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Open Wireless Architecture - The Core to 4G Mobile Communications

Abstract o Seamless switching, and a variety of Quality of Service

driven services
Mobile communication is continuously one of the o Better spectral efficiency
hottest areas that are developing at a booming speed, o Seamless network of multiple protocol and air interface
with advanced techniques emerging in all the fields of
mobile and wireless communications. Current times
are just the beginning for deploying 3G mobile . MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS REVIEW
communication systems, while research on the next
generation of mobile communications, 4G wireless and The history and status of mobile communications are
mobile networks begin to pave the way for the future. shortly listed in the following, together with the respective
This article studies the visions of 4G from a technical evaluations on the chief contributions.
perspective. After a brief review on the development
history and status of mobile communications and 1) Traditionally, wireless systems were considered as an
related 4G perspectives, the article describes the auxiliary approach that was used in regions where it was
open Wireless Architecture (OWA) platform which is difficult to build a connection by wire line.
used for high speed wireless access. OWA for fourth 2) 1G was based on analogy technique and deployed in
generation (4G) mobile communications supporting the1980s. It built the basic structure of mobile
various different wireless radio transmission communications and solved many fundamental problems,
technologies (or called air interfaces) and convergence e.g. cellular architecture adopting, multiplexing frequency
of wireless networks and wireline networks by band, roaming across domain, non-interrupted
constructing an open architecture platform in the communication in mobile circumstances, etc. Speech chat
systems of base-band processing, radio frequency, was the only service of 1G.
controller, networking as well as service applications, 3) 2G was based on digital signal processing techniques
etc. With this said OWA model, a fourth generation and regarded as a revolution from analogy to digital
mobile communication system is defined and technology, which has gained tremendous success
developed. during1990s with GSM as the representative. The
utilization of SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) cards and
support capabilities for a large number of users were 2G’s
INTRODUCTION main contributions
4) 2.5G extended the 2G with data service and packet
Mobile communications and wireless networks are switching methods, and it was regarded as 3G services for
developing at an astounding speed, with evidences of 2Gnetworks. Under the same networks with 2G, 2.5G
significant growth in the areas of mobile subscribers and brought the Internet into mobile personal communications.
terminals, mobile and wireless access networks, and This was a revolutionary concept leading to hybrid
mobile services and applications. According to 3G goals, communications.
3G is necessary but not sufficient to the mobile 5) 3G is deploying a new system with new services instead
communication strategy, in which many problems are only of only providing higher data rate and broader bandwidth.
partly solved and there are still many problems left to be Based on intelligent DSP techniques, various multimedia
solved in the next generation, i.e. 4G. Packet switched data communications services are transmitted by
wireless system with wide area coverage and high convergent 3Gnetworks.3G still leaves some unsolved
throughput. It is designed to be cost effective and to problems that it does not concern or concerns only partly.
provide high spectral efficiency. The 4g wireless uses The limitations and difficulties of 3G include:
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), Difficulty in continuously increasing bandwidth and high
Ultra Wide Radio Band (UWB), and Millimetre wireless. data rate to meet multimedia services requirements,
Features: together with the coexistence of different services needing
o Support for interactive multimedia, voice, streaming different QoS and bandwidth.
video, Internet, and other broad band services 3G can provide down link data rate up to 10Mbps;
o IP based mobile system 4G will be able to support bit rate of up to 50-100Mbps for
o High speed, high capacity, and low cost per bit urban outdoor, and 1Gbps for indoor, environments
o Global access, service portability, and scalable mobile Limitation of spectrum and its allocation.

Difficult to roam across distinct service environment
indifferent frequency bands.
Lack of end-to-end seamless transport mechanism
spanning a mobile sub-network and a fixed one. Open Wireless Architecture
Table 1 summarizes the entire development of mobile
communications with the properties of each generation The 4G Mobile communications will be based on the Open
including starting time, driven technique, representative Wireless Architecture (OWA) to ensure the single terminal
standard, radio frequency, bandwidth, multi-address can seamlessly and automatically connect to the local
technique, cellular coverage, core networks, and service high-speed wireless access systems when the users are in
type. the offices, homes, airports or shopping centers where the
wireless access networks (i.e. Wireless LAN, Broadband
Different 4G feature frameworks have been defined from Wireless Access, Wireless Local Loop, HomeRF, Wireless
the standpoints of service subscriber, service provider, ATM, etc) are available
researcher and engineer. In the following we give some This converged wireless communications can provide the
representatives of 4G perspectives. following
1) It is easy to say, based on the developing trends of 0 Greatly increase the spectrum efficiency
mobile communication, that 4G will have broader 0 Mostly ensure the highest data-rate to the wireless
bandwidth, higher data rate, smoother and quicker handoff, 0 Best share the network resources and channel terminal
wider mobile area, more various service, lower cost, etc. utilization
Obviously these ideas do not make too much sense as 1.An open wireless architecture (OWA) for fourth
such. generation mobile communications system comprising:
2) Other than the words “more”, “any” and/or “all” are
preferred over expressions used by some others, e.g. a) A wireless communication terminal device supporting
anyone can communicate with anyone else, anywhere and various different wireless standards (air interfaces) in the
anytime, or enjoy any service of any network operator, same device with same unique identifier and capable of
through any network of any network service provider. communicating with other devices, systems or networks
These sentences are through a wireless medium or over-the-air network,
truly attractive from a subscriber’s viewpoint, and they b) An advanced computer system equipped with full
sound quite like advertisements or word games. networking facilities to access various different backbone
3) DoCoMo introduced the concept of MAGIC for the networks through wireline networking interfaces or
vision of 4G [5]: Mobile multimedia; Anytime, anywhere, sometimes through broadband wireless access systems,
anyone; Global mobility support; Integrated wireless c) An advanced transceiver system supporting various
solution; and Customized personal service, which mostly different air interfaces to interconnect with wireless
focused on public systems and treat 4G as the extension of communication terminal device, etc through the air link,
3G cellular service. d) transceiver system connected to computer system to
construct the base-station as a whole,
Figure 1 shows the wireless evolution to 4G mobile e) wireless terminal device can also connected to different
communications based on OWA platfonn, where 3G, wireline networks through its networking interfaces in the
Wireless LAN and other wireless access technologies wireless terminal device,
will be converged into 4G mobile platform to deliver the f) base-station can connected to other base-station either
best infrastructure of mobile communications with over the wireline networks or over broadband wireless
optimal spectrum efficiency and resource management. access system through computer system, or by over-the-air
networks through transceiver system,
g) wireless terminal device can also connected to other
wireless terminal device through the air link in an ad-hoc
mode in case of special situations.
2. A method providing a smart antenna processing module
for OWA system, method comprising:

a) using antenna arrays to process radio signals in space,

not only time, to improve performance in presence of
wireless fading and interference,
b) using beam forming algorithm to increase received
signal-over-noise-rate (SNR) for desired directions,
c) using diversity algorithm to combat fading in order to
work at less SNR,

d) using interference mitigation method to maximally Vertical handoff and Horizontal handoff
reuse the channel frequencies,
e) using spatial multiplexing algorithms to increase data To support OWA architecture there are two kinds of
speeds, for example, MIMO (multiple-in and multiple- handoffs
out), etc.
An Open Wireless Architecture (OWA) for fourth Horizontal handoff
generation mobile communications system providing a
cost-effective business model and method for vendors, Horizontal handoff is performed when the terminal moves
operators and providers of various different wireless from one cell to other cell with in the same wireless
standards, method comprising: system.
a) open spectrum management saving lots of investment in
spectrum allocation
b) open architecture saving lots of marketing costs of Vertical handoff
different standards and services, lots of costs in
infrastructure investment, lots of costs on interoperability Vertical handoff, handles the terminal movement between
issues, optimizing the network resource and system two different wireless system ( e.g. from WLAN to GSM)
capacity. .Moreover,4g networks are expected support real time
multimedia services that are highly time sensitive. It is
3. An OWA comprises: open processing engine decodes, unacceptable if the Mobile IPv-6 handoff process
de-channelizes and demodulates the base-band channel significantly degrades system performance, especially QoS
signals and control signals of said various air-interfaces performance. In addition,it is hard to decide the correct
into detailed digital signalling, traffic and control handoff time because measuring handoffs between
information, and vice verse different wireless system is very complicated. Finally ,the
. uncertain handoff completion adds to the complexity in
4. A system base station can be reconfigured and re- designing good handoff mechanism.
programmed as wireless router, mobile soft switch or To over come these problems, researches are currently
wireless gateway, etc. investigating new handoff decision policies and new
algorithms for heterogeneous networks.

MIMO(Multiple Input Multiple Output)

Many enabling technologies have been proposed for 4G

wireless applications, and one of the most important
UMTS technologies is MIMO, which isof significant importance
coverage due to the fact that it achieves its diversity gain and
multiplexing capability without extra spectrum. Therefore,
in order to improve spectral efficiency and system capacity
Vertical as a whole, multiple-antenna technology is almost a must
handoff for 4G systems to support high data rate transmissions.
The proposed STCC MIMO scheme is able to provide a
joint diversity and multiplexing advantage (as shown in
GSM Fig.4) with the help PCCs and OS spread spectrum. It also
offers an open MIMO architecture suited for different
wireless applications, which have distinct requirements on
handoff diversity order and data throughput.

Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC)

The principle of AMC is to change the modulation and

coding format (transport format) in accordance with
WLAN instantaneous variations in the channel conditions,
coverag subject to system restrictions. AMC extends the systems
ability to adapt to good channel conditions. Channel
conditions should be estimated based on feedback from
the receiver. For a system with AMC, users close to the
cell site are typically assigned higher order modulation
with higher code rates (e.g. 64 QAM with R=3/4 Turbo

Codes). On the other hand, users close to the cell CONCLUSION
boundary, are assigned lower order modulation with
lower code rates (e.g. QPSK with R=1/2 Turbo Codes). This aticle presents 4G visions from a technical
AMC allows dflerent data rates to be assigned to perspective. After a brief review of the history and status
different users depending on their channel conditions. of mobile communications, a 4G feature framework, in
Since the channel conditions vary over time, the receiver which features of 4G mobile communications are defined.
collects a set of channel statistics which are used both by The architecture (OWA) which helps in high speed
the transmitter and receiver to optimize system wireless access is explained in the article, OWA will
parameters such as modulation and coding, signal eventually become the global industry leading solution to
bandwidth, signal power, training period, channel integrate various wireless air-interfaces into one wireless
estimation filters, automatic gain control, etc. open terminal where the same end equipment can flexibly
work in the wireless access domains as well as in the
mobile cellular networks. As mobile terminal (rather than
OFDM wireline phone) will become the most important
communicator in future, this single equipment with single
OFDM is chosen over a single carrier solution due to number and multiple air-interfaces (powered by OWA)
lower complexity of equalizers for high delay spread will definitely dominate the wireless communication
channels or high data rates. A broadband signal is industries.
broken down into multiple narrowband carriers (tones),
where each carrier is more robust to multipath. In order With the strong economy growth in China and the
to maintain orthogonality amongst tones, a cyclic prefix neighbouring countries, the 4G mobile system based on
is added which has length greater than the expected Open Wireless Architecture will become the next wave in
delay spread. With proper coding and interleaving across wireless communications. China, Japan, Korea,
frequencies, multipath turns into an OFDM system Singapore as well as other Asian countries are investing
advantage by yielding frequency diversity huge funds on this emerging 4G mobile core technology.

1. Open Wireless Architecture - The Core to 4G Mobile
Communications Janny Hu Delson Group, Willie W. Lu
CUHK (IEEE 2003)

2. Features in Future: Jun-Zhao Sun, Jaakko

Sauvola, and Douglas Howie (IEEE 2001)