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ОТ СОСТАВИТЕЛЯ

Предлагаемое учебное пособие предназначено для студентов-юристов уровня ‘upper–


intermediate и “advanced” и рассчитано на широкую аудиторию.

Цель пособия заключается в совершенствовании навыков чтения и понимания


юридической литературы на английском языке, а также в развитии навыков говорения в сфере
профессиональной коммуникации. Пособие нацелено на глубокое понимание и осмысление
поднятых в нем проблем.

Автор ставил перед собой две основные задачи: ознакомить с некоторыми основными
правами американских студентов как граждан США, а также побудить студентов сделать
попытку сравнения некоторых аспектов правовой системы России и США на английском
языке.

Весь текстовой материал извлечен из оригинальной американской юридической


литературы и в основном построен в форме диалога, что, по мнению автора, должно привлечь
к нему больший интерес студентов и обеспечить лучшее понимание проблем, изложенных в
нем. Особый интерес вызовет обсуждение ряда злободневных тем, редко или почти не
рассматриваемых в учебных пособиях по изучению английского языка, таких как СПИД,
наркомания, насилие и др.

Пособие состоит из двух разделов. Каждый раздел имеет единую структуру и включает
основной материал в форме диалогов, освещающий проблему в целом, и несколько текстов,
дающих дополнительную информацию по проблеме. Диалоги и тексты сопровождаются
комментариями и тематическим словарем.

Представленный текстовой материал значителен по объему, что вызвано стремлением


автора дать более полное представление о некоторых правах и обязанностях граждан США, и,
в частности, американских студентов.

В силу специфики данного пособия в нем содержатся главным образом


речеподготовительные и речевые упражнения. Это ответы на вопросы по содержанию диалога
или текста и комментирование содержания, сообщение на определенную тему, нахождение
русских (английских) эквивалентов, обсуждение проблем, поднятых в тексте или диалоге.
Особое внимание при работе над текстами и диалогами должно быть обращено на выделение,
запоминание и активизацию юридической терминологии.
CHAPTER 1

ON CAMPUS
The status of being college students is not the equivalent of having no rights or recourse. They do
have rights and remedies, as well as responsibilities.

UNIT 1
DRESS CODES
STUDENTS’ RIGHT TO FREE EXPRESSION

Introduction task
Your teacher is going to show you some pictures of people. Make a note of any new vocabulary you
need to describe the people’s clothes:

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Get ready!

Before you read the dialogue, talk about these questions:

• Do your university administrators impose a dress code on students? If yes, what kinds of
clothes are not allowed?
• Do you think students have a right to dress as they want?

 Reading

1. Read and translate the dialogue about the dress code in an American public high school into
Russian:

KEY TERMS:

litigator - участник судебных процессов, тяжущаяся сторона

responsibility - ответственность

to institute- вводить

infringement - ущемление (прав)

parochial - приходской

restriction – ограничение

extensive - обширный, широкий (о правах)

forum - форум, дискуссионная площадка

expression- выражение

substantially- существенно

The students of UCLA1 ask Lewis Katz, Veteran litigator and criminal law professor, about their
rights and responsibilities.

Student: The principal of our public high school decided that the students needed more discipline. So
she instituted a dress code:

• All boys must wear ties


• All girls must wear skirts
• No hair below the shoulders on boys
• No earrings on boys or girls

1
UCLA (University of California Los Angeles) - Калифорнийский университет (г. Лос-Анджелес,
штат Калифорния).

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Can a public school impose dress or hair codes on students?

Professor: The U.S. Supreme Court has not yet addressed that question, and the lower courts that
have dealt with the issue have handed down conflicting decisions. Some have allowed all
dress or hair codes instituted by schools, finding that there is no constitutional right for
students to dress or wear their hair as they please. Other courts say that students do have
a right to dress as they want. For these courts, the question is whether the school officials
have an adequate reason to justify the infringement of the students’ rights to free
expression.

Student: Are the rules different for private and parochial schools?

Professor: Yes. Private and parochial schools can impose dress or hair codes on students because they
are private and not run by the government. The constitution is designed to protect citizens
only against the actions of government and thus is no bar to private schools requiring any
kind of dress or hair code.

Student: And here is another question. Last week I wrote an article for the school paper about the
challenge of being a gay teenager. Now I am worried about what will happen when the
principal reads it. I know the principal has reviewed every issue of the paper before
publication, and I fear my story will be censored. Don’t public school students have a right
to free expression?

Professor: Yes, but school officials generally have the right to impose reasonable restrictions. The
Supreme Court has ruled that the free speech rights of students in public schools are not
necessarily as extensive as the rights of adults in other setting and that a school newspaper
is not automatically a forum for public expression – especially if the paper is produced as
part of the educational curriculum. If a school authority believes that a student’s expression
will substantially interfere with the rights of other students or the work of the school, then
the expression can be limited.

Student: Are these rules the same for private and parochial schools?

Professor: No, once again, because private and parochial schools are not government entities, they
may impose regulations more freely than public schools.

Vocabulary
2. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and word combinations:
veteran litigator, recourse, remedy, entity, to impose, challenge, parochial, dress or hair codes, to
institute, to hand down, infringement of rights, to censor, setting

3. Give the English equivalents for the following words and word combinations:
оправдывать, спорный вопрос, вмешиваться, ограничивать, требовать, ректор (университета),
учебный план

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4. Match each word or expression on the left with the correct definition on the right. Fill in the blanks
in the sentences below with the words from the left column:

1. principal a. to force (oneself, one’s opinion, etc.) on a person

2. curriculum b. the head of a school, college or university

3. interfere c. a course, especially of study at school or university

4. bar d. a rule, etc. that limits or controls

5. restriction e. to (try to) become involved in etc. when one’s help is not wanted

6. impose f. something which prevents (something)

1. They changed the ___________________ and introduced new subjects.


2. Even in a free democracy a person’s behavior must be subject to certain
____________________.
3. Who is the ____________________ of your university?
4. Don’t ___________________ with my plans and my business.
5. Last month the government ____________________ a new tax on cigarettes.
6. His carelessness is a _______________ to his promotion.

5. Insert the most suitable prepositions where necessary. Translate the word combinations into
Russian:

1. to institute ___________ rules

2. to impose rules ___________ students

3. to address ____________ a question

4. to deal _____________ an issue

5. to hand ____________ a decision

6. the right ___________ free expression

7. to protect ____________ the actions of government

8. to be worried ___________ the matter

9. to interfere ____________ the right

Comprehension
6. Answer the following questions about the dialogue.
1. What are dress and hair codes? Give a definition. What kinds of dress codes do you know?

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2. Why do you think school administrators introduce dress or hair codes?
3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of such an introduction?
4. Can a public school impose dress or hair codes on students?
5. What’s the difference between public and parochial schools in deciding that issue?
6. What does the word combination “free expression” mean? Give your own definition of this term
or look up the dictionary.
7. When and why can free expression be limited?
8. What instrument of the USA protects American students as well as adults against the actions of
the government? What do you know about such laws in Russia?
 Listening
7. Listen to the dialogue about overdressing. Make sure you know the meaning of the following
words;
to overdress slumber party
to embarrass to dress up
to see eye-to-eye to feel overwhelmed
to have the upper hand to lose bargaining power
you bet mind game
to afford to handle
common commitment
respect competitor
it’s no big deal high heels
to get a run wedding gown
to take smth. personally

8. Listen to the dialogue again and fill in the gaps with one or two missing words. Make up 5 sentences
of your own using the italicized words:

Never overdress
At the slumber party
Janet: Do you know the most common mistake women make to embarrass men on the
_________________________?
Karen: Their _________ fall off?
Tammy: Their ______________ get a run?
Janet: Those are accidents! The answer is “______________”.
Akiko: _____________? Like the Japanese princess, wearing a 30-pound wedding
_______________? What do you mean “overdress”?
Janet: Hmmm… For example, wearing ____________ and a _____________ for a date at
McDonald’s.
Akiko: But dressing up nicely is a way to show your respect and seriousness to your date. Usually,
Japanese girls don’t wear ________ on a date.
Tammy: If you dress up too nice, men will be afraid that they can’t ____________ you.
Janet: Tammy, we see eye-to-eye. And if they know that you’re serious about them in the
beginning, some guys may feel overwhelmed.
Tammy: Men are scared of the word “_____________”.
Janet: Like Steve.
Tammy: Don’t take it personally!

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Janet: It’s no big deal. When you’re serious about them, they have the upper hand. You’ll lose
your bargaining power! Don’t you want them to fight hard for you?
All girls: You bet.
Tammy: Well, men won’t fight hard unless they have _______________________
Janet: In short, don’t let guys see your cards.
Akiko: Oh, too many mind games! I don’t think I can ____________ guys.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________
____________________________________________________________________

 Speaking
9. With your fellow students, act out the roles of the dialogue below. Where do you think the
event was taking place? Try to guess the meaning of the italicized words. Make up a dialogue of your
own using these words:

Punk Hairstyle

Tammy: Everybody’s here.


Akiko: Except Janet.
Tammy: How could any occasion be complete without Janet?
(Janet walks in.)
Janet: Hi, sorry I’m late.
Tammy: I know why you’re late. I can smell your hair spray.
Janet: What do you think of my new haircut?
The girls: Yeah, very cool, very punk. Wow, it’s in.
(Steve whistles.)
(Michael reaches for his sunglasses because Janet’s hair is so brightly colored.)
Tammy: Did they perm your hair?
Janet: No, they just trimmed the bangs, highlighted the top, and put mousse on the sides.
Akiko: Very charming, I should try the same salon.
The guys: (Screaming and covering their eyes because of Akiko’s answer.) Only if you want to drive
the guys away, Akiko.
Janet: You guys, stop picking on me. I thought you liked my haircut.
The guys: Don’t get too bent out of shape. We’re just joshing.

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  Writing

10. This is part of an e-mail you received from your American pen-friend:

This autumn we’re going to one of the universities in your country to do a really
interesting project about new technology in the year 2020. It would be great to know what
clothes and hair Russian students wear just not to be embarrassed and not to look foolish.
Could you write and tell me what dress and hair codes are imposed in your university and
in different schools and jobs in Russia.

Answer the e-mail.


Write 120-180 words.
 Rendering
11. Here are some opinions of dress and hair codes introduced in some Russian universities. Render
the following into English. Make up a list of new words which could be used by you when discussing
the topic “Dress code”:

Как я отношусь к введению дресс кода в вузе?


Cтудентка Анна:
- Я только за дресс код! Строгий внешний вид дисциплинирует и придает учебному
заведению серьезности. Я думаю, это красиво - ходить в рубашках, брюках (юбках), а не с
голым животом. Все-таки это же учебное заведение, причем высшее, а не ночной клуб. К тому
же дресс код в школе, университете помогает ребятам привыкнуть к дресс коду на будущей
работе.
Cтудент Иван:
- Дресс код в университете - непозволительная роскошь для индивидуальности еще
вчерашнего школьника. Стремление к самовыражению через одежду и свой стиль проявляется
уже в старших классах школ, в которых введена школьная форма. Какой смысл вводить ее в
вузах? Мне эта идея кажется утопической.
Cтудентка Ирина:
- Наша система высшего образования не приспособлена для таких оксфордских традиций.
Да, дресс код дисциплинирует и обязывает студентов к подобающему поведению в стенах
вуза. Это сокращает пропасть между людьми с разным материальным достатком. Но
свободолюбие и нежелание ограничивать себя в чем-либо - особенности менталитета наших
соотечественников. Если уж вводить дресс код, то со школьной скамьи, когда личность
человека еще только формируется, а не в возрасте 18 лет и старше. Что же касается меня, я бы
с радостью приняла это нововведение в своем институте.

8
9
Mind map!

12. Draw a mental map to show different kinds of dress codes in terms of gender. Comment on your
map:

Formal Semi-formal Informal

Just for fun

☺ The dress code at our school is simple:


If you're not taken for one of the teachers, you're in trouble.
☺Our school has a strict dress code.
The only time we can dress the way we like is on Halloween.
☺We have a very simple dress code at our school.
Anything that's comfortable or looks cool is illegal.
☺We have a very strict dress code at our school.
Yesterday my lunch was punished because they said the brown paper bag it came in was offensive.

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UNIT 2
DORM ROOM SEARCHES

Get ready!
Before you read the dialogue, talk about these questions:

• Have you or your apartment or belongings ever been searched? If so, speak on your
experience.
• Do you think searches are humiliating and frightening?
 Reading
KEY TERMS:

search – обыск, обыскивать

to catch red-handed – поймать с поличным, застать на месте преступления

to break rules – нарушать правила

to discover evidence – обнаружить улики

arbitrary – произвольный, случайный

to pay consequences – отвечать за последствия

to investigate misconduct – расследовать проступок

reasonable suspicion – разумное, справедливое подозрение

probable cause – вероятное основание

lawsuit – судебное дело, иск, тяжба

illegal - незаконный

to obtain consent – получить согласие

to refuse admittance - отказать в разрешении (на вход, ввоз)


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to file a report – заполнить протокол

search warrant – ордер на обыск

health and safety issues – вопросы здоровья и безопасности

involvement - вмешательство

hearing in a court of law – слушание дела в суде

1. Read and translate the dialogue about the dorm room searches into Russian:

Student: I returned from class and found a Resident Assistant2 in my dorm3 room holding a can of
beer he found there. I turned red, and then white with fear, but noticed he did too. I haven’t
heard anything about it since. Can you tell me why this happened?

Professor: What happened in your situation is that you caught the RA red-handed, breaking the rules
which govern his conduct, while he was discovering evidence that you broke the
university’s rules.

Student: College students are mostly over the age of majority and have increasing independence in
their affairs. For all practical purposes, a student’s room is his home. A student is
reasonable to expect privacy there, including freedom from arbitrary and unreasonable
intrusions into that living space.

Professor: Yes, at least at state colleges and universities, the Bill of Rights 4 works to help shape and
enforce that expectation. But students must pay the consequences of their actions. The
university is obligated to protect campus order and discipline and promote an atmosphere
consistent with its educational mission. It is important to balance a student’s need for
privacy and the university’s special needs and responsibilities.

Student: Well, when can an RA legally go into my room without my permission?

Professor: RAs may enter dorm rooms to investigate misconduct. Generally RAs are instructed by
state universities that they must have a reasonable suspicion that a student resident is
violating the school’s disciplinary rules before entering a dorm room to investigate.

Student: What does reasonable suspicion mean?

Professor: Reasonable suspicion means not simply unsupported feelings or hunches. The RA who
investigated must present sufficient facts to show that it was reasonable for him to believe
that misconduct was probably taking place, rather than his simply having reason to
suspect it. While reasonable suspicion appears to be the prevailing standard, some courts
and commentators argue that the stricter standard of probable cause should govern entry
into living quarters. One lawsuit brought by students against state college officials even
resulted in the court’s stating that probable cause, the stricter standard, and a warrant
issued by a court are necessary, unless an emergency requires the college or dormitory
officials to enter and search a student’s room.

2
Resident Assistant (RA) – зд. комендант общежития.
3
dorm (dormitory) – общежитие.
4
the Bill of Rights – первые десять поправок к конституции США.
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Student: When can I realistically expect an RA to enter or search my room, and what will happen if
something improper or illegal is found?

Professor: RAs are instructed, under most circumstances, to knock on the dorm room door and obtain
the student’s consent before entering. Note that your voluntary consent is always
sufficient authority for entrance and a search. However, consent for the police to enter is
not, by itself, consent to search. Where a room is shared, either roommate may consent to
the entry and search of the room and her own possessions.

Student: And what if a student refuses admittance?

Professor: In that case the professional residence life staff decides whether to enter without the
student’s permission, bring in the police to search the room, or merely file a report for
future use, depending on the nature of the suspected violation. Of course, if evidence of
illegal conduct is found, it may be turned over to the police.

Student: May the college or university let police search my dormitory room?

Professor: Except in an emergency situation, police must have probable cause and a search warrant
to enter and conduct a search, or the permission of the resident. The university consent is
not the same as the resident’s consent.

Student: At our school, college officials show up unannounced and uninvited to dorm and fraternity
parties to make sure that campus rules on drinking are enforced. Can we stop them?

Professor: Probably not. Underage and excessive drinking at campus parties is looked upon more
seriously now than it once was. These matters are recognized for the health and safety
issues they pose, and thus the university’s concern and involvement are even more
justified. Besides the health issues, there are basic safety issues as well. Students who
drink excessively at campus parties often drive and are a danger to themselves and others
on the road. Moreover, most claims of gang rape on campus seem connected to parties
and excessive drinking. Besides that, parties taking place in university dorms, which are
university property, are subject to university rules and regulations. That’s why your
complaints will fall on deaf ears within the university, and you will receive no more
sympathetic hearing in a court of law.

Vocabulary

2. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and word combinations:

the age of majority; unreasonable intrusion; living space; without one’s permission; to investigate;
suspected; lawsuit; prevailing standard; issued by a court; voluntary consent; sufficient authority;
roommate; possessions; professional residence life staff; illegal conduct; underage and excessive
drinking; claim of gang rape; complaint

3. Give the English equivalents for the following words or word combinations:

поймать с поличным; обыск; нарушать правила; незаконный; тяжба; ордер на обыск;


вероятное основание; слушание в суде; обнаружить улики; получить согласие; вопросы
здоровья и безопасности; комната в общежитии; средства судебной защиты

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4 .Match each word or expression on the left with the correct definition on the right. Fill in the blanks
in the sentences below with the terms from the left column:

1.evidence a. break (an oath, treaty, etc.)

2.violate b. a form of proof legally presented at a trial through witnesses,


records, documents, etc.

3.lawsuit c. written order giving official authority to conduct a search

4.misconduct d. agreement, permission

5.search warrant e. case in a law court

6.consent f. improper behavior

7.a court of law g. place where legal cases are heard

8.probable cause h. a reasonable belief that a crime has been or is being committed,
having more evidence for than against

1. Have you enough ______________________ (of her guilt) to arrest her?


2. What ______________________ is his case heard in?
3. Do you know whether their ______________________ has been settled?
4. The police have Jane’s _______________________ to enter and search her apartment.
5. ________________________ and a warrant issued by a court are necessary to search a dormitory
room.
6. _________________ is bad behavior.
7. ___________________ gives legal permission to the police to search a house.
8. If you ____________ the traffic rules you’ll be stopped by a policeman.

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Comprehension

5. Answer the questions about the dialogue above . Use the active vocabulary of the dialogue.

1. Was the RA breaking the rules while he was discovering evidence that the student had broken the
university’s rules?
2. What statute protects the US citizens against unwarranted search?
3. When can an RA legally go into a student’s room? What if the student refuses admittance?
4. What is reasonable suspicion?
5. May the college or university let the police search one’s dormitory room?
6. What are the reasons why college officials show up unannounced and uninvited to campus parties?
Can they do that?
7. Have you or your friends ever had any trouble with dormitory or university officials as well as with
policemen on campus? Speak on your experience if any.
8. Do Russian students have the same rights and responsibilities as American students while being
subject to dorm room search?

 Listening
6. Listen to the text for more information about student searches. Make sure you know the meaning
of the following words;
principal purse

backpack circumstance

to justify belongings

to maintain discipline to single out

to establish to be entitled (to)

to rule out locker

unbridled right to assert

to provide storage

supplies opportunity

parochial on behalf of

to be subject (to) to request

constitutional prohibition at random (on a random basis)

7. Listen to the text again and say whether these statements about the text are true or false:
(T or F) If the statement is false, give the true one:

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1. The principal of the school decided to search Bradley’s backpack for the first time.
____________________________________________________________
2. A search of the student’s belongings may be justified under all
circumstances.____________________________________________________
3. The Supreme Court has ruled some standards to apply to searches of school lockers.
_________________________________________________________
4. It doesn’t matter whether it is a public or a parochial school when a student’s search is
conducted.________________________________________________
5. Private school administrators violate the US Constitution when they conduct students’
searches._________________________________________________

 Speaking

8. With your fellow students, discuss the situation where your university administrators showed up
unannounced at your fraternity party to make sure that rules on drinking are enforced:

Mind map!
9. Draw a mind map to show reasonable grounds for RAs to enter students’ dorm rooms. Comment
on your map.

Reasonable grounds for entering


and searching a room

 Writing
10. Your English teacher has asked you to write a story. Your story must have this title:
My belongings have been searched by the Resident Assistant in my dormitory room

Write 120-180 words.

16
 Rendering
11. Render the abstract of the article into English. Write down a list of new terms which could
be used by you when discussing the topic “Dorm room searches”:

В общежитии Высшей школы экономики устроили обыск


Поздно вечером в пятницу сотрудники правоохранительных органов провели обыск в
общежитии Государственного университета Высшая школа экономики (ВШЭ) в
подмосковном Одинцово, передает РИА Новости.
Представитель администрации общежития рассказал, что "это была внезапная проверка,
без предъявления удостоверений и каких-либо постановлений на эти действия, без санкции".
По словам источника агентства, несколько человек с камерами ворвались на территорию
общежития через запасной выход.
Посетители вели себя "достаточно агрессивно" и потребовали пустить их в комнаты, где
проживают студенты. Они пояснили, что ведут борьбу с алкоголизмом и распространением
наркотиков, а также с нелегальными мигрантами из среднеазиатских республик. В результате
обысков был задержан работник пожарного управления, уроженец Дагестана, у которого
"обнаружили какие-то проблемы с регистрацией", сообщил собеседник РИА Новости.
В администрации общежития ВШЭ подчеркнули, что осуществляют надлежащий
контроль за проживающими в здании, поэтому никакого алкоголизма и распространения
наркотиков, а также нелегальных мигрантов там нет. При этом, добавил источник, подобные
проверки за последнее время происходит уже в четвертый раз, и ни разу администрация не
получила "каких-либо внятных объяснений".

Just for fun


☺ Police Come Knocking
3a.m. A knock on the dorm room door. The student is standing near the refrigerator trying to open it.
17
-Who is there?
- It's the police.
He feared the worse.
May have to share the last piece of cake.

18
UNIT 3
DRIVING

Get ready!

Before you read the dialogue, talk about these questions:

• Can you drive?


Drivers Non-drivers

1. How much do you drive, and where 1. Would you like to be able to drive?
to? Why/why not?

2 .What do you enjoy/ dislike about driving? 2. Do you ride a motorbike, scooter,
or bicycle? If so, what do you like/dislike
about it?
3. What kind of driving do you find most 3. Do you think the legal age for driving
challenging? should be raised or lowered? Why?

• Compare your ideas with a fellow student who chose the same questions.
• Have you got a driving license?
• Have you ever been involved in a traffic accident? Speak on your experience, if any.

 Reading

KEY TERMS:

to revoke a driver’s license – лишать водительских прав

to suspend a driver’s license – приостанавливать действие, временно лишать водительских


прав

to honor – удостаивать, признавать, выдавать водительские права

to expire – оканчиваться, истекать (о сроке)

19
to apply – использовать, обращаться с просьбой, применять

to rely (on) – полагаться (на)

overthrow – свержение

1. Read and translate the dialogue about getting a driving license in the USA into Russian:
Student: As the youngest of four siblings, I have been relying on my older brother and sisters for rides
everywhere, and I am sick and tired of it, especially since I am always having to do them
favors just to get a lift to the movies. So I have big plans for my sixteenth birthday: I am
going to the Department of Motor Vehicles to get my driver’s license. Or am I? My parents
have been teasing me, telling me that people who wear glasses aren’t allowed to drive. Is
it true? Does everyone have the right to a driver’s license?

Professor: Driver’s licenses are regulated by the states, and each state has its own restrictions. In
general, if you pass the tests set up by your state, you get the license. The usual
requirements are:

• you must be a certain age (sixteen in most states if you have taken a driver’s education course
and have parental consent)
• you must pass a vision test
• you must pass a written test about the laws of the state
• you must pass a road driving test

Most states will allow you to get a learner’s permit before you are old enough to get a
license.

Student: When can a driver’s license be revoked?

Professor: A driver’s license can be revoked or suspended for a number of reasons. Most are driving
related (too many violations or drunk driving, for instance), but in some states, like New
York, you can also lose your license for advocating the overthrow of the United States
government.

Student: Does a person have to get a new license if he or she moves to another state?

Professor: It depends. You generally are required to have a license from the state in which you are
legally a resident, though many states will honor a license until it expires. But in some, like
Virginia, new residents have thirty days to apply for a new license. After that, they are
considered to be driving without a license.

20
Vocabulary
2. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and word combinations:
siblings, to rely, to be sick and tired of smth., to tease sb., requirement, to take a driver’s education
course, vision test, a road driving test, to advocate the overthrow

3. Give the English equivalents for the following words and word combinations:
водительские права, носить очки, разрешать (позволять), ограничения, согласие родителей,
вождение в состоянии алкогольного опьянения, аннулировать, нарушение

4. Match each word or expression on the left with the correct definition on the right. Fill in the gaps
in the sentences below with the terms from the left column of the box:

1. revoke a. to depend on or need

2. suspend b. to change (a decision), to make (a law) no longer valid

3. advocate c. to stop or discontinue temporarily

4.overthrow d. to defeat and force out of power

5. expire e. to recommend

6. rely f. to come to an end (of a limited period of time)

1. All business will be ____________________ until after the funeral.


2. The government has been ___________________.
3. Her three weeks’ leave _______________ tomorrow.
4. The people on the island ___________________ on the supplies that were brought from the
mainland.
5. She __________________ increasing the charges.
6. To make something no longer valid means to _________________ it.

21
Mind Map!

5.Draw a mental map to show the usual requirements for getting a driving license in Russia. Comment
on your map:

Requirements for getting a driving


license in Russia

Comprehension

6. Answer the following questions about the dialogue using the active vocabulary:

1. How can a person get a driver’s license in the USA?


2. Who needs a parental consent for getting a driver’s license in the USA and why?
3. Are the usual requirements the same in each state of the USA?
4. What are the reasons why a driver’s license can be revoked or suspended?
5. Does a person have to get a new license if he or she moves to another state?
6. Speak on the differences in the procedure of granting and depriving driver’s licenses in the USA
and Russia.

 Listening
7. Listen to the dialogue about the car accident. Make sure you know the meaning of the following
words:
direction heated argument

to get into a fender-bender damages

to look carefully at the traffic to pay for damages

to recover insurance carrier

negligent to submit

guidelines to total a car

fault limitations

to cause run-in

22
crucial liability insurer

to admit to revert

23
8. Listen to the dialogue again. Fill in the gaps with not more than three words. Make up 5 sentences
of your own with the italicized words:
HAVING AN ACCIDENT
Student: My parents got into a fender-bender while they were having a heated argument
_____________. Father knew that he had taken the left turn without looking carefully
enough at ____________. Does the person who causes a fender-bender always have to pay
for the other party’s _______________?

Professor: No. States have developed two main ways of dealing with damages arising from such
comparatively minor run-ins: fault and no-fault systems. Under a no-fault system, it
doesn’t matter which driver made ___________________________ that caused an
accident. Instead of recovering from the other driver’s insurance carrier, you recover from
your own insurance company, regardless of who caused the accident. Under a fault system,
one side admits to (or is proved to bear) _____________ for an accident, and any damages
are paid for by his or her insurer or by __________________.

Student: What kinds of accidents are covered by ___________?

Professor: No-fault systems vary widely. Most states that use no-fault rely on it for minor property
damage and _______________ claims and then revert to a fault system for serious injuries.
No state is entirely no-fault.

Student: How does a no-fault claim work?

Professor: Claims under no-fault are submitted to your own ______________ company. The
guidelines and limitations of coverage vary from state to state. Generally speaking, you can
collect from your ______ even if the other party caused the accident and is insured.
Whether you can recover for totaling your car _____________ the no-fault limits in your
state.

Student: How does a fault system work?

Professor: Most states use a fault system. If you are involved in _______________________ caused
by the negligence of another driver, your damages are paid by that driver’s __________
insurer.

________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________

24
Vocabulary
9. Give the English equivalents for the following words and word combinations:
дорожно-транспортное происшествие, поворачивать налево, убытки, вызывать,
ответственность, зависеть, страховая компания, иск, ограничение, вина

10. Match each word or expression on the left with the correct definition on the right. Fill in the gaps
in the sentences below with the terms from the left column of the box:

1. traffic a. to come or go back (to a previous state, point in a discussion)

2. negligence b. a crash, a violent striking together (of eg. 2 vehicles)

3.collision c. vehicles, aircraft, ships, etc. moving about

4.insurance d. the promise of a sum of money in event of loss eg. by fire or


other disaster, given in compensation by a company etc. in return
for regular payments

5. blame e. carelessness

6. to revert f. responsibility (for smth. bad)

1. The accident was caused by the driver’s ____________________


2. Ten people were injured in the ___________________ between the bus and the car.
3. There is a lot of __________________ on the road.
4. They ________________ to a fault system for serious injuries.
5. He bears ___________________ for the accident.
6. Have you paid the ______________________ on your jewelry?

Comprehension
11. Answer the following questions about the dialogue of the unit:

1. Why did the student’s parents get into a fender-bender?


2. What two main ways of dealing with damages arising from minor run-ins have states developed?
3. What are no-fault and fault systems?
4. What accidents are covered by no-fault?
5. How does a no-fault claim work?
6. How does a fault system work?
7. How are issues arising from minor and serious collisions solved in Russia? Compare the systems
in Russia and the USA?

25
 Speaking

12. With your fellow students, act out the roles of the dialogue below. Then, switch roles. Guess the
meaning of the italicized words. Make up a dialogue of your own using the active vocabulary:

Driving Class

Akiko is driving on the freeway with Steve.


Akiko: Steve, thank you for teaching me to drive. You’re very nice.
Steve: Hey, no problem. It’s my pleasure to help you out, especially since you’re Tammy’s
roommate.
Akiko: I hope I won’t disappoint you.
Steve: I have never seen a lady with such good manners. I’d better watch my mouth.
Akiko: You are such a gentleman.
Steve: Driving is very simple: be cautious, relax, and be brave. Are you ready to drive? Buckle up
now. Check the mirrors.
Akiko: I’m ready.
Steve: Go. Just be cool.
Akiko: This isn’t so hard after all. I think I’m getting the hang of it.
Steve: Wow, I’m impressed. You’re a fast learner.
Akiko: It’s because you’re a good teacher.
Steve: Before you know it, you’ll have your license.
Akiko: I hope you’re right.
Steve: Just remember not to be a road hog. Oh, slow down! (A red sports car suddenly cuts in front
of Akiko.)
Akiko: Ahhhh!
Steve: Son of a bitch! He cut in front of us without signaling. Honk!
Crazy driver: Make my day! (gives Steve and Akiko the middle finger)
Steve: Go to hell. If I ever see you again, I’ll, I’ll, I’ll…
Akiko: He’s driving away. He can’t hear you. This crazy driver scared me to death, but so did you.
Please calm down.
Steve: Please bear with me. I can’t help my temper.
Akiko: I understand it is hard to chill out. See, the same red sports car just got pulled over by a cop.
Steve: Yeah, the jerk deserves it.

26
Mind Map!
13. Imagine you’ve witnessed a serious traffic accident. Draw a mental map to show the collision
scene and its participants. Comment on your map:

 Writing
14. A pen friend of yours, who lives in the USA, wants to know about driving offences and
penalties for them in Russia. Complete the table and share the information with this friend:

Driving offences Penalty Fine

dangerous driving

failure to stop

speeding offences

drunk or impaired driving

using a mobile phone (car)

27
parking in a non-stopping area

going on red (through red lights)

causing death by dangerous driving

28
 Rendering
15. Render the abstract of the newspaper’s article into English using a dictionary. Write down a list
of new words which could be used by you when discussing the topic “Car accident”.
Последняя встречная
ДТП произошло в среду в 06.10 в районе дома 13/15 по Садово-Сухаревской улице. В
этот ранний час машин на Садовом кольце было немного, что, возможно, и помогло избежать
большего числа жертв. По предварительным данным, находившийся за рулем Mercedes актер
не справился с управлением из-за большого превышения скорости. В результате его машина,
ехавшая в крайнем правом ряду внутренней стороны кольца, вылетела на "встречку",
врезалась вначале в Hyundai Santa Fe, а затем - в Nissan Teana. По словам источника в ГИБДД,
в итоге иномарка, описав дугу, остановилась в крайней правой полосе внешней стороны
"садового" и загорелась.
Водитель и двое пассажиров погибли на месте, еще одна девушка, ехавшая в Mercedes,
была срочно доставлена в больницу. Врачи в течение нескольких часов боролись за ее жизнь,
но помочь не смогли.
В джипе погиб пассажир, а водитель и две его пассажирки были госпитализированы.
Больше всех в этой страшной аварии повезло водителю третьего автомобиля - Nissan Teana,
он отделался испугом.
На место происшествия в считанные минуты прибыли наряды ДПС, "скорые" и
пожарные машины. Водители, ставшие свидетелями происшествия, также пытались
самостоятельно потушить пылающую иномарку и оказать первую помощь раненым.

29
30
Just for Fun
☺ Blonde Car Accident
One day, while a blonde was out driving her car, she ran into a truck.
The truck's driver made her pull over into a parking lot and get out of the car.
He took a piece of chalk and drew a circle on the pavement. He told her to stand in the middle
and not leave the circle.
Furious, he went over to her car and slashed the tires.
The blonde started laughing.
This made the man angrier so he smashed her windshield.
This time the blonde laughed even harder.
Livid, the man broke all her windows and keyed her car.
The blonde is now laughing hysterically, so the truck driver asks her what's so funny.
The blonde giggles and replies, "When you weren't looking, I stepped out of the circle three
times!"

☺ Wife helps out the cop


A male driver is pulled over by a cop and the following conversation takes place:
Man: What's the problem officer?
Cop: You were going at least 75 in a 55 zone.
Man: No sir, I was going 65.
Wife: Oh Harry. You were going 80.
(Man gives his wife a dirty look.)
Cop: I'm also going to give you a ticket for your broken tail light.
Man: Broken tail light? I didn't know about a broken tail light!
Wife: Oh Harry, you've known about that tail light for weeks.
(Man gives his wife a dirty look.)
Cop: I'm also going to give you a citation for not wearing your seat belt.
Man: Oh, I just took it off when you were walking up to the car.
Wife: Oh Harry, you never wear your seat belt.
Man: Shut your mouth, woman!
Cop: Ma'am, does your husband always talk to you this way?
Wife: No, only when he's drunk.

31
UNIT 4
IN TROUBLE OFF CAMPUS

DEALING WITH CAMPUS POLICE

Get ready!

Before you read the dialogue, talk about these questions:

• Have you ever loaned your student ID to a friend of yours? If so, why?
• Have you got in trouble because of that? Speak on your experience, if any.

 Reading

KEY TERMS:

to aid and abet – оказывать пособничество и подстрекать

commission of a crime – совершение преступления

beyond a reasonable doubt – вне разумного сомнения, при отсутствии обоснованного сомнения

to proceed (against) – преследовать в судебном порядке

criminal charges – пункты обвинения

theft – кража

trespass – причинение вреда, посягательство

destruction of property – уничтожение, приведение в негодное состояние собственности

disorderly conduct – поведение, нарушающее общественный порядок

misdemeanor – мисдиминор (категория наименее опасных преступлений, граничащих с


административными правонарушениями)

32
jail sentence – тюремный приговор

to press charges – поддерживать обвинения, возбуждать дело, требовать возмещение ущерба

to convict (of) – осуждать, объявлять виновным в вердикте присяжных или в решении судьи

statute – законодательный акт, статут (международный коллективный акт конституционного


характера; закон)

to expunge – опечатывать, засекречивать, погашать (судимость)

to fine – налагать штраф

attorney – 1. поверенный (в суде); юрист, адвокат 2. прокурор, атторней

bail – залог (при передаче на поруки); поручитель (ткж.bail bondsman)

to release on bail – освободить под залог

to provide legal cause – обеспечить законное основание

to be entitled (to)– иметь право (на что-либо)

arbitrariness – произвол, самоуправство

expungement – погашение судимости

to plead “no contest” – заявить о нежелании оспаривать обвинение

1. Read and translate the dialogue about the students’ trouble off campus into Russian:

Student: I loaned my student ID to my roommate who was going drinking. He was arrested for
underage drinking and my ID was confiscated. Can I get in trouble?

Professor: If the state can prove that you gave your roommate your ID knowing and intending that he
was going to use it to gain entrance to a bar and be served alcohol illegally, you could be
in serious trouble. You have aided and abetted your roommate’s commission of a crime.

Student: Am I guilty of a crime?

Professor: To be guilty of a crime, depending on the relevant state law, the state would have to prove
beyond a reasonable doubt that you intended the outcome, or at least that you knew the
likelihood of the outcome.

Student: But they can only prove the matters, if I or my roommate volunteers the information.

Professor: Exactly. The authorities rarely proceed against the owner because of the difficulty of
securing proof. But college or university will likely have a different standard, and you
may face disciplinary proceedings.

33
Student: I see. And here is another situation. As a prank, I stole a napkin dispenser from a fast food
hamburger spot off campus, and now all hell has broken loose. First I was arrested. Isn’t
it an over-reaction?

Professor: One person’s prank is another’s crime. These so-called pranks end up resulting in criminal
charges most commonly for theft, trespass, destruction of property, and disorderly conduct.
All are misdemeanors, but all will probably result in a criminal record and could result in jail
sentences, although a jail sentence for a first misdemeanor offense is not likely.

Student: But many within a university community usually view student pranks that do not get too out
of hand with a merciful «students will be students» attitude.

Professor: Local police do not often share that view. Neither would you in their situation. In college towns,
students make most of the work for police. They see students as spoiled kids. Your description
of what happened clearly fits the definition of theft. You intended to permanently deprive the
owner of his property. It doesn’t matter that the object is worth only a few dollars; nor does
it matter that you had no ill will towards the owner of the property. Once you are past the age
of eighteen, you may be charged as an adult.

Student: That means, by committing the foolish act, I subjected myself...

Professor: Let’s hope the owner of the property could have elected not to press charges.

Student: If I’m convicted, can the conviction be used to deny me future opportunities?

Professor: As a youngster in school, you were probably warned that certain conduct would go on your
permanent record. After a period of time set by statute, a misdemeanor conviction may
be expunged on a petition filed in the court where the charge was heard. Expungement is
a sealing of the records of the case, so they cannot be accessed by employers. A conviction
of this nature is not likely to keep you out of graduate or professional school, keep you
from practicing law, or even keep you out of the armed forces. You will have to explain
it and demonstrate, by having no subsequent arrests and convictions, that it was a youthful
indiscretion.

Student: OK, so far. I pled «no contest» on the advice of an attorney and was fined. Now, however, I
have received notice to report to the Dean of Students’ office to answer internal charges
related to the theft. Didn’t my court appearance put an end to the case?

Professor: Your school undoubtedly is involved in a cooperative agreement with local police
department. Often that agreement is between the municipal and campus police
departments. The school is notified following the arrest of one of its students. Sometimes
that is done so that someone may arrange bail. Sometimes, as here, it is for disciplinary
reasons.

Student: Am I to be expelled for my high jinks?

Professor: Very unlikely. Nonetheless, a state or private college or university may discipline students
for any behavior that is reasonably related to the school’s educational mission. This
authority extends to off-campus behavior.

Student: Our campus police tend to be power crazy. Whenever a group of students seems to be having
a good time on the street, the police swarm around, barking orders, and threatening arrest.
Is there anything we can do to put a stop to that?
34
Professor: Campus police operate under policies developed by the university. Rather than confront
the police, the matter should be taken up with university administration. Your description
of having a good time leaves a lot to the imagination. I doubt that even the most heavy-
handed campus police are about to interrupt a Frisbee, or other type of game, or a quiet
discussion. So what you are probably talking about is a good time with a certain amount
of rowdiness. You have certain rights to be free from interference, even in public and on
campus. But any rowdy behavior in a public place can subject you to police interference.
It’s possible that you are providing legal cause for the police conduct you describe.

Student: And the last situation. My friend flunked out. What’s the likelihood of a court helping him
get back in school if he sues?

Professor: Courts will intervene in this situation even rarely than they will with college and university
disciplinary proceedings. A student has the right to be treated fairly in the administration
of an academic matter. He is entitled to fair and clear notice of academic requirements.
The school’s rules of dismissal need only be applied equally and without arbitrariness.
However, for a student who has been dismissed from a college or university for academic
failure, the process can be very adversarial. As a result, courts provide minimum review,
not so much of a final decision, but of a process leading to the final decision. Courts will
intervene in this situation, if the college or university acted arbitrarily, in bad faith, in an
irregular or unprofessional manner, or unequally with regard to race or gender.

Notes
1. ID (identification)- зд. студенческий билет
2. рrank – выходка, проделка, шалость
3. permanent record – зд. личное дело студента
4. high jinks – разг. шумное веселье, проделки
5. to flunk out – разг. отсеяться (из учебного заведения)

35
Vocabulary
2. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and word combinations:
relevant state law; to volunteer information; prank; to swarm around; to bark orders; policies;
rowdiness; interference; to flunk out; to intervene; to treat fairly; dismissal; academic failure;
adversarial; in bad faith; with regard to race and gender; plead “no contest”

3. Give the English equivalents for the following words and word combinations.
оказывать пособничество и подстрекать; кража; вне разумного сомнения; добровольно
выложить информацию; уголовное обвинение; иметь право на что-либо; исключить из
колледжа за академическую задолженность; недобросовестно, с нечестными намерениями;
подать иск; хулиганство; обращаться честно, справедливо; произвол, самоуправство; давать
законное основание; в общественном месте; раса и пол

4. Fill in the gaps. Use the words and phrases from the box:

1.aided and abetted 4.convicted 7.misdemeanors

2.bail 5.beyond a reasonable 8.fined


doubt

3.statutes 6.attorney 9.jail sentence

1.___________________are the crimes that are punishable by less than one year in jail, such as minor
thefts and simple assaults that do not result in substantial bodily injury. 2. Principal in the Second
Degree.5 - One by whom the offender is ____________________ at the very time when the crime is
committed. 3. _______________ is the money a defendant pays as guarantee that he or she will show
up in court at a later date. 4. If you cannot afford an ________________, one will be appointed for
you. 5. A person who is charged with a crime in America is presumed to be innocent and must be
acquitted unless the government offers evidence to prove the contrary _______________________.
6. A well-known personality was ____________________ of stealing a bag and a hat, total value
75$, and was _______________. 7. The laws passed by elected federal, state, and local legislatures
are __________________. 8. The boy was found guilty and he was given a ________________ of
three months suspended for two years.

5Исполнитель второй степени (лицо, оказывающее пособничество фактическому совершению


преступления).

36
Comprehension
5. Answer the questions about the dialogue of the unit:
1. Is a student guilty of a crime, if he loaned his ID to his roommate for the purpose to gain entrance
to a bar and be served alcohol illegally? Will he face disciplinary proceedings?
2. Is it a prank or a crime to steal a cheap item from a fast food restaurant? May it result in criminal
charges? Match this offense.
3. Give examples of misdemeanors.
4. If a student is convicted, can the conviction be used to deny him future opportunities?
5. Is a school notified following the arrest of one of its students? Why are schools involved in a
cooperative agreement with local police department?
6. Can campus police interrupt a quiet discussion, demand identification and order students to
scatter?
7. Can a court help a student get back in school, if he was dismissed for academic failure? Give
your reasons.
 Listening
6. Listen to the abstract from the text about senior pranks. Make sure you know the meaning of the
following words:
to vandalize field days
notable to make up
controlled substance breaking and entering
fire extinguishers senior
to miss off to bang
prank-gone-wrong to determine
spray paints to cancel
to face jail time trial
to occur to result in

7. Listen to the text again and fill in the missing information with one or two words. Make up 5
sentences of your own using the italicized words;
One of the more notable senior pranks ______________ in 2008 in South Colonie, New York.
A group of seniors vandalized buses, using _________________ to draw graffiti on the buses, as well
as banging fire extinguishers against the bus. This ___________________ buses not being able to
pick up students, and one day was missed off school. Field days had to be ____________________,
and final exams had to be made up. One notable senior prank-gone-wrong was the Clements High
School prank of 2011. Three boys planned to take ______________ from the testing rooms and put
them on the _________. However, before they were able to do so, they were caught by police and
arrested for breaking and entering, and one of the boys was in ___________________of a controlled
substance. Afterward, there were ____________ and it was determined that they would not
_______________, but the punishment has not been stated publicly.
____________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________

37
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________

 Speaking
8. With your fellow students, discuss the differences between students’ pranks and petty crimes. In
what way would you punish students who are constantly committing pranks in the university if you
were a university official?

 Writing
9. You have recently had a class discussion about the prank of your fellow student which resulted in
jail sentence. Now your English teacher has asked you to describe this foolish act and your attitude
towards it:

Write 120-180 words.

 Rendering
10. Render the article into English using a dictionary. Make up a list of new words which could be
used by you when discussing the topic “Students’ pranks”:

Студента могли отчислить за проделки брата

Студента из Азербайджана, который проходит обучение в одном из вузов белорусского


Гродно, могли отчислить за проделки двоюродного брата, который незаконно получил
водительские права, воспользовавшись паспортом родственника, но регулярно нарушал ПДД.
Об этом сообщает агентство БЕЛТА.

Студент одного из гродненских университетов, гражданин Азербайджана, даже не


подозревал, что за его спиной темные дела творит двоюродный брат, с которым они очень
похожи. Но когда в администрации вуза, куда неоднократно из ГИБДД приходили на студента
документы о нарушениях им ПДД, пригрозили отчислением и даже депортацией, студент
обратился в ГБДД.

В результате разбирательства из тени «выплыл» брат, который воспользовался честным


именем родственника, чтобы решить свои проблемы. Выяснилось, что этот самый брат, 25-
летний азербайджанец, в 2003 году был на пять лет лишен водительских прав. В прошлом году
у «лишенца» заканчивался срок, и он мог, честно сдав экзамены в ГАИ, вернуть себе
водительское удостоверение, но парень пошел другим путем. Он воспользовался паспортом
двоюродного брата, на которого, несмотря на трехлетнюю разницу в возрасте, очень похож.
По подставным документам молодой человек прошел курс обучения в автошколе, сдал
экзамены в ГАИ и получил водительское удостоверение. И, возможно, так и ездил бы по
документам брата, если бы не юношеская удаль: за многочисленные нарушения ПДД лихача
постоянно задерживали сотрудники ГИБДД.

В настоящее время в отношении молодого человека возбуждено два уголовных дела,


наказание определит суд.

38
Just for fun
☺ College Prank Ideas
Obtain nine of the same type of animal (pigs, chickens, any animal that you can get your hands
on). Then paint on their backs the numbers 1-10, but skip a number like 5 or something. Turn the
animals loose in your dorm or student union building. Once they find all the other animals, they'll be
looking for the "missing" animal forever.

☺ Many dorm room doors have peepholes installed, so you can see who's knocking. What
most people don't know is that it's really easy, if you have access to the other side of the door, to
reverse the peephole so that you can look in from the outside.

39
UNIT 5
MANDATORY DRUG TESTING

Get ready!
Before you read the dialogue, talk about these questions:

• What do you know about drug testing? When and who is it done on?
• Do you think drug testing should be mandatory? Why? Give your reasons.

 Reading

KEY TERMS:

mandatory – обязательный, принудительный

drug - наркотик

to submit (to)– 1. подвергать 2. подчиняться

to institute – устанавливать, вводить

to eliminate – исключать, устранять, уничтожать

to detect - обнаружить

ineligible – не имеющий права, лишенный права

to participate (in) – принимать участие

1. Read and translate the dialogue about mandatory drug testing into Russian:

Student: I have heard that my state university is considering mandatory drug testing each semester.
Can they do that?

40
Professor: Only if you let them. Mandatory drug testing, except for student athletes, cannot be
performed across the board or on a random basis. Requiring a student to submit to a test
for traces of drugs in his system can only be done if there is an individualized suspicion
that the particular student is using drugs. Any attempt to institute mandatory drug testing
on less than legally sufficient grounds is a serious violation of fundamental constitutional
rights and can be challenged.

Student: What about athletes?

Professor: The purpose of drug testing of athletes is two-fold. First, there is an interest in eliminating
all illegal drug use. Second, there is a particular interest in detecting and eliminating the
use of performance-enhancing drugs, like steroids.

Beginning in 1992, all colleges and universities associated with the NCAA6 are required to have their
student athletes sign a consent to be tested. Any student who refuses to sign the consent
is ineligible to compete in athletics at any NCAA school.

Student: Is this drug testing program year-round?

Professor: Yes. Student athletes participating in conference championships and all post-season bowl
and championship competitions are subject to testing. In team sports, testing during the
regular season is done on randomly selected players. In individual sports, the top finishers
in each event are likely to be tested, as well as other participants who are randomly
selected.

Vocabulary
2. Give the Russian equivalents for the following word combinations:

on a random basis; legally sufficient grounds; performance-enhancing drugs; conference


championships and all post-season bowl and championship competitions; top finishers

3. Give the English equivalents for the following words and word combinations:

принимать участие; нарушение основных конституционных прав; подвергать кого-либо


тестированию; устранять, исключать; незаконное использование наркотиков

Comprehension

6NCAA (The National Collegiate Athletic Association, the governing body of college sports) – Национальная
студенческая спортивная ассоциация.

41
4. Answer the following questions about the dialogue:

1. Can mandatory drug testing be performed by state universities on a random basis?


2. When can a student submit to a test for traces of drugs in his system?
3. What is the purpose of drug testing of athletes?
4. What happens to a student athlete who refuses to sign a consent to be tested?
5. How is drug testing done in team sports and in individual sports?

42
 Speaking
5. Look through the story by Angela Dorrough and be ready to discuss it:
True story – A boy named Brady Tannahill brings home to his father a rather ambiguous consent
form telling his parents that his high school is about to implement a mandatory drug test for grades
six through twelve.

Brady’s father does not sign the consent form, and the next day Brady is subjected to in-school
suspension, put into a drug counseling program, not allowed to participate in school activities, and finally,
made to wear a bright orange jumpsuit distinguishing him from the other “non-drug using” students.
Brady is twelve years old.

This high school takes a harsh approach to those not only found guilty through forced drug
testing, but also those who refuse to take the drug test.

• Comment on the words of Brady’s father: “They taught me at school that if you don’t fight
for your rights, you’re not gonna have ’em. I’m not opposed to drug testing itself – if the child
shows a reason to be tested. But don’t mandate it. Don’t tell the child he’s guilty until proven
innocent.” Do you agree with his opinion? What do you think Brady’s father is going to do to
prove his right?
• Do you think that high school administrators were right to mandate orange jumpsuits to
someone who wants to stand up for their rights? Give your reasons.
• Don’t you think that high school should try to stop the problem before it starts, rather than try
to take corrective measures after it’s already happened? What tactics that encourage children
to stay away from negative influences would you use, if you were principal of a school? Use
expressions from the box when answering the questions.
to fight the drug war, to start early education on the effects of drugs, to engage in
more extracurricular activities, to have the reason not to do drugs, to encourage
parents, the need to keep the school safe, a severe infringement of rights, younger
generation

 Listening
6. Listen to the text about drug testing. Make sure you know the meaning of the following words:
to tromp to announce

to require to ensure

to encourage specimen

to fire insubordination

performance to impair

to mandate to implement

transit worker safety

restriction caution

43
invasion of privacy notice

to administer memo

44
7. Listen to the text again. Fill in the gaps with not more than three words. Make up 5 sentences of
your own with the italicized words:

DRUG TESTING
One day, a few months into the job, Arthur tromped into Beatrice’s office. «Time for the pee
test», he announced, handing Beatrice a paper cup and a memo stating the company’s policy that
every employee would be checked periodically for drug use.

Can employees be required to take drug tests?

Yes, but there are ________________. Federal laws allow people in certain jobs, such as airline
pilots, long-distance drivers, and _________________, to be tested at random as a condition of their
_____________. That means the boss can walk in at any time and demand a specimen, and the worker
can be fired for _______________________ if he or she refuses.

In many jurisdictions, people in other jobs where ___________ is a factor, including firefighters
and prison guards, can be tested only if the employer has a «________________» to believe the
worker’s performance has been impaired by ____________ - they are involved in a workplace
accident or are ______________violent behavior, for example.

Beyond the people in these jobs, an employer who requires a drug test __________________
in some states of violating a worker’s right to privacy. And there are strict guidelines in some states
as to when and how people can be tested. For instance, an employer must give reasonable
_____________ to the worker before the test is ____________________, although if the employee
was involved in an accident, the test can be administered right away. The employer must also have
an ______________________________ that ensures that each specimen is handled
______________. The employer must have a written policy that outlines the guidelines.

An employer should use _____________ when asking an employee to take a drug test, because
in many jurisdictions the employee can turn around and sue for ________________________ or
wrongful discharge if the testing isn’t handled properly.

________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________

45
Vocabulary
8. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and word combinations:
guidelines, to handle, to outline, to run the risk, to oppose, to refuse, to distinguish, to engage, strict,
to administer a test , to implement, to mandate

9. Give the English equivalents for the following words and word combinations:
рисковать, увольнять, ограничения, анализ мочи, быть против, принимать меры, негативное
влияние, отстаивать свои права

10. Are sentences about the text Right or Wrong? If there is not enough information to answer Right
or Wrong choose Doesn’t Say:
1. Every employee of the company Beatrice worked for was checked for drug use every month.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesn’t say

2. As usual employees can’t be required to take drug tests.


A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesn’t say

3. Long-distance drivers are not allowed to be tested at random.


A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesn’t say

4. Prison guards can be drug tested if they are exhibiting violent behavior.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesn’t say

5. In some states an employer runs the risk of violating a worker’s right to privacy if in this job
safety is not a factor.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesn’t say

6. In many jurisdictions an employee forced to take a drug test may sue for invasion of privacy.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesn’t say

 Writing
11. Write a letter to your friend:

46
Your pen friend who lives in the USA is interested if there are any jobs in Russia where employees
can be required to take drug tests. Ask your questions about drug testing in different jobs of the USA
to see the difference. Use your active vocabulary.

Write 120-180 words.

47
 Rendering
12. Render the following text into English using a dictionary. Make up a list of new words which
could be used by you when discussing the topic “Drug testing”:
Кому и зачем нужны тесты на наркотики?
Тесты на наркотики применяются в различных областях.
1. Работодатели. Многие компании в РФ и за её пределами проводят тестирование на
наркотики у кандидатов и персонала и минимизируют соответствующие риски.
2.Федеральная Миграционная Служба и сами мигранты. В соответствии с законодательством
РФ заболевание наркоманией является основанием для отказа в предоставлении въездной
визы, вида на жительство и разрешения на работу в РФ. По закону мигранты проходят
освидетельствование на предмет заболевания наркоманией.
3. Структуры МВД, ФСБ, и другие спецслужбы с целью жесткого отбора кадров.
4. ВУЗы и школы. Цель — контроль, сдерживание наркотизации среды и социальная миссия.
5. Родители подростков. Цель — контроль за ситуацией с употреблением наркотиков и
мощный сдерживающий фактор для подростков. Тестирование — это предлог отказаться от
первого приёма наркотиков.
6. Люди, планирующие семью и детей: снижение рисков, связанных с созданием
наркотизированных семей.
7. Врачи-наркологи используют тесты на наркотики для объективизации контроля ремиссии
наркозависимости.
8. Тренеры спортивных команд контролируют риск наркотизации спортсменов.
Результат применения тестов:
— Защищённость организации и общества от рисков, связанных с употреблением наркотиков
на работе.
— Мощное дисциплинирующее и сдерживающее действие на персонал.
— Реализация социальной миссии организации

48
Mind map!
13. Draw a mental map to show who needs drug testing and why. Comment on your map.

Just for fun


☺ Urine Test
I and another man were taking a drug test for employment.
He relayed a true story to me of a man who once sought employment with him for another
company.
This man was a drug user and needed to have some “pure” urine because he knew that his own
would never pass the test.
He decided to get someone else to donate urine for him.
When the day came for him to submit his specimen, he carried his friend’s urine sample into
the restroom with him in his pocket, and then submitted it in the place of his own.
A couple of days later, he received the following call from the lab: “Mr. Smith (substituted
name), we have some good news for you. We have received the results of your test and your urine is
pure; you are drug free and healthy. And by the way, you’re pregnant!”

49
☺ Drug Testing at Pepsi

50
UNIT 6
HIV TESTING AND PRIVACY
AIDS

Get ready!

Before you read the dialogue, talk about these questions:

• Do you know what stands for HIV and AIDS?


• Have you met people who are HIV positive or have AIDS?

 Reading

KEY TERMS:

anonymous - анонимный

antigen - антиген

virus -вирус

to administer drugs – применять, давать (лекарство, наркотики)

fail-safe – надежный, прочный

to take precaution – принимать меры предосторожности

to be available – быть в наличии, быть предоставленным

to attach (to) – прикреплять, прикладывать

to enable – давать возможность или право

to engage –заниматься, участвовать, вступать


51
confidential – конфиденциальный, не подлежащий разглашению

health care provider– лечащий врач, медицинское учреждение

52
1. Read and translate the dialogue about AIDS and HIV into Russian:
Student: And now, let’s talk about HIV7 testing. I’m interested, if I can get an anonymous HIV test.

Professor: An HIV test signals the presence in the blood stream of antigens produced by the body to
fight the HIV virus which leads to AIDS8. Currently, there is no test to determine the
presence of the virus itself, so the presence of the antigen is the best indication.

Student: Is HIV testing necessary for everyone?

Professor: It’s recommended for anyone who has engaged in high risk behavior, which most
commonly is unprotected sexual conduct and administering drugs intravenously with a
used needle or one of unknown origin. There is no such thing as safe sex anymore in the
face of AIDS. Monogamous relationships reduce the risk, as does the use of a condom,
but condoms are not fail-safe. Failure to take this precaution, however, is the equivalent
of playing Russian Roulette for you and your partner.

Student: Is anonymous HIV testing available in every state?

Professor: Not in every state. And many states that do not have anonymous testing are limiting
availability to the program or eliminating it entirely.

Student: If anonymous testing is not available, is there another way to protect my identity?

Professor: Confidential testing, which is offered in every state, is the alternative to anonymous testing.
It attaches your name and other identifying information (such as residence) to your test
results. Confidential testing promises to keep the results confidential among you, your
health care provider, and your state health department to enable it to observe, and
hopefully manage, the transmission rate.

Student: And where can I get the information about the availability of anonymous testing sites?

Professor: This information can be obtained from the Federal Center for Disease Control’s AIDS
Hotline9.

7 HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) – ВИЧ (вирус иммуннодефицита человека).


8 AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) – СПИД (синдром приобретенного иммунного дефицита).
9 Federal Center for Disease Control’s AIDS Hotline – горячая линия Федерального центра по контролю за

распространением СПИДа (1-800-432-AIDS).

53
Vocabulary
2. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and word combinations:
presence; to produce; indication; sexual conduct; used needle; condom; high risk behavior;
monogamous relationships; health care provider; state health department; transmission rate

3. Give the English equivalents for the following words and word combinations:
внутривенно; принять меры предосторожности; снижать риск; доступный; обязательное
тестирование; незащищенный секс; дать право

4. Match each word or expression on the left with the correct definition on the right. Fill in the blanks
in the sentences below with the words from the left column:

1.drug a. put (oneself) under the control of another

2.virus b. substance (often habit-forming) inducing sleep or

producing stupor or insensibility

3.fail-safe c. give authority or means

4.submit d. giving security; that may be relied or depended on

5.enable e. element smaller than bacteria, causing the spread

of infectious disease

6.ineligible f. not suitable or qualified

7.available g. remove; take or put away, get rid of

8.eliminate h. that may be used or obtained

1. The student behaves as though he is on _______________s.


2. She was ______________ed from the tennis match in the first round.
3. Children under eighteen years of age are _____________________ to vote in elections.
4. The rebels were ordered to _______________.
5. The money I inherited ______________ed me to go on a world cruise.
6. All the _______________ money has been used.
7. He is suffering from a ___________________ infection.
8. There is no __________________ mechanism guaranteed either to contain or to restore
presidential authority.

5. Insert the most suitable prepositions, where necessary. Translate the text into Russian:
SMALL BUT DEADLY AIDS
1. What causes AIDS? 2. Most scientists agree that AIDS is caused ____ the HIV virus. 3. The virus
attacks the body’s immune system, making the sufferer vulnerable ______ other diseases.4. It can be
54
passed _____ _____ sexual contact, the use of shared needles _____ injecting drugs, now (rarely)
______ blood transfusions using contaminated blood, and can also be passed _____ ______ pregnant
women _____ their unborn children.5. A person can be infected ____ HIV for many years with no
symptoms at all, but in around 95 % of cases AIDS develops eventually. 6. Since AIDS sufferers
have no defense ________ diseases in general, the symptoms can vary widely. 7. They may include
________ fever, weight-loss, and infections of the mouth and, as the disease progresses, tuberculosis
or leukemia. 8. AIDS is a relatively recent disease, but one which has spread rapidly ________ the
world. 9. And what should we do to prevent AIDS? Avoid injecting drugs, particularly ______ a
shared needle, and stick _____ one sexual partner. 10. The use of condoms is known to reduce the
risk _____ infection. 11. There is as yet no cure ______ AIDS, which kills 99% of sufferers. 12.
Scientists have produced (and are producing) a number of drugs which slow ______ the progress of
the disease, and there is a huge amount of research into finding _______ more about the disease,
however, no effective vaccine has yet been developed.

 Listening
6 Listen to the text about AIDS and teenagers. Make sure you know the meaning of the following
words:
predominantly disease

drug addiction roots

alienated abusing

to engage casual

total strangers to observe

drug abuser to cope (with)

to unify to influence

7. Listen to the text again and fill in the missing information with one or two words. Make up 5
sentences of your own with the italicized words:
AIDS AND THE PROBLEMS OF TEENAGERS
1. AIDS predominantly attacks young people who are the main ________________ of the disease.
2. We can give frightening statistics: out of 25 million who have died from _____________ since the
beginning of the epidemic, 3.8 million were children under the age of 15. 3. AIDS is one of the
________________ of alcohol and drug addiction among young people. 4. The roots of this problem
are found in families where children do not receive the love and ____________ they need. 5. In these
families, children feel alienated, and begin to search for ___________________ for love such as
alcohol and drugs, which affect the nervous system. 6. These narcotics and _________________
transport young people away from real life into a world of _______________. 7. Using and
____________ alcohol and drugs, young people no longer control their actions and thoughts. 8.
55
Moreover, they have the illusion that in this way they can get rid of any psychological complexes of
being a_____________. 9. So, losing the feeling of self-control, young people are able to engage in
casual sexual _________________ with total strangers. 10. And if a young man falls ill with a
____________________ some time after such an experience, it is very difficult for him to remember
who he caught it from. 11. Now we can observe the rapid _______________ of AIDS in Russia. 12.
In Western countries, the majority of people spreading this disease are __________________; but in
Russia 75% of AIDS cases ______________ among drug abusers. 13. Evidently, the reason for these
problems is in the feelings of __________________ that are so typical for teenagers. 14. At that age
a person is not a child any more, but he has not yet become an ___________ either. 15. He needs a
____________________ to understand him and help him to cope with his problems.16. He needs a
person who can _____________ him and lead him in the right direction. 17. In our opinion, the role
of school teachers, ______________, and representatives of the mass media is particular important
nowadays. 18. We should unify the efforts of all people who are able to influence
____________________ and educate them. 19. It is our common _______________ to protect the
young generation of our country from this dangerous disease. 20. We have no other choice.
Paraphrasing William Shakespeare, the ______________ is: “To live or not to live?”

________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________

Comprehension
8. Answer the following questions about the dialogue and the texts above:
1. What is HIV test? Give a definition.
2. What causes AIDS?
3. What are the symptoms of AIDS?
4. How can AIDS be passed on?
5. Who can engage in high risk behavior? What precaution can reduce the risk to catch AIDS?
6. Is anonymous HIV testing available in every state of the USA?
7. What’s the difference between anonymous and confidential testing?
8. What do you know about HIV testing programs in Russia?
9. What measures does our government take to prevent spreading AIDS?
10. What do you think are the reasons why young people become drug addicts and carriers of
AIDS?
11. What should adults do to encourage young people to stay away from negative influences?
12. What do you know about AIDS treatment methods in Russia and abroad?

56
 Writing
9. Here is the abstract of the article you read in the newspaper. Compare the rights of American
employees who have AIDS and those of Russian people. Write a letter to your pen friend and share
the information about the HIV positive people who were discriminated against in their workplace in
Russia.

Write 120-180 words.

AIDS AND THE WORKPLACE


Beatrice shared an office with Warren and Cynthia. Warren, a gay man, tested positive for the
HIV virus that causes AIDS. He wanted to keep the information secret from his co-workers, but he
did tell Beatrice and Cynthia. Cynthia had never liked Warren - not because he was gay but because
he was always getting positive attention from the boss and because he had aggravating habit of
«borrowing» pens and pencils from her desk without returning them. So she revealed his health
problem to Arthur and demanded that Warren be moved to another office.

What are an employee’s rights if he or she has AIDS?


The employee is protected from discrimination under the Americans with Disabilities Act. That
means the supervisor can’t switch Warren to another position (or office) so long as he is able to
continue working. And it also means that the employer must reasonably accommodate a worker like
Warren who has AIDS or is HIV positive. Such accommodation might include

◼ transferring the employee to a position within the company that the employee can perform with
the «disability»
◼ providing a flexible work schedule if necessary to accommodate the disability
Also, under the Family and Medical Leave Act, the employee may be entitled to take extended
unpaid leave.

Vocabulary
10. Fill in the gaps using the words from the box and translate the text into Russian:

1. peacefully, 2. AIDS, 3. support, 4. harm, 5. denounce, 6. prefer,

7. comfortable, 8. executives 9. ill, 10. treat, 11. refuse

HUMAN RIGHTS AND AIDS


Some HIV positive persons _______________an anonymous death instead of fighting for their rights.
Once a young woman came to me and told me, “My brother works for a state company, he has
____________and no hospital will __________ him: my father and I take care of him, the hospitals
________________ to treat him and the company gives no ______________ at all.” I told her, “If
you want to, we can call the TV, the radio, the reporters right away, we will ________________ it”.
57
She replied, “But it can ___________ my brother”. And I told her, “Well, think about t and call me,
whenever your wish, we will denounce the abuse and discrimination of this state-owned company
that is discriminating against a man who is ______________ ”. Twenty days later, the same person
called me and said, “I wanted to thank you because I talked to the company __________________, I
demanded treatment, I said that I was going to denounce such discrimination and, today, my brother
is dying in a _______________ hospital, in an air-conditioned room, with everything he rightly
deserves”. She was happy because her brother was dying ______________.

 Speaking
11. Suppose a friend of yours has AIDS or is HIV positive. Work in groups and discuss what kind of
trouble he is going to have with his university administration, if any. Speak on your attitude to those
people who are HIV positive:

Mind map!

12. Draw a mind map to show how HIV can be passed on and the symptoms of AIDS:

The ways of HIV The Symptoms of


passing AIDS

 Rendering
13. Render the abstract of the article about the AIDS into English using a dictionary Make a list of
new words and word combinations to be used when discussing the topic “AIDS”:

CПИД в России
Официальная история СПИДа в нашей стране началась значительно позже, чем во
многих других странах мира. В 80-е годы бытовало мнение, что ВИЧ затрагивает только
определенные группы населения, а именно потребителей инъекционных наркотиков, мужчин,
практикующих секс с мужчинами, и работников коммерческого секса. Таким образом, в
обществе уже тогда сформировалось стереотипное отношение к ВИЧ-положительным людям.
В 1989 году произошло массовое заражение ВИЧ детей в больницах Элисты, а потом и
в Волгограде и Ростове-на-Дону. Эти события вызвали дебаты и создали напряженность в
обществе, так как дети не вписывались в общее представление о том, кто может стать ВИЧ-
положительным.

58
Все эти проблемы создали почву для того, чтобы в стране начали возникать
неправительственные организации, ставившие своей задачей не только борьбу с
распространением эпидемии, но и помощь людям, попавшим в водоворот этой проблемы.
В 1995 году в стране был принят закон "О предупреждении распространения на
территории РФ заболевания, вызываемого вирусом иммунодефицита человека", авторы
которого ставили целью запретить дискриминацию людей, живущих с ВИЧ. В частности,
закон гарантировал соблюдение прав и свобод граждан, живущих с ВИЧ, и запрещал
увольнение людей по причине их ВИЧ-статуса.
По утверждению Объединенной Программы ООН по СПИДу (UNAIDS), "самый резкий
рост случаев ВИЧ в 1999 году был зарегистрирован на территории новых независимых
государств бывшего Советского Союза: только за период с конца 1997 до конца 1999 года
количество людей, живущих с ВИЧ на данной территории, увеличилось в два раза".
Эпидемия тем временем стала приобретать новый характер. В период с 2000 по 2002 год
количество ВИЧ-положительных в России удваивалось ежегодно. По неофициальным
данным, их число достигает 1,4 миллиона.
Стремительно увеличивается количество случаев передачи ВИЧ половым путем. С 2000
по 2004 год количество случаев заражения гетеросексуальным путем возросло с 6% до 30% от
общего числа новых случаев.
В настоящий момент среди европейских стран Россия лидирует по количеству ВИЧ-
положительных людей. 4 из 5 людей, живущих с ВИЧ в России – моложе 30 лет. 4 из 10 новых
случаев ВИЧ регистрируется среди молодых женщин.
Дальнейшая судьба эпидемии ВИЧ в России зависит как от реализации государственной
политики, обозначившей решение проблемы ВИЧ/СПИДа как приоритет, так и от участия
каждого сектора общества – бизнеса, средств массовой информации, гражданского общества,
и от каждого из нас.

59
60
UNIT 7

SEXUAL HARASSMENT

Get ready!

Before you read the dialogue, talk about these questions:


• What do you know about sexual harassment?
• Have you or your friends ever been pressured into sexual activity? Speak on your experience, if any.

 Reading
KEY TERMS:

sexual harassment – сексуальные домогательства

to handle – управлять, осуществлять контроль

overt suggestions – явные намеки

suffer (from) – страдать, претерпевать

confine (to)- ограничивать

in bad faith – вероломно, предательски, с нечестными намерениями

liability - ответственность

federal regulations – федеральные постановления

grievance procedure – порядок рассмотрения жалоб

abusive – оскорбительный

ombudsman – уполномоченный парламента по правам человека


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to occur – случаться, происходить

maliciously - злоумышленно

false accusations – ложные обвинения

propriety – правильность, обоснованность, оправданность

1. Read and translate the dialogue about sexual harassment into Russian:
Female student: I am a female student in an uncomfortable position with a male professor who has
suggested several times that we go out together. How do you suggest I handle this?

Professor Katz: Sexual harassment is not only overt suggestions that a student will benefit if she has
sexual relations with a professor, or that she will suffer if she does not. Any situation in
which a professor places a student in an uncomfortable situation concerning sexual
conduct, sexual comments, or pressure to engage in social contact is sexual harassment.
Sexual harassment is not confined to male professors and female students. Today, it
extends to every form and combination.

Student: Are most colleges and universities still ignoring this problem or have they established
procedures for handling such situations?

Professor: They’d better, because a failure to act on these matters, or acting in bad faith, can expose
the institution to liability. Sexual harassment falls under the general classification of sex
discrimination in federal regulations. A school receiving federal funds must create a
grievance procedure for resolution of student complaints, including discrimination based
on sex. The law of sexual harassment has developed two classifications. The first is where
a student is pressured into sexual activity. The second involves the maintenance of a
«hostile» or «abusive» environment, such as where a teacher makes suggestive comments
to a student. In addition, a «hostile» environment exists where the college or university
fails to constitute grievance procedures, and thereby indirectly «permits» the teacher to
engage in sexual harassment.

Student: So what should I do?

Professor: Call the university ombudsman or the Dean of Student’s office to find out the procedures
which exist on your campus. Someone has been assigned the obligation of assisting
students or stuff making such complaints. Still you retain the power to proceed or not. I
would encourage you to proceed, for chances are that you are not this professor’s first
victim, and you don’t act it is likely that you won’t be his last.

Student: Is it difficult to prove the truth of a sexual harassment claim?

Professor: Just because your college or university has developed a system for handling sexual
harassment complaints does not mean that you will be satisfied with the process or the
outcome. Ordinarily, the claim of sexual harassment results from conduct that takes place
privately. Consequently, there are usually no witnesses to the improper advances. Most
commonly, there will be a factual dispute between the professor and the complaining
student. The professor will claim that the matter never occurred, and that the student is
acting maliciously or is dreaming. There’s no doubt that false accusations are made, but
because a student knows that maintaining such a charge is not a picnic, it’s not a frequent
occurrence.
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Student: And what if it is impossible to resolve the issue because it is one person’s word against
another’s?

Professor: Colleges and universities maintain files of charges and the existence of prior complaints
should help to strengthen a present or future charge. Repeated denials that improper
advances were not made soon become unbelievable.

Student: It sounds encouraging. Alternatively, the professor may claim that the student misunderstood
his comments.

Professor: Of course, in this situation, the professor is admitting making the comments, and a fact
finder can determine the propriety of those comments.

Vocabulary
2. Fill in the gaps with the words from the box and translate the text about sexual harassment into
Russian. Entitle the text:

1. ugliest; 2.employee; 3.climate; 4.jokes; 5. in power; 6.sexual harassment; 7. perpetrator; 8.


offensive; 9.employment; 10. sexual favor

1._______________ can take many forms. 2. It can be “pro-forma” which loosely translated means
“something for something”. 3. This is perhaps one of the____________ forms of sexual harassment,
where a person __________demands sexual favors in return for________________, promotion,
salary increase, or threatens not to hire or to terminate or poor increases if a __________________is
not granted. 4. Another type of sexual harassment is where the culture or _____________of the
workplace is made to be hostile or offensive by the conduct of others. 5. It could be in the form of
continual foul or ______________language with sexual connotation and/or overtones. 6. It could take
the form of sexually explicit or demeaning ______________, and of course it could be improper or
suggestive touching, groping, etc., or it could be _____________touching him or her self in a
suggestive way that creates a hostile, offensive workplace. 7. In all states, an ______________ has a
right to work in a workplace free from sexual harassment.

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 Listening
3. Listen to the dialogue about date rape. Make sure you know the meaning of the following words:
to prosecute injury

breach of trust sexual intercourse

inapplicable background

to infer outrageous

incident at issue to hold responsible (for)

signs of violence assailant

4. Listen to the text again and fill in the missing information with one or two words. Make up 5
sentences of your own with the italicized words:
DATE RAPE
A female student: If I was raped on a date, will the fact that I willingly went on the date make it more
difficult to _________________?
Professor Katz: Date or __________________ is generally treated by the law no differently than rape
by a stranger. ____________ involves greater force and injury to the victim. Date rape,
however, involves a breach of trust, and _________________________may be greater.
Student: How is rape defined?
Professor: The definition of rape varies from state to state, although there are certain common
patterns. Traditionally, rape meant ________________ with a woman, not the wife of the
defendant, by force and without her ______________. Today, most state statutes have
eliminated the requirement that the act be accompanied ____________________.
Student: Is it also a rape to surreptitiously slip a woman ___________________ to impair her
judgment or self control in order to have sex?
Professor: Yes. And some modern statutes have eliminated the _____________ exemption or made
it inapplicable where the husband and wife are _________________. Other states have
further modernized their laws by adopting gender-neutral statutes so that
_______________ and victim may be of either or the same sex, and have extended
_____________________ of rape to cover forced oral and anal sex.
Student: So the principal issue in my case is whether I ________________.
Professor: Exactly.
Student: Will my _______________ or relationships with other men be used to show I consented?
Professor: A woman’s consent may not be inferred from the way she is dressed. ______________
that a woman brought on an attack because she is wearing ________________ or a short
skirt are outrageous and _____________. Similarly, a woman’s prior conduct is not
relevant to her ____________during the incident at issue. Every woman, from saint to
_____________, has the right to say «no».
Student: But the world, including ___________________, doesn’t always treat women fairly.
Professor: Yes, in some states, if you did not consent, your __________________ would not be held
responsible if a jury found that he believed you had consented. It is in your own self-

64
interests to discuss the situation before ________________, even if it ruins the moment.
Better to ruin the moment than the next ten years.
Student: What should a woman do when she has been _______________________ on campus?
Professor: She should call the police, campus or local. The police officer who responds to the call
will transport _________________ to a hospital, where she will be examined for any
signs of violence and given physical tests _________________ recent sexual
intercourse. After the medical examination, an officer will take the account of what
happened, because the police must begin ________________ as early as possible.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________

Vocabulary
5. Give the Russian f equivalents or the following word combinations:
to expose the institution to liability; to pressure into sexual activity; to make suggestive comments;
the maintenance of «abusive» environment; to retain the power; to act maliciously; to maintain a
charge; acquaintance rape; psychological injury; to eliminate the requirement; to take the account of
smth.

6. Give the English equivalents for the following word combinations:


федеральные законы; ограничиваться; возбудить дело; половые сношения; злоупотребление
доверием; сексуальные домогательства; возмутительный; подразумевать; признаки насилия;
вероломно; уместность; нападающая сторона; травма; злостно; ложные обвинения;
неприменимый

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7. Match each word or expression on the left with the correct definition on the right. Fill in the blanks
in the sentences below with the words from the left column:

1.sexual harassment a. with the intention of deceiving

2.in bad faith b. take place, happen

3.proceed c. physical union of male and female persons or animals that


produces offspring

4.injury d. wrong or damage done to another, either in his person, rights,


reputation or property

5.occur e. responsibility for one’s conduct

6.liability f. act of unlawful sexual intercourse accomplished through force


or threat of force by one party

7.sexual intercourse g. take legal action against somebody

1. The employee has made a report of ________________ in the workplace.


2. The motorcyclist received a severe _____________ in the crash.
3. The accident can ____________ any minute.
4. The police decided not to _____________ against her.
5. The driver bears all the ______________ for the damages.
6. In animals, ____________________ ranges from a purely reproductive activity to one of
emotional bonding between mated pairs.
7. I'm sure they were acting _______________ and never planned to pay us.

8. Insert the most suitable prepositions where necessary. Translate the text into Russian:
When people think of rape, they might think of a stranger jumping ____ _____ a shadowy place
and sexually attacking someone. But it’s not only strangers who rape.___ fact, about half of all people
who are raped know the person who attacked them.

Most friendships, acquaintances, and dates never lead ___ violence, of course. But, sadly,
sometimes it happens. When forced sex occurs ___________ two people who already know each
other, it is known as a date rape or acquaintance rape.

Even if the two people know each other well enough, and even if they were intimate or had sex
before, no one has the right to force a sexual act _____ another person __________ her or his will.

Girls and women are often raped one ____ three women will be sexually assaulted in her life.
Guys can also be raped, though: 7% ____ 10% of rape victims are male.

Even though rape involves _____ forced sex, rape is not about sex or passion. Rape has nothing
to do _____ love. Rape is an act of aggression and violence.
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You may hear some people say that those who have been raped were somehow “asking _____
it” because of the clothes they wore or the way they acted. That’s wrong: The person who is raped is
not _____ blame. Rape is always the fault of the rapist. And that’s also the case when two people are
dating – or even ____ an intimate relationship. One person never owes the other person sex. If sex is
forced _______ someone’s will, that’s rape.

Healthy relationships involve _____ respect – including respect ____ the feelings of others.
Someone who really cares ______ you will respect your wishes and not force or pressure you to have
sex.

 Speaking
9. Look through the text. With your group mates, discuss why rape is often connected with using
drugs and alcohol:

Rape, alcohol and drugs


Alcohol is often involved in date rapes. Drinking can loosen inhibitions, dull common sense, and -
for some people – allow aggressive tendencies to surface.

Drugs may also play a role. You may have heard about “date rape” drugs like rohypnol (roofies),
gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), and ketamine. Drugs like these can easily be mixed in drinks to
make a person black out and forget things that happen. Both girls and guys who have been given
these drugs report feeling paralyzed, having blurred vision, and lack of memory.

Mixing these drugs with alcohol is highly dangerous and can kill.

Mind Map!
10. Read the text and write out the most important things a person should do to avoid being raped:

Protecting yourself
The best defense against date rape is to try to prevent it whenever possible. Here are some things both
girls and guys can do:

• Avoid secluded places (this may even mean your room or your partner’s) until you trust your
partner.
• Don’t spend time alone with someone who makes you feel uneasy or uncomfortable. This
means following your instincts and removing yourself from situations that you don’t feel good about.
• Stay sober and aware. If you’re with someone you don’t know very well, be aware of what’s
going on around you and try to stay in control. Also, be aware of your date’s ability of consent to
sexual activity – you may become guilty of committing rape if the other person is not in a condition
to respond or react.
• Know what you want. Be clear about what kind of relationship you want with another person.
If you are not sure, then ask the other person to respect your feelings and to give you time. Don’t
allow yourself to be subject to peer pressure or encouraged to do something that you don’t want to
do.

67
• Go out with a group of friends and watch out for each other.
• Don’t be afraid to ask for help if you feel threatened.
• Take self-defense courses. These can build confidence and teach valuable physical techniques
a person can use to get away from an attacker.

11. Read the text for more information on what people should do if they were raped:
Getting Help
Unfortunately, even if someone takes every precaution, date rape can still happen. If you’re raped,
here are some things that you can do:

• If you’re injured, go strait to the emergency room – most medical centers and hospital
emergency departments have doctors and counselors who have been trained to take care of
someone who has been raped.
• Call or find a friend, family member, or someone you feel safe with and tell them what
happened.
• If you want to report the rape, call the police right away. Preserve all the physical evidence.
Don’t change clothes or wash.
• Write down as much as you can remember about the event.
• If you aren’t sure what to do, call a rape crisis center. If you don’t know the number, your
local phone book will have hotline numbers.

68
Don’t be afraid to ask questions and get information. You’ll have lots of questions as you go through
the process – such as whether to report the rape, who to tell, and the kinds of reactions you may get
from others.

69
12. Draw a mind map to show one’s actions if she or he was raped. Comment on your map:

Comprehension

13. Answer the questions about the dialogues of this unit:

1. What is sexual harassment?


2. Is sexual harassment confined to male professors and female students?
3. What procedures have been established for handling sexual harassment?
4. Speak on two classifications developed by the law of sexual harassment.
5. What should a female student do if she were placed in an uncomfortable situation concerning
sexual conduct?
6. Is it difficult to prove the truth of a sexual harassment claim? Why?
7. How is rape defined? Is date rape treated by the law differently than stranger rape?
8. Is it also a rape to surreptitiously slip a woman alcohol or drugs to impair her judgment or self
control in order to have sex?
9. Can a woman’s prior conduct and relationships with other men be used to show she consented
during the incident at issue?
10. What should a female student do when she has been sexually assaulted on campus?

70
 Speaking
14. Look through the following text. With your group mates, discuss whether spouses in the USA are
obligated to have sex. Do you think a Russian woman can charge her husband with a marital rape?
Why?

Marital Rape

Beatrice was washing the dishes when she heard a commotion from the next-door
driveway. She looked out as her neighbor Gloria screeched her car into reverse and sped away. «You
know I’m right», shouted Martin, Gloria’s husband. «You’re my wife. You have to sleep with me
whenever I say so». As he stormed back inside, Martin yelled, «And don’t think you can pull that
headache stuff again».

Are spouses obligated to have sex?

Traditionally, sex was considered a husband’s right and a wife’s duty. As women have
achieved more equality and independence, such notions are rapidly disappearing and have been
eliminated from the law.

Many states now legally acknowledge that a husband does not have a right to demand sex
from his wife. In these states, a woman can charge her husband with marital rape if he forces her to
have sex against her will. Some states, however, do not allow such prosecutions, and some states
allow them only if the couple had been separated before the forced sexual contact occurred.

If a husband has forced his American wife to have sex, she may be able to get a
protective order to keep him away from her. Although there is no obligation to have sex, a
persistent refusal to do so may constitute grounds for a divorce.

 Writing

15. You have recently had a discussion about the girl who was sexually harassed on a date. Your
teacher has asked you to describe the event and give a piece of advice to young people how to avoid
being harassed or raped. Use your active vocabulary.

Write 120-180 words

 Rendering

16. Render the article into English using a dictionary. Make up a list of new terms you would use
when discussing the topic “Sexual harassment and rape”.

71
С ЕКСУАЛЬ Н ЫЕ ДО М О ГАТЕЛЬСТВА В ВУЗ А Х
Конечно же, всякая симпатичная студентка знает, как порой можно получить высокий
балл за «красивые глаза». Но всякая ли при этом готова пойти дальше?
Я не предлагаю говорить о большой и чистой любви, которая возможна, разумеется, и
между преподавателем и студентом, причем с обеих сторон.
Громких судебных дел о сексуальных домогательствах в ВУЗах в нашей стране
навскидку не вспомнишь.
Не думаю, что это означает, что такой проблемы нет. В других странах (включая
Казахстан и Прибалтику) подобные скандалы происходили и попадали на страницы газет.
Разумеется, для США с их непревзойденной политкорректностью, дела такого рода уже
далеко не новость.
Почему речь идет именно о ВУЗах, а не о школах или местах работы?
Да потому что в отличие от школы, в ВУЗе, все-таки, в массе своей, учатся
совершеннолетние граждане. Но граждане еще не слишком опытные, и в большинстве – еще
довольно сильно зависящие от родителей и учителей, боящиеся «плохих оценок» и того что
«выгонят».
И даже когда обвинения уже высказаны, руководство ВУЗа очень хочет сохранить «лицо» и
не «выносить сор», да и вообще – кому больше веры, солидному ученому или молодому
человеку (любого пола), у которого всех заслуг-то – одно удачное поступление в ВУЗ?

Just for fun


☺ – I want to report the professor for harassment… He’s created an environment that I find offensive
and hostile.
- Why? What happens?
- He keeps giving me homework to do.

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CHAPTER 2
WHAT? YOU’VE BEEN ARRESTED?
There are few events in a lifetime that are more unsettling than being arrested. Most arrests
are for fairly minor offenses, so few people ever anticipate being arrested. It’s humiliating,
frightening, and dangerous

UNIT 1
ARREST PROCEDURES
Get ready!

Before you read the dialogue, talk about these questions:

• Have you ever happened to watch arrest scenes in movies on TV? Can you recall the words
policemen usually say to persons who are under arrest?
• Do you think arrestees in Russia are read their rights prior to interrogation? Ask your senior
colleagues if you have difficulty answering this question.

 Reading
KEY TERMS:

minor offense – незначительное преступление; совершен. несовершеннолетним

to handcuff – надевать наручники

to conduct a search – проводить обыск


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to book – зарегистрировать ( зд.в полицейском участке)

to fingerprint – снять отпечатки пальцев

to photograph - фотографировать

1. Read and translate the dialogue about arrest procedures in the USA into Russian:
Student: What exactly is an arrest?

Professor: When a police officer tells you that you’re under arrest, it means that you aren’t free to go,
and that the officer intends to take you to the police station to file criminal charges. The
officer will probably handcuff you and conduct a full search of your person.

Student: Why?

Professor: The use of handcuffs and the search are standard arrest procedures designed to protect the
officer and to prevent you from disposing of or destroying evidence of any crime which
you might be carrying in your pockets or on your body. Then the police officer will place
you in the back of the police car for the ride to the police station.

Student: What should I expect when we get there?

Professor: Then you will be booked.

Student: What is booking?

Professor: Booking is an administrative procedure, not entirely unlike registering in a new college or
school. You’ll be asked personal information. As long as it’s unrelated to the crime, you
are obligated to answer the questions and provide accurate information.

Student: And what if I give a false name?

Professor: Some people here, and during traffic stops, think that if they give a false name they can
get off the hook. They are wrong. It won’t work, and additional charges will be added
when it’s discovered that you provided false information. Now the similarity with school
registration ends, unless you have been to very unusual schools. You’ll be fingerprinted
and photographed. If the seriousness of what is happening hasn’t hit you yet,
fingerprinting is sure to have this effect.

Student: Why do they use fingerprinting and photographing?

Professor: These procedures truly put you in the “system”. They allow for computer checks to
determine whether you have been in trouble in the past under a different name; the
computer will be checked at the same time under the identity you have provided. There
are local, regional, state and national computer networks. If you have failed to pay traffic
tickets in the past, they’re likely to surface, as well as information about more serious
crimes.

Vocabulary
2. Fill in the gaps. Use the words and phrases from the box:
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1.minor offences 4.booking 7.fingerprinting

2.arrest 5.search 8.evidence

3.criminal charge 6.felonies 9.traffic ticket

1. The accused may be sent for trial to a higher court if there is sufficient _______________. 2.
Treason, _______________ and misdemeanors are all indictable offences 10 . 3. Your landlord’s
allowing someone in to _________________ your apartment would be a gross interference with your
privacy. 4. Several amendments to the U.S. Constitution protect rights of Americans within their
country if they are arrested and tried on a ________________. 5. _____________ is the process in
which the details of who you are and why you were arrested are entered into the police records. 6.
During a traffic stop a motorist is detained briefly, while the officer issues a _______________. 7.
Most arrests are for fairly _____________, so few people ever anticipate being arrested. 8. When a
police officer tells you that you are under _____________, that means that you aren’t free to go. 9.
_______________ and photographing allow for computer checks to determine whether you have
been in trouble in the past under a different name.

3. Describe the purposes of arrest procedures:

Procedures: Purposes:

1. Arrest

2. Handcuffing

3. Full search of a person

4. Booking

5. Fingerprinting

6. Photographing

10
indictable offences – преступления, преследуемые по обвинительному акту.
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4. Look through the dialogue about bail. Put down the questions asked by the student in their right
places:
KEY TERMS:

conviction – обвинительный приговор

pretrial release –предварительное освобождение (до рассмотрения дела в судебном порядке)

penalty – 1. штраф 2. наказание, карательная мера

detention – задержание, арест

violent crimes – насильственные преступления

proof - доказательство

to carry a sentence - повлечь за собой наказание

to sentence to jail time – приговорить к тюремному заключению

to show up in court – предстать перед судом

fugitive – беглец; беженец, дезертир

to be in session – заседать (о суде)

on one’s own recognizance – под подписку о невыезде

arraignment – 1.предъявление обвинения 2. привлечение к суду (до рассмотрения дела и


составления скамьи присяжных)

bail bondsman - поручитель

face value – номинальная, нарицательная стоимость

deed to property –документ о передаче права собственности

BAIL
1. When is pretrial release unavailable?
2. How do I get out of here?
3. Does the bondsman do it for a fee?
4. Is there justification for holding a person in jail prior to conviction?
5. Who is bail set by?
6. Will they hold me if I’m charged with a less serious crime?
7. What does a bail bondsman do?
8. What if I’m charged with a felony?
Student: ____________________________________________________________

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Professor: You are asking the right question. Don’t lose sight of that goal. American jails are not safe.
The levels of violence and sexual assaults in jails exceed those on the most dangerous
streets in the worst communities.

Student: ____________________________________________________________

Professor: The only justification is to assure that the person shows up for trial. The likelihood of a
person not showing up increases with the seriousness of the charge and the harshness of
potential punishment. Thus, the more serious the charge, the higher the bail and the more
stringent the alternative or additional conditions of release.

Student: ____________________________________________________________

Professor: Traditionally, pretrial release is unavailable to persons charged with murder because no
matter how much bail is required, the person may run to avoid facing the possible penalty.
Some people are simply so dangerous that releasing them back into the community almost
assures that other crimes will be committed and other people hurt. In that instance, it has
been determined that a person may be held in jail until trial. Recognizing that it’s very
difficult to predict future behavior accurately, pretrial detention should be reserved for
those situations where the arrestee has a history of committing violent crimes, and the
proof of the current charge is substantial.

Student: ____________________________________________________________

Professor: Most people are charged with relatively minor offenses - misdemeanors. A misdemeanor
generally carries a maximum sentence in a local jail, not a state prison, of less than one
year, and most people convicted of misdemeanors are not sentenced to any jail time at all.
A person charged with a misdemeanor who lives in the community will usually show up
in court as required, rather than become a fugitive. If you are arrested for a misdemeanor,
chances are you’ll be released after you are booked. Most communities allow for
“jailhouse” or “station house” bail for misdemeanors. It is in the community’s interest, as
well as your own to keep you out of the jail. The more people jailed, the greater the
security problem and the greater the cost.

Student: ____________________________________________________________

Professor: If bail were to be set by a judge, you would have to wait at least until the following morning
or over the week-end until court is in session. To avoid jailing you until a judge appears
to set bail, the court has provided the police or sheriff with a bail schedule for minor
offenses, detailing how much money to require in return for your release. The money put
up for bail is returnable when you show up for trial. Where cash bail is required, you may
have to wait a while until friends or family show up with the requisite amount. You may
be released on your own recognizance, if you are lucky enough to live in a community
where your signature on a statement promising to appear in court is enough to gain instant
release. However, if you’ve been arrested for drunk driving, common sense dictates that
the police hold you until you are sober and able to drive home, or until someone comes
for you.

Student: ____________________________________________________________

Professor: Those charged with more serious crimes - felonies - will not be released from the jail until
a judge evaluates the case and sets bail; consequently, there will be a wait in jail until

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court is in session. The arraignment to set bail should take place within forty-eight hours,
unless a week-end intervenes. Anyway, the bail set will be higher than for a misdemeanor,
and the money probably could not be raised as quickly as the lesser sum required for
misdemeanors. So a period in jail is inevitable except in those few cities where people
arrested are taken directly to courts which run throughout the day and night. The higher
that bail is set, the more likely it is that you will need a bail bondsman.

Student: ____________________________________________________________

Professor: A bondsman secures an arrestee’s release by promising to pay the court the full amount of
the bond if the arrestee fails to appear for trial.

Student: ____________________________________________________________

Professor: Yes, usually ten percent of the face value of the bond, and only if the arrestee or a relative
or friend can turn over to the bondsman a deed to property or bank books equal to the face
value of the bond.

Vocabulary
5. Fill in the gaps using the words and phrases from the box:
1. interrogation 2.bail bondsman 3. punishment

4. waiver 5. arraignment 6. murder

7. warrant 8. penalty 9. own recognizance (OR)

1. One of the purposes of _____________ is to reform the offender and to correct the offender’s moral
attitudes and anti-social behavior. 2. A _______________ secures an arrestee’s release by promising
to pay the court the full amount of the bond if the arrestee fails to appear for trial. 3. He was sentenced
to death ____________ for committing a______________. 4. Because a suspect has the right to
remain silent, the act of speaking about the case is considered a ______________, or a conscious
decision to speak despite those rights. 5. Generally you must be brought before a judge for
_____________within twenty- four to forty-eight hours after arrest. 6. A police search is generally
valid only if the police have first obtained judicial permission, known as a____________. 7. If you
qualify for ______________, you will be released on your signed promise to appear, without having
to pay any money to the court. 8. During ______________ the police may even offer a deal –
promising that if you talk, your punishment will be lighter – but it’s generally a ploy.

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 Listening

6. Listen to the dialogue about one phone call. Make sure you know the meaning of the following
words:
presumed innocent proven guilty

access consistent

effort to reach

to notify predicament

immediate family in the vicinity

to fall apart input

responsibility to ignore

7. Listen to the dialogue again and fill in the missing information with one or two words. Make up 5
sentences of your own with the italicized words:

ONE PHONE CALL


Student: When do I get my phone call?
Professor: ___________________________________, you are presumed innocent until proven
guilty. And some people ____________________________ actually are, in fact,
innocent. Society doesn’t want you being locked away without anyone knowing what has
happened to you. James Madison, the author of __________________, didn’t have a
telephone, but allowing a person arrested access to a telephone is consistent with the rights
Madison did include in the Bill of Rights. You have the right to let someone know where
you are and what your situation is so that efforts can be ________________________ to
get you out.
Student: What if the line is busy? Or no one is __________?
Professor: Your access to a telephone is __________________ by law in most states. It should not be
«a phone call» as you put it. You should have ________________ to place calls until you
reach someone who can act on your information.
Student: Can you give me ___________________ how to choose whom I call and notify of my
predicament?
Professor: Choose carefully. If your immediate family is ________________, calling them will be a
wise first choice. They are the ones you are likely to look to for __________________,
if needed, and to help you get an attorney.
Student: And what if my family isn’t ________________?
Professor: You have to make a choice. It might be _____________________ to contact someone who
is in the vicinity, and ask that person to coordinate your _____________ by contacting
family and trying to get bail money from them. On the other hand, it might be easier to
deal directly with your family, although since they are far away, they are in no position
___________________ locally except to contact an attorney. Even if your family is far
away, though, they might be the ones to contact, if they aren’t likely to fall apart, and are
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able to mobilize someone locally who will help you. Otherwise, their input will be to send
money, and you’ll still have to find someone locally who will ____________________
until you are released and able to do things for yourself. Having to call around until you
find someone willing to take on the responsibility can add to your _______________.
Call your family; they are less likely to ignore your cry for help.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________

Vocabulary
8. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and word combinations:
to file criminal charges; to handcuff; to conduct a full search; to destroy evidence; to book; to
fingerprint; sexual assault; conviction; to show up for trial; stringent; pretrial release; violent crimes;
minor offences; to carry a sentence; fugitive; to be in session; sheriff; returnable; on one’s own
recognizance; arraignment; misdemeanor; a bail bondsman; a fee; the face value of the bond; a deed
to property; to get an attorney

Comprehension
9. Answer the following questions about the dialogues above:

1. What is an arrest?
2. Why do the police use handcuffs and conduct a full search of a person?
3. What does an arrestee expect when he or she gets to the police station? What is booking?
4. Why is an arrestee obligated to provide accurate information?
5. Why are arrestees fingerprinted and photographed?
6. What is bail?
7. Why are arrestees held in jail prior to conviction?
8. When is pretrial release unavailable?
9. Are people convicted of misdemeanors sentenced to any jail time? Why?
10. What kind of bail do most communities allow for misdemeanors?
11. Why is it in the community’s interest to keep you out of the jail?
12. Who is bail set by?
13. What is a bail schedule? What is it designed for?
14. Is the money put up for bail returnable?
15. What is release on one’s own recognizance?
16. Who is a bail bondsman?
17. When does an arrestee get a phone call?
18. What does it mean “to make one phone call”?
19. Explain how to choose a person whom to call and notify of an arrestee’s predicament. Who
are the best people to contact according to the author? Why?

 Speaking

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10. With your group mates, discuss the topic “ARREST PROSEDURES IN THE USA AND
RUSSIA” using your active vocabulary:

 Writing
11. Write a letter of apology:
Yesterday evening a friend of yours arranged to meet his girlfriend, Alena, in a restaurant.
Unfortunately he couldn’t go and wasn’t able to warn her in time, because he had been detained by
the police on suspicion in aiding and abetting a violent criminal.

Write a letter to Alena, apologizing for his not turning up and explaining that it happened by
mistake and your friend is not guilty.

Write 120-180 words.

 Rendering
12. Render the article about bail into Russian. Make up a list of new terms which can be used by
you when discussing the topic “Arrest Procedures”:

УГОЛОВНО-ПРОЦЕССУАЛЬНЫЙ КОДЕКС РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ


Статья 106. Залог

1. Залог состоит во внесении подозреваемым или обвиняемым либо другим физическим


или юридическим лицом на депозитный счет органа, избравшего данную меру пресечения,
денег, ценных бумаг или ценностей в целях обеспечения явки к следователю, дознавателю или
в суд подозреваемого, обвиняемого и предупреждения совершения им новых преступлений.
Вид и размер залога определяются органом или лицом, избравшим данную меру пресечения,
с учетом характера совершенного преступления, данных о личности подозреваемого,
обвиняемого и имущественного положения залогодателя.

2. Залог в качестве меры пресечения избирается в отношении подозреваемого или


обвиняемого по решению суда в порядке, установленном статьей 108 настоящего Кодекса.
Залог может быть избран в любой момент производства по уголовному делу. Если внесение
залога применяется вместо ранее избранных мер пресечения в виде заключения под стражу
или домашнего ареста, то подозреваемый или обвиняемый остается под стражей или
домашним арестом до внесения на депозитный счет суда залога, который был определен
судом, избравшим эту меру пресечения. О принятии залога составляется протокол, копия
которого вручается залогодателю.

3. Если залог вносится лицом, не являющимся подозреваемым, обвиняемым, то ему


разъясняются существо подозрения, обвинения, в связи с которым избирается данная мера

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пресечения, а также связанные с ней обязательства и последствия их невыполнения или
нарушения.

4. В случае невыполнения или нарушения подозреваемым, обвиняемым обязательств,


связанных с внесенным за него залогом, залог обращается в доход государства по судебному
решению, выносимому в соответствии со статьей 118 настоящего Кодекса.

5. В остальных случаях суд при вынесении приговора, а также определения,


постановления о прекращении уголовного дела решает вопрос о возвращении залога
залогодателю. При прекращении уголовного дела следователем, дознавателем залог
возвращается залогодателю, о чем указывается в постановлении о прекращении уголовного
дела.

Just for fun

82
☺A police recruit was asked during the exam, "What would you do if you had to arrest your own
mother?"

He said, "Call for backup.”

☺If the police arrest a mime, do they tell him he has the right to remain silent?

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UNIT 2
What Is a Crime?

Get ready!

Before you read the dialogue, talk about these questions:

• Can you give your own definition of a crime?


• What types of crimes do you know?

 Reading
KEY TERMS:

to violate - нарушать

to commit a crime – совершать преступление

disturbing the peace – нарушение общественного порядка

trespass – посягательство, нарушение владения

simple assault – простое нападение (без отягчающих обстоятельств)

substantial bodily injury – тяжкие телесные повреждения

incarceration – лишение свободы

ignorance – незнание, неведение

to presume – предполагать, допускать

intent - намерение

84
to bring about - осуществлять

to poach – совершать браконьерство

routine – обычный, повседневный

85
1. Read and translate the text about crime. Find out the difference between the terms “jail” and
“prison”:
Crime

When a law is violated, a crime has been committed. There are different types of crimes, but the main
classifications are:

• Petty offenses. These are minor crimes, generally punishable by a fine or a short jail term. Traffic
offenses, disturbing the peace, and minor trespass are some examples.

• Misdemeanors. Generally, these are crimes that are punishable by less than one year in jail, such
as minor thefts and simple assaults that do not result in substantial bodily injury.

• Felonies. These are serious crimes that are punishable by incarceration in a prison rather than a
jail. These include rape, murder, robbery, burglary, and arson. (The main difference between a jail
and a prison is in the population of inmates in each facility.)

You can't generally claim ignorance of the law as a defense if you are accused of a crime. That's
because in order to have a workable criminal justice system it is presumed that everyone knows the
law. So if you're driving in a state that requires four-year-olds to be in car seats, you could be charged
with a crime (probably a petty offense) if your child was not in one, even if you didn't know the law
(although a judge might let you off with just a small fine the first time).
To be convicted of most crimes, it is required that you have had the "intent" to commit the act or
bring about the result for which you are accused. That doesn't necessarily mean you had to know the
act was illegal. If you intend to shoot a deer, for instance, then you had the intent to poach even if
you didn't know that it was not yet hunting season. You are required to know when deer hunting is
permitted.

Routine traffic offenses are considered "strict liability" crimes that do not require "intent." A person
commits these minor crimes simply by doing that which is forbidden, such as driving seventy miles
per hour in a fifty-five-mile-per-hour zone.

Vocabulary
2. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following words and word combinations:
фелония (тяжкое уголовное преступление); мисдиминор (категория наименее опасных
преступлений, граничащих с административными правонарушениями), незначительные
преступления; наказуемый; штраф; причинение вреда; нарушение общественного порядка;
мелкая кража; тяжкие телесные повреждения; словесное оскорбление и угроза физическим
насилием; тюремное заточение; изнасилование; поджог; кража со взломом; грабеж;
разрешать; нарушение правил уличного движения

86
Comprehension
3. Answer the questions about the text Crime:
1. What is a crime?
2. What are the main classifications of crimes? Give the examples of each classification.
3. Can a person claim ignorance of the law as a defense if he or she is accused of a crime? Why?
4. What is meant by “intent”?
5. Does a driver who exceeds the speed limit have the “intent”?

4. Match each word on the left with the appropriate definition on the right:

1. arsonist a. attacks and robs people, often in the street


2. mugger b. is anyone who breaks the law
3. offender c. breaks into houses or other buildings to steal
4. vandal d. steals from shops while acting as an ordinary customer
5. burglar e. kills someone
6. murderer f. deliberately causes damage to property
7. kidnapper g. steals things from people’s pockets in crowded places
8. pickpocket h. gets secret information from another country
9. accomplice i. buys and sells drugs illegally
10. drug dealer j. takes away people by force and demands money for their return
11. spy k. helps a criminal in a criminal act
12. terrorist l. uses violence for political reasons
13. assassin m. causes damage or disturbance in public places
14. hooligan n. hides on a ship or plane to get a free journey
15. stowaway o. takes control of a plane by force and makes the pilot change
course
16. thief p. murders for political reasons or a reward
17. hijacker q. is someone who steals
18. forger r. makes counterfeit (false) money or signatures
19. robber s. is a member of a criminal group
20. smuggler t. steals money, etc. by force from people or places
21. traitor u. marries illegally, being married already
22. gangster v. is a soldier who runs away from the army
23. deserter w. brings goods into a country illegally without paying tax
24. bigamist x. betrays his or her country to another state
25. shop-lifter y. sets fire to property illegally

 Listening
5. Listen to the text for more information about violent crime. Make sure you know the meaning of
the following words:
traumatic to compare

87
consequence to handle

bill injury

to obtain to enable

to pick up the pieces sexual abuse

homicide to encounter

manslaughter assault

battery disabled

indecent assault mentally retarded

mayhem intimidation

stalking to victimize

to sustain

6. Listen to the text again and fill in the missing information with one or two words. Give the Russian
equivalents for the terms if crime mentioned in the text:
1. ___________________ is a traumatic and terrible event that can end lives or change them forever.
2. Compared to other events that ________________ people, crime is often the most difficult to deal
with. 3. Unlike accidents or illnesses, __________________ often feel isolated and have difficulty
dealing with the consequences. 4. And unlike other situations, there may be no way to handle the
additional trauma caused by ____________________ of a working family member, or the medical
bills of a serious injury. 5. Our lawyers can help victims obtain _________________________ to
enable them to pick up the pieces and get on with their lives. 6. Violent crimes are
____________________and rape, childhood sexual abuse, kidnapping, murder and homicide, attacks
and violence. 7. Other criminal _________________commonly encountered include: manslaughter,
assault and battery, assault, abuse, neglect or financial exploitation of elder or disabled person,
indecent assault and battery on mentally retarded person, mayhem, armed robbery, home invasion,
forcible rape of a child, assault or battery for purpose of intimidation, stalking and criminal
harassment and others. 8. If you or a loved one has been victimized and has sustained serious physical
or emotional harm, you should consider discussing the situation with one of our
____________________________.

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Mind map!

7. Draw a mental map to show types of crimes. Comment on your map:

Types of crimes

 Speaking
8. Look up the Criminal code of the Russian Federation to find the definition of a crime and its types.
With your group mates, compare the definition of a crime provided in the Criminal code of the USA
to that of the Russian Federation and discuss the differences.

 Writing
9. Your English teacher has asked you to write a composition on the topic:

Criminality – Inborn or Acquired?

Write 120-180 words.

 Rendering
10. Render the following criminal news into English. Make a list of new terms which could be used
by you when discussing the topic “Crime and Criminals”:
• В Кургане наркоман убил молотком и ножницами родителей, а также 4х-летнюю племянницу.
33-летний Роман Коновалов нигде не работал и употреблял наркотики, чем вызывал
недовольство у своих родственников. Устав от упреков домочадцев, мужчина вооружился
ножницами, столярным инструментом и поочередно убил отца, мать и их внучку. Преступника
задержали по горячим следам.
• В Самаре командир взвода ДПС, забивший насмерть пассажира остановленной машины,
получил 7 лет колонии
В ходе ночной погони самарские гаишники блокировали тремя автомобилями машину
нарушителя и вытащили из салона пьяного водителя. Сначала они избили его до потери
сознания, а потом принялись за пассажира. Мужчина получил смертельные травмы и через 12
дней скончался. На виске погибшего был обнаружен отпечаток ботинка командира взвода
ГИБДД.

89
Just for fun
☺ A man successfully broke into a bank after hours and stole the bank's video camera, while the
camera was remotely recording. (That is, the videotape recorder was located elsewhere in the bank,
so he didn't get the videotape of himself stealing the camera).
☺ A man walked into a Circle-K, put a $20 bill on the counter and asked for change. When the clerk
opened the cash drawer, the man pulled a gun and asked for all the cash in the register, which the
clerk promptly provided. The man took the cash from the clerk and fled, leaving the $20 bill on the
counter. The total amount of cash he got from the drawer? Fifteen dollars. [If someone points a gun
at you and gives you money, was a crime committed?]

90
UNIT 3
MIRANDA RIGHTS

Get ready!

Before you read the dialogue, talk about these questions:

• Have you ever heard of Miranda rights before?


• Why do you think they are called so?

 Reading

KEY TERMS:
Miranda rights – права, которые зачитываются арестованному перед началом допроса

the U.S. Supreme Court – Верховный cуд США

the right to remain silent – право не отвечать на вопросы

the right to an attorney – право на адвоката

to waive rights – отказываться (от права)

to request a lawyer – требовать адвоката

a written waiver – письменный отказ (от права)

coercion – принуждение

unreasonable intimidation –чрезмерное запугивание

voluntary – добровольный

alibi – алиби

prosecutor – лицо, возбуждающее и осуществляющее уголовное преследование, обвинитель

91
1. Read and translate the dialogue about Miranda rights into Russian:
Student: What exactly are Miranda rights?

Professor: Miranda rights are named after the U.S. Supreme Court case, Miranda vs. Arizona, which
stated them. These rights must be read to an arrestee prior to questioning.

Student: Is it required that the rights be read to everyone who is arrested?

Professor: It is local policy and isn’t required by the Constitution. If police don’t intend to question
you, they need not advise you of these rights.

Student: What should I know about Miranda rights?

Professor: Prior to interrogation the police officer must tell you the following: YOU HAVE THE
RIGHT TO REMAIN SILENT. ANYTHING YOU SAY CAN AND WILL BE USED
AGAINST YOU IN A COURT OF LAW. YOU HAVE THE RIGHT TO AN
ATTORNEY. IF YOU CANNOT AFFORD AN ATTORNEY, ONE WILL BE
APPOINTED FOR YOU. After the officer informs you of these rights, he’ll ask you if
you are willing to waive them and talk with him about the crime for which you’ve been
arrested. At any time, the interrogators may switch and ask you questions about one or
more different crimes. Remember, it is still a cat-and-mouse game. And you are the
mouse.

Student: But still you are saying that it is entirely up to me whether I want to answer any questions?

Professor: Exactly. Since it’s your choice, even if you initially consent, you can stop the questioning
at any time by saying so or by requesting a lawyer.

Student: Will police seek a written waiver, if I am willing to waive my rights?

Professor: Yes, they will, because it is better evidence that you actually did consent to questioning
and in order for your statements to be used against you in a criminal trial.

Student: And what if the waiver, or the statements themselves, were obtained through the use of
coercion or unreasonable intimidation?

Professor: Then the statements are considered to be not voluntary, with or without a Miranda waiver,
and cannot be used against you.

Student: What exactly is meant by coercion?

Professor: Coercion can be express or implied, physical or psychological, and may include such
things as the police questioning you for an extended period of time; denying you basic
necessities during questioning, such as food, water, or the use of a restroom; threatening
you, your family, if you don’t answer questions.

Student: I see. When is it in my best interest to waive Miranda rights and answer their questions?

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Professor: Never! You cannot talk your way out of trouble. In fact, you’re much more likely to
complicate your situation than to make it better. It’s probably not in your best interest to
share with the police, even the information tending to show your innocence, without the
assistance of a lawyer. If you have an alibi defense, let your lawyer develop it and unfold
it for the police and prosecutor at the appropriate time. Don’t try to save on lawyer’s fees
here. It’s too crucial!

Student: Should I prove my innocence?

Professor: Keep in mind, you don’t have to prove your innocence. The state has to prove your guilt.

Student: Understood. But won’t the police officers dislike me if I refuse to answer any questions?

Professor: Good point. It doesn’t matter whether the police officers like you or not. If they think you
have committed a crime, and suggest they will like you if you tell them all about it, they
are only sweet-talking you into implicating yourself. On the other hand, there’s no reason
why they should treat you disrespectfully, either. All of this should be handled
professionally and impersonally.

Student: Should I tell them I don’t want to talk with them?

Professor: You could, but you can protect yourself better if you tell them you want a lawyer. The best
advice I can give you is: tell the police you want a lawyer and tell them nothing more.

Vocabulary
2. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and word combinations:
to sweet-talk; to implicate; prior to interrogation; express or implied coercion; to deny smb. basic
necessities

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3. Give the English equivalents for the following words and word combinations:
принуждение, насилие; право не отвечать на вопросы; право на адвоката; добровольный;
заключенный; тюремная камера; отказ (от права), запугивание; алиби; беспристрастно

Comprehension
4. Answer the questions about the dialogue:
1. Which rights must police officers read arrestees prior to interrogation?
2. Why are those rights known as Miranda rights?
3. May interrogators switch during questioning and ask an arrestee questions about one or more
different crimes?
4. Can an arrestee waive his or her Miranda rights?
5. Why will police usually seek a written waiver?
6. What is meant by coercion and unreasonable intimidation? Can the statements obtained through
the use of coercion be used at the trial?
7. Is it in an arrestee’s best interest to waive his rights and answer police officers’ questions?
8. Should an arrestee prove his or her innocence? Why? Why not?

5. Listen to the text for more information about Miranda. Make sure you know the meaning of the
following words:
warnings cornerstone

eight-grade dropout

mildly retarded confession

apparently objection

landmark ruling police custody

temporary reprieve to parole

to stab

6. Listen to the text again and fill in the missing information with one or two words. Make up 5
sentences of your own with the italicized words. Say why Miranda could hardly be considered a hero:
Who Was This Guy Miranda?
While the Miranda warnings are considered a cornerstone of our ______________________,
the person after whom they were named was hardly someone most people would consider a hero.

In _______, Ernesto Miranda, an eighth-grade dropout with a _____________, had been


picked up by Phoenix police and accused of raping and _____________ a mildly retarded eighteen-
year-old woman. After two hours in a police interrogation room Miranda signed a
________________, but he apparently never was told that he had the right to remain silent, to, have
a lawyer, and to be protected against ___________________.
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Despite his lawyer's objections, the _______________ was presented as evidence at Miranda's
trial, and he was convicted and sentenced to twenty years. His appeal went all the way to
____________________, where it was joined with three other similar cases. In a landmark ruling
issued in _____________, the court established that the accused have the right to remain silent and
that ______________________ may not use statements made by defendants while in police custody
unless the police have advised them of their ______________.

That ruling offered only temporary reprieve to Miranda. He was ____________. The second
time around, the prosecutors couldn't use the confession, but they did have additional evidence from
a former girlfriend of Miranda's who testified that he had told her about the kidnapping and rape. He
was convicted again and served eleven years before being paroled in 1972. He was arrested and
_______________ several times after.

Miranda died in __________ at age thirty-four after being stabbed during an argument in a bar.
The police arrested a _____________ who chose to remain silent after being read his rights. The
suspect was ___________ and no one was ever charged with the killing.

________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________

7. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and word combinations:
civil liberties; confession; landmark; ruling; parole; dropout; objection; retarded; Miranda warnings;
reprieve

8. Give the English equivalents for the following words and word combinations:
обвинять в убийстве; осуждать; приговаривать к тюремному заключению; наносить удар
ножом; повторный пересмотр (дела)

9. Insert suitable prepositions from the box where necessary. Translate the text into Russian:

against of during

before to by

to after due to

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of to of

1. ________Miranda, the right ____________self-incrimination was never self-executing and always


had to be invoked by the suspect. 2. This invocation is what is commonly referred __________as
“pleading the Fifth”. 3. In Miranda, the Supreme Court shifted this burden to the police, and required
them to specifically advise suspects _________ their right to remain silent and their right to have an
attorney present _____________ questioning. 4. The Court ruled that all statements or confessions
made in the absence of the warnings are inherently involuntary and coerced, and hence inadmissible
in court. 5. Some important exceptions ________ Miranda have been highlighted in Supreme Court
opinions. 6. First, once the Miranda warnings are given, any statements that the suspect makes
___________ that point are admissible, even if they are the same statements that were made prior to
the warnings. 7. This is true because a confession made _________ a suspect with knowledge of his
Miranda rights is not considered the product of coercive police conduct, ____________ the fact that
the suspect is now fully aware __________ his rights. 8. Also, “a n undercover law enforcement
officer posing as a fellow inmate need not give Miranda warnings ___________ an incarcerated
suspect before asking questions that may elicit an incriminating response.” Perkins, 496 U.S. 292. 9.
This exception exists because when a prisoner does not know he is talking to an undercover agent,
“the essential ingredients _____________ a police dominated atmosphere and compulsion are
lacking.” Id.

 Speaking
10. With your group mates, discuss the Miranda warnings and the exceptions to them:

 Writing
11. Suppose last week you saw the police arresting two bank robbers. Write a letter to your pen friend
from the USA and describe the case. Ask him whether he’s ever witnessed any police detention.

Write 120-180 words

 Rendering
12. Render the abstract of the article into English. Make up a list of new words which could be used
by you when discussing the topic “Miranda rights”:
В СООТВЕТСТВИИ С РОССИЙСКИМ ЗАКОНОДАТЕЛЬСТВОМ О ПРАВАХ
ЧЕЛОВЕКА КАЖДЫЙ ЗАДЕРЖАННЫЙ ИМЕЕТ ПРАВО:
• На получение разъяснений о причине своего задержания;
• На разъяснение своих прав;
• На получение медицинской помощи;
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• На ознакомление с протоколами, внесение своих объяснений и уточнений или отказ от
подписи;
• На уведомление родственников о своем местонахождении;
• На обжалование неправомерных действий должностных лиц;
• На свободу от пыток, жестокого и бесчеловечного обращения;
• На соблюдение сроков задержания;
• На участие защитника с момента задержания;
• На отказ от дачи показаний против себя и своих родных;
• На получение копии протокола по его (ее) требованию;
• Дачу показаний и объяснений на своем языке, пользование услугами переводчика

ПОВЕДЕНИЕ В ОТДЕЛЕНИИ ПОЛИЦИИ


Попав в отделение полиции, изолятор временного содержания (ИВС) или в комнату
предварительного заключения (КПЗ), попросите сообщить Вашим родственникам о том, где
Вы находитесь. Полиция обязана это сделать. Вы имеете также право на вызов адвоката,
который должен быть уведомлен полицией о Вашем задержании.
При доставлении в отделение или отдел полиции настаивайте на немедленном
составлении протокола о задержании, так как время задержания исчисляется со времени
составления протокола. Текст протокола нужно внимательно прочитать. Перед тем, как
поставить свою подпись, Вы вправе написать в нем все, что считаете нужным для изложения
своей точки зрения. Можете написать «с протоколом не согласен» или вовсе отказаться от
подписи.
Следующий шаг – узнать, что с Вами будет дальше. Если речь идет об административном
задержании, то Вас обязаны отпустить в течение трех часов. Если же Вы подозреваетесь в
совершении уголовного преступления, Вас могут арестовать на срок до 48 часов. Потом дело
рассмотрит суд и установит меру пресечения. Важно ни при каких обстоятельствах не
выходить из себя, не повышать голос, а тем более – не угрожать сотрудникам полиции.
Постарайтесь избежать письменного свидетельства против себя. Впоследствии Вы сможете
доказать, что признательные показания дали под принуждением. Также Вы можете наказать
тех, кто допустил противоправные действия в отношении Вас. Необходимо зафиксировать
факт таких противоправных действий. Собрать доказательства Вашей невиновности поможет
добросовестный адвокат, друзья, родственники или правозащитники.

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Mind map!
13. Draw a mind map to show Miranda rights. Comment on your map:

Miranda rights

Just for fun


☺ New Miranda rights
1. You have the right to remain motionless, or you may elect to run away from me.

2. Should you decide to run, I shall direct my K-9 to chase you down to the ends of the earth.

3. You have the right to have your lawyer run with you. Should he refuse, a recent Law School
graduate will be appointed by the court to jog along with you.

4. If while running, you suddenly decide to end the race, beware that my K-9 may or may not
understand your intentions, and may continue his pursuit of you in full stride.

5. You may stop running at any time, at your own risk.

6. Good luck. On your mark, get set....GO!!!!!

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UNIT 4
GETTING A LAWYER

GOING TO JAIL

Get ready!
Before you read the dialogue, talk about these questions:
• What are some different jobs in the legal profession?
• Why have you decided to become a lawyer?
• What makes a good lawyer?

It is absolutely vital that suspects understand that the rights covered by the Miranda warnings can be
waived, or given up, “provided the waiver is made voluntarily, knowingly, and intelligently.”
Miranda, 384 U.S. at 444. However, a suspect should never waive the right to counsel and should
waive the right against self-incrimination only after conferring with an attorney. When a citizen is
facing prosecution by the resources of the government, the most powerful aegis is the Constitution.
Once a person waives his constitutional rights, the chances of a favorable outcome quickly diminish.

 Reading

KEY TERMS:
fee – плата, гонорар; такса

to treat – обращаться (c кем-либо)

disrespectfully- непочтительно, невежливо, дерзко

impersonally – беспристрастно, объективно

a jailer – тюремщик, тюремный надзиратель

a cellmate – сосед по тюремной камере

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a jail cell – тюремная камера

to be eligible (for) – подходящий, желательный, приемлемый

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1. Read and translate the dialogue about getting a lawyer into Russian.
Student: How am I supposed to know which lawyer to pick?

Professor: If you’re in trouble, choosing a lawyer is one of the most important things you have to do.
Lawyers’ fees differ drastically. A lawyer may charge you by the hour or may have the
predetermined fee for the particular service which you seek. If the lawyer’s fee differs
radically from several others whom you have consulted, there may well be a reason, in
terms of quality of service, experience, and results for the difference in fees.

Student: So how can I know which lawyer to hire?

Professor: The best way to pick a lawyer is to check with friends and relatives who have used lawyers
and ask their opinions. The next step is to interview a few lawyers. Listen carefully to
what they say and how they react to your situation, and evaluate their familiarity with
your particular kind of problem.

Student: But if I’m in jail and can’t go round to different lawyers’ offices, how do I know which one
to hire?

Professor: If you are in jail, you need a lawyer who will respond quickly to your call for help. But
don’t panic! You can use the lawyer you get to merely advise you on what to do while
you’re in jail and to help you get bailed out. Later you are free to decide whom you want
to represent you the rest of the way.

Student: Any other words of caution in choosing a lawyer?

Professor: Beware of lawyers recommended by jailers. These lawyers are probably recommended by
a jailer because he gets a fee if you act on his recommendation.

Student: And what if I don’t have any money to hire a lawyer? How will I get my attorney?

Professor: The Miranda rights you were read specifically included a statement assuring you that, if
you are without funds to hire an attorney, one will be provided for you.

Student: Can I choose a lawyer in this situation?

Professor: You usually won’t have a say in choosing your lawyer, but the same standard of
competency that is applicable to retained or hired lawyers also applies to appointed
lawyers. A contract lawyer provided by Legal Aid or the Public Defender’s office may
be called in to advise you, or a court will appoint an attorney for you.

Student: What will happen to me if I have not been released on bail or on my own promise to appear
in court?

Professor: You will be placed in a jail cell until it’s time for your court appearance. Prior to being
integrated into the jail population, you may be strip-searched to make sure that you are
not hiding a weapon or drugs anywhere on your body.

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Student: Can I talk to the people in my jail cell?

Professor: Certainly. But keep in mind that prisoners frequently report what is told to them by
cellmates to the jailers, who pass it on for use at trial. Prisoners make these reports in
hopes of getting favorable treatment in their own cases. Later your cellmate may testify
about what you said at your trial. Avoid all discussion about the charges.

Student: And what if I am not eligible for jailhouse bail and never gain freedom while awaiting trial?

Professor: Don’t panic! That is more true of persons charged with serious offences, felonies, but it
can be true also of people charged with misdemeanors. From here now your lawyer will
be at your side every step of the way. Good luck!

Vocabulary
2. Give the Russian equivalents for the following words and word combinations:
favorable treatment; to be strip-searched; cellmates; standard of competency; to be applicable; to get
bailed out; to evaluate one’s familiarity with smth.; quality of service; experience; predetermined fee

3. Give the English equivalents for the following words and word combinations:
гонорар, плата; обращаться (с кем-либо); тюремный надзиратель; объективно; благоприятный
исход; уменьшать(ся)

4. Are the statements about the dialogue Right or Wrong? If there is not enough information to
answer Right or Wrong, choose Doesn’t Say:
1. A lawyer may have the predetermined fee for his service.
А. Right B. Wrong C. Doesn’t say

2. If a person is in jail, he or (she) can use a lawyer recommended by jailers.


А. Right B. Wrong C. Doesn’t say

3. A person should choose an experienced lawyer even if he is not familiar with the person’s
particular kind of problem.
A. Right B. Wron C. Doesn’t say

4. If a person is without funds, a lawyer won’t be provided for him.


A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesn’t say

5. Appointed lawyers can be as competent as retained or hired ones.


A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesn’t say

6. If a person has been released on bail, he or she won’t bу strip-searched.


A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesn’t say

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7. A student asking questions of the professor committed a violent crime.
A. Right B. Wrong C. Doesn’t say

Comprehension
5. Answer the following questions about the dialogue of the unit:
1. Which of the professor’s recommendations would you use if you chose a lawyer?
2. Why do lawyers’ fees differ drastically? What does it depend on?
3. Should an arrestee act on his or her cellmate’s recommendation while picking a lawyer?
4. How will an arrestee get his or her attorney if he or she is without funds?
5. Which standard of competency applies to appointed lawyers?
6. Why is an arrestee strip-searched prior to placed in a jail cell?
7. Why should an arrestee avoid talking with his or her cellmates?

 Listening
6. Listen to the text about looking for a lawyer. Make sure you know the meaning of the following
words:
to bring lawsuit

to defend

to confuse

estate

to enter a business

unemployment

small-claims court

7. Listen to the text again and fill in the missing information with one or two words:
◼ Does a person know when he or she needs a lawyer?
If you need ____________ someone, or if someone __________ you, you will probably need a
lawyer. You always have the right ________________ yourself, but generally it’s not
________________ to do so. In some lawsuits, usually those brought or defended in
_________________________, it’s usually not necessary to use a lawyer. But if the amount of money
_______________ is high, getting a lawyer is a good idea, especially if the court’s
___________________ are confusing or if the other side has a lawyer. Most people need lawyers
• to get ______________
• for estate planning ( making _______________________)
• if they are the _______________ of someone else’s estate
• to buy or sell houses and other _________________
• to enter a business ________________
• if they are in an _________________
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• if they are __________________ a crime
People may also need lawyers if they think they are __________________ something from the
government – like unemployment _________________ or social ________________ but are unable
to get it.

 Speaking
8. Suppose a worker Ivan you know very well got into a fender-bender and was injured, though it
wasn’t his fault. The driver’s insurance covered the bodywork that Ivan’s car needed, but the guilty
driver refused to help pay for Ivan’s treatment. Ivan couldn’t work and couldn’t pay for his treatment.
He decided to take the negligent driver to court.

With your group mates, discuss what should Ivan do to pick a good lawyer who will handle his legal
problem.

 Writing
9. Your English teacher has asked you to write down 5-7 questions you should ask a lawyer before
deciding whether to hire him (or her) or not.

________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________

105
 Rendering
10. Render the article about the duties of a lawyer into Russia in English using a dictionary. Make up
a list of new terms you would use when discussing the duties of a lawyer:
АДВОКАТ
Адвокатом является лицо, получившее в установленном Федеральным законом порядке
статус адвоката и право осуществлять адвокатскую деятельность. Оказывая юридическую
помощь, адвокат:
1) дает консультации и справки по правовым вопросам как в устной, так и в письменной
форме;
2) составляет заявления, жалобы, ходатайства и другие документы правового характера;
3) представляет интересы доверителя в конституционном судопроизводстве;
4) участвует в качестве представителя доверителя в гражданском и административном
судопроизводстве;
5) участвует в качестве представителя или защитника доверителя в уголовном
судопроизводстве и производстве по делам об административных правонарушениях;
6) участвует в качестве представителя доверителя в разбирательстве дел в третейском суде,
международном коммерческом арбитраже (суде) и иных органах разрешения конфликтов;
7) представляет интересы доверителя в органах государственной власти, органах местного
самоуправления, общественных объединениях и иных организациях;
8) представляет интересы доверителя в органах государственной власти, судах и
правоохранительных органах иностранных государств, международных судебных органах,
негосударственных органах иностранных государств, если иное не установлено
законодательством иностранных государств, уставными документами международных
судебных органов и иных международных организаций или международными договорами
Российской Федерации;
9) участвует в качестве представителя доверителя в исполнительном производстве, а также
при исполнении уголовного наказания;
10) выступает в качестве представителя доверителя в налоговых правоотношениях. Адвокат
вправе оказывать иную юридическую помощь, не запрещенную федеральным законом.
Представителями организаций, органов государственной власти, органов местного
самоуправления в гражданском и административном судопроизводстве, судопроизводстве по
делам об административных правонарушениях могут выступать только адвокаты, за
исключением случаев, когда эти функции выполняют работники, состоящие в штате
указанных организаций, органов государственной власти и органов местного самоуправления,
если иное не установлено федеральным законом.

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107
Mind map!

11. Draw a mental map to show good and bad qualities of a lawyer. Comment on your map:

Good qualities Bad qualities


of a lawyer of a lawyer

Just for fun


☺ “What's the difference between a good lawyer and a great lawyer?”

“A good lawyer knows the law. A great lawyer knows the judge.”

☺ How do you get a group of lawyers to smile for a picture?”


Just say "Fees!"

☺ A new client had just come in to see a famous lawyer.


"Can you tell me how much you charge?”, said the client.
"Of course", the lawyer replied, "I charge $200 to answer three questions!"
"Well that's a bit steep, isn't it?"
"Yes it is", said the lawyer, "And what's your third question?"

108
UNIT 5
What Is the Basic Procedure in a Criminal Case?

Get ready!

Before you read the dialogue, talk about these questions:

• Do you think there is a basic procedure which should be followed in most of criminal cases?
• Does the basic procedure in the USA differ from the one in Russia? If yes, in what way?

 Reading

KEY TERMS:
to affect - влиять

indictment - обвинение, обвинительный акт

probable cause – вероятна причина, наличие достаточного обвинения

immediate release – немедленное освобождение

stationhouse – полицейский участок

to arraign – обвинять, привлекать к суду

a plea of guilty – заявление подсудимого о признании вины

pretrial - досудебный

motions – ходатайство, запрос в суд

bench – состав суда, коллегия судей

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pool – пул присяжных

stand – место для дачи показаний

cross-examination – перекрестный допрос

pivotal – центральный, важнейший

unanimous – единодушный, единогласный

hang jury- жюри, не достигшее единогласного решения

jury foreperson – старшина присяжных

probation – пробация, передача под надзор

1. Read and translate the text about the basic criminal procedure in the USA into Russian:
The Basic Procedure in a Criminal Case
There are several steps, and the time of day and time of week and location and circumstances
of the arrest will all affect how long the process takes. And, of course, the procedures vary from state
to state, but generally the procedure is as follows:

• A crime is committed.

• A grand jury issues an indictment, or a judge issues an arrest warrant, or an arrest takes place
without a warrant.

• A suspect is arrested and taken to jail for booking. A suspect may be arrested and jailed without
a warrant, usually for having committed a crime in the presence of an officer, or if an officer has
probable cause to believe the person committed a crime.

• Many suspects may be offered immediate release if they pay stationhouse bail. People with
strong ties to the community (a home, job, family, clean criminal record) may be released without
bail (on a judge's order) if they promise to appear later as ordered.

• A suspect is arraigned, or formally charged by a judge. Suspect enters a plea of guilty or not
guilty.

• If bail has not been set yet and if the suspect has not previously been released, bail is now set.
The judge also schedules a court date for trial or preliminary hearings.

• In some cases, preliminary hearings or hearings on pretrial motions follow.

• The defendant chooses to be tried by a jury or to be tried before a judge alone, in a bench or
court trial.

• If the defendant opts for a jury, the selection of jurors follows. Jurors are called from a pool
and questioned by both sides — the state and the defense — in a process called voir dire.

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• The trial officially begins with opening arguments by both sides, summarizing the strong
points of their cases.

• The prosecution presents its evidence, calling witnesses to the stand and asking them
questions. (Asking questions of a witness friendly to your side is called direct examination.) The
defense may choose to question the witnesses afterward, a process called cross-examination. The
prosecution may then question on new matters brought up during cross-examination during what is
called redirect examination. And if the defense follows up, that is recross-examination.

• The defense presents its evidence and witnesses. The prosecution cross-examines. The defense
asks additional questions on matters brought up during cross-examination, and the prosecution can
cross-examine once more on newly raised issues.

• Both sides present their summations, or closing arguments.

• The judge gives the jury charge, instructions on the law in the case and definitions of the
relevant legal concepts. These instructions are often pivotal in the jury's discussions.

• The jurors gather privately to deliberate. Most states and the federal government require the
jury to be unanimous in its decision. If the jurors cannot reach a verdict, they are declared a hung
jury. If this happens, the prosecutor may be allowed to retry the case.

• When the jurors do reach a verdict, the jury foreperson will send a note to the judge, and the
court will reassemble for the reading of the verdict.

• The verdict is read. If the jury finds the defendant guilty, the judge will set the sentence (except
in a few states in which juries set sentences).

• In more serious cases, a judge will often hold sentencing hearings and ask for a pre-sentencing
report from the probation department before setting a sentence.

• The convicted person may appeal the verdict to a higher court.

Vocabulary
2. Give the English equivalents for the legal terms below. Use them when speaking on the basic
procedure in a criminal case:
grand jury; bench or court trial; voir dire; direct examination; cross-examination; redirect
examination; recross-examination; summations; jury charge; hung jury; verdict; sentencing; hearings;
pre-sentencing report

3. Match each word on the left with the appropriate definition on the right. Fill in the blanks in the
sentences below with the terms from the left column of the box:

1.verdict a. trial of a case at law, esp. before a judge

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without a jury

2.hearing b. payment for professional advice or services

3.sheriff c. decision reached by a jury on a question of

fact in a law case

4.fee d. government by force

5.appeal e. person who prosecutes

6.coercion f. questioning closely, esp. to test answers already given


to someone else, as in a

law court, by counsel

7.prosecutor g. act or behave towards

8.cross-examination h. chief body of persons (twelve) who

swear to give a true decision on issues

of fact in a case in a court of justice

9.treat i. the chief executive and administrative office

of a county, being chosen by popular

election

10.grand jury j. to take a case to a higher court for rehearing and a new
decision

1. ____________ is a legal term that is used to describe a situation in which one person forces
another person to do, or to refrain from doing, something against his will.
2. _____________ decides whether the evidence warrants bringing an accused person to trial.
3. ___________________s are typically lawyers who possess a law degree, and are recognized as
legal professionals by the court in which they intend to represent the state.
4. In principle, a ________________ is a legal official with responsibility for a county.
5. The main purposes of ____________________ are to elicit favorable facts from the witness, or
to impeach the credibility of the testifying witness to lessen the weight of unfavorable testimony.
6. The soldiers _________________ me very well.
7. _____________s are usually charged for various government services, including license plates
and annual motor vehicle registration, as well as driver licenses and professional licensing.
8. In law, a ___________________ is a proceeding before a court or other decision-making body or
officer, such as a government agency.
9. In a criminal case, the ___________________, which may be either "not guilty" or "guilty, is
handed down by the jury.
10. All parties must present grounds to _____________, or it will not be heard.

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 Listening
4. Listen to the text about the differences between criminal cases and civil ones in the USA. Make
sure you know the meaning of the following words;
to seek punishment money damages

amendment crucial

to compel burden of proof

plaintiff preponderance of evidence

to allege beyond reasonable doubt

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5. Listen to the text again and fill in the gaps with missing words or phrases:

How are Criminal Cases Different from Civil Ones?


There are a few major ________________. A criminal case is always brought by the local,
state, or federal government, represented by the ________________ (sometimes known as the district
attorney, state’s attorney or United States attorney) seeking punishment – a _____________________
or both. Civil cases, on the other hand, are usually brought by _________________ or corporations
seeking to collect money damages.

Second, in a criminal trial, the _____________________, the person accused of the crime, has
a right to testify in his or her own defense, but also, under the Fifth Amendment, a right not to testify.
The decision made by the defendant and his or her _______________ about whether or not to testify
may be one of the most crucial _______________ in a criminal case. However, in a civil case, the
defendant can be compelled to testify against his or her _______.

The third major difference involves the burden of proof. In a civil case, the plaintiff (the person
who _______________) only has to show by “a preponderance of evidence” that the facts alleged are
_________. In a criminal case, the prosecution has the much heavier burden of proving that the
defendant is guilty “beyond reasonable doubt”.

 Speaking
6.With your fellow students, discuss the differences between criminal and civil cases both in Russia
and the USA:

 Writing
7. Suppose last week you were in a criminal court. The case of murder was being tried. Describe what
and whom you saw. The pictures below can help you:

Write 100-120 words.

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 Rendering
8. Render the abstract of the article about the US criminal procedure into English using a dictionary.
Make up a list of new words which can help you to discuss the topic The Basic Procedure in a
Criminal Case:
В области уголовного законодательства США верховенствует Конституция, а не
уголовное право, как таковое, поскольку органы законодательной власти всех уровней не
могут принимать законы, нарушающие Конституцию.
Конституция гарантирует всем лицам, проживающим в США, основополагающие права
и свободы. С точки зрения американского уголовного права, главное из них заключается в
презумпции невиновности обвиняемого. Подсудимый не должен доказывать свою
невиновность. Судебные органы обязаны доказать его вину вне всяких обоснованных
сомнений.
Для формирования рамок уголовного процесса в США особое значение имеют Пятая,
Шестая и Восьмая поправки к Конституции. Пятая Поправка защищает подсудимых от
опасности двойного наказания - то есть, за одно и то же преступление подсудимый не может
предстать перед судом одной и той же инстанции более чем один раз. Также подсудимый
имеет право не свидетельствовать против самого себя. Эта поправка декларирует право
подсудимых на "надлежащую правовую процедуру", что обычно трактуется как
предоставление подсудимым самых разнообразных форм защиты и прав.
Шестая Поправка Конституции США гарантирует подсудимым "безотлагательное и
публичное слушание дела беспристрастным жюри из штата и округа, в которых совершено
преступление". Кроме того, она дает подсудимым право присутствовать при даче показаний
выступающими против них свидетелями, вести их перекрестный допрос и пользоваться
помощью адвоката.
Восьмая Поправка исключает "чрезмерный залог" за освобождение из-под стражи и
запрещает "жестокие и необычные наказания". Последний запрет толковался судами как
ограничение форм применимого наказания и иногда становился законодательной базой для
отмены института смертной казни.

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Mind map!
9. A college student you know very well has committed a grave offense. Work in groups and discuss
what criminal procedure he is going to follow. Draw a mental map to show the steps of the procedure.
Comment on your map:

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Scripts

Chapter 1 unit 1
Never overdress
At the slumber party
Janet: Do you know the most common mistake women make to embarrass men on the first date?
Karen: Their wigs fall off?
Tammy: Their stockings get a run?
Janet: Those are accidents! The answer is “overdress”
Akiko: Overdress? Like the Japanese princess, wearing a 30-pound wedding gown? What do you
mean “overdress”?
Janet: Hmmm… For example, wearing high heels and a fancy dress for a date at McDonald’s.
Akiko: But dressing up nicely is a way to show your respect and seriousness to your date. Usually,
Japanese girls don’t wear jeans on a date.
Tammy: If you dress up too nice, men will be afraid that they can’t afford you.
Janet: Tammy, we see eye-to-eye. And if they know that you’re serious about them in the beginning,
some guys may feel overwhelmed.
Tammy: Men are scared of the word “commitment”.
Janet: Like Steve.
Tammy: Don’t take it personally!
Janet: It’s no big deal. When you’re serious about them, they have the upper hand. You’ll lose your
bargaining power! Don’t you want them to fight hard for you?
All girls: You bet.
Tammy: Well, men won’t fight hard unless they have competitors.
Janet: In short, don’t let guys see your cards.
Akiko: Oh, too many mind games! I don’t think I can handle guys.
unit 2
Student Searches
Several of Bradley's classmates were suspected by the principal of selling drugs. She decided to
search their purses and backpacks at random every day.
• Is the principal or other official of a public school allowed to search a student's purse or backpack?
Yes, under certain circumstances. If the official has a good reason to suspect a particular student,
then a search of the student's belongings may be justified. However, students can't be singled out at
random for a search. That's the rule established in a 1985 Supreme Court case New Jersey v. T.L.O.
That case found that even though teachers and administrators are entitled to maintain discipline in the
classroom and on school grounds, students are entitled to some measure of privacy.
• Can a public school official search a student's locker?
The Supreme Court has not ruled out what standards apply to searches of school lockers. In rulings
on the issue by lower courts, some say that schools have an unbridled right to inspect lockers, while
others assert that students have a right to expect that their lockers are private. Such searches — as
well as searches of desks or other school property provided for storage of student supplies—raise the
same question of how much weight to give the student's right to privacy. An important difference,
however, is that a locker or desk is school property given to the student for use during the school year,
but a purse or backpack is the student's own property. Therefore, if the Supreme Court ever gets the
opportunity to decide the issue, it is likely to find that an official's search of a locker or desk requires
less justification than the search of a purse or backpack.
• What about searches at private or parochial schools?

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There is an important difference between public and private or parochial schools because the Con-
stitution was written to protect individuals against actions by the government. Therefore, a search can
violate the Constitution only if the person conducting it is acting "on behalf" of the government, and
the Supreme Court has decided that public school officials are acting on behalf of the government
when they search students' belongings. Private school faculty and administrators are not usually
acting on behalf of the government and thus are not subject to constitutional prohibitions. They would
thus be free to conduct a search any time they wanted to without violating the Constitution. If they
were requested to conduct a search by the police, though, that would be a different story, since they
would then be acting "on behalf” of the government.

unit 3
Having an Accident

Student: My parents got into a fender-bender while they were having a heated argument over
directions. Father knew that he had taken the left turn without looking carefully enough at
the traffic. Does the person who causes a fender-bender always have to pay for the other
party’s damages?

Professor: No. States have developed two main ways of dealing with damages arising from such
comparatively minor run-ins: fault and no-fault systems. Under a no-fault system, it
doesn’t matter which driver made the crucial mistake that caused an accident. Instead of
recovering from the other driver’s insurance carrier, you recover from your own insurance
company, regardless of who caused the accident. Under a fault system, one side admits to
(or is proved to bear) the blame for an accident, and any damages are paid for by his or her
insurer or by negligent individual.

Student: What kinds of accidents are covered by no-fault?

Professor: No-fault systems vary widely. Most states that use no-fault rely on it for minor property
damage and personal injury claims and then revert to a fault system for serious injuries. No
state is entirely no-fault.

Student: How does a no-fault claim work?

Professor: Claims under no-fault are submitted to your own auto insurance company. The guidelines
and limitations of coverage vary from state to state. Generally speaking, you can collect
from your insurer even if the other party caused the accident and is insured. Whether you
can recover for totaling your car depends on the no-fault limits in your state.

Student: How does a fault system work?

Professor: Most states use a fault system. If you are involved in an auto collision caused by the
negligence of another driver, your damages are paid by that driver’s liability insurer.

unit 4

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One of the more notable senior pranks occurred in 2008 in South Colonie, New York. A group
of seniors vandalized buses, using spray paint to draw graffiti on the buses, as well as banging fire
extinguishers against the bus. This resulted in buses not being able to pick up students, and one day
was missed off school. Field days had to be canceled, and final exams had to be made up.[1] One
notable senior prank-gone-wrong was the Clements High School prank of 2011. Three boys planned
to take chairs from the testing rooms and put them on the roof. However, before they were able to do
so, they were caught by police and arrested for breaking and entering, and one of the boys was in
possession of a controlled substance. Afterward, there were trials and it was determined that they
would not face jail time, but the punishment has not been stated publicly.

unit 5
Drug Testing

One day, a few months into the job, Arthur tromped into Beatrice’s office. «Time for the pee
test», he announced, handing Beatrice a paper cup and a memo stating the company’s policy that
every employee would be checked periodically for drug use.

Can employees be required to take drug tests?

Yes, but there are restrictions. Federal laws allow people in certain jobs, such as airline pilots,
long-distance drivers, and transit workers, to be tested at random as a condition of their employment.
That means the boss can walk in at any time and demand a specimen, and the worker can be fired for
insubordination if he or she refuses.

In many jurisdictions, people in other jobs where safety is a factor, including firefighters and
prison guards, can be tested only if the employer has a «reasonable basis» to believe the worker’s
performance has been impaired by drugs - they are involved in a workplace accident or are exhibiting
violent behavior, for example.

Beyond the people in these jobs, an employer who requires a drug test runs the risk in some
states of violating a worker’s right to privacy. And there are strict guidelines in some states as to when
and how people can be tested. For instance, an employer must give reasonable notice to the worker
before the test is administered, although if the employee was involved in an accident, the test can be
administered right away. The employer must also have an established procedure that ensures that
each specimen is handled properly. The employer must have a written policy that outlines the
guidelines.

An employer should use caution when asking an employee to take a drug test, because in many
jurisdictions the employee can turn around and sue for invasion of privacy or wrongful discharge if
the testing isn’t handled properly.

unit 6
Aids and the problems of teenagers

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1. AIDS predominantly attacks young people who are the main carriers of the disease. 2. We can give
frightening statistics: out of 25 million who have died from AIDS since the beginning of the epidemic,
3.8 million were children under the age of 15. 3. AIDS is one of the consequences of alcohol and drug
addiction among young people. 4. The roots of this problem are found in families where children do
not receive the love and care they need. 5. In these families, children feel alienated, and begin to
search for substitutes for love such as alcohol and drugs, which affect the nervous system. 7. These
narcotics and stimulants transport young people away from real life into a world of illusion. 8. Using
and abusing alcohol and drugs, young people no longer control their actions and thoughts. 9.
Moreover, they have the illusion that in this way they can get rid of any psychological complexes of
being a teen. 10. So, losing the feeling of self-control, young people are able to engage in casual
sexual relations with total strangers. 11. And if a young man falls ill with a venereal disease some
time after such an experience, it is very difficult for him to remember who he caught it from. 12. Now
we can observe the rapid spread of AIDS in Russia. 13. In Western countries, the majority of people
spreading this disease are homosexuals; but in Russia 75% of AIDS cases occur among drug abusers.
14. Evidently, the reason for these problems is in the feelings of loneliness that are so typical for
teenagers. 15. At that age a person is not a child any more, but he has not yet become an adult either.
16. He needs a mature person to understand him and help him to cope with his problems.17. He needs
a person who can support him and lead him in the right direction. 18. In our opinion, the role of school
teachers, priests, and representatives of the mass media is particular important nowadays. 19. We
should unify the efforts of all people who are able to influence teenagers and educate them. 20. It is
our common responsibility to protect the young generation of our country from this dangerous
disease. 21. We have no other choice. Paraphrasing William Shakespeare, the question is: “To live or
not to live?”

unit 7
Date Rape
A female student: If I was raped on a date, will the fact that I willingly went on the date make it more
difficult to prosecute the case?
Professor Katz: Date or acquaintance rape is generally treated by the law no differently than rape by
a stranger. Stranger rape involves greater force and injury to the victim. Date rape,
however, involves a breach of trust, and psychological injury may be greater.
Student: How is rape defined?
Professor: The definition of rape varies from state to state, although there are certain common
patterns. Traditionally, rape meant sexual intercourse with a woman, not the wife of the
defendant, by force and without her consent. Today, most state statutes have eliminated
the requirement that the act be accompanied by force.
Student: Is it also a rape to surreptitiously slip a woman alcohol or drugs to impair her judgment or
self control in order to have sex?
Professor: Yes. And some modern statutes have eliminated the marital exemption or made it
inapplicable where the husband and wife are living apart. Other states have further
modernized their laws by adopting gender-neutral statutes so that the defendant and
victim may be of either or the same sex, and have extended the definition of rape to cover
forced oral and anal sex.
Student: So the principal issue in my case is whether I consented.
Professor: Exactly.
Student: Will my background or relationships with other men be used to show I consented?

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Professor: A woman’s consent may not be inferred from the way she is dressed. Claims that a woman
brought on an attack because she is wearing tight shorts or a short skirt are outrageous
and stupid. Similarly, a woman’s prior conduct is not relevant to her behavior during the
incident at issue. Every woman, from saint to prostitute, has the right to say «no».
Student: But the world, including the justice system, doesn’t always treat women fairly.
Professor: Yes, in some states, if you did not consent, your assailant would not be held responsible if
a jury found that he believed you had consented. It is in your own self-interests to discuss
the situation before proceeding, even if it ruins the moment. Better to ruin the moment
than the next ten years.
Student: What should a woman do when she has been sexually assaulted on campus?
Professor: She should call the police, campus or local. The police officer who responds to the call
will transport the victim to a hospital, where she will be examined for any signs of
violence and given physical tests to confirm recent sexual intercourse. After the medical
examination, an officer will take the account of what happened, because the police must
begin the investigation as early as possible.

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Chapter 2 unit 1

Bail

Student: How do I get out of here?


Professor: You are asking the right question. Don’t lose sight of that goal. American jails are not safe.
The levels of violence and sexual assaults in jails exceed those on the most dangerous
streets in the worst communities.
Student: Is there justification for holding a person in jail prior to conviction?
Professor: The only justification is to assure that the person shows up for trial. The likelihood of a
person not showing up increases with the seriousness of the charge and the harshness of
potential punishment. Thus, the more serious the charge, the higher the bail and the more
stringent the alternative or additional conditions of release.
Student: When is pretrial release unavailable?
Professor: Traditionally, pretrial release is unavailable to persons charged with murder because no
matter how much bail is required, the person may run to avoid facing the possible penalty.
Some people are simply so dangerous that releasing them back into the community almost
assures that other crimes will be committed and other people hurt. In that instance, it has
been determined that a person may be held in jail until trial. Recognizing that it’s very
difficult to predict future behavior accurately, pretrial detention should be reserved for
those situations where the arrestee has a history of committing violent crimes, and the
proof of the current charge is substantial.
Student: Will they hold me if I’m charged with a less serious crime?
Professor: Most people are charged with relatively minor offenses - misdemeanors. A misdemeanor
generally carries a maximum sentence in a local jail, not a state prison, of less than one
year, and most people convicted of misdemeanors are not sentenced to any jail time at all.
A person charged with a misdemeanor who lives in the community will usually show up
in court as required, rather than become a fugitive. If you are arrested for a misdemeanor,
chances are you’ll be released after you are booked. Most communities allow for
“jailhouse” or “station house” bail for misdemeanors. It is in the community’s interest, as
well as your own to keep you out of the jail. The more people jailed, the greater the
security problem and the greater the cost.
Student: Who is bail set by?
Professor: If bail were to be set by a judge, you would have to wait at least until the following morning
or over the week-end until court is in session. To avoid jailing you until a judge appears
to set bail, the court has provided the police or sheriff with a bail schedule for minor
offenses, detailing how much money to require in return for your release. The money put
up for bail is returnable when you show up for trial. Where cash bail is required, you may
have to wait a while until friends or family show up with the requisite amount. You may
be released on your own recognizance, if you are lucky enough to live in a community
where your signature on a statement promising to appear in court is enough to gain instant
release. However, if you’ve been arrested for drunk driving, common sense dictates that
the police hold you until you are sober and able to drive home, or until someone comes
for you.
Student: What if I’m charged with a felony?

Professor: Those charged with more serious crimes - felonies - will not be released from the jail until
a judge evaluates the case and sets bail; consequently, there will be a wait in jail until
court is in session. The arraignment to set bail should take place within forty-eight hours,
unless a week-end intervenes. Anyway, the bail set will be higher than for a misdemeanor,
and the money probably could not be raised as quickly as the lesser sum required for
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misdemeanors. So a period in jail is inevitable except in those few cities where people
arrested are taken directly to courts which run throughout the day and night. The higher
that bail is set, the more likely it is that you will need a bail bondsman.
Student: What does a bail bondsman do?
Professor: A bondsman secures an arrestee’s release by promising to pay the court the full amount of
the bond if the arrestee fails to appear for trial.
Student: Does the bondsman do it for a fee?
Professor: Yes, usually ten percent of the face value of the bond, and only if the arrestee or a relative
or friend can turn over to the bondsman a deed to property or bank books equal to the face
value of the bond.

One phone call

Student: When do I get my phone call?


Professor: Under our legal system, you are presumed innocent until proven guilty. And some people
charged with crimes actually are, in fact, innocent. Society doesn’t want you being locked
away without anyone knowing what has happened to you. James Madison, the author of
the Bill of Rights, didn’t have a telephone, but allowing a person arrested access to a
telephone is consistent with the rights Madison did include in the Bill of Rights. You have
the right to let someone know where you are and what your situation is so that efforts can
be initiated to get you out.
Student: What if the line is busy? Or no one is home?
Professor: Your access to a telephone is guaranteed by law in most states. It should not be «a phone
call» as you put it. You should have the opportunity to place calls until you reach someone
who can act on your information.
Student: Can you give me a piece of advice how to choose whom I call and notify of my predicament?
Professor: Choose carefully. If your immediate family is in the vicinity, calling them will be a wise
first choice. They are the ones you are likely to look to for bail money, if needed, and to
help you get an attorney.
Student: And what if my family isn’t nearby?
Professor: You have to make a choice. It might be advisable to contact someone who is in the vicinity,
and ask that person to coordinate your efforts by contacting family and trying to get bail
money from them. On the other hand, it might be easier to deal directly with your family,
although since they are far away, they are in no position to handle matters locally except
to contact an attorney. Even if your family is far away, though, they might be the ones to
contact, if they aren’t likely to fall apart, and are able to mobilize someone locally who
will help you. Otherwise, their input will be to send money, and you’ll still have to find
someone locally who will quarterback activities until you are released and able to do
things for yourself. Having to call around until you find someone willing to take on the
responsibility can add to your anxiety. Call your family; they are less likely to ignore your
cry for help.
unit 2
1. Violent crime is a traumatic and terrible event that can end lives or change them forever. 2.
Compared to other events that harm and injure people, crime is often the most difficult to deal
with. 3. Unlike accidents or illnesses, victims of violence often feel isolated and have
difficulty dealing with the consequences. 4. And unlike other situations, there may be no way
to handle the additional trauma caused by the financial loss of a working family member, or

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the medical bills of a serious injury. 5. Our lawyers can help victims obtain monetary aid to
enable them to pick up the pieces and get on with their lives. 6. Violent crimes are sexual
assault and rape, childhood sexual abuse, kidnapping, murder and homicide, attacks and
violence. 7. Other criminal offences commonly encountered include: manslaughter, assault
and battery, assault, abuse, neglect or financial exploitation of elder or disabled person,
indecent assault and battery on mentally retarded person, mayhem, armed robbery, home
invasion, forcible rape of a child, assault or battery for purpose of intimidation, stalking and
criminal harassment and others. 8. If you or a loved one has been victimized and has sustained
serious physical or emotional harm, you should consider discussing the situation with one of
our crime victim attorneys.

unit 3
Who Was This Guy Miranda?
While the Miranda warnings are considered a cornerstone of our civil liberties, the person after
whom they were named was hardly someone most people would consider a hero.

In 1963, Ernesto Miranda, an eighth-grade dropout with a criminal record, had been picked up
by Phoenix police and accused of raping and kidnapping a mildly retarded eighteen-year-old woman.
After two hours in a police interrogation room Miranda signed a written confession, but he apparently
never was told that he had the right to remain silent, to, have a lawyer, and to be protected against
self-incrimination.

Despite his lawyer's objections, the confession was presented as evidence at Miranda's trial, and
he was convicted and sentenced to twenty years. His appeal went all the way to the Supreme Court,
where it was joined with three other similar cases. In a landmark ruling issued in 1966, the court
established that the accused have the right to remain silent and that prosecutors may not use statements
made by defendants while in police custody unless the police have advised them of their rights.

That ruling offered only temporary reprieve to Miranda. He was retried. The second time
around, the prosecutors couldn't use the confession, but they did have additional evidence from a
former girlfriend of Miranda's who testified that he had told her about the kidnapping and rape. He
was convicted again and served eleven years before being paroled in 1972. He was arrested and
returned to prison several times after.

Miranda died in 1976 at age thirty-four after being stabbed during an argument in a bar. The
police arrested a suspect who chose to remain silent after being read his rights. The suspect was
released and no one was ever charged with the killing.

unit 4
◼ Does a person know when he or she needs a lawyer?
If you need to sue someone, or if someone sues you, you will probably need a lawyer. You always
have the right to represent yourself, but generally it’s not advisable to do so. In some lawsuits, usually
those brought or defended in small-claims courts, it’s usually not necessary to use a lawyer. But if
the amount of money involved is high, getting a lawyer is a good idea, especially if the court’s
procedures are confusing or if the other side has a lawyer. Most people need lawyers
• to get divorced
• for estate planning ( making wills and trusts)
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• if they are the executor of someone else’s estate
• to buy or sell houses and other real estate
• to enter a business contract
• if they are in an accident
• if they are charged with a crime
People may also need lawyers if they think they are entitled to something from the government – like
unemployment insurance or social security but are unable to get it.

unit 5
How Are Criminal Cases Different from Civil Ones?
There are a few major differences. A criminal case is always brought by the local, state, or
federal government, represented by the prosecutor (sometimes known as the district attorney, state’s
attorney or United States attorney) seeking punishment – a fine or imprisonment or both. Civil cases,
on the other hand, are usually brought by private parties or corporations seeking to collect money
damages.

Second, in a criminal trial, the defendant, the person accused of the crime, has a right to testify
in his or her own defense, but also, under the Fifth Amendment, a right not to testify. The decision
made by the defendant and his or her attorney about whether or not to testify may be one of the most
crucial decisions in a criminal case. However, in a civil case, the defendant can be compelled to testify
against his or her will.

The third major difference involves the burden of proof. In a civil case, the plaintiff (the person
who brings the lawsuit) only has to show by “a preponderance of evidence” that the facts alleged are
true. In a criminal case, the prosecution has the much heavier burden of proving than the defendant
is guilty “beyond reasonable doubt”.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. The Court TV Cradle-to-Grave Legal Survival Guide, by American Lawyer Media, L.P.,
and Little, Brown and Company, Inc., 1995.
2. Know your rights by Lewis Katz, 1993.
3. Dictionary of Legal Terms by Steven H. Gifts, 1993.
4. Just English. Английский для юристов. Гуманова Ю.Л., Королева В.А., М., 1996.
5. New English-Russian Dictionary of Legal Terms Березовенко Ю.Ф., Киев, 1993.
6. Oxford Student’s Dictionary of Current English, Hornby A.S. M., 1984.
7. English for Law students Салтыкова И.В., Колосанова Н.Д., М.: Высш. шк., 1974.
8. English – Russian Learner’s Dictionary. – М.: Рус.яз., 2001. – 968 с.
9. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Senior_prank
10. http://www.jokesprank.com/funniest-jokes/funniestjokes.html
11. http://www.dianark.ru/articles/uchebnym-zavedenijam/komu-i-zachem-nuzhny-testy
12. http://www.contraids.ru/index/spid-v-rossii/
13. http://www.echo.msk.ru/blog/t_sluchai/709579-echo/
14. http://spravda.ru/news/5913.html
15. http://ombudsman.r38.ru/qa/65.html
16. http://www.advokat-inutin.ru/page/page11.html
17. http://www.schooljokes.com/school_uniforms/index.shtml
18. http://www.ahajokes.com/pol69.html
19. http://grantland.net/harassment.htm
20. http://www.newsru.com/crime
21. Natural English upper-intermediate. Jenny Quintana, Oxford, 2004.
22. Easy Talk .Современный Американский в диалогах. Кенита Cью, М., 2006.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

От составителя ................................................................................................................................. 3

Chapter 1. On Campus ...................................................................................................................... 4

Unit 1. Dress Codes. Students’ right to free expression ...................................................................... 4

Unit 2. Dorm Room Searches ............................................................................................................ 12

Unit 3. Driving ................................................................................................................................... 19

Unit 4. In trouble off Campus. Trouble with Campus Police ............................................................ 29

Unit 5. Mandatory Drug Testing ........................................................................................................ 37

Unit 6. HIV Testing and Privacy. AIDS ............................................................................................ 45

Unit 7. Sexual Harassment. Rape....................................................................................................... 53

Chapter 2. What? You’ve been arrested? ..................................................................................... 64

Unit 1. Arrest Procedures. Bail .......................................................................................................... 64

Unit 2. What is a Crime? .................................................................................................................... 74

Unit 3. Miranda Rights....................................................................................................................... 80

Unit 4. Getting a Lawyer. Going to Jail ............................................................................................. 88

Unit 5. What is the Basic Procedure in a Criminal Case?.................................................................. 95

Scripts .............................................................................................................................................. 102

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................... 111

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