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Министерство здравоохранения Российской Федерации

федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение


высшего образования
«Северо-Западный государственный медицинский университет имени
И.И. Мечникова»
Министерства здравоохранения Российской Федерации

(ФГБОУ ВО СЗГМУ им. И.И. Мечникова Минздрава России)

Кафедра иностранных языков

 
 

Е.Г. Липатова, Н.Г. Королева,


Т.А. Баева, К.В. Воробьева

ENGLISH FOR MEDICINE

Учебное пособие

Санкт-Петербург
2021
УДК 13-00-03
ББК 81.2 Англ-9 А64
А64

English for medicine: учебное пособие для студентов медицинских специальностей / Е.


Г. Липатова, Н. Г. Королева, Т. А. Баева, К.В. Воробьева.— СПб.: Изд-во СЗГМУ им.
И. И. Мечникова, 2021.— 97 с.
Авторский коллектив: Липатова Е.Г., старший преподаватель, заведующая учебной
частью кафедры иностранных языков, Королева Н.Г., к.п.н., и.о. заведующего кафедрой
иностранных языков, Баева Т.А., к.п.н., доцент, К.В. Воробьева, преподаватель.

Рецензент: Гирфанова Э.М., к.п.н., доцент, заведующий кафедрой русского языка


ФГБОУ ВО Северо-Западный государственный медицинский университет им. И.И.
Мечникова Минздрава РФ.

Целью учебного пособия является формирование иноязычной профессионально-


ориентированной коммуникативной компетенции на английском языке в области
медицины, подготовка квалифицированного специалиста, обладающего системой знаний и
навыков, универсальных и общепрофессиональных компетенций, способного и готового к
самостоятельной деятельности на английском языке в сфере профессионального общения.

Предназначено для обучающихся I курса по специальности 32.05.01 «Лечебное


дело» в качестве учебного пособия для практических занятий по дисциплине
«Иностранный язык».

Рекомендовано Методическим советом ФГБОУ ВО СЗГМУ им. И.И. Мечникова


Минздрава России в качестве учебного пособия,
протокол № __ от 2021 г.

© ФГБОУ ВО СЗГМУ им. И.И. Мечникова Минздрава России, 2021


ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ
Учебное пособие «English for Medicine» может использоваться при обучении
английскому языку в медицинских вузах по специальности 31.05.01 «Лечебное дело».
Целью данного пособия является формирование иноязычной профессионально
ориентированной коммуникативной компетенции в медицинской сфере, что включает
умения и навыки выстраивания эффективной коммуникации с партнерами в процессе
профессионального взаимодействия на иностранном языке.
Учебное пособие «English for Medicine» состоит из 5 разделов: «Больница. Штат
больницы», «Структурная организация больницы», «Приемный покой. Прием пациента в
больницу», «Несчастные случаи», «Боль. Типы боли и ее лечение», каждый из которых
построен по единой схеме: Lead-in (задания на введение в тему раздела), Vocabulary
(упражнения на введение и тренировку нового лексического материала), Reading
(упражнения на тренировку навыков чтения), Listening (упражнения на тренировку
навыков аудирования), Speaking (задания на тренировку навыков говорения), Project
(проектное групповое задание) и Revision (упражнения на закрепление пройденного
материала). Каждый раздел завершается лексическим минимумом, представленным в виде
списка ключевых слов (Wordlist). После второго и четвертого разделов авторами
предлагается ряд упражнений на повторение и обобщение изученного материала (Quick
check Units 1-2, Quick check Units 3-4). Во второй части пособия приводятся
дополнительные задания на тренировку навыков аудирования (Videotasks) и на
автоматизацию вводимого грамматического материала (Extra Grammar Practice), а также
приложение «Части тела» (Appendix “Parts of the Body”).
Включенные в пособие задания системно и пошагово формируют у обучающихся
способность воспринимать, понимать, интерпретировать чужое высказывание на
английском языке, а также продуцировать собственное высказывание в устной и
письменной форме, инициировать, развивать и логически завершать диалог на английском
языке. Типы заданий, заложенные в основу пособия, направлены на развитие следующих
видов речевой деятельности в ходе формирования коммуникативной компетенции на
английском языке: аудирование, говорение, чтение, письмо, перевод с русского на
английский язык.
В своей совокупности задания, представленные в соответствующих разделах
пособия, формируют у обучающихся способности владеть иностранным языком на уровне,
обеспечивающем эффективную профессиональную деятельность; логически верно и ясно
строить устную и письменную речь; аргументированно отстаивать свою точку зрения; быть
готовыми к работе в коллективе; стремиться к личностному и профессиональному
саморазвитию; знакомиться с основами построения эффективной коммуникации между
врачом, пациентом и родственниками пациента, учитывать особенности межкультурного
взаимодействия в профессиональной деятельности; быть толерантными, гибкими и
адаптивными.
Особенностью данного пособия является его интегрированность и взаимосвязь с
заданиями, размещенными на платформе СДО Moodle СЗГМУ им. И. И. Мечникова.
Совокупность электронного ресурса и бумажного пособия полностью покрывает курс
контактной (аудиторной) и самостоятельной работы студентов.
UNIT 1. YOUR CAREER IN MEDICINE

1.1 BECOMING A DOCTOR 

LEAD-IN
Read the definition of the word «medicine». Answer the questions below.

Medicine is the science and practice of caring for a patient and managing the diagnosis, prognosis,
prevention, treatment or palliation of their injury or disease.

1. What are the main purposes of medicine?


2. How does medicine help society?
3. Why is medicine important to us today?
4. How has medicine changed over the centuries? Do you know any interesting facts from the
history of medicine?
5. What famous doctors can you name?
6. What knowledge does modern medicine apply  to diagnose, treat, and prevent injury and
disease?
7. What is the future of medicine? What are the future trends in healthcare? What challenges will
healthcare of the future have to deal with?

LISTENING AND READING Career opportunities in healthcare

1. Work in small groups. Discuss the questions.

1. Why did you decide to become a doctor? Are there any doctors in your family?
2. Was it your childhood dream?
3. Were you good at Chemistry and Biology at school?

2. Listen to the speakers saying why they decided to become doctors


(https://cloud.mail.ru/public/Dq3u/AdUvvNt2t). Complete the chart below. Then work in
groups. Discuss the questions below.

name reason for becoming a doctor

Anju Bhatia

Anup Singh

Charles Stout

1. Do you agree with Anup Singh’s opinion?


2. Did you enjoy taking care of your sick relatives or pets when you were a child?
3. Do you have any experience of working as a volunteer?
4. How long does it take to become a qualified doctor in Russia?
5. What are the admission criteria for entering a medical school in Russia? How many exams
did you have to pass?

3. Read the passage. Answer the questions below.

Careers in healthcare

A degree in medicine opens up a world of career opportunities. Doctors and nurses are the
most well-known healthcare workers, they have different roles and responsibilities based on their
qualifications and experience.  
Becoming a qualified doctor is a long way, the first thing you’ll need is to get a medical
degree in a university. Once you have it, you need to take a two-year residency course. Upon
completion doctors can operate in many different specialities ranging from general practice to
cardiology, pediatrics and oncology.
Nurses are frontline clinicians in the healthcare world. They work in all settings, for example,
hospitals, hospices, care homes, businesses, defence forces, prisons and GP practices. Their main
responsibilities are to care for patients, communicate with doctors, administer medicine and check
vital signs.
Besides doctors and nurses, there are many other roles in the healthcare industry that are
critically important. In a hospital you may find a team of diagnosticians (pathologists, radiologists,
lab technicians) who perform procedures and tests to diagnose or to find out the cause of an illness,
but not to treat the condition. Certainly, any hospital can’t operate without health management and
support workers, including accountants, administrative and support staff.
Medicine is an incredibly demanding field. Long hours and day-to-day responsibilities
caring sick and stressed people require more than academic knowledge. Medical specialists should
possess a very specific set of skills, qualities and personality traits that can help them work more
productively and not to have a professional burn-out. They have to have good analytical and
communication skills, be good at multitasking and working in a team, be empathetic, sensitive,
discreet and flexible.
Working in medicine gives a number of advantages. First of all, it is a job that comes with
high levels of personal satisfaction. Healthcare specialists feel happy and satisfied by having the
opportunity to help patients achieve better health and even save their lives. Second, it provides
certain job security, as healthcare is among the fastest growing fields. Another upper hand over
working in the medical field is that this job provides a good salary, a high reputation in society
and multiple job opportunities as doctors and nurses can work in government hospitals, private
hospitals, clinics or open their own practice.
However, becoming a medical professional is extremely long and difficult. Medical
education takes many years and efforts. But even after graduating from a university medical
specialists have to continue studying in order to keep up to date with the latest developments taking
place in the healthcare sector. More than that, this job can be physically and emotionally
challenging as well, as medical staff have to be on their feet all day long helping sick and stressed
patients.
4. Answer the questions using the information from the article.

1.Why is medicine a good career choice?


2.Why is it very important for doctors to be good analysts and communicators?
3.What does it mean to be a good team player? What personal qualities does it require?
4.Think of all possible personal qualities needed for a medical worker. Try to complete the
ABC list. 
A analytical skills H O V
B I P W
C J Q X
D K R Y
E L S Z
F flexible M T
G N U

5. Can you think about the reasons why healthcare is among the fastest growing fields today?
6. What are advantages and disadvantages of being a doctor (work-life balance, high social
status, job prospects, working hours, salary, time for getting a medical degree, etc.)? Make a
list.

advantages of being a doctor disadvantages of being a doctor

5. Study the jobs in the box. Put them into the correct categories in the chart.

paediatrician triage nurse scrub nurse volunteer ward clerk gynecologist


lab technician midwife cardiologist pharmacist receptionist
physiotherapist accountant dietitian porter medical office administrator

health service providers health management and support staff

doctors nurses diagnostic team management support staff

6. Complete the sentences with the words from the box.

salary rewarding challenging keep up to date be on your feet


team education flexible empathy

1. Nurses can work part-time and have ___________ hours. 2. Medicine is one of the most difficult
subjects to study but lots of people still choose this ___________ and _____________ career. 3.
One of the disadvantages of being a dentist is that you have to _______ all time. 4. Medical
_______ is long and expensive. 5. I really enjoy working at this practice because we have a great
______ of professionals. 6. He got a more interesting job with a better _______. 7. Doctors have
a duty to _______ their skills and knowledge ______ in order to provide high quality medical care.
8. ___________ is the ability to emotionally understand what other people feel.

1.2 HOSPITAL JOBS

VOCABULARY AND SPEAKING Hospital jobs

1. Match photos A-J to the words from the box. Then answer the questions below.
a cardiologist a lab technician a midwife a porter a paediatrician a surgeon
a paramedic a physiotherapist a radiologist a scrub nurse an anaesthetist

A. B. C. D. E.

F. G. H. I. J.

1. Which hospital jobs are the most stressful? Which ones are the least stressful?
2. Which hospital jobs let you have a work-life balance?
3. Which hospital jobs are the best-paid? Which ones are the worst-paid?
4. Which hospital jobs are the most monotonous (the most demanding/ the most rewarding)?
5. Which hospital jobs are in high demand nowadays? And which jobs have future perspectives?

2. Underline the correct options in bold.


1. A midwife gives/attends births and moves/delivers babies. 2. A cardiologist supports/specializes
in illnesses of the heart and blood vessels. 3. A paediatrician treats/delivers children. 4. A lab
technician examines/performs samples and tissues under a microscope. 5. A scrub nurse
supports/moves surgeons in the operating theatre. 6. A paramedic responds/specializes to
emergencies and gives first aid. 7. A radiologist gives/takes x-rays and other images. 8. A
physiotherapist designs/treats exercise programs for patients. 9. An anesthetist specializes in
providing/responding anesthesia for all types of surgery. 10. A gynecologist sometimes
performs/supports minor gynecologic surgeries. 11. A porter supports/moves patients and
equipment. 12. A pharmacist gives/prepares medicines to give medical staff or patients.

3. Make sentences.
1. An otolaryngologist treating people with cancer.
2. A gastroenterologist specializes in diseases of elderly patients, or
geriatrics.
3. An oncologist a specialist in treating disorders of the digestive
system.
4. An orthopedist diagnoses and treats asthma and allergies.
5. An allergist blood, blood-forming organs and
treats blood diseases, or hematology.
6. A hematologist eye diseases, prescribes glasses
and contact lenses.
7. A geriatrician bone and joint disorders.

4. Complete the sentences with the correct particles. Then say what medical specialty you
would like to do in the future. Explain your choice.

Alice Thomson has just graduated from medical school and is talking about her future: “I haven’t
decided what to specialize ___ yet. I need more experience before I decide, but I’m quite attracted
___ the idea of paediatrics because I like working ___ children. I’d certainly prefer to work ___
children than, say, elderly patients – so I don’t fancy geriatrics, I was never very interested ___
detailed anatomy, so the surgical specialties like neurosurgery don’t really appeal. You have to be
very good ___ your hands and be ___ your feet for long hours, which I don’t think is a problem
for me – I’ve assisted ___ operations several times, and I’ve done some minor ops by myself – but
surgeons have to be able to do the same thing again and again without getting bored, like tying off
cut arteries and so on. I don’t think that would be a problem for me, but they need to make decisions
fast and I’m not too good ___ that. I like to have time to think, which means surgery’s probably
not right for me.”

5. Translate the sentences from Russian into English.

1. Aкушерка присутствует при родах и принимает новорожденных. 2. Врач-рентгенолог


делает снимки и анализирует их. 3. Кардиолог специализируется на заболеваниях сердца и
кровеносных сосудов. 4. Врач-гинеколог специализируется на заболеваниях женской
репродуктивной системы и проводит незначительные гинекологические операции. 5. Врач-
лаборант проводит исследование образцов и тканей под микроскопом. 6. Врач-офтальмолог
специализируется на проблемах, связанных с нарушением зрения (visual problems). 7.
Фельдшер скорой помощи выезжает на вызов и оказывает первую помощь. 8.
Эндокринолог специализируется на лечении заболеваний эндокринной системы. 9.
Гастроэнтеролог лечит заболевания пищеварительной системы. 10. Хирург-онколог
(surgical oncologist) проводит онкологические операции. 11. ЛОР-врач диагностирует и
лечит заболевания уха, горла, носа. 12. Врач-физиотерапевт разрабатывает (design)
программы упражнений для пациентов. 13. Врач-ортопед лечит заболевания костей и
суставов. 14. Врач-невролог специализируется на заболеваниях нервной системы. 15.
Санитары перевозят пациентов из операционной в палаты.

VOCABULARY A hospital admission

1. Match the words with their Russian equivalents.  


1. call an ambulance in a) измерять давление
2. discharge b) испытывать сильную головную боль
3. break an arm c) упасть
4. have a fall  d) вызвать скорую
5. use a bedpan e) сломать руку
6. have a horrible headache  f) делать рентген снимки
7. take X-rays  g) иметь высокое давление
8. have high blood pressure  h) использовать судно
9. prescribe antibiotics  i) прописать курс антибиотиков
10. measure blood pressure  j) выписывать пациента из больницы

2. Complete the story with the correct words from the box.
appointment fell paramedics broke discharged ambulance X-rays

Jim Enser, a 91-year-old Second World War veteran from Waltham, Lincs, was cycling home from
a shopping trip when he ________ (1) off his bike and _______ (2) his shoulder. Witnesses called
for an ___________ (3) and waited with the veteran for the ___________ (4).
When the emergency vehicle had not arrived almost an hour and a half later, a stranger drove Jim
to A&E. Jim said: "I've never complained about anything like this before. I'm not blaming the
paramedics but I am blaming the system and the way it is run. The hospital staff's care was
excellent as well.”
He was __________ (5) later that night after undergoing __________ (6) and was asked to return
for a follow-up ____________ (7).

3. Go to the website http://atlas100.ru/en/catalog/meditsina/. Study the jobs which will be in


demand in medicine in the future. Choose one of the professionals and prepare a short
description of their responsibilities and qualities they will have to possess.
4. Prepare mini-presentations on the doctors who made the greatest contributions in the
history of healthcare:
 Hippocrates;  Nikolay Pirogov;
 Ibn Sina/Avicenna;  Sigmund Freud;
 Joseph Lister;  Ilya Mechnikov.

1.3 GETTING READY FOR A JOB INTERVIEW

VOCABULARY AND SPEAKING

1. Match the words with their Russian equivalents. 


1. full-time job/part-time job a) вечерний/заочный курс обучения
2. look for a new job b) подавать заявление о приеме на работу
3. part-time course c) дневная/ночная смена
4. day/night shift d) искать новую работу
5. apply for a job e) работа на полную/неполную занятость
6. assist the surgeon f) благодарный
7. rewarding g) помогать хирургу
2. Complete the story with the correct words from the box.

responsibility prepares rewarding instruments X-rays shifts assists


My sister Kerry has been working as a dental assistant for more than 4 years. She always says that
it’s the most _____________ (1) job ever! She has a good salary and flexible working hours: she
may choose to have a morning or an evening ____________ (2) or just weekends. Her days are
different: she ___________ (3) dentists, hygienists and therapists during a variety of treatment
procedures, ______________ (4) the dental surgery both before and after treatments takes
_____________ (5), processes _______________ (6) after use. This job requires a lot of
__________ (7) but she is very happy to make a difference in her patients’ lives.

3. Complete the sentences about yourself.

1. I enjoy ________________________________.
2. I am very good at/with _________________________.
3. I am interested in _________________________.
4. One day, I hope to _________________________.
5. In my free time, I ________________________.
6. I can _________________________________.
7. I would like to be _______________________.
8. I want to become a doctor because __________________.
9. I’m quite attracted ___ the idea of _____________ because _____________.

4. Rearrange the words to make questions. Then work in pairs and answer the questions.

1. your/ What/ greatest/ is/ strength?


2. in/ interested/ you/ Are/ volunteering?
3. measure/ you/ pressure/ Can/ blood?
4. you/ a/ listener/ Are/ good?
5. in front of/ Do/ a/ you/ group/ feel/ speaking/ comfortable?
6. is/ greatest/ What/ weakness/ your?
7. Attracted/ a residency course/ to the idea/ Are/ of taking/ you/ in Surgery?
8. stress/ stay/ you/ calm/ under/ Can?
9. like/ with/ Do/ children/ you/ working?

GRAMMAR Present Simple or Present Continuous?


1. Read the interviews and underline the correct verb forms.

Reena Chaudry: practice nurse


Age: 33 years old Home: Alicante, Spain
'I work/am working as a practice nurse in a big doctor's surgery. This is my
first job since graduation. I like/am liking the fact that every day is different.
Practice nurses carry out/are carrying out a lot of routine procedures they
change/are changing dressings and treat/are treating wounds, etc. I am/am
being also responsible for giving health checks and advising patients I
give/'m giving them advice on healthy eating and on health conditions such
as asthma or diabetes. At the moment, with a colleague, we run/are running
a clinic for patients with diabetes. It's very interesting and I learn/am
learning a lot about how to deal with this condition. Like most nurses, I don't
have/am not having a lot of free time, but I like going to the cinema when I
can. I also play/am playing the guitar in a classical music group and we
sometimes give/are giving concerts.’

Olivia Brown: gynecologist


Age: 38 years old Home: San Francisco, USA
'I work/am working as a gynecologist in a private hospital in San Francisco,
USA. Every day I perform/ am performing a variety of tests and exams
focused on women's health, including gynecological ultrasound scanning. I
discuss/am discussing contraceptive options with my patients and
provide/am providing family planning advice. One or two days a week I
spend/am spending in a surgery where I perform/am performing minor
gynecological operations. In order to be a good doctor, it's important to
update your professional knowledge and skills all the time. That is why I
often take part/am taking part in various workshops and conferences and
read/am reading a lot of medical journals. This week I attend/am attending
a workshop on Minimally Invasive Gynecology. In May I fly/am flying to
Washington, DC to participate in Annual Clinical and Scientific Meeting of
ACOG (the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists). In my
free time, I enjoy/am enjoying being with my young daughters. We often
go/are going swimming and cycling. In summer we like/are liking doing
triathlons.

2. Look at the pictures in Vocabulary and speaking and say what these people usually do at
their work and what they are doing at the moment.

1.4 WORKING AS A NURSE

LISTENING AND SPEAKING

1. Work in groups. Answer the questions.

1. What are the main responsibilities of a nurse? Where do they work?


2. What personal qualities and skills do nurses need to have?
3. What are advantages and disadvantages of working as a nurse?
4. When do you think nursing became a profession?
5. What famous nurses can you name?

2. Watch a short video (https://cloud.mail.ru/public/5VtU/MLFHAjWuq) about Florence


Nightingale, the founder of modern nursing. Decide if the statements are True (T) or False
(F).
1. Florence Nightingale came from a British poor family.
2. She studied nursing in Germany.
3. Upon return back home she quickly made a career in a hospital.
4. When the Crimean war started, the Commander-in-Chief of the British army asked Florence
for help with the sanitary conditions in the field hospitals.
5. Florence Nightingale and her team managed to improve sanitary conditions and maintain
infection control in the military hospitals, that led to the decrease of hospital's death rate by
half.
6. After the war she devoted her life to the development of healthcare, including opening her own
nursing school.

2. Watch the video again. Answer the questions below.

1. What actions did Florence Nightingale and her team apply to improve sanitary conditions and
maintain infection control in the field hospitals?
2. How did Florence use her knowledge of statistics to improve healthcare?
3. Why is Florence Nightingale considered to be a reformer of the nursing profession?

3. Work in groups. Discuss the questions.

1. Florence returned after the war as a national heroine. Did she deserve it?
2. What do you suppose Florence Nightingale would think of nursing today?

VOCABULARY AND SPEAKING

1. Match the words with their Russian equivalents.


1. unpaid a) тарифная сетка (шкала заработной платы)
2. unions b) иметь категорию
3. pension c) пенсия
4. to be on a grade d) обязанности
5. experience and skills e) низкооплачиваемый
6. work overtime f) профсоюзы
7. pay scale g) опыт и навыки
8. responsibilities h) зависеть от чего-то
9. make nursing into a profession i) превратить сестринское дело в профессию
10. depend on j) работать сверхурочно

2. Fill in the gaps with the words from Ex. 1.


1. In the 19th century nurses were unpopular, untrained and _____________. 2. It was Florence
Nightingale who turned _____________. 3. Today nursing is a career with a three or four-year
training, qualifications, grades, ___________ and ___________. 4. In Britain every nurse is on a
_________ that depends on experience and ____________, and each grade has different
________________ and pay. 5. Many nurses work shifts, and often they _____________ to make
more money.
3. Match the words with their Russian equivalents.
1. work shifts a) основное обучение
2. basic training b) дальнейшее обучение
3. treat the mentally ill c) лечить душевнобольных
4. auxiliary nurse d) получать продвижение по работе
5. ward e) работать посменно
6. nursing officer f) больничная палата
7. staff nurse g) младшая медсестра
8. get promotion h) старшая сестра отделения
9. further study i) главная медицинская сестра
10. sister j) медицинская сестра
 
4. Fill in the gaps with the words from Ex. 3.

1. An ___________ is on the bottom grade. 2. There are 15 two-bed _________ in this department.
3. A ___________ is usually an administrator. 4. After ___________ many nurses choose to do
further study and become specialists. 5. Psychiatric nurses ____________ the mentally ill. 6.
Unfortunately, many nurses say that they don’t get enough money and ____________ for the work
they do.7. A _______________ is responsible for planning and implementing patient care. 

5. Translate the passage from English into Russian.


Около 150 лет назад профессия медсестры была низкооплачиваемой,
неквалифицированной и непопулярной. Флоренс Найтингейл превратила сестринское дело
в профессию.

Сегодня сестринское дело — это профессия c трехлетним сроком обучения,


квалификациями, категориями, профсоюзами и пенсиями. В Великобритании каждая
медсестра имеют категорию. Категория зависит от опыта и навыков и имеет свои
обязанности и оплату (тарифную ставку). После основного обучения многие медсестры
проходят дальнейшее обучение и становятся специалистами. Они могут
специализироваться в различных сферах, например, медсестра приемного отделения,
участковая медсестра, медсестра психиатрического отделения, акушерка. Многие
медсестры говорят, что их работа — низкооплачиваемая, тяжелая физически и морально,
но она очень благодарная.

6. Go online and find some information about the Russian nurses who made a great
contribution to the development of nursing in this country:

 the Holy Cross Community of Sisters of Mercy;


 Ekaterina Bakunina.

 
UNIT 1 PROJECT A medical volunteer

1. Work in pairs and discuss the questions.

1. What is a volunteer project? Why do people volunteer?


2. Have you ever done any volunteer work? Would you like to work as a volunteer?
3. Would you volunteer to help people outside your city/town or outside your country?
4. Do you know any volunteer organizations? Have you ever heard about any medical volunteer
programs or organizations?

2. Read the text and answer the questions below.

1. What type of organization is Projects Abroad? Who may participate in their programs?
2. What countries do they work in?
3. What fields of medicine do they arrange placements in?
4. Where do participants stay during the program?
5. Would you like to participate in their programs?
6. What do you think the responsibilities of dental volunteers are?

Projects Abroad is an organization that allows pre-medical and medical students to get valuable medical
experience in the developing countries around the world. The goal of our medical programs is to help
individuals learn more about medicine in general, how it is practiced abroad, and the challenges faced when
practicing in the developing world.
You can choose one of our Medicine programs in over 20 countries including destinations in Africa, Latin
America, Asia, and Eastern Europe.
We also arrange placements in different Medical fields such as Nursing, Physical Therapy, Occupational
Therapy, Midwifery, Public Health, Dentistry and more.
By living with a host family you will have the chance to learn all about the local customs and traditions,
and experience the culture as a family member rather than an outsider.
Please, visit http://www.projects-abroad.org/ for more information.

3. You are going to watch a video about one of the volunteer’s experiences
(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8L0y3shU638). Watch the story and fill in the chart
below.

Laurien
Name:
Country she is
volunteering in:
 give injections (yes/no)
Responsibilities:  clean wounds (yes/no)
 make regular eye controls (yes/no)
 dispense medications (yes/no)
 take blood pressure (yes/no)
 weigh people (yes/no)
Free time:

4. Watch the video again and answer the questions below.


1. What is she going to study in the university?
2. What problems are there in the hospital where she is volunteering?
3. How does she find the city where she is working?
4. What personal qualities did the program help Laurien to develop?

5. Work in pairs. Student A is the interviewer from Projects Abroad and is going to interview
applicants for the program. Student B has sent an application and has been asked for an
online interview. Look at the information on the cards below and spend a few minutes
preparing what you are going to say.

STUDENT A: INTERVIEWER

Think about the questions you are going to ask Student B. You need to find out about:

 his/her education and work experience;


 his/her practical skills (e.g. typing);
 his/her ability to work in a team and communication skills;
 his/her personality (e.g. confident, lively);
 his/her motivation to participate in the program;
 what country he/she would like to work in and what field of medicine he/she wants to get
experience in. 

STUDENT B: APPLICANT

Think about what relevant qualifications, skills and experience you have. Use the following
prompts and invent the details yourself:

 your education and work experience;


 your practical skills;
 your ability to work in a team and communication skills;
 your personality (e.g. confident, lively);
 why you are interested in participating in the program;
 what country you would like to work in and what field of medicine you want to get
experience in. 

You are now ready to conduct your interview. Remember:

Student A: you really want to find the right person for the program, so find out as much as you
can about the applicant.

Student B: you really want to participate in the program, so answer the interviewer’s questions as
fully as possible.
UNIT 1 REVISION

Vocabulary

1. Define the words:

 a speech-language  a pulmonologist  a midwife


pathologist  a dentist  a porter
 an immunologist  a district nurse  empathy
 a psychiatrist  a volunteer

2. Think about why medical students choose a paedicatrician’s career. Make a list of personal
qualities that they have to have to work with young patients and their families. Name advantages
and disadvantages of working as a paediatrician.
3. Remember one of the stories by Russian writers (e.g. A. Chekhov, A. Kuprin) where the authors
described the 19th century doctors. What were the doctors like? What personal qualities did they
have?

Grammar

1. Imagine that you work as a surgeon with a 5-year experience. Today you are taking part in an
international conference. Write about your normal working day and what you are doing today.

Use of English

1. Use the correct forms of the words to complete the sentences. Add the words if necessary.

good interested specialize work

1. A pathologist _____________________ diagnosing disease through examining cells and


tissue.
2. A paediatrician must enjoy ________________________ children.
3. An oncologist is ____________________ the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.
4. A psychiatrist must be ______________________ counselling.
5. A neurosurgeon must be _______________________her hands.

2. Read the volunteer’s profile and fill in the gaps with the correct prepositions/particles.

Name: Phillipa Collins

Age: 26

Organization: Projects Abroad

Phillipa is one of the ward nurses in King Faisal Hospital (Kigali, Rwanda). She arrived only three days
ago, but tomorrow she is already______ (1. at/on/for) duty. She has always been interested______ (2.
in/at/for) doing a volunteer work and taking care _____ (3. of/for/at) patients in other countries, that's why
she has decided to apply______ (4. to/at/for) one of the programs of Projects Abroad. Every day Phillipa
deals______ (5. with/at/for) different types of work. She is responsible______ (6. for/at/in) giving
injections, monitoring patient's pulse, taking temperature, measuring blood pressure and many others. She
also carries_____ (7. for/in/out) different procedures, prescribed by a doctor. As Phillipa works with
children a lot, she must be particularly good______ (8. at/for/in) communicating with them. Phillipa thinks
being a volunteer is a good opportunity to work with different people and different teams, especially with
local staff. Although Phillipa's work is very difficult, she is enjoying every moment. "There are not many
places to go_____ (9. away/out/for) in the evening after a hard day, the ones we got used to at home, but
the landscapes are so amazing…I am just fond_____ (10. in/at/of) walking around and admiring the beauty
of the local nature." Phillipa is not going to stop her volunteer work. She is planning to do further study and
specialize_____ (11. in/at/on) midwifery. It will give her an opportunity to apply_____ (12. for/at/on) more
volunteer projects and get more experience and skills.

Speaking

Prepare for an interview with your teacher on Careers in medicine. Cover the following points:

 What is medicine?
 Why do people choose to become doctors?
 Advantages and disadvantages of working in medicine.
 Personal qualities necessary for working in this field.
 Hospital jobs.
 A nursing profession.
 The future of medicine.
 Your future career in medicine.
UNIT 1. WORDLIST

Study the list of useful words from Unit 1. Insert your translation after reading the
corresponding sentences.

adj = adjective conj = conjunction phr v = phrasal verb phr = phrase pron = pronoun
adv = adverb n = noun pl = plural prep = preposition v = verb
 
 
An anesthetist provides anesthesia for all
anaesthetist (n)  types of surgery.
apply for a job (phr)   Why are you applying for a new job?
attend births (phr)    A midwife attends births and delivers babies.
auxiliary nurse (n)    An auxiliary nurse is on the bottom grade.
You can use your bedpan at any time you
bedpan (n)   want.
blood pressure (n)   A nurse will measure your blood pressure.
A cardiologist specializes in illnesses of the
blood vessels (n)   heart and blood vessels.
break a leg (phr)   I had an X-ray when I broke my leg.
A cardiologist specializes in illnesses of the
cardiologist (n)    heart and blood vessels.
A charge nurse is a male nurse equivalent to
charge nurse (n)    a sister.
consultant (n)    A consultant will examine you in a moment.
deliver babies (phr)    A midwife attends births and delivers babies.
A doctor will discharge you as soon as you
discharge (v)   feel better.
examine samples and A lab technician examines samples and
tissues (phr)   tissues under a microscope.
examine under a A lab technician examines samples and
microscope (phr)    tissues under a microscope.
A paramedic gives first aid and responds to
give first aid (phr)    emergencies.
grade (n)   In Britain, every nurse is on a grade.
If I have a headache, I usually take some
have a headache (phr)   painkillers.
have an X-ray (phr)   Have you had an X-ray before?
A lab technician examines samples and
lab technician (n)    tissues under a microscope.
midwife (n)    A midwife works in a newborn nursery.
move patients (phr)    Porters move patients around the hospital.
I usually work a day shift, but this week I'm
night/day shift (n)   working a night shift.
A surgeon performs operations in the
operating theatre (n)   operating theatre.
nursing officer (n)    A nursing officer is on the top grades.
A paramedic gives first aid and responds to
paramedic (n)    emergencies.
I'm doing a part-time course and work at the
part-time (adj)   same time.
Nurses at the bottom of the pay scale get the
pay scale (n)   lowest pay.
pediatrician (n)    A pediatrician treats children.
perform operations Surgeons perform different times of
(phr)    operations.
A pharmacist prepares medicine to give to
pharmacist (n)    medical staff or patients.
A physiotherapist designs exercise programs
physiotherapist (n)    for patients.
A porter transports patients from the wards to
porter (n)    different hospital departments.
A pharmacist prepares medicine to give to
prepare medicine (phr)   medical staff or patients.
prescribe some A consultant will prescribe you some
medicine (phr)   medicine after he makes a diagnosis.
radiologist (n)    A radiologist takes X-rays and other images.
A receptionist makes appointments for
receptionist (n)    patients.
respond to emergencies A paramedic gives first aid and responds to
(phr)   emergencies.
rewarding (adj)   Nursing profession is very rewarding.
A scrub nurse supports surgeon in the
scrub nurse (n)    operating theatre.
A staff nurse is responsible for planning and
staff nurse (n)    implementing patient care.
A scrub nurse supports the surgeon in the
support surgeons (phr)   operating theatre.
surgeon (n)    A surgeon performs operations on patients.
take X-rays (phr)   A radiologist takes X-rays and other images.
treat children (phr)   A pediatrician treats children.
 
 
 
 
 

 
UNIT 2. IN AND AROUND THE HOSPITAL

2.1 TYPES OF HOSPITALS 

LEAD-IN
Work in groups. Answer the questions below.

1. What comes to your mind when you hear the word “hospital”?
2. Have you ever stayed in hospital?
3. Are the hospitals good in your country?
4. Is the standard of care in your country’s hospitals getting better?
5. How could hospitals be made better places to visit and stay in?
6. Do you enjoy watching hospital dramas on television? Which ones can you remember?
7. What do you think hospitals of the future will look like?

READING AND SPEAKING The Evolution of the hospital

1. Work in small groups. Discuss the questions.

1. How can you define the word “hospital”?


2. What do you think the first hospitals appeared? Was it in Ancient Greece?
3. What image did the hospitals have in the Medieval Ages and Modern Era?
4. What do modern hospitals look like?

2. Read the text. Answer the questions below.

Hospitals: from antiquity to the present


A hospital is an institution that provides specialised medical and nursing care to the sick and
injured. Today you can visit a private practice or hospital, but where did patients from the past go
when they were sick?
In the ancient world, hospitals did not exist as they do today. Illnesses were often considered to be
connected to the mind and spirit, and the treatment was more spiritual than physical. Egyptian
“sleeping temples” that date back to 2000 years BC were the places where patients would be
treated by priests through methods such as hypnosis and chanting.
Although the ancient Greeks are considered by most to be the founders of ‘rational’ medicine,
there were no special institutions for medical practice at that time. Physicians and healers would
visit upper-class patients in their homes, and sometimes even allow a patient to stay at their private
residence but the closest thing to a hospital in this day were the healing temples of Asclepius. They
were originated as healing shrines, where a patient would spend the night in hopes of being visited
in a dream by the Greek god Asclepius. A priest would then interpret the dream of the patient and
determine a sort of treatment. The temples also acted as a sanctuary for seriously ill patients to
stay.
The earliest ‘hospitals’ as we know them today were the Roman military hospitals, which consisted
of patient rooms built around courtyards. Historians believe each room held three patient beds,
which indicates the earliest concept of ward systems. Public hospitals were still not available at
this time, but as the Roman Empire began to build its foundation upon Christianity, the church
became responsible for running the hospitals. Many monasteries were constructed with wards for
the poor and sick, and the great emperor Charlemagne decreed that a hospital must be attached to
every cathedral built in his empire. At that time, around 400 AD these religious hospitals provided
healthcare to the poor while the upper class continued to receive house calls from physicians.
The spread of Christianity played an immense role in expanding healthcare provisions for the
public. The ward system of these early religious institutions, which would house multiple patients
in common spaces, became the standard layout of public hospitals for hundreds of years.
As the years passed, public hospital wards became bigger in size and dangerous for patients. The
larger wards were often poorly lit and ventilated, unsanitary, and prone to spreading infectious
diseases. Some hospitals housed more than 100 beds in one ward and would have more than one
patient in each bed. No wonder that the general perception of public hospitals was associated with
poverty and death. In the 19th century the image of the hospitals dramatically improved due to the
advances in medical knowledge, introduction of triage technology in sorting patients and
implementation of the “pavilion plan” for hospital design.
The 20th century breakthroughs in medical knowledge and technological advances led to the
establishment of hospitals that focus on specialized treatment of particular conditions (cancer or
psychiatric illness) or particular types of patients (geriatrics, children or the terminally ill).
However, today the best known type of hospital is the general hospital that deals with a wide
number of diseases and injuries. Big general hospitals may have up to fifty specialist departments
including Casualty, Obstetrics, Cardiology and Children’s Unit. General hospitals often have a
role as teaching hospitals where medical students and student nurses observe clinical work and
practice their skills.
3. Answer the questions using the information from the article.

7. What was the main difference of ancient hospitals from modern ones?
8. How did advances in medical knowledge and technology change the negative image of the
hospitals in the Modern Era?
9. Classify the hospitals according to their types defined in the chart. Add more examples into
the columns.
general hospitals non-governmental/private specialist hospitals children’s
teaching hospitals hospice research hospital maternal home
governmental/public geriatrics psychiatric oncology war veterans

objective ownership and particular types of particular conditions


control patients
general hospitals

4. Name a few hospitals in your city/region and define which category they refer to.
5. Complete the passage with the words from the box.

general hospital teaching hospital departments wards

tests inpatients specialist hospital

The Royal Infirmary is the name of the ______ ________ (1) for Edinburg University. It is a
_______ ________ (2), dealing with all types of patients and illnesses, except paediatrics. We
have a ______ ______ (3) for that in another part of Edinburg, the Hospital for Sick Children.

The Royal Infirmary consists of Outpatient and Inpatient ______________ (4). Outpatients are the
people who come to hospital to attend a clinic or to have ______ (5) or treatment and then return
home on the same day. ____________ (6) stay in the hospital for one or more days. The rooms
where they stay are called _______ (7). If a patient’s treatment requires only one day, such as a
simple operation, they can be admitted to the day surgery unit.

6. Go online and find more information about:

 Pavilion plan for hospital design;


 European hospitals established in the 19th century;
 The development of healthcare system in Russia in the 19th century.

2.2 THE STRUCTURE OF THE HOSPITAL

VOCABULARY AND SPEAKING The hospital structure

1. Study the hospital structure chart and complete it with the departments/units from the
box.

Laundry Finance          Pharmacy Neurosurgery Medical Records

Administration

General administration: Accounting, _____________ (1), IT,


Human Resources
Medical administration: Nursing Administration, Clinical
Administration

Informational Clinical Support and Support


Services Clinical Departments Diagnostics

Admissions Nursing Medical Laboratory Food Services


Office, General surgery Physical therapy Housekeeping
Billing and Сardiology ____________ (4) Central supply
Collection, Neurology Maintenance
____________ (2) Gynecology Transportation
Rheumatology Mortuary
Urology ___________ (5)
Pulmonary
___________ (3)
Orthopedics
Ophthalmology
Intensive care unit (ICU)
Hematology and
oncology
Endocrinology

2. Use the words in the box to complete the definitions of these hospital departments.
skin performs kidney bones nervous anaesthesia 

1. Neurology deals with disorders of the ___________________ system. 2. Surgery


____________ operations on patients. 3. Orthopedics treats ___________ and joints disorders. 4.
Renal Unit specializes in _________________ diseases. 5. Doctors in the Anesthesiology
department give ________________ for operations and procedures. 6. Dermatology treats
diseases of the _____________________.
blood pregnancy children medicine exercises heart

7. Obstetrics specializes in ______________ and birth. 8. Physiotherapy designs


______________ for patients. 9. Haematology studies ____________ disorders. 10. Cardiology
treats illnesses of the _________ and blood vessels. 11. Paediatrics deals with sick
_________________. 12. Pharmacy dispenses ________________.
samples emergency cases elderly digestive cancer endocrine glands 

13. Accident and emergency (or Casualty) is the place where they deal with ______________.
14. Specialists in Geriatrics treat problems related to the ___________. 15. Doctors in
Endocrinology specialize in disorders of the _______________. 16. Pathology studies illnesses
and analyzes ____________________. 17. Gastroenterology investigates and treats the disorders
of the ___________ system. 18. The Oncology department specializes in the diagnosis,
management and treatment of _____________.
3. Define the hospital departments:
 Gynecology  Maintenance
 Rheumatology    Transportation
 Ophthalmology  Mortuary
 Intensive care unit (ICU)  Medical Laboratory
 Chemotherapy  Physical therapy
 
GRAMMAR AND SPEAKING Prepositions of place and movement

1. Complete the gaps with the correct prepositions of place.

Mrs Johnson: Excuse me, how do I find the OT-department?


Receptionist: You go straight ______ (1) this hall ______ (2) your left. You will pass the x-ray
rooms and an emergency room. ______ (3) the end ______ (4) the corridor, there is a lift, which
you can take ______ (5) the third floor. Then you take a sharp turn right ______ (6) the double
doors. There is a sign ______ (7) these doors that says “Therapeutic Services”. Go ______ (8) the
doors, straight ______ (9) the hall ______ (10) a wide opening, where there are three coloured
doors: red, green and blue. The blue door ______ (11) the right is the entrance ______ (12) the
OT-department. It has a sign “Occupational Therapy Department” ______ (13) the door. Kathy
will meet you ______ (14) the reception desk just ______ (15) this blue door.
Mrs Johnson: Thank you ______ (16) the directions. I hope I find the blue door!
Receptionist: There is a blue line ______ (17) the floor to follow ______ (18) the OT-department
too, in case you get disoriented and you may ask anyone ______ (19) the way. Have a good day
and we will see you next time!

2. Study the map of the first two levels of the hospital. Make 10 sentences to describe it.
3. Study the map again. Give 5 directions how to get from point of the hospital to another.

2.3 MEDICAL EQUIPMENT

VOCABULARY AND SPEAKING Medical equipment

1. Match the medical equipment in the pictures to the correct words in the box.

a dialysis machine a scalpel a pediatric spoon a neurological pinwheel scales


a centrifuge an x-ray machine a bone plate an ECG machine a microscope
A. B. C. D. E.

F. G. H. I. J.

2. Complete the sentences using the words from Ex. 1.


1. The ___________________ is for monitoring the heart. 2. The_______________ is for
examining tissues, samples, etc., very closely. 3. The ___________________ is for separating
substances by spinning them. 4. The ______________ is for weighing substances. 5. The
______________ is for fixing a broken bone. 6. The __________________ is for cleaning the
blood when the kidneys don’t work. 7. The ________________ is for testing for sensation in
nerves. 8. The _______________ is for performing surgery. 9. The ____________ is for taking a
photo of bones.  
3. Make sentences using the words from the three boxes.

1. The glucometer a) listening to sounds produced within the body,


2. The stethoscope chiefly in the heart or lungs.
3. The blood b) recording the patients’ blood pressure.
pressure meter IS c) oral examination.
4. The tongue d) making injections.
depressor FOR e) examining a person's digestive tract.
5. The endoscope f) taking the patient’s temperature.
6. The thermometer g) determining the blood glucose level
7. The syringe

4. Translate the sentences from Russian into English.


1. Педиатры используют шпатели для осмотра полости рта. 2. Глюкометр используется для
определения уровня глюкозы в крови. 3. Врачи-лаборанты используют микроскопы для
проведения исследования тканей и образцов. 4. Хирурги используют скальпель для
проведения операций. 5. Судно используется для лежачих (immobile) больных. 6.
Металлическая пластинка используется для фиксации отломков костей. 7. Термометр
используется для измерения температуры тела больного. 8. Медсестры пользуются
одноразовыми (disposable) шприцами и иглами (needles) для проведения инъекций. 9.
Манометр используется для определения кровяного давления. 10. Неврологи используют
неврологическое колесо для проверки чувствительности нервов. 11. Стоматологи
пользуются автоклавом (autoclave) для стерилизации инструментов. 12. Стетоскоп и
фонендоскоп (phonendoscope) используются для выслушивания звуков внутренних органов
человеческого организма. 
 
READING Who invented the microscope?

1. Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.

1. What is the microscope used for? What fields of science are microscopes used in?
2. Do you know who invented the microscope? In what country was it invented?
3. What purposes was the first microscope used for?
4. How do you think a modern microscope has changed since the discovery of the first one?

2. Read the text and check your ideas in Ex. 1.

A microscope is a device that magnifies small objects. When the first microscope was developed
it was only as strong as a magnifying glass. Today, there are dozens of microscopes capable of
letting us see and analyze objects as small as atoms! Let's have a look at the interesting timeline
of the microscope history.

Dating back to the first century when glass was first invented, the Romans were investigating its
usage and how it made objects appear larger when viewing them through it. The earliest simple
microscope was merely a tube with a plate for the object at one end and, at the other, a lens which
gave a magnification less than ten diameters — ten times the actual size. They became known as
"flea glasses" as they were mostly used to view fleas or tiny creeping things.

About 1590, two Dutch spectacle-makers, Zaccharias Janssen and his son Hans, while
experimenting with several lenses in a tube, discovered that nearby objects appeared greatly
enlarged. This became the forerunner of the compound microscope and of the telescope. In 1609,
Galileo (1564–1642), father of modern physics and astronomy, heard of these early experiments,
worked out the principles of lenses, and made a much better instrument with a focusing device.

The father of microscopy, Anthony Leeuwenhoek of Holland (1632–1723), started as an


apprentice in a dry goods store where magnifying glasses were used to count the threads in cloth.
He taught himself new methods for grinding and polishing tiny lenses of great curvature which
gave magnifications up to 270 diameters, the finest known at that time. These led to the building
of his microscopes and the biological discoveries for which he is famous. He was the first to see
and describe bacteria, yeast plants, the teeming life in a drop of water and the circulation of blood
corpuscles in capillaries. He also used his lenses to make pioneering studies on an extraordinary
variety of things, both living and non-living and reported his findings in over a hundred letters to
the Royal Society of England and the French Academy.

Robert Hooke (1635–1703), the English father of microscopy, reconfirmed Anthony van
Leeuwenhoek's discoveries of the existence of tiny living organisms in a drop of water. Hooke
made a copy of Leeunwenhoek's microscope and then improved upon his design.

Later, few major improvements were made until the middle of the 19th century. Several European
countries began to manufacture fine optical equipment but none finer than the marvelous
microscopes built by the American, Charles A. Spencer (1813–1881), and the industry he founded.
Present day instruments, little changed from these early microscopes, give magnifications up to
1250 diameters with ordinary light and up to 5000 with blue light.

3. Read the text again and correct the mistakes in the sentences.
1. The first microscope was developed by two German scientists.
2. Hans Janssen is considered to be the father of Microscopy.
3. The first compound microscope was designed by Galileo.
4. The microscope designed by Zacharias Janssen was called flea glasses because they used it for
examining insects.
5. It was Robert Hook who first saw and described bacteria, yeast plants and red blood cells. 
6. Present day microscopes look exactly the same as those early models. 
 
4. Work in pairs and answer the questions.

1. Which facts from the text did you know before? Which facts did you find surprising?
2. What would happen if they never invented the microscope?

2.4 WORKING IN THE SUPPORT

VOCABULARY Working as a porter


1. Match the words with their Russian equivalents. 
1. take waste away for recycling a) тележка для перевозки пищи
2. take samples and specimens b) вывозить отходы
3. collect waste c) перевозить пациентов
4. deliver the post d) инвалидная коляска
5. food trolley e) носилки/каталка
6. stretchers f) морг
7. lift and carry heavy equipment g) собирать отходы
8. mortuary h) вывозить мусор на утилизацию
9. dispose of the waste i) доставлять почту
10. wheelchair j) собирать образцы и пробы
11. transport patients k) доставлять письма пациентам
l) поднимать и перевозить тяжелое
12. bring letters for patients оборудование

2. Fill in the gaps with the English equivalents of the words in brackets.

My name is Chris Brown and I work as a porter in St. Nicolas hospital. Our hospital is rather big,
there are 800 beds here.

My working day starts at 6.30 a.m. and finishes at 2.30 p.m. When I come to work, first I go to the
Inpatient faculty to ___________ ____ _________ ____all the wastes (собрать и вывезти). Then
I take files __________ ____ _________ (образцы и пробы) of patients and deliver them to
(лабораторию).

Breakfast is at 8 o’clock. I go to the kitchen, take __________ _________ (продуктовую


тележку) and ___________ _____________ (доставляю завтрак) to patients. After breakfast I
take patients to various ______________ (процедуры), transport them to an
____________(рентген), endoscopy or to the ______________ __________ (операционную)
and then back to the wards.   Besides, I deliver the post to the departments and ____________
_____________ (разношу письма) to patients. Every day I have to deal with a great number of
__________ (персонала), patients and their relatives, so porters always have to be
_____________ (вежливыми) and friendly.

One of the most difficult responsibilities is transportation dead patients to the _________________
(морг). Every week we have 6-7 dead patients.

The most positive part of my work is taking patients during discharge. This is a pleasant moment
for all patients. From time to time they give me presents but I seldom take them. Instead, I ask
them to say a prayer.  

VOCABULARY Wheelchairs
 
1. Match the words with their Russian equivalents.

1. voice commands a) решать проблему


2. arm rests b) кресло-каталка с ручным приводом
3. leg rests c) автоматизированная инвалидная коляска
4. solve a problem d) подниматься по лестнице
5. manual wheelchair e) люди с ограниченными возможностями
6. self-propelled wheelchair f) физически здоровые люди
7. modern wheelchairs g) голосовые команды
8. all-purpose wheelchair h) большой прорыв
9. able-bodied people i) подставка для ног
10. climb stairs j) подлокотники
11. reach high shelves k) доставать до высоких полок
12. latest technology l) многофункциональное инвалидное кресло
13. big jump forward m) новейшие технологии
14. disabled people n) современные инвалидные кресла-коляски

2. Fill in the gaps with the English equivalents of the words in brackets.
1. Today there is a great number of ___________ ___________ (современных инвалидных
кресел) that are designed by scientists to make the life of ________________ ____________
(людей с ограниченными возможностями) easier. 2. Scientists made a ________ ________
_________ (большой прорыв) in modern wheelchair design with the _____________
(созданием) of the computer program that responds to __________ __________ (голосовые
команды). 3. Nowadays modern wheelchairs let disabled people _________ ____ _________
(подниматься по лестнице), ________ _______ _______ (доставать до высоких полок), use a
shower and a toilet. 4. In 16th century King Philip of Spain had a wheelchair with
_________________ (съемными) leg rests and _______ _________ (подлокотники). 

UNIT 2 PROJECT The Best Hospital Award


1. Read the passage. Answer the questions.

Patients have a right to choose where to get medical treatment. Their choice is often connected
with their friends’ recommendations or general reputations of hospitals and medical centers in the
community. In addition to the public opinions, some professional hospital rankings and ratings
have been developed: they evaluate national or regional leaders basing on different indicators, e.g.
excellence in clinical care, patient satisfaction and recommendations from peers.

1. Why are hospital ratings important?


2. How does competition among several hospitals impact a community?
3. Can you name any regional or national Best Hospitals rankings in your country?

2. You are going to watch a video about Bumrungrad International Hospital in Thailand.
Look at the screenshots below and guess what type of hospital it is.

3. Watch the video  (https://cloud.mail.ru/public/M2PE/Cu6r1nYx6). Complete the


summary.

Bumrungrad International Hospital is located in _________ (1), Thailand. The hospital provides
inexpensive high quality and safe medical service that makes it attractive for patients worldwide.

The hospital occupies ______ (2) floors and employs _______ (3) doctors who were trained in the
most respected Asian, American and ____________ (4) universities and hospitals. Most doctors
are university professors and associate professors from leading medical universities and _____ (5)
doctors work full-time.

The hospital specializes in all types of treatment: from heart and __________ (6) surgery to
__________ (7) and anti-aging procedures. It uses the most innovative and advanced technologies
and equipment that allow to perform accurate and secure medical procedures.

The hospital Customer Service offers interpreters for all major languages and a team of _______
(8) medical coordinators to serve the needs of international patients.

4. Watch the video again. Evaluate Bumrungrad International Hospital on the basis of
hospital recommendations from peers, key performance indicators and patient experience.

HOSPITAL EVALUATION FORM


(1 = It needs more work on this, 5 = It is excellent in this area, n/a – information not available)

Hospital recommendations from peers 1 2 3 4 5 n/a

Key performance indicators


− data on quality of care for specific treatments 1 2 3 4 5 n/a
− data on hygiene measures and patient safety 1 2 3 4 5 n/a
− data on number of patients per doctors / per nurse 1 2 3 4 5 n/a

Patient experience
– general satisfaction with hospital 1 2 3 4 5 n/a
– recommendation of hospital 1 2 3 4 5 n/a
– satisfaction with medical care 1 2 3 4 5 n/a
- satisfaction with service and organization 1 2 3 4 5 n/a

5. Divide the class into 4 groups. Groups A-C are the representatives of the hospitals
competing for The Best Hospital Award. Prepare a presentation of your hospital paying
attention to the points in the Hospital evaluation form. Group D is the Board of experts. Your
task is to listen to the presentations, evaluate all the points in the form and make a decision
on the winner of The Best Hospital Award.

UNIT 2 REVISION

Vocabulary

1. Define the words.

 a teaching hospital  Inpatients  Egyptian “sleeping


 Pulmonology  Outpatients temples”
 a mortuary  a private hospital  the healing temples of
 a glucometer  an autoclave Asclepius
 a syringe

2. Choose a hospital department. Describe its main functions and medical equipment that is used
there.
3. Choose a piece of medical equipment. Describe its main functions and the way it was invented.

Grammar

1. Think about a hospital that you know well (e.g. your university hospital). Describe its structure,
departments and layout.

Use of English

1. Think about your university hospital. Give 5-6 instructions how to get from one department/unit
to another.

2. Read the sentences. Complete them with the correct particles.

1. There are two basic methods of disposing ____ hospital-generated medical wastes: incineration
and autoclaving. 2.The list of basic hospital equipment consists ____ several items including
stretchers, defibrillators, anaesthesia machines, patient monitors, sterilizers and ECG machines. 3.
Hospital executives are responsible ____ managing a hospital. 4. Our medical college is attached
___ two state-of-the-art hospitals to provide clinical practical training to the students. 5. Ancient
Greek medicine is associated ____ the theory of humors. 6. The hospital pharmacy deals ____
storage, compounding, dispensing, and testing of drugs. 7. Acute Medical units specialize _____
emergency care. 8. Radiologists work ____ various imagine techniques as x-ray, MRI or CT.

Speaking

Prepare for an interview with your teacher on Careers in medicine. Cover the following points:

 What is a hospital?
 How did the hospitals change through the centuries?
 What types of hospitals can you name?
 What is a typical hospital structure?
 What hospital departments can you name?
 What hospital equipment do you know and what are their functions?

UNIT 2. WORDLIST

Study the list of useful words from Unit 2. Insert your translation after reading the
corresponding sentences.

adj = adjective conj = conjunction phr v = phrasal verb phr = phrase pron = pronoun
adv = adverb n = noun pl = plural prep = preposition v = verb
  

  Able-bodied people sometimes don’t realize how


able-bodied (adj)  difficult the life of the disabled can be.
Nowadays there are a lot of modern and all-
all-purpose (adj)   purpose wheelchairs.
autoclave (n)    A nurse sterilizes instruments in an autoclave.
The blood pressure meter is for recording
blood pressure meter (n)    patients’ blood pressure.
bone plate (n)   A bone plate is used for fixing a broken bone.
A centrifuge is used for separating substances by
centrifuge (n)   spinning them.
Go along the corridor and Physiotherapy will be
corridor (n)   on the left.
Porters deliver the post all over the hospital and
deliver (v)   bring letters for patients.
A dialysis machine is used for cleaning the blood
dialysis machine (n)     when the kidneys don’t work.
Some simple everyday activities can be a major
disabled (adj)    problem for disabled people.
dispose of (v)    Porters dispose of all the waste at the hospital.
ECG machine (n)   An ECG machine is for monitoring the heart.
The endoscope is for looking inside the stomach,
endoscope (n)   larynx, trachea, etc.
floor (n)    Radiology is on the second floor.
Porters do more than just push food trolleys
food trolley (n)    around the hospital.
The glucometer is for determining the
glucometer (n)   concentration of glucose in the blood.
A highly-advanced wheelchair can perform
highly-advanced (adj)   different functions.
Porters lift (v) and carry heavy equipment.
lift (n)(v)   Take the lift (n) to get to the third floor.
A manual wheelchair is moved by the user’s own
manual (adj)    power.
A microscope is for examining tissues, samples,
microscope (n)    etc., very closely.
mortuary (n)    Porters remove dead bodies to the mortuary.
A neurological pinwheel is for testing for
neurological pinwheel (n)   sensation in nerves.
A paediatric spoon is a special spoon for children
paediatric spoon (n)   to grip.
reception (n)    You can ask all the information at the reception.
scales (n)    Scales are for weighing substances.
scalpel (n)   A scalpel is for performing surgery.
You don’t need to use your arms in a self-
self-propelled (adj)   propelled wheelchair.
A doctor uses a stethoscope to hearing sounds
stethoscope (n)    from movements within the body.
Porters transport patients by stretchers or
stretcher (n)    wheelchairs.
syringe (n)    A syringe is for making injections.
A nurse measured a patient’s temperature with a
thermometer (n)   thermometer.
An otolaryngologist uses a tongue depressor for
tongue depressor (n)    oral examination.
Ultrasound scanner is for detecting problems in
ultrasound scanner (n)    the liver, heart, stomach and other internal organs.
ward (n)   There are a lot of wards in this big hospital.
Nowadays modern wheelchairs are a big
wheelchair (n)   improvement on the first wheelchairs.
X-ray machine (n)   An X-ray machine is for taking a photo of bones.
 
QUICK CHECK: UNITS 1 AND 2
GRAMMAR Present Simple or Present Continuous?

1. Read the interview and underline the correct verb forms.

My name is David Maduram, and I’m an anesthesist at White Plains Hospital


in New York. This is my first year as an attending anesthesist.
At my job, I am primarily administering/ primarily administer anesthesia for
patients undergoing surgery. I also take / am also taking care of patients in
the post-operative care unit, emergency room, in the ICU, and in the
OB/GYN suites.
Although I entered practice immediately after residency, at the moment I
complete/am completing additional training in critical care medicine and
working at the same time. It’s hard especially when I am working/ work
night shifts. At the end of the month I take/am taking the anesthesiology
board exam.
My job is not easy, but it is rewarding. It’s nice to walk home and know that
people depend/are depending on you and that you are helping them!

2. Open the brackets and put the verbs into the correct verb form.

My name is Thomas Connors, and I work as a physician at Beaumont Hospital


in Farmington Hills, MI.
I ______________ (work) full-time in an Urgent Care Clinic. I __________
(love) Urgent Care because you have to know a little about everything — you
never really _________ (know) what you are going to see. Every day is
different and that _________ (keep) it interesting. I _________ (think)
working in Urgent Care is highly challenging. You only _________ (have)
seconds to decide if a person _____ (be) sick or not. From time to time I
________ (take part) in online courses or webinars. This week I __________
(attend) a webinar on Chemical Dependency in Urgent Care. When I'm not at
work, I am very busy with my wife and six children. I __________ (enjoy)
family activities, playing sports with my children and gardening.

GRAMMAR Prepositions of place and movement

3. Rearrange the words to make sentences.


1. Go/ through/ door/ into/ swing/ the /hospital /the/.
2. end/ turn/ left/ at/ Go/ along/ the/ next/ the/ corridor,/.
3. you/ The/ want/ ward/ right/ is/ the/ end/ at.
4. the/ man/ behind/ Give/ counter/ your/ to/ prescription/ the.
5. Go/ the/ corridor/ down/ the/ doors,/ through/ swing/.

VOCABULARY Alphabet quiz

4. Work in pairs. Complete the sentences with words or phrases from Units 1-2. The first
letter of each word or phrase is given.
 
A. An _________ provides anesthesia for all N. A ____________ is for testing for
types of surgery.   sensation in nerves. 
B. A _________ ____ is used for fixing a O. A surgeon performs __________ in the
broken bone.   operating theatre. 
C. A ________ ________ is a male nurse P. I'm doing a __________course and
equivalent to a sister.   work at the same time. 
D. If you feel better next week, the doctor will R. A paramedic gives first aid and
_________ you.   __________ to emergencies. 
E. The ____________ is used for looking S. Porters transport patients by
inside the stomach, larynx, trachea, etc.   ___________ or wheelchairs. 
F. Porters do more than just push T. An otolaryngologist uses a _______
______________ around the hospital.   ________ for oral examination.
U. _________ __________ are for
G. The ____________ is for determining the detecting problems in the liver, heart,
concentration of glucose in the blood.   stomach and other internal organs.
H. A _________________wheelchair can W. There are 20 two-bed and 10 one-bed
perform different functions.    ______ in this department. 
L. A _________________ examines samples X. Radiologists take _______ and other
and tissues under a microscope.   images.
M. Porters remove dead bodies to the
____________.    

USE OF ENGLISH Phrasal verbs

5. Complete the sentences with the correct prepositions.

1. Receptionists deal __ patient details and check their hospital records. 2. Nurses can specialize
___ many different fields. 3. Paramedics respond ___ emergencies. 4. How do you feel about job
interviews? Are you good __ them? 5. Why are you applying ___ a new job? 6. When I was a
child I was good __ skiing. 7. Do you go ____ a lot in your free time? 8. Charge nurses are
responsible ___ running a ward. They deal ___ budgets and employing staff. 9. Michelle is
interested ____ many areas of ecology and animal behavior. 10. At the moment she is looking ___
a part-time job from home. 11. The police respond ___ emergencies in just a few minutes. 12.
Obstetrics specializes ___ pregnancy and birth. 13. Pediatrics deals ____ sick children. 14. Surgery
performs operations ____ patients. 15. Porters are responsible __ transporting patients around the
hospital. 16. Porters dispose __ all the waste.

6. Match the halves of the sentences.  


1. Nursing officers a. visit patients in their own homes
2. Triage nurses b. performs operations on patients
3. A surgeon c. assists surgeons in the operating theatres
4. Auxiliary nurses d. work in Casualty
5. Health visitors e. deliver babies
6. Midwives f. are usually administrators
7. A scrub nurse g. are on the bottom grade
8. Porters h. transport patients around the hospital. 

SPEAKING

7. Work in pairs. Prepare a conversation on one the topics below.


 at the school reunion (Imagine that you are at the school reunion. Ask each other about
your jobs, your families and your interests)
 at the medical conference (Imagine that you are attending a medical conference. Talk to
each other about your jobs, the conference and the city the conference is organized in)
 at the hospital reception (Imagine that one of you is the receptionist and the other is the
patient. The patient asks the receptionist how to get Cardiology).

8. Work in groups. Answer the questions.


1. Usually in a general hospital there are many departments for different patients. Can you name
the most common ones?
2. Do you think that patients generally need to be cared after by only one department or they may
need care that involves many of the departments?
3. When admitted to the hospital, you are under the care of a hospital medical team. Which
specialists does a hospital team include?
4. Which hospital jobs do you think are the most demanding?
5. Which hospital jobs are always in demand?
6. Which hospital jobs are the most stressful?
7. Which departments would you like to work in?
8. There are many common pieces of equipment and special tools in the hospital. What role does
medical equipment play in hospitals?
9. Imagine a hospital without any medical equipment. What would it be?
10. Do you think that as time goes by medical equipment will play even a more important role
in making quick and correct decisions?

 
UNIT 3. HOSPITAL ADMISSIONS
LEAD-IN
Read the passage. Answer the questions.
There are two types of hospital admissions: non-emergency/pre-planned (elective) and
emergency/unplanned. Emergency admissions are usually for conditions that require immediate
medical attention. Patients arrive at hospital in their own transport or in an ambulance. While
emergency admissions are common, most medical procedures can be planned ahead. This falls on
pre-planned or non-emergency admissions.
1. Study the conditions in the box. Decide which hospital admission they require: pre-planned or
emergency.

broken bone repair motor vehicle accident stent procedure heart bypass surgery
stroke gallbladder removal acute appendicitis kidney stones removal
joint replacement heart attack angioplasty

2. What documents are required for hospital admission?


3. Have you ever had an emergency or pre-planned admissions?

3.1 EMERGENCY HOSPITAL ADMISSIONS

VOCABULARY AND SPEAKING The admissions procedure

1. Read the passage. Choose the correct options. Then put the pictures in the correct order.

When your condition is unexpected and you need urgent treatment, you will be admitted through
the emergency department on arrival at hospital – this is done through a process known as ‘triage’.
In the waiting room a scrub nurse/triage nurse/surgeon will meet you, make a(an) test/initial
assessment/sample of your problem, provide first aid and work out how quickly you need
treatment. You may be asked to wait in the waiting room. How long you have to wait depends on
how busy the emergency department is at the time and whether there are other patients with more
serious and life-threatening situations/assessment/conditions than you. Then the nurse will get
your personal details and fill out/fill up/fill in a hospital registration form. When there is a free
ward/cubicle/waiting room a doctor will see you. The doctor will decide on the treatment.

A. B. C. D.

2. Translate the story from Russian into English.


 
Несколько дней назад я чинил крышу своего дома, когда я оступился (miss a step), упал и
сильно ударился головой. Моя жена сразу же повезла меня в больницу.

В приемном отделении было несколько больных: беременная женщина, мужчина, которого


укусила змея, и девушка с прыщами на лице. Вскоре ко мне подошла медсестра приемного
отделения, задала несколько вопросов, провела первичный осмотр и заполнила
регистрационную форму. Медсестра попросила подождать минут 20–30, так как у них был
больной в тяжелом состоянии. Спустя полчаса медсестра позвала меня в смотровую, где
меня осмотрел врач, поставил диагноз и назначил лечение.
 

VOCABULARY Patient record

1. Look at the patient record card and fill in the gaps with the words from the box.
marital status occupation next of kin DOB intake admission

PATIENT RECORD
 
First name:    Alex  Surname:    Bradshaw 
Gender:    M  ______ (1):  05.12.1977 
____________________ (2): construction worker 
____________________ (3): married
____________________ (4):  wife   
Contact:    0346789218 
 
  Smoking ___________ (5):  n/a   
  Allergies:   none   
 
Reason for __________ (6):  concussion   
 
  GP:     Dr Alice Green   
  Tel.:    0346151698   
 

2. Match the questions to the correct answers.

1. Are you married? a) No, I’m single.


2. How many cigarettes do you smoke a b) C-A-M-E-R-O-N.
day? c) Three or four.
3. Are you allergic to anything? d) 27th January, 1987.
4. Do you smoke? e) Yes, nuts.
5. What’s your date of birth? f) International marketing manager for PMI
6. What happened to you? Group.
7. Can you spell your surname, please? g) I fell off my bicycle and hurt my leg.
8. What is your job? h) Yes, I do.
3. Translate the conversation between the nurse (N) and the patient (P) from Russian into
English.

N: Добрый день. Меня зовут Сара Джонсон, я медсестра приемного отделения. Вы мистер
Смит, не так ли?
P: Да, все верно.
N: Пройдите, пожалуйста, к доктору. Мне также необходимо задать Вам пару вопросов,
чтобы заполнить карточку пациента. Что с Вами произошло?
P: Я попал в автомобильную аварию. На дороге было скользко, мой автомобиль занесло, и
я врезался в забор.
N: У вас большой синяк (bruise) на щеке. Вы ударились головой?
P: Да. Я сразу почувствовал головокружение (dizziness) и тошноту (nausea).
N: Ясно. Возможно, у вас сотрясение мозга. Мне необходимо заполнить вашу карточку.
Мистер Смит, назовите, пожалуйста, дату Вашего рождения.
P: 11 ноября 1975 года.
N: Кем вы работаете?
P: Я менеджер по продажам автомобилей.
N: Мне нужен контактный телефон ближайшего родственника.
P: Да, конечно. 07709-409765 — это мобильный телефон моей жены. Ее зовут Кристина
Смит.
N: Есть ли у Вас аллергия на что-нибудь?
P: Да, на пенициллин.
N: Были ли в вашей семье случаи наследственных заболеваний?
P: Насколько я знаю, нет.
N: Случаи диабета?
P: Да! Моя бабушка — диабетик.
N: ВИЧ?
P: Нет.
N: Хорошо, Мистер Смит. Доктор подойдет через несколько минут.

4. Work in pairs. Roleplay a conversation between the triage nurse and the patient. 

3.2 DESCRIBING ACCIDENTS

GRAMMAR Past Simple or Past Continuous?

1. Make up three forms of the verbs. Some of the forms are given.
 
be   taken
got   consult
felt   prescribe
came   put
see   had
tried   fill in
done   made
arrive   drove
hit   decide
gone   said

2. Fill in the gaps using the correct forms of the verbs in the Past Simple.
When my brother Henry ______ (1. be) 4 years old, he _______ (2. love) to play Batman. He
_________ (3. put) on his Batman pajamas and __________ (4. pretend) to fly all over the house.
But one night, just before bedtime, he ________ (5. try) to “fly” from one end of his bed to the
other and he _________ (6. miss) his mark and ________ (7. end up) banging his elbow hard on
the wooden floor. Ouch!
My mother ___________ (8. put) ice on it, but his elbow _________ (9. get) really swollen and
he ____________ (10. have) difficulty moving his arm. Then my mother __________ (11. say):
“Batman, we’re going to the emergency room.”
So, we _______ (12. get) into the car and ________ (13. go) there.
In the emergency room there ______ (14. be) three patients only. Soon a triage nurse ______ (15.
come), ________ (16. make) an initial assessment and _________ (17. ask) my mother some
questions. She ________ (18. fill in) a patient record form and _________ (19. ask) to wait for the
doctor.
When the doctor came he ________ (20. examine) my brother’s arm and elbow and ___________
(21. take) an x-ray. Luckily, the x-ray ______ (22. show) that it was just a bruise. The doctor
_________ (23. prescribe) anti-inflammatory ointment and we _______ (24. drive) back home.

3. Fill in the gaps using the correct forms of the verbs in the Past Simple or the Past
Continuous.

When I _________ (arrive) at the Emergency Department for my first shift, several patients and
their relatives __________ (wait) to be attended. A nurse _______ (look for) the relatives of a
patient who had just been admitted. A doctor _______ (ask for) some test results. A child
________ (cry) while a nurse ___________ (try) to take a blood sample. Some nurses
__________(leave) the hospital after finishing work and the night staff ________ (start) their
shifts.

4. Write sentences about two events using the Past Simple or the Past Continuous. Use
when and while.

1. me/ just finish/ they/ call/ ward round/ to emergency


I was just finishing a ward round when they called me to emergency.

2. my/ e-mail/ arrive/ wait for/ patient/ check/ I


3. She/ work/ the garden/ start/ feel ill/ she
4. he/ cough/ wheeze/ patient/ the consulting room/ come into
5. have surgery/ he/ his relatives/ outside/ wait 

3.3 PRE-PLANNED HOSPITAL ADMISSIONS

READING AND LISTENING


 
1. Read the passage. Complete the gaps with the words from the box.

tests equipment surgery assess ward referral costs

In case of a pre-planned admission a lot will depend on whether you are going to a public or
private hospital, what kind of treatment you are receiving and how urgent your treatment is.
Before going into hospital, your doctor will usually give you a _________ (1) to see a
specialist, and you will need to contact the specialist clinic and make an appointment. The
specialist will __________ (2) you and may send you for further ________ (3) to assess your
health issue, before deciding what kind of treatment you require and whether you need to go into
hospital for treatment or surgery. At this stage, you will also be told how long you will have to
wait for treatment.
In public hospitals, your waiting time for elective surgery depends on how urgent your
condition is, which is determined by the specialist who admits you to hospital. In a public hospital,
you may not be able to choose your treating specialist.
In private hospitals, you will generally not have to wait as long for treatment and you can choose
who your doctor is, but there are _________ (4) for this type of treatment.
Sometimes, even if you plan to go into a private hospital, the best place for your treatment
may actually be in a public hospital. This is because the public hospital may have the best
______________ (5), facilities and specialists for a particular health problem or treatment.
Once in hospital, you will stay in a hospital ___________ (6). How long you stay in hospital will
depend on the treatment you need. For minor procedures, you may only need to stay for a day, but
for ongoing treatment or major _____________ (7), you will need to stay for longer.

2. Watch the video on a planned hospital admission


(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oxpmnC_evP0) and complete the summary.

Amit Kumar comes to the hospital as he has a __________ (1) the next day. The nurse shows the
patient his ward and tells him about necessary tests and preparations for the surgery. The patient
is not allowed to eat or drink after _____ (2). The nurse gives some ________ ______ (3) to fill in
and asks the patient to provide her his medical __________ (4) and some personal details. The
patient needs to change into the hospital ________ (5). The nurse shows where the call and the
toilet are, then she gets the patient acquainted with the hospital daily routine. The doctor will come
to see Amit when he is ready.

3. Work in pairs. Answer the questions.

1. Have you or your close relatives had an elective admission?


2. What was the reason for it?
3. What tests did you or your relative have to prepare for the admission?
4. What was the hospital daily routine?
5. How long did you or your relative stay in hospital?

VOCABULARY A hospital receptionist

1. Match the words with their Russian equivalents.

frightened patients медицинская терминология и сокращения


medical terminology and abbreviations приветствовать и помогать пациентам
organize and file patient records назначать приемы
make appointments регистрировать информацию о пациентах
diplomatic and strong заводить и хранить карты пациентов
angry patients напуганные пациенты
greet and assist patients дипломатичный и твердый
record patients’ information раздраженные пациенты
2. Read the interview and give the English equivalents of the words in brackets.

Interview with a hospital receptionist

Many people think that hospital receptionists are dragons behind a desk: they are unsmiling, curt
and unhelpful. But what is it really like to be on the front line? We spoke to Emma Smith, a
receptionist at a large London hospital.

Can you tell me about your main responsibilities?

My main duties are to __________ ____ __________(приветствовать и помогать) patients when


they arrive, ________ ____________ (назначать приемы), and __________ _________
___________(регистрировать информацию о пациентах), _________ _____ ______ (заводит
и хранить) patient __________ (карты).

What are the advantages and disadvantages of working as a hospital receptionist?

I really like helping people. My knowledge of ____________ ___________ (медицинская


терминология) and ______________ (сокращения) can make ____________ _____________
(напуганные пациенты) feel at ease. More than that, I have _________ (гибкий) working hours
and am a part of a close and hardworking team.
But I should say that my work is rather stressful. We have about 400 patients a day, so it’s
sometimes hard to be ___________ _____ ____________ (твердый и дипломатичный), when
____________ ______ __________ (пациенты раздражены).

What has been the greatest achievement of your career?

When I started my career I was very shy but soon I became more communicative and I have
made a lot of friends. 

3.4 DOCTORS’ BAD HANDWRITING

VOCABULARY A bad handwriting

1. Match the words with their Russian equivalents.

1. fatal errors a) ампутировать конечность


2. get worse b) щитовидная железа
3. wasteful c) выписывать рецепт (на лекарство)
4. digital technology d) ухудшаться
5. administrative staff e) административные сотрудники
6. solution f) оштрафовать
7. cause delays g) цифровые технологии
8. fine h) решение (проблемы)
9. court i) непоправимые (смертельные) ошибки
10. amputate a limb j) суд
11. thyroid k) быть причиной задержек
12. prescribe/write a prescription l) расточительный

2. Translate the sentences from Russian into English using the words from Ex. 1.
1. Зачастую почерк у врачей гораздо хуже, чем у медсестер и административных
сотрудников. 2. Возможно, неразборчивый почерк у врачей связан с недостатком времени
и высокой скоростью письма. 3. Неразборчивый почерк врачей, особенно в медицинских
рецептах, может привести к непоправимым ошибкам. 4. Существует множество способов
решения проблемы неразборчивого почерка, в том числе с помощью цифровых технологий.
5. В некоторых больницах медицинский персонал использует штрих-коды, которые
фиксируются на запястье или лодыжке пациента, а также планшетные компьютеры,
позволяющие получать точную и легко воспринимаемую информацию о пациенте.

UNIT 3 PROJECT Healthcare In Britain

1. Read the definition of ‘healthcare system’. Answer the questions below.


A health care system is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health
care services to meet the health needs of target populations.
1. What is the main purpose of a healthcare system?
2. Give examples of people, institutions and resources that are involved in health provision of the
population.
2. Work in groups. You’re going to watch a video about healthcare system in Great Britain.
Look at the photos and discuss the questions.

1. If you get ill in Britain, who do you visit first: your general practitioner or the specialist?
2. Is healthcare free in Great Britain?
3. Do patients pay for medicines in pharmacies?
4. Do you have any ideas what the NHS stands for?
5. What are the most common diseases in Great Britain?
6. Are there any problems that British patients can face?
7. How long do British men and women live?
8. Do you think that alternative medicine is popular in Britain?

3. Watch the video (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8qr1pu_T1Es) and check your


ideas from Exercise 2.
4. Watch the video again. Decide if the statements are true (T) or false (F).
1. Pregnant women have to pay for the medicine.
2. If patients need an operation the GP will send them to a hospital.
3. NHS provides free medical care for every patient in Britain.
4. Earlier NHS provided free visits to dentists.
5. Nowadays visits to dentists are also free.
6. There are more NHS doctors than alternative medical practitioners in Britain.
7. Nowadays people in Britain eat more red meat than in the past.
8. Women in Britain live longer than men.
9. In 1952 only 291 people reached the age of 100.

5. Watch the video again. What do times and numbers 1–8 refer to?
1. 505 million 5. 79
2. 2,000 6. 1948
3. 40 billion pounds 7. 36,000
4. 3,000 8. 74

6. Work in small groups. Choose a country. Study the information about this country’s
healthcare system. Make a list of differences between the healthcare system in Britain and
the health system of the country you have chosen. Think about:
1. doctors 4. specialists
2. hospitals 5. alternative medicine
3. dentists 6. prescriptions

Make a presentation. Present your findings to the group.

UNIT 3 REVISION

Vocabulary

1. Define the words.

 pre-planned admission  initial assessment  next of kin


 emergency admission  cubicle  referral
 triage nurse  patient record form

2. Describe an emergency admission process.

Grammar

1. Look at the pictures. Describe the medical problems that the patients have. Write ate least
four sentences inventing details about what happened to them.

                        

Use of English

1. Complete the sentences with the correct words formed from the verbs in bold.
1. With ________________ admission, you require hospital care but may choose to wait for a
more convenient time (elect). 2. What is your __________ (occupy)? occupation 3. There are
three main minimally-invasive techniques for kidney stones _________ (remove). 4. If your
knee gives you pain, stiffness, instability or loss of function that affects your daily life and
activities, you’ll only need a knee ____________ (place). 5. The football player suffered a
_______________ (concuss). 6. The patient's next follow-up ______________ was scheduled
for 2 months after treatment (appoint). 7. Building a new children’s hospital was the best
_______ (solve).

2. Complete the second sentence using the word in bold so that it means the same as the first
one. Do not change the word in bold. Use two or three words including the word in bold.

E.g. I have an allergy to eggs. ALLERGIC


I am allergic to eggs.

1. Are you married? STATUS


2. The nurse wrote down all the patient’s information into the form. FILL
3. The doctor prescribed the treatment. DECIDE
4. Who is your closest relative? KIN
5. A&E department specializes in emergency medicine and acute care of patients. DEAL

Speaking

Prepare for an interview with your teacher on Hospital admissions. Cover the following
points:

 types of hospital admissions


 emergency admission process
 pre-planned hospital admission
 functions of a hospital receptionists
 bad handwriting and the problems that it can cause

UNIT 3. WORDLIST

Study the list of useful words from Unit 3. Insert your translation after reading the
corresponding sentences.

adj = adjective conj = conjunction phr v = phrasal verb phr = phrase pron = pronoun
adv = adverb n = noun pl = plural prep = preposition v = verb
 

If a patient is allergic to some medication, it


be allergic to something should be written down in his/her patient
(n)  record.
45
 
be under pressure of Nowadays doctors are always under pressure
time (phr)   of time.
When there is a free cubicle a doctor will see the
cubicle (n)    patient.
easy-to-read New technologies can help to get accurate and
information (n)    easy-to-read information.
fatal error (n)   Bad doctors’ handwriting can cause fatal errors.
first aid (n)   A receptionist must know how to give first aid.
gender (n)   Gender is written into a patient’s record.
Bad handwriting can cause delays in the work
handwriting (n)    of a hospital.
A hospital receptionist makes appointments for
hospital receptionist (n)    patients.
hospital registration A hospital registration form contains the
form (n)    information about the patient.
An initial assessment will help to determine a
initial assessment (n)     priority.
A receptionist is also responsible for keeping
keep the accounts (phr)   the accounts.
life-threatening Patients with life-threatening condition will see
condition (n)   the doctor immediately.
limb (n) A surgeon may amputate the wrong limb
    because of bad handwriting.
make an appointment One of the receptionist’s duties is making
(phr)    appointments for patients.
marital status (n)   What is your marital status?
medical history(n) Are there any cases of infectious diseases in
  your medical history?
next of kin (n) Do you have a contact telephone number for
  your next of kin?
occupation (n)    What is your occupation?
patient record (n) A patient record contains the patient’s personal
    information.
personal details (n)    A nurse will get personal details from you.
prescription (n) The doctor wrote out a prescription for
  mebendazole and gave it to the patient.
priority (n) After an initial assessment a triage nurse will
  decide who is a priority.
record patient’s Receptionists record patients’ information and
information (phr)    organize patient records.
smoking/alcohol intake There are cases when questions about smoking
(n)    or alcohol intake are not applicable.
treatment (n)   A doctor decides on the treatment.
triage nurse (n)   A triage nurse decides who is a priority.
waiting room (n)    There are a lot of patients in the waiting room.
   
   
   

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UNIT 4. ACCIDENTS AND EMERGENCIES

Lead-in

Read the passage. Answer the questions.

A medical emergency is a sudden injury or serious illness that, if not treated right away, could
cause death or serious harm to a person. Dealing with medical emergencies is the key task of
Accidents and Emergency department. Loss of consciousness, heavy blood loss, suspected
broken bones, chest pain lasting fifteen minutes or more, difficulty breathing, overdose or
poisoning are the main conditions that require immediate medical care.

1. Do you know basic first aid procedures?


2. Are there first-aid training courses in your country? Are they popular?
3. Who works in A&E department? What personal qualities do these specialists need to have?
4. What are advantages and disadvantages of working in A&E?

4.1 GIVING FIRST AID

VOCABULARY

1. Label the pictures with the correct words from the box.
 

disposable gloves sterile cotton balls rubbing alcohol defibrillator


adhesive tape scissors antibiotic ointment hypodermic needles

A. B. C. D.

E. F. H.

2. Complete the sentences with the words from Ex. 1.

1. Nurses use ________ _________ for making injections. 2. An ___________ _______ is used
for covering minor injuries on the skin. 3. One of the most common uses of _________
________ is treating wounds. This is because it makes an excellent antiseptic. 4. All American
planes have an automatic ____________ onboard. In addition, all American flight attendants
are trained how to use it. 5. An ___________ __________ is used for preventing infections in
47
 
minor cuts, scrapes, or burns on the skin. 6. Doctors and nurses wear _________ _______ for
reducing the risk of infection between patients and them. 7. ___________ are used for cutting
sterile pads and bandages to the right length. 8. _________ _______ _______ can be used for
applying antiseptics and medications in order to treat minor wounds, scrapes, scratches, and
cuts.
 
3. Match the words with their Russian equivalents.

1. foreign body a) признаки кровообращения


2. signs of circulation b) пережать главную артерию
3. wounds c) сильное кровотечение
4. third degree burns d) раны
5. puncture the blister e) ожоги третьей степени
6. disposable gloves f) проколоть волдырь
7. severe bleeding g) пластырь
8. snake bite kit h) ножницы
i) простерилизовать иглы для подкожных
9. adhesive tape инъекций
10. scissors j) инородное тело
11. bandages k) бинты
12. squeeze a main artery l) нанести мазь на основе антибиотика
13. apply antibiotic ointment m) набор для оказания первой помощи при
укусах змеи
14. sterilize a hypodermic needle with
alcohol n) одноразовые перчатки

4. Translate the sentences from Russian into English using the words from Ex. 3.

1. При сильных ожогах не погружайте поврежденные участки тела в холодную воду.


2. Отправляясь в поход, возьмите с собой набор для оказания первой помощи при укусах
змеи. 3. Перед использованием простерилизуйте медицинские иглы этиловым спиртом.
4. В случае кровотечения сохраняйте поврежденную область в состоянии покоя до его
полного прекращения. 5. Нанесите мазь на основе антибиотика с помощью стерильного
тампона. 6. Не снимайте одежду с пациента при получении ожогов. 7. Ожоги третьей
степени представляют опасность для пациента. 8. Удерживайте пациента в
горизонтальном положении, не позволяйте ему вставать. 9. Промойте рану проточной
водой с мылом и немедленно обратитесь к врачу. 10. Вы можете использовать йод для
обработки раны. 

GRAMMAR Instructions

1. Fill in the instructions with the Imperative, using the words from the box. You may
need to use a negative form.
Animal bite
stop make sure rinse apply cover clean call try visit

1. __________ the bleeding.


2. __________ the wound gently with soap and warm water.

48
 
3. __________ for several minutes after cleaning.
4. __________ antibiotic ointment and __________ with a sterile bandage.
5. __________ the animal doesn’t have rabies.
6. If it was a wild animal, __________ the animal control immediately.
7. __________ to treat a serious wound without doctor’s help.
8. __________ a doctor.

Ankle sprain

drink immobilize do bandage take use raise apply

1. __________ the injured ankle.


2. __________ icepacks every 2 hours. __________ them for 15 minutes.
3. __________ the ankle very firmly.
4. __________ the ankle above heart height.
5. __________ any exercises for the first 48 hours.
6. __________ alcohol for the first 48 hours.
7. __________ any strong drugs for relieving pain without doctor’s prescription.

Hypothermia
give cover immerse start take off apply dry

1. Get the person indoors.


2. __________ the patient’s wet clothes and _______ his/her skin, if needed.
3. __________ the patient extra clothing and ________ him/her with a blanket.
4. ______________ the person in warm water. Rapid warming can cause heart arrhythmia.
5. If using hot water bottles or chemical hot packs, wrap them in cloth _________ them
directly to the skin.
6. __________ CPR if the person is not breathing normally.

2. Work in pairs. Research first aid for one of the following conditions:

 drug overdose  broken bones


 electric shocks  nosebleeds
 choking  sports injuries
 fainting  unconsciousness
Present the findings to the group. Say how to recognise this condition, what to do and
what not to do.
 
4.2 EMERGENCIES

READING AND SPEAKING A cardiac arrest

1. Study the information about cardiac arrest. Answer the questions below.
Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is a life-threatening emergency that occurs when the heart
suddenly stops beating. It strikes people of all ages who may seem to be healthy, even children

49
 
and teens. When cardiac arrest happens, the person collapses and doesn’t respond or breathe
normally. It leads to death in minutes if the person does not get help right away. Survival
depends on people nearby calling for emergency, starting CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation),
and using a defibrillator (if available) as soon as possible.
1. SCA is the third leading cause of death in the US. Is it the same in your country?
2. Can you recognize the symptoms of SCA?
3. What are the first aid procedures in case of SCA?
4. Can you find any defibrillators in public places in your country? Do you know how to use
them?

2. Match the words with their Russian equivalents. Then complete the sentences with the
words from the box.
1. set up an IV a) сделать искусственное дыхание «рот в
рот»
2. repeat the procedure b) оказать первую помощь
3. give mouth-to-mouth c) остановка сердца
4. cardiac arrest d) надавить на грудную клетку пациента
5. check the patient’s pulse e) приложить электроды на грудную клетку
пациента
6. support the patient’s head f) дать пациенту лекарство
7. push down on the patient’s chest g) подключить капельницу
8. apply the pads to the chest h) проверить пульс пациента
9. give first aid i) повторить процедуру
10. give the patient some medicine j) поддерживать голову пациента

1. The patient has a _______ ________. 2. The nurse gives the patient __________ first. 3. The
nurse ________ down on the patient’s _______ sixteen times. 3. The paramedic ________
_____ _______ on each side of the patient’s heart. 4. Don’t forget to __________ the patient’s
head. 5. __________ the patient’s pulse again. 6. In case the patient doesn’t respond after the
first charge of the defibrillator, ___________ the procedure. 7. Now _________ ____ an IV
and give the patient __________ __________.
3. Read the information below.
SCA is a worldwide public health crisis affecting thousands of people outside hospitals every
day. SCA leads to death in minutes if the person does not get help right away. Survival from
SCA depends on the quick actions of people nearby who call for emergency, start CPR and use
a defibrillator to restart the heart. If bystanders give CPR and use AEDs immediately 5 in10
victims could survive.
In some countries national foundations organize educational campaigns to motivate bystanders
to call for emergency, give CPR and use defibrillators in cases of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
Watch the TV advert by the British Heart Foundation
(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tD2qTmDsiHk) and share your opinion on the way
it motivates viewers to take immediate actions.
4. Translate the story from Russian into English.

50
 
Студент-медик спас жизнь мужчине на борту самолета

Двадцатидвухлетний Крег Маклин — студент-медик из Университета Данди в


Шотландии. В марте 2015 года он летел из Шотландии в Абу Даби. Во время полета он
услышал объявление бортпроводницы, что им нужен врач. Крег подошел и сказал, что
он всего лишь студент-медик, но так как на борту не было врачей, его попросили о
помощи. Крег рассказывает: «Когда я подошел ближе, то увидел мужчину без сознания.
Я проверил у него пульс, но он не дышал, и пульс не прощупывался. Это была остановка
сердца». Тогда они положили мужчину на пол в проходе между рядами (in the aisle),
студент начал делать искусственное дыхание и попросил принести дефибриллятор.
Вскоре подошла медсестра из Голландии и начала помогать ему. Когда бортпроводница
принесла дефибриллятор, Крег приложил электроды на грудную клетку пациента и
вызвал у него шок. Его сердце забилось, и он начал дышать. Крег установил капельницу
и дал пациенту лекарство.
Вскоре самолет совершил вынужденную посадку (make an emergency landing) в Анкаре,
где больного передали в руки медиков. Позже Крег узнал, что пациент выжил и в
больнице пошел на поправку.

5. Work in pairs. Research the differences between sudden cardiac arrest and heart
attack. You will need to find information on:
 what it is
 its causes
 its risks
 its symptoms
 what a bystander should do.
Present your findings to the group.

4.3 TRIAGE

LISTENING AND SPEAKING A day in the life: ER nurse

1. Work in pairs and discuss the questions.

1. What do ER nurses do?


2. What is their typical day like?
3. What personal qualities does an ER nurse need?
4. What are advantages and disadvantages of working as an ER nurse?

2. Watch the video about Will Cristobal, an ER nurse,


(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3GzBKoCK3Ik) and decide if the statements are
True (T) or False (F).

1. His working days are always the same.


2. He enjoyed his studies in the nursing school.
3. His patients often think that he is their doctor.
4. He wants to become a physiotherapist one day.
5. After college he got a job in a hospital.
6. He sometimes has up to four patients asking him for help at the same time.

51
 
7. He says that nursing is a career for those who love interacting with people and helping
them.

3. Watch the video again and match the halves of the sentences.  

1. It was his wife's uncle a) and taking care of his patients.


2. Will found working in health insurance b) who recommended him a career in nursing.
c) and the doctor asks him to discharge a
3. If there is a patient with a cardiac arrest, patient.
4. Will enjoys being at the bedside d) he cleans it up and the doctor stitches it up.
5. If there is a patient with abdominal pain, e) and HR rather boring.
6. If he has a patient with laceration, f) he puts IV fluids and gives him a painkiller.
7. Before applying for a nursing school g) he volunteered in a hospital.
8. He often has to balance when he has h) the whole team goes to the resuscitation
patients in life-threatening conditions room.

4. Work in pairs. Student A is the ER nurse. Student B is the journalist who is going to
write an article about working as an ER nurse. Look at the information on the cards below
and spend a few minutes preparing what you are going to say.

STUDENT A: ER NURSE

Use the following prompts and invent the details yourself:

 why you decided to become a ER nurse


 where you studied
 what advantages and disadvantages of being a ER nurse are
 your typical day
 why you enjoy your work
 if you’d like to become a doctor in the future.

STUDENT B: JOURNALIST

Think about the questions you are going to ask Student B. You need to find out about:

 why he/she decided to become a ER nurse


 where he/she studied
 what advantages and disadvantages of being a ER nurse are
 his/her typical day
 why he/she enjoys his/her work
 if he/she’d like to become a doctor in
 the future.

You are now ready to roleplay your conversation.

52
 
READING Triage

1. Read the information about triage. Answer the questions below.

Triage is the process of determining the priority of patients’ treatments by the severity of their
condition or likelihood of recovery with and without treatment. It is used to deal with casualties
of major incidents such as terrorist attacks, large fires, and multiple road traffic accidents.

Modern medical triage was first used in World War I when wounded soldiers were classified
into one of three groups: those who could be expected to live without medical care, those who
would likely die even with care, and those who could survive if they received care.

Nowadays the most common triage method is colour coding that is based on using colour tags
to classify victims into five triage categories:

 blue (patients who are severely injured and will die)


 red (patients who need immediate surgery or other life-saving action)
 yellow (patients who are stable but who will need hospital care)
 green (patients who will need to see a doctor, but not immediately)
 white (patients who only require first aid and home care).
During the COVID-19 pandemic most hospitals worldwide used external or outside triage to
avoid the spread of the infection among patients with other diseases.

1. What is triage?
2. When was it successfully used for the first time?
3. How many triage categories does colour code method include? What are they?
4. What method of triage was used during the COVID-19 pandemic?

2. There has been a terrorist bomb attack at a railway station, and you and your partner
are among the first at the scene. Use the colour code triage categories from the text above
and decide with your partner how to classify each victim.

1. Child, about 11 – no bleeding – dazed and 11. Young woman – no signs of injuries –
confused – doesn’t squeeze hand when asked vomiting and constant shaking and will not to
___________ stop crying – 30 breaths per minute
2. Pregnant women – can’t walk and talk – ___________
some bleeding from head ___________ 12. Middle-aged man – broken arm – large
3. Elderly man – very bloody leg – chest wound – unconscious – breathing
unconscious – no breathing – no pulse erratic ___________
___________ 13. Elderly woman – clear fluid running out
4. Teenage girl – no signs of bleeding – of nose – walking around but is confused and
coughing and clear fluid coming from ears angry ___________
___________ 14. Elderly woman – coughing up blood,
5. Man, mid-twenties – minor bleeding – severe pain in her chest and difficulty
conscious but not disorientated – slow breathing ___________
breathing rate ___________ 15. Middle-aged man – has lost leg – massive
bleeding – conscious and talking
___________

53
 
6. Woman, about 50 – walking around – says 16. Young man – bruises and some bleeding
she cannot hear anything – has pains in the on arms and legs – confused and complaining
chest ___________ of headache and ringing in the ears
7. Teenage boy – cuts on face – very pale – ___________
sitting on the ground and falling asleep
___________
8. Young woman – no pulse – no bleeding - no
response when you clear her airway
___________
9. Child, about four – clinging to his mother
who is not injured – pale, with moist skin –
rapid breathing and rapid pulse ___________
10. Young woman – skin has painful red
burned areas – has cuts on her leg but walking
___________

4.4 MORE EMERGENCY CASES

READING Births in unusual places

1. You are going to read three stories about births in unusual places. Look at the story
titles. Guess what they will be about.

2. Read the stories. Check your guesses in Ex. 1. Fill in the gaps with the words from the
boxes.

certificate waters due labour scales

 
Special delivery

Mother Sonia Marina Nascimento, 39, gave a new meaning to the term ”special delivery” when
she went into labour in her local post office in Wisbech, Cambridgeshire, in 2009.
“I was shopping and had stopped at the post office on the way, but in the queue my ______
broke. A woman from the post office brought me inside the staff room. I didn’t think I was
going to give birth there, as Dulce was ____ in nine days, but she started coming out fast. My
waters broke at 9.17am and she was born two minutes later. Then they weighed the baby on the
post office ________.
My daughter’s birth _______ says Norfolk Street Post Office and I still go to visit my daughter’s
godparents.”
 
due giving birth delivered

Sky high baby

Student Shona Owen is the only UK citizen whose passport reads: “Born on an aeroplane, ten
miles south of Mayfield, Sussex.”

54
 
Her mother, Deborah Owen, was travelling to Britain from Ghana in 1990 when she went into
labour. Her daughter was _________ in six weeks.
Wym Bakker, a Dutch doctor, who was travelling on the aircraft, ___________ the baby with
the assistance from the cabin crew. Deborah is very grateful to the BA crew and the doctor.
When Shona was born, the captain announced it, everyone clapped and champagne was sent
out.
To mark her unusual ____________, Miss Owen was given the names Shona Kirsty Yves —
spelling out the initials SKY.

paramedics contractions emergency services delivery

Book baby

The 18-year-old Dominique Tverino was on a bus on the way to a medical appointment when
her _________ started. A passenger realized she was in labour and told her to get off and wait
in the library while she called the __________. By the time the ___________ arrived, Baby
Sariah was already on her way.
‘I just can’t believe I had her at the library,’ Dominique said.
Staff from an American library who helped with the ___________, gave the new mum a bag
full of children’s books and two library cards — for mum and baby.

VOCABULARY Shock
1. Match the words with their Russian equivalents. 
1. vomiting a) частота дыхания
2. cause death b) недостаток кровоснабжения
3. diarrhoea c) тошнота
4. vital functions d) диарея
5. nausea e) становиться причиной смерти
6. diagnose f) жизненно важные функции
7. breathing rate g) диагностировать
8. a lack of blood supply h) рвота

2. Translate the sentences from Russian into English using the words from Ex.1.
Шок — это состояние, когда сердце не может доставлять достаточно крови к органам.
Шок может произойти по разным причинам, например, после дорожной аварии. Шок
может стать причиной смерти, если все жизненно важные функции замедлятся. Врачам
трудно диагностировать шок на ранней стадии и вылечить от него на более поздней
стадии развития. Существует несколько признаков и симптомов шока: слишком низкая
и высокая температура, нарушения работы сердечно-сосудистой системы, учащенное
дыхание, а также проблемы с желудочно-кишечным трактом, которые могут вызвать
боли в животе, тошноту, рвоту и диарею. 

55
 
UNIT 4 PROJECT Stroke

1. Work in pairs and discuss the questions.

1. Do you know what a stroke is?


2. Who is at risk for a stroke?
3. What are possible complications after stroke?
4. Is it possible to prevent stroke?
5. Do you know any signs of a stroke?
6.
2. Watch the video about stroke (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kr4syeWvaI8) and
tick the topics that are mentioned there.  

1. Signs of stroke;
2. Complications after stroke;
3. How to prevent stroke;
4. Stroke treatment;
5. After stroke therapy;
6. Post-stroke rehabilitation;
7. Risk groups.

56
 
3. Watch the video again and complete the poster.  

Know the Facts,


STROKE: Save a Life 
       
                                           FACTS
   
 A stroke happens when the blood supply to  Stroke is less common in people under
the brain is blocked or when a blood vessel 40 years, although it does happen. In
in the brain bursts. The loss of blood to the young people the most common causes
brain means a loss of oxygen and the brains are high blood pressure or sickle cell
cells become injured and die. disease.

 Globally, stroke is the second leading cause  Every year, 15 million people
of death above the age of 60 years, and the worldwide suffer a stroke. Nearly six
fifth leading cause of death in people aged million die and another five million are
15 to 59 years old. left permanently disabled.
       
RISK GROUPS:  
   age  
   (1) ________________  
   good (2)_________ _____________  
   untreated heart disease and artial fibrillation 
       

CONTROL YOUR RISK FACTORS


       
 Stop (3) ________________  Stay physically active
 Moderate alcohol consumption  Improve your (6) __________
 Control your (4)______ __________  Control your blood sugar levels if you
 Lower and manage your (5)________ have (7) ___________

THE SIGNS OF STROKE


       
     
B (8) ______________ Sudden loss of balance

E (9)______________ Sudden loss of vision in one or both eyes

F (10) _____________ Does the face look uneven?

A (11) _____________ Ask them to raise both arms.

S (12) _____________ Ask them to repeat a phrase.


Time is brain. Every second brain cells die
T (13)______________ during a stroke.
  

57
 
4. Work in small groups. Make a poster/a video/an animated cartoon motivating bystanders
to take immediate actions in case of a heart attack, a stroke or a sudden cardiac arrest.
Present your results to the group.

UNIT 4 REVISION

Vocabulary

1. Define the words:

 A&E department  a medical emergency  sudden cardiac arrest


 paramedic  shock  defibrillator
 colour coding  stroke

2.Describe the main functions of A&E department and the key responsibilities of a paramedic.

3. What do you understand by the phrase: Paramedics don’t think twice? Mention the personal
qualities that paramedics should have.

Grammar

4. Describe the first aid procedures in case of a sudden cardiac arrest.

Use of English

5. Complete the sentences with the correct particles.

1. Paramedics respond ____ emergencies. 2. Doctors of A&E Department need some special
qualities to deal ____ accidents and emergencies every day. 3. The emergency helpline nurse is
responsible ____ giving instructions on the phone. 4. Babies are sometimes allergic ___ eggs. 5.
When a patient arrives at A&E, the nurses fill ___ a triage form for the patient. 6. Have you set
____ an IV for the new patient? 7. Eight out of ten nurses say they are often _________ pressure
of time at work.

Speaking

Prepare for an interview with your teacher on Accidents and emergencies. Cover the following
points:

 what a medical emergency is


 A&E department
 first aid procedures
 sudden cardiac arrest
 the triage method
58
 
UNIT 4. WORDLIST

Study the list of useful words from Unit 4. Insert your translation after reading the
corresponding sentences.

adj = adjective conj = conjunction phr v = phrasal verb phr = phrase pron = pronoun
adv = adverb n = noun pl = plural prep = preposition v = verb
  

An adhesive tape may be useful for holding


adhesive tape (n) bandages.
Apply antibiotic ointment to avoid
antibiotic ointment (n)   contamination.
bandage(n)   A nurse covered the wound with a bandage.
call an ambulance (phr)    Call an ambulance in case of emergency.
cardiac arrest (n) If a patient has a cardiac arrest, a paramedic
  gives CPR.
cardiovascular system When a patient is in shock, he or she may
(n)   have problems with cardiovascular system.
central nervous system When the central nervous system is affected,
(n)   this can cause changes in personality.
circulation (n)    Check for signs of circulation.
confusion (n)    Confusion is caused by CNS problems.
cover with a blanket Cover a patient with a blanket to warm
(phr)    him/her up.
disposable gloves (n)    Nurses must always wear disposable gloves.
dosage (n)   What dosage shall I give her?
first aid kit (n) Keep a first aid kit in your home and in your
  car.
foreign body (n) Make sure there is no foreign body in the
    wound.
give a patient mouth-to- If a patient doesn’t breathe, give him/her
mouth (phr)    mouth-to-mouth.
Some women give birth to a child in unusual
give birth (phr)   places.
give first aid (phr) Paramedics give first aid and respond to
  emergencies.
give instructions (phr) A paramedic gave instructions to a nurse
  about CPR procedure.
immerse (v)    Don’t immerse severe burns in cold water.
immobilize (v)    Immobilize the injured part of the body.
injury (n)    Call an ambulance in case of severe injury.
life-saving procedures Paramedics administer life-saving
(phr)   procedures.
main artery (n)   Squeeze a main artery if necessary.
nausea (n) Problems with gastrointestinal tract can cause
    nausea and vomiting.
paramedic (n) I decided to become a paramedic when I was
  a boy.
59
 
pulse(n)   Check his pulse before giving CPR.
puncture the blister
(phr)   Puncture the blister with a sterile needle.
push down on the chest A paramedic is pushing on the chest fifteen
(phr) times to make the patient’s heart beat
    correctly.
remove burnt clothing Never remove burnt clothing as it can cause
(phr)    serious skin damage.
respiratory (adj) An abnormal increase in breathing rate can
    lead to respiratory distress or failure.
respond to emergencies Paramedics’ duty is responding to
(phr)    emergencies.
road accident (n) Do you know what to do when there is a road
    accident?
rubbing alcohol (n) Swab the place of injection with rubbing
    alcohol.
set up an IV (phr)   A paramedic set up an IV after giving CPR.
severe bleeding (phr)   Severe bleeding is an emergency condition.
swab with Iodine (phr)    Swab the place of injection with Iodine.
umbilical cord (n) Don’t cut the umbilical cord — just lay the
  baby on the mother’s chest.
In shock condition the intestines can stop
vomiting (n) working causing abdominal pain and
  vomiting.
wound (n)    Sterilize the wound if necessary.
   
 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

60
 
QUICK CHECK: UNITS 3 AND 4

GRAMMAR Past Simple or Past Continuous?

1. Open the brackets and put the verbs into the correct verb form.

My name is Sarah Johnson. I work as a triage nurse in an emergency department in Nashville.


There is rarely a slow day in A&E department, and yesterday was no exception.

When I came to work I ________ (1. see) a few patients waiting. I _________ (2. pick up) two
charts and immediately ________ (3. begin) examining them. My first patient _________ (4. be)
a 31-year-old male with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. My second one _________ (5. be) a 65-
year-old female with chest pain. The cases _________ (6. be) rather usual, so I _________ (7.
know) exactly what to do. I _________ (8. head back) to my desk and ________ (9. begin) putting
in orders a chest X-Ray, ECG, laboratory analyses and aspirin for the woman with chest pain IV-
drips and zofran for the patient with vomiting. I ________ (10. fill in) the patient records when the
next patient _________ (11. arrive). It was a 29-year-old male with shortness of breath. As I
_________ (12. enter) the room, I _________ (13. see) that the patient ________ (14. look)
terrible. His X-Ray ________ (15. show) that he ________ (16. have) extensive right-sided
pneumonia and developing pneumonia in the left lower lung. After questioning him further, I
___________ (17. find out) he was an IV drug user. A CT scan of his chest ________ (19. show)
that he had septic emboli. It was an unusual case to say the least.

Yesterday I _________ (20. finish) my work at 6p.m: I had seen 18 patients and had admitted 4
patients to the hospital. It was a pretty typical day. I love my work because it is interesting,
challenging and fun. I work hard, but I enjoy my flexible schedule. 

GRAMMAR Instructions

2. Work in pairs. Give three instructions for each emergency case below:
 a sunburn  a cut
 a bruise  an insect sting.
 a frostbite

USE OF ENGLISH Word formation

3. Complete the sentences with the correct words formed from the verbs in bold.

1. Emergency ___________ are usually for conditions that require immediate medical attention
(admit). 2. In the waiting room triage nurse will meet you, make an initial ____________ your
problem (assess). 3. The doctor gave the woman oxytocin as her ____________ (contract)
weren’t strong enough to help labor progress. 4. While waiting for the paramedics we continued
watching the injured man to ensure he doesn’t stop breathing as he was ____________
(conscious). 4. To manage severe external ____________ (blood) apply tourniquet above the
wounded area. 5. Fortunately for modern travelers, modern airlines are required to carry
____________ (defibrillate) onboard and train flight attendants to use them. ____________
(dispose) gloves are one of the best sources of infection control especially when handling patients
61
 
with heavy bleeding. Today paramedics are able to write a ____________ (prescribe) to their
patients immediately without the need for the patient to see a GP.

VOCABULARY Crossword

4. Work in pairs. Complete the crossword sentences with words or phrases from Units 3-4.

Clues:
1. Make sure there is no 1 E
_________ body in the wound. 2 M
2.  Don’t cut the ___________ 3 E
cord — just lay the baby on the
4 R
mother’s chest.
3. An __________ tape may be 5 G
useful for holding bandages. 6 E
4. After an initial assessment a 7 N
triage nurse will decide who is a 8 C
_____________.
9 Y
5.  If a patient is ________ to some
medication, it should be written
down in his/her patient record. 10 D
6. If a patient has a cardiac 11 E
________, a paramedic gives CPR. 12 P
7. A triage nurse makes an
13 A
________ assessment of the
patient. 14 R
8. __________ the blister with a 15 T
sterile needle. 16 M
9. Squeeze a main _______ if 17 E
necessary.
18 N
10.  Sterilize the _______ if
necessary. 19 T

11. When there is a free ________ a doctor will see the patient.
12. ________ antibiotic ointment to avoid contamination.
13. ______ the place of injection with Iodine.
14. Don’t __________ severe burns in cold water.
15. Bad doctors’ handwriting can cause __________ errors.
16. A ______ is an arm or leg of a person.
17. Nurses must always wear disposable _________.
18. An ___________ assessment will help to determine a priority.
19. A doctor decides on the ______________.
 

VOCABULARY Word combinations

5. Make up word combinations.


 

62
 
1. waiting a) arrest 1. antibiotic a) system
2. marital b) relative 2. rubbing b) body
3. adhesive c) details 3. respiratory c) bleeding
4. closest d) cord 4. main d) alcohol
5. umbilical e) tape 5. severe e) artery
6. cardiac f) status 6. foreign f) ointment
7. personal g) room 7. initial g) assessment
     

SPEAKING

6. Work in groups. Prepare a conversation on one the topics below.

 the triage nurse and the patient (Imagine that one of you is the triage nurse and the other is
the patient. The triage asks the patient questions to fill in the patient record form)
 the hospital receptionist and the journalist (The journalist interviews the hospital
receptionist in order to write an article for MedLife journal)
 the flying doctor and the junior student (The junior student is interested in becoming a
flying doctor. He/she asks the flying doctor about his job and responsibilities).

7. Work in groups. Answer the questions.


1. What are the two ways of a patient’s admission to a hospital?
2. What is written in a patient record?
3. What is an outpatient? What is a day patient? What is an inpatient?
4. Why are medical records so important?
5. What kind of information goes on a hospital registration form?
6. Where do patients sit while they wait for treatment? Which patients are seen first?
7. What is A&E department? What are the patients of A&E?
8. What cases are considered as emergencies?
9. What is a triage?
10. Why is working in A&E very stressful?
11. How should you treat a patient with severe bleeding?
12. What is CPR?
13. What does a first aid kit contain?
14. Who is always first at the scene and why?
15. Why are people usually grateful to paramedics?

63
 
UNIT 5. PAIN
LEAD-IN
Brainstorm as many words possible to pain. Then answer the questions below.

PAIN

1. What types of pain can you name?


2. What do you do when you have a headache (toothache, stomachache, earache)?

5.1 WHAT IS PAIN?

READING AND SPEAKING The mechanism of pain

1. Read the passage. Complete it with the words from the box.

spinal cord defences intensity brain nerve endings


religious beliefs last a lifetime drugs avoid survive

Pain is a vital part of our body’s __________ (1) and without it we couldn’t _________. It warns
us what things are dangerous and helps us ______ (2) damage to the body. Pain happens when
_____ ________ (3) in our skin and internal organs send messages through the central nervous
system to our ___________ (4). The brain itself cannot feel pain.
Over the centuries people made attempts to understand and describe the nature of pain. For
example, in the ancient times the explanation of pain was connected with _____________ (5): it
was a form of punishment, made on humans by gods or demons.  One of the first scientific pain
theories was bravely introduced by the French philosopher Renee Descartes (1596-1650). He
declared that pain could be a result of physical injury or psychological injury. Many scientists
continued to do research long after Descartes proposal. Among them we can name Johannes
Muller, Maximillian von Frey, John Paul Nafe and others. In 1965, Patrick David Wall (1925–
2001) and Ronald Melzack announced the first theory that viewed pain through a mind-body
perspective. Their theory, known as the Gate Control Theory, states that after an injury pain signals
are transmitted to the ________ (6) and then up to the brain.
Pain can be of various types and it may be classified basing on its location, duration, _________
(7) and quality.
Acute pain lasts a short time and is removed when the cause is cured. Chronic pain ______ __
________ (8) and cannot usually be treated. It must be managed using __________ (9) or other
methods.
2. Go online and find the way:
 People considered pain in Ancient China;
64
 
 Hippocrates wrote about pain.
Present your findings to the group.

VOCABULARY Types of pain

1. Study the types of pain in the box. Classify them basing on their location, duration,
intensity and quality.
severe mild earache moderate slight acute unbearable
burning dull stabbing throbbing constant backache shooting
sharp gnawing toothache cramping agonizing chronic headache

CLASSIFICATION OF PAIN

LOCATION DURATION INTENSITY QUALITY

2. Say what types of pain are typical for the conditions below.
 neuralgia  arthritis pain  gallstones
 broken bones  appendicitis  labor and childbirth
 low back pain  toothache

3. Underline the correct options in bold.


1. The pain in my foot is constant/occasional. It comes and goes throughout the day. 2. A
shooting/ chronic pain starts and ends very quickly. 3. The patient moaned because the pain was
absolutely moderate/unbearable. 4. I still have a headache. It’s like a drum, a real
throbbing/burning pain. 5. The patient complained of a sharp stabbing/dull pain in his chest felt
like a needle or a knife piercing the skin. 6. There’s a burning/shooting pain in my lower back. It
feels like it’s on fire. 7. The woman is suffering from a cramping/gnawing abdominal pain. She
feels like something is contracting and squeezing the insides of her body. 8. I have a
gnawing/crushing pain. The pain is literally felt like 10,000 elephants are sitting on my chest. 9.
The pain in her stomach was occasional/constant. It hurt from morning to night. 10. I can
sometimes feel a dull/stabbing pain, like an electric shock.
 
4. Unscramble and complete the sentences using the word order: 1) intensity, 2) quality, 3)
location, 4) duration.
1. aching/ in his back/ for three weeks/ dull/ pain
65
 
The patient has a dull, aching pain in his back that has lasted for three weeks.
2. in his chest/ yesterday/ stabbing/ intense/ pain
3. gnawing/ for days/ headache/ throbbing
4. in his fingers/ mild/ for two months/ cramp
5. earache/ unbearable/ throbbing/ for three days

5. Translate the sentences from Russian into English.


1. Как вы думаете, какие части тела наиболее чувствительны к боли? 2. Она проснулась из-
за колющей боли в груди. 2. Эта схваткообразная боль в спине мучает меня уже в течение
месяца. 3. Боль отдаёт в левую руку. 4. Пульсирующая боль является одним из наиболее
распространенных (common) симптомов мигрени (migraine). 5. Пациентам, которые
испытывают боль, врач выписывает обезболивающие препараты для её купирования. 6.
Пациент жаловался на непереносимую боль в правом боку. 7. Ноющая боль в области
желудка может быть одним из симптомов гастрита. 8. У меня сильная боль в запястье, и она
усиливается. 9. Самая распространенная причина жжения в области живота —
неинфекционный гастроэнтерит (noninfectious gastroenteritis). 10. Он почувствовал
внезапную резкую боль в руке, но она быстро прошла. 11. Существуют два вида боли:
острая и хроническая. 12. Чувствительность к боли зависит от индивидуальных
особенностей человека. 13. Боль в висках приходит периодически, а затем отступает.

5.2 DESCRIBING PAIN

GRAMMAR Making comparisons


 
1. Open the brackets and put the adjectives into the correct forms.
1. After taking strong painkillers, my headache is much __________________unbearable. (little)
2. Aspirin is ____________________ than Nurofen. (effective) 3. What can I do to make you
feel____________? (well) 4. Before surgery the patient was _______________ (weak) and felt
_________ (bad) than now. 5. Now people are much ________ (resistant) to penicillin than 50
years ago. 6. Can you describe when ____________________ (sharp) pain of all after the accident
was? 7. An IV is ______________________ (fast) way to administer pain relief. 8. The
______________ (bad) pain many women experience is in labour. 9. Your lips are
__________________ (sensitive) than your forehead. 10. I’m sure I have a stomach ulcer, this is
_________ (gnawing) pain I’ve ever felt. 11. The new study claims that meditation is __________
(strong) than drugs for pain relief. 12. Pain is ____________ (common) of all symptoms. 

2. Study the information about pain tolerance and pain threshold.


Your pain tolerance (терпимость к боли) refers to the maximum amount of pain you can handle.
This is different from your pain threshold (болевой порог). Your pain threshold is the minimum
point at which something, such as pressure or heat, causes you pain. The sensitivity and tolerance
people show towards pain varies predictably basing on several factors, including gender, ethnicity,
personality and culture.

66
 
Go online and find the facts about differences in the pain tolerance and the pain threshold
in various cultural and social groups (e.g. men vs women, Asians, Europeans and Afro-
Americans, and etc.). Present your results to the group. Use comparatives.

SPEAKING Questions to assess pain

1. Add question words to form pain assessment questions.


 
1. ________ does it hurt? 5. _______ make the pain feel better?
2. ________ does the pain last? 6. _______ kind of pain is it?
3. ________ do you have pain? 7. _______ did it start?
4. ________ does it hurt?  8. _______ makes it worse? 

2. Complete the table. Use SOCRATES in the history of the present complaints to help
you remember the main questions you need to ask about pain.

Site Onset Character Radiation Associations Timing


Exacerbating and alleviating factors Severity 
 

Feature Typical question


   
What makes it worse?
  Does anything make the pain feel better?
Does it go anywhere else?
  Does it stay in one place or move around? 
How much pain do you have? How much does it hurt?
  How bad is the pain? What would you rate your pain out of 10?
Does it hurt all the time? When does it stop?
  How long does it last? How often do you get the pain? 
When did your pain start? When did it start hurting?
   
Do you feel anything else wrong when it's there?
  Have you any other problems related to the pain? 
Where do you have pain? Where does it hurt?
  Show me where it hurts.
Can you describe the pain? What kind of pain is it?
   
 
3. Complete the conversations using the information from the cases.   
 
CASE A Nurse: Where do you have pain?
Kate: I have pain in my _______________.
Kate is 17-year old girl. She touched a hot
Nurse: How much pain do you have?
stove and burned her right hand. Kate has mild
pain in her right hand. She rates her pain 3 out Kate: I have ____________________ pain.
of 10. The pain is occasional and itchy. 30
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minutes later, Kate goes to the clinic for Nurse: What would you rate your pain out of
medical help. A nurse sees Kate and asks her 10?
some questions. How would Kate answer the Kate: I would rate my pain ______ out of 10.
nurse’s questions? Nurse: When did your pain start?
Kate: My pain started ______________ ago.
Nurse: Is your pain constant or intermittent?
Kate: My pain is______________________.
CASE B Nurse: _______________________?
Bob: I have pain in my chest.
Bob is a 46-year old man. For the first time, he
Nurse: ______________________?
is having moderate pain in his chest and he
feels it moving down his arm. He rates his pain Bob: It moves down my arm.
5 out of 10. The pain is constant and has a Nurse: ______________________?
tingling feeling. 10 minutes later Bob’s son Bob: I have a moderate pain.
drives Bob to St. Patrick’s Hospital Nurse: ______________________?
Emergency for medical help. A nurse sees Bob Bob: I would rate my pain 5 out of 10.
and asks questions. How would the nurse ask Nurse: ______________________?
him some questions?
Bob: My pain started 10 minutes ago.
Nurse: ___________________________?
Bob: My pain is constant.

4. Translate the conversation from Russian into English.


In a GP’s surgery

GP: Mrs. Andrews, isn’t it? Good morning, I’m Dr. Adams. I am your GP.
_______________________________________________________?
(Что с Вами случилось?)
Mrs. Andrews: Nothing really. As usual I was working in my office when I suddenly felt
_________________________ in my stomach. It ________________ that's why I decided
(сильную боль) (усиливалась),
not to wait and see a doctor immediately.
GP: ______________________________________________________________________?
(Где конкретно Вы чувствуете боль?)
Mrs. Andrews: Right here._____________________________________________________.
(C правой стороны внизу).
GP: I see. _____________________________________________________________?
(Не могли бы Вы описать характер боли?)
Is it ________________ or ________________________?
(колющая) (cваткообразная)
Mrs. Andrews: I’m not sure, but I think it is ______________________ (пульсирующая).
GP: Uhu-h. And ____________________________________________________?
(Боль сосредоточена на одном месте?)
Mrs. Andrews: No, ________________________________________________________.
(Она переходит в низ живота и в область таза).
GP: I see. Let me palpate your abdomen. ___________________________________________?
(Боль усиливается, когда я нажимаю вот здесь?)
Mrs. Andrews: Да. ___________________________________________________.
(Становится гораздо больнее)
GP: ________________________________________________________________________?
(Не могли бы Вы оценить интенсивность боли по шкале от 1 до 10?)

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Mrs. Andrews: Hmmm...I would say it’s 6, but when you push on the right side it’s all 9.
GP: OK. I see.
__________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________?
(Наблюдаете ли Вы какие-либо сопутствующие симптомы, такие как рвота, диарея,
озноб, повышенная температура?)
Mrs. Andrews: Yes, at first
______________________________________________________
(был легкий озноб, и температура поднялась до 38).
I took some painkillers and _________________________________________.
(мне стало немного лучше).
GP: I see. And __________________________________________________?
(Усиливается ли боль при ходьбе?)
Mrs. Andrews: Yes. I can barely walk. ___________________________________.
(Болит невыносимо сильно)
GP: It seems that you have appendicitis. We should take some test to make the right diagnosis.

5. Work with your partner. Roleplay a conversation in a GP’s surgery.

5.3. PAIN RELIEF


VOCABULARY Traditional and Alternative Ways of Pain Relief

1. Match the words with their Russian equivalents.


1. epidural a) рожать
2. gas and air b) обезболивание
3. give birth c) закись азота («веселящий газ»)
4. wear off d) исчезать, выветриваться (об эффекте)
5. go numb e) эпидуральная анестезия
6. take away the pain completely f) справляться с болью
7. pain relief g) полностью блокировать боль
8. bear the pain h) переносить боль
9. lose sensations i) потерять чувствительность
10. cope with the pain j) онеметь
11. feel light-headed k) чувствовать головокружение

2. Translate the sentences from Russian into English.

1. Во время родов врач может назначить анестезию для облегчения боли. 2. Выбор
анестезии зависит от множества факторов, в том числе от интенсивности боли. 3. Анестезия
обычно полностью блокирует всю чувствительность. 4. Эпидуральная анестезия очень
популярна в настоящее время, поскольку онеметь может только нижняя часть тела, но
пациентка остается в сознании. 5. В настоящее время при родах врачи также часто
используют закись азота, которая помогает справляться с болью. 6. Тем не менее
обезболивающий эффект от закиси азота быстро выветривается. 7. Одним из побочных
эффектов применения закиси азота может быть тошнота и головокружение. 8. Многие

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пациентки по-разному переносят боль, некоторые не хотят терять все ощущения и могут
использовать только дыхательные упражнения. 

3. Match the types of pain relief (1-8) to the definitions (a-h).


 
1. aromatherapy a. use of fine needles to relieve pain
b. a pad used for warming parts of the body in order to manage
2. ice pack pain
3. yoga c. use of fragrant oils for well-being
d. a bag full of ice which is used to cool parts of the body when
4. hypnosis they are injured or painful.
5. acupuncture e. a system of exercises for mental and physical health
f. the practice of focusing your mind in silence, especially for
6. meditation making your mind calm or in order to relieve pain.
g. the therapist manipulates the bones in the spine to help treat
7. chiropractic treatment pain
h. the therapist talks to the patient when he or she is “asleep” to
8. heat pack influence their feelings about pain.

4. Match the pictures to the types of pain relief from Ex. 1.

A. B. C. D.

E. F. G. H.

5. Fill in the gaps with the words from Ex.1 and 2.

1. Peppermint is used in _________________ to stimulate the senses, help digestion, and clear
congestion. 2. __________ has been used for centuries for pain control, including during the Civil
War when Army surgeons hypnotized injured soldiers before amputations. 3. There is no doubt
that applying a _________ to an aching body part provides almost instant relief from pain and
stiffness. 4. Among people looking for back pain relief alternatives, most choose
________________. 5. ______________ is a Chinese therapy that has been used for centuries. 6.
A few years ago I didn’t believe in __________. I thought it to be something directly related to
religion or esoteric tradition, and it would be very difficult for me. 7. ______________ is effective
at reducing pain and swelling because the cold constricts blood vessels and decreases circulation
to the area. 8. Many people think of ________ as just a good way to relieve stress and tension, but
it can also help you reduce back pain and maintain a healthy spine.

6. Go online and find more information about alternative ways of pain relief:
 
 hypnoses
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 acupuncture
 massage
 electronic stimulation of nerves
 breathing exercises 
 
Present your findings to the group.
 

5.4 PHANTOM LIMB PAIN

READING AND SPEAKING Phantom limb pain

1. Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.

1. What is a phantom limb pain? What may cause this pain?


2. Do you think this phenomenon can be a psychological problem?
3. Do you know any methods to treat phantom limb pain?

2. Read the article about phantom pain and check your ideas in Ex. 1.

After a person has had an arm or leg amputated, they may still experience various sensations in
their missing limb, such as sharp or shooting pains, aches, cramping or burning pains.

What Causes Phantom Limb Pain?

Although the limb is no longer there, the nerve endings at the site of the amputation continue to
send pain signals to the brain that make the brain think the limb is still there.

What Are the Symptoms of Phantom Limb Pain?

In addition to pain in the phantom limb, some people experience other sensations such as tingling,
cramping, heat, and cold in the portion of the limb that was removed. Any sensation that the limb
could have experienced prior to the amputation may be experienced in the amputated phantom
limb.

How Is Phantom Limb Pain Treated?

There are many methods used to treat the condition. These include acupuncture, hypnosis,
various medications and mirror box therapy — using the reflection of the remaining limb in an
attempt to move the phantom limb into a comfortable position. Treatment is usually determined
based on the person's level of pain, and multiple treatments may be combined.

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3. Work in pairs. Complete the chart. Now tell each other about phantom pain using the
chart.

What is Its treatment:


Symptoms of
phantom limb Its causes:
phantom pain: ___________
pain? __________
___________ ___________
___________ __________
___________ ___________
___________

UNIT PROJECT The Bionic Girl

1. Study the information about rare diseases. Name some rare diseases that you know.

A rare disease is any disease that affects a small percentage of the population. In the US a rare
disease is defined as a disease that affects less than 200,000 people. However, there are some
diseases that affect just a handful of people.
Drug companies are very reluctant to spend money researching new drugs for rare diseases because
sales would be so low they would never get their investments back again.

2. You are going to watch a video about a girl who suffers from congenital analgesia.
Watch the video (https://cloud.mail.ru/public/UwRD/YpAPRC4HS) and complete the
summary of the story.

Olivia Farnsworth has a very rare medical condition. It is a


_____________________ called a chromosome six deletion that allows
her not to feel ________________, _____________ and tired.
When she was a baby she stopped ___________ at night. When she was
in the nursery school she injured her _________ badly. Only that time the
doctors realized that Olivia had a rare disease.Today doctors can’t treat
this genetic _____________ but they can prescribe her some medication
to help her body do normal things, e.g. they prescribe her
_________________ to get her to go to sleep.
Olivia’s mother has found a support group online that deals with different
types of ____________________ and mutations. This group is trying to
raise ______________ for chromosome problems. Nowadays about
15,000 people _____________ from different types of chromosome
disorders and only 100 people have the deletion of the sixth chromosome.

4. Study the information about rare diseases. Name some rare diseases that you know.

A rare disease is any disease that affects a small percentage of the population. In the US a rare
disease is defined as a disease that affects less than 200,000 people. However, there are some
diseases that affect just a handful of people.
Drug companies are very reluctant to spend money researching new drugs for rare diseases because
sales would be so low they would never get their investments back again.

5. Work in groups. Research one of the following rare diseases:

 Jumping Frenchmen of Maine  Sudden Infant Death Syndrome


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 Jamaican Vomiting Sickness  Q fever

You will need to find information on:

 cause  typical age (age, gender, occupation,


 symptoms relevant social background)
 physical signs  investigations
 treatment
 prognosis

6. Make a presentation on the chosen rare disease. Present your findings to the group.
 
 
UNIT 5 REVISION

Vocabulary

1. Define the words:

 acute pain  pain tolerance  hypnosis


 chronic pain  pain threshold  phantom limb pain
 epidural  acupuncture  congenital analgesia

2. Describe the mechanism of pain formation.

3. Describe the types of pain are typical for the conditions below.

 migraine  kidney stones  toothache


 labor and childbirth  appendicitis  neuralgia
 gastritis

Grammar

1. Study the chart. Write 7 sentences comparing the three painkillers. Use comparatives and
superlatives.

pain relief brand name generic name dose uses according problems
score (per pill) to label caused
1 Anacin Minor aches, pains aspirin allergy,
Bayer 325 mg cold, headache, asthma,
Aspirin
Bufferin muscle aches stomach bleeding
Ecotrin
Aches, pains, aspirin allergy,
Advil colds, toothache, asthma,
Ibuprofen
2.5 Motrin 200 mg muscle aches, upset stomach,
Nuprin backache, not for last
fever trimester

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Naproxen heart
risk,
Aleve Naproxen sodium Joint and muscle
3 220 mg upset stomach,
Naproxen pain
not for nursing
mothers

Use of English

1. Remember 5-6 questions that doctors typically ask to define the patients’ pain.

2. Complete the sentences with the correct particles.

1.  A patient complained ___ feeling constantly fatigued. 2. Working as a doctor can be very
stressful. That’s why doctors need to know how to cope _____ stress. 3. There are a lot of
alternative treatments that can help to deal ____ chronic pain. 4. How long does it take for general
anesthesia to wear _____? 5. Globally, an estimated 350 million people of all ages suffer ______
depression. 6. People who have high-stress jobs may have an increased risk of stroke, according
___ a new analysis of previous research. 7. Health care workers are exposed ___ a number of
stressors, ranging from work overload to difficult and ill, helpless patients. 8. The common cold is
usually accompanied _____ a low-grade fever. 9. It is important to contact your doctor any time
you cough ____ blood. 10. Are you allergic ___ anything? 10. What part of the brain responds ___
pain? 11. Some patients may be reluctant ____ start a medication after reading about its possible
side effects. 12. Opioids don't take _____ pain completely.

Speaking

Prepare for an interview with your teacher on Pain. Cover the following points:

 the mechanism of pain


 types of pain
 acute and chronic pain
 traditional and alternative ways of pain relief
 phantom limb pain

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UNIT 5. WORDLIST  
Study the list of useful words from Unit 5. Insert your translation after reading the
corresponding sentences.

adj = adjective conj = conjunction phr v = phrasal verb phr = phrase pron = pronoun
adv = adverb n = noun pl = plural prep = preposition v = verb
  

acupuncture (n) Acupuncture is the use of fine needles to


  relieve pain.
acute (adj) Acute pain is short-term and can be removed
  when the cause is cured.
agonizing (adj)    Agonizing pain is very difficult to bear.
alleviating (adj) Exacerbating and alleviating factors are very
    important in evaluating pain.
analgesia (n) Where pain is continuous, analgesia needs to
  be prescribed on a regular basis.
aromatherapy (n) Aromatherapy is the use of fragrant oils for
  well-being.
available (adj) There are a lot of painkillers available
    without prescription.
avoid (v) Try to avoid strong painkillers when you can
    bear the pain.
bladder (n) Crystallized minerals can develop into
    bladder stones.
burning (adj) There’s a burning pain in my lower back. It
    feels like it’s on fire.
character (n) The character of pain depends, first of all, on
  its cause.
chiropractic treatment I decided to try chiropractic treatment to
(n)   relieve the pain in my back.
chronic (adj)    Chronic pain is very difficult to treat.
Some people claim that alternative treatment
claim (v)    doesn’t work.
People with colon cancer suffer from severe
colon (n)   pain.
Nowadays a lot of patients complain of
complain of (v)   chronic pain.
constant (adj) The pain is constant and a patient has a
    tingling feeling.
cope with pain (phr) There are a lot of alternative methods to cope
    with pain.
cramping (adj) The woman is suffering from a cramping
  abdominal pain.
crushing (adj) I have a crushing pain — it’s so severe that I
  can’t move my leg.
cure (v)    How can we cure the cause of pain?
damage (n) The ‘phantom limb’ pain is caused by
    damage to the remaining nerves.
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deal with pain (phr) There are a lot of different methods of
  dealing with pain.
defence (n)   Pain is a vital part of our body’s defences.
dull ache (n)   A dull ache is steady and not too painful.
  When the pain became unbearable, I had an
epidural (n)    epidural.
Exacerbating and alleviating factors are very
exacerbating (adj)    important in evaluating pain.
fracture (n) Both the fracture and any injuries to the body
    tissue near the fracture site can produce pain.
I’ve got frequent pain in my hand — it hardly
frequent (adj)    goes away.
Gallbladder pain is usually caused by
gallbladder (n)   gallstones.
I had gas and air when I gave a birth for my
gas and air (n)   first child.
A duodenal ulcer is accompanied by gnawing
gnawing (adj)    pain.
The pain of a heart attack is felt in the left
shoulder.
heart attack (n) Sudden cardiac arrest is the abrupt loss of
heart arrest (n)   heart function, breathing and consciousness.
A heat pack is an effective way to relieve
heat pack (n)   pain.
hurt (v)     How much does it hurt?
Hypnosis has been used for centuries for pain
hypnosis (n)    control.
Kidney stones may cause constant and severe
kidney (n)    pain.
One of the symptoms of acute liver failure
liver (n) may include pain in your upper right
  abdomen.
Regular smoking affects your airways and
lung (n)   lungs.
You can train your brain to manage the
manage (v) sensation and chronic pain with the help of
  meditation.
meditation (n) Some alternative doctors advise meditation
  as one of the best ways to cope with pain.
The pain began suddenly last night as mild
mild (adj)    but constant.
A patient is having moderate pain in his chest
moderate (adj)    and he feels it moving down his arm.
occasional (adj)   The pain is occasional – it comes and goes.
Early onset Parkinson's disease has a wide
onset (n)    range of symptoms.
ovary (n)   Ovary cysts can cause different types of pain.
Mr. Thomas receives an injection of
receive (v)   antihistamine every 4 hours.

76
 
There are a lot of natural pain relief options
reduce (v)   to reduce your pain.
referred (adj)   Internal injuries often cause referred pain.
relate (v) Medical conditions are often related to other
  diseases and conditions
relieve (v)   An epidural relieves pain during birth.
Regional anesthesia removes all feeling of
pain from parts of the body while you stay
remove (v)   conscious.
Some medications can change your sense of
sense (n)   smell.
severe (adj)   Some conditions can cause severe pain.
The severity of the injury will depend on the
severity (n)   extent of injury
shooting (adj)   What can cause shooting pain in the ear?
The site of pain during migraine attacks can
site (n)   differ.
slight (adj)   There is a slight pain in my lower abdomen.
The small intestine absorbs about 90% of the
small intestine (n)   nutrients from the food we eat.
A cramping pain feels like something is
squeeze (v)   squeezing your muscle.
The patient complained of a stabbing pain in
stabbing (adj)   his chest felt like a knife piercing the skin.
A heat pack provides almost instant relief
stiffness (n)   from pain and stiffness.
A little boy was admitted to hospital with
stomach (n)   constant pain in his stomach.
Some people who lost their limbs can suffer
suffer (v)   from ‘phantom limb’ pain.
The X-ray show that a fracture is much more
suppose (v)   severe than we supposed.
survive (v)   Without pain we couldn’t survive.
throbbing (adj)   Millie feels throbbing pain down her legs.
One of the important features for assessing
timing(n)   pain is timing.
Most cancer pain is caused by the tumour
tumour (n)   pressing on bones.
I’m sure I have a stomach ulcer — the pain is
ulcer (n)   unbearable.
The pain was so unbearable that I couldn’t
unbearable (adj)   cope with it without medications.
Unfortunately, the effect of gas and air wears
wear off (phr v)   off very quickly.
I decided to try yoga because it is one of the
best methods to keep mentally and physically
yoga (n)   fit.
 
 

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VIDEOTASKS

UNIT 1. WORKING IN GENERAL PRACTICE

Before you watch

1. Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.


1. Who do you think general practitioners treat?
2. What is their typical day like?
3. What personal qualities does a GP need?
4. What are advantages and disadvantages of working in general practice?
 
2. You are going to watch the video about Alison Martel, a family physician from Alberta,
Canada. Look at the screenshots below and tick the topics which you think she will be talking
about.

1. Why she became a family physician. 6. Work and life balance.


2. Her typical day. 7. Rotation.
3. Her education. 8. Career development.
4. Her family. 9. How she copes with stress.
5. Advantages and disadvantages of working as a
family physician. 10. The town where she lives.

While you watch

3. Watch the video (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vKUAFYVg8fc) and check your


ideas in Ex. 2.

4. Watch the video again. Answer the questions below.


1. What age group of patients does she look after?
2. How does she usually start her day?
3. Are the days always the same in her office?
4. Which two main components do her appointments include?
5. How often does she have a 24-hour rotate?
6. How does she try to keep her work-life balance?
7. What does she think are the great things in family medicine?

After you watch

5. Work in pairs. Student A is the medical student who doesn’t know what specialization to
choose. Student B is the family physician who needs to convince the medical student to
become a family physician. Look at the information on the cards below and spend a few
minutes preparing what you are going to say.

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STUDENT A: MEDICAL STUDENT

Think about the questions you are going to ask Student B. You need to find out about:
• why he/she decided to become a family physician
• what advantages and disadvantages of
• being a family physician are
• his/her typical day
• if he/she manages to keep work-life balance
• how often he/she has to rotate.

STUDENT B: FAMILY PHYSICIAN

Use the following prompts and invent the details yourself.


• why you decided to become a family physician
• what advantages and disadvantages of being a family physician are
• your typical day
• if you manage to keep work-life balance
• how often you have to rotate.

You are now ready to roleplay your conversation.

6. Imagine that now you work as a family physician. Write an email to your friend telling
him/her about your responsibilities, the hospital you work in, your patients, what problems
you have to face and if it is possible to keep work/life balance.

GLOSSARY

admit in — госпитализировать follow-up — контрольный приём


adolescence — подростковый возраст make a diagnosis — поставить диагноз
beeper — пейджер rotate — сменяться, чередоваться
do investigations — проводить treatment options — варианты лечения
обследование

UNIT 2. THE HISTORY OF THE STETHOSCOPE

Before you watch


 
1. Work in pairs. Discuss the questions.

1. What is the stethoscope used for? Which doctors usually use stethoscopes?
2. Do you know anything about how the stethoscope was invented? How did doctors listen to the
heartbeat before the stethoscope was invented?
3. Look at the photos below and say how different the early models of the stethoscope were.

79
 
 

While you watch

2.Watch the video about the invention of the stethoscope


(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dd2FuLBm3Qw)and complete the notes.

double
Before the invention newspaper
Doctors placed an ear against the patient's body. wooden tube

binaural
1816 ear
Renne Lenneck used a rolled-up ___________. model
Later he made a single _____________.

Today it is known as the monaural stethoscope.

1851
Arthur Leared introduced a _________ stethoscope.
Nathan Marsh presented the first commercially marketed ___________.

3. Watch the video again and choose the correct option.


1852
1. Renne Lenneck was from the USA/France/England.
Dr. George Camman produced the first recognised _______ stethoscope.
2. While examining a young married/obese/slim/pregnant woman Renne felt embarrassed to
listen to her heartbeat.
3. Arther Leared presented his invention at the conference/in the hospital/at the exhibition in
London.

After you watch

4. Work with your partner. Use the notes from Ex. 2 and tell the partner about the history
of the stethoscope.
 
5. Translate the passage from Russian into English.

Стетоскоп — это медицинский инструмент, который используется врачами для


прослушивания звуков, вызванных деятельностью внутренних органов организма человека.
До его изобретения врачи приставляли свое ухо прямо к груди пациента.
В 1816 году на прием к Рене Лэннек, молодому французскому доктору, пришла пожилая
женщина. Ему нужно было выслушать ее легкие. Так как пациентка страдала избыточным
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весом, доктору было сложно это сделать. Тут он вспомнил детскую игру, быстро свернул
лист бумаги в трубочку (rolled up a sheet of paper into a tube) и поместил ее конец на грудь
пациентки. Трубочка усилила (magnified) звук, и доктор смог легко прослушать ее легкие.
Вскоре бумажная трубочка была заменена на полую деревянную трубку. А это изобретение
было названо стетоскопом.

GLOSSARY

obese patient – пациент с ожирением usable – практичный


binaural stethoscope – бинауральный
monaural stethoscope – монауральный стетоскоп
стетоскоп
the Great Exhibition – Великая
выставка промышленных работ всех
народов (Лондон, 1851)

UNIT 3. French Healthcare Vs American Healthcare

Before you watch

1. Work in groups. You’re going to watch a video about the French healthcare system compared
to the US system. Look at the photos and discuss the questions.

1. Which country is considered to have the best healthcare system in the world?
2. Do you know what the terms “Medicare”, “Obamacare” and “Social Security” stand for?
3. Which healthcare system is considered to be the most expensive in the world?

While you watch

2. Watch the video (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MHzUCToycks) and check your


answers in Ex.1.
3. Watch the video again. Decide if the statements here are True (T) or False (F).

1. Medicare was modelled after Canada’s healthcare system.


2. Infant mortality rates in the US excel mortality rates in France.
3. Hospital stay in the US is loner than is France.
4. French citizens pay more income tax than Americans.
5. American healthcare system is the most expensive in the world.
6. French healthcare budgets and guidelines are updated each year.
7. Only French citizens are covered by the health insurance system.
8. Carte Vitale is the insurance program.
81
 
9. Americans pay more out-of-the pocket when they require medical care.
10. Doctors’ salaries in France overcome salaries in America.

After you watch

Image than you’re a journalist exploring the healthcare systems abroad. Choose one
country and prepare a short presentation on its healthcare system.

GLOSSARY

single payer system – система единого primary care – первичная медико-


плательщика санитарная помощь
healthcare system – система preventative treatment – профилактическое
здравоохранения лечение
infant mortality – детская смертность reimburse costs – возмещать расходы
life expectancy – средняя malpractice insurance – страхование врачей
продолжительность жизни на случай судебного преследования
re-hospitalization – повторная
госпитализация

UNIT 4. CYCLE RESPONSE PARAMEDIC

Before you watch

1. Work in groups. You’re going to watch a video about cycle response paramedics at London
Heathrow Airport. Look at the photos and discuss the questions.

1. What is a cycle response paramedic responsible for?


2. What accidents and emergency cases can he/she deal with?
3. What equipment do you think they carry with them?
4. How many cycle response paramedics do you think there are at London Heathrow Airport?

While you watch

2. Watch the interview with Ben, one of the cycle response paramedics at London Heathrow
(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BHnimMZDj0A)and check your answers in Ex.1.

3. Watch the video again. Decide if the statements here are True (T) or False (F).

1. Cycle Response Paramedics carry most of the equipment in front of the bike.
2. There are 300 defibrillators around the airport.
3. Ben says that London Heathrow Airport is the safest place to have a toothache.
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4. They try to carry as little as possible on their bikes.
5. They have a set of blue lights, a siren and a cycle bell on their bikes.
6. Their working day is quite predictable.
7. Their patients are usually grateful to paramedics.
8. Ben is not a very humble person.

After you watch


4. Work in pairs. Student A is the cycle response paramedic at London Heathrow Airport.
Student B is the journalist who is preparing an article about unusual medical professions for
MedLife journal. Look at the information on the cards below and spend a few minutes
preparing what you are going to say.

STUDENT A: CYCLE RESPONSE PARAMEDIC

Use the following prompts and invent the details yourself:


• why you decided to become a paramedic;
• how long you have been working as a cycle response paramedic;
• what your typical day is like;
• what you find the most difficult in your work;
• some unusual situations you have faced during your work.
• ___________________________________________________
• ___________________________________________________
(additional answers)

STUDENT B: JOURNALIST

Think about the questions you are going to ask Student B. You need to find out about:
• why he decided to become a paramedic;
• how long he has been working as a cycle response paramedic;
• about his typical working day;
• what he finds the most difficult in his work;
• about unusual situations he has faced during his work.
• ________________________________________________
• ________________________________________________
(2 more questions)

You are now ready to roleplay your conversation.

5. A 1001 Nights in the ER is a book written by Baptiste Beaulieu. It tells a story of a 27 year-
old intern who becomes fond of a terminally ill female patient. Her only son can’t make it to
her bedside because of the volcanic ash from Iceland. The doctor decides to cheat death and
gain time. Like a Scheherazade, he tells her stories, funny and tragic, about life at the
hospital. Go to http://www.litmir.co/br/?b=238885 and read some chapters from the book.
Then write two or three patient summaries.

UNIT 5. THE OPIOID CRISIS

Before you watch

1. Work in groups. You are going to watch a video about the opioid crisis. Look at the photos
and discuss the questions.
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1. What is chronic pain? How is it treated?
2. What are opioids? What is the major medical application for opioids in medicine?
2. What is the problem with the opioid crisis? What is called an epidemic?
3. Should opioid prescriptions be suppressed? Is opioid addiction preventable?
3. Which methods can be used to combat the opioid crisis?

While you watch

2. Watch the video about the key aspects of the opioid crisis
(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nf9NspiAfBA ) and check your answers in Ex.1.

3. Watch the video again. Decide if the statements here are True (T) or False (F).

1. Canada, North America and Germany are the leaders of opioids consumptions.
2. In 2016 the statistics counted more than 46 deaths in America daily.
3. Opioids cause serotonin release.
4. In the mid-90s the opioid advertisement was abandoned.
5. Heroin is the cheaper alternative to opioid.
6. 76% of heroin seekers used to take opioids.
7. Synthetic opioids entered the market in 2013.
8. In 2016 the number of opioid deaths among British Columbians equaled to motor vehicle
accidents.
9. Opioids have specific taste and smell.
10. Fentanyl excels heroin at strength.
11. Prohibition on opioids prescription can be much more dangerous than their usage.
12. Overdose symptoms can be distinguished easily.

After you watch


4. Work in pairs. Student A is the journalist who is going to write an article about opioid
epidemic. Student B is the drug therapist. Look at the information below and spend a few
minutes preparing what you are going to say.

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GLOSSARY

prescription drugs – рецептурные препараты terminally ill – неизлечимо больной


compounds – композитный лекарственный legitimate use – законное использование
препарат contracting infectious disease – заражение
addition/dependence – зависимость инфекционным заболеванием
adverse effects – побочные эффекты illicit drugs – запрещенные наркотики
overdose death – смерть, вызванная sleepiness – сонливость
передозировкой cold clammy skin – стрессовое
brain reward areas – «центр удовольствия» потоотделение («холодный пот»)
головного мозга
trouble breathing – затрудненное дыхание

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EXTRA GRAMMAR PRACTICE

UNIT 1 Present Continuous or Present Simple?

1. Complete the conversation putting the verbs into the Present Continuous or Present
Simple. Then roleplay the conversation with your partner.

At the European nutrition conference

A: Do you mind if I join you?


B: No, not at all. Please, sit down.
A: How ___________ (you/enjoy) the conference?
B: Very much. The presentations are very interesting and it’s a great chance to network.
A: What ______________ (you/do), by the way?
B: I’m an immunologist. I ______ (work) in a children’s hospital in Barcelona. What ________
(you/do)?
A: I’m a nutritionist. I _________ (have) my own practice in Munich. Is this your first time in
Berlin?
B: Yes. And I ________ (like) this city a lot: it is so green and nice. ___________ (you/stay) at
the Estrel, too?
A: No, I _______ (stay) at my friend’s. He’s a doctor, too. By the way, he _________ (give) his
presentation on Food Nutrition and Immune Function after lunch.
B: __________ (your friend/specialize) in Immunology?
A: Yes, and he _______ (work) in the Institute of Immunology here in Berlin. They _________
(do) a lot of research there.
B: What time _______________ (his presentation/start)?
A: It ________ (start) at 2 p.m. Would you like to join me?
B: Oh, thank you. With great pleasure.
 

2. Write the questions to the words in italics.


1. He usually drives to work. __________________________________________

2. They are interested in Biology. _______________________________________

3. He’s writing a report now. __________________________________________

4. The meeting is at 5. _______________________________________________

5. She is responsible for running a ward. ________________________________

6. This week Sarah is working a day shift. _______________________________

7. They’re good at Organic Chemistry. __________________________________

8. I’m staying at the Radisson Ottawa Parliament Hill. ______________________

9. They are preparing for the operation now. _______________________________

10. Tom and Alice enjoy cycling in their spare time. _________________________

3. Translate the sentences from Russian into English.


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1. Доктор Браун сейчас занят: он проводит операцию. 2. Почему ты ищешь новую работу
сейчас? 3. Педиатры лечат детей. 4. В этом году я занимаюсь исследованием по
эндокринологии. 5. В свое свободное время я люблю кататься на велосипеде и заниматься
плаванием. 6. Медсестра готовит сейчас инструменты для следующей операции. 7. На этой
неделе я работаю в ночную смену. 8. Я учусь в медицинском университете и по
совместительству работаю медсестрой. 9. Я сейчас измеряю давление. 10. Я не прописываю
антибиотики, если пациент простудился. 11. На этой неделе я принимаю участие в мастер-
класс по лапароскопии.

UNIT 2 Prepositions of place and time

1. Choose the correct options in bold.

A. 1. The Dermatology Department is between/at/in the Neurology Department at/and/in


Geriatrics.
2. Room 246 is at/in/on the eighth floor, just on/in/in front of the lift.
3. You can find the Renal Unit at/in/on the first floor, opposite/at/over Pediatrics.
4. Your wife is at/in/on the Maternity Unit at/in/on the end of the corridor.
5. The Geriatrics Department is next to/between/in the Dermatology Department at/in/on the
second floor.
6. I think that Mrs Nguyan is sitting over there, between/in front of/under the vending machine.

B.
V: Excuse me, I’m looking for the canteen. Can you help me?
N: Yes, of course. Go straight on/between/past and it’s in front of/under/on the left you at the
end/in the end of the corridor.
V: And do you know where the Maternity Unit is?
N: It’s on/at/in the second floor. Turn left/to the left/on the left here, go along/straight on/past
and when you get to the information desk turn to the right/right/on the right.

2. Translate the phrases from Russian into English.

Part A. 1. На первом этаже есть аптека. 2. Между отделениями неврологии и гериатрии есть
лифт. 3. Слева от здания есть большая парковка. 4. Под лестницей находятся два туалета. 5.
Рядом с лифтом находится отделение физиотерапии.
6. Напротив педиатрического отделения находится игровая комната. 7. В конце коридора
есть лаборатория. 8. На нашем отделении есть 10 одноместных и 5 двуместных палат (one-
bed/two-bed wards). 9. В отделении лучевой диагностики есть магнитно-резонансный
томограф, рентгеновский аппарат и несколько аппаратов УЗИ.

Part B. 1. Идите по этому коридору, затем поверните налево. 2. Подниметесь на лифте на


второй этаж. 3. Не могли бы Вы отнести карты пациентов обратно в регистратуру. 4.
Пройдите мимо кафе, и Вы увидите аптеку. 5. Присядьте в комнате ожидания, доктор к Вам
спустится. 6. Если Вы едете в нашу больницу на машине, то сначала поезжайте по Главной
улице, затем поверните направо на втором повороте. 7. Пройдите через турникет,
регистратура будет прямо перед Вами.
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UNIT 3 Past Simple or Past Continuous?

1.1 Complete the patients’ stories with the Past Simple form of the verb in (brackets).

A. I 1. ______ (work out) every day. I 2. ______ (not stop). My body couldn’t take it any more. I
3. ______ (be) too tired. My doctor 4. ______ (prescribe) me some vitamin supplements and 5.
______ (recommend) to make a break. Now I know “Moderation in all things”.

B. I 6. ______ (be) awake for hours every night. I 7. ______ (feel) very, very tired. But my body
8. ______ (keep) going. Test results 9. ______ (reveal) too high adrenalin level.

C. I 10. ______ (not understand). I 11. ______ (be) hungry all the time and I 12. ______ (eat) too
much. Then I 13. ______ (put) on a lot of weight and 14. ______ (start) to vomit up food.

D. I 15. ______ (have) a great training program but it really 16. ______ (not fit in) with my day:
university, work, family...A few months ago I 17. ______ (get) ill. I couldn’t go to the uni, to work
or to the gym. I 18. ______ (need) to find a good balance.

1.2. Match the problems with the situations described in Exercise 1.1.

a) bulimia b) lack of rest c) burnout d) insomnia

2. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb in brackets.

1. My son ________ (play) soccer in the park with his dad and he ________ (fall over) and
________ (pull) a muscle in his leg. 2. My wife ________ (cough) all night so I ________ (phone)
the medical helpline. They ________ (tell) me to make an appointment with her GP. 3. Kira
________ (run) a high temperature when the ambulance services ________ (bring) her in. 4. My
headaches ________ (not/stop) immediately. The tablets I ________ (take) ________ (not/be)
strong enough. 5. The patient ________ (present) to ER at 11 pm. He ________ (suffer) from
serious vomiting. 6. Can you tell me what you ________ (do) when your asthma attack ________
(start)? 7. My father ________ (have) difficulties walking and he ________ (trip) and ________
(fall) in the street. 8. I ________ (not think) and I ________ (give) him the wrong dose of aspirin.
He’s only three. What should I do? I’m really worried.

3. Translate the sentences from Russian into English.

1. Когда пациент поступил в больницу, медсестра произвела его первичный осмотр.


2. В то время как пациент ожидал в приемном покое, медсестра заполняла его медицинскую
карту. 3. Врачи скорой помощи в срочном порядке доставили пациента в больницу. 4. При
сборе анамнеза врач задал пациенту вопросы, которые помогли поставить диагноз и
назначить лечение. 5. Вчера вечером моего папу укусила змея, когда мы гуляли по лесу. 6.
Скорая помощь увезла пожилого пациента в больницу с подозрением на сотрясение мозга.
7. У пациента имелись случаи заболевания диабетом в семье. 8. Мой дядя принимал
таблетки от бессонницы в течение нескольких месяцев. Это помогло ему нормализовать
сон. 9. Когда я бегал по парку, я подвернул лодыжку. Я сразу же вызвал скорую, так как не

88
 
мог передвигаться самостоятельно. 10. Девочка переходила дорогу, когда ее чуть не сбил
автомобиль.

UNIT 4 Instructions

1. Fill the recommendations for the lower back pain relief with the right verbs from the box.

apply take not/overuse rest use buy not/stay return visit

1. ______ in a comfortable position for the first 1-2 days. ______ a quick ice pack (10-20 minutes)
every 2-3 hours.
2. Take painkillers such as paracetamol, or an anti-inflammatory such as Ibuprofen. But ______.
3. ______ a hot-water bottle for 15-20 minutes, every 2-3 hours or ______ heat patches that last
maximum of eight hours.
4. But if the pain becomes stronger, ______ a doctor.
5. When the pain’s gone______ to normal activities as soon as possible. ______ in bed for more
than 1-2 days, as your muscles become weak and this worsens the problem. ______ doing
exercises. The best one for the lower back is walking, beginning with 5-10 minutes a day

2. Translate the sentences from Russian into English.

1. Удостоверьтесь в том, что пациент дышит. 2. Не забудьте надеть перчатки. 3. Убедитесь,


что в ране нет инородных тел. 4. Что мне следует делать сейчас? 5. Мне наложить лед? 6.
Убедитесь, что пациент чувствует себя комфортно. 7. Измерьте пульс. 8. Как часто мне
нужно будет принимать это лекарство? 9. Мне вызвать скорую? 10. Закатайте, пожалуйста,
рукав и протяните мне свою руку. 11. Не принимайте сильнодействующих препаратов без
назначения врача.

3. Translate the leaflet from Russian into English.


 

ИНСУЛЬТ: ФАКТЫ, СИМПТОМЫ,


РИСКИ, ПРОФИЛАКТИКА
 

Согласно Всемирной организации


здравоохранения (the World Health Инсульт — это заболевание, при котором
Organization), ежегодно 15 миллионов часть головного мозга не получает
человек переносят инсульт (suffer from достаточное количество крови. В
stroke). Почти 6 миллионов человек результате этого клетки головного мозга
умирают, а 5 миллионов становятся (brain cells) умирают, что может привезти
инвалидами (become disable). к потере речи, памяти и параличу.
Четыре простых шага к распознанию инсульта:

1. Попросите человека улыбнуться (он это не сможет сделать).

2. Попросите его/ее сказать простое предложение (напр. «Сегодня хорошая погода»).

89
 
3. Попросите поднять (raise) обе руки (он не сможет или только частично сможет поднять
их).

4. Если Вы определили какой-то из этих симптомов, немедленно вызывайте скорую!


Меры по профилактике инсульта:

1. Проверяйте свое давление. Высокое давление — это основная причина инсульта.

2. Не игнорируйте такие проблемы, как высокий уровень холестерина в крови и диабет.

3. Занимайтесь физическими упражнениями, ведите активный образ жизни.

4. Старайтесь питаться сбалансированно. 


 

UNIT 5 Comparisons

1. Complete the patient’s descriptions of pain with the right form of the adjective.

A. It always begins with a pain on the left side of my head, which gets _______ (strong) and then
I start to feel nauseous. I have to take painkillers and lie down in a darkened room. I start to feel
_______ (good) after about an hour or so. For me _______ (bad) case ever lasted for seventy-
two hours. On a scale of nought to ten, it’s ten. It’s _______ (severe) pain I know.

B. I get this pain all around my forehead and behind my cheekbones. The problem is _______
(serious) when I have a cold, so it’s _______ (bad) in winter than in summer, but _______ (awful)
case was last year when I was pregnant. I find _______ (good) treatment is a nasal spray, but I
also feel _______ (good) if I use a warm face pack.

2. Translate the sentences from Russian into English.

1. Рентгеновский снимок показывает, что перелом намного серьезнее, чем мы предполагали


(suppose). 2. Пациент чувствует себя гораздо лучше, чем до операции. 3. Современные
антигистаминные препараты имеют наименьшее количество побочных эффектов. 4. Боль в
желудке становится сильнее, когда пациент начинает двигаться. 5. Это самое сильное
болеутоляющее, которое можно приобрести в аптеке без рецепта (over the counter). 6.
Большинство пациентов с хроническими болями в спине используют альтернативные
методы лечения. 7. Пациенты испытывают хроническую боль намного дольше, чем острую.
8. Во время родов эпидуральная анестезия намного эффективнее, чем местная. 9. Боль
является важнейшей реакцией для защиты организма. 10. В какое время суток боль в животе
усиливается? 11. Большинству людей с болью в спине не нужны сильные болеутоляющие
препараты.  

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APPENDIX
1. Label the diagram using the words from the box.

shin ankle calf jaw (mandible) neck armpit (axilla) upper arm
Adam’s apple loin forearm shoulder leg palm thumb
finger thigh ear cheek wrist foot toe hair
forehead sole chin hand chest nipple breast
stomach (abdomen) navel (umbilicus) hip groin (inguinal region) genitals
elbow knee big toe buttock nose heel 

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2. In this table there are 37 words for parts of the body and six categories. Decide which
category or categories each part belongs to. The first one has been done for you as an
example.
arm hand leg foot torso head
abdomen +
ankle
buttock
calf
chest
chin
ear
elbow
eye
eyebrow
eyelash
eyelid
finger
forearm
forehead
gum
hip
knee
knuckle
lip
nail
navel
neck
nipple
nose
palm
rib
scalp
shoulder
sole
temple
thigh
thumb
toe
tongue
tooth
wrist

3. Match the words (1-7) with their definitions (A-G).


Part 1
1. hip a. the part of the forearm that attaches to the hand
2. finger b. the long extension from the upper body between the shoulder and wrist
3. elbow c. the part of the upper leg that projects slightly outward
4. arm d. the long extension from the lower body between the hip and foot
5. wrist e. one of the extensions from the hand
6. leg f. the joint between the upper and lower arm
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Part 2
1. lips a. the organs that detect sound
2. face b. the part of the face above the eyebrows and below the hairline
3. forehead c. the body part that contains the brains and skull
4. cheek d. the sensitive organs surrounding the mouth
5. head e. the front part of the head that contains the sensory organs
6. ears f. the fleshy part of the face on either side of the nose
7. eyes g. the organs that detect sight

Part 3
1. shoulder a. loin – the area between the ribs and the pelvis
blade b. the upper front part of the torso
2. abdomen c. area between the legs
3. waist d. the part of the body between the neck and the groin
4. torso e. lower portion of the back
5. neck f. part of the body that contains the digestive organs
6. groin g. part of the body that allows the head to turn and connects the head to
7. chest the torso
8. small of the h. upper back bone that connects to the shoulders
back

4. Read the sentence pair. Choose where the words best fit the blanks.
1. shoulder/ankle
A. I twisted my _________ when I was running.
B. Tom can’t move his arm due to his ______ injury.
2. toe/knee
A. The leg bends at the __________.
B. Breaking even your smallest ______can move walking difficult.
3. neck/back
A. If you cannot see Andy’s chest, you are looking at his _________.
B. The _______ attaches the head and torso.
4. small/rib cage
A. The doctor placed his hand on the ________ of the patient’s back.
B. The bones that protect the heart and lungs make up the ___________.
5. foot/hand
A. This shoe barely fits on my __________.
B. Give me your __________and I will help you.
 
5. Write the ordinary English words for the corresponding anatomical terms in the table
using your medical knowledge.
Anatomical term Common word
abdomen
axilla
carpus
coxa
cubitus
nates
patella
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6. Read the statements and decide if they are true (T) or false (F). 

10 STRANGE AND FACINATING FACTS ABOUT THE HUMAN BODY


1. It is impossible to touch your mouth with your elbow.
2. The human eye can distinguish about 10 million different colors.
3. A human baby has over 60 more bones than an adult.
4. An average person has approximately 250 hairs in each eyebrow.
5. There are 100,000 miles of blood vessels in an adult human body.
6. Your nose can remember 50 different smells.
7. The fastest growing nail is on the middle finger.
8. Your eyes are always the same size from birth but your nose and ears never stop growing.
9. We are about 2 cm taller in the morning than in the evening.
10. Each hair stays on your head from between two and six months.
 

94
 
REFERENCE

1. Cunningham S., Moor P., Carr J.C. New Cutting Edge Pre-Intermediate. Workbook with key.
— Longman, 2007.—112 p.
2. Evans V. Career paths: Medical. — Newbury: Express Publishing, 2013. — 117 p.
3. Glendinning E. Professional English in Use: Medicine. — Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 2007. — 167 p.
4. Grice T. Oxford English for careers: Nursing 1. — Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011. —
136 p.
5. Grice T. Oxford English for careers: Nursing 1. Teacher’s resource book. — Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 2011. — 104 p.
6. Riley D. Test your vocabulary for medicine: A workbook for users. — Dorset: Peter Collin
Publishing Ltd, 1995. — 46 p.

 
ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ
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Предисловие
UNIT 1. YOUR CAREER IN MEDICINE
1.1 Becoming a doctor
1.2 Hospital jobs
1.3 Getting ready for a job interview
1.4 Working as a nurse
Project A medical volunteer
Revision
Wordlist
UNIT 2. IN AND AROUND THE HOSPITAL
2.1 Types of hospitals
2.2 The structure of the hospital
2.3 Medical equipment
2.4 Working in the Support
Project The Best Hospital Award
Revision
Wordlist
Quick check Units 1-2
UNIT 3. HOSPITAL ADMISSIONS
3.1 Emergency hospital admissions
3.2 Describing accidents
3.3 Pre-planned hospital admissions
3.4 Doctors’ bad handwriting
Project Healthcare In Britain
Revision
Wordlist
UNIT 4. ACCIDENTS AND EMERGENCIES
4.1 Giving first aid
4.2 Emergencies
4.3 Triage
4.4 More emergency cases

96
 
Project Stroke
Revision
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Quick check Units 3-4
UNIT 5. PAIN
5.1 What is pain?
5.2 Describing pain
5.3 Pain relief
5.4 Phantom limb pain
Project The bionic girl
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VIDEOTASKS
EXTRA GRAMMAR PRACTICE
APPENDIX: PARTS OF THE BODY
Оглавление

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