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If ecologists want to study something, such as a _________________________, how do
they do it? Should they separate the plant from its _________________________ and
isolate it _________________________?

Is that the best way to try and _________________________?

Or, do they need to look not only at the plant, but also at how the
_________________________in, the other _________________________it, the insects'
that _________________________, and the _________________________it all affect
the plant during its life?

Worms, _________________________, and insects break the plant down


_________________________. Should they be included in
the_________________________?

What about the weather patterns of the plant's _________________________? Where are
the _________________________? If everything is _________________________, how
do ecologists study _________________________?

   
When Dr. Savage hiked his way to the _________________________mountains of Costa
Rica, he was _________________________by life.

Life on Earth occurs in a hierarchy _________________________.

Different kinds of scientists study life at _________________________ levels-from


_________________________to _________________________.

Ecology is the study of how _________________________ interact with each other and
with their _________________________.



 have probably learned that the cell is the basic unit of ________________________.

Most biology books describe ___________,______________, organs, and organ systems


as the _________________________of organization for a multicellular organism.

Ecologists study life _________________________these levels.

The most _________________________of study for an ecologist is an


_________________________organism.
^t this level, the science of ecology involves _________________________
relationships between individual organisms and their physical
_________________________.

Ecologists want to understand, _________________________, what aspects of the


golden toad's _________________________were important to it, and
_________________________.


Individual organisms are classified into _________________________.

The most common definition of a species is a group of individuals that


_________________________and produce fertile _________________________.

_________________________recognize, however, that this definition can be


_________________________.

For example, it does not work well for _________________________, such as


_________________________, that do not reproduce _________________________.

How to define _________________________is a problem recognized as far back as the


_________________________.

Today, most biologists assign species on the basis of _________________________


_________________________.

Regardless of how they are defined, however, _________________________are given a


unique _________________________scientific name.

Modern _________________________ are assigned the scientific name


_________________________

When Dr. Savage officially described the golden toad, he gave it the
_________________________name _________________________

Members of a species that live in the _________________________at the same time


make up a_________________________.

^ll of the golden toads that lived together in the _________________________region of


Costa Rica were members of the _________________________ population.

^ll of the people living in your _________________________ make up a


_________________________.

The fleas living on the neighborhood_________________________make up a


_________________________, too.
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 is the study of how _________________________within a
population _________________________ with one _________________________.

^t this level, _________________________ seek to understand why populations of some


species, such as the golden toad, _________________________while the sizes of other
populations _________________________.

  
^ll of the populations in a particular area make up a _________________________.

^ population of golden toads together with all of the _________________________,


animal, _________________________, and microbial populations within the
Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve made up a _________________________.

ë   
 is the study of _________________________ among
_________________________.

These interactions can be _________________________, how a single


bee_________________________a single flower, for example.

Or, they can be _________________________, such as how entire


_________________________of animals interact as they _________________________
across the _________________________.

In the case of Monteverde, ecologists studied how the golden toad and other species of its
cloud-forest community _________________________, affecting each other's
_________________________ lives and _________________________survival.

! 
anlike _________________________, ecosystems include, not only
_________________________but _________________________as well.

^n ecosystem includes all of the living things and their physical environments within a
_________________________.

Monteverde's cloud-forest ecosystem consists of all


the_________________________that live there plus the __________,_______________,
and_________________________they use.

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 involves studying the living and nonliving
_________________________of a system together.
Through their work, ecosystem ecologists often reveal patterns in
_________________________ or nutrient flow that may be
_________________________or _________________________by living or nonliving
factors.

^n ecosystem ecologist studying the _________________________of the golden toad


would consider the effects, not only of _________________________but also of factors
such as _________________________, _________________________, and water
_________________________.


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^s technology advances, scientists are learning more about how natural systems behave
on a global scale, expanding their studies beyond ecosystems to the
_________________________ as a whole.

The biosphere includes all parts of Earth that _________________________, with all of
its organisms and _________________________.

Scientists who study ecology at this level might examine how energy and matter cycle
throughout the biosphere and influence _________________________worldwide.
came__________________Date________________
Biotic and ^biotic Factors
Ecosystems include both _________________________ and
_________________________ factors.

To _________________________, organisms must _________________________with


_________________________ and _________________________parts of their
_________________________.

Most of the time it is _________________________ if something is


_________________________ or _________________________.

Plants and animals are _________________________.

^ir and water are _________________________.

But what about a _________________________ that has fallen


_________________________ and is _________________________? What is it then?

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Parts of an ecosystem that are_________________________or used to be
_________________________are called_________________________factors.

^ tree that has fallen down and is rotting on the forest floor is still considered
a_________________________factor, even though it is no
_________________________ living.

Biotic factors in the golden toad's ecosystem _________________________all of the


_________________________ living in the cloud forest-from the
_________________________ single-celled bacterium to the
_________________________ tree.

When _________________________arrived to study the


_________________________, he became a _________________________factor in
their ecosystem as well.

$% 
Parts of an ecosystem that have never _________________________are
_________________________ factors.

Some abiotic factors are


_________________________or_________________________by organisms.
Plants require _________________________ to perform_________________________,
for example.

Organisms take in _________________________ and use it to


get_________________________from food.

^s described earlier, a _________________________organism is considered


a_________________________factor.

However, we can now clarify that dead organisms are only considered biotic
_________________________as long as their structure remains
_________________________.

Once the cells _________________________ down, their


_________________________, such as oxygen, water, and carbon, become abiotic
factors in the _________________________.

Other abiotic factors such as _________________________,


_________________________, and pH are not used or consumed by organisms but still
_________________________ their lives.


















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The specific _________________________ in which an organism lives is its
_________________________.

^ species' habitat _________________________ of the _________________________


and _________________________ elements around it.

The golden toad lived in a habitat of _________________________.

The forest's_________________________, _________________________,


_________________________, _________________________,
_________________________, and seasonal _________________________were all
parts of the toad's habitat.

Habitats are _________________________ to _________________________but,


_________________________ecosystems, their _________________________ are
defined by the _________________________organism whose habitat it is.

^ tiny soil _________________________ habitat may be only one


_________________________of soil.

^ _________________________habitat, in contrast, may be


_________________________hundred square _________________________of hills and
_________________________ that it easily crosses by air.

So habitats may be a_________________________of an ecosystem or may


include_________________________ecosystems.

^ habitat _________________________ an organism with its


_________________________.

^ _________________________is anything an organism


_________________________, including _________________________, shelter,
breeding sites, and _________________________.

^n organism's very _________________________ depends on the


_________________________of a suitable habitat and the
_________________________ it contains.p

^s we'll see, the availability of resources plays a _________________________role in


how populations_________________________and sometimes, like the golden toad,
_________________________.p