Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 60

In telecommunications, wireless communication may be used to transfer information over short distances

(a few meters as in television remote control) or long distances (thousands or millions of kilometers for
radio communications). The term is often shortened to "wireless". It encompasses various types of fixed,
mobile, and portable two-way radios, cellular telephones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and wireless
networking. Other examples of wireless technology include GPS units, garage door openers and or garage
doors, wireless computer mice, keyboards and headsets, satellite television and cordless telephones.


• 1 Introduction
• 2 Wireless services
• 3 Wireless networks
• 4 Modes
• 5 Cordless
• 6 History
o 6.1 Photophone
o 6.2 Early wireless work
o 6.3 Radio
• 7 The electromagnetic spectrum
• 8 Applications of wireless technology
o 8.1 Security systems
o 8.2 Cellular telephone (phones and modems)
o 8.3 Wi-Fi
o 8.4 Wireless energy transfer
o 8.5 Computer interface devices
• 9 Categories of wireless implementations, devices and standards
• 10 See also
• 11 References
• 12 Further reading

• 13 External links

[edit] Introduction
Handheld wireless radios such as this Maritime VHF radio transceiver use electromagnetic waves to
implement a form of wireless communications technology.

Wireless operations permits services, such as long range communications, that are impossible or
impractical to implement with the use of wires. The term is commonly used in the telecommunications
industry to refer to telecommunications systems (e.g. radio transmitters and receivers, remote controls,
computer networks, network terminals, etc.) which use some form of energy (e.g. radio frequency (RF),
infrared light, laser light, visible light, acoustic energy, etc.) to transfer information without the use of wires.
Information is transferred in this manner over both short and long distances.

[edit] Wireless services

This section does not cite any references or sources.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and
removed. (December 2006)

Common examples of wireless equipment include:

• Professional LMR (Land Mobile Radio) and SMR (Specialized Mobile Radio) typically used by
business, industrial and Public Safety entities.
• Consumer Two way radio including FRS Family Radio Service, GMRS (General Mobile Radio
Service) and Citizens band ("CB") radios.
• The Amateur Radio Service (Ham radio).
• Consumer and professional Marine VHF radios.
• Cellular telephones and pagers: provide connectivity for portable and mobile applications, both
personal and business.
• Global Positioning System (GPS): allows drivers of cars and trucks, captains of boats and ships, and
pilots of aircraft to ascertain their location anywhere on earth.
• Cordless computer peripherals: the cordless mouse is a common example; keyboards and printers
can also be linked to a computer via wireless.
• Cordless telephone sets: these are limited-range devices, not to be confused with cell phones.
• Satellite television: Is broadcast from satellites in geostationary orbit. Typical services use digital
broadcasting to provide multiple channels to viewers.

[edit] Wireless networks

Wireless networking (i.e. the various types of unlicensed 2.4 GHz WiFi devices) is used to meet many
needs. Perhaps the most common use is to connect laptop users who travel from location to location.
Another common use is for mobile networks that connect via satellite. A wireless transmission method is a
logical choice to network a LAN segment that must frequently change locations. The following situations
justify the use of wireless technology:

• To span a distance beyond the capabilities of typical cabling,

• To provide a backup communications link in case of normal network failure,
• To link portable or temporary workstations,
• To overcome situations where normal cabling is difficult or financially impractical, or
• To remotely connect mobile users or networks.

[edit] Modes
Wireless communication can be via:
• radio frequency communication,
• microwave communication, for example long-range line-of-sight via highly directional antennas, or
short-range communication, or
• infrared (IR) short-range communication, for example from remote controls or via Infrared Data
Association (IrDA).

Applications may involve point-to-point communication, point-to-multipoint communication, broadcasting,

cellular networks and other wireless networks.

[edit] Cordless
The term "wireless" should not be confused with the term "cordless", which is generally used to refer to
powered electrical or electronic devices that are able to operate from a portable power source (e.g. a battery
pack) without any cable or cord to limit the mobility of the cordless device through a connection to the
mains power supply.

Some cordless devices, such as cordless telephones, are also wireless in the sense that information is
transferred from the cordless telephone to the telephone's base unit via some type of wireless
communications link. This has caused some disparity in the usage of the term "cordless", for example in
Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications.

[edit] History
[edit] Photophone

Main article: Photophone

The world's first, wireless telephone conversation occurred in 1880, when Alexander Graham Bell and
Charles Sumner Tainter invented and patented the photophone, a telephone that conducted audio
conversations wirelessly over modulated light beams (which are narrow projections of electromagnetic
waves). In that distant era when utilities did not yet exist to provide electricity, and lasers had not even been
conceived of in science fiction, there were no practical applications for their invention, which was highly
limited by the availability of both sunlight and good weather. Similar to free space optical communication,
the photophone also required a clear line of sight between its transmitter and its receiver. It would be several
decades before the photophone's principles found their first practical applications in military
communications and later in fiber-optic communications.

[edit] Early wireless work

Main article: Wireless telegraphy

David E. Hughes, eight years before Hertz's experiments, transmitted radio signals over a few hundred yards
by means of a clockwork keyed transmitter. As this was before Maxwell's work was understood, Hughes'
contemporaries dismissed his achievement as mere "Induction". In 1885, T. A. Edison used a vibrator
magnet for induction transmission. In 1888, Edison deployed a system of signaling on the Lehigh Valley
Railroad. In 1891, Edison obtained the wireless patent for this method using inductance (U.S. Patent

In the history of wireless technology, the demonstration of the theory of electromagnetic waves by Heinrich
Hertz in 1888 was important.[2][3] The theory of electromagnetic waves was predicted from the research of
James Clerk Maxwell and Michael Faraday. Hertz demonstrated that electromagnetic waves could be
transmitted and caused to travel through space at straight lines and that they were able to be received by an
experimental apparatus.[2][3] The experiments were not followed up by Hertz. Jagadish Chandra Bose around
this time developed an early wireless detection device and helped increase the knowledge of millimeter
length electromagnetic waves.[4] Practical applications of wireless radio communication and radio remote
control technology were implemented by later inventors, such as Nikola Tesla.

Further information: Invention of radio

[edit] Radio

Main article: History of radio

The term "wireless" came into public use to refer to a radio receiver or transceiver (a dual purpose receiver
and transmitter device), establishing its usage in the field of wireless telegraphy early on; now the term is
used to describe modern wireless connections such as in cellular networks and wireless broadband Internet.
It is also used in a general sense to refer to any type of operation that is implemented without the use of
wires, such as "wireless remote control" or "wireless energy transfer", regardless of the specific technology
(e.g. radio, infrared, ultrasonic) used. Guglielmo Marconi and Karl Ferdinand Braun were awarded the 1909
Nobel Prize for Physics for their contribution to wireless telegraphy.

[edit] The electromagnetic spectrum

Light, colors, AM and FM radio, and electronic devices make use of the electromagnetic spectrum. In the
US, the frequencies that are available for use for communication are treated as a public resource and are
regulated by the Federal Communications Commission. This determines which frequency ranges can be
used for what purpose and by whom. In the absence of such control or alternative arrangements such as a
privatized electromagnetic spectrum, chaos might result if, for example, airlines didn't have specific
frequencies to work under and an amateur radio operator were interfering with the pilot's ability to land an
airplane. Wireless communication spans the spectrum from 9 kHz to 300 GHz. (Also see Spectrum

[edit] Applications of wireless technology

[edit] Security systems

Wireless technology may supplement or replace hard wired implementations in security systems for homes
or office buildings.

[edit] Cellular telephone (phones and modems)

Perhaps the best known example of wireless technology is the cellular telephone and modems. These
instruments use radio waves to enable the operator to make phone calls from many locations worldwide.
They can be used anywhere that there is a cellular telephone site to house the equipment that is required to
transmit and receive the signal that is used to transfer both voice and data to and from these instruments.

[edit] Wi-Fi

Main article: Wi-Fi

Wi-Fi is a wireless local area network that enables portable computing devices to connect easily to the
Internet. Standardized as IEEE 802.11 a,b,g,n, Wi-Fi approaches speeds of some types of wired Ethernet.
Wi-Fi hot spots have been popular over the past few years. Some businesses charge customers a monthly fee
for service, while others have begun offering it for free in an effort to increase the sales of their goods.[5]
[edit] Wireless energy transfer

Main article: Wireless energy transfer

Wireless energy transfer is a process whereby electrical energy is transmitted from a power source to an
electrical load that does not have a built-in power source, without the use of interconnecting wires.

[edit] Computer interface devices

Answering the call of customers frustrated with cord clutter, many manufactures of computer peripherals
turned to wireless technology to satisfy their consumer base. Originally these units used bulky, highly
limited transceivers to mediate between a computer and a keyboard and mouse, however more recent
generations have used small, high quality devices, some even incorporating Bluetooth. These systems have
become so ubiquitous that some users have begun complaining about a lack of wired peripherals.[who?]
Wireless devices tend to have a slightly slower response time than their wired counterparts, however the gap
is decreasing. Initial concerns about the security of wireless keyboards have also been addressed with the
maturation of the technology.

[edit] Categories of wireless implementations, devices and

• Radio communication system
• Broadcasting
• Amateur radio
• Land Mobile Radio or Professional Mobile Radio: TETRA, P25, OpenSky, EDACS, DMR, dPMR
• Communication radio
• Cordless telephony:DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications)
• Cellular networks: 0G, 1G, 2G, 3G, Beyond 3G (4G), Future wireless
• List of emerging technologies
• Short-range point-to-point communication : Wireless microphones, Remote controls, IrDA, RFID
(Radio Frequency Identification), Wireless USB, DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communications),
EnOcean, Near Field Communication
• Wireless sensor networks: ZigBee, EnOcean; Personal area networks, Bluetooth, TransferJet, Ultra-
wideband (UWB from WiMedia Alliance).
• Wireless networks: Wireless LAN (WLAN), (IEEE 802.11 branded as Wi-Fi and HiperLAN),
Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks (WMAN) and Broadband Fixed Access (BWA) (LMDS,
A pager (sometimes called a page, beeper, bleep or bleeper) is a simple personal telecommunications
device for short messages. A one-way numeric pager can only receive a message consisting of a few digits,
typically a phone number that the user is then expected to call. Alphanumeric pagers are available, as well
as two-way pagers that have the ability to send and receive email, numeric pages, and SMS messages.[1]

The first practical pager was introduced in 1950 by physicians in the New York city area. The first pager
system had a range of approximately 40 km (25 mi) and the physicians paid 12 USD per month for the
service. The actual pager device was developed and manufactured by Reevesound Company of New York
and weighed approximately 200 grams (6 oz).[2]

Until the popular adoption of mobile phones in the 1990s, pagers filled the role of common personal and
mobile communications. Today, pagers mainly support the "critical messaging" markets.


• 1 Function and operation

• 2 Pager use in the 21st century
• 3 References in Popular Culture
• 4 Security
• 5 Technical information
• 6 Satellite pager
• 7 See also
• 8 References

• 9 External links

[edit] Function and operation

This section does not cite any references or sources.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and
removed. (June 2009)
The current numeric pager

The front end of a numeric pager

Paging is a subscription service offered in a variety of plans and options to meet the needs of a subscriber
and the type of device used. In general, all pagers are given unique phone numbers while alphanumeric
pagers are given an email address, usually consisting of the phone number.

When calling a phone number assigned to a pager, the calling party reaches a recorded greeting asking the
caller to enter a numeric message, and sometimes giving the caller an option to leave a voice mail message.
The numeric message given is usually a phone number. Generally, the paged person will receive an alert
from the pager with the phone number and/or a pager code within a few minutes. In the case of email
paging, the text is displayed.

• Beepers were the first and are the simplest form of paging. They're called beepers because originally
they made a beeping noise, but current pagers in this category use other forms of alert as well. Some
use audio signals, others light up and some vibrate, often used in combination. The majority of
restaurant pagers fall into this category.
• Voice/Tone pagers provide the ability to listen to a recorded voice message when an alert is
• Numeric pagers are the type of devices offering only a numeric display of the phone number to be
called and pager codes, an informal language wherein sets of numbers symbolize preset messages.
• Alphanumeric pagers are essentially modified versions of numeric pagers with sophisticated
display to accommodate text. These devices are usually given an email address to receive text
• Two-way Alphanumeric pagers are alphanumeric pagers capable of both sending and receiving
text messages and email. To do this, the units either have a small built in keypad that allows the user
to input messages, or the message can be typed from a wireless keyboard and is received by the
pager. Other pager models rely on existing message templates that the user can choose to send back -
this has the advantage of standardising communications, increasing speed of a message reply and
reducing the chance of a miss-communication. Increasingly, two-way pagers are offered with GPS.
GPS allows field agents location information to be sent back to a control centre that can use the
information to send only location relevant information, and, to improve response times by
designating jobs or activities only to the closest field personnel.

Most modern paging systems use simulcast delivery by satellite controlled networks. This type of
distributed system makes them inherently more reliable than terrestrial based cellular networks for message
delivery. Many paging transmitters may overlap a coverage area, while cellular systems are built to fill holes
in existing networks. When terrestrial networks go down in an emergency, satellite systems continue to
perform. Because of superior building penetration and availability of service in disaster situations, pagers
are often used by first responders in emergencies.

[edit] Pager use in the 21st century

This section does not cite any references or sources.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and
removed. (June 2009)

A dual-frequency Unication pager for use by EMS units

A Skyper pager that is in use for ham radio

A mid 1990s opaque black Avont pager model

Original Motorola "beeper" pager, used in NYC in the late 1970s.

Pagers are still in use today in places where mobile phones typically cannot reach users, and also in places
where the operation of the radio transmitters contained in mobile phones is problematic or prohibited. One
such type of location is a large hospital complex, where cellular coverage is often weak or nonexistent,
where radio transmitters are thought to interfere with sensitive medical equipment and where there is a
greater need of assurance for a timely delivery of a message. The U.S. paging industry generated $2.1
billion in revenue in 2008, down from $6.2 billion in 2003.[4]
A pager technology in wide use today is the restaurant pager, usually from the beeper category. Mainly used
in the hospitality industry, customers are given a theft-protected portable receiver which usually vibrates,
flashes or beeps when a table becomes free, or when their meal is ready.[3]

[edit] References in Popular Culture

As is the case with many new technologies, the functionality of the pager shifted from necessary
professional use to a social tool integrated in one's personal life. Within a short timespan, pagers evolved
from a tool for "technocratic elites" to a tool used by "kids living in the projects"[5]

During the rise of the pager, it became the subject of various forms of media; most notably in the 1990s hip-
hop scene. Upcoming mainstream artists such as Ice Cube and Method Man, along with underground acts
such as A Tribe Called Quest began referencing forthcoming mobile technologies, in particular the pager. A
Tribe Called Quest's single 'Skypager' directly speaks of the importance of such a wireless communication
device. Q-Tip conveys that the skypager "serves an important communicative function for a young
professional with a full calendar".[6] The smash hit "Bugaboo" from Destiny's Child also makes reference to
pagers: "you make me wanna throw my pager out the window" is the first line to the chorus that
reverberated throughout households in the late 1990s.

Popular TV show Friends showed extensive use of pagers by the characters.

The growing popularity of cellphones in the early 21st century was accompanied by a corresponding decline
in pager use by the general population. This shift accounts for Sam Flynn's amusement when Alan Bradley
says "I was paged last night" in Tron: Legacy.

[edit] Security
This section does not cite any references or sources.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and
removed. (June 2009)

Pagers also have privacy advantages compared with cellular phones. Since a one-way pager is a passive
receiver only (it sends no information back to the base station), its location cannot be tracked. However, this
can also be disadvantageous, as a message sent to a pager must be broadcast from every paging transmitter
in the pager's service area. Thus, if a pager has nationwide service, a message sent to it could be intercepted
by criminals or law enforcement agencies anywhere within the nationwide service area.

[edit] Technical information

This section does not cite any references or sources.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and
removed. (June 2009)

Many paging network operators now allow numeric and textual pages to be submitted to the paging
networks via email. This is convenient for many users, due to the widespread adoption of email; but email-
based message submission methods do not usually provide any way to ensure that messages have been
received by the paging network. This can result in pager messages being delayed or lost. Older forms of
message submission using the Telocator Alphanumeric input Protocol protocol involve modem connections
directly to a paging network, and are less subject to these delays. For this reason, older forms of message
submission retain their usefulness for disseminating highly-important alerts to users such as emergency
services personnel.
Common paging protocols include TAP, FLEX, ReFLEX, POCSAG, Golay, ERMES and NTT. Past paging
protocols include Two-tone and 5/6-tone.

In the United States, pagers typically receive signals using the FLEX protocol in the 900 MHz band.
Commercial paging transmitters typically radiate 1000 watts of effective power, resulting in a much wider
coverage area per tower than a mobile phone transmitter, which typically radiates around 0.6 Watts per

Although 900 MHz FLEX paging networks tend to have stronger in-building coverage than mobile phone
networks, commercial paging service providers will work with large institutions to install repeater
equipment in the event that service is not available in needed areas of the subscribing institution's buildings.
This is especially critical in hospital settings where emergency staff must be able to reliably receive pages in
order to respond to patient needs.

Unlike mobile phones, most one-way pagers do not display any information about whether a signal is being
received or about the strength of the received signal. Since one-way pagers do not contain transmitters, one-
way paging networks have no way to track whether a message has been successfully delivered to a pager.
Because of this, if a one-way pager is turned off or is not receiving a usable signal at the time a message is
transmitted, the message will not be received and the sender of the message will not be notified of this fact.
In the mid 1990s, some paging companies began offering a service, which allowed a customer to call their
pagernumber, and have numeric messages read back to them. This was useful for times when the pager was
off/out of coverage area, as it would know what number paged you even if you never actually received the

Other radio bands used for pagers include the 400 MHz band, the VHF band, and the FM commercial
broadcast band (88-108 MHz). Other paging protocols used in the VHF, 400 MHz UHF, and 900 MHz
bands include POCSAG and ERMES. Pagers using the commercial FM band receive a subcarrier, called the
Subsidiary Communications Authority, of a broadcast station.

[edit] Satellite pager

This section does not cite any references or sources.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and
removed. (June 2009)

A service based on the Iridium satellite constellation uses satellites to deliver short text messages to one-
way pagers similar to those used by terrestrial paging networks. Despite the fact that the network provides
world-wide coverage the messages are only sent to pre-selected message delivery areas which can be set on
a web-based interface or by binding the service to a satellite phone. Messages can be sent in the form of
SMS, email or from a web interface.

[edit] See also

• Alfred J. Gross
• Plectron
• Motorola Minitor Voice Pager
• Wireless Communications Transfer Protocol (WCTP)
• Simple Network Paging Protocol (SNPP)
• Text messaging also known as texting
Data transmission, digital transmission, or digital communications is the physical transfer of data (a
digital bit stream) over a point-to-point or point-to-multipoint communication channel. Examples of such
channels are copper wires, optical fibres, wireless communication channels, and storage media. The data is
represented as an electromagnetic signal, such as an electrical voltage, radiowave, microwave, or infrared

While analog communications is the transfer of continuously varying information signal, digital
communications is the transfer of discrete messages. The messages are either represented by a sequence of
pulses by means of a line code (baseband transmission), or by a limited set of continuously varying wave
forms (passband transmission), using a digital modulation method. The passband modulation and
corresponding demodulation (also known as detection) is carried out by modem equipment. According to
the most common definition of digital signal, both baseband and passband signals representing bit-streams
are considered as digital transmission, while an alternative definition only considers the baseband signal as
digital, and passband transmission of digital data as a form of digital-to-analog conversion.

Data transmitted may be digital messages originating from a data source, for example a computer or a
keyboard. It may also be an analog signal such as a phone call or a video signal, digitized into a bit-stream
for example using pulse-code modulation (PCM) or more advanced source coding (analog-to-digital
conversion and data compression) schemes. This source coding and decoding is carried out by codec


• 1 Distinction between related subjects

• 2 Protocol layers and sub-topics
• 3 Applications and history
• 4 Baseband or passband transmission
• 5 Serial and parallel transmission
• 6 Types of communication channels
• 7 Asynchronous and synchronous data transmission
• 8 See also
• 9 Notes

• 10 External links

[edit] Distinction between related subjects

Courses and textbooks in the field of data transmission[1] as well as digital transmission[2][3] and digital
communications [4][5] have similar content.

Digital transmission or data transmission traditionally belongs to telecommunications and electrical

engineering. Basic principles of data transmission may also be covered within the computer
science/computer engineering topic of data communications, which also includes computer networking or
computer communication applications and networking protocols, for example routing, switching and
process-to-process communication. Although the Transmission control protocol (TCP) involves the term
"transmission", TCP and other transport layer protocols are typically not discussed in a textbook or course
about data transmission, but in computer networking.
The term tele transmission involves the analog as well as digital communication. In most textbooks, the
term analog transmission only refers to the transmission of an analog message signal (without digitization)
by means of an analog signal, either as a non-modulated baseband signal, or as a passband signal using an
analog modulation method such as AM or FM. It may also include analog-over-analog pulse modulatated
baseband signals such as pulse-width modulation. In a few books within the computer networking tradition,
"analog transmission" also refers to passband transmission of bit-streams using digital modulation methods
such as FSK, PSK and ASK. Note that these methods are covered in textbooks named digital transmission
or data transmission, for example.[1]

The theoretical aspects of data transmission are covered by information theory and coding theory.

[edit] Protocol layers and sub-topics

The OSI Model
7 Application Layer
5 Session Layer
4 Transport Layer
3 Network Layer
Data Link Layer

2 sublayer


1 Physical Layer
This box: view · talk
· edit

Courses and textbooks in the field of data transmission typically deal with the following OSI model protocol
layers and topics:

• Layer 1, the physical layer:

o Channel coding including
 Digital modulation schemes
 Line coding schemes
 Forward error correction (FEC) codes
o Bit synchronization
o Multiplexing
o Equalization
o Channel models
• Layer 2, the data link layer:
o Channel access schemes, media access control (MAC)
o Packet mode communication and Frame synchronization
o Error detection and automatic repeat request (ARQ)
o Flow control
• Layer 6, the presentation layer:
o Source coding (digitization and data compression), and information theory.
o Cryptography (may occur at any layer)
[edit] Applications and history
Data (mainly but not exclusively informational) has been sent via non-electronic (e.g. optical, acoustic,
mechanical) means since the advent of communication. Analog signal data has been sent electronically
since the advent of the telephone. However, the first data electromagnetic transmission applications in
modern time were telegraphy (1809) and teletypewriters (1906), which are both digital signals. The
fundamental theoretical work in data transmission and information theory by Harry Nyquist, Ralph Hartley,
Claude Shannon and others during the early 20th century, was done with these applications in mind.

Data transmission is utilized in computers in computer buses and for communication with peripheral
equipment via parallel ports and serial ports such us RS-232 (1969), Firewire (1995) and USB (1996). The
principles of data transmission is also utilized in storage media for Error detection and correction since

Data transmission is utilized in computer networking equipment such as modems (1940), local area
networks (LAN) adapters (1964), repeaters, hubs, microwave links, wireless network access points (1997),

In telephone networks, digital communication is utilized for transferring many phone calls over the same
copper cable or fiber cable by means of Pulse code modulation (PCM), i.e. sampling and digitization, in
combination with Time division multiplexing (TDM) (1962). Telephone exchanges have become digital and
software controlled, facilitating many value added services. For example the first AXE telephone exchange
was presented in 1976. Since late 1980th, digital communication to the end user has been possible using
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) services. Since the end of 1990th, broadband access techniques
such as ADSL, Cable modems, fiber-to-the-building (FTTB) and fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) have become
wide spread to small offices and homes. The current tendency is to replace traditional telecommunication
services by packet mode communication such as IP telephony and IPTV.

Transmitting analog signals digitally allows for greater signal processing capability. The ability to process a
communications signal means that errors caused by random processes can be detected and corrected. Digital
signals can also be sampled instead of continuously monitored. The multiplexing of multiple digital signals
is much simpler to the multiplexing of analog signals.

Because of all these advantages, and because recent advances in wideband communication channels and
solid-state electronics have allowed scientists to fully realize these advantages, digital communications has
grown quickly. Digital communications is quickly edging out analog communication because of the vast
demand to transmit computer data and the ability of digital communications to do so.

The digital revolution has also resulted in many digital telecommunication applications where the principles
of data transmission are applied. Examples are second-generation (1991) and later cellular telephony, video
conferencing, digital TV (1998), digital radio (1999), telemetry, etc.

[edit] Baseband or passband transmission

The physically transmitted signal may be one of the following:

1. A baseband signal ("digital-over-digital" transmission): A sequence of electrical pulses or light

pulses produced by means of a line coding scheme such as Manchester coding. This is typically used
in serial cables, wired local area networks such as Ethernet, and in optical fiber communication. It
results in a pulse amplitude modulated signal, also known as a pulse train.
2. A passband signal ("digital-over-analog" transmission): A modulated sine wave signal representing
a digital bit-stream. Note that this is in some textbooks considered as analog transmission, but in
most books as digital transmission. The signal is produced by means of a digital modulation method
such as PSK, QAM or FSK. The modulation and demodulation is carried out by modem equipment.
This is used in wireless communication, and over telephone network local-loop and cable-TV

[edit] Serial and parallel transmission

In telecommunications, serial transmission is the sequential transmission of signal elements of a group
representing a character or other entity of data. Digital serial transmissions are bits sent over a single wire,
frequency or optical path sequentially. Because it requires less signal processing and less chances for error
than parallel transmission, the transfer rate of each individual path may be faster. This can be used over
longer distances as a check digit or parity bit can be sent along it easily.

In telecommunications, parallel transmission is the simultaneous transmission of the signal elements of a

character or other entity of data. In digital communications, parallel transmission is the simultaneous
transmission of related signal elements over two or more separate paths. Multiple electrical wires are used
which can transmit multiple bits simultaneously, which allows for higher data transfer rates than can be
achieved with serial transmission. This method is used internally within the computer, for example the
internal buses, and sometimes externally for such things as printers, The major issue with this is "skewing"
because the wires in parallel data transmission have slightly different properties (not intentionally) so some
bits may arrive before others, which may corrupt the message. A parity bit can help to reduce this. However,
electrical wire parallel data transmission is therefore less reliable for long distances because corrupt
transmissions are far more likely.

[edit] Types of communication channels

Main article: communication channel

• Simplex
• Half-duplex
• Full-duplex
• Point-to-point
• Multi-drop:
o Bus network
o Ring network
o Star network
o Mesh network
o Wireless network

[edit] Asynchronous and synchronous data transmission

Main article: comparison of synchronous and asynchronous signalling
This section may contain parts that are misleading. Please help clarify this article according to any
suggestions provided on the talk page.

Asynchronous transmission uses start and stop bits to signify the beginning bit[citation needed] ASCII character
would actually be transmitted using 10 bits e.g.: A "0100 0001" would become "1 0100 0001 0". The extra
one (or zero depending on parity bit) at the start and end of the transmission tells the receiver first that a
character is coming and secondly that the character has ended. This method of transmission is used when
data is sent intermittently as opposed to in a solid stream. In the previous example the start and stop bits are
in bold. The start and stop bits must be of opposite polarity[citation needed]. This allows the receiver to recognize
when the second packet of information is being sent.
Synchronous transmission uses no start and stop bits but instead synchronizes transmission speeds at both
the receiving and sending end of the transmission using clock signal(s) built into each component[vague]. A
continual stream of data is then sent between the two nodes. Due to there being no start and stop bits the
data transfer rate is quicker although more errors will occur, as the clocks will eventually get out of sync,
and the receiving device would have the wrong time that had been agreed in the protocol for
sending/receiving data, so some bytes could become corrupted (by losing bits)[citation needed]. Ways to get
around this problem include re-synchronization of the clocks and use of check digits to ensure the byte is
correctly interpreted and received

[edit] See also

• Computer network
• Computer networking
• Information processing
• Information theory
• Media (communication)
• Signal processing
• Telecommunication
• Transmission

Text messaging, or texting, refers to the exchange of brief written messages between fixed-line phone or
mobile phone and fixed or portable devices over a network. While the original term (see below) was derived
from referring to messages sent using the Short Message Service (SMS) originated from Radio Telegraphy,
it has since been extended to include messages containing image, video, and sound content (known as MMS
messages). The sender of a text message is known as a texter, while the service itself has different
colloquialisms depending on the region: it may simply be referred to as a text in North America, India,
Australia, the Philippines and the United Kingdom, an SMS in most of Europe, and a TMS or SMS in the
Middle East and Asia.

Text messages can be used to interact with automated systems such as ordering products and services for
mobile phones or participating in contests. Advertisers and service providers use texts to notify mobile
phone users about promotions, payment due dates and other notifications that can usually be sent by post, e-
mail or voicemail.

In straight and concise definition, text messaging by phones or mobile phones should include all 26 letters
of the alphabet and 10 numerals, i.e., alpha-numeric messages, or text, to be sent by texter or received by the

* 1 History
* 2 Uses
o 2.1 Emergency services
o 2.2 Commercial uses
+ 2.2.1 Short codes
+ 2.2.2 Text messaging gateway providers
+ 2.2.3 Premium content
o 2.3 In business
o 2.4 Worldwide use
+ 2.4.1 Europe
+ 2.4.2 United States
+ 2.4.3 Finland
+ 2.4.4 Japan
+ 2.4.5 China
+ 2.4.6 Philippines
+ 2.4.7 New Zealand
+ 2.4.8 Africa
* 3 Social impact
o 3.1 Effect on language
o 3.2 Texting while driving
o 3.3 Sexting
o 3.4 In schools
+ 3.4.1 Bullying
+ 3.4.2 Influence on perceptions of the student
o 3.5 Law and crime
o 3.6 Social unrest
o 3.7 Texting in politics
o 3.8 Medical concerns
o 3.9 Texting etiquette
* 4 Challenges
o 4.1 Text message spam
o 4.2 Pricing concerns
o 4.3 Security concerns
* 5 Text messaging in popular culture
o 5.1 Records and competition
o 5.2 Morse code
* 6 See also
* 7 References
* 8 External links

[edit] History

SMS messaging was first used in December 1992, when Neil Papworth, a 22-year-old test engineer for
Sema Group[2] (now Airwide Solutions),[3] used a personal computer to send the text message "Merry
Christmas" via the Vodafone network to the phone of Richard Jarvis.[4]

Standard SMS messaging is limited to 140 bytes, which translates to 160 characters of the English alphabet.
[5] Initial growth of text messaging was slow, with customers in 1995 sending on average only 0.4 message
per GSM customer per month.[6] One factor in the slow take-up of SMS was that operators were slow to set
up charging systems, especially for prepaid subscribers, and eliminate billing fraud, which was possible by
changing SMSC settings on individual handsets to use the SMSCs of other operators. Over time, this issue
was eliminated by switch-billing instead of billing at the SMSC and by new features within SMSCs to allow
blocking of foreign mobile users sending messages through it.

SMS is available on a wide range of networks, including 3G networks. However, not all text messaging
systems use SMS, and some notable alternate implementations of the concept include J-Phone's SkyMail
and NTT Docomo's Short Mail, both in Japan. E-mail messaging from phones, as popularized by NTT
Docomo's i-mode and the RIM BlackBerry, also typically use standard mail protocols such as SMTP over

Today, text messaging is the most widely used mobile data service, with 74% of all mobile phone users
worldwide, or 2.4 billion out of 3.3 billion phone subscribers, at end of 2007 being active users of the Short
Message Service. In countries such as Finland, Sweden and Norway, over 85% of the population use SMS.
The European average is about 80%, and North America is rapidly catching up with over 60% active users
of SMS by end of 2008. The largest average usage of the service by mobile phone subscribers is in the
Philippines, with an average of 27 texts sent per day by subscriber.
[edit] Uses
An English text messaging interface on a mobile phone

Text messaging is most often used between private mobile phone users, as a substitute for voice calls in
situations where voice communication is impossible or undesirable. In some regions, text messaging is
significantly cheaper than placing a phone call to another mobile phone; elsewhere, text messaging is
popular despite the negligible cost of voice calls.

Short message services are developing very rapidly throughout the world.

SMS is particularly popular in Europe, Asia (excluding Japan; see below), United States, Australia and New
Zealand and is also gaining influence in Africa. Popularity has grown to a sufficient extent that the term
texting (used as a verb meaning the act of mobile phone users sending short messages back and forth) has
entered the common lexicon. Young Asians consider SMS as the most popular mobile phone application.[7]

In China, SMS is very popular and has brought service providers significant profit (18 billion short
messages were sent in 2001).[8] It is a very influential and powerful tool in the Philippines, where the
average user sends 10–12 text messages a day. The Philippines alone sends on the average 400 million text
messages a day, or approximately 142 billion text messages sent a year,[9] more than the annual average
SMS volume of the countries in Europe, and even China and India. SMS is hugely popular in India, where
youngsters often exchange lots of text messages, and companies provide alerts, infotainment, news, cricket
scores updates, railway/airline booking, mobile billing, and banking services on SMS.

Texting became popular in the Philippines in 1998. In 2001, text messaging played an important role in
deposing former Philippine president Joseph Estrada. Similarly, in 2008, text messaging played a primary
role in the implication of former Detroit Mayor Kwame Kilpatrick in an SMS sex scandal.[10]

Short messages are particularly popular among young urbanites. In many markets, the service is
comparatively cheap. For example, in Australia, a message typically costs between A$0.20 and $0.25 to
send (some prepaid services charge $0.01 between their own phones), compared with a voice call, which
costs somewhere between $0.40 and $2.00 per minute (commonly charged in half-minute blocks). Despite
the low cost to the consumer, the service is enormously profitable to the service providers. At a typical
length of only 190 bytes (including protocol overhead), more than 350 of these messages per minute can be
transmitted at the same data rate as a usual voice call (9 kbit/s).

Mobile service providers in New Zealand, such as Vodafone and Telecom NZ, provide up to 2000 SMS
messages for NZ$10 per month. Users on these plans send on average 1500 SMS messages every month.

Text messaging has become so popular that advertising agencies and advertisers are now jumping into the
text messaging business. Services that provide bulk text message sending are also becoming a popular way
for clubs, associations, and advertisers to reach a group of opt-in subscribers quickly.
[edit] Emergency services

In some countries, text messages can be used to contact the emergency services. In the UK, text messages
can be used to call the emergency services after registering with the emergencySMS service. This service is
primarily aimed at people who, by reason of disability, are unable to make a voice call, but has recently
been promoted as a means for walkers and climbers to call[11][12] emergency services from areas where a
voice call is not possible due to low signal strength.
[edit] Commercial uses
A multimedia message on a Sony Ericsson mobile phone
[edit] Short codes
Short codes are special telephone numbers, shorter than full telephone numbers, that can be used to address
SMS and MMS messages from mobile phones or fixed phones. There are two types of short codes: dialing
and messaging.
This new powerful use of text messaging has many beneficial uses such as Canada Amber Alert.
[edit] Text messaging gateway providers
This section does not cite any references or sources.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be
challenged and removed. (July 2008)

SMS gateway providers facilitate the SMS traffic between businesses and mobile subscribers, being mainly
responsible for carrying mission-critical messages, SMS for enterprises, content delivery and entertainment
services involving SMS, e.g., TV voting. Considering SMS messaging performance and cost, as well as the
level of text messaging services, SMS gateway providers can be classified as the cell phone aggregators or
SS7 providers.

SMS messaging gateway providers can provide gateway-to-mobile (Mobile Terminated–MT) services.
Some suppliers can also supply mobile-to-gateway (text-in or Mobile Originated/MO services). Many
operate text-in services on shortcodes or mobile number ranges, whereas others use lower-cost geographic
text-in numbers.[13]
[edit] Premium content
This section does not cite any references or sources.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be
challenged and removed. (July 2008)

SMS is widely used for delivering digital content, such as news alerts, financial information, logos and
ringtones. Such messages are also known as premium-rated short messages (PSMS). The subscribers are
charged extra for receiving this premium content, and the amount is typically divided between the mobile
network operator and the value added service provider (VASP), either through revenue share or a fixed
transport fee. Services like 82ASK and Any Question Answered have used the PSMS model to enable rapid
response to mobile consumers' questions, using on-call teams of experts and researchers.

Premium short messages are increasingly being used for "real-world" services. For example, some vending
machines now allow payment by sending a premium-rated short message, so that the cost of the item bought
is added to the user's phone bill or subtracted from the user's prepaid credits. Recently, premium messaging
companies have come under fire from consumer groups due to a large number of consumers racking up
huge phone bills.

A new type of free-premium or hybrid-premium content has emerged with the launch of text-service
websites. These sites allow registered users to receive free text messages when items they are interested in
go on sale, or when new items are introduced.

An alternative to inbound SMS is based on long numbers (international mobile number format, e.g., +44
7624 805000, or geographic numbers that can handle voice and SMS, e.g., 01133203040[13]), which can be
used in place of short codes or premium-rated short messages for SMS reception in several applications,
such as TV voting, product promotions, and campaigns. Long numbers are internationally available, as well
as enabling businesses to have their own number, rather than short codes, which are usually shared across a
lot of brands. Additionally, Long numbers are non-premium inbound numbers.
[edit] In business

The use of text messaging for business purposes has grown significantly during the mid-2000s. As
companies seek competitive advantages, many employees turn to new technology, collaborative
applications, and real-time messaging such as SMS, instant messaging, and mobile communications. Some
practical uses of text messaging include the fuse of SMS for confirming delivery or other tasks, for instant
communication between a service provider and a client (e.g., stock broker and investor), and for sending
alerts. Several universities have implemented a system of texting students and faculties campus alerts. One
such example is Penn State.[14]

As text messaging has proliferated in business, so too have regulations governing its use. One regulation
specifically governing the use of text messaging in financial-services firms engaged in stocks, equities, and
securities trading is Regulatory Notice 07-59, Supervision of Electronic Communications, December 2007,
issued to member firms by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority. In 07-59, FINRA noted that
"electronic communications", "e-mail", and "electronic correspondence" may be used interchangeably and
can include such forms of electronic messaging as instant messaging and text messaging.[15] Industry has
had to develop new technology to allow companies to archive their employees' text messages.

Security, confidentiality, reliability and speed of SMS are among the most important guarantees industries
such as financial services, energy and commodities trading, health care and enterprises demand in their
mission-critical procedures. One way to guarantee such a quality of text messaging lies in introducing SLAs
(Service Level Agreement), which are common in IT contracts. By providing measurable SLAs,
corporations can define reliability parameters and set up a high quality of their services.[16] Just one of
many SMS applications that has proven highly popular and successful in the financial-services industry is
mobile receipts. In January 2009, Mobile Marketing Association (MMA) published the Mobile Banking
Overview for financial institutions in which it discussed the advantages and disadvantages of mobile
channel platforms such as Short Message Services (SMS), Mobile Web, Mobile Client Applications, SMS
with Mobile Web and Secure SMS.[17]

Mobile interaction services are an alternative way of using SMS in business communications with greater

Typical business-to-business applications are telematics and Machine-to-Machine, in which two

applications automatically communicate with each other. Incident alerts are also common, and staff
communications are also another use for B2B scenarios.

Businesses can use SMS for time-critical alerts, updates and reminders, mobile campaigns, content and
entertainment applications.

Mobile interaction can also be used for consumer-to-business interactions, such as media voting and
competitions, and for consumer-to-consumer interaction, for example, with mobile social networking,
chatting and dating.
[edit] Worldwide use
This article is missing information about Africa (text messaging is very relevant there). This concern
has been noted on the talk page where it may be discussed whether or not to include such information.
(November 2009)
[edit] Europe
SMS is used to send "welcome" messages to mobile phones roaming between countries. Here, T-Mobile
welcomes a Proximus subscriber to the UK, and BASE welcomes an Orange UK customer to Belgium.

Europe follows next behind Asia in terms of the popularity of the use of SMS. In 2003, an average of 16
billion messages were sent each month. Users in Spain sent a little more than fifty messages per month on
average in 2003. In Italy, Germany and the United Kingdom, the figure was around 35–40 SMS messages
per month. In each of these countries, the cost of sending an SMS message varies from €0.04–0.23,
depending on the payment plan (with many contractual plans including all or a number of texts for free). In
the United Kingdom, text messages are charged between £0.05–0.12. Curiously, France has not taken to
SMS in the same way, sending just under 20 messages on average per user per month. France has the same
GSM technology as other European countries, so the uptake is not hampered by technical restrictions.
In the Republic of Ireland, a total of 1.5 billion messages are sent every quarter, on average 114 messages
per person per month.[18] In the United Kingdom over 1 billion text messages are sent every week.[19]

The Eurovision Song Contest organized the first pan-European SMS voting in 2002, as a part of the voting
system (there was also a voting over traditional phone lines). In 2005, the Eurovision Song Contest
organized the biggest televoting ever (with SMS and phone voting).

During roaming, that is, when a user connects to another network in different country from his own, the
prices may be higher, but in July 2009, EU legislation went into effect limiting this price to €0.11.[20]
[edit] United States

In the United States, text messaging is also popular; as reported by CTIA in December 2009, the 286 million
US subscribers sent 152.7 billion text messages per month, for an average of 534 messages per subscriber
per month.[21] The Pew Research Center found in May 2010 that 72% of U.S. adult cellphone users send
and receive text messages.[22]

In the U.S., SMS is often charged both at the sender and at the destination, but, unlike phone calls, it cannot
be rejected or dismissed. The reasons for lower uptake than other countries are varied—many users have
unlimited "mobile-to-mobile" minutes, high monthly minute allotments, or unlimited service. Moreover,
push to talk services offer the instant connectivity of SMS and are typically unlimited. Furthermore, the
integration between competing providers and technologies necessary for cross-network text messaging has
only been available recently. Some providers originally charged extra to enable use of text, further reducing
its usefulness and appeal. In the third quarter of 2006, at least 12 billion text messages crossed AT&T's
network, up almost 15 percent from the preceding quarter.

In the United States, while texting is widely popular among the ages of 13–22 years old, it is increasing
among adults and business users as well. The age that a child receives his/her first cell phone has also
decreased, making text messaging a very popular way of communication for all ages. Texting has become
so involved in the American lifestyle that text poet Norman Silver published his "10 Txt Commandments".
[23] The number of texts being sent in the United States has gone up over the years as the price has gone
down to an average of $0.10 per text sent and received.

In order to convince more customers to include text messaging plans, some major cellphone providers have
recently increased the price to send and receive text messages from $.15 to $.20 per message.[24][25] This
is over $1,300 per megabyte.[26] Many providers offer unlimited plans, in which texting is mostly free.
[edit] Finland
This section does not cite any references or sources.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be
challenged and removed. (July 2008)

In addition to SMS voting, a different phenomenon has risen in more mobile-phone-saturated countries. In
Finland, some TV channels began "SMS chat", which involved sending short messages to a phone number,
and the messages would be shown on TV a while later. Chats are always moderated, which prevents sending
harmful material to the channel. The craze soon became popular and evolved into games, at first slow-paced
quiz and strategy games. After a while, faster-paced games were designed for television and SMS control.
Games tend to involve registering one's nickname and, after that, sending short messages for controlling a
character on screen. Messages usually cost 0.05 to 0.86 Euro apiece, and games can require the player to
send dozens of messages. In December 2003, a Finnish TV channel, MTV3, put a Santa Claus character on
air reading aloud messages sent in by viewers. On March 12, 2004, the first entirely "interactive" TV
channel, VIISI, began operation in Finland. That did not last long, as SBS Finland Oy took over the channel
and turned it into a music channel named The Voice in November 2004.

In 2006, the Prime Minister of Finland, Matti Vanhanen, made front-page news when he allegedly broke up
with his girlfriend with a text message.
In 2007, the first book written solely in text messages, Viimeiset viestit (Last Messages), was released by
Finnish author Hannu Luntiala. It is about a business executive who travels throughout Europe and India.

Mobile-service providers in Finland offer contracts in which one can send 1000 text messages a month for
the price of €10.
[edit] Japan

Japan was among the first countries to adopt short messages widely, with pioneering non-GSM services
including J-Phone's SkyMail and NTT Docomo's Short Mail. Japanese adolescents first began text
messaging, because it was a cheaper form of communication than the other available forms. Thus, Japanese
theorists created the selective interpersonal relationship theory, claiming that mobile phones can change
social networks among young people (classified as 13- to 30-year-olds). They theorized this age group had
extensive but low-quality relationships with friends, and mobile-phone usage may facilitate improvement in
the quality of their relationships. They concluded this age group prefers "selective interpersonal
relationships in which they maintain particular, partial, but rich relations, depending on the situation."[27]
[28] The same studies showed participants rated friendships in which they communicated face-to-face and
through text messaging as being more intimate than those in which they communicated solely face-to-face.
This indicates participants make new relationships with face-to-face communication at an early stage, but
use text messaging to increase their contact later on. It is also interesting to note that as the relationships
between participants grew more intimate, the frequency of text messaging also increased.

However, short messaging has been largely rendered obsolete by the prevalence of mobile Internet e-mail,
which can be sent to and received from any e-mail address, mobile or otherwise. That said, while usually
presented to the user simply as a uniform "mail" service (and most users are unaware of the distinction), the
operators may still internally transmit the content as short messages, especially if the destination is on the
same network.
[edit] China

Text messaging is popular and cheap in China. About 700 billion messages were sent in 2007. Text message
spam is also a problem in China. In 2007, 353.8 billion spam messages were sent, up 93% from the previous
year. It is about 12.44 messages per week per person.

It is routine that the People's Republic of China government monitor text messages across the country for
illegal content.[29]

Among Chinese migrant workers with little formal education, it is common to refer to SMS manuals when
text messaging. These manuals are published as cheap, handy, smaller-than-pocket-size booklets that offer
diverse linguistic phrases to use as messages.[30]
[edit] Philippines

In 1995, Short Message Service was introduced as a promotional gimmick but soon became very popular. In
1998, Philippine mobile-service providers launched SMS as part of their services, with initial television
marketing campaigns targeting hearing-impaired users. The service was initially free with subscriptions, but
Filipinos quickly exploited the feature to communicate for free instead of using voice calls, which they
would be charged for. After Telcos caught on to this, they soon started charging for SMS. The current rate
across networks is 1 peso per SMS (about US$0.023). Though users were now charged for SMS, it
remained very cheap, about one-tenth of the price of a voice call. This low price led to about five million
Filipinos owning a cell phone by 2001.[31]

Because of the highly social nature of Philippine culture and the affordability of SMS compared to voice
calls, SMS usage shot up, and texting quickly became a popular tool for Filipinos to keep in touch with their
friends and loved ones. Filipinos used texting not only for social but also for political purposes, as it allowed
the Filipinos to express their opinions on current events and political issues.[32] As a result, it became a
powerful tool for Filipinos in promoting or denouncing certain issues and was a key factor during the 2001
EDSA II revolution, which overthrew then-President Joseph Estrada, who was eventually found guilty of

According to 2009 stats, there are about 72 million mobile-service subscriptions (roughly 80% of the
Filipino population), with around 1.39 billion SMS messages being sent in the Philippines daily.[33][34]
Because of the large amount of text messages being sent by Filipinos, the Philippines became known as the
"text capital of the world" during the late 1990s until the early 2000s.
[edit] New Zealand

There are three main telecommunication company networks in New Zealand. Telecom NZ was the first
telecommunication company in New Zealand and owns all the land lines; however, it also leases them out
for other companies to use. Vodafone acquired Bellsouth New Zealand in 1998 and claims to hold 53.7% of
New Zealand's mobile market as of 30 December 2007,[35] and 2degrees arrived in 2009. As of 2005,
around 85% of the adult population had a mobile phone.[36] In general, texting is more popular than phone
calls, as it is viewed as less intrusive and therefore more polite.
[edit] Africa

Text messaging will become a key revenue driver for mobile network operators in Africa over the next
couple of years. [37] Today, text messaging is already slowly gaining influence in the African market. One
such person used text messaging to spread the word about HIV and AIDS, something that significantly
impacts Africans. [38] Also, in September 2009, a multi-country campaign in Africa used text messaging to
expose stock-outs of essential medicines at public health facilities and put pressure on governments to
address the issue. [39] It's encouraging to see text messaging as a means to spread the word about health
issues in Africa, the use of which is somewhat different from other continents.
[edit] Social impact

The advent of text messaging made possible new forms of interaction that were not possible before. A
person may now carry out a conversation with another user without the constraint of being expected to reply
within a short amount of time and without needing to set time aside to engage in conversation. Mobile
phone users can maintain communication during situations in which a voice call is impractical, impossible,
or unacceptable. Texting has provided a venue for participatory culture, allowing viewers to vote in online
and TV polls, as well as receive information on the move.[40] Texting can also bring people together and
create a sense of community through "Smart Mobs" or "Net War", which create "people power".[41]
[edit] Effect on language
‹ The template below (Ref improve section) is being considered for deletion. See templates for discussion to
help reach a consensus.›
Question book-new.svg
This section needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and
removed. (August 2008)
Main article: SMS language
This sticker seen in Paris satirizes the popularity of communication in SMS shorthand. In French: "Is that
you? / It's me! / Do you love me? / Shut up!"

The small phone keypad caused a number of adaptations of spelling, as in the phrase "txt msg", or use of
CamelCase, such as in "ThisIsVeryLame". To avoid the even more limited message lengths allowed when
using Cyrillic or Greek letters, speakers of languages written in those alphabets often use the Latin alphabet
for their own language. In certain languages utilizing diacritic marks, such as Polish, SMS technology
created an entire new variant of written language: characters normally written with diacritic marks (e.g., ą,
ę, ś, ż in Polish) are now being written without them (as a, e, s, z) to enable using cell phones without Polish
script or to save space in Unicode messages.
Historically, this language developed out of shorthand used in bulletin board systems and later in Internet
chat rooms, where users would abbreviate some words to allow a response to be typed more quickly, though
the amount of time saved was often inconsequential. However, this became much more pronounced in SMS,
where mobile phone users do not generally have access to a QWERTY keyboard as computer users did,
more effort is required to type each character, and there is a limit on the number of characters that may be

In Mandarin Chinese, numbers that sound similar to words are used in place of those words. For example,
the numbers 520 in Chinese (wu er ling) sound like the words for "I love you" (wo ai ni). The sequence 748
(qi si ba) sounds like the curse "go to hell" (qu si ba).

Predictive text software, which attempts to guess words (Tegic's T9 as well as iTAP) or letters (Eatoni's
LetterWise), reduces the labour of time-consuming input. This makes abbreviations not only less necessary,
but slower to type than regular words that are in the software's dictionary; however, it does make the
messages longer, often requiring the text message to be sent in multiple parts and, therefore, costing more to

Website portals, such as transl8it, have supported a community of users to help standardize this text speak
by allowing users to submit translations, staking claim with their user handle, or to submit top messages and
guess the lingo phrases. The international popularity of this portal resulted in late 2005 in the publishing of
the transl8it! dxNRE & glosRE (dictionary & glossary) as the world's first, and most complete, SMS and
text lingo book.
Wikinews has related news: New Zealand students able to use txt language in exams

The use of text messaging has changed the way that people talk and write essays, some[42] believing it to be
harmful. In November 2006, New Zealand Qualifications Authority approved the move that allowed
students of secondary schools to use mobile phone text language in the end-of-the-year-exam papers.[43]
Highly publicized reports, beginning in 2002, of the use of text language in school assignments caused some
to become concerned that the quality of written communication is on the decline,[13] and other reports
claim that teachers and professors are beginning to have a hard time controlling the problem.[13] However,
the notion that text language is widespread or harmful is refuted by research from linguistic experts.[44]

An article in The New Yorker explores how text messaging has Americanized some of the world's
languages with English. The use of diacritic marks is dropped in languages such as French, as well as
symbols in Ethiopian languages. In his book, Txtng: the Gr8 Db8, David Crystal says that texters in all
eleven languages use "lol", "u", "brb", and "gr8", all English-based shorthands. The use of pictograms and
logograms in texts are present in every language. They shorten words by using symbols to represent the
word or symbols whose name sounds like a syllable of the word such as in 2day or b4. This is commonly
used in other languages as well. Crystal gives some examples in several languages such as Italian sei, "six",
is used for sei, "you are". Example: dv 6 = dove sei ("where are you") and French sept "seven" = cassette
("casette"). There is also the use of numeral sequences, substituting for several syllables of a word and
creating whole phrases using numerals. For example, in French, a12c4 can be said as à un de ces quatres,
"see you around" (literally: "to one of these four [days]"). An example of using symbols in texting and
borrowing from English is the use of @. Whenever it is used in texting, its intended use is with the English
pronunciation. Crystal gives the example of the Welsh use of @ in @F, pronounced ataf, meaning "to me".
In character-based languages such as Chinese and Japanese, numbers are assigned syllables based on the
shortened form of the pronunciation of the number, sometimes the English pronunciation of the number. In
this way, numbers alone can be used to communicate whole passages, such as in Chinese, "8807701314520"
can be literally translated as "Hug hug you, kiss kiss you, whole life, whole life I love you." English
influences worldwide texting in variation but still in combination with the individual properties of
languages.[45] American popular culture is also recognized in shorthand. For example, Homer Simpson
translates into: ~(_8^(|).[46] Crystal also suggests that texting has led to more creativity in the English
language, giving people opportunities to create their own slang, emoticons, abbreviations, acronyms, etc.
The feeling of individualism and freedom excites people, making texting increasingly more popular and a
more efficient way to communicate.[47]

Recent research by Rosen et al. (2009)[48] found that those young adults who used more language-based
textisms (shortcuts such as LOL, 2nite, etc.) in daily writing produced worse formal writing than those
young adults who used fewer linguistic textisms in daily writing. However, the exact opposite was true for
informal writing. This suggests that perhaps the act of using textisms to shorten communication words leads
young adults to produce more informal writing, which may then help them to be better "informal" writers.
[edit] Texting while driving
A driver with attention divided between a mobile phone and the road ahead
Main article: Texting while driving

Texting while driving leads to increased distraction behind the wheel. In 2006, Liberty Mutual Insurance
Group conducted a survey with more than 900 teens from over 26 high schools nationwide. The results
showed that 87% of students found texting to be "very" or "extremely" distracting.[49] Then later on, a
study by AAA discovered that an alarming 46% of teens admitted to being distracted behind the wheel due
to texting. One example of distraction behind the wheel is the 2008 Chatsworth train collision, which killed
25 passengers. Upon closer investigation, it became known that the engineer of that train had sent 45 text
messages while operating.

A 2009 experiment with Car and Driver editor Eddie Alterman that took place at a deserted air strip showed
that texting while driving had a bigger negative impact on driver safety than being drunk. While being
legally drunk added four feet to Alterman's stopping distance while going 70 mph, reading an e-mail added
36 feet, and sending a text added 70 feet.[50]

In 2009, the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute released the results of an 18-month study that involved
placing cameras inside the cabs of more than 100 long-haul trucks, which recorded the drivers over a
combined driving distance of three million miles. The study concluded that when the drivers were texting,
their risk of crashing was 23 times greater than when not texting.[51]
[edit] Sexting
Main article: Sexting

Sexting is slang for the act of sending sexually explicit or suggestive content between mobile devices using
SMS.[52] A genre of texting, it contains either text, images, or video that is intended to be sexually

A portmanteau of sex and texting, sexting was reported as early as 2005 in The Sunday Telegraph
Magazine,[53] constituting a trend in the creative use of SMS to excite another with alluring messages
throughout the day.[54]

Although sexting often takes place consensually between two people, it can also occur against the wishes of
a person who is the subject of the content.[52] A number of instances have been reported in which the
recipients of sexting have shared the content of the messages with others, with less intimate intentions, such
as to impress their friends or embarrass their sender. Celebrities such as Miley Cyrus, Vanessa Hudgens,
and Adrienne Bailon have been victims of such abuses of sexting.[55]

A 2008 survey by The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy and
CosmoGirl.com[56] suggested a trend of sexting and other seductive online content being readily shared
between teens. One in five teen girls surveyed (22 percent)—and 11 percent of teen girls aged 13–16 years
old—say they have electronically sent, or posted online, nude or semi-nude images of themselves. One-third
(33 percent) of teen boys and one-quarter (25 percent) of teen girls say they were shown private nude or
semi-nude images. According to the survey, sexually suggestive messages (text, e-mail, and instant
messaging) were even more common than images, with 39 percent of teens having sent or posted such
messages, and half of teens (50 percent) having received them.
Sexting becomes a legal issue when teens (under 18) are involved, because any nude photos they may send
of themselves would put the recipients in possession of child pornography.[57]
[edit] In schools
Two girls text during class at school

Text messaging has had an impact on students academically, by creating an easier way to cheat on exams. In
December 2002, a dozen students were caught cheating on an accounting exam through the use of text
messages on their mobile phones.[58] In December 2002, Hitotsubashi University in Japan failed 26
students for receiving e-mailed exam answers on their mobile phones.[59]

The number of students caught using mobile phones to cheat on exams has increased significantly in recent
years. According to Okada (2005), most Japanese mobile phones can send and receive long text messages of
between 250 and 3000 characters with graphics, video, audio, and Web links.[60] In England, 287 school
and college students were excluded from exams in 2004 for using mobile phones during exams.[61] Some
teachers and professors claim that advanced texting features can lead to students cheating on exams.[62]
[edit] Bullying

Spreading rumors and gossip by text is also an issue of great concern. Text "bullying" of this sort can cause
distress and damage reputations. Harding and Rosenberg (2005) argue that the urge to forward text
messages seems difficult to resist, describing text messages as "loaded weapons".[63]

A survey conducted among mobile professionals in Europe and North America demonstrated that 94% of
those surveyed believed bullying by SMS to be a reality. The survey was conducted via SMS among a pan-
European and North American mobile professional audience, and 412 responded to the survey questions.
The survey measured mobile professionals' opinions on bullying by SMS as well as their opinion on who
should provide the protection against this threat.[64]
[edit] Influence on perceptions of the student

When a student sends an email that contains phonetic abbreviations and acronyms that are common in text
messaging (e.g., "gr8" instead of "great"), it can influence how that student is subsequently evaluated. In a
study by Lewandowski and Harrington (2006), participants read a student's email sent to a professor that
either contained text-messaging abbreviations (gr8, How R U?) or parallel text in standard English (great,
How are you?), and then provided impressions of the sender.[65] Students who used abbreviations in their
email were perceived as having a less favorable personality and as putting forth less effort on an essay they
submitted along with the email. Specifically, abbreviation users were seen as less intelligent, responsible,
motivated, studious, dependable, and hard-working. These findings suggest that the nature of a student's
email communication can influence how others perceive the student and their work.
[edit] Law and crime

Not only has text messaging had an impact in schools, but also on police forces around the world. A British
company developed, in June 2003, a program called Fortress SMS for Symbian phones. This program used
128 bit AES encryption to protect SMS messages.[66] Police have also retrieved deleted messages to
incriminate cult member Sara Svensson after confessing to murdering the wife of pastor Helge Fossmo and
having shot his lover's husband Daniel Linde in Knutby, Sweden. They traced the messages, because she
said she had acted anonymously on text forwards received in her phone.[67]

Police in Tilburg, Netherlands, started an SMS alert program, in which they would send a message to ask
citizens to be vigilant when a burglar was on the loose or a child was missing in their neighborhood. Several
thieves have been caught and children found using the SMS Alerts. The service has been expanding rapidly
to other cities.[68]

A Malaysian–Australian company has released its Crypto for Criminals multi-layer SMS security program.
Boston police are now turning to text messaging to help stop crime. The Boston Police Department has
established a program in which one can text in a crime tip anonymously to help stop crimes.[70]

A Malaysian court had ruled that it is legal to divorce through the use of text messaging, as long as one is
clear and unequivocal.[71]
[edit] Social unrest

Texting has been used on a number of occasions with the result of the gathering of large aggressive crowds.
SMS messaging drew a crowd to Cronulla Beach in Sydney resulting in the 2005 Cronulla riots. Not only
were text messages circulating in the Sydney area, but in other states as well (Daily Telegraph). The volume
of such text messages and e-mails also increased in the wake of the riot.[72] The crowd of 5000 at stages
became violent, attacking certain ethnic groups. Sutherland Shire Mayor directly blamed heavily circulated
SMS messages for the unrest.[73] NSW police considered whether people could be charged over the
texting.[74] Retaliatory attacks also used SMS.[75]

The Narre Warren Incident, when a group of 500 party goers attended a party at Narre Warren in
Melbourne, Australia, and rioted in January 2008, also was a response of communication being spread by
SMS and Myspace.[76] Following the incident, the Police Commissioner wrote an open letter asking young
people to be aware of the power of SMS and the Internet.[77] In Hong Kong, government officials find that
text messaging helps socially because they can send multiple texts to the community. Officials say it is an
easy way of contacting community or individuals for meetings or events.[78]

Texting was used to coordinate gatherings during the 2009 Iranian election protests.
[edit] Texting in politics

Text messaging has had a major impact on the political world. American campaigns find that text messaging
is a much easier, cheaper way of getting to the voters than the door-to-door approach.[79] Mexico's
president-elect Felipe Calderón launched millions of text messages in the days immediately preceding his
narrow win over Andres Manuel Lopez Obradór.[80] In January 2001, Joseph Estrada was forced to resign
from the post of president of the Philippines. The popular campaign against him was widely reported to
have been co-ordinated with SMS chain letters.[80] A massive texting campaign was credited with boosting
youth turnout in Spain's 2004 parliamentary elections.[80] In 2008, Detroit Mayor Kwame Kilpatrick and
his Chief of Staff at the time became entangled in a sex scandal stemming from the exchange of over 14,000
text messages that eventually led to his forced resignation, conviction of perjury, and other charges.[10]

Text messaging has been used to turn down other political leaders. During the 2004 U.S. Democratic and
Republican National Conventions, protesters used an SMS-based organizing tool called TXTmob to get to
opponents.[81] In the last day before the 2004 presidential elections in Romania, a message against Adrian
Năstase was largely circulated, thus breaking the laws that prohibited campaigning that day.

Text messaging has helped politics by promoting campaigns.

Furthermore, on January 20, 2001, President Joseph Estrada of the Philippines became the first head of state
in history to lose power to a smart mob.[82] More than one million Manila residents assembled at the site of
the 1986 People Power peaceful demonstrations that has toppled the Marcos regime. These people have
organized themselves and coordinated their actions through text messaging. They were able to bring down a
government without having to use any weapons or violence. Through text messaging, their plans and ideas
were communicated to others and successfully implemented. Also, this move encouraged the military to
withdraw their support from the regime, and as a result, the Estrada government fell.[82] People were able
to converge and unite with the use of their cell phones. "The rapid assembly of the anti-Estrada crowd was a
hallmark of early smart mob technology, and the millions of text messages exchanged by the demonstrators
in 2001 was, by all accounts, a key to the crowds esprit de corps."[82]
[edit] Medical concerns
Main article: Blackberry thumb

The excessive use of the thumb for pressing keys on mobile devices has led to a high rate of a form of
repetitive strain injury termed "Blackberry thumb". (Although this refers to strain developed on older
Blackberry devices, which had a scroll wheel on the side of the phone.)

Texting has also been linked as a secondary source in numerous traffic collisions, in which police
investigations of mobile phone records have found that many drivers have lost control of their cars while
attempting to send or retrieve a text message. Increasing cases of Internet addiction are now also being
linked to text messaging, as mobile phones are now more likely to have e-mail and Web capabilities to
complement the ability to text.
[edit] Texting etiquette

America's twentieth-century etiquette guru, Emily Post, still has lessons regarding people living in the
twenty-first century. At the website of The Emily Post Institute, the topic of texting has spurred several
articles with the "do's and dont's" regarding the new form of communication. One example from the site is:
"Keep your message brief. No one wants to have an entire conversation with you by texting when you could
just call him or her instead."[83] Another example is: "Don't use all Caps. Typing a text message in all
capital letters will appear as though you are shouting at the recipient, and should be avoided."

There are also generational differences in etiquette as noted in Lynne Lancaster and David Stillman's The
M-Factor: How the Millennial Generation Is Rocking the Workplace. Younger Americans often do not
consider it rude to answer their cell or begin texting in the middle of a face-to-face conversation with
someone else, while older people, less used to the behavior and the accompanying lack of eye contact or
attention, find this to be disruptive and ill-mannered.

With regard to texting in the workplace, Plantronics studied how we communicate at work and found that
58% of US knowledge workers have increased the use of text messaging for work in the past five years. The
same study found that only 33% of knowledge workers felt text messaging was critical or very important to
success and productivity at work.[84]
[edit] Challenges
[edit] Text message spam
Further information: Mobile phone spam

In 2002, an increasing trend towards spamming mobile phone users through SMS prompted cellular-service
carriers to take steps against the practice, before it became a widespread problem. No major spamming
incidents involving SMS had been reported as of March 2007[update], but the existence of mobile phone
spam[85] has been noted by industry watchdogs including Consumer Reports magazine and the Utility
Consumers' Action Network (UCAN). In 2005, UCAN brought a case against Sprint for spamming its
customers and charging $0.10 per text message.[86] The case was settled in 2006 with Sprint agreeing not
to send customers Sprint advertisements via SMS.[87]

SMS expert Acision (foremerly LogicaCMG Telecoms) reported a new type of SMS malice at the end of
2006, noting the first instances of SMiShing (a cousin to e-mail phishing scams). In SMiShing, users receive
SMS messages posing to be from a company, enticing users to phone premium-rate numbers or reply with
personal information.
[edit] Pricing concerns

Concerns have been voiced[88] over the excessive cost of off-plan text messaging in the United States.
AT&T, along with most other service providers, charges texters 20 cents per message if they do not have a
messaging plan or if they have exceeded their allotted number of texts. Given that an SMS message is at
most 160 bytes in size, this cost scales to a cost of $1,310[88] per megabyte sent via text message. This is in
sharp contrast with the price of unlimited data plans offered by the same carriers, which allow the
transmission of hundreds of megabytes of data for monthly prices of about $15 to $45 in addition to a voice
plan. As a comparison, a one-minute phone call uses up the same amount of network capacity as 600 text
messages[89], meaning that if the same cost-per-traffic formula were applied to phone calls, cell phone calls
would cost $120 per minute. With service providers gaining more customers and expanding their capacity,
their overhead costs should be decreasing, not increasing.

Although major cellphone providers deny any collusion, fees for out-of-package text messages have
increased, doubling from 10 to 20 cents in the United States between 2007 and 2008 alone.[90] On July 16,
2009, Senate hearings were held to look into any breach of the Sherman Antitrust Act.[91]
[edit] Security concerns

Consumer SMS should not be used for confidential communication. The contents of common SMS
messages are known to the network operator's systems and personnel. Therefore, consumer SMS is not an
appropriate technology for secure communications.[92]

To address this issue, many companies use an SMS gateway provider based on SS7 connectivity to route the
messages. The advantage of this international termination model is the ability to route data directly through
SS7, which gives the provider visibility of the complete path of the SMS. This means SMS messages can be
sent directly to and from recipients without having to go through the SMS-C of other mobile operators. This
approach reduces the number of mobile operators that handle the message; however, it should not be
considered as an end-to-end secure communication, as the content of the message is exposed to the SMS
gateway provider.

Failure rates without backward notification can be high between carriers (T-Mobile to Verizon is notorious
in the US). International texting can be extremlely unreliable depending on the country of origin, destination
and respective carriers.
Consumer SMS Business SMS
Unreliable Timely delivery
Immeasurable Measurable via delivery notifications
Subject to high levels of message loss and delay No message loss, full transparency and security through
end-to-end delivery
Insecure transmission routes Viable for all types of mobile interaction: B2B, B2C, C2B, C2C
Viable for person-to-person communications only
[edit] Text messaging in popular culture
[edit] Records and competition
Wikinews has related news: Singapore student is world's fastest text messenger

The Guinness Book of World Records has a world record for text messaging, currently held by Sonja
Kristiansen of Norway. Ms. Kristiansen keyed in the official text message, as established by Guinness, in
37.28 seconds.[93] The message is, "The razor-toothed piranhas of the genera Serrasalmus and Pygocentrus
are the most ferocious freshwater fish in the world. In reality, they seldom attack a human."[93] In 2005, the
record was held by a 24-year-old Scottish man, Craig Crosbie, who completed the same message in 48
seconds, beating the previous time by 19 seconds.[94]

The Book of Alternative Records lists Chris Young of Salem, Oregon, as the world-record holder for the
fastest 160-character text message where the contents of the message are not provided ahead of time. His
record of 62.3 seconds was set on May 23, 2007.[95]

Elliot Nicholls of Dunedin, New Zealand, currently holds the world record for the fastest blindfolded text
messaging. A record of a 160-letter text in 45 seconds while blindfolded was set on 17 November 2007,
beating the old record of 1 minute 26 seconds set by an Italian in September 2006.[96]

Ohio native Andrew Acklin is credited with the world record for most text messages sent or received in a
single month, with 200,052. His accomplishments were first in the World Records Academy and later
followed up by Ripley's Believe It Or Not 2010: Seeing Is Believing. He has been acknowledged by The
Universal Records Database for the most text messages in a single month.[97]

In January 2010, LG Electronics sponsored an international competition, the LG Mobile World Cup, to
determine the fastest pair of texters. The winners were a team from South Korea, Ha Mok-min and Bae

On April 6, 2011, SKH Apps released an iPhone app, iTextFast, to allow consumers to test their texting
speed and practice the paragraph used by Guinness Book of World Records. The current best time listed on
Game Center for that paragraph is 34.65 seconds.[99]
[edit] Morse code

A few competitions have been held between expert Morse code operators and expert SMS users.[100]
Several mobile phones have Morse code ring tones and alert messages. For example, many Nokia mobile
phones have an option to beep "S M S" in Morse code when it receives a short message. Some of these
phones could also play the Nokia slogan "Connecting people" in Morse code as a message tone.[101] There
are third-party applications available for some mobile phones that allow Morse input for short messages.
[edit] See also

* Chat language
* Extended Messaging Service
* Instant messaging
* List of mobile text entry technologies
* Mobile dial code
* Operator messaging
* SMS language
* Telegram
* Tironian notes, scribal abbreviations and ligatures: Roman and medieval abbreviations used to save
space on manuscripts and epigraphs

Simple Network Paging Protocol (SNPP) is a protocol that defines a method by which a pager can receive
a message over the Internet. It is supported by most major paging providers, and serves as an alternative to
the paging modems used by many telecommunications services. The protocol was most recently described
in RFC 1861. It is a fairly simple protocol that may run over TCP/IP (using TCP port 444) and send out a
page using only a handful of well-documented commands.

[edit] Connecting & Using SNPP Servers

It is relatively easy to connect to a SNPP server only requiring a telnet client and the address of the SNPP
server. The port 444 is standard for SNPP servers, and it is free to use from the sender's point of view.
Maximum message length can be carrier-dependent.[1][2] Once in the telnet console, a user can simply enter
the commands to send a message to a pager connected to that network. For example, once connected to the
network, you could then issue the PAGE command with the number of the device you would like to send
the message to. After that issue the MESS command with the text of the message you wish to send
following it. You can then issue the SEND command to send out the message to the pager and then QUIT,
or send another message to a different device. The protocol also allows you to issue multiple PAGE
commands, stacking them one after the other, per message effectively allowing you to send the same
message to several devices on that network with one MESS and SEND command pair.
Wireless Communications Transfer Protocol (WCTP) is the method used to send messages to wireless
devices such as pagers on NPCS (Narrowband PCS) networks. It uses HTTP as a transport layer over the
World Wide Web.

Development of WCTP was initiated by the Messaging Standards Committee and submitted to the Radio
Paging Community. When the first proposal was received, a sub-committee was established to improve the
protocol and issue it as a specification. The sub-committee was moved into the PTC (Paging Technical
Committee) which is a volunteer committee composed of industry representatives. The PCIA (Personal
Communications Industry) accepted the first full release and adopted the protocol as a PCIA standard. The
current version is WCTP 1.3.

Computer Simulation as a Tool for Calculation of the Paging System Capacity

Research & Development Department of Paging Systems
Swissphone Telecom
Fälmisstrasse 21
CH-8833 Samstagern, Switzerland
E-mail: miroslav.belosevic@swissphone.ch
Mladen Kos
Department of Telecommunications
Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing
University of Zagreb
Unska 3
HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
E-mail: mladen.kos@fer.hr
Paging system capacity, Pocsag, simulation, queuing
system, random number generation, optimisation
To calculate the capacity of a paging system two
different models can be applied: a theoretical and a
simulation model. This paper presents factors that
affect the capacity of a paging system, shows how
the capacity can be calculated by use of mentioned
models and compares obtained results. The
simulation process is described and impact of
different queuing algorithms on system capacity is
presented. The paper discusses also the relationship
between models and shows that the capacity of a
paging system can be determined by use of a
theoretical model only if a simulation model has
been applied before.
The capacity of a paging system is influenced by
many different factors (Ball et al. 1985). These
factors can be classified and divided on three
different levels: physical, transport and presentation
level. The factors on the physical level affect and
reduce the time that is available for the transmission
of paging messages. These factors are wide-area
coverage techniques (time and/or frequency divided
adjacent paging areas) and organisation of
distribution network (point-to-point or point-tomultipoint) as well as network synchronisation and
operation and maintenance policy. All of mentioned
factors require some amount of time that is therefore
not available for the transmission of a real paging
The second, transport level is the level of a paging
protocol. This level will be in more detail described
in this paper. Given the time disposable for the
transfer of paging messages on the first level, a
paging protocol on the second level affects the
amount of bits available for transfer of messages.
Table 1: Effective speed of paging protocol
Protocol Nominal
Pocsag 512 286 0.56
Pocsag 1200 696 0.58
Pocsag 2400 1392 0.58
Ermes 6250 3500 0.56
Because of its nature (one-way radio protocol and
quasi-synchronous operation), a paging protocol
uses relatively small transfer speeds and a great
amount of redundant comparing to the number of
information bits. Table 1 shows nominal and
effective speeds for the most common paging
protocols. Other factors on this level such are a
preamble, a synchronisation codeword, a packet size,
battery saving techniques and a queuing algorithmdiminish the number of the information bits too.
Taking all of these factors into account we can say
that an effective speed of a paging protocol is
approximately a half of its nominal speed.
Given the number of available information bits on
the transport level, different presentation methods on
the third level determine the amount of information
that can be transferred. For example, alphanumeric
messages are usually encoded with standard ASCII
block code assuming 7 bits per character. But if the
paging operator agrees to use capital letters only,
same message can be encoded with only 6 bits per
character. In such a way 14% of the channel capacity
can be saved without loosing of any information.
Information can be also encoded using Huffman
codes or some other methods that can reduce the
amount of transferred bits needed to present same
information. Those methods, as well as factors
influencing the capacity of a paging system on the
Discussion in this paper is concentrated on the
second level and on theoretical and simulation model
for calculation of the paging system capacity.
The capacity of a paging system can be expressed
either as a total number of messages nmsg sent on a
channel during the busy hour or a total number of
subscribers nuser
that a paging channel can serve. The
latter can be obtained by dividing the total number of
messages by the busy hour call rate bhcr:
= (1)
Having in mind that the busy hour call rate is an
empirical value different from one to other paging
system, the capacity of a paging system calculated
with this method can be considered as an empirical
value too. Because of that the term "maximal
number of messages" will be used instead of
"maximal number of users" to denote the capacity of
a paging system.
The main characteristics of applied paging protocol
and of carried traffic, as well as some transmission
parameters have to be known to calculate the
capacity of a paging system by use of a theoretical
model. For the calculation of the paging system
capacity the Pocsag protocol will be used further in
this paper while almost 80% of the whole world
subscriber base still use this protocol. Given the
protocol speed, the preamble and batch length as
well as transmission packet length and number of
codewords per one Pocsag batch, the total number of
information codewords per hour can be calculated.
This value divided by an average number of
codewords per message equals the total number of
messages nmsg that can be sent on a Pocsag paging
channel per hour.



Following parameters are variables:
v protocol speed (bit/s)
transmission packet length in seconds
cmsg number of characters per message
pi message type distribution
{ }∋ = ∑
Following parameters are constants:
thour 3600 number of seconds per hour
lpreamble 576 preamble length (bits)
lbatch 544 batch length (bits)
lCW 20 codeword length (bits)
lsymbol 0,4,7 symbol length (bits)
0 - Tone Only
4 - Numeric
7 - Alphanumeric
mbatch 16 number of codewords in batch
This equation assumes that the transmission packet
length tpacket
is given in number of seconds rather
than in number of batches what would be the other
possibility. One Pocsag transmission packet consists
of preamble followed by certain number of batches,
which depends on a packet length. Each batch
comprises one synchronisation and 16 information
codewords grouped in 8 frames (figure 1). The
expression in the denominator of the equation (2)
denotes a required number of codewords per
message taking into account all three message types
supported by the Pocsag protocol. The values pi
the probability of appearance of particular message
type. The length of a message is given by a
parameter cmsg. It should be 0 (zero) for tone only
messages. "+1" stands for an address codeword
because each message starts with an address
codeword followed by a number of messagecodewords in case of numeric and alphanumeric
messages. Tone only messages consists only of an
address codeword. Equation (2) will be used later in
this paper to compare the calculated capacity with
the capacity obtained by use of a simulation model.
Although is this equation mathematically absolutely
correct, it wouldn’t give correct results in practice.
Because of battery saving techniques the beginning
of a message for particular subscriber has always to
be placed in the same frame as dictated by the last
three bits (modulo 8) of the pager address. The effect
of this rule is much longer battery life (RCSG 1986)
but also a reduced efficiency with which a message
can be placed into a packet. That means that some of
available information codewords will not be filled
with a message data. There will be gaps between
messages. These gaps are filled with idle codewords,
which carry no information.
The ratio of information (address and message)
codewords vs. total number of codewords is known
as batch utilisation factor. This value has
considerable impact on the capacity of a paging
system, but cannot be calculated with any
mathematical method. The figure 1 shows the 5-
batch Pocsag packet without preamble. The packet is
filled with four messages.
Message 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Message 2 Message 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Message 4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Figure 1: Pocsag packet
Actually there is enough free space for additional
eight tone only messages. But in the moment of
packet creation there were no such messages in the
queue, which would have replaced the idle
codewords with message codewords. The result is a
batch utilisation factor of bu = 0.9. Now, it can be
seen that the equation (2) is valid only in idealistic
case, assuming that all of available codewords are
filled with message data. Because of that this
equation have to be modified and multiplied by a
batch utilisation factor bu to get a useful equation for
the calculation of the paging system capacity.
⋅ EX (3)
But the problem is that a batch utilisation factor bu
cannot be calculated by any theoretical model. As
well as busy hour call rate, it can be determined only
by a simulation model or by an observation over a
period of time in a real paging system.
The second drawback of a theoretical model is that a
time dimension of a paging system (message delay
distribution) cannot be expressed with this model.
The message delay denotes the time between arrival
of a message in a queuing system and start of its
Pocsag transmission. The message delay distribution
is one of the main factors that determine the quality
of service of a paging system and therefore of great
importance for its operator. Like a batch utilisation
factor, it can be calculated only by a simulation.
-Number of
-Message delay
atch B
Protocol characteristics
Traffic characteristisc
- Message type
- Message length
Transmission parameters
Message priority distribution
Interarrival time distribution
Frame distribution
Number of
Figure 2: Relationship between models
Figure 2 shows inputs and outputs of a theoretical
and a simulation model, as well as a relationship
between them. A simulation model has three input
parameters more: a message priority, an inter-arrival
time and a message starting frame distribution.There are three levels of a message priority: normal,
priority and urgent. Only a small part of a total
message number (5-15%) may have the priority
higher then normal, to guarantee the fast distribution
of priority messages even if the queuing system is
overloaded. The message inter-arrival time is
distributed according to exponential distribution and
the message frames are (in a normal case) distributed
uniformly over the eight frames within a Pocsag
batch. Additional parameter that has impact on
results of a simulation model is organisation of a
queuing system and algorithm used for building of a
transmission packets. Above-mentioned batch
utilisation factor is shown as an output result of a
simulation and at the same time as an input
parameter of a theoretical model.
Taking all these parameters into account a computer
simulation program has been developed to simulate
traffic flows in a real Pocsag paging system and to
make possible the calculation of its capacity. The
structure of the simulation program is depicted on
figure 3.
Max Interarrival Time
Exp. Parameter
Message Type
Message Priority
Message Length
Message Frame
Queuing System Algorithm
Packet Length
Time Reference Last Packet
Figure 3: The simulation program structure
It comprises same modules as a real paging system
plus call generator, which is specific for the
simulation process. In the following text each
module of the simulation program is explained in
more detail.
Call Generator
The main task of the call generator is to simulate an
input traffic of a real paging system which is
considered to be a poisson process. It generates
random calls according to SDL diagram depicted on
figure 4.
Random Number
Start Timer
Call to Queue
Call Parameters
Start Timer
Waiting for
Timer Trigger
Waiting for
Timer Trigger
Waiting for
Timer Trigger
Figure 4: Call generator policy
The call generator policy is explained step-by-step in
following text:
1. After the program start the "StopSimulation"
variable is set to False.
2. Timer "SimulationTime" is started. This timer
will expire after 60 minutes and will set the
"StopSimulation" variable to True. This will
cause the end of the simulation process.
3. Uniformly distributed random number is
4. According to this number and parameters of the
simulation following message attributes are
- message type (tone only, numeric,
- message priority (normal, priority, urgent)
- message length
- message frame (0…7)
5. Call is sent to queue.6. If the "StopSimulation" variable is set to True
the simulation process stops. Otherwise follows
next step.
7. According to the number from the third step, an
exponentially distributed random number is
calculated. This number will denote the message
inter-arrival time.
8. A timer is started taking inter-arrival time
calculated in previous step as timeout value.
9. After timer expiration the whole cycle is
repeated starting from step 3.
These steps are repeated until the end of the
simulation. The simulation will be stopped after an
hour, because all values, which express the capacity
of a paging system are normalised to the time period
of one hour.
For the calculation of the paging system capacity is
necessary that a paging system works close to his
maximum capacity. That means that output packet
has to be filled up as much as possible. This can be
done only if there are enough messages waiting in
the queue. On the other hand, if there is a lot of
messages in the queue, the average message delay
and the quality of service may start becoming
unacceptable. That means that the call generator
parameters have to be carefully selected to enable
the operation of a paging system at very close to its
maximum capacity with very little delay. Given the
message type distribution and maximum message
length, an ideal message inter-arrival time
distribution has to be found, which will force a
paging system to work close to its maximum.
Queuing System
Generated calls are sent directly into a queuing
system. Two different organisations of a queuing
system will be evaluated in this paper:
1. The first organisation assumes eight groups of
queues, one for each frame. Each group consists
of three queues, one for each priority level
(Urgent, Priority, Normal), so there are total 24
FIFO queues (figure 5). Message is placed in the
particular queue according to its starting frame
and priority level.
2. The second organisation assumes only three
FIFO queues, one for each priority level (figure
6). Message is placed in the particular queue
according to its priority level.
Figure 5: Organisation of queuing system Nr. 1
Figure 6: Organisation of queuing system Nr. 2
Messages are waiting in the queue for the message
packer process, which will take them out according
to appropriate algorithm and place them in the
output packet.
Message Packer
Message packer waits for an external signal from the
time reference, which denotes the start of a packing
procedure. This signal is generated every tpacket
seconds. Depending on organisation of a queuing
system, message packer applies corresponding
algorithm to take the messages out of the queue and
to pack them into output packet:
Algorithm A1. This algorithm starts and looks for a
message in the queue group for the frame 0. A call
with a highest priority level will be packed. Let us
assume that this call ends in frame 5. The program
will look further for a call (with a highest priority
level) in the queue group for the frame 6. If such acall exists it will be taken out and packed.
Otherwise, message packer will look for a call in the
queue group for the next frame and so on. The
algorithm stops if the whole packet is filled up with
messages or there is no more messages waiting in
the queuing system.
Algorithm A2. This algorithm always looks for a
message of highest priority waiting in the queuing
system regardless of its starting frame. The message
is placed on the first possible position (frame) in an
output transmission packet. Let us assume the last
message placed in the packet ends in frame 5. New
message, which is still in the queue, starts in frame
4. So a new batch has to be appended to the packet
and the new message will be placed in its frame 4. If
there is not enough free space to place the message
(packet length exceeds limit), a separate algorithm
tries to reorganise the packet and to minimise the
number of idle codewords. It changes the order of
the messages and tries to optimise number of batches
in packet and to create enough free space at the end
of the packet for the new message. If the new
message cannot be placed into the packet even after
reorganisation, the next message is taken out from
the queue. The algorithm ends if there is no more
messages in the queue or if there is not enough free
space in the output packet for any of the waiting
Although the real efficiency of each algorithm can
be tested only by use of a simulation process, some
statements on its characteristics can be made even
before the start of a simulation. It is obvious that the
first algorithm (A1) is faster than the second one
(A2). The algorithm A2 requires some extra time to
reorganise the message order in the transmission
packet. The advantage of the algorithm A1 is that the
messages are automatically sorted during its arrival
at the system according to their starting frame. But
here we can observe a certain drawback of the
algorithm A1. Namely, the messages are taken out
from the queue according to their starting frame (on
the first place) and than according to their priority
level. In the example above for the algorithm A1, the
no-priority message in frame 6 has precedence over
all priority messages in other frame groups. It also
has precedence over all other messages (from other
frames) that have come in the queuing system before
it. That is the reason why the algorithm A2 has to be
investigated. The algorithm A2 assumes that only
priority messages have precedence over other
messages. Whether this drawback of algorithm A1
has impact on the message delay distribution and
batch utilisation factor or not, can be tested only
with a simulation program.
All calls generated during the simulation process are
logged in the database. First, the call generator logs
all generated calls with their attributes and absolute
time of generation. Second, the message packer
scans whole output packet and writes the times of
call transmission in the database record for that call.
Once those data are available, the analysis of the
simulation results can be started.
Following parameters have been chosen for the
simulation program:
1. message type distribution:
- 10% tone only
- 20% numeric
- 70% alphanumeric messages
2. maximum message length:
- 10 numeric
- 80 alphanumeric characters
3. message priority distribution
- 85% normal
- 10% priority
- 5% urgent messages
4. maximal/minimal inter-arrival time of 2s/1ms
5. protocol speed 1200 bit/s
6. output packet length 30 seconds
Given these parameters, optimal parameters for the
call generator have to be found. As mentioned before
in this paper an optimal message inter-arrival time
distribution has to force a paging system to work
close to its maximal capacity. At the same time an
acceptable quality of service has to be achieved. An
inter-arrival time distribution f(t) depends on
maximal inter-arrival time tmax and on a parameter of
an exponential function a.

= PD[
⋅ (4)
t is uniformly distributed random number. Different
values of parameter a have yield to results showed in
table 2.
It is interesting to observe that a change of parameter
a of an exponential function from 0.00175 to 0.003
generates 6.7% more calls, but also more then eighttimes longer delay. On the other side the batch
utilisation factor is for 3.2% better because of much
larger assortment of different messages, which are
waiting in the queuing system.
Table 2: Influence of parameter a on the call
generator performance
Parameter a 0.001 0.00175 0.002 0.003
total calls 3794 5605 5861 5980
bu [%] 93.1 96.7 99.4 99.9
max delay [s] 52 200 666 1693
The message delay distribution functions for nopriority messages and for the values from table 2 are
shown on figure 7.
0 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800 Delay [s]
Percent of messages [%]
Figure 7: Message delay distribution, no priority,
Algorithm A1
A value of a parameter a = 0.00175 has been chosen
for the simulation program, because it gives the
optimal trade-off between the number of served calls
and the batch utilisation factor. It produces also the
message delay distribution function that is still
0 20 40 60 80 Delay [s]
Percent of messages [%]
Figure 8: Message delay distribution, urgent
priority, Algorithm A1
It is interesting to compare the end results for the
same values shown in table 2, but for messages with
urgent priority (figure 8). It can be seen that message
delay distribution functions are in this case almost
identical. Messages with priority can be practically
served immediately after an arrival at the queuing
system, regardless of the current traffic load and
possible queue overload, because only relatively
small part of all generated messages have the highest
priority level.
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Delay [s]
Percent of messages [%]
No rmal A1
No rmal A2
Urgent A1
Urgent A2
Figure 9: Delay distribution, Algorithm A1/A2,
uniform frame distribution
The efficiency of both algorithms is compared on
figure 9 for the same traffic conditions (a = 0.00175)
and for the uniform frame distribution. The
algorithm A1 has served total 5605 calls and has
achieved the batch utilisation factor of 96.7%
compared to algorithm A2, which has served only
5256 calls during the same time period with batch
utilisation of 90.2%. The message delay distribution
function is also much more acceptable for the
algorithm A1 in spite of assumptions made in
previous chapter.
0 200 400 600 800 1000 Delay [s]
Percent of messages [%]
Uniform A1
NotUniform A1
Uniform A2
NotUniform A2
Figure 10: Delay distribution, Algorithm A1/A2,
uniform/not-uniform frame distribution
Figure 10 shows an influence of a message frame
distribution function on the algorithm efficiency. A
not-uniform frame distribution has caused a general
degrade of message delay distribution for both
queuing algorithms. But also in that case the
algorithm A1 has produced better results than other
algorithm and so it has approved its superiority in
comparison with algorithm A2.THEORETICAL VS. SIMULATION MODEL
Once we have done the computer simulation and
obtained the batch utilisation factor, the theoretical
model can be applied. The parameters mentioned in
previous chapter and batch utilisation factor bu =
96.7% have to be put in equations (2) and (3). The
parameters for the message type distribution have to
be slightly modified. Namely the input parameters of
the simulation program were 10% tone only, 20%
numeric and 70% alphanumeric. But the call
generator has really generated 9,4% tone only, 20%
numeric and 70,6% alphanumeric calls. The
theoretical model will give 5701 calls compared to
5605 calls obtained by the simulation model. The
difference of 1,7% is consequence of limited
accuracy of a computer software timer used during
the generation of random calls, but the difference is
so small that it can be neglected.
The simulation program presented in this paper has
been approved on the real paging system. During
design of new Pocsag paging system, queuing
algorithms presented in this paper have been
compared. According to results shown in previous
chapter the algorithm A1 has been chosen for new
system. The simulation program turned out to be
useful during introduction of a new broadcasting
service in an existing paging system too. New
service, means new characteristic of an input traffic.
Only by use of a simulation program can be tested
whether this new traffic characteristic would
influence and degrade the existing quality of service
of a paging system.
The research shown in this paper relates to paging
systems with Pocsag protocol. Further research will
be directed to evaluation of queuing algorithms and
overall system performance of an Ermes paging
system. For this purpose a lot of work already done
for this research can be reused. Only a few
modifications have to be made on call generator
process and on database format. Queuing algorithms
and message packer have to be adapted on Ermes
protocol. Some of this work is already made and is
Two different models for calculation of the paging
system capacity have been evaluated in this paper.
The theoretical model has been presented including
the universal mathematical formula for calculation
of the capacity of the Pocsag paging system. It has
been shown that a theoretical model can give useful
results only if a simulation model has been applied
before. That is because of a batch utilisation factor,
which cannot be obtained by a theoretical model, but
only by use of a computer simulation. The structure
of the simulation program has been presented, as
well as influence of a queuing system policy on the
simulation results. We have seen that the computer
simulation can be used for the calculation of the
paging system capacity as well as for the evaluation
and comparison of different queuing algorithms.
Besides that, the computer simulation has been
approved as a unique tool for calculation of the
message delay distribution function, which is also
one of the main advantages in comparison with a
theoretical model.
Ball, D. M., Mabey, P. J.,"Traffic handling capacity of
CCIR Radiopaging Code No. 1", Land Mobile Radio,
Publication No. 65, pp 7-13, December 1985.
local access in mobile telecommunication networks"
(Master science thesis), Faculty of Electrical Engineering
and Computing, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, 1999.
Hillier, F. S., Liebermann, G. J., Operations Research -
Einführung, 5. Auflage, München, Wien, Oldenbourg,
Radiopaging Code Standards Group, The book of the
CCIR Radiopaging Code No. 1, Secretary RCSG, British
Telecom, 1986.
1966. He received the B.S. and M.S. degrees in
electrical engineering from the University of Zagreb
in 1989 and 1999, respectively. From 1990 to 1994
he was working in Ericsson Nikola Tesla, Zagreb,
Croatia on a software design for a real-time systems
dealing with operation and maintenance of a
telecommunication network. Since 1994 he has been
working in Swissphone Telecom, Switzerland,
Research & Development Department of Paging
Systems. His current research interests are related to
optimisation of the capacity and information flows in
a paging system and to evaluation of different
queuing algorithms by use of a computer simulation.
In electronics, modulation is the process of varying one or more properties of a high-frequency periodic
waveform, called the carrier signal, with respect to a modulating signal (which typically contains
information to be transmitted). This is done in a similar fashion to a musician modulating a tone (a periodic
waveform) from a musical instrument by varying its volume, timing and pitch. The three key parameters of
a periodic waveform are its amplitude ("volume"), its phase ("timing") and its frequency ("pitch"), all of
which can be modified in accordance with a low frequency signal to obtain the modulated signal. Typically
a high-frequency sinusoid waveform is used as carrier signal, but a square wave pulse train may also occur.

In telecommunications, modulation is the process of conveying a message signal, for example a digital bit
stream or an analog audio signal, inside another signal that can be physically transmitted. Modulation of a
sine waveform is used to transform a baseband message signal into a passband signal, for example low-
frequency audio signal into a radio-frequency signal (RF signal). In radio communications, cable TV
systems or the public switched telephone network for instance, electrical signals can only be transferred
over a limited passband frequency spectrum, with specific (non-zero) lower and upper cutoff frequencies.
Modulating a sine-wave carrier makes it possible to keep the frequency content of the transferred signal as
close as possible to the centre frequency (typically the carrier frequency) of the passband.

A device that performs modulation is known as a modulator and a device that performs the inverse
operation of modulation is known as a demodulator (sometimes detector or demod). A device that can do
both operations is a modem (modulator–demodulator).


• 1 Aim
• 2 Analog modulation methods
• 3 Digital modulation methods
o 3.1 Fundamental digital modulation methods
o 3.2 Modulator and detector principles of operation
o 3.3 List of common digital modulation techniques
• 4 Digital baseband modulation or line coding
• 5 Pulse modulation methods
• 6 Miscellaneous modulation techniques
• 7 See also

• 8 References

[edit] Aim
The aim of digital modulation is to transfer a digital bit stream over an analog bandpass channel, for
example over the public switched telephone network (where a bandpass filter limits the frequency range to
between 300 and 3400 Hz), or over a limited radio frequency band.

The aim of analog modulation is to transfer an analog baseband (or lowpass) signal, for example an audio
signal or TV signal, over an analog bandpass channel, for example a limited radio frequency band or a cable
TV network channel.
Analog and digital modulation facilitate frequency division multiplexing (FDM), where several low pass
information signals are transferred simultaneously over the same shared physical medium, using separate
passband channels.

The aim of digital baseband modulation methods, also known as line coding, is to transfer a digital bit
stream over a baseband channel, typically a non-filtered copper wire such as a serial bus or a wired local
area network.

The aim of pulse modulation methods is to transfer a narrowband analog signal, for example a phone call
over a wideband baseband channel or, in some of the schemes, as a bit stream over another [digital
transmission] system.

In music synthesizers, modulation may be used to synthesise waveforms with a desired overtone spectrum.
In this case the carrier frequency is typically in the same order or much lower than the modulating
waveform. See for example frequency modulation synthesis or ring modulation.

[edit] Analog modulation methods

In analog modulation, the modulation is applied continuously in response to the analog information signal.

A low-frequency message signal (top) may be carried by an AM or FM radio wave.

Common analog modulation techniques are:

• Amplitude modulation (AM) (here the amplitude of the carrier signal is varied in accordance to the
instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal)
o Double-sideband modulation (DSB)
 Double-sideband modulation with carrier (DSB-WC) (used on the AM radio
broadcasting band)
 Double-sideband suppressed-carrier transmission (DSB-SC)
 Double-sideband reduced carrier transmission (DSB-RC)
o Single-sideband modulation (SSB, or SSB-AM)
 SSB with carrier (SSB-WC)
 SSB suppressed carrier modulation (SSB-SC)
o Vestigial sideband modulation (VSB, or VSB-AM)
o Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM)

• Angle modulation
o Frequency modulation (FM) (here the frequency of the carrier signal is varied in accordance
to the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal)
o Phase modulation (PM) (here the phase shift of the carrier signal is varied in accordance to
the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal)
[edit] Digital modulation methods
In digital modulation, an analog carrier signal is modulated by a digital bit stream. Digital modulation
methods can be considered as digital-to-analog conversion, and the corresponding demodulation or
detection as analog-to-digital conversion. The changes in the carrier signal are chosen from a finite number
of M alternative symbols (the modulation alphabet).

Schematic of 4 baud (8 bps) data link.

A simple example: A telephone line is designed for transferring audible sounds, for example tones, and not
digital bits (zeros and ones). Computers may however communicate over a telephone line by means of
modems, which are representing the digital bits by tones, called symbols. If there are four alternative
symbols (corresponding to a musical instrument that can generate four different tones, one at a time), the
first symbol may represent the bit sequence 00, the second 01, the third 10 and the fourth 11. If the modem
plays a melody consisting of 1000 tones per second, the symbol rate is 1000 symbols/second, or baud. Since
each tone (i.e., symbol) represents a message consisting of two digital bits in this example, the bit rate is
twice the symbol rate, i.e. 2000 bits per second. This is similar to the technique used by dialup modems as
opposed to DSL modems.

According to one definition of digital signal, the modulated signal is a digital signal, and according to
another definition, the modulation is a form of digital-to-analog conversion. Most textbooks would consider
digital modulation schemes as a form of digital transmission, synonymous to data transmission; very few
would consider it as analog transmission.

[edit] Fundamental digital modulation methods

The most fundamental digital modulation techniques are based on keying:

• In the case of PSK (phase-shift keying), a finite number of phases are used.
• In the case of FSK (frequency-shift keying), a finite number of frequencies are used.
• In the case of ASK (amplitude-shift keying), a finite number of amplitudes are used.
• In the case of QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation), a finite number of at least two phases, and
at least two amplitudes are used.

In QAM, an inphase signal (the I signal, for example a cosine waveform) and a quadrature phase signal (the
Q signal, for example a sine wave) are amplitude modulated with a finite number of amplitudes, and
summed. It can be seen as a two-channel system, each channel using ASK. The resulting signal is equivalent
to a combination of PSK and ASK.

In all of the above methods, each of these phases, frequencies or amplitudes are assigned a unique pattern of
binary bits. Usually, each phase, frequency or amplitude encodes an equal number of bits. This number of
bits comprises the symbol that is represented by the particular phase, frequency or amplitude.
If the alphabet consists of M = 2N alternative symbols, each symbol represents a message consisting of N
bits. If the symbol rate (also known as the baud rate) is fS symbols/second (or baud), the data rate is NfS

For example, with an alphabet consisting of 16 alternative symbols, each symbol represents 4 bits. Thus, the
data rate is four times the baud rate.

In the case of PSK, ASK or QAM, where the carrier frequency of the modulated signal is constant, the
modulation alphabet is often conveniently represented on a constellation diagram, showing the amplitude of
the I signal at the x-axis, and the amplitude of the Q signal at the y-axis, for each symbol.

[edit] Modulator and detector principles of operation

PSK and ASK, and sometimes also FSK, are often generated and detected using the principle of QAM. The
I and Q signals can be combined into a complex-valued signal I+jQ (where j is the imaginary unit). The
resulting so called equivalent lowpass signal or equivalent baseband signal is a complex-valued
representation of the real-valued modulated physical signal (the so called passband signal or RF signal).

These are the general steps used by the modulator to transmit data:

1. Group the incoming data bits into codewords, one for each symbol that will be transmitted.
2. Map the codewords to attributes, for example amplitudes of the I and Q signals (the equivalent low
pass signal), or frequency or phase values.
3. Adapt pulse shaping or some other filtering to limit the bandwidth and form the spectrum of the
equivalent low pass signal, typically using digital signal processing.
4. Perform digital-to-analog conversion (DAC) of the I and Q signals (since today all of the above is
normally achieved using digital signal processing, DSP).
5. Generate a high-frequency sine wave carrier waveform, and perhaps also a cosine quadrature
component. Carry out the modulation, for example by multiplying the sine and cosine wave form
with the I and Q signals, resulting in that the equivalent low pass signal is frequency shifted into a
modulated passband signal or RF signal. Sometimes this is achieved using DSP technology, for
example direct digital synthesis using a waveform table, instead of analog signal processing. In that
case the above DAC step should be done after this step.
6. Amplification and analog bandpass filtering to avoid harmonic distortion and periodic spectrum

At the receiver side, the demodulator typically performs:

1. Bandpass filtering.
2. Automatic gain control, AGC (to compensate for attenuation, for example fading).
3. Frequency shifting of the RF signal to the equivalent baseband I and Q signals, or to an intermediate
frequency (IF) signal, by multiplying the RF signal with a local oscillator sinewave and cosine wave
frequency (see the superheterodyne receiver principle).
4. Sampling and analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) (Sometimes before or instead of the above point,
for example by means of undersampling).
5. Equalization filtering, for example a matched filter, compensation for multipath propagation, time
spreading, phase distortion and frequency selective fading, to avoid intersymbol interference and
symbol distortion.
6. Detection of the amplitudes of the I and Q signals, or the frequency or phase of the IF signal.
7. Quantization of the amplitudes, frequencies or phases to the nearest allowed symbol values.
8. Mapping of the quantized amplitudes, frequencies or phases to codewords (bit groups).
9. Parallel-to-serial conversion of the codewords into a bit stream.
10. Pass the resultant bit stream on for further processing such as removal of any error-correcting codes.
As is common to all digital communication systems, the design of both the modulator and demodulator must
be done simultaneously. Digital modulation schemes are possible because the transmitter-receiver pair have
prior knowledge of how data is encoded and represented in the communications system. In all digital
communication systems, both the modulator at the transmitter and the demodulator at the receiver are
structured so that they perform inverse operations.

Non-coherent modulation methods do not require a receiver reference clock signal that is phase
synchronized with the sender carrier wave. In this case, modulation symbols (rather than bits, characters, or
data packets) are asynchronously transferred. The opposite is coherent modulation.

[edit] List of common digital modulation techniques

The most common digital modulation techniques are:

• Phase-shift keying (PSK):

o Binary PSK (BPSK), using M=2 symbols
o Quadrature PSK (QPSK), using M=4 symbols
o 8PSK, using M=8 symbols
o 16PSK, using M=16 symbols
o Differential PSK (DPSK)
o Differential QPSK (DQPSK)
o Offset QPSK (OQPSK)
o π/4–QPSK
• Frequency-shift keying (FSK):
o Audio frequency-shift keying (AFSK)
o Multi-frequency shift keying (M-ary FSK or MFSK)
o Dual-tone multi-frequency (DTMF)
o Continuous-phase frequency-shift keying (CPFSK)
• Amplitude-shift keying (ASK)
• On-off keying (OOK), the most common ASK form
o M-ary vestigial sideband modulation, for example 8VSB
• Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) - a combination of PSK and ASK:
o Polar modulation like QAM a combination of PSK and ASK.[citation needed]
• Continuous phase modulation (CPM) methods:
o Minimum-shift keying (MSK)
o Gaussian minimum-shift keying (GMSK)
• Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation:
o discrete multitone (DMT) - including adaptive modulation and bit-loading.
• Wavelet modulation
• Trellis coded modulation (TCM), also known as trellis modulation
• Spread-spectrum techniques:
o Direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS)
o Chirp spread spectrum (CSS) according to IEEE 802.15.4a CSS uses pseudo-stochastic
o Frequency-hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) applies a special scheme for channel release

MSK and GMSK are particular cases of continuous phase modulation. Indeed, MSK is a particular case of
the sub-family of CPM known as continuous-phase frequency-shift keying (CPFSK) which is defined by a
rectangular frequency pulse (i.e. a linearly increasing phase pulse) of one symbol-time duration (total
response signaling).

OFDM is based on the idea of frequency-division multiplexing (FDM), but is utilized as a digital
modulation scheme. The bit stream is split into several parallel data streams, each transferred over its own
sub-carrier using some conventional digital modulation scheme. The modulated sub-carriers are summed to
form an OFDM signal. OFDM is considered as a modulation technique rather than a multiplex technique,
since it transfers one bit stream over one communication channel using one sequence of so-called OFDM
symbols. OFDM can be extended to multi-user channel access method in the orthogonal frequency-division
multiple access (OFDMA) and multi-carrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) schemes, allowing
several users to share the same physical medium by giving different sub-carriers or spreading codes to
different users.

Of the two kinds of RF power amplifier, switching amplifiers (Class C amplifiers) cost less and use less
battery power than linear amplifiers of the same output power. However, they only work with relatively
constant-amplitude-modulation signals such as angle modulation (FSK or PSK) and CDMA, but not with
QAM and OFDM. Nevertheless, even though switching amplifiers are completely unsuitable for normal
QAM constellations, often the QAM modulation principle are used to drive switching amplifiers with these
FM and other waveforms, and sometimes QAM demodulators are used to receive the signals put out by
these switching amplifiers.

[edit] Digital baseband modulation or line coding

Main article: Line code

The term digital baseband modulation (or digital baseband transmission) is synonymous to line codes.
These are methods to transfer a digital bit stream over an analog baseband channel (a.k.a. lowpass channel)
using a pulse train, i.e. a discrete number of signal levels, by directly modulating the voltage or current on a
cable. Common examples are unipolar, non-return-to-zero (NRZ), Manchester and alternate mark inversion
(AMI) codings.

[hide]v · d · eLine coding (digital baseband transmission)

Unipolar encoding · Bipolar encoding · On-off keying

Return to zero (RZ) · Non-return-to-zero, level (NRZ/NRZ-

L) · Non-return-to-zero, inverted (NRZ-I) · Non-Return-to-
Zero, space (NRZ-S) · Biphase (Bi-φ) · Manchester ·
Differential Manchester

Conditioned Diphase · 4B3T · 4B5B · 2B1Q · Alternate

Extended Mark Inversion · Modified AMI code · Coded mark
line inversion · MLT-3 encoding · Hybrid ternary code · 6b/8b
codes encoding · 8b/10b encoding · 64b/66b encoding · Eight-to-
fourteen modulation · Delay/Miller encoding · TC-PAM

Carrier-Suppressed Return-to-Zero · Alternate-Phase Return-

See also: Baseband · Baud · Bit rate · Digital signal · Digital transmission · Ethernet physical layer · Pulse
modulation methods · Pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM) · Pulse code modulation (PCM) · Serial
communication · Category:Line codes

[edit] Pulse modulation methods

Pulse modulation schemes aim at transferring a narrowband analog signal over an analog baseband channel
as a two-level signal by modulating a pulse wave. Some pulse modulation schemes also allow the
narrowband analog signal to be transferred as a digital signal (i.e. as a quantized discrete-time signal) with a
fixed bit rate, which can be transferred over an underlying digital transmission system, for example some
line code. These are not modulation schemes in the conventional sense since they are not channel coding
schemes, but should be considered as source coding schemes, and in some cases analog-to-digital
conversion techniques.

Analog-over-analog methods:

• Pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM)

• Pulse-width modulation (PWM)
• Pulse-position modulation (PPM)

Analog-over-digital methods:

• Pulse-code modulation (PCM)

o Differential PCM (DPCM)
o Adaptive DPCM (ADPCM)
• Delta modulation (DM or Δ-modulation)
• Sigma-delta modulation (∑Δ)
• Continuously variable slope delta modulation (CVSDM), also called Adaptive-delta modulation
• Pulse-density modulation (PDM)

[edit] Miscellaneous modulation techniques

• The use of on-off keying to transmit Morse code at radio frequencies is known as continuous wave
(CW) operation.
• Adaptive modulation
• Space modulation A method whereby signals are modulated within airspace, such as that used in
Instrument landing systems.
In telecommunication, a line code (also called digital baseband transmission method) is a code chosen for
use within a communications system for baseband transmission purposes. Line coding is often used for
digital data transport.


• 1 Line coding
• 2 Common line codes
• 3 See also
• 4 External links

• 5 References

[edit] Line coding

Line coding consists of representing the digital signal to be transported by an amplitude- and time-discrete
signal that is optimally tuned for the specific properties of the physical channel (and of the receiving
equipment). The waveform pattern of voltage or current used to represent the 1s and 0s of a digital data on a
transmission link is called line encoding. The common types of line encoding are unipolar, polar, bipolar
and Manchester encoding.

For reliable clock recovery at the receiver, one usually imposes a maximum run length constraint on the
generated channel sequence, i.e. the maximum number of consecutive ones or zeros is bounded to a
reasonable number. A clock period is recovered by observing transitions in the received sequence, so that a
maximum run length guarantees such clock recovery, while sequences without such a constraint could
seriously hamper the detection quality.

After line coding, the signal is put through a "physical channel", either a "transmission medium" or "data
storage medium". Sometimes the characteristics of two very different-seeming channels are similar enough
that the same line code is used for them. The most common physical channels are:

• the line-coded signal can directly be put on a transmission line, in the form of variations of the
voltage or current (often using differential signaling).
• the line-coded signal (the "base-band signal") undergoes further pulse shaping (to reduce its
frequency bandwidth) and then modulated (to shift its frequency bandwidth) to create the "RF
signal" that can be sent through free space.
• the line-coded signal can be used to turn on and off a light in Free Space Optics, most commonly
infrared remote control.
• the line-coded signal can be printed on paper to create a bar code.
• the line-coded signal can be converted to a magnetized spots on a hard drive or tape drive.
• the line-coded signal can be converted to a pits on optical disc.

Unfortunately, most long-distance communication channels cannot transport a DC component. The DC

component is also called the disparity, the bias, or the DC coefficient. The simplest possible line code,
called unipolar because it has an unbounded DC component, gives too many errors on such systems.
Most line codes eliminate the DC component — such codes are called DC balanced, zero-DC, zero-bias or
DC equalized etc. There are two ways of eliminating the DC component:

• Use a constant-weight code. In other words, design each transmitted code word such that every code
word that contains some positive or negative levels also contains enough of the opposite levels, such
that the average level over each code word is zero. For example, Manchester code and Interleaved 2
of 5.
• Use a paired disparity code. In other words, design the receiver such that every code word that
averages to a negative level is paired with another code word that averages to a positive level.
Design the receiver so that either code word of the pair decodes to the same data bits. Design the
transmitter to keep track of the running DC buildup, and always pick the code word that pushes the
DC level back towards zero. For example, AMI, 8B10B, 4B3T, etc.

Line coding should make it possible for the receiver to synchronize itself to the phase of the received signal.
If the synchronization is not ideal, then the signal to be decoded will not have optimal differences (in
amplitude) between the various digits or symbols used in the line code. This will increase the error
probability in the received data.

It is also preferred for the line code to have a structure that will enable error detection.

Note that the line-coded signal and a signal produced at a terminal may differ, thus requiring translation.

A line code will typically reflect technical requirements of the transmission medium, such as optical fiber or
shielded twisted pair. These requirements are unique for each medium, because each one has different
behavior related to interference, distortion, capacitance and loss of amplitude.

[edit] Common line codes

• Modified AMI codes: B8ZS, B6ZS, B3ZS, HDB3
• 2B1Q
• 4B5B
• 4B3T
• 6b/8b encoding
• Hamming Code
• 8b/10b encoding
• 64b/66b encoding
• 128b/130b encoding
• Coded mark inversion (CMI)
• Conditioned Diphase
• Eight-to-Fourteen Modulation (EFM) used in Compact Disc
• EFMPlus used in DVD
• RZ — Return-to-zero
• NRZ — Non-return-to-zero
• NRZI — Non-return-to-zero, inverted
• Manchester code (also variants Differential Manchester & Biphase mark code)
• Miller encoding (also known as Delay encoding or Modified Frequency Modulation, and has variant
Modified Miller encoding)
• MLT-3 Encoding
• Hybrid Ternary Codes
• Surround by complement (SBC)
Optical line codes:

• Carrier-Suppressed Return-to-Zero
• Alternate-Phase Return-to-Zero

[edit] See also

• channel coding
• source coding
• modulation
• Physical layer
• Self-synchronizing code and bit synchronization

n telecommunication and information theory, forward error correction (FEC) (also called channel
coding[1]) is a system of error control for data transmission, whereby the sender adds systematically
generated redundant data to its messages, also known as an error-correcting code (ECC). The American
mathematician Richard Hamming pioneered this field in the 1940s and invented the first FEC code, the
Hamming (7,4) code, in 1950.

The carefully designed redundancy allows the receiver to detect and correct a limited number of errors
occurring anywhere in the message without the need to ask the sender for additional data. FEC gives the
receiver an ability to correct errors without needing a reverse channel to request retransmission of data, but
this advantage is at the cost of a fixed higher forward channel bandwidth. FEC is therefore applied in
situations where retransmissions are relatively costly, or impossible such as when broadcasting to multiple
receivers. In particular, FEC information is usually added to mass storage devices to enable recovery of
corrupted data.
FEC processing in a receiver may be applied to a digital bit stream or in the demodulation of a digitally
modulated carrier. For the latter, FEC is an integral part of the initial analog-to-digital conversion in the
receiver. The Viterbi decoder implements a soft-decision algorithm to demodulate digital data from an
analog signal corrupted by noise. Many FEC coders can also generate a bit-error rate (BER) signal which
can be used as feedback to fine-tune the analog receiving electronics.

The maximum fractions of errors or of missing bits that can be corrected is determined by the design of the
FEC code, so different forward error correcting codes are suitable for different conditions.


• 1 How it works
• 2 Averaging noise to reduce errors
• 3 Types of FEC
• 4 Concatenated FEC codes for improved performance
• 5 Low-density parity-check (LDPC)
• 6 Turbo codes
• 7 Local decoding and testing of codes
• 8 List of error-correcting codes
• 9 See also
• 10 References
• 11 Further reading

• 12 External links

How it works
FEC is accomplished by adding redundancy to the transmitted information using a predetermined algorithm.
A redundant bit may be a complex function of many original information bits. The original information may
or may not appear literally in the encoded output; codes that include the unmodified input in the output are
systematic, while those that do not are non-systematic.

A simplistic example of FEC is to transmit each data bit 3 times, which is known as a (3,1) repetition code.
Through a noisy channel, a receiver might see 8 versions of the output, see table below.

Triplet received Interpreted as

000 0 (error free)
001 0
010 0
100 0
111 1 (error free)
110 1
101 1
011 1

This allows an error in any one of the three samples to be corrected by "majority vote" or "democratic
voting". The correcting ability of this FEC is:

• Up to 1 bit of triplet in error, or

• up to 2 bits of triplet omitted (cases not shown in table).

Though simple to implement and widely used, this triple modular redundancy is a relatively inefficient FEC.
Better FEC codes typically examine the last several dozen, or even the last several hundred, previously
received bits to determine how to decode the current small handful of bits (typically in groups of 2 to 8 bits).

Averaging noise to reduce errors

FEC could be said to work by "averaging noise"; since each data bit affects many transmitted symbols, the
corruption of some symbols by noise usually allows the original user data to be extracted from the other,
uncorrupted received symbols that also depend on the same user data.

• Because of this "risk-pooling" effect, digital communication systems that use FEC tend to work well
above a certain minimum signal-to-noise ratio and not at all below it.
• This all-or-nothing tendency — the cliff effect — becomes more pronounced as stronger codes are
used that more closely approach the theoretical Shannon limit.
• Interleaving FEC coded data can reduce the all or nothing properties of transmitted FEC codes when
the channel errors tend to occur in bursts. However, this method has limits; it is best used on
narrowband data.

Most telecommunication systems used a fixed channel code designed to tolerate the expected worst-case bit
error rate, and then fail to work at all if the bit error rate is ever worse. However, some systems adapt to the
given channel error conditions: hybrid automatic repeat-request uses a fixed FEC method as long as the FEC
can handle the error rate, then switches to ARQ when the error rate gets too high; adaptive modulation and
coding uses a variety of FEC rates, adding more error-correction bits per packet when there are higher error
rates in the channel, or taking them out when they are not needed.

Types of FEC
Main articles: Block code and Convolutional code

The two main categories of FEC codes are block codes and convolutional codes.

• Block codes work on fixed-size blocks (packets) of bits or symbols of predetermined size. Practical
block codes can generally be decoded in polynomial time to their block length.
• Convolutional codes work on bit or symbol streams of arbitrary length. They are most often decoded
with the Viterbi algorithm, though other algorithms are sometimes used. Viterbi decoding allows
asymptotically optimal decoding efficiency with increasing constraint length of the convolutional
code, but at the expense of exponentially increasing complexity. A convolutional code can be turned
into a block code, if desired, by "tail-biting".

There are many types of block codes, but among the classical ones the most notable is Reed-Solomon
coding because of its widespread use on the Compact disc, the DVD, and in hard disk drives. Golay, BCH,
Multidimensional parity, and Hamming codes are other examples of classical block codes.

Hamming ECC is commonly used to correct NAND flash memory errors[citation needed]. This provides single-bit
error correction and 2-bit error detection. Hamming codes are only suitable for more reliable single level
cell (SLC) NAND. Denser multi level cell (MLC) NAND requires stronger multi-bit correcting ECC such
as BCH or Reed-Solomon[dubious – discuss].

Classical block codes are usually implemented using hard-decision algorithms,[2] which means that for
every input and output signal a hard decision is made whether it corresponds to a one or a zero bit. In
contrast, soft-decision algorithms like the Viterbi decoder process (discretized) analog signals, which allows
for much higher error-correction performance than hard-decision decoding.

Nearly all classical block codes apply the algebraic properties of finite fields.

Concatenated FEC codes for improved performance

Main article: Concatenated error correction codes

Classical (algebraic) block codes and convolutional codes are frequently combined in concatenated coding
schemes in which a short constraint-length Viterbi-decoded convolutional code does most of the work and a
block code (usually Reed-Solomon) with larger symbol size and block length "mops up" any errors made by
the convolutional decoder.

Concatenated codes have been standard practice in satellite and deep space communications since Voyager
2 first used the technique in its 1986 encounter with Uranus.

Low-density parity-check (LDPC)

Main article: Low-density parity-check code

Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes are a class of recently re-discovered highly efficient linear block
codes. They can provide performance very close to the channel capacity (the theoretical maximum) using an
iterated soft-decision decoding approach, at linear time complexity in terms of their block length. Practical
implementations can draw heavily from the use of parallelism.

LDPC codes were first introduced by Robert G. Gallager in his PhD thesis in 1960, but due to the
computational effort in implementing en- and decoder and the introduction of Reed-Solomon codes, they
were mostly ignored until recently.

LDPC codes are now used in many recent high-speed communication standards, such as DVB-S2 (Digital
video broadcasting), WiMAX (IEEE 802.16e standard for microwave communications), High-Speed
Wireless LAN (IEEE 802.11n), 10GBase-T Ethernet (802.3an) and G.hn/G.9960 (ITU-T Standard for
networking over power lines, phone lines and coaxial cable).

Turbo codes
Main article: Turbo code

Turbo coding is an iterated soft-decoding scheme that combines two or more relatively simple convolutional
codes and an interleaver to produce a block code that can perform to within a fraction of a decibel of the
Shannon limit. Predating LDPC codes in terms of practical application, they now provide similar

One of the earliest commercial applications of turbo coding was the CDMA2000 1x (TIA IS-2000) digital
cellular technology developed by Qualcomm and sold by Verizon Wireless, Sprint, and other carriers. It is
also used for the evolution of CDMA2000 1x specifically for Internet access, 1xEV-DO (TIA IS-856). Like
1x, EV-DO was developed by Qualcomm, and is sold by Verizon Wireless, Sprint, and other carriers
(Verizon's marketing name for 1xEV-DO is Broadband Access, Sprint's consumer and business marketing
names for 1xEV-DO are Power Vision and Mobile Broadband, respectively.).
Local decoding and testing of codes
Main articles: Locally decodable code and Locally testable code

Sometimes it is only necessary to decode single bits of the message, or to check whether a given signal is a
codeword, and do so without looking at the entire signal. This can make sense in a streaming setting, where
codewords are too large to be classically decoded fast enough and where only a few bits of the message are
of interest for now. Also such codes have become an important tool in computational complexity theory,
e.g., for the design of probabilistically checkable proofs.

Locally decodable codes are error-correcting codes for which single bits of the message can be
probabilistically recovered by only looking at a small (say constant) number of positions of a codeword,
even after the codeword has been corrupted at some constant fraction of positions. Locally testable codes
are error-correcting codes for which it can be checked probabilistically whether a signal is close to a
codeword by only looking at a small number of positions of the signal.

List of error-correcting codes

• BCH code
• Constant-weight code
• Convolutional code
• Group codes
• Golay codes, of which the Binary Golay code is of practical interest
• Goppa code, used in the McEliece cryptosystem
• Hadamard code
• Hagelbarger code
• Hamming code
• Latin square based code for non-white noise (prevalent for example in broadband over powerlines)
• Lexicographic code
• Long code
• Low-density parity-check code, also known as Gallager code, as the archetype for sparse graph
• LT code, which is a near-optimal rateless erasure correcting code (Fountain code)
• m of n codes
• Online code, a near-optimal rateless erasure correcting code
• Raptor code, a near-optimal rateless erasure correcting code
• Reed–Solomon error correction
• Reed–Muller code
• Repeat-accumulate code
• Repetition codes, such as Triple modular redundancy
• Tornado code, a near-optimal erasure correcting code, and the precursor to Fountain codes
• Turbo code
• Walsh-Hadamard code

See also
• Code rate
• Erasure codes
• Soft-decision decoder
• Error detection and correction