122.02\bin>EARExpander.bat IBM WebSphere Application Server,


Release 4.0 J2EE
J2EE Application Expansion Tool, Version 1.0
Copyright IBM Corp., 1997-2001
Required Argument Missing:ear
Usage: java com.ibm.websphere.install.commands.EARExpander
-ear -expandDir -operation [expansionFlags]

ExpansionFlags indicate whether you want every JAR file expanded, or just the
contained WAR files within the EAR file. The default is all.

Expanding files

The following example command expands the file my.ear into the
product_installation_root/bin/myEAR directory:

EARExpander -ear my.ear -expandDir product_installation_root/bin/myEAR


-operation expand

Collapsing files

Using the collapse -operation reverses the format to normal.

EARExpander -ear my.ear -expandDir product_installation_root/bin/myEAR


-operation collapse

Type each of the above commands on a single line, despite their appearance in this
documentation.

What is meant by JAVA Script?

Java script is a scripting tool to developed web applications.

What is meant by Heap in Java process and what information will be


available in heap file?

a) Heap is used to collect the garbage for java applications; the Heap file
contains the garbage collected from java process.

What are the available log file in the WAS 6.1


a) In was there are list of logs available to monitor and troubleshoot. They are

Diagnostic Trace Service


View and modify the properties of the diagnostic trace service. Diagnostic trace
provides detailed information about the execution of WebSphere Application Server
components within this managed process. Changes on the Configuration panel will
apply when the server is restarted. Changes on the Runtime panel will apply
immediately.
JVM Logs
View and modify the settings for the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) System.out and
System.err logs for this managed process. The JVM logs are created by redirecting
the System.out and System.err streams of the JVM to independent log files. The
System.out log is used to monitor the health of the running application server. The
System.err log contains exception stack trace information that is useful when
performing problem analysis. There is one set of JVM logs for each application server
and all of its applications. JVM logs are also created for the deployment manager and
each node manager. Changes on the Configuration panel will apply when the server
is restarted. Changes on the Runtime panel will apply immediately.
Process Logs
View or modify settings for specifying the files to which standard out and standard
error streams write. The process logs are created by redirecting the standard out and
standard error streams of a process to independent log files. Native code writes to
the process logs. These logs can also contain information relating to problems in
native code or diagnostic information written by the JVM. There is one set of process
logs for each application server and all of its applications. Process logs are also
created for the deployment manager and each node manager. Changes on the
Configuration panel will apply when the server is restarted. Changes on the Runtime
panel will apply immediately.
IBM Service Logs
Configure the IBM service log, also known as the activity log. The IBM service log
contains both the WebSphere Application Server messages that are written to the
System.out stream and some special messages that contain extended service
information that can be important when analyzing problems. There is one service log
for all WebSphere Application Server Java virtual machines (JVMs) on a node,
including all application servers. and their node agent (if present). A separate activity
log is created for a deployment manager in its own logs directory. The IBM Service
log is maintained in a binary format. Use the Log Analyzer or Showlog tool to view
the IBM service log.

Change Log Detail Levels


Log levels allow you to control which events are processed by Java logging. Click
Components to specify a log detail level for individual components, or Groups to
specify a log detail level for a predefined group of components. Click a component or
group name to select a log detail level. Log detail levels are cumulative; a level near
the top of the list includes all levels below it.

If a developer requests to tune an application then what you will do?

Performance Tuning
All the steps for Performance Tuning would approximately take 45 minutes.

JVM Heap Size


By default, the Java virtual machines for WebSphere Application Server and
WebSphere Portal Server are assigned only 256 MB per process. This value should be
increased.
To change this value, open the WebSphere Admin Console and go to
Servers -> Application Servers -> (all server names) -> Process Definition -> Java
Virtual Machine
and set both initial heap size and max heap size to an adequate value:
on a machine with 4 GByte of real memory, set it to 1024 MByte, on a 8 GByte
machine to 2048 MByte.
If a value greater than 1024 MByte is selected, it may be necessary to change the
AIX parameter LDR_CONTRL. For details, please refer to the AIX documentation.

Session Timeout
Reducing the session timeout can help reduce memory consumption requirements.
To change this value, open the WebSphere Admin Console and go to
Servers -> Application Servers -> (all server names) -> Web Container -> Session
Management -> Session Timeout
and set Timeout to 10 Minutes.

Class Garbage Collection


To change this value, open the WebSphere Admin Console and go to
Servers -> Application Servers -> (all server names) -> Process Definition -> Java
Virtual Machine -> Generic JVM arguments
and add the parameter -Xnoclassgc.

Servlet Engine Thread Pool Size


To change this value, open the WebSphere Admin Console and go to
Servers -> Application Servers -> (all server names) -> Web Container -> Thread
Pool
and add the parameters for Minimum size threads and Maximum size threads to 70.

Data Source Connection Pool Size


To change this value, open the WebSphere Admin Console and go to
Resources -> JDBC Providers -> (all providers) -> Data Sources -> (all data
sources) -> Connection Pools
and set the parameters for Minumum connections and Maximum connections to 50.
Statement Cache Size
To change this value, open the WebSphere Admin Console and go to
Resources -> JDBC Providers -> (all providers) -> Data Sources -> (all data
sources)
And set the parameter for Statement Cache Size to 500.
Tell about Resource analyser?

a) Resource analyser is used to analyse the performance of the WAS resources.


It is a monitoring tool comes with WAS.

If you need to configure a process in UNIX what are the steps?

a) No Idea about this question.

How to find a text in VI editor in UNIX?

a) Escape / followed by text

Tell about “nany process” in UNIX?

a) Nanny process on Windows NT and Windows 2000 is the Windows service


"IBM WS AdminServer".

What is the basic command in UNIX to find network performance?

a) Netstat

Tell about data source?

Installed applications use JDBC providers to interact with relational databases.The


JDBC provider object supplies the specific JDBC driver implementation class for
access to a specific vendor database. To create a pool of connections to that
database, you associate a data source with the JDBC provider. Together, the JDBC
provider and the data source objects are functionally equivalent to the J2EE
Connector Architecture (JCA) connection factory, which provides connectivity with a
non-relational database.

Data sources allow you to manage a pool of connections to a database

Data sources work as follows:

When a client wants to use a connection, it looks up a data source by name from
a JNDI server.
The data source then returns a connection to the client.
If the data source has no more connections, it may ask the database manager for
more connections (as long as it has not exceeded the maximum number of
connections).
When the client has finished with the connection, it closes the connection.
The data source then returns the connection to the available pool.
You can configure data sources for WebSphere® Application Server v6.x by using the
Deployment page in the application deployment descriptor editor or using the
administrative console. For WebSphere Application Server v5.11 test environments
and servers you can configure data sources by using the Data Source page in the
server editor.

What are the profiles available in WAS 6.x? And difference between them?

In WAS 6.1 we have 4 different types of profiles available. They are

Deployment Manager Profile(DMGR):

The deployment manager profile defines a deployment manager in a


distributed server environment

Application Server Profile:

It is a single stand –alone application server. This profile gives you an


application server that can run stand alone or un-managed.

Custom Profile

A Custom profile is an empty Node intended for federation to a


deployment manager.

Cell Profile

The application server is federated to the DMGR profile. It is a


combination of DMGR and Application server profiles.

What is the programming model/Module?

JAVA related wage to me..

What is meant by Asymmetric Cluster and how it works?

a) Clusters are groups of servers that are managed together and participate in
workload management. A cluster can contain nodes or individual application servers.

In an asymmetric cluster, business logic is split into partitions, where each partition
can be the sole accessor of a set of underlying data. As a result, each node in the
cluster can implement it's own local cache (and be the sole accessor of that data),
resulting in high performance reading and writing without the need to maintain a
distributed cache between cluster nodes.

Asymmetric clustering proposes an architecture that is almost opposite to the typical


stateless server farm where the entire app is replicated across machines, some times
using distributed caching products for performance increasing.

What information contains by SERVER INDEX file ?


a) Server index will have SOAP/Boot strap and all ports and details

What information contains by Plugin-cnf.xml file ?

a) Plug-in configuration file contains routing information for all applications


mapped to the web server. This file is read by binary plug-in module loaded in the
web server.

Plugin-cnf.xml file will have all the configuration setting to determine whether
a request is for the webserver or the application server. When a request reaches the
web server, the URL is compared to those managed by the plug-in. If a match is
found, the plug-in configuration file contains the information needed to forward that
request to the web container using the web container inbound transport chain.

What is meant by SSL and how does it works?

a) SSL mean secured socket layer. This is to secure the WebSphere


environment.

SSL provides connection security through

-Communication privacy –the data on the connection is encrypted

-Communication integrity—the protocol includes a built-in integrity check

-Authentication—the client knows who the server is

-SSL creates a VPN, securing the data using a combination os symmetric and
asymmetric encryption.

Symmetric key encryption:

Symmetric or secret key technology is a model in which two parties have a


shared secret

The same key is used for both encryption and decryption

Note: The trouble with this approach is that at some point the secret needs
to be shared. In an e-business application, this would be rather difficult.

Asymmetric key encryption:

Public key cryptography:

-two keys that are cryptographically related

-Public key (can be shared with every one)

Private key ( Must never be shared; possession is proof)

-Keys are asymmetric


Given message is encrypted with one key and decrypted with the other

Note : - If a server has public- private set, it can send out its public
key( through a signing certificate – also known simply as a certificate ) to
client machine. Those client machines can then use that public key to encrypt
messages designed for the server which then only the server can decrypt.
Unlike symmetric key encryption, this process does not require the client and
server to have a shared secret.

Since the client can validate the server’s certificate, there is one way to
authentication. But the server has no way (at this point) to authenticate the
client. Nor can the server send the client secured messages.

How does SSL works ?

SSL uses a combination of asymmetric and symmetric encryption to create a


session between the client and server.

-Asymmetric encryption is used to negotiate a session key (shared secret)

--asymmetric encryption is slow but does not require a shared secret.

-Symmetric encryption os used to transfer data between the client and server

-- symmetric encryption is fast but require a shared secret

SSL Working Mechanisam:

1) Client request SSL connection

2) Server presents certificate

3) Client verifies server certificate

4) Client generate a session key, encrypts it with the server’s public key

5) Using the session key, client and server swith to asymmetric key
encryption

6) HTTPS communications

Note : Because the client chooses its own session key, nobody else
knows it. It can securely send that session key to the server using the
server’s public key. Now nobody but client and server knew the session
key. The session key is then used as “shared secret” to switch to much
more efficient symmetric key encryption.

Certificate (signing certificate) contains information about the server,


including the server’s public key, and is digitally signed by the certificate
authority.
Configuration of SSL in WebSphere :

SSL configuration can be achived in three different ways

1) From Admin console:

Once we get the certificate from CA (Certificate Authority) then we will


import into trust store. To enable security between IHS and Application server
we need to export defaut personal certificates of all nodes and import the
same to the trust store of the IHS.

2) Command line :

By using “gsk7cmd” command we can achive the SSL configuration.


Gsk7cmd provides the otions like import ,export,list,create options for
certificates

Gsk7cmd –cert –create –db plugin-key.kdb –pw password –label ‘websphere


pluginkey’ -dn

3) ikeyman:

By using ikeyman we can open the KDB(key data base) and add the
certificates to the key database.

What is the difference between round robin and random load balancing?

a) Round robin load balance is nothing but symmetric clustering and random
load balancing nothing but asymmetric clustering

What is the activity log and what it is useful?

The application server creates the activity.log file from the activity of the various
WebSphere Application Server components. you cannot read this log with a text
reader. You ca use this script called, showlog under appserver root.
Ex.,
./WAS_INST_ROOT/bin/showlog PATH_TOACTIVITY_LOG/activity.log
like this
websphe: /software/opt/IBM/WebSphere/AppServer/bin
$ ./showlog ../profiles/AppSrv*/logs/activity.log
This displays ur activity log something like this, just as a sample:
ExtendedMessage:

What are the different roles available in the WAS?

a) In WAS we have the following roles


Monitor: Least privileged; allows a user to view the WebSphere
configuration and current application server state.

Configuration: Monitor privileges plus the ability to change the


WebSphere configuration.

Operator: Monitor privileges plus ability to change runtime state, such as


starting or stopping servers.

Administrator: Operator, Configuration, and iscadmins privileges, plus


additional privileges granted solely to the administrator role, such as

Modifying the primary administrative users and passwords.

Mapping users and groups to the administrator role

Enabling or disabling administrative and java 2 security

Additional console security roles :

Iscadmins (Integrated solutions console) :

Only available for administration console users

Allows a user to manage users and groups in the federated repository.

Deployer :

Only available for wsadmin users(not for administration console)

Allows a user to change configuration and runtime state on application using


wsadmin

Admin Security Manager:

1) Only available for wsadmin users

2) Allows a user to map users to administrative roles using wsadmin

3) When restricted access to resource authentication data is in effect, users


can also manage authorisation groups.

How many levels we can enable the trace file?

a) LEVEL = all | entryExit | debug | event

If memory leakage is there in then where (in which file) we get this
information?

a) Memory leakage information can get in the process logs ( Native_stdout and
Native_stderrer logs)

How many ways we can federate the Node?


Ans Before federating any Node we must make sure

Application server should be started on the Node to be added

We need to find the SOAP connector for DMGR( we can find this in
communication section in the detailed page for the application
server(DMGR) default is 8879 )

From the Admin Console:

Select System Administration --> Nodes --> AddNode

Select Managed Node and click next then specify the HostName of the
Node to be added to the cell. Then select the connector type (SOAP or
RMI) and connector port. If security is enabled provide user id and
password and include application (if required).....

ii) Using the AddNode Command:

To use AddNode command do the following

1) Open a command line window on the system that has the running stand –
alone application server

2) Change the directory to <Profile_Home>/bin directory of the stand alone


application server installation

3) Execute “AddNode” Command

Syntax with Ex:

<Profile_Home>/bin>AddNode <DMGR_HOST> <DMGR_SOAP_PORT>


[Options]

Options include like

-conntype [SOAP/RMI]

-includeapps (It includes installed application on the stand alone Node)

Note: We can add Node from DMGR installed system as well, in this option
we need to give the Host name and port number of the stand alone
application server’s credentials instead of DMGR’s.

How many ways we can synchronise a node?

a) We can Sync Node in two ways

1) From Command prompt : stop the Node then issue the “SynNode”
command in the command prompt.
<Node_Host>/bin> SyncNode <DMGR_HOST> <DMGR_PORT> [Options]

-username

-password

-restart

-conntype

-quit

-stopserver

2) From Admin Console:

Select System Administration --> Nodes--> Synchronise (Select the


Particular node to sync)

How many user registries are available in the WAS 6.X?

There are four user registries

Local O/S

LDAP

Federated repository

Custom Repository

Tell about federated repository?

Federated Repository is one of the existing users registry type. In this method we
can use multiple repositories with WebSphere application server.

 Default repository is a file based federated repository

 Can be file based, LDAP, Multiple LDAPs or subtree of an LDAP

 Defined and theoretically combined under a single realm

 All of the user repositories that are configured under federated


repository functionality are invisible to WebSphere application server.

 Federation capabilities are provided by the VMM(Virtual Member


Manager)
If we give heap size value same for both min and max then what are the
advantages and what are the disadvantages?

a) The Java heap parameters influence the behavior of garbage collection.


Increasing the heap size supports more object creation. Because a large heap takes
longer to fill, the application runs longer before a garbage collection occurs.
However, a larger heap also takes longer to compact and causes garbage collection
to take longer.

The JVM has thresholds it uses to manage the JVM's storage. When the thresholds
are reached, the garbage collector gets invoked to free up unused storage.
Therefore, garbage collection can cause significant degradation of Java performance.
Before changing the initial and maximum heap sizes, you should consider the
following information:

In the majority of cases you should set the maximum JVM heap size to
value higher than the initial JVM heap size. This allows for the JVM to
operate efficiently during normal, steady state periods within the
confines of the initial heap but also to operate effectively during
periods of high transaction volume by expanding the heap up to the
maximum JVM heap size.
In some rare cases where absolute optimal performance is required
you might want to specify the same value for both the initial and
maximum heap size. This will eliminate some overhead that occurs
when the JVM needs to expand or contract the size of the JVM heap.
Make sure the region is large enough to hold the specified JVM heap.

Beware of making the Initial Heap Size too large. While a large heap size initially
improves performance by delaying garbage collection, a large heap size ultimately
affects response time when garbage collection eventually kicks in because the
collection process takes more time.

What is FFDC?

a) The first failure data capture (FFDC) log file saves information that is
generated from a processing failure. These files are deleted after a maximum
number of days has passed .

There are two artifacts which are produced by FFDC, the information can be located
in the <Install Root>/logs/FFDC directory:

* Exception Logs:<ServerName>_Exception.log
* Incident
Stream:<ServerName>_<threadid>_<timeStamp>_<SequenceNumber>.txt

Exception Log
row elements
The exception logs contains all of the exception paths which have been encountered
since the server has started. Due to optimizations in the data collection, the table
was created to give an over view of the exceptions which have been encountered in
the server. A entry in the table look like this :

Index Occur Time of last Occurence Exception SourceId ProbeId


ences
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
1 1 02.04.11 13:12:33:711 CDT java.io.IOException
com.ibm.ws.webcontainer.http.HttpTransport.startTransport 103

The first element in the row is a simply index, this is simply used to determine the
number of rows in the table. In some entries, a '+' may appear in the first column,
this indicates that the row has been added to the table since the last time the entire
table was dunmped.

The second element is the number of occurences. This is useful to see if there is an
unusual number of exceptions which are occurring.

The third element in the row, is a time stamp for the last occurence of the
exeception. This is useful in looking at exceptions which have occurred at about the
same time.

The last element in the row is a combination of values. This consists of the
exception name, a source Id and the probe Id. This information is useful to locate
information in the incident steam about the specific failure.

file content
The make up of the file can be a little confusing when first viewed. The file is a
accumulation of all of the dumps which have occurred over the life of the server.
This means that much of the informaion in the file is out of data, and does not apply
to the current server. The most relevent information is the last (tail) of the file.

It is quite easy to locate the last dump of the exception table. The dump will be
deliminated by '-------------------...'. Entries which begin with a '+' appear outside
the delimination of the table, and indicate that they are additions to the table since
the last time the table was dumped. (Again due to performance concerns, the table
is dump only periodically, and when the server is stopping).

Here is a screen image of the end of the Server1_Exception.log

The information in the above file is displayed in the unordered form as the hash
table. A more viewable form of the file would be to actually sort the output based
upon the time stamp. (This is done by using mks commands, hopefully there are
available on your system).
Sorted output of only the last dump of the exception table for
Server1_Exception.log. This is done by the following command :
tail -n<n> <servername>_exception.log | sort -k4n
where n is the number exceptions in the exception table plus 1 (use the index value
to determine this value).
<servername> is the name of the server.
Note: The sort key needs a little work for servers which have rolled the data.

For demonstration purposes, the start, run and stop time have been included in the
exception log..

Incident Stream
The incident stream contains more details about exceptions which have been
encountered during the running of the server. Depending on the configuration of the
property files, the content of the incident streams will vary.

The default settings of the property files, the incident stream will not contain
exception information for exceptions which were encountered during the start of the
server (due to the Level=1 in the ffdcStart.properties). But where the server does to
ready, and new exeception which is encountered will be processed.

The incident stream files should be used in conjunction of the exception log. The
values which are contained in the exception log, in most instances will have a
corresponding entry in the incident stream. The relationship between the exception
log and the incident stream is the hash code which is made up of the exception
type, the source Id, and the probe Id. The simpliest way to look at this information
is to use the grep command. The information is not all contained on the same line, if
you need to know the exact file containing the value, you can use a compound grep
command.

file content
The file contains information on exception which have been encountered. Each
exception will contain information which corresponds to the information (exception
name, source Id and the probe Id) contained in the exception table (documented
above). If the catch of the exception is a non-static method, the content of the this
pointer. In some instances, if there is a diagnostic module which corresponds to the
current execution, the DM will write the information about the state of the object to
the incident stream.

The call stack will also be written to the incident stream.

In some instances, there may be an exception which was encountered while the
server is running which will not produce a call stack. This is because the exception
was encountered during the start of the server, and since the server started, the
exception is considered to be a normal path exception. All of the exception can be
seen by either looking at all of the runtime exceptions, or looking at all of the
exceptions.
How many SSL Certificate authorities available in today’s market ?

There might be many SSL CAs. Some of the SSL CAs are

Etrust

Verisign

Geotrust

RSA etc.

Tell about class loader and where we use?

a) Class loader enable the Java Virtual Machine( JVM) to load java classes.
Given the name of a class, the class loader locates the definition of this class. Each
java class must be loaded by a class loader.

There are three class loaders:

Bootstrap class loader

The Extensions class loader

The application class loader

Default class loader option is Parent first class loader.

How many certifications are available in the WAS?

a)Application Servers: Distributed Application and Web Servers


Test 377, IBM WebSphere Application Server, Network I May 2009 253
Deployment, V7.0, Core Administration
Business Integration: Application Integration and Connectivity
Test 378, IBM WebSphere DataPower SOA Appliances Firmware I June 2009 289
V3.7.x
Test 374, IBM WebSphere MQ V7.0, System Administration I July 2009 994
Test 376, IBM WebSphere MQ V7.0, Solution Design I August 2009 996
Business Integration: Dynamic Business Process Management
Test 372, IBM WebSphere Business Modeler Advanced V6.2, I July 2009 992
Business Analysis and Design
Test 375, IBM WebSphere Process Server V6.2, System I October 995
Administration 2009
Commerce: Web Commerce
None in plan.
Software Development: Web Services
Test 371, Web Services Development for IBM WebSphere I August 2009 807
Application Server V7.0
* E = entry; I = intermediate; A = advanced

36) What are the differences between 5.x and 6.x ?

WAS 6.x has all the features of WAS 5.x along with some additional
features included in the WAS 6.x which are

 Multiple profiles creation with a single installation.

 Introduction of service integration Bus (SIB) for messanging.

 Has default JMS providers

 Webservers can be managed from VD admin console and also can create
generic servers.

 Has some extra addons in the admin console navigation tree.

 Rollout Application update option:

Automatic roll out of application update in a clustered environment

Ensures no service interruption of the application. Stops,updates and starts


the application one cluster member at a time, while the other cluster
members continue to run the application

 Enhanced EAR file:

Using the enhanced EAR editor from the Application Developer or application
Server Toolkit, you can define resources and properties for the application

For example datasource, JAAS authentication aliases, Environment Variables


etc.

Are embed within the application resulting in an Enhanced EAR, and then
export that to be installed by your system administrator. the system
administrator no longer need to define this deployment information, as it is
already included.

 Mixed version Node in cell:

supports V5x and V6 nodes in a Cell, Dmgr must be V6 level. V5x node can
be on different platforms.

 Rapid Deployment:
Websphere rapid deployment(WRD) simplifies the development and
deployment of application. It's capabilities include annotation-based
programing,deployment automation, and change-triggered process. to use
WD functionality, no changes are required on the application server. It uses
existing application server administration function to deploy and control
applications.

Annotation-based programming allows the developer to add metadata


tags into application source code. WRD uses the metadata to generate
additional J2EE artifacts needed to run the application on the application srver
environment.

Change trigger processing provided automatic monitoring of changes


to the WRD user workspace. Changes trigger the automatc generation of code
and deployment of the application to the application server.

 J2EE support:

WebSphere application server v6 supoorts three levels of the J2EE


specification. J2EE 1.4 is the new level supported with V6 with exsting J2EE
1.2 and J2EE 1.3 applications will continue to run on v6

 WebSphere application server V6 files are divided into two categories:

Product files: shared application binaries for WebSphere

User files; set of user customizations include WebSphere configuration,


installed applications, resource adapters, properties, log files, transaction log
files etc.

 Improved Administrative Console Appearance and functionality

console views change based on the context

version

platporm

installed capabilities

 Integrated Tivoli Performance viewer

 Integrated IBM HTTP server V6 management

 Fine Grinned Application update:

Ability to add, update or remove parts of the installed application and restart
the changed part.
37) Why you prefer 6.x ?

Absolutely WAS 6X because in 6x there are advanced features than earlier versions
so we prefer 6X

38) What is the command to create profile ?

a) Manageprofile create -ProfileName <profile_name>

-Profilepath <Profile_path>

-NodeName <Node_Name>

-templatePath <Templete_path>

-cellName <Cell_Name>

-hostName <Host_Name>

List Profile:

Manageprofile –listprofiles

Delete Profile:

Manageprofile –delete –profilename <profile_name>

39) How many ways we can deploy the application ? and What is the
command to deploy application ?

a) It depends on the version of the WAS we are using, but 5X and above provide
the following options.

1) Using Admin Console:

In admin console

Enterprise applications -- > Install

Provide the required parameters like full path, context root, etc.

2) Hot Deployment :

“We could copy directly the JAR files to the deployedapps folder in the
websphere “ we call this method as Hot Deployment

Dropping JSP files, with enabled class reloading ( Not recommended


for Production)

3) Using Wsadmin command:


4) Using Jacl or Jython Scripts:

5) Rapid Deployment (Feature available at 6x):

a) WebSphere rapid deployment (WRD) simplifies the


development and deployment of application. It's capabilities include
annotation-based programing, deployment automation, and change-
triggered process. to use WD functionality, no changes are required
on the application server. It uses existing application server
administration function to deploy and control applications.

Annotation-based programming allows the developer to add


metadata tags into application source code. WRD uses the metadata to
generate additional J2EE artifacts needed to run the application on the
application srver environment.

Change trigger processing provided automatic monitoring of changes


to the WRD user workspace. Changes trigger the automatic generation
of code and deployment of the application to the application server.

40) What is authentication mechanism in JDBC driver?

a) In JDBC driver configuration we can configure the authentication details in


J2C authentication pan. This is the credentials to login into the Relational database.

41) How u will secure your administrative console, if u r using local O/S
users registry u r getting messages like not able to authenticate what u will
do? What is the solution?

a) There might be the privileges issue to the user in O/S level. So we need to
give proper privileges to the user by logging in as System administrator.

42) What is the difference between WAR, EAR, JAR and what is the
difference between deployments of these?

a) In J2EE application modules are packaged as EAR, JAR and WAR based on
their functionality
JAR: EJB modules which contains enterprise java beans class files and EJB
deployment descriptor are packed as JAR files with .jar extenstion
WAR :Web modules which contains Servlet class files,JSP FIles,supporting files, GIF
and HTML files are packaged as JAR file with .war( web achive) extension
EAR :All above files(.jar and .war) are packaged as JAR file with .ear ( enterprise
archive) extension and deployed into Application Server.

There is no much difference in deploying these applications. We need to give context


root for WAR and for others no need to give.
EAR deployment:

If we have two or more modules then we can target individual modules to


individual servers.

43) How you will solve if u get page can’t displayed?

a) It is a HTTP 404 error. If you get this error we need to check the logs for
application server status. The page expecting by the request is not finding that
means request is reaching the server but it is not available at expected location.

44) WAS architecture?

The WebSphere architecture contains

Cell, DMGR, Node.

Where Cell on top of the hierarchy. Within the cell Dmgr will be there where
admin console is lying. For the Cell we can federate the Nodes and on the
Nodes we can configure the application servers.

If you want then I can explain the Web container and EJB container and Web
server and JDBC etc.

Web container

when we receive request from client browser so web container will act as interface
between client request and Servlets and jsp in other words Servlets and jsp will
reside under web container in order to server client request. hence we required web
container in order to invoke Servlets or JSP (Java Server Pages)

EJB Container:

An Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container provides a run-time environment for


enterprise beans within the application server. The container handles all aspects of
an enterprise bean's operation within the application server and acts as an
intermediary between the user-written business logic within the bean and the rest of
the application server environment.

One or more EJB modules, each containing one or more enterprise beans, can be
installed in a single container.

The EJB container provides many services to the enterprise bean, including the
following:
• Beginning, committing, and rolling back transactions as necessary.
• Maintaining pools of enterprise bean instances ready for incoming requests
and moving these instances between the inactive pools and an active state,
ensuring that threading conditions within the bean are satisfied.
• Most importantly, automatically synchronizing data in an entity bean's
instance variables with corresponding data items stored in persistent storage.
45) What is cluster, how request routes between cluster members?

a) The algorithm which we select for load balance will route the requests. There
are two algorithms

1) Round robin

2) Random

46) Can you give me two major issues you faced and solved?

a) The application was having error with SSL , shows bad certificate on the
application right cornor..So customer requested for root cause for
GSK_ERROR_BAD_CERT .

I investigated...... like certificsate mismacth between Plugin and the


WebSphere..

1. I found in the WAS console that, the default personal certs in the node
level of WAS in not reflected in the web servers. Which was added in the
DMGR?

Steps i followed to resolve this are :

1. I noted down the personal certificates serial no from the nodes by


navigating to

Security --> SSL certificate and key management--> Manage endpoint


security configurations -->Inbound--> expand cell-->Node--> Key stores and
certificates -->NodeDefaultKeyStore-->Personal Certificates

Noted down the serial number of the default certificate then

--- >Extracted the certificate to Server temp path.

Come to inbound/outbound---> expand cell-->node-->web server--> Key


stores and certificates-->CMSkeystore -->signer certificates--> verify the
serial no of the previous nodes certs....

I found one of the cert is not appear here in Web server.


i Added the same from here.. as i already enabled Dynamically update the
runtime when changes occur" option.. it should update without restart...

Then i came to Plugin-key.kdb to verify whether the added cert is updated in


the KDB or not.. using ikeyman.

Reference:

http://www-01.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?rs=180&uid=swg21264477

http://www-01.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg21198862

a copy of WebSphere Application Server V6.1 or V7.0 (or another related


product) is present in the specified directory, even when the ODM VPD is
clean.

While uninstalling the older version of WAS(5.x) to upgrade it to 6. we


uninstalled and but it was not uninstalled clearly....

We tried to remove the registry with Smitty tool... after that also we are not
able to install as it says the path contains the WAS already installed.

So we contacted the WAS product support from IBM raised PMR.. where we
got some resolutions to clear the ODM......

Then they suggested to try with

manual_WebSphere_ODM_wipe.sh

manual_IHS_ODM_wipe.sh

After that we followed the same with suggested steps and we succeeded
finally we upgraded to 6x.

It was one of challenging task in my career

47) What is the Ticketing process and escalation /approval process?

a) For all issues operations team gets alerts and they used to raise the tickets
against the appropriate team through USD (unicentre service desk). Depending on
the priority we used to allot the tickets. The priority was like (high priority P1, P2,
and low priority P3, P4, P5). Low priority tickets were attending by offshore team and
high priority were serving by onsite team. For high priority tickets we need to get
approvals from the service delivery manager. Intern service delivery manager will
take all approvals from the client side to deliver the solution. Once we get the
approvals then service delivery manager will start a bridge call
48) What is the difference between web server and App Server?

a) A Web server exclusively handles HTTP requests, whereas an application


server serves business logic to application programs through any number of
protocols

49) What is rollout update in was6.1?

a) Automatic roll out of application update in a clustered environment

Ensures no service interruption of the application. Stops, updates and starts the
application one cluster member at a time, while the other cluster members continue
to run the application

50) What is JDK version supporting in WAS 6.1?

a) J2RE 1.5.0

51) How to set plug-in logs ?

a) In Administrative console

Servers --> Webservers -->Webserver -->log files (configuration tab)(


here we can change the path of the log files (access.log,error.log)

52) What is the difference between heap dump and thread dump?

a) Heap dumps anytime you wish to see what is being held in memory
Out-of-memory errors
Heap dumps - picture of in memory objects - used for memory
analysis
Java cores - also known as thread dumps or java dumps, used for
viewing the thread activity inside the JVM at a given time. IBM java
cores should a lot of additional information besides just the threads
and stacks -- used to determine hangs, deadlocks, and reasons for
performance degradation

System cores
Heap dumps are taken by issuing a "kill -3" against the JVM pid. There is a cost
associated with producing heap dumps. The writing of the heap dump can be cpu
and i/o intensive depending on the size of the configured heap, you can take heap
dumps anytime you wish to see what is being held in memory. Out-of-memory errors
or a good time to view heap dumps. In fact,in most cases heap dumps should be
created when an OOM is triggered. Unless you're an administrator or root you'll need
to own the process you want to kill in order for the command to work.
Depends on the OS.
Java cores also known as thread dumps or java dumps, used for viewing the thread
activity inside the JVM at a given time. Thread dump should also contain a lot of
additional information besides just the threads and stacks used to determine hangs,
deadlocks, and reasons for performance degredation.

The kill -3 command captures JVM signals and dumps the requested diagnostic
material.There are options available to dump the heap in .txt format this files can be
huge and unless you're a genius with lots of time on your hands - don't try to read
the text dump with vi or something…..…….
Use MDD4J or HeapAnalyzer.
For taking heap dumps you need set these environment entries for that JVM using
admin consle(this is one way of doing taking heap dumps, u can also go with jacl or
jython scripts)
IBM_HEAPDUMP TRUE
IBM_HEAPDUMP_OUTOFMEMORY true(if a OOM occurs, a dump is saved to /tmp
IBM_HEAPDUMPDIR appropriate directory.
Now, if you run kill -3 pid, then a heap dump is taken in the specified directory and
also a core dump will be taken. If you didn't specify any environment entries then
only a core dump is taken

53) How you will check the details of a process if you know only port
number of that process?

First we need to find the socketno of that port by using

Netstat –Aan|grep <port_no>

Then we need to find the sid by using the socketno

Rmsock <socketno> protocol

Ex:

#netstat –Aan|grep 944

#f100020000fc4398 ……………you get some more information….

#rmsock f100020000fc4398 tcpcb

The socket oxfc4008 is being by process 626888 (Java)

Ps –ef|grep 626888

You get the detailed information about the said process.

54) What are the regular issues you get in production support and how
you resolve them?

a) Usually we get tickets from the operational team. Some of the call which we
faced are
1) Out of Memory:

If we get this error we need to check for the standards configured in


the application server. I mean heap settings in the server and if not we
need to resent according to the standards. If you are getting this error
frequently then we need to ask application team to check for the
memory leakage. We can get this statics from the Natice_stdout and
Native_stderr files.

2) No of connections reached

Check for the recommended connection pool size in the JDBC driver.

Check the unused connections.

Temporarily increase the connection pool size.

After analysing the logs and situation if required then recycle the
application server to resolve the issue.

3) File System issue:

Check the file system by using DU

Forward to the System admin team and coordinate for the resolution.

4) Thread Dump:

Create the thread dump by issuing kill-3 command and forward to the
application team for analysis.

5) 100% CPU utilisation:

Check for the CPU utilisation bye using TOPAS command.

If required then kill some of the non important process which are
taking more cpu %

6) HTTP errors like (HTTP 400,401,403,404,500,502 etc.)

HTTP 400 (Bad Request):

This error comes with because of syntax errors in the URL which was typed
by client. Need to provide the correct (updated) URL to the users.

HTP 401(UN authorised):

This error comes after providing the credentials .that means the provided
credentials are not having the privileged access to the requested content or
page.
We need to access for the requirement of the access to the credentials if
require we need to add this user to the group to which the privileged access
is there for the particular page or content.

HTTP 403 Forbidden:

Edge component is not configured properly

SSO configuration might be not configured yet. WCP (WebSphere Catching


component)

There was separate team for proxy configuration so no idea on this issue.

HTTP 404 (Page not found or file not found):

Need to check the system out file for the logs and verify the ear file

HTTP 500 internal errors:

It is server-side error (Web server or application server). Might be


application server or web server or down. Need to recycle by verifying the
system out logs for analysis.

HTTP 502 Bad Gateways:

This might be because of Network issue. To resolve this issue we need to


engage the Network team and coordinate for the solution.

55) What are the disadvantages of Memory to memory replication?

Ans) it consumes large amount of memory in networks with many users, because
each server has a copy of all sessions. And another disadvantage is each change to
a session must be replicated to all application servers.
56) Difference between horizontal clustering and vertical clustering?

Ans) the main difference between horizontal cluster and vertical cluster are:
1) We can configure the cluster members on the same node in the vertical
clustering, whereas in horizontal clustering cluster members will be there on
different nodes. In other words A WebSphere cluster consists of having multiple
application servers (cluster member or clones) across a machine (Vertical Cluster)
or across several machines (Horizontal Cluster)

57) Without admin console how to administrate the web server?

Ans) Using the “httpd.conf” file.


58) What is meant by symptom data base?

Ans) A symptom database is an XML file of symptoms, string match patterns,


associated solutions, and directives. The database is used in the analysis of event
and error messages that may occur in a log.
A symptom is an error or event message. It may have a solution associated with it in
the symptom database. A solution is information about why an error or an event
may have occurred and how to recover from it.

Log records can be analyzed using a symptom database to interpret known events
and error conditions, and to get detailed information on error resolution.

Symptom databases can be imported from an external XML symptom database,


saved, and exported into an external file in XML format. You can either import
symptom databases from a local or a remote host.

59) What is collector tool?

Ans) 1) Collector tool is the tool which collects the information about the
websphere application server installation and configuration.
2) This is available in two versions

a) Default standalone collector( implemented as a shell script in profle root)


collects almost all the logs and configuration files found on the system, without
distinction

b) A new flexible collector tool is integrated into ISA

3) In either case, the result is JAR file that contains a lot of information
needed by IBM support to diagnose the problem

a) JAR file is to IBM support

b) Only need to be run upon IBM support’s request.

60) What is loganalizer & how to use?

Ans) Log Analyzer provides interactive interface to WebSphere activity log and
contains on-line diagnoses and resolutions to known problems
Log analyser, the tool that was previously provided for viewing and analyzing the
activity or service log file, is removed from 6.1 release of the IBM WebSphere
application server.
Instead, use IBM log and trace analyser for Eclipse in the application server toolkit,
installable from the launchpad console.
For more information, see 'application server toolkit> detecting and analyzing
runtime problems > log and trace analyzer' in the information center.
Overview
The Log Analyzer, is a separately downloaded feature of WebSphere 3.5.2 and later
(it is now bundled with WebSphere 4.0x. 4.0+ and 5.0 users do not need to
download the the tool). It is designed to assist customers in diagnosing and
resolving common runtime problems.
Starting the Log Analyzer in Windows
Windows users may launch it manually with the command <WebSphere
Root>\bin\waslogbr
Starting the Log Analyzer in Unix
1. Change directory to <serverRoot>/bin; and
2. Invoke shell script waslogbr
./waslogbr
The Log Analyzer is a GUI application, so Unix users will need to launch it from a
machine with a CDE-type environment, or export the display to a GUI client
platform.
Using the Log Analyzer
Once the tool has opened, use the File->open menu item, and select the file
<websphere install root>/logs/activity.log. (You can also browse to activity.logs
which customers have sent you.) Expand the tree of WebSphere admin and app
server logging sessions. Uncolored records are "normal", yellow are warnings, and
pink are errors. If you select a record, you'll see its contents, including the basic
error or warning message, date, time, which WebSphere component logged the
record, and which process (i.e., admin server or an app server) it came from, in the
upper-right hand pane.
The Log Analyzer does not analyze any other log files, such as default_stderr.log or
tracefile.
To analyze the records, right click on a record in the tree on the left (click on the
"UnitOfWorkView" at the top to get 'em all), and select "analyze". Now any records
with a green check mark next to them match a record in the symptom database.
When you select a check-marked record, you'll see and explanation of the problem
in the lower-right-hand pane.
Updating the symptom database
The database of known problems and resolutions -- used by WebSphere when you
click the "analyze" menu item -- is periodically enhanced as new problems come to
light and new versions of WebSphere are introduced. To ensure that you have the
latest version of the database, use the "file -> update database -> advanced
symptom database" menu item from within the log analyzer tool. A good rule of
thumb would be to do this at least once a month. Users who have just installed the
product and have never run the update should do so immediately, since extensive
updates have been made since the tool was released.
61) What is MBeans?

Ans) MBeans are managed beans, Java objects that represent resources to be
managed. An MBean has a management interface consisting of:

• Named and typed attributes that can be read and written


• Named and typed operations that can be invoked
• Typed notifications that can be emitted by the MBean

Websphere application server provides a number of MBeans, each of which can have
different function and operations available. For ex

a) An application server MBean migh expose operations such as start and stop
b) An application MBean might expose operations such as install and uninstall.
For example, an MBean representing an application's configuration could have
attributes representing the different configuration parameters, such as a cache size.
Reading the CacheSize attribute would return the current size of the cache. Writing
CacheSize would update the size of the cache, potentially changing the behavior of
the running application. An operation such as save could store the current
configuration persistently. The MBean could send a notification such as
ConfigurationChangedNotification when the configuration changes.

MBeans can be standard or dynamic. Standard MBeans are Java objects that conform
to design patterns derived from the JavaBeans component model. Dynamic MBeans
define their management interface at runtime.

A standard MBean exposes the resource to be managed directly through its


attributes and operations. Attributes are exposed through "getter" and "setter"
methods. Operations are the other methods of the class that are available to
managers. All these methods are defined statically in the MBean interface and are
visible to a JMX agent through introspection. This is the most straightforward way
of making a new resource manageable.

A dynamic MBean is an MBean that defines its management interface at runtime. For
example, a configuration MBean could determine the names and types of the
attributes it exposes by parsing an XML file.

62) What is SSO ?

Ans) Single sign-on (SSO) is a property of access control of multiple, related, but
independent software systems. With this property a user logs in once and gains
access to all systems without being prompted to log in again at each of them.
Single sign-off is the reverse property whereby a single action of signing out
terminates access to multiple software systems.

As different applications and resources support different authentication mechanisms,


single sign-on has to internally translate to and store different credentials
compared to what is used for initial authentication.

63) Difference between cell and nodegroup?

Ans) the node group can exist in the cell


The main difference between node group and cell is cell can have nodes which are
there in different platforms but nodegroup will have all the nodes which exist on
same type of platform
Ex: in cell you can have nodes which are there in IBM AIX,HP AIX, Windows, Sun
Solaris..
But we will group all windows platform based nodes into one group, and all IBM AIX
nodes into one group etc.
64) Shall we have different nodes in different platforms with in a node
group?
Ans) No, because node group is nothing but group of nodes which are there on
same platforms.
65) What is TPV?

Ans) Tivoli Performance Viewer. The Tivoli Performance Viewer (TPV) enables
administrators and programmers to monitor the overall health of WebSphere
Application Server without leaving the administrative console.

From TPV, you can view current activity or log Performance Monitoring Infrastructure
(PMI) performance data for the following:

• System resources such as CPU utilization


• WebSphere pools and queues such as a database connection pool
• Customer application data such as servlet response time

In addition to providing a built in viewer for PMI, TPV also allows you to view data for
other products or customer applications that implement custom PMI

66) What is the purpose of JNDI?

Ans) Sun’s JNDI API is a standard extension to the java platform and it allows the
java application to access naming and directory services. With the help of JNDI java
applications can seamlessly access the heterogeneous enterprise naming and
directory services like DNS, LDAP, and Local file system, or objects in an application
server.
67) What is trace file & where you get more details in trace or log files?

Ans) Trace file contains the step by step activity details of the WAS process. Trace
file only contains more details than the logfile
68) What is virtual host and give two different virtual hosts?

Ans) The term Virtual Host refers to the practice of maintaining more than one
server on one machine, as differentiated by their apparent hostname. For example,
it is often desirable for companies sharing a web server to have their own domains,
with web servers accessible as www.company1.com and www.company2.com,
without requiring the user to know any extra path information.
69) What are difference scripting options in wasadmin engine?

Ans) There are four types of scripting options


a) Admincontrol

b) Adminconfig

c) AdminApp

d) AdminTask

70) What are the WAS resources?


Ans) WAS resources are
JDBC, JMS,Mail service, Resource Adpaters, Cache instances, URL,Etc..
71) What is the functionality of web server plug-in file?

Ans) Web server plug-ins


A Web server can serve requests that do not require any dynamic content (for
example, HTML pages). However, when a request requires dynamic content, such
as JavaServer Pages (JSP™) or servlet processing, it must be forwarded to
WebSphere Application Server for handling. To forward a request, you use a Web
server plug-in that is included with the WebSphere Application Server packages for
installation on a Web server. You copy an Extensible Markup Language (XML)
configuration file, configured on the WebSphere Application Server, to the Web
server plug-in directory. The plug-in uses the configuration file to determine
whether a request should be handled by the Web server or an application server.
When WebSphere Application Server receives a request for an application server, it
forwards the request to the appropriate Web container in the application server.
The plug-in can use HTTP or HTTPs to transmit the request.
72) How to detect the hangs of JVMs?

Ans) If your logs are not rotating that means your JVM hanged.
73) What is FFDC? Where you will use?

Ans) FFDC is nothing but first failure data capture. This is generated at the first
time failure of your system. It will be deleted after some time automatically. It is
usefull for diagnosis purpose.
74) How you get better performance by giving the –xnoclassgc in generic
JVM arguments in the JVM ?

Ans) By default the JVM unloads a class from memory when there are no live
instances of that class left, but this can degrade performance. Tuning off class
garbage collection eliminates the overhead of loading and un-loading the same
class multiple times.
If a class is no longer needed, the space that it occupies on the heap is normally
used for the creation of new objects. However if you have an application that
handles requests by creating new instance of a class and if requests for that
application come in at random times, it is possible that when previous requester is
finished, the normal class garbage collection will clear up this class by freeing the
heap space it occupied, only to have re-instantiate the class when the next request
comes along. In this situation you might want to use this option to disable the
garbage collection of classes
Avoid Trouble:
This option should be used with caution, if your application creates dynamically or
uses reflection, because for this type of application, the use of this option can lead
to native memory exhaustion, and cause the JVM to throw an out of memory
exception. When this option is used, if have to redeploy an application you should
always restart the application server to clear the classes and static data from the
previous version the application.
75) What is Webcontainer failover?

Ans) The Web server plug-in in the Web server is aware of the configuration of all
Web containers and can route around a failed Web container in a cluster.
Sessions can be persisted to a database or in-memory using data replication
services.
76) Explain about dynamic cache in WAS ?

Ans) Dynamic cache service


The dynamic cache service improves performance by caching the output of servlets,
commands, Web services, and JSP files. The dynamic cache works within an
application server, intercepting calls to objects that can be cached (for example,
through a servlet’s service() method or a command’s execute() method). The
dynamic cache either stores the object’s output to or serves the object’s content
from the dynamic cache. Because J2EE applications have high read-write ratios and
can tolerate small degrees of latency in the currency of their data, the dynamic
cache can create significant gains in server response time, throughput, and
scalability. The following caching features are available in WebSphere Application
Server:

Cache replication
Cache replication among cluster members takes place using the WebSphere data
replication service. Data is generated one time and then copied or replicated to other
servers in the cluster, saving execution time and resources.

Cache disk offload


By default, when the number of cache entries reaches the configured limit for a given
WebSphere server, eviction of cache entries occurs, enabling new entries to enter
the cache service. The dynamic cache includes an alternative feature named disk
offload, which copies the evicted cache entries to disk for
potential future access
Edge Side Include caching
The Web server plug-in contains a built-in Edge Side Include (ESI) processor. The
ESI processor caches whole pages, as well as fragments, providing a higher cache hit
ratio. The cache that is implemented by the ESI processor is an in-memory cache,
not a disk cache. Therefore, the cache entries are not
saved when the Web server is restarted.

External caching
The dynamic cache controls caches outside of the application server, such as that
provided by the Edge components, an IBM HTTP Server’s FRCA cache that is not
z/OS, and a WebSphere HTTP Server plug-in ESI Fragment Processor that is not
z/OS. When external cache groups are defined, the dynamic cache matches external
cache entries with those groups and pushes out cache entries and invalidations to
those groups. This external caching enables WebSphere to manage dynamic content
beyond the application
server. The content can then be served from the external cache instead of the
application server, improving performance.

Dynamic caching

The dynamic cache service improves performance by caching the output of servlets,
commands and JSP files. The dynamic cache works within an application server,
intercepting calls to cacheable objects, for example through a servlet's service()
method or a command's execute() method, and either stores
the object's output to or serves the object's content from the dynamic cache.
Because J2EE applications have high read-write ratios and can tolerate small degrees
of latency in the currency of their data, the dynamic cache can create an opportunity
for significant gains in server response time, throughput, and
scalability. The following caching features are available in WebSphere Application
Server.
Cache replication:
Cache replication among cluster members takes place using the WebSphere internal
replication service. Data is generated one time and copied or replicated to other
servers in the cluster, thus saving execution time and resources.

Cache disk offload:


By default, when the number of cache entries reaches the configured limit for a given
WebSphere server, eviction of cache entries takes place, allowing new entries to
enter the cache service. The dynamic cache includes an alternative feature named
disk offload, which copies the evicted cache entries to disk for potential future
access.

Edge Side Include caching:


The Web server plug-in contains a built-in ESI processor. The ESI processor has the
ability to cache whole pages, as well as fragments, providing a higher cache hit ratio.
The cache implemented by the ESI processor is an in-memory cache, not a disk
cache; therefore, the cache entries are not saved when the
Web server is restarted.

External caching:
The dynamic cache has the ability to control caches outside of the application server,
such as IBM Edge Server, a non-z/OS IBM HTTP Server's FRCA cache, and a non-
z/OS WebSphere HTTP Server plug-in ESI Fragment Processor. When external cache
groups are defined, the dynamic cache matches externally cacheable cache entries
with those groups, and pushes cache entries and invalidations out to them. This
allows WebSphere to manage dynamic content beyond the application server. The
content can then be served from the external cache, instead of the application
server, improving savings in performance.
77) Administrator point of view how many containers are there in was 6.1
?

Ans) In WAS 6.1 we have 5 containers which are :


Portlet Container :
Portlet applications are intended to be combined with other portlets to collectively
create a single page of output. The Portlet container takes the output of one or
more Portlets and generates a complete page that can be displayed.

Portlets are packaged in WAR files. Note that the portlet runtime does not provide
the advanced capabilities of WebSphere Portal, such as portlet aggregation and
page layout, personalization and member services, or collaboration features.

Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) applications


SIP applications are Java programs that use at least one Session Initiation Protocol
servlet written to the JSR 116 specification. SIP is used to establish,
modify, and terminate multimedia IP sessions. SIP negotiates the medium, the
transport, and the encoding for the call. After the SIP call has been established,
the communication takes place over the specified transport mechanism,independent
of SIP. Examples of application types that use SIP include voice over IP, click-to-
call, and instant messaging. The Application Server Toolkit provides special tools for
developing SIP applications. SIP applications are packaged as SIP archive (SAR)
files and are deployed to the application server using the standard WebSphere
Application Server administrative tools. SAR files can also be bundled within a J2EE
application archive (EAR file), similar to other J2EE components.

Web container:

The Web container processes servlets, JSP files and other types of server-side includes.
Each application server runtime has one logical Web container, which can be modified,
but not created or removed.

Servlet processing:when handling servlets, the Web container creates a request


object and a response object, then invokes the servlet service method. The Web
container invokes the servlet’s destroy method when appropriate and unloads the
servlet, after which the JVM performs garbage collection.

Embedded HTTP server: the Web container runs an embedded HTTP server for
handling HTTP(S) requests from external Web server plug-ins or Web browsers. The
embedded Web server is based on the IBM HTTP Server product. Directing client
requests to the embedded Web server is useful for testing or
development purposes and, in the Express configuration, can be considered for
production use. In the more advanced configurations, the use of an external Web
server and Web server plug-in as a front end to the Web container is more
appropriate for a production environment.
Session management: support is provided for the javax.servlet.http.HttpSession
interface described in the Servlet API specification.

Web services engine: Web services are provided as a set of APIs in cooperation
with the J2EE applications. Web services engines are provided to support SOAP.

Web server plug-ins


Although the Web container has an embedded HTTP server, a more likely scenario is
that an external Web server will be used to receive client requests. The Web server
can serve requests that do not require any dynamic content, for example, HTML
pages. However, when a request requires dynamic content
(JSP/servlet processing), it must be forwarded to WebSphere Application Server for
handling. The mechanism to accomplish this is provided in the form of a Web server
plug-in. The plug-in is included with the WebSphere Application Server package for
installation on a Web server. An XML configuration file, configured on the WebSphere
Application Server, is copied to the Web server plug-in directory. The
plug-in uses the configuration file to determine whether a request should be handled
by the Web server or an application server. When a request for an application server
is received, it is forwarded to the appropriate Web container in the application
server. The plug-in can use HTTP or HTTPs to transmit the
request.

EJB container
The EJB container provides all the runtime services needed to deploy and manage
enterprise beans. It is a server process that handles requests for both session and
entity beans. The enterprise beans (packaged in EJB modules) installed in an
application server do not communicate directly with the server; instead, the EJB
container provides an interface between the EJBs and the server. Together, the
container and the server provide the bean runtime environment. The container
provides many low-level services, including threading and transaction support. From
an administrative viewpoint, the container manages data storage and retrieval for
the contained beans. A single container can host more than one EJB JAR file.

Client application container


The client application container is a separately installed component on the client's
machine. It allows the client to run applications in an EJB-compatible J2EE
environment. There is a command-line executable (launchClient) which is used to
launch the client application along with its client container runtime

78) What is deployment descriptor and how many dedployment


descriptors are available ?

Ans) A deployment descriptor (DD) refers to a configuration file for an artifact


that is deployed to some container/engine.
In the Java Platform, Enterprise Edition, a deployment descriptor describes how a
web application or enterprise application should be deployed. It directs a deployment
tool to deploy a module or application with specific container options, security
settings and describes specific configuration requirements. XML is used for the
syntax of these deployment descriptor files. For web applications, the deployment
descriptor must be called web.xml and must reside in a WEB-INF subdirectory at the
web application root. For Java EE applications, the deployment descriptor must be
named application.xml and must be placed directly in the META-INF directory at the
top level of the application .ear file.

Deployment descriptors describe the contents of deployment units and configure


components and applications to their environment. They also externalize the
relationships between components, so those relationships can be managed without
writing or changing program code. Deployment tools usually automatically generate
deployment descriptors, so you do not have to edit and manage them directly.

There are five types of deployment descriptors, each of which corresponds to a type
of deployment unit:

• EJB deployment descriptors are defined in the Enterprise


JavaBeans specification.
• Web deployment descriptors are defined in the Java Servlet
specification.
• Application and application client deployment descriptors are
both defined in the J2EE platform specification.
• Resource adapter deployment descriptors for Java Connectors
are defined by the J2EE Connector architecture specification.

Each deployment descriptor type is defined in its corresponding specification as an


XML Document Type Definition (DTD).

Deployment descriptors contain information used by a component's container and


also contain information that the component can access directly by way of the JNDI.
The JNDI is a standard interface to an enterprise object name service.

79) Difference between JACL & JYTHON and which one is better?

Ans) 1)
a) Jython depends on the Python commands whereas Jacl(Java command
language) depends on the Tcl commands.

b) Jython syntax seems more natural to programmers used to Java or C, but


Jacl syntax can be more familiar to administrators who are familiar with Tcl

c) Each language has its own style and syntax, but they end up being able to do
the same things
WSADMIN scripting tool can be used in an interactive mode, the main ability for
wsadmin is to provide the ability to run scripts.

80) What is WebSphere and explain the functionality of the WAS?

IBM WebSphere Application Server (WAS), a software application server, is


the flagship product within IBM's WebSphere brand. WAS is built using open
standards such as J2EE, XML, and Web Services. Multiple world-wide IBM labs
participate in creating WebSphere run-time products and development tools.
It works with a number of Web servers including Apache HTTP Server,
Netscape Enterprise Server, Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS),
IBM HTTP Server for i5/OS, IBM HTTP Server for z/OS, and IBM HTTP Server
for AIX/Linux/Microsoft Windows/Solaris.

Ans) WebSphere Application server is middleware software provided by IBM. It is


a platform on which Java-based business applications run. It provides services
like database connectivity, threading, workload management, and so on that
can be used by the business applications.

81) What is the difference in installation of war and ear?

Ans) Only difference in this application installation is optional context root for JAR
and EAR and for WAR it is mandatory. If EAR file is having multiple modules
like JAR,WAR then we can target these files to different application servers.
82) What is context root?

Ans) The context root identifies the web application. By context root only your
configuration file (Plugin-cnf.xml) route the request to the particular
application.
83) Why you are not giving context root for EAR?

Ans) Context root is optional for EAR file. If we will give context root for EAR, we
can access EAR file using that context root, If it uses SSO, we can access thru
SSO login page, If EAR contains .JARs which is ment to access through EJB
applications, then developers might use any of the protocols like IIOP/RMI in
their code/login.

84) What is the memory requirement for 6.x?

Ans) 512MB,1 GB is recommended


85) What is the ticket tracking tool you used?

Ans) unicentre service desk (USD)


86) How you will check CPU utilisation?
TOPAS

87) What is the data source and how you configure it?

Ans) A Data Source object is the representation of a data source in the Java
programming language. In basic terms, a data source is a facility for storing
data. It can be as sophisticated as a complex database for a large;
corporation or as simple as a file with rows and columns. A data source can
reside on a remote server, or it can be on a local desktop machine.
Applications access a data source using a connection, and a DataSource
object can be thought of as a factory for connections to the particular data
source that the DataSource instance represents. The DataSource interface
provides two methods for establishing a connection with a data source.

88) How many jdbc drivers’ types you have in was?

Ans) we have 2 types of JDBC drivers in was . Those are Type2(Thick) and
Type4(Thin/Native Protocol) jdbc drivers.Type2 JDBC drivers require the
database client software on the client node to connect to the database
server.Type4 JDBC drivers connect directly to the database server.

89) What is the s/w and h/w requirements to install the WAS 6.x?

Hard ware requirements for the WAS 6.1 installation.

Memory : Minimum 512 MB, Recommended 1GB ( project recommended it


will go up to 4GB to 5GB )

Had disk (File system) : Temp : 10GB,Was install root 10GB,Logs :


10GB

Soft ware requirements for the WAS 6.1 installation.


.
90) Which version of unix you are using and what is java version which
supports for was 6.x ?
Java supporting version for WAS 6.1 is J2EE 1.4

91) While installing if you get error like “java not found”then what could
be the reason and how you solve it?

Ans) The problem: Attempting to use the LaunchPad program from CD-ROM
installation fails with a /java: not found error.

The solution: Change directories to the cdrom/ directory and try the installation
again.

92) How you will schedule jobs using cron jobs how you will set?

Ans ) Crontab -l======> list the crons


crontab -e =====> edit and modify
The crontab File Entry Format

A crontab file contains entries for each cron job. Entries are separated by
newline characters. Each crontab file entry contains six fields separated by
spaces or tabs
in the following form:

minute hour day_of_month month weekday


command_with_complete_path

ex : To run the calendar command at 6:30 a.m. every Monday, Wednesday,


and Friday, enter:

30 6 * * 1,3,5 /usr/bin/calendar

93) Explain about ssl configuration steps using admin console?

Configuration of SSL in WebSphere :

SSL configuration can be achived in three different ways

1) From Admin console:

Once we get the certificate from CA (Certificate Authority) then we will


import into trust store. To enable security between IHS and Application server
we need to export defaut personal certificates of all nodes and import the
same to the trust store of the IHS.

2) Command line :

By using “gsk7cmd” command we can achive the SSL configuration.


Gsk7cmd provides the otions like import ,export,list,create options for
certificates

3) ikeyman:

By using ikeyman we can open the KDB(key data base) and add the
certificates to the key database.

Procedure

1. Click Security > SSL certificate and key management > Manage
endpoint security configurations.

2. Select an SSL configuration link on either the Inbound or Outbound tree,


depending on the process you are configuring.
o If the scope is already associated with a configuration and alias, the
SSL configuration alias and certificate alias are noted in parentheses.
o If the parenthetical information is not included, then the scope is not
associated. Instead, the scope inherits the configuration properties of
the first scope above it that is associated with an SSL configuration
and certificate alias.
The cell scope must be associated with an SSL configuration because it is at
the top of the topology and represents the default SSL configuration for the
inbound or outbound connection.

3. Click SSL configurations under Related Items. You can view and select any
of the SSL configurations that are configured at this scope. You can also view
and select these configuration at every scope that is lower on the topology.

4. Click New to display the SSL configuration panel. You cannot select links
under Additional Properties until you type a configuration name and click
Apply.

5. Type an SSL configuration name. This field is required. The configuration


name is the SSL configuration alias. Make the alias name unique within the
list of SSL configuration aliases that are already created at the selected
scope. The new SSL configuration uses this alias for other configuration tasks.

6. Select a truststore name from the drop-down list. A truststore name refers to
a specific truststore that holds signer certificates that validate the trust of
certificates sent by remote connections during an SSL handshake. If there is
no truststore in the list, see Creating a keystore configuration to create a new
truststore, which is a keystore whose role is to establish trust during the
connection.

7. Select a keystore name from the drop-down list. A keystore contains the
personal certificates that represent a signer identity and the private key that
WebSphere Application Server uses to encrypt and sign data.

o If you change the keystore name, click Get certificate aliases to


refresh the list of certificates from which you can choose a default
alias. WebSphere Application Server uses a server alias for inbound
connections and a client alias for outbound connections.
o If there is no keystore in the list, see Creating a keystore configuration
to create a new keystore.

8. Choose a default server certificate alias for inbound connections. Select the
default only when you have not specified an SSL configuration alias elsewhere
and have not selected a certificate alias. A centrally managed SSL
configuration tree can override the default alias. For more information, see
Central management of Secure Sockets Layer configurations.
9. Choose a default client certificate alias for outbound connections. Select the
default only when the server SSL configuration specifies an SSL client
authentication.

10. Review the identified management scope for the SSL configuration. Make the
management scope in this field identical to the link you selected in Step 2. If
you want to change the scope, you must click a different link in the topology
tree and continue at Step 3.

11. Click Apply if you intend to configure Additional Properties. If not, go to Step
24.

12. Click Quality of protection (QoP) settings under Additional Properties. QoP
settings define the strength of the SSL encryption, the integrity of the signer,
and the authenticity of the certificate.

13. Select a client authentication setting to establish an SSL configuration for


inbound connections and for clients to send their certificates, if appropriate.

o If you select None, the server does not request that a client send a
certificate during the handshake.
o If you select Supported, the server requests that a client send a
certificate. However, if the client does not have a certificate, the
handshake might still succeed.
o If you select Required, the server requests that a client send a
certificate. However, if the client does not have a certificate, the
handshake fails.
Important: The signer certificate that represents the client must be in the
truststore that you select for the SSL configuration. By default, servers within
the same cell trust each other because they use the common truststore,
trust.p12, that is located in the cell directory of the configuration repository.
However, if you use keystores and truststores that you create, perform a
signer exchange before you select either Supported or Required.

14. Select a protocol for the SSL handshake.

o The default protocol, SSL_TLS, supports client protocols TLSv1, SSLv3,


and SSLv2.
o The TLSv1 protocol supports TLS and TLSv1. The SSL server
connection must support this protocol for the handshake to proceed.
o The SSLv3 protocol supports SSL and SSLv3. The SSL server
connection must support this protocol for the handshake to proceed.
Important: Do not use the SSLv2 protocol for the SSL server connection.
Use it only when necessary on the client side.

15. Select one of the following options:


o A predefined Java Secure Socket Extension (JSSE) provider. The
IBMJSSE2 provider is recommended for use on all platforms which
support it. It is required for use by the channel framework SSL
channel. When Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) is
enabled, IBMJSSE2 is used in combination with the IBMJCEFIPS crypto
provider.
o A custom JSSE provider. Type a provider name in the Custom
provider field.

16. Select from among the following cipher suite groups:

o Strong: WebSphere Application Server can perform 128-bit


confidentiality algorithms for encryption and support integrity signing
algorithms. However, a strong cipher suite can affect the performance
of the connection.
o Medium: WebSphere Application Server can perform 40-bit
encryption algorithms for encryption and support integrity signing
algorithms.
o Weak: WebSphere Application Server can support integrity signing
algorithms but not to perform encryption. Select this option with care
because passwords and other sensitive information that cross the
network are visible to an Internet Protocol (IP) sniffer.
o Custom: you can select specific ciphers. Any time you change the
ciphers that are listed from a specific cipher suite group, the group
name changes to Custom.

17. Click Update selected ciphers to view a list of the available ciphers for each
cipher strength.

18. Click OK to return to the new SSL configuration panel.

19. Click Trust and key managers under Additional Properties.

20. Select a default trust manager for the primary SSL handshake trust decision.

o Choose IbmPKIX when you require certificate revocation list (CRL)


checking using CRL distribution points in the certificates.
o Choose IbmX509 when you do not require CRL checking but do need
increased performance. You can configure a custom trust manager to
perform CRL checking, if necessary.

21. Define a custom trust manager, if appropriate. You can define a custom trust
manager that runs with the default trust manager you select. The custom
trust manager must implement the JSSE javax.net.ssl.X509TrustManager
interface and, optionally, the com.ibm.wsspi.ssl.TrustManagerExtendedInfo
interface to obtain product-specific information.
a. Click Security > SSL certificate and key management >
Manage endpoint security configurations >
SSL_configuration > Trust and key managers > Trust
managers > New.

b. Type a unique trust manager name.

c. Select the Custom option.

d. Type a class name.

e. Click OK. When you return to the Trust and key managers
panel, the new custom trust manager displays in the
Additional ordered trust managers field. Use the left and
right list boxes to add and remove custom trust managers.

2 Select a key manager for the SSL configuration. By default, IbmX509


is the only key manager unless you create a custom key manager.

Important: If you choose to implement your own key manager, you can
affect the alias selection behavior because the key manager is responsible for
selecting the certificate alias from the keystore. The custom key manager
might not interpret the SSL configuration as the WebSphere Application
Server key manager IbmX509 does. To define a custom key manager, click
Security > Secure communications > SSL configurations >
SSL_configuration > Trust and key managers > Key managers > New.

3 Click OK to save the trust and key manager settings and return to the
new SSL configuration panel.

4 Click Save to save the new SSL configuration.

Results
Important: You can override the default trust manager when you configure at least
one custom trust manager and set the
com.ibm.ssl.skipDefaultTrustManagerWhenCustomDefined property to true. Click
Custom Property on the SSL configuration panel. However, if you change the
default, you leave all the trust decisions to the custom trust manager, which is not
recommended for production environments. In test environments, use a dummy
trust manager to avoid certificate validation. Remember that these environment are
not secure.

What to do next
In this release of WebSphere Application Server, you can associate SSL
configurations with protocols using one of the following methods:
• Set the SSL configuration on the thread programmatically
• Associate the SSL configuration with an outbound protocol, and target host
and port. For more information, see Associating a Secure Sockets Layer
configuration dynamically with an outbound protocol and remote secure
endpoint
• Associate the SSL configuration directly using the alias. For more information,
see Selecting an SSL configuration alias directly from an endpoint
configuration
• Manage the SSL configurations centrally by associating them with SSL
configuration groups or zones that are scoped for endpoints. For more
information, see Associating Secure Sockets Layer configurations centrally
with inbound and outbound scopes.

94) What is main feature in 6.x?

Ans) a) Profile concept


b) Single installation WAS product supports for multible profile creation
c) Cell profile
d) SIB (System Integration Bus)
95) What is Webcontainer failover?

Ans) the Web server plug-in in the Web server is aware of the configuration of all
Web containers and can route around a failed Web container in a cluster.
Sessions can be persisted to a database or in-memory using data replication
services.

96) Explain about web sphere?

The word web sphere popularly refers to IBM middleware technology


products. Web sphere is known for its turnkey operation in e business
applications. It has run time components and tools which can help in creating
applications which run on WAS. WAS refers to web sphere application server.

97) Explain about web sphere commerce?

IBM web sphere commerce has a single platform which offers complete
ecommerce solutions to developers. It can be very productive if you are
planning to do business with consumers, business and indirectly through
channel partners. This can be used to perform business with consumers,
business and channel partners altogether.

98) Detail about the architecture of web sphere?

Web Sphere is built on three main components they are


Database
• J2EE application server
• A web server
The databases which it supports are
• DB2
• Oracle
• Cloudscape
Application server is IBMWAS and the supported web servers are
• IBM server
• Microsoft IIS
• Sun web server

99) State some of the features present in web sphere?

Some of the features which are present in web sphere are: -


• Order management
• Web sphere commerce accelerator
• Analytical and business intelligence
• Open standards such as Java, EJB, etc
• Web sphere commerce payments and customer care, etc

100) Explain about IBM Web Sphere edge server?

Web sphere edge server is used to improve the performance of web based
systems. It can be used as forward or proxy server. Basically four
components are present in the web sphere they are Network dispatcher,
Caching proxy, Content distribution and application service at the edge.

101) Explain about extended deployment?

Web sphere application server extended deployment increases the


functionality of the server in two main areas they are manageability and
performance. Dynamic virtualization between servers is possible with the help
of XD. A stand alone distributed cache was added to it under the performance
header, it is known as Object Grid.

102) Explain about the security features present in WAS?

Security model for web sphere is primarily based on JAVA EE security model.
It also depends upon the operating system. User authentication and
authorization mechanisms are also provided in WAS. Light weight third party
authentication mechanism is the main security feature present in WAS.
103) Explain about asymmetric clustering?

Asymmetric clustering applications are primarily used in electronic trading


systems employed in banks. Some of the features are, partitions can be
declared during run time and are usually run on a single cluster at a time.
Work specific to a particular can be routed to that cluster.

104) Explain the various Administrator benefits using Web sphere?

Web sphere almost reduces the work of server administrator as he can


manage load on servers efficiently without any hassles. It also gives him
flexibility to divide the load and applications among different server farms. He
can also predict about the incoming load on servers. Email alerts, restart
options, memory leak detection, etc.

105) Explain about caching proxy of IBM Web sphere Edge sphere?

A caching proxy can be configured in forward direction or as a proxy. Content


requested by the user is cached by edge before sending or adhering to the
query. Page fragments arising from JSP or servlets are cached by Edge and
the caching process is slow. Performance and scalability of J2EE applications
can be increased by edge.

106) Explain about the network deployment feature present in WAS?

Managing singletons will be a thing of the past and it also provides hot
recovery of singletons which makes you forget about your GC collected
singletons. Transaction logs can stored on a shared file system. For clustering
run time operations deployment manager`s role was eliminated. J2EE failover
support and cell configuration support is also present.

107) Explain about IBM web sphere integration developer?

Web sphere integration developer provides an IDE to build applications based


on service oriented architecture. Web sphere process server and web sphere
ESB were built with WID. WID was built with RAD Eclipse based technology.

108) Explain about compute Grid?

Compute grid is also known as Web sphere batch. Web sphere extended
deployment offers a Java batch processing system called as Compute Grid.
This forms an additional feature to Web sphere network environment. Various
features are provided which help a developer to create, manage and execute
batch jobs. Job scheduler, xJCL, batch container and batch programming
controller.

109) Explain about web sphere MQ Real time transport?

This feature is very useful in instant messaging across different clients


through intranet and internet. This supports high volume and high
performance across different clients. It uses the concept of light weight
transport which is again based on IP rather than the queue process.

110) Explain about Web sphere MQ JMS Provider?

Web sphere MQ and Web Sphere Business integration manager Broker are
very useful in providing Java messaging services to wide range of clients
(publisher –subscribe, point to point). Java classes are chiefly responsible for
translating the API calls to API`s defined by web sphere. It is very useful to
have knowledge of Web sphere MQ for proper configuration.

111) Explain the attribute CHANNEL in web sphere MQ?

CHANNEL specifies the name of the server connection channel. Generally this
is Web Sphere MQ network abstraction. The default standard used by
CHANNEL is SVRCONN which is the server connection channel. This server is
generally used to communicate to the queue manager by the client.

112) Is the naming of connection factory independent of the name


specified by JMS client?

Yes, the naming of connection factory is independent of the name specified by


JMS client. This is made possible by WAS (Web sphere application server)
with its resource references. It isolates the application from object names.
This feature is important because it gives us the flexibility to change the
administered object without changing the JMS client code.

113) How many ways deployments in ibm websphere.please give me one


examples ?
Ways of deplyment depends on version of WebSphere Application server you
are using.

But 5.X and Above provide following ways

1. Using Admin Console

2. Hot Deployment droping jsp files, with enabled class reloading (not
recommanded for production)

3. Using Jacl Scripts

4. using WSAdmin command

5. Rapid Deployment (feature available at WAS 6).

114) What is JACL?

JACL and JYTHON are the two scripting language Which WebSphere
supports. Jacl is an implementation of a Tcl interpreter written entirely in
Java.

20) how to connect to the db2 database from websphere studio?

115) I need the difference btw the two versions of 5.x and 6.x. And in
which field they differ and why we go for 6.x rather than 5.x. and what
are the similarities for both 5.x and 6.x ?

Supports J2EE 1.2, 1.3 and 1.4 specifications

– Can upgrade runtime environment without upgrading applications

– Supports mixed version nodes in a v6 ND Cell

– Allow for migration in stages within a cell

– Mixed v5 and v6 nodes must have v6 DMgr (can’t add new v5 node)

– v6 ND introduces profiles

– Each profile has its own user data including WebSphere configuration
– All profiles share same WebSphere binaries

– Less disk space required than separate installations

– stand-alone server, deployment manager or custom profile

116) How you will replace the multible occurance of single word in a text
file with another word ?

Ans) We can replace the word in vi editor by using the following command
:%s/text1 /text2 /g (return)
Text1 will be replaced by text2
117) In a clustered environment I have node1 in cell1 now I need to
configure same node in cell2 . How can I achieve this task ?

Ans) we can configure one node in one cell only. So we can can’t configure the same
node in another cell
118) How you will install the WAS?

Ans) WAS we can install in three different methods.


a) Silent mode using responce file

b) Interactive mode

c) Graphical mode

119) How to install fix packs?

Ans) we can apply the fix packs using the update installer. Before we go to apply fix
packs we need to take backup of the existing configuration of our WAS and all
profiles.
To take backup we can use the command
Syntax
The command syntax is as follows:
backupConfig <backup_file> [options]
where backup_file specifies the file to which the backup is written. If you do not
specify one, a unique name is generated.

The QEJBSVR user profile must have *WX authority to the directory path specified in
backup_file. If no path is specified, the QEJBSVR user profile must have *WX
authority to the current working directory.

Parameters

The following options are available for the backupConfig command:

-nostop
Tells the backupConfig command not to stop the servers before backing up
the configuration.
-quiet
Suppresses the progress information that the backupConfig command prints
in normal mode.
-logfile <fileName>

Specifies the location of the log file to which information gets written.
-profileName <profileName>

Defines the profile of the Application Server process in a multi-profile


installation. The -profileName option is not required for running in a single
profile environment. The default for this option is the default profile.
-replacelog

Replaces the log file instead of appending to the current log.


-trace

Generates trace information into the log file for debugging purposes.
-username <name>

Specifies the user name for authentication if security is enabled in the server.
Acts the same as the -user option.

-user <name>
Specifies the user name for authentication if security is enabled in the server.
Acts the same as the -username option.
-password <password>

Specifies the password for authentication if security is enabled in the server.


-help

Prints a usage statement.


-?

Prints a usage statement.


Usage scenario
The following example demonstrates correct syntax:
backupConfig
The following example creates a new file that includes the current date:
WebSphereConfig_2003-04-22.zip

The following example creates a file called myBackup.zip, and does not stop any
servers before beginning the backup process.

backupConfig myBackup.zip -nostop


to restore the backed configuration we can use the command

Syntax
The command syntax is as follows:
restoreConfig <backup_file> [options]
where backup_file specifies the file to be restored. If you do not specify one, the
command will not run.
Parameters

The following options are available for the restoreConfig command:

-help

Prints a usage statement.


-location <directory_name>

Specifies the directory where the backup file is restored.

The location defaults to the app_server_root/config directory.

The location defaults to the profile_root/config directory.

-logfile <fileName>

Specifies the location of the log file to which trace information is written. By
default, the log file is named restoreConfig.log and is created in your logs
directory.
-nostop

Tells the restoreConfig command not to stop the servers before restoring
the configuration.

-password <password>
Specifies the password for authentication if security is enabled in the server.

-profileName
Defines the profile of the Application Server process in a multiple profile
installation. The -profileName option is not required for running in a single
profile environment. The default for this option is the default profile.

-quiet
Suppresses the progress information that the restoreConfig command prints
in normal mode.
-replacelog

Replaces the log file instead of appending to the current log.


-trace

Generates trace information into the log file for debugging purposes.
-username <name>

Specifies the user name for authentication if security is enabled in the server.
Acts the same as the -user option.
-user <name>
Specifies the user name for authentication if security is enabled in the server.
Acts the same as the -username option. -?
Prints a usage statement.

You can use the restoreConfig command to recover an application server if it fails.
Perform the following steps:

Locate the automatic migration backup in the app_server_root/temp directory. For


example: MigrationBackup.Thu-Aug-28-10.15045-2006.zip
Restore the configuration with the restoreConfig command. For example:

restoreConfig app_server_root/temp/MigrationBackup.Thu-Aug-28-10.15045-
2006.zip
Usage scenario

The following example demonstrates correct syntax:

restoreConfig WebSphereConfig_2006-04-22.zip
restoreConfig.sh WebSphereConfig_2006_04_22.zip
restoreConfig WebSphereConfig_2006-04-22.zip

The following example restores the given file to the /tmp directory and does not stop
any servers before beginning the restoration.

restoreConfig WebSphereConfig_2006_04_22.zip -location /tmp -nostop


restoreConfig.sh WebSphereConfig_2006_04_22.zip -location /tmp -nostop
restoreConfig WebSphereConfig_2006_04_22.zip -location /tmp -nostop

The following example restores the configuration stored in


/home/mydir/myprofileBackup.zip to the configuration for profile myprofile:

restoreConfig WebSphereConfig_2006-04-22.zip -profileName myprofile

Be aware that if you restore the configuration to a directory that is different from the
directory that was backed up when you performed the backupConfig command,
you may need to manually update some of the paths in the configuration directory.

120) What is the virtual memory required for JVM process?

Ans) The recomended virtual memory for JVM is ¼ of the physical memory.
121) What are the regular commands is UNIX in use?

Ans) In our day to day activity we use the following commands in unix:
a) To find out the running processes the command is :Ps –
ef| grep java
b) To find out the disk space the command is :du

c) To find out the file system the command is :df

d) To find out the network performance/port info command is


:netstat

e) To find out the CPU utilisation the command is : topas/osstat

f) To kill the running process the command is : kill


-9 <PID>

g) To generate heap/thresd dump the command is :kill -3 <PID>

h) To change the privileges of the file/folder the command is :


chmod

i) To change the owner of the file/folder the command is :chown

j) To list the file the command is : ls

k) To create DIR(folder) the command is :mkdir

l) To TAR the files ,folders we use the following command

Tar –xvf <file name with path> --

Tar – uvf --adding one or two files two folder

Tar – cvf -- total folder

m) To schedule the job in cron command is as follwos

Crontab –l ( to list all the scheduled jobs)

Crontab –e ( to edit the scheduled job)

Whithin the crontab the syntax for the schedule the script as follows
Ex: 30 6 * * 1,3,5 /usr/bin/calender
30(minutes) 6 (hours) *(day of the month) * (month of the year) 1,3,5
(day no of the week)/usr/bin/calender
In the above example we scheduled the script called calender which is
located in the location “/usr/bin” to run every Monday,Wednesday and friday
n) To find fully qualified domain name (FQDN) if you know IP

$ Nslookup <IP_ADDRESS> --(vice versa)

122) Whats the default server in WAS for application server profile?

Ans) server1
123) In Clusters what is the riffle stop ?
Ans) Ripple stop/start will stop one server at a time while other servers will continue
to serve the client requests. Like this it will stop and start all the server in the cluster
124) How you will start the server & how you will stop from command
line?

Ans) stopserver and startserver are the commands to stop and start from the
command line
125) How to check the physical memory (RAM) in the system?

Ans) “bootinf –r “ will give you the physical memory details of the unix box
126) What is the first signal you find when memory leakage is there in the
application?

Ans) If you have memory leakage in your application code then you get frequently “
OUT OF MEMORY EXCEPTION” error.
127) How to apply fix packs to WAS?

a) Using update installer we can apply the fix packs. We need to make sure that
update installer which is installed should be compatible with WAS. And also we
need to take backup of all profiles and configuration.

128) What are the performance monitor tools in WAS?

Ans) Websphere provides integrated tools to monitor and tune system and
application performance:
Source Systems of the performance data :
1) Performance Monitoring Infrastructure (PMI):

Core performance data collection technology for websphere application server.


Supports the Jave 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition (J2EE) Management Reference
Implimentation (JSR-077)
2) Request Metrics :

Technology to trace each individual transaction and record its responce time at
different stages as it flows through the application server. Supports externalisation of
data to standard log files and /or an Application Responce Management (ARM) agent.
Integrated Tools :
a) Tivoli Performance viewer (TPV)

Enables administrators to monitor the overall health of websphere


application server. It is accessed from within the administrative
console

b) Request Metrics ( Tool)

Enables you to track individual transactions,recording the processing


time in each of the major websphere application server components.
Output viewed in standard logs or using an application responce
measurement( ARM) based tool
c) Performance advisor

Analze collected performance data and provide configuration


recommendations to improve the application server performance.
Output viewed in TPV or in administrative console runtime messages

d) Performace servlet

Provideds simple retrival of performance data in XML format. Acced


through a browser.

129) What information you get with the command “ps–ef|grep httpd” ?

Ans) we get the all webserver instance informations with process id.
130) How you will check the web server status

Ans) by using the following command we can check the all instances of the
webserver
$ ps – ef| grep httpd
131) If you enable global security every time we need to provide userid
and password while stopping the servers. It is bit security issues it will
disclose to any one while typing the password. So I need to avoid the
typing os my user id and password to stop the servers in security
enables environment. How can we achive this task ?

Ans) We can achive this task by storing the credentials in the following mentioned
files
For SOAP connector –soap.client.profs
For RMI connector –sas.client.profs
132) I have a standalone application server, in that server1 crashed
because of some reasons. Now I need to configure server2 on the same
node how can I achieve this task?

Ans) To configure server2 there is no dependency on the server1 status. Because


we are depending on the node to configure the server2 on standalone server on
theserver1.
133) How can you control the web browser requests only to particular ip
address?

Ans) using “Virtual hosts” (need to cross verify the answer)


134) If you want to know detailed information for a particular port when
you know only port number then how you will check?

Ans) we need to follow the steps mentioned below to know the detailed information
about the process running on the particular port
$ netstat –Aan|grep <Port_no>
Socket will be listed, using that socket we can get SID
$rmsock <socket_no> <protocol>
Ex: $netstat –Aan|grep 944
f10002000fc4398
$rmsock f10020000fc4398 tcpcb
the socket oxfc4008 is being by process 626888(java)
$ps –ef| grep 626888
135) How you will find how much heap is used by each JVM?

Ans) Using PMI we can see the percentage of the memory used by JVM
136) Explain how request served by WAS explain complete step by step?

Ans) First request comes to the webserver


137) Explain the architecture in the cell, node & profile point of view?

Ans) In WAS Cell will be on top. Within cell we have


Dmgr, Nodes, Nodegroups, Nodeagents, Application servers, Clusters
Websphere resources like JMS,Mail service, Resource Adpaters, Cache
instances, URL,Etc.
138) If I try to connect to use one port and I got message saying this port
is already used by some other process then how to change the port
number in WAS and where we can change the same?

Ans) only way to change the port is by changing the virtual host port for which the
application is trying to use.
139) What is the default user registry and how you will configure the LTPA
configuration?

140) explain about session replication ?

Ans) Replication is a service that transfers data, objects, or events among


application servers. Data replication service (DRS) is the internal WebSphere
Application Server component that replicates data.
Use data replication to make data for session manager, dynamic cache, and
stateful session beans available across many application servers in a cluster.
The benefits of using replication vary depending on the component that you
configure to use replication.
• Session manager uses the data replication service when configured to do
memory-to-memory replication. When memory-to-memory replication is
configured, session manager maintains data about sessions across multiple
application servers, preventing the loss of session data if a single application
server fails. For more information about memory-to-memory replication, see
Memory-to-memory replication.
• Dynamic cache uses the data replication service to further improve
performance by copying cache information across application servers in the
cluster, preventing the need to repeatedly perform the same tasks and
queries in different application servers. For more information about replication
in the dynamic cache, see Configuring cache replication.
• Stateful session beans use the replication service so that applications using
stateful session beans are not limited by unexpected server failures. For more
information about stateful session bean failover, see Stateful session bean
failover for the EJB container.

WAS provides session recovery support in the form of


a) Database session

b) Memory –to –memory replication

Session recovery support is required in the following conditions


1) When the user’s session data must be maintained across a server restart

2) When the user’s session datais too valuable to lose through an unexpected
server failure.

These replication settings can be configured in the following location in the admin
console
Amin console -- > servers -- > application servers -- > [all servers] --
>webcontainer settings -- > session management -- > distributed environment
settings
Options are :
None,Database and memeory –to – memory replication
Memory-to-memory replication

WebSphere Application Server supports session replication to another WebSphere


Application Server instance. This support is referred to as memory-to-memory
session replication. In this mode, sessions can replicate to one or more WebSphere
Application Server instances to address HTTP Session single point of failure (SPOF).

The WebSphere Application Server instance in which the session is currently


processed is referred to as the owner of the session. In a clustered environment,
session affinity in the WebSphere Application Server plug-in routes the requests for a
given session to the same server. If the current owner server instance of the session
fails, then the WebSphere Application Server plug-in routes the requests to another
appropriate server in the cluster. In a peer-to-peer cluster, the hot failover feature
causes the plug-in to failover to a server that already contains the backup copy of
the session, avoiding the overhead of session retrieval from another server
containing the backup. In a client/server cluster, the server retrieves the session
from a server that has the backup copy of the session. The server now becomes the
owner of the session and affinity is now maintained to this server.

There are three possible modes. You can set up a WebSphere Application Server
instance to run in:
• Server mode: Only store backup copies of other WebSphere Application
Server sessions and not to send out copies of any session created in that
particular server
• Client mode: Only broadcast or send out copies of the sessions it owns and
not to receive backup copies of sessions from other servers
• Both mode: Simultaneously broadcast or send out copies of the sessions it
owns and act as a backup table for sessions owned by other WebSphere
Application Server instances
You can select the replication mode of server, client, or both when configuring the
session management facility for memory-to-memory replication. The default is both.
This storage option is controlled by the mode parameter.

The memory-to-memory replication function is accomplished by the creation of a


data replication service instance in an application server that talks to other data
replication service instances in remote application servers. You must configure this
data replication service instance as a part of a replication domain. Data replication
service instances on disparate application servers that replicate to one another must
be configured as a part of the same domain. You must configure all session
managers connected to a replication domain to have the same topology. If one
session manager instance in a domain is configured to use the client/server topology,
then the rest of the session manager instances in that domain must be a
combination of servers configured as Client only and Server only. If one session
manager instance is configured to use the peer-to-peer topology, then all session
manager instances must be configured as Both client and server. For example, a
server only data replication service instance and a both client and server data
replication service instance cannot exist in the same replication domain. Multiple
data replication service instances that exist on the same application server due to
session manager memory-to-memory configuration at various levels that are
configured to be part of the same domain must have the same mode.

With respect to mode, the following are the primary examples of memory-to-
memory replication configuration:
• Peer-to-peer replication
• Client/server replication

Memory-to-memory topology: Peer-to-peer function

The basic peer-to-peer (both client and server function, or both mode) topology is
the default configuration and has a single replica. However, you can also add
additional replicas by configuring the replication domain.
In this basic peer-to-peer topology, each server Java Virtual Machine (JVM) can:
• Host the Web application leveraging the HTTP session
• Send out changes to the HTTP session that it owns
• Receive backup copies of the HTTP session from all of the other servers in the
cluster

This configuration represents the most consolidated topology, where the various
system parts are collocated and requires the fewest server processes. When using
this configuration, the most stable implementation is achieved when each node has
equal capabilities (CPU, memory, and so on), and each handles the same amount of
work.

Session hot failover

A new feature called session hot failover has been added to this release. This feature
is only applicable to the peer-to-peer mode. In a clustered environment, session
affinity in the WebSphere Application Server plug-in routes the requests for a given
session to the same server. If the current owner server instance of the session fails,
then the WebSphere Application Server plug-in routes the requests to another
appropriate server in the cluster. For a cluster configured to run in the peer-to-peer
mode this feature causes the plug-in to failover to a server that already contains the
backup copy of the session, therefore avoiding the overhead of session retrieval from
another server containing the backup.

You must upgrade all WebSphere Application Server plug-in instances that front the
Application Server cluster to version 6.0 to ensure session affinity when using the
peer-to-peer mode.

Memory-to-memory topology: Client/server function

The following figure depicts the client/server mode. There is a tier of applications
servers that host Web applications using HTTP sessions, and these sessions are
replicated out as they are created and updated. There is a second tier of servers
without a Web application installed, where the session manager receives updates
from the replication clients.

Benefits of the client/server configuration include:


Isolation (for failure recovery)
In this case we are isolating the handling of backup data from local data;
aside from isolating the moving parts in case of a catastrophic failure in one
of them, you again free up memory and processing in the servers processing
the Web application

Isolation for stopping and starting


You can recycle a backup server without affecting the servers running the
application (when there are two or more backups, failure recovery is
possible), and conversely recycle an application JVM without potentially losing
that backup data for someone.
Consolidation

There is most likely no need to have a one-to-one correspondence between


servers handling backups and those processing the applications; hence, you
are again reducing the number of places to which you transfer the data.
Disparate hardware:

While you run your Web applications on cheaper hardware, you may have one
or two more powerful computers in the back end of your enterprise that have
the capacity to run a couple of session managers in replication server mode;
allowing you to free up your cheaper Web application hardware to process the
Web application.

Timing consideration: Start the backup application servers first to avoid


unexpected timing windows. The clients attempt to replicate information
and HTTP sessions to the backup servers as soon as they come up. As a
result, HTTP sessions that are created prior to the time at which the servers
come up might not replicate successfully.

141) If admin console is not accessible then what we will do in base


installation?

Ans) in base also we have the WSADMIN scripting tool. We can connect to wsadmin
by mentioning NONE connection type .After connecting to wsadmin we fire a
command securityoff. It will disable the security after that we can login to the admin
console and reset the passwords.

142) How you get user id for datasource?

Ans) from the database team we get the user id to configure the datasource.
143) How you configure LDAP with WAS?

Ans) To configure the console server, do the following steps:

1. Start the WebSphere(R) Application Server service on the console server.


2. Refer to Configuring the J2EE Application in the IBM Tivoli(R) Business
Systems Manager Administrator's Guide for information on how to configure
the console server.
3. To enable WebSphere Application Server to work with Tivoli Business Systems
Manager, you must map WebSphere Application Server roles to Tivoli
Business Systems Manager groups. Refer to the IBM Tivoli Business Systems
Manager Administrator's Guide for information.
4. If you are using the LocalOS user registry, you do not need to do anything
else. If you are using LDAP, see Configuring WebSphere Application Server to
use LDAP. If you are upgrading and plan to use LDAP, do not following the
instructions in Configuring WebSphere Application Server to use LDAP yet.
You can switch to LDAP later in the process.

Configuring WebSphere Application Server to use LDAP

To configure WebSphere Application Server to use LDAP, you need some information
from your security administrator. Following is an example of the type of information
and sample answers that you need to do the steps in this section:

• Server User ID: User_ID


• Server User Password: password
• Type of LDAP: Active_Directory
• Host: The fully qualified name of the server running LDAP
• Port: 389 (Default)
• Base Distinguished Name (DN): dc=DOMAIN_NAME_HERE
• Bind Distinguished Name (DN):
cn=user_id,cn=users,dc=DOMAIN_NAME_HERE
• Bind Password: Password for the user above
• Reuse Connection: Checked
• Ignore Case: Checked

This is just an example. Your security administrator knows what information you
need.

The following steps assume that you configured your LDAP server on the
ldapserver.abc.com host and that your users and groups for Tivoli Business Systems
Manager and the WebSphere Application Server that is hosting Tivoli Business
Systems Manager are defined under the name ou=tbsm,o=abc in the directory. The
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) between the LDAP server and WebSphere Application
Server is not configured.

This is a sample configuration based on this example and uses the default values
where appropriate.

1. In the WebSphere Administrative Console, expand Security -> User


Registries in the left-hand navigation pane and click LDAP. The LDAP User
Registry page opens.
2. In the Server User ID and Server User Password fields, type the user ID
and password from your LDAP directory that the WebSphere Application
Server runs under. Type the ID either as userid or as a distinguished name
similar to uid=userid,ou=tbsm,o=abc.
3. In the Type field, select the type of LDAP server you want to use.
4. In the Host field, type the hostname of your directory server. For this
example use ldapserver.abc.com.
5. In the Port field, select the default value of 389.
6. In the Base Distinguished Name field, type the name of the container
object in the LDAP that contains your Tivoli Business Systems Manager users.
For this example, type ou=tbsm,o=abc.
7. In the Bind Distinguished Name and Bind Password fields, type the
distinguished name and password for a user ID that is authorized to run
queries on your LDAP server. If your server allows anonymous queries, you
can leave these fields clear.

For example, the IBM(R) Directory Server default setting allows anonymous
queries. You can leave this field blank. The Active Directory default setting
requires authentication to run queries, so you need to supply the appropriate
values.

8. In the Search Timeout field, accept the default value of 120.


9. In the Reuse Connection field, accept the default setting. The check box
should be selected.
10. In the Ignore Case field, follow the recommendations for your LDAP server.

If IBM Directory Server is selected as the LDAP directory server, select this
check box. Otherwise, this field is optional and can left unchecked when a
case sensitive authorization check is required. Note however that this value
does not affect how Tivoli Business Systems Manager treats distinguished
names stored in the Tivoli Business Systems Manager database. Internally,
Tivoli Business Systems Manager treats distinguished names as case
insensitive. For example, if the user registry is configured to be case
sensitive, you can create users with distinguished names cn=John Doe,
ou=Raleigh, o=IBM, c=US and cn=john doe, ou=raleigh, o=ibm, c=us.
However, when searching for resources assigned to John Doe (for example
ownership notes), all notes assigned to John Doe and john doe will be
returned. To eliminate any problems, configure the user registry to be case
insensitive or ensure that all users are created with unique distinguished
names that are different in more than just case.

11. Accept the default SSL settings to run without the SSL.
12. Click Apply to accept the changes.
13. The WebSphere Administrative Console might switch to the Global Security
page. If so, navigate back to the LDAP User Registry window (see Step 1 for
directions). Click Advanced LDAP Settings near the bottom of the window.
14. Click Configuration and click the General Properties tab.
15. The User ID Map field specifies a filter that is used to determine the User's
Full Name in Tivoli Business Systems Manager. In the User ID Map field,
specify the attribute from the LDAP that you want to display for the full name
of the user. For example, to use the cn attribute, specify *:cn. If you are
using Active Directory, specify *:displayName.
16. Verify the following settings:
o Active Directory:
 User Filter: (&(sAMAccountName=%v)(objectclass=user)) - The
User Filter field determines what part of the LDAP entry must
match the logon ID of the user.
 Group Filter: (&(cn=%v)(objectclass=group))
 User ID Map: *:displayName (or whatever you entered in Step
15)
 Group ID Map: *:cn
 Group Member ID Map: memberof:member
 Certificate Map Mode: EXACT_DN
 Certificate Filter: leave clear
o IBM Directory Server:
 User Filter: (&(uid=%v)(objectclass=ePerson)
 Group Filter: (&(cn=%v)(|(objectclass=groupOfNames)
(objectClass=groupOfUniqueNames)))
 User ID Map: *:cn (or whatever you entered in Step 15)
 Group ID Map: *:cn
 Group Member ID Map: ibm-allGroups:member;ibm-
allGroups:uniqueMember
 Certificate Map Mode: EXACT_DN
 Certificate Filter: leave clear
17. Click OK. You might have to restart the console and WebSphere Application
Server to see any changes you make.

If the page does not display automatically, navigate to the Security ->
Global Security page.

18. From the Global Security page, use all the default values except the following
values:
o Enabled: checked
o Active User Registry: LDAP
19. Click OK.

WebSphere Application Server validates your setup. The messages at the top
of the screen indicate your results. Yellow warning messages are typical. If an
round, red error message is displayed, it means that WebSphere Application
Server could not validate the Server ID you gave with the LDAP. Verify that
this and the other LDAP parameters are correct for your LDAP server and
repeat the Global Security configuration steps until the validation is
successful.

20. Click Save at the top of the window.


21. Click Save again.
22. Start WebSphere Application Server again.

For more information about specific LDAP servers, see the LDAP server
documentation in the WebSphere InfoCenter. Navigate to All topics by feature ->
Security -> Securing applications and their environments -> Managing
security -> Configuring user registries.

144) How you will fix memory leakage?

Ans) Memory leak is the issue with native code. We need to get the heap dumps and
analyse the dumps for any memory issues with the code and if you find any issue
then we need to ask developers to fix the same. Temporarly we can increase the
heap size . In this way after analysing the exact root cause we need to fix the
memory leakage issue.
145) What is the recommended physical memory for WAS?

Ans) Mandatory is 512 MB and IBM recomends 1024 MB. Bur in real time projects it
will be more the recomended. In our project it was 4 GB.
146) How you will check the port status?

Ans) netstat
147) What is the command to find the process in the sun Solaris
environment ?

Ans) psrinfo –v (need to cross verify)

148) How you will check the application status?

Ans) ps –ef |grep appservername( from admin console à enterprise applications)


149) If you are trying to start the WAS and you are getting the “Class not
found” exception then how to solve the issue?

Ans)1. Check the WebSphere Class path and set it properly if not set correctly
Check the System out and systemErr logs for any specific errors/warning to
identify which class is not found when starting the server

150) If you get internal error then what is the solution for it?

Ans) Check the IHS is running or not, if its running... check the App server is
running or not.
This is basicaly due to the request is reaching to IHS and not able to reach the app.

151) How and where to find the specific class?

Ans) Appcliacation classes will be available at installed app path.


If WAS classes , find out in WAS classpath.
152) If application is giving very slow response then how will improve?
Ans) Have to check Connection pooling settings, change acordingly if required
JVM memory settings, change acordingly if required
And check the data base if its giving slow response
Check any conneciton are waiting and not closing
Check the CPU utilization and JVM utilization
153) What is SIB & what is the purpose?

Ans) Service Inegration BUS is introduced in V6 and the perpupose is to connect the
SOA apps like MQ.
154) What is the significance of the embedded http server explain ?

Ans)to get requests from external IHS and forward to WEB container.
155) What are the steps to do performance tuning for webserver?

Ans)
To reduce the disk i/o by using the _file() API directive on
unix .

156) What is JMS destination?

Ans)
157) In ssl configuration how you will provide the path of the certificate?

Ans) While Adding certificate, we have to give the location of the certificate, and if
you want to give Certicate store path, we have to give .p12 path
158) How you will achieve performance in production environment?

Ans)
159) How you will change / migrate the project from one version to other?

Ans) We will get new verion of EAR/WAR(project) deploy it.


If we want to migrate WAS, We normally take the new box and install new version ,
then deploy new app and make new server into production, then decommission the
old server.
Or install new version in the production BOX and then migrate the old one with new
version.
160) Explain about how you will put the brand new system into production.
Explain from development to production?
Ans) Developement team will develope the code and test in the Developement env.
Then we will create Test Env. And then put the server into Production.
161) Silent mode how it will work and if you get any errors then how you
will rectify it?

Ans) Silent mode of installation will also have the log file, where we can check the
errors
162) Explaing about configuration of IBM Tivoli directory server?

Ans) Don’t have Experience.


163) What is your last project architecture?

Ans)
164) How many servers are there & in which environment?

Ans)
165) How many types of Garbage collections?

http://www.petefreitag.com/articles/gctuning/