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Communications

Overview

Communications

Overview the number of modems and concen- Each segment is interconnected


trators needed to cover the entire through a node or gateway: a
An electricity grid without adequate
system can dramatically reduce infra- concentrator between the WAN and
communications is simply a power
structure costs. At the same time, NAN and an e-meter between the
“broadcaster.” It is through the
the selected technology must have NAN and HAN. Each of these nodes
addition of two-way communications
enough bandwidth to handle all data communicates through the network
that the power grid is made “smart.”
traffic being sent in both directions with adjacent nodes. The concentrator
Communications enables utilities to over the grid network. aggregates the data from the
achieve three key objectives: intel- meters and sends that information
ligent monitoring, security, and load Communications networks to the grid operator. The e-meter
balancing. Using two-way communi- and protocols collects the power-usage data of the
cations, data can be collected from home or business by communicating
Communications in the smart grid with the home network gateway or
sensors and meters located through-
can be broken into three segments. functioning as the gateway itself.
out the grid and transmitted directly
to the grid operator’s control room. Wide area network (WAN) covers Each segment can utilize different
This added communications capabil- long-haul distances from the communications technologies and
ity provides enough bandwidth for command center to local neighbor- protocols depending on the trans-
the control room operator to actively hoods downstream. mission environments and amount
manage the grid.
Neighborhood area network (NAN) of data being transmitted. In addition
The communications must be manages all information between to the architecture choice between
reliable, secure, and low cost. the WAN and the home area network wireless and powerline communica-
The sheer scale of the electrical using medium-voltage lines. tions (PLC), there are a variety of
grid network makes cost a critical wireless and PLC protocols to choose
Home area network (HAN) extends
consideration when implementing among (Table 1).
communication to endpoints within
a communications technology. the end-user home or business.
Selecting a solution that minimizes

INBOUND OUTBOUND
POWERLINE POWERLINE
AC LINE COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS AC LINE
MODEM MODEM

DC-DC DC-DC

SERIAL
MULTIPROTOCOL OTHER
METERS
RS-232 RS-485

TRANSFORMER DRIVER

WIRELESS COMPLETE RF TRANSCEIVER COMPLETE RF TRANSCEIVER WIRELESS


ADC ADC

DOWN- ADC ADC DOWN-


LNA LNA
ANTENNA CONVERTER CONVERTER ANTENNA
SW DAC SW
DRIVER
UP- DAC UP-
DRIVER
CONVERTER MAXIM CONVERTER
PA DAC SOLUTION DAC PA
DC-DC DC-DC

Maxim offers solutions for powerline, wireless, and serial communications. For a list of Maxim's recommended solutions, please go to: www.maxim-ic.com/communications.

www.maxim-ic.com/smartgrid 25
Communications
Overview

Table 1: Smart grid communications protocols


Network  Protocol Advantages Disadvantages Recommendation
WAN Wireless (2G/3G/LTE Extensive cellular infrastructure is readily Utility must rent the infrastructure from a Wireless usually works best
cellular, GPRS) available; large amount of aggregated data cellular carrier for a monthly access fee; utility
can be communicated over a long haul does not own infrastructure
NAN Wireless ISM Long range; leaps transformers Currently proprietary; dead spots complicate Useful in some topologies, such as in the
installation and maintenance U.S.
IEEE ® 802.15.4g Long range; leaps transformers Not yet an accepted standard Useful in some topologies
ZigBee ® Low cost; low power consumption allows Low data rate; very short range; does not Unlikely to be used in NANs
battery operation; well-known standard penetrate structures well
First-generation PLC Low cost Unreliable; low bandwidth Bandwidth and reliability inadequate for
(FSK, Yitran, Echelon®) the smart grid
Early-generation Better range, bandwidth, and reliability Does not cross transformers; does not coexist Not recommended for new designs due to
narrowband OFDM than FSK with first-generation PLC cost and compatibility concerns
Broadband PLC High data rate Does not cross transformers Increases infrastructure cost, making it too
costly for most large-scale deployments
G3-PLC Highly reliable long-range transmission; Not yet an accepted standard Excellent for NAN worldwide
crosses transformers, reducing
infrastructure costs; data rate supports
frequent two-way communications;
coexists with FSK; open standard;
supports IPv6
HAN ZigBee Well-known standard that offers low cost Very short range; does not penetrate Well suited for communication between
and low power structures well water and gas meters
Wi-Fi® Popular technology with high data rates Medium range; does not penetrate cement Good for consumer applications, but no
buildings or basements provisions for meeting utility objectives
First-generation PLC Low cost Not reliable in home environments Unlikely to be used in homes due to high
(FSK, Yitran, Echelon) levels of interference
Early-generation Better range, bandwidth, and reliability Does not cross transformers; does not coexist Not recommended for new designs due to
narrowband OFDM than FSK with first-generation PLC cost and compatibility concerns
Broadband PLC High bandwidth Short range is not sufficient for NAN Good for consumer applications, but no
provisions for meeting utility objectives
G3-PLC Highly reliable; sufficient data rate; IPv6 Not yet an accepted standard Excellent for HAN worldwide
enables networking with many devices

The WAN is the communications path the network, so most implementa- consumption data with in-home
between the grid operator and the tions use proprietary wireless or displays, or enabling a card-activated
concentrator. The WAN can be imple- PLC technologies. Several standards prepayment scheme. The arrival
mented over fiber or wireless media bodies are currently working with of electric/plug-in hybrid electric
using Ethernet or cellular protocols, utilities and technology providers vehicles (EV/PHEVs) presents a special
respectively. Cellular or WiMAX® is to define standards for wireless communications scenario for HANs.
most commonly used between the and PLC protocols. The IEEE Standards bodies are defining PLC
grid operator and the concentrator. 802.15.4g standard targets wireless; protocols for communicating with
the IEEE P1901, OPEN meter, and vehicle charging systems.
The NAN is the path between the ITU-T G.hnem standards are being
concentrator and the meter. It uses developed for PLC (Table 2). In addition to supporting the data
either wireless or PLC. Typically, the requirements for smart grid activities,
concentrator communicates with The HAN is used by utilities to extend a HAN might also include: peer-to-
anywhere from a few to hundreds the reach of their communication peer (P2P) communications between
of meters, depending on the grid path to devices inside the home. devices inside the home; communica-
topology and the communica- This network can support functions tions with handheld remote-control
tions protocol used. Today, there such as cycling air conditioners off devices, lighting controls, and gas or
is no standard for this portion of during peak load conditions, sharing water meters; as well as broadband

26 Maxim Smart Grid Solutions


Communications
Overview

OUTSIDE THE WALL INSIDE THE WALL

WAN NAN HAN

NETWORK
SMART GRID
OPERATING SMART HOME
NETWORK
CENTER

NETWORK 00000

MANAGEMENT
SYSTEMS ELECTRICITY
METER
RELAY

00000

CONCENTRATOR CAP BANK/


E-BRIDGE
00000

WAN
Ethernet
CDMA
GSM
00000

SWITCH/
S-BRIDGE
GAS
METER
00000000

00000

00000000

The smart grid communications architecture.

Table 2: Communication protocols under consideration around the world


Region WAN NAN HAN
North America Cellular, WiMAX G3-PLC, HomePlug®, IEEE 802.15.4g, IEEE P1901, G3-PLC, HomePlug, ITU-T G.hn, Wi-Fi, ZigBee, Z-Wave
ITU-T G.hnem, proprietary wireless, Wi-Fi
Europe Cellular G3-PLC, IEEE P1901, ITU-T G.hnem, PRIME, Wi-Fi G3-PLC, HomePlug, ITU-T G.hn, Wi-Fi, Wireless M-Bus,
ZigBee
China Cellular, band-translated G3-PLC, RS-485, wireless to be determined G3-PLC, RS-485, Wi-Fi, to be determined
WiMAX
Rest of the World Cellular, WiMAX G3-PLC, HomePlug, IEEE 802.15.4g, IEEE P1901, G3-PLC, HomePlug, ITU-T G.hn, RS-485, Wi-Fi, Wireless
ITU-T G.hnem, PRIME, RS-485, Wi-Fi M-Bus, ZigBee, Z-Wave

www.maxim-ic.com/smartgrid 27
Communications
Overview

traffic. Protocols such as RS-485, provide a complete system-on-chip OFDM has been used in many
ZigBee, Z-Wave®, and HomePlug (SoC) solution. In other cases, such as modern communication systems
are used for this network. If there is a proprietary protocols, a digital ASIC such as digital radio and TV, Wi-Fi,
separate home gateway, it is possible and an RF transceiver are used to and WiMAX, as well as early-gener-
that additional protocols could be build the complete radio link. Maxim ation narrowband protocols such as
used to communicate with appliances, has both standard RF transceivers PRIME. Today, OFDM technology is
thermostats, and other devices. as well as custom ASICs that can be enabling exciting new functions and
configured as transceivers. capabilities for PLC networks. Among
Communications alternatives in the the most significant benefits, it gives
HAN can often coexist, but utility
support will probably be limited to
Powerline communications the utility industry the bandwidth
needed to build intelligence into the
technologies needed to support Overview of modulation schemes power grid while meeting aggressive
the utility's primary objectives. cost targets.
Powerline communications uses
AC power lines as the transmission
RF communications Advancements offered by
medium. Some systems, such as
Wireless communications is used Maxim’s, work over DC and cold wires G3-PLC technology
in some areas for automated meter as well. There are several powerline G3-PLC employs OFDM to optimize
reading (AMR). Several proprietary and protocols in the market today. These bandwidth utilization. Since OFDM
standardized wireless protocols are protocols break down into one of uses multiple carriers to transmit data,
available today. Frequency bands of two basic modulation schemes: interference at a specific frequency
interest range from 200MHz to 3.9GHz. frequency-shift keying (FSK) and or frequency-selective attenuation
orthogonal frequency-division multi- can now effectively be eliminated. In
Several blocks are used to implement
plexing (OFDM). addition to increased reliability, this
RF communications (Figure 3). The
signal is received through an antenna FSK is an older modulation scheme capability allows considerably more
and goes through a bandpass filter, that has been used by the utility data to be sent.
which rejects frequencies beyond industry in the past for rudimen- Additionally, OFDM’s spectral effi-
the one of interest. The signal is then tary purposes, such as infrequent ciency allows the use of advanced
switched to the receive signal chain, one-way communications from channel-coding techniques. In
where one or more downconverters meters to a concentrator. However, Maxim’s powerline solutions,
translate from the carrier frequency to FSK suffers from a significant advanced channel coding is used
an intermediate frequency (IF), then drawback: if an interferer coincides along with OFDM to maximize
to the in-phase/quadrature-phase with one of the transmit frequen- communication robustness in
(I/Q) stage, and then to the baseband. cies, the receiver loses reception. adverse channel conditions. Two
As FSK only switches between two layers of error-correction coding
More recent architectures eliminate
frequencies, bandwidth is not used (convolutional and Reed Solomon)
one or more of the IF downconver-
efficiently, resulting in low data rates. are used to ensure reliable data
sion stages with a low-IF or zero-IF
This low data rate is insufficient for transmission. In addition, data
sampling architecture. These designs
smart grid applications that demand is interleaved in both time and
use either a single ADC to digitize
bidirectional control. frequency domains across OFDM
a high- or low-IF signal or, typically,
two ADCs to digitize a complex I/Q Real-world PLC rollouts frequently carriers to decrease the sensitivity to
baseband signal. The ADC output require up to several hundred impulse noise and protect against
is fed into a DSP or digital ASIC meters to be connected to a single burst errors.
where the baseband is processed. data concentrator over the medium- Maxim’s next-generation G3-PLC
Sometimes a microprocessor is also voltage (MV) portion of the network. technology includes additional
used to handle the higher layers of This requires data communication capabilities:
the protocol. For transmission, the across low-voltage/medium-voltage
processing path and signal chain are (LV/MV) transformers. Since these • MAC-level security using an
reversed, and the signal is sent out to transformers can cause several tens of AES-128 cryptographic engine
the antenna. decibels of (frequency-selective) signal
• Mesh routing protocol to
attenuation to FSK signals, more
The system can be partitioned in determine the best path between
advanced and robust communication
several ways. ZigBee or Maxim’s remote network nodes
methods than FSK are needed.
Simplelink radios, for instance, can

28 Maxim Smart Grid Solutions


Communications
Overview

• Adaptive tone mapping for communications network. The differ- ±80V fault protection to eliminate
optimal bandwidth utilization ential nature of RS-485 signaling the need for external components
• A robust mode of operation to makes it less susceptible to external such as polyswitch limiters and zener
improve communication under interference. Moreover, the RS-485 diodes.
noisy channel conditions specification supports multidrop
configurations, thus allowing the Add a point-to-point link with
• Channel estimation to select connection of multiple meters to a
the optimal modulation scheme RS-232 transceivers
single bus.
between neighboring nodes The RS-232 protocol is intended
For instance, RS-485 can be used in for short-distance communica-
• Coexistence with older S-FSK an apartment building to transmit tion between two devices. Meter
systems data from meters in each apartment designers typically use RS-232 for
to a central unit that aggregates the implementing a point-to-point
G3-PLC is so robust that transmission
data from the individual meters, link between a utility meter and a
across transformers is achievable
which can then be read through computer, remote display, or modem.
with an inexpensive coupler. This
a wireless or PLC link. A similar
reduces the number of concentrators Because the RS-232 port is only
approach can be used in industrial
needed in smart grid installations, used a fraction of the time, it should
systems that require multiple cost
saving system implementation cost include automatic shutdown circuitry
centers to be metered.
and making PLC cost competitive to conserve power. Additionally,
with, or even superior to, wireless designers should look for devices
advanced meter infrastructure (AMI) Selecting an RS-485 transceiver
with extended ESD protection to
systems. Distances up to 6km have To maintain signal quality over long prevent damage during handling.
been achieved on low- and medium- cable lengths through noisy envi-
voltage lines, allowing remote sites to ronments, designers should look Maxim’s RS-232 family combines
be monitored as well. The complete for transceivers with the following proprietary AutoShutdown™ technol-
G3-PLC profile specification, as well features. ogy with robust ESD protection, fast
as specifications for the PHY and MAC data rates, and small footprints—
layers, can be downloaded from: ESD protection to prevent damage basically, everything that you need in
www.maxim-ic.com/G3-PLC. from handling and connection of the an RS-232 transceiver.
transceivers.
Maxim provides both high-
Fail-safe circuitry to protect the Multiprotocol transceivers
frequency and low-frequency PLC
chipsets for smart grid applications. design from open- and short-circuit provide design flexibility
Maxim recommends using narrow- conditions. In cases where the protocols are
band OFDM to transmit data in a either not known in advance or
Slew-rate limiting to reduce
spectrum consistent with world- where there needs to be flexibility,
radiated emissions and data errors.
wide spectral power-density Maxim’s multiprotocol transceivers
standards for PLC (below ~500kHz Hot-swap capability to eliminate allow you to use a single board
in CENELEC®, FCC, and ARIB). false transitions on the bus during layout to support either RS-232
power-up or live insertion of the or RS-485 communication. This
Serial communications transceiver. saves time because one design can
support different market require-
Achieve long cable runs in noisy Isolation to protect against voltage ments, and each board can simply be
environments spikes, ground loops, electrical programmed to the desired protocol
storms, etc. during production.
In harsh and noisy environments,
such as multi-unit residential AutoDirection control to save an
buildings or industrial settings, an optocoupler by eliminating the need
RS-485 bus architecture can be used for an isolated control channel.
to implement a low-cost, yet robust

www.maxim-ic.com/smartgrid 29
Communications
Featured products

OFDM-based PLC chipset dramatically improves reliability and network data rate

MAX2990/MAX2991 (G3-PLC Lite) Benefits

The MAX2990 modem and the MAX2991 analog front-end (AFE) •• Robust long-distance transmission
comprise a PLC chipset that achieves reliable long-range data –– Up to 100kbps data rate at 10kHz to
communications. The MAX2990 is a highly integrated SoC that 490kHz; 32kbps at 10kHz to 95kHz
combines the PHY and MAC layers using Maxim’s 16-bit MAXQ® –– Built-in AGC with 62dB dynamic range
microcontroller core. The MAX2991 is a state-of-the-art, stand-alone and DC offset cancellation
IC that features two-stage automatic gain control (AGC) with a 62dB
–– Includes forward error correction (FEC),
dynamic range and on-chip programmable filters. Both devices
CRC16, and CRC32
operate in the CENELEC, FCC, and ARIB frequency bands.
–– CSMA/CA controls traffic in multinode
networks
–– ARQ enhances data transmission reliability
•• High integration lowers BOM cost and
speeds design
–– On-chip band-select filter, VGA, and
10-bit ADC for the Rx path
–– On-chip band-waveform-shaping filter,
programmable predriver, and 10-bit DAC
for the Tx path
•• Built-in security protocols prevent
tampering
–– Fast DES/3DES engine

INTERRUPT DES
CRC32 OFDM PLC PHY
MAX2990 CONTROL ENGINE TIMER/
PWM
CSMA/
ARQ
REED-
UART FLASH SOLOMON INSERT
AFE SPI INTERFACE

32KB PREAMBLE
MCU (MAXQ) IFFT AND CYCLIC
SPITM DUAL- CONVOLUTIONAL PREFIX
PORT ENCODER
SRAM
GPIO 4KB x 8
PLC MAC REED-
SRAM SOLOMON JAMMER
I2C 4KB BPSK CANCELLER
DEMOD FFT
VITERBI AND SYNC
ROM DECODER
WATCHDOG 5KB x 8
JTAG RTC
TIMER

VGA1 LPF HPF VGA2 ADC


SERIAL INTERFACE

ADAPTATION 1 ADAPTATION 2
RECEIVER PATH

PREDRIVER LPF IIR


DAC FILTER

TRANSMITTER PATH

PROCESS TUNING BLOCK CONTROL REGISTERS


MAX2991

Block diagrams of the MAX2990 and MAX2991.

30 Maxim Smart Grid Solutions


Communications
Featured products

Next-generation OFDM-based PLC modem improves network reliability and coverage


over earlier generations
MAX2992* (G3-PLC) Benefits

The MAX2992 modem improves long-range data communications •• Reliable long-distance transmission
by extending network capabilities to transmission over transform- –– Up to 225kbps effective data rate at 10kHz
ers. This highly integrated SoC combines the PHY and MAC layers to 490kHz; 44kbps effective data rate at
using Maxim’s 32-bit MAXQ microcontroller core. Two forms of FEC 10kHz to 95kHz with a maximum data rate
are added to further improve communication reliability over earlier of 298kbps
generations and add backwards compatibility with older FSK-based –– Adaptive tone mapping monitors sub-
PLC technologies. This device operates in the CENELEC, FCC, and channel conditions and automatically
ARIB frequency bands. When combined with the MAX2991, a full PLC selects the optimal transmission
modem can be realized. parameters
–– FEC, CRC16, and CRC32
–– CSMA/CA controls traffic in multinode
networks
–– ARQ enhances data transmission
reliability
–– Fast AES-128 engine for high data security
•• Reduces system cost
–– Long-distance (6km) transmission means
fewer repeaters
–– Communication across transformers
requires fewer data concentrators
–– Backwards compatibility with FSK-based
solutions improves interoperability
•• Full IPv6 addressing extends system
addressability all the way into the home
–– Implements 6LoWPAN adaptation layer
supporting IPv6

INTERRUPT
JTAG CONTROL FAST COPY
Tx DATA Tx
WATCHDOG MANAGER BUFFER TRANSMITTER
WD TIMERS
TIMER 1 TO 7
PMEM
UART1 128KB x 8
G3 PHY AFE
ROM FFT INTERFACE
UART0 MAXQ30 6KB x 8
µC
SPI0 SRAM FOR
DATA
128KB x 8 Rx DATA Rx
RECEIVER
GPIO MANAGER BUFFER
DUAL RAM
4KB x 8
HF OSC

1.2 AES
SPI1 REGULATOR BUFFER MANAGER ENCRYPTION
CRC32 MAX2992*
SS
SCLK
MISI
MISC

128KB
FLASH

Block diagram of the MAX2992.


*Future product—contact the factory for availability.

www.maxim-ic.com/smartgrid 31
Communications
Featured products

Wi-Fi transceivers enable communication over the longest distances

MAX2830/MAX2831/MAX2832 Benefits

The MAX2830/MAX2831/MAX2832 Wi-Fi RF transceivers support •• Transceivers support industry


wireless communication standards in the unlicensed 2.4GHz standards for easier, faster design
frequency band. Maxim’s line of Wi-Fi products are direct-conversion, –– Support for the IEEE 802.11b/g standards
zero-IF OFDM transceivers providing best-in-class performance to to leverage a large ecosystem of HAN
support the longest distances. Custom frequency bands for nonstan- devices
dard and multimode applications are also available.
•• Low noise and high sensitivity enable
larger networks
–– Low noise figure (2.6dB) and receive
sensitivity (-76dBm) enable the longest
range
•• On-chip filters eliminate external SAW
filter and reduce BOM count and cost
–– Integrated PA with +18.5dBm transmit
power reduces BOM count and PCB area

Wi-Fi 90°

PLL

TRANSCEIVER
OSC

Block diagram of Maxim’s Wi-Fi transceivers.

32 Maxim Smart Grid Solutions


Communications
Featured products

WiMAX transceivers boost range and throughput for faster data access

MAX2839/MAX2842 Benefits

The MAX2839/MAX2842 WiMAX RF transceivers provide the flex- •• Best-in-class performance extends link
ibility to support wireless communication standards in the licensed range
2GHz and 3GHz frequency bands. Maxim’s WiMAX products are –– Lowest noise figure (2.3dB) provides
direct-conversion, zero-IF, MIMO OFDM transceivers that use a dual- longest range—18% farther than closest
receiver architecture to maximize data throughput and link range. competitor
Custom frequency bands for nonstandard and multimode applica-
•• Smallest WiMAX transceiver fits the
tions are also available.
tightest designs
–– Tiny 3.6mm x 5.1mm wafer-level
package (MAX2839AS)
•• Complete frequency coverage with
MIMO support to reach customers
worldwide
–– 2.3GHz to 2.7GHz with 1x2 MIMO
support (MAX2839)
–– 3.3GHz to 3.9GHz with 2x2 MIMO
support (MAX2842)

WiMAX 90°

PLL

TRANSCEIVER
OSC

Block diagram of Maxim’ s WiMAX transceivers.

www.maxim-ic.com/smartgrid 33
Communications
Featured products

260MHz to 470MHz ISM radio for HANs and NANs extends battery life up to seven years

MAX7032 Benefits

The MAX7032 transceiver offers an inexpensive, low-power solution •• Extends battery life
for one-way and two-way reporting from meters in HANs and some –– Low active (< 7mA Rx, < 12mA Tx) and
NANs. The transceiver uses the license-free low-frequency radio shutdown (< 1µA) current extends
bands in the U.S. (260MHz to 470MHz) and Europe (433.05MHz to battery life
434.79MHz). The radio’s simple ASK or FSK modulation technique, –– Programmable receiver shutdown/
outstanding sensitivity, wide selection of data rates, and low current wake-up cycle for additional current
drain make it the perfect choice for local radio links and networks savings
in these frequency ranges. The transceiver can achieve link margins
better than 120dB, which means that it can reach 1km over open flat •• Compact radio module for space-
terrain or maintain a link between an underground water meter and constrained metering applications
a local concentrator. The MAX7032 is flexible enough to work with –– Small 5mm x 5mm TQFN package
multiple smart grid communication standards. •• Good penetration in buildings

METER SENSOR (WATER OR


GAS VOLUME, FLOW, ETC.)

µP

CRYSTAL

SCLK DIO CSB

METER OR READER
DATA KEYPAD/CONTROLLER
TX/RX1

MAX7032 METER OR READER


DISPLAY
TRANSCEIVER HVIN
SUPPLY,
PAOUT AVDD BYPASS VDD
ANTENNA
MATCHING DVDD
NETWORK LNAIN

4 Ls LNASRC LNAOUT
4 Cs

CERAMIC DATA FILTER AND


IF FILTER DETECTOR

2 Rs
4 Cs

VDD

System diagram for the MAX7032.

34 Maxim Smart Grid Solutions


Communications
Featured products

Low-/high-band transmitter for HANs/NANs extends battery life up to seven years

MAX7049* Benefits

The MAX7049 ASK/FSK transmitter offers an inexpensive, low-power •• Extends battery life
solution for one-way reporting from meters in HANs and some –– Low active (< 35mA) and shutdown
NANs. The transmitter uses the license-free low- and high-frequency (< 0.5µA) current conserves battery life
bands in the U.S. and Europe, making it a very flexible solution. The
•• Low BOM cost
shaped ASK or FSK modulation technique reduces the transmitted
frequency bandwidth so that more frequency channels can be used. –– Only crystal and matching components
The wide selection of data rates and low current drain make it well are needed
suited for local radio links and networks. This IC is flexible enough •• Good penetration in buildings
to work with multiple smart grid communication standards and is –– Maximum allowable Tx power (25mW)
compatible with modes S and T of the European M-Bus standard. for European ETSI standard

METER SENSOR (WATER OR


GAS VOLUME, FLOW, ETC.)

µP

CRYSTAL

HOP ENABLE SDO SCLK SDI CSB

METER OR READER
DATAIN KEYPAD/CONTROLLER

MAX7049* METER OR READER


DISPLAY
TRANSCEIVER
SUPPLY,
PA+ AVDD VDD
ANTENNA BYPASS
MATCHING DVDD
NETWORK PA-

4 Ls CPVDD CRTL CPOUT


4 Cs
VDD

PLL FILTER

1R
2 Cs

System diagram for the MAX7049.

*Future product—contact the factory for availability.

www.maxim-ic.com/smartgrid 35
Communications
Featured products

RF expertise to deliver custom-tailored solutions for your specific smart grid needs

ASIC Services Benefits

Maxim’s ASIC services are available to meet your specific application •• Maxim’s expertise gives you a high
requirements. Maxim offers flexible engagement options from foundry first-silicon success rate
sales through turnkey design to joint-development projects. Our –– Over 15 years of experience in the ASIC
smart grid solutions include: business
–– Rich analog and RF IP catalog speeds
•• Wireless backhaul; distribution asset management
your time to market
–– WiMAX and rebanded WiMAX transceivers
•• In-house process technologies provide
•• AMR; fault diagnostics optimal performance-cost tradeoff
–– FSK, ASK, OFDM, DSSS transceivers
•• AMI
–– WiFi, ZigBee/802.15.4 transceivers
•• Proprietary solutions
–– 400MHz to 5GHz RF/wireless transceivers

www.maxim-ic.com/ASICs

36 Maxim Smart Grid Solutions


Communications
Featured products

Multiprotocol transceivers enable on-the-fly protocol selection for power-meter


communications
MAX3160E/MAX3161E/MAX3162E Benefits

The MAX3160E/MAX3161E/MAX3162E are multiprotocol transceivers •• Provide adaptability without additional


that allow designers to use a single device to support both RS-232 parts or design work
and RS-485 serial communications in power-meter applications. –– Pin-programmable half- or full-duplex
These devices offer flexibility and convenience through a pin- communication
selectable interface, which makes it easy to program each board to –– Pin-selectable RS-232 or RS-485/RS-422
the desired protocol during production. In addition, the transceivers operation
have extra protection against static electricity; true fail-safe circuitry
that guarantees a logic-high receiver output when the receiver •• Save board space and cost
inputs are open or shorted; a 10nA shutdown mode; short-circuit –– Integrated ±15kV ESD protection
limiting; and thermal shutdown circuitry to protect against excessive eliminates external protection circuitry
power dissipation. –– Allow up to 256 transceivers on the bus
without requiring an extra serial bus,
UART, or microprocessor
•• Reduce power consumption
–– First 3V multiprotocol solution in the
industry
–– 5x lower supply current than the
competition—significantly reduces
power dissipation

RS-232
MAX3160E

DUAL CHARGE
PUMP

RS-485/RS-422
MULTI-
LOGIC CONTROL PROTOCOL
UART I/O LOGIC TRANSCEIVER
BLOCK

Block diagram of Maxim’s multiprotocol transceivers.

www.maxim-ic.com/smartgrid 37
Communications
Featured products

Highly integrated RS-485 transceivers simplify power-meter interface designs

MAX13412E/MAX13413E Benefits

The MAX13412E/MAX13413E are half-duplex RS-485/RS-422 transceivers •• AutoDirection control saves cost and
optimized for isolated power meters. These devices reduce design board space
complexity by integrating a low-dropout regulator (LDO) and a –– Reduces the number of optical isolators
sensing circuit for AutoDirection control. The internal LDO allows needed in isolated applications
the devices to operate from a wide, unregulated voltage range (6V
•• Built-in LDO offers convenience without
to 28V), simplifying power-supply designs. AutoDirection control
the worry of providing a regulated
reduces cost and board space by eliminating an optocoupler in
voltage level
isolated power-meter applications. Other features include enhanced
ESD protection, fail-safe circuitry, slew-rate limiting, and full-speed –– Operates from an unregulated 6V to 28V
operation. power supply and provides 5V/20mA of
power to external circuits
•• Extended ESD level of ±15kV (Human
Body Model) eliminates external ESD
protection circuitry
•• 1/8-unit load receiver input impedance
enables up to 256 peripheral sensors in
the system

VREG UNREGULATED ISOLATED


POWER SUPPLY
VSYS
(6V TO 28V)

AutoDirection control
eliminates third RO VCC
optocoupler R LDO

Integrated LDO allows


B wide supply range
MCU AND RELATED RE DETECT
(6V to 28V)
CIRCUITRY CIRCUIT

VREG A

5V output VREG
supplies up to 20mA
to external circuitry VSYS DI GND
D

MAX13412E/MAX13413E

System block diagram of the MAX13412E/MAX13413E.

38 Maxim Smart Grid Solutions


Communications
Recommended solutions

Recommended solutions

Part Description Features Benefits

RF transceivers
MAX2830/31/32 Direct-conversion, zero-IF RF transceivers for Integrated PA, antenna diversity switch, Low-cost, low-BOM implementation for 802.11b/g
2.4GHz 802.11g/b and crystal oscillator; best-in-class receive standards
sensitivity (-76dBm)
MAX2839 Direct-conversion, zero-IF RF transceiver for 1x2 MIMO RF transceiver with best-in-class Best-in-class performance supports longer range;
2.3GHz to 2.7GHz MIMO WiMAX noise figure (2.3dB) and linearity specifications; small package enables compact designs
8mm x 8mm TQFN package
MAX2842 Direct-conversion, zero-IF RF transceiver for 2x2 MIMO RF transceiver with best-in-class Best-in-class performance supports longer range
3.3GHz to 3.9GHz MIMO WiMAX noise figure (3.8dB) and linearity specifications
MAX7032 300MHz to 450MHz ASK/FSK transceiver with Under 7mA active receiver current; SPI Good in-building range with long battery life
low current drain programmable; programmable sleep/wake mode
MAX7031 300MHz to 450MHz FSK transceiver with low Under 7mA active receiver current; hardwired Good in-building range with long battery life
current drain or microprocessor controllable; factory-preset
frequencies
MAX7030 300MHz to 450MHz ASK transceiver with low Under 7mA active receiver current; hardwired Good in-building range with long battery life
current drain or microprocessor controllable; factory-preset
frequencies

RF transmitter
MAX7049* 288MHz to 945MHz ASK/FSK transmitter with Up to 25mW Tx power; SPI programmable; less Good in-building range (including
low current drain than 500nA shutdown current 800MHz/900MHz) with long battery life

Powerline communications ICs


MAX2981/82* Broadband HomePlug 1.0 chipset Up to 14Mbps data transmission Robust, high-data-rate transmission with
guaranteed latency for industrial environments
MAX2990/91 Narrowband OFDM PLC chipset Up to 100kbps data transmission or lower- Lower network implementation cost from ability to
(G3-PLC Lite) data-rate robust mode for extremely noisy cross transformers
environments; DES/3DES encryption engine
MAX2991/92* Narrowband OFDM PLC chipset AES-128 encryption engine; adaptive tone Lower network implementation cost from ability to
(G3-PLC) mapping allows coexistence with FSK protocols; cross transformers
6LoWPAN compression enables IPv6

Multiprotocol transceivers
MAX3160E Programmable 2Tx/2Rx RS-232 or 1Tx/1Rx Supports RS-232, RS-422, and RS-485; Eases system configuration while saving space
RS-485/RS-422 handles up to 128 devices on the bus; 20-pin
SSOP
MAX3161E Programmable 2Tx/2Rx RS-232 or 1Tx/1Rx Supports RS-232, RS-422, and RS-485; Eases system configuration while saving space
RS-485/RS-422 handles up to 256 devices on the bus; 24-pin
SSOP
MAX3162E Dedicated 2Tx/2Rx RS-232 and 1Tx RS-485/ Supports RS-232, RS-422, and RS-485; Eases system configuration while saving space
RS-422 handles up to 256 devices on the bus; 28-pin
SSOP

UART
MAX3107 Single-channel SPI/I 2C UART Integrated oscillator; 24Mbps data rate; PLL; Reduces solution cost and size; offloads μC
shutdown modes

(Continued on next page)

*Future product—contact the factory for availability.

www.maxim-ic.com/smartgrid 39
Communications
Recommended solutions

Recommended solutions (continued)

Part Description Features Benefits

RS-485 transceivers
MAX13442E Fault-protected RS-485 transceiver ±80V fault protection; ±15kV ESD protection Eliminates external circuitry
MAX13485E RS-485 transceiver with enhanced ESD ±15kV ESD protection; fail-safe circuitry; Saves space and provides robust protection
protection hot-swappable
MAX3535E Isolated RS-485 transceiver with enhanced Robust ±2.5kV capacitive isolation Eliminates external optocoupler and power supply
ESD protection
MAX13412E/13E RS-485 transceivers optimized for isolated AutoDirection circuitry; integrated LDO Minimize solution size
applications
MAX13430E RS-485 transceiver for multivoltage systems Integrated low-voltage logic interface Interfaces directly to low-voltage FPGAs and
ASICs, eliminating level translator

Transformer drivers
MAX253 1W primary-side transformer H-bridge driver Simple solution for producing an isolated power Simple open-loop circuit speeds PSU design,
for isolated supplies supply up to 1W allowing faster time to market
MAX256 3W primary-side transformer H-bridge driver Simple solution for producing an isolated power Simple open-loop circuit speeds PSU design,
for isolated supplies supply up to 3W allowing faster time to market

Power amplifier
MAX2235 1W autoramping power amplifier for 900MHz +30dBm (1W) typical output power from a 3.6V Maximizes read range; operates directly from a
applications supply or +28dBm from a 2.7V supply single 2.7V to 5.5V supply, making it suitable for
use with 3-cell NiCd or 1-cell Li+ batteries

DC-DC regulator
MAX15062* 36V, 300mA DC-DC regulator with integrated Low quiescent current; 2mm x 2mm TDFN High integration with small footprint saves up
MOSFET package to 50% total board area compared to competing
solutions

Analog-to-digital converters (ADCs)


MAX11103/05 12-bit, 3Msps/2Msps SAR ADCs 73dB SNR; SPI interface; high 1.7MHz full linear Tiny SOT23, μMAX, and TDFN packages
bandwidth; 1-channel (SOT23) and 2-channel save space; serial interface simplifies data
(μMAX®, TDFN) options transmission
MAX1379/83 12-bit, 1.25Msps, 4-channel, simultaneous- 0 to 5V, 0 to 10V, or ±10V inputs; 70dB SNR; Serial interface saves cost and space on digital
sampling SAR ADCs four single-ended or two differential inputs; isolators
SPI interface

For a list of Maxim's recommended smart grid communications solutions, please go to: www.maxim-ic.com/communications.

40 Maxim Smart Grid Solutions