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If ecologists want to study something, such as a _________________________, how do
they do it? Should they separate the plant from its _________________________ and
isolate it _________________________?

Is that the best way to try and _________________________?

Or, do they need to look not only at the plant, but also at how the
_________________________in, the other _________________________it, the insects'
that _________________________, and the _________________________it all affect
the plant during its life?

Worms, _________________________, and insects break the plant down

_________________________. Should they be included in

What about the weather patterns of the plant's _________________________? Where are
the _________________________? If everything is _________________________, how
do ecologists study _________________________?

When Dr. Savage hiked his way to the _________________________mountains of Costa
Rica, he was _________________________by life.

Life on Earth occurs in a hierarchy _________________________.

Different kinds of scientists study life at _________________________ levels-from

_________________________to _________________________.

Ecology is the study of how _________________________ interact with each other and
with their _________________________.

 have probably learned that the cell is the basic unit of ________________________.

Most biology books describe ___________,______________, organs, and organ systems

as the _________________________of organization for a multicellular organism.

Ecologists study life _________________________these levels.

The most _________________________of study for an ecologist is an

^t this level, the science of ecology involves _________________________
relationships between individual organisms and their physical

Ecologists want to understand, _________________________, what aspects of the

golden toad's _________________________were important to it, and

Individual organisms are classified into _________________________.

The most common definition of a species is a group of individuals that

_________________________and produce fertile _________________________.

_________________________recognize, however, that this definition can be


For example, it does not work well for _________________________, such as

_________________________, that do not reproduce _________________________.

How to define _________________________is a problem recognized as far back as the


Today, most biologists assign species on the basis of _________________________


Regardless of how they are defined, however, _________________________are given a

unique _________________________scientific name.

Modern _________________________ are assigned the scientific name


When Dr. Savage officially described the golden toad, he gave it the
_________________________name _________________________

Members of a species that live in the _________________________at the same time

make up a_________________________.

^ll of the golden toads that lived together in the _________________________region of

Costa Rica were members of the _________________________ population.

^ll of the people living in your _________________________ make up a


The fleas living on the neighborhood_________________________make up a

_________________________, too.
 is the study of how _________________________within a
population _________________________ with one _________________________.

^t this level, _________________________ seek to understand why populations of some

species, such as the golden toad, _________________________while the sizes of other
populations _________________________.

^ll of the populations in a particular area make up a _________________________.

^ population of golden toads together with all of the _________________________,

animal, _________________________, and microbial populations within the
Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve made up a _________________________.

 is the study of _________________________ among

These interactions can be _________________________, how a single

bee_________________________a single flower, for example.

Or, they can be _________________________, such as how entire

_________________________of animals interact as they _________________________
across the _________________________.

In the case of Monteverde, ecologists studied how the golden toad and other species of its
cloud-forest community _________________________, affecting each other's
_________________________ lives and _________________________survival.

anlike _________________________, ecosystems include, not only
_________________________but _________________________as well.

^n ecosystem includes all of the living things and their physical environments within a

Monteverde's cloud-forest ecosystem consists of all

the_________________________that live there plus the __________,_______________,
and_________________________they use.


 involves studying the living and nonliving
_________________________of a system together.
Through their work, ecosystem ecologists often reveal patterns in
_________________________ or nutrient flow that may be
_________________________or _________________________by living or nonliving

^n ecosystem ecologist studying the _________________________of the golden toad

would consider the effects, not only of _________________________but also of factors
such as _________________________, _________________________, and water

" #" 
^s technology advances, scientists are learning more about how natural systems behave
on a global scale, expanding their studies beyond ecosystems to the
_________________________ as a whole.

The biosphere includes all parts of Earth that _________________________, with all of
its organisms and _________________________.

Scientists who study ecology at this level might examine how energy and matter cycle
throughout the biosphere and influence _________________________worldwide.
Biotic and ^biotic Factors
Ecosystems include both _________________________ and
_________________________ factors.

To _________________________, organisms must _________________________with

_________________________ and _________________________parts of their

Most of the time it is _________________________ if something is

_________________________ or _________________________.

Plants and animals are _________________________.

^ir and water are _________________________.

But what about a _________________________ that has fallen

_________________________ and is _________________________? What is it then?

Parts of an ecosystem that are_________________________or used to be
_________________________are called_________________________factors.

^ tree that has fallen down and is rotting on the forest floor is still considered
a_________________________factor, even though it is no
_________________________ living.

Biotic factors in the golden toad's ecosystem _________________________all of the

_________________________ living in the cloud forest-from the
_________________________ single-celled bacterium to the
_________________________ tree.

When _________________________arrived to study the

_________________________, he became a _________________________factor in
their ecosystem as well.

Parts of an ecosystem that have never _________________________are
_________________________ factors.

Some abiotic factors are

_________________________or_________________________by organisms.
Plants require _________________________ to perform_________________________,
for example.

Organisms take in _________________________ and use it to

get_________________________from food.

^s described earlier, a _________________________organism is considered


However, we can now clarify that dead organisms are only considered biotic
_________________________as long as their structure remains

Once the cells _________________________ down, their

_________________________, such as oxygen, water, and carbon, become abiotic
factors in the _________________________.

Other abiotic factors such as _________________________,

_________________________, and pH are not used or consumed by organisms but still
_________________________ their lives.

The specific _________________________ in which an organism lives is its

^ species' habitat _________________________ of the _________________________

and _________________________ elements around it.

The golden toad lived in a habitat of _________________________.

The forest's_________________________, _________________________,

_________________________, _________________________,
_________________________, and seasonal _________________________were all
parts of the toad's habitat.

Habitats are _________________________ to _________________________but,

_________________________ecosystems, their _________________________ are
defined by the _________________________organism whose habitat it is.

^ tiny soil _________________________ habitat may be only one

_________________________of soil.

^ _________________________habitat, in contrast, may be

_________________________hundred square _________________________of hills and
_________________________ that it easily crosses by air.

So habitats may be a_________________________of an ecosystem or may


^ habitat _________________________ an organism with its


^ _________________________is anything an organism

_________________________, including _________________________, shelter,
breeding sites, and _________________________.

^n organism's very _________________________ depends on the

_________________________of a suitable habitat and the
_________________________ it contains.p

^s we'll see, the availability of resources plays a _________________________role in

how populations_________________________and sometimes, like the golden toad,