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Majestic beauty, harmony of the ensemble, delicate :ttaoeries of stoae carving attract mooy admlrera of QUt' arclritectunl beritage

to oae of unique monuments in the Crimea the Armenien oouroiJJ in Yalta One hundred steps of the bt,ood mom stairoase, framed by slender pyram~dal cypresses; lead U8, to the maim southern facade, Chords of organ seem to be dying in the soo:mc, creating the divine tones of a meLody of Komitas. We are weleomed to see the beautiful masterpiece of Armenian aFcbitecb. Who conn-ibuted this arebitecttr.'llpearrl of the Crimea !to, the world' s treasury of eulturaJ monuments. The chm-c.b was built in 1909- 1911j the project. being fi~Ol!nced. by a promineat Baku eil w.dll.ls,tri.alli$~ Pogo8 Te:r..Quikasyan in co,mm,'e:ID.o=ration of hjs earl 'J gone daughter who was buried :in the family vault at the fOiUindation of the clul!fch After the da.1llghDter, Gukaisyan's two sons were buriedi, here, Thelegend had, remained, that one of th.,em perls:!:l,ed under unknewn cireumsteaes, the other supposedly committed ~icide, . having' lost, a large gum of money at cams. The p;oject of the ehusch was orde'uoo to an Arm.e:Ni'ilt'l arhitect Gabriel Te:r-Mil\::ehl'm'l by Gukasyan ill 19(15. The reurarkahle Armenian painter, pmphi:c an.d theatre artist VrudgesSmeny.ants was, engaged 00 make draft:.saf the buil.d,img kaceries and the n11lterior:. 'Il:rtelmilding·WijS ereeied in the

Be:JIH'leCTB0HH.a:II spaeora, rapMOHIDl: aHcaM6lm~ ruKYPHoe RPY'k"eOO peru.6r.:l no iK!l!M:HI\] npHRJiJleEaeT 1\<m:()~cn:eHHbIX J]OImOHHllliOB apxlfl'e~HOm Hacne,llIDl: rr o.n;u0M)' H3 'ytnI!rmJ]J>m.1X ImM.i1ITH!ln'OClB Kp&lM(l - ApMm]C.IroM :u;epram .0 JIJITe.

Oro cryneHei lii!mpOIroH napa,ljlHOiU necrm!Il;h~ iii· onpan~ CTpO;J:'filblX fJ:llP1lMJI.I(a!ll]>ID;JX rcrmap'IIcoB~ Bep:yr HaC l( I".IUIllHOM-Y 1:OJKIJIO.M:y ~acaJIY; H Ka)KercJ:[, allli'O']lJiJ:i>lopnma 3aMHpalOI' B :EiiMHe} Ji'¥UlIBaR 6o}KeC1'B~]lW>ff' 3:8)'= xu NleJlO,mm KOllmiTaca. Hac ~er Pa;:J:OCTJ:> scrpesn C fi]leRJl<lCI'II:.W nlOp"lJeC1'BOM ap:!Wm~ C.DX -~OW!~x) BIlICO'l[,ai!Imee UCIzyCCTBO ID)'[U= pI-IX no C,[,aBmI9 :nyapxu'feIcrYPHyro E'(llM"zy'RruIIY Kpb]li(1l 11 p.IJ,Il; 3aM,e<qa'!'eJ1I.HliJX naM!ITHHKQB, K)'JH>TYPLI.

UepRUiBb coopywunac[; B 1909l .. 1917 PO,Il:ax sa Cpe;,1ilJ;ll'na lCpyrnHoro 611.Kj.jjHC~!Jro He'c;Te[IpCMbmmeRHKIGiL Iloroca 'Jep-[JrK,rilCHH1l. B Da!l.tllTh 0 paoo ym.eAJIleH: H.J J:li:H38H ;uo'!epn, noxopoHewoM B c'e]).1(lHHQM YCMDaJIMmne y OCfllOB~ neprmR, ][]oo:::ll1e 3,a;e,cJ], 6bJ~ EIOXOiPCJlfUl'f[hl II ,!l.]loe CI>]HOBe,~_ ['~, C6~ XpaalfJ:l3!Cb JIen~;H;,!!la. 0. TOM. qro O,ll,lIU ,r,r] ~I.l}!; fioI'a6 lIpq HtHfllleC'fHLlX OfiCHJ.lfl'em.crnax, . 1l;pymiisrmolbi nQl«l'HmIJI C CQ60ii, npOH:rpas l\PYmlYIQ CYM'MY B K!lj)11>l.

llpOe:Jcr n;epKBH OIJJI 9aJ[(Jl!38H il)'RaC:$)HOM B 1905 m.If)1 apMHHCKOM)' apXIrrelcrOpy !'a5~ pH3JJlO Tep - iMnKeIDIH)'. 3Cl«mM nOC'Tp@Ji,rill, QPU:<lM,eJITa~ BHYI'peBHeI10 y6paB!CTSll 3;!ltaHH8 OLfJDIliIopy-qeU1:>I II3BeCTH:c.)~iY ap~'-)'IHCMll'MY :lI(IffiQDll:Cn,y, rpa41'HKY II l'eaTpam.HOi"'YxyJll;~ Bap~ecy Cype!1..smuy.

CIjpoHJeA~mwyePKI!M.1900·'B rOlAlb'1 ~========~~==~====~~=====~=============:=::========== The 'building of file cl'ltlfcl'l ~

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k---------~~-----~ ...... ~-----~ .......... APMSlHlCKA5II.I.EPKOBb

COOPJr.lKaHacl> lIocTpoilli."a Ii, C'[HJ11e PIlPHl!XXp'HCm311CKlIX XP'<iMOB.

3:a OCI:I:OSY ap·XWff,'ilcrcfl3:Mill QJ>mll ll3.ill:'a tl,ep)ro'B' CIU!TOH PImcIDie,. 'muro,I:l;HDfc:ll.l.CIi 8 3~mre (618 f"-QA). Mwre})HaJIOM. MS!i cTpome.rn.cTBa []O~ q;opocc:K8ii IlynlilllilR·eClO'li:i zyq., K CCliffiUIe.HlUO, IDlMeHl> OJal3aJ.1CI.I HenpIJ'llllilloI:. On nponycKllIr WJlII,IY:. go. 1I03BDnm BeJ1Jll(ONelIHO YRPtl.C:o:u. 3Jl;a- 1me !'IGII::YmlHlIJ.IM Op:l'l:Wl1:elU'oM.

npHCM'IYIpBM'CJI Ii\' apXlITernype !!lTOI1Q' ymIlmTeJThHoro :r.m:MJITHill'Ca BmIMareJiJ1>H~e. ~I OH nmm:p,m;' name lloo6paxeHlIe". 3a:aJOMan'I'Cjji lUlBcerJJ;a. iM.r;! rnOJlJ!'.KM8,eMCHDO QempMbHo:li 1I.eCTH:Hu:e H nepe,1li HllM1l:

OTKpI.maercx lm:,il; E'!!l.K)'n0J] C 3(lHTHtmI>Th:l KaMe-EillhIM TIOJCPI>ITH0M,. Yl'leHq;tlllJ!:bIfi KpeCTOM; YC'Fp·eMHCHm:.IHB Cm[!~By He6a. CB:~[~eDaiI lIrpa B1>Ip~eT irS 1IDMlI:aI(Taoro :I''UITI!I!!IpycHoro oO'Le,.Irt<'li KpyllHhle apXHTe~m.Ie 3JIe-Me.:a-It.l - HlI3:KYIo ap~y .lIO:lKH;O'ro BXOAA Tpex~y('HI)OO JIOroruno c rpOOe:IlIlOClM lU,HlIU;OBbJ:X .3aiBeJMITeHWil H CK)'no Pa36pO.CRHInI1t:! no lfmcam' "rOHKQ pesaa.Elb~e DO ~, ;cr;e'IitIIH,. CPe)l;H [(OTOP@X m:.J:,D:e,Il_lIeTC,lJo!rp<rMmlli KpOC'r. "!; .• lr~Kill)'p'" H&IEl! !)OPMI.I ru:epIrnn PO)l(,llle'"Rhi nIlJ[a.Hl'OM a!tyMIDlcmro Hapona. "3Jla:SHal ~EJal<OMoro C Oi5Pi.iiOOTNOH !'I'..a.MIm •.

3a1T~ .... acn. CTpoeHIDl, sa:sepwaroUJ;8JICH me'-'TRlroJIoBHoii. POWH;!l,Q:ii-3BOHRH.o;,eii. O'rKP.h1i'I'aJIl nil ior JIQ.l!l,lK~'l> n~epKH:srnn[QaJI D'3Ie:Iro'fOpYID ClIe'r'CEOCTh. ,neoo1pa(lJ{Q' R·oe y6pmcmo - 3am.1CTi30Ba.:m:.I ttl 3pMJIHc,g:oij apmTeKl)!pM B;)iOPOM nUJn:;m.lUIbr XIiI~a XIIl aeoo3 ..

U;OKOJil>EluH 3Ta:~ CJIY'AilllI CKJIenOM. Ern ~;e-MOp'l1.run>HOCThflO,il;<fepKlzyrn noMHHaJiIbJ.!ioii HM:me:ti H auCM,B,OO YCHlJIfliJIbHH:QM. Hlfma,. 'ot"!qlli;fl'ru! B cTOPOay nap'a,lUm.H JleCTHMJU>[, QQpa.MHeEl3 OpHaM!:lHT'lIpo'BilH-

style of earfy Christian. temples of the VI-X centuries, The St Ripsime Ch~ located in Eehm~adzi___j] (<511,8 AD) served as a model for the new chm-eh. Feros volcanic tuff WiJJS used as, a .cmlStruc'ijon JllDJterial Unfortlln:ate~y, this stone proved to 00 fragile, pervious: tL() waril'er; but it allowed to, adorn the bIllilding with ·exquisite delicate tracery.

l.et~s look more attentively at tke architecture of tJris marvelous monument, and it will CQllque[ our imegination, and we will rememoer it forever. Clwbinlg up the central staircase. we wm see the dome, with an umbrella-shaped stese eovering, crowned witba cross, reachlng up fi;;! ~e blue sky. The game of l~gliit and shade picks large architre1:QJra1 elements a lQW arch of the false eillJlnneej• a t:bR"e .:.. tier loggia with the crest of too.gs,.slIaped endS and delicately carved stone d,eta,Hs • sparingly scattered over the facade, a .bUlge ,cTils;sbemg the most notable detail, out of the five-tier volume. Arebiteewal shapes of the church had 'boon created by talented Anneuian people, who had been familiar with oonework since oldetrtitnes.

the western. pan of :the bui[ding. crowned with ah.exacelumnedrotlLmdabelfry. the loggia, open. to' the south, whicll gives some woddly air to 1Jfu.e building and . decora.uon. are adopted from the Armenian architecture of the late XIiI early xm centuries.

The gI(}wd floor served as a 'V1~1l. Its memorial chnmcter is stre'ssedby a niche and an apse. The ni.che, open towards the staireaae, is :framed 13ya11l omamented. arch. In the windo,w of the burial va:-ult tllel'·e IS at met!:lillattice. Above tii.6 window we can see

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J.[O~ ap:m,ii. OKlIOyC:~IDfllI;I 3a6paH@ Mt':T<l-l]'j;JjH"IeCi«)M tpemenoil:.FIa,It HRM: ~ peJIIW~>HOe JI:3)OOpaJKeHBe ,~ llIOPOHOll, OX.!PaIDITOm,HX ne>mMii: nOEOn YCOmDlIX.

DD:a.Bm.D.I: llXM ~. ~eprun!I, fl:a}ll}Jl:Wl'CjJ] C 381.Ia,n;HOil: CiJIO]_)om>J. DOpY.aJJ era H8UO:MHHa .. er p<:IepTUHHe'M J]~ cso,!t ;ll.peliUH':J10, CKJICm3 • 3iaDepm:aro:m;HM aEKOp.lI;OM neere ,~aC~D;.a: lIBJ'lj[eTCJI R.3mIJ;UaJlporoHJ];8 3~.

O,:l'IepO-BO'CTO'mYIQ qa.c'I':b 3;!lJUfm", npope9S!mIoro ~a'Qq_w.IMI:!:O'lC_HaMJ:[, YEpa-WOOl' pe'l[l>e!fiHoe~301t5pa:1KeIDI-:e zpecra, Y.K= pamennero reO'MeTpH"lec.K1IM OPIIaMl'<H'J'!m.f npe:r,:pac::B:o:H pe3J:.oihl.

He l1ifeflit'le :nplT'.IllJIelfilrelleR B:JIY1IIemHii:

F.mTql[';ep .apMllHCKOH n;eJPKRH ~ KYllG!U.mm san, ilio;aro)l,apll npltiL1:reHiHbIM i]M~O.El)aM; OH nooy<mJ.l Kpecrooo\pasHYIo BlUJIDIC· iPop.l1zy. OCBem,e:mffiJJi:' )JilleHa,qIlial'~~O apO'Wlil>IMiH: (11(H8:MM, K)!'F.IOII ]laCnliliCllH BeJ1nOOIle[]HiD.1¥ lJ?pec> KOBOi!:lIKRBOIIHCr.IO. no Cl3eTJlOMY 3t:m1e:HOBa- 1'QMj' qpoHYP;'!$6pQC!WJj..M i5eJll>leH ,c,HH[j)~ C11I~ HItl()B<1IIDIJ,R>:U;SeTI!.'[, T.IlI:!,ym;ue>Ci.\l K COJi]H~. pacnMOlK.emIOM)'B n;e:ElJ:Pe Kj'liIOJUL CEn:me paHC'KHe HTllEJihI HCJ0'CHO annerema El. pac= ~n.HMil OpRaMC:EIT. Be.mIKO:!Ic:r.reEl JIROHOCIao, IJpeEpac{IQ Bmt:c'aJ:lli...b1fia~lb B BiI',!lle Tpex iITOpniJi~lB~ yOe:H'Ja.HJ'I1iIX ~1]'0.I~~ Kru>..lli m iJe:1ilOI'O C OO}lMMMpaMOpa II aJiIooampa, C U;BeJtJlliIMHMaiJQilnliK(JBblM:" ElCTaB~ r.m: Ff 3MO'IeHblMll ,ElieTaWlMH,

OC!8eweH..EWH CS:U!lH (Hl!eTOM ID OOOOBl>1X O.l«lH. MmCMJrb'l. HIroHCN:'TItC Ci:'ltxnp:o:-ru:lll .ITIJI}'i" 6~. M._lIJI~M CIDzy3lroM' XIU!!Ma, IieJiICIMpIilMO]lE'lllre crylmHJf 8Mqnn-eal'ipoM yxO)ln' BBNCb Q11 aMJ30Ha,. clq)I..mallcl> sa C~M ]]ap.RTI.J;e:-ro ·H.M lU!.IapHQii Mepl>KI J);peC1',a, ]]pe:Bocx~.IJ;Eloili jpe3E16:U. Parliootlil .Rn jpocnn~ cnmnep1.e:p,a. HotboPMneIrnIDBHYTf,H;;HHero y6parHCTJm ~e.IJD:n! II roM '<[HCJ]e M amap.aj :aeJIHCb iC.R:YJThEl'l'0PaMH Mep1K:Y.!IIOElhlM II

a relief,. repre:secmlJting Ii:w©wamom~ g~dlng the eternal piece of rue dieoeased.

The main ,entrnmh'::e]s locased on the we-stempam ef ilie: buiffid"g. 1'h:e outline of ~b.e portal of th~ .emttan.ce low like a f1'l]st: arch of an ancient bmrial vault The elm romnd ,of the beWfty is; like a final chord of the whole facade,

The so:ulit."easfem pm o€ the: build:i:trg, wi,&. twQaliChed wlndoWll CTIt.thtOugh it, is ooomed. with a :relief cress, dec.o:mted wi~b a, llearutifuUy carved :g~pm.emca[ Q<rru}.ment.

The interier ofthe Ar:mernan elhrurch ~he domedbtaUis 110 less attractive. Due to wall pylons it assumed a ~NGffQlim s~e in a plan view. Lit up JiQID twelve are',bed w~!];dows, me dome is" dec0.ta:tOO; :vtith .3< go.rgeQus ifre.ooo.. 'Write ::mdblu.0 styUzoo flowers are scattered agai:nst the light ~eru ba.l"tkground. The fiocwers are stterohed OOlt to-wards the SUD, situated in the centre of the dlolillt\. Blue birds ef the: paradise are mas~edy j~tle:]'bu>ed wi tha vege1lab Ie: ornament. Gor:g~ous~cornootasis~ ·rejlresented bytJuee portals, wjjchare CIowned'lUitfl little domes 'of wm'W and[ grqIDMD'Ie: wilh eoloured -maj oliea insertions and gilded deta~ls! is pcerfectly coupled to the altar.

Ut~p from behmidwitb the ligbt oommg ilkool]Jgh the side 'W1UU(;ws. ot fue arp,8e, 'lhe iconestasis looks like a hlue.ti.lwozy outiline of tlietemp,te. ~j.tce mM'bJe stairs of 'Ui.e amphtthea:t:re rise ftcrm the amoo, hiid.ingbefuH:d the siLboudte of the eauti:lfu!lly carved cross. soaring over the altar door. Patlllting atlI¥d decoration €II[ the ineerior of the chnrch, mc,~u~ing tbe ,altlUi" W:eR pesformed bye sculp~,rs M~C;lllov and Tsragress, the dra!& 00ing dOH by V. 5

1-------~~ ~~ APMi1IHCKA5I L!,EPICOlb

TaparpOOOMno .9CKH3atlld B.. CypeH~HQa. M rroJl, em P')'ROM,Il;CTBOM BI!IJIOTh 1(0 1'920 ro~.,

f.[e~pe;EtEO:)l{JIMM ~aca,n;OM 3J!i,aHHJl, C J]flBoA crop01Il>1 'OTapKH" nplnQIHJlllJCb CRPOMlIM. MOTIl:l:iIhHatJ:iI J;[.JIJIf]'a as eeporo ,DJlcp.nm 3necf> o:ameJr CBO.H. llOCJJemmit npsnor o;!tHa !-liB ,oo!Jjl;ilTeJJeii apM1U~CIroi lil.'epl(il!l Bap.n;I'0C CWe:mJjHI{·

3aMeqa'I'eJI&m.W: xy.a;Q~_K Jac'JIY*.HBlI,. er 'l:l1['Q, "IT!06:iE>:!: p3CCKOOan. CI HeM IJIQ!.Wpo6- Bee, TalC KaK 1KH3m. H 1'BOptJie>CTBO em !'eCHQ CIUl!3::'iJIDd C KPI>lMOM.

Bapnrec A~nOBIl":I C'JipeIDU[[i\: JlQilJ._lIliLC.R 27.2 /]0.3J 18610 mgal )1J, Ax.amI;xe 13, OOMlbe C~ellHHI<a;; Jr"Im'C'IDl: n'Cn;:IpJ.:lll pe.mm:. BMecr-e c ceMJ.efi ceMDJl!eTHHM M.a.Il!mlilmM 'OR nepeexan B ClIM_~ep(lm)m." rne e:I'O oren '~ 'CBJlIqeH1llIKOM. C ;a,ercT.Ba Bap.IJ;I'ec MlIoro' nyTeiiilllleC1.'OOElan no KphlM-Y; 61>rBfiJI a <l?oo.n;OCml y csoero .rn;tmbHeJ'Q pQ.!I;C'ilI'BeHlH!lCa HBaHft KoHCl'BHl'mIOB,II'm AHOil'lQ'J!.C;KQ;ro,. O,1il;HaDK.D:M o6e c.eMJ,H (lOCeTIimI lEiax"mcaclOa-H. BepJIYBIDHC.h II $oo,n;OC]uo. l'olMeHIlKIlii Bap;u;rec I'IO rra.MJITI] aapnconan 3H;lM.eflllT.bIa lI:JomaH 'CJIC3" AHmll30BCICW O~Km[ PHcy1IOK M3.1Ib"llllrn H !lIOCOBe'fOl'IaJiI ~ CJI PUCODl'I[(]]teM, lilu.o,apil'm IroPOOXY EipaooK. Ao ,[tee.am net B .. CypeFllIIllIi; nOJiJ~M o6pas'O'~al!m:e' )llOMa B 18-70~nS-75 ~a:x Y'ilu:J\l,C:lli B Jlii.3:ilpeaOIIDH CeMlIHapHHB 1vfuCKiBC,. 3a'OOM fIoc'lymm B MOCKODClCHii n~CTHTYT OOCTO<IIffiIX .~nmKO:B, Ho em lo,')'JlOilreCn'leH~ m.]:t~'pa6o'Ibl He OCTaIlWmCb 663: BRnMaIIWJ: o6me~xme~mocm. ,nQnytm:B PC1«lMelfAlW,JlU ne,Lt<WOrIHEecKoro CODen.'I IIH(iTB;TYTa. oa []QC'l)lIIWI Ha,a:p':m:reKIYpJIb]8:¢la~J;[bTeT MOCKOBCI«l'fO ~a )KHBO:!1IlCH,. BamnIJ[ U ~o,1l;'1ec~ma. Xy.lI)O)KeC11lemIoe OOP<l'JlO'B3HHe on saaepnmn II, repWJJm:H~ OKOH'IIllI 1YlbOfI-· xeHC&,YIO u~eMmo XY_U;OJll1.eCTR. Ere ytJ1fl'e.\bllID'I 6hlJm. Kayn6ax III 3~itm.. C ~ 890 ITO

Surenyants, who IlIOvided guidance for this work Up to l 920. Before th,e: sml1ihem facade of 'tmle I;nllildin;, on ~ left side of the arch, we; can find a modest gr<iW'estooe. m.ade of gm"eY dlffiorite.

One of the creators of the Amlenian churc!l:i, Vardges SUi1"ellYOOlts, fOund 1lls Iaslt shelter here,

The artist deserves to be tobd about in detail, because his life and 'Work were closely linked willi the Crimea. Vardges A.kopovich Smenyant8 w~ bOltl i~o a family of a priest, a teaelrer of the H.iJ§tliJty of&eIDigioJ1;. in Akbdtsnklle, on 2'J.2/l0,~V 18:60. At: the age: of ., he: and his family moved to Simi'etopol •. where 1Iis father became a mWiste.r ofth.e church. Si!1ce childhood Vardges tmveUlld a lot at:olmd the Crimea. He used Ilo·¥isit bis relative illvanK:on.stantinovich Aivazovsky i. Feodosiya .. Onee both families visited Bakachiseray. Having returned to Feodosiya, Httle Vardges drew the fam.Qos «Fountain of Tearss from memory, Aiv,az;owiky . assessed the boy's drawing and advised him to stud:l{ painting, preseneed him with a set of painfs ..

Before he was 10. Sureny.atllts, had studied at home., Ii! 1870-1815 he was a student of Lazarevskaya Sepdnary m Moscow., Then hee:orored Moscow Orienta] Loogua,ges Institute, But 'h~s wotki of aft were not ignored by the Jluiblic. Having cbteiaed reeemmeadatiens from the Edncatienal - Board of the In~titute, be entered the Arehltecture Department of Moscow Sohoo~ of Fainting" Soulpture and, Architecture. He completed his amstic educa.tiQ!!lwGermailllY, graduating from Munich Academy of A.rts. Kaulbacb and Seitz were histeaehers, From 1890 10 ~ 891

7

___ ~~~---------------------- APiM~IHCIICA5I QEPKOBb

1891 TO]ll jl3, A. CypeWl:liU rrpeUo,Il,<lIiBM )Kl'lEO~ M_m;J.l' i! [iCfOpmO ~iCR1'Cc:'ru 11 3~31imemii Ce!.H.JHap;-lfl1,

B~p:HYJl:Wm:r. .3 POCCMO, .H!a JUl'1I. roza OJ'F]]panJl'CH C ::l.KClI~He:il:,. >opraHE3011a.1:JHoil Boc"OO:tJ:!'LbII'>! Q1',!!IieJ[eJrneM.PyocEroFQ nM!]]~a.~ TOPCKOro ap'xeO!lOf'H.IJ:e'C.~lJ[10'o'OmeIGl'Ba B ITepc:mo. He OJit]"'Ii3!HHO MHOrn<l Kaprrf[_ID,lx.y;IlQ;\!i:j-I:H:I£1I.F.iWlmmf>1 BOCTO'lJjHOH ITO~eH. K H€I~Ccmy H .KYJ'Th''[)i'JI1;l BOC'IOKlI. Cyp~HJ[H!I cOXpaHHJIJLK!ij·C!B:b AQ .I!lQH~a >K1I3IU[. .B 1896 .ro,a,y na 24-.i;jJ 111'>ICTamre lbBapIm!(,ecnfl nepe,1l;BH)D[mxXYllQJID)CI1!efllm1X :Bbl(;TaSO>K OH mpM,CTaB~j!J ]J3ioozy (~IDH]dH I'a:m, soc[[eBOOiFpO!31>J MyceJI.1M.l MOJIIO;o,MM m~a3IWJil}), H. iE. Pennea K~pI!EL~a .';n~ [j[op~"JIa OpH!l"1l.~ HllJJbH(lCTbIO, ,~eKJJ.iO!'.IHOC1lli11Q xy,ill;ommm.a. lit:: ~.!lIBll YJ!lOBlTMO:lf roIUOClCTH ,.!l,eTueii..

Eom;.mQe Mecro II "[Jl}(Jp'IDoc,me Cypemmu.n, 31.11UIMtlro:r ~m:.:le mrmoc'rpa]lI!:ll. Of! npOrH.llJ1IOC1lPHPOIliU omno CQPOJ,eEl. liThJ1epa,. '!YPmilJ>. :nPO'1'I3Be1tef.llili. B IDM: "IHCJIe <d.tIyrJW: nepM A.. D;nypm:l.a, «B£lC1'O'mMe !leC~l'I>} A, Cw:I:eH.JlUIapoB.ll, B!PMJI:~CIl:'.liIe HapO;fl;m,Je 'Gl-J)a3KM. mJiiMlCl'.b ~~-MypM» ,II. TOJ]" etero II CRa3E)' M,. JlepMOiE!:roIla, ~<A..I.m[K~ Kep:uQ')}. HaH6cuIM.[J}lli 1UI.TepeC rrp~TtuwnIDt pOOO1.bf Gypemnm;a, O"I'pa.iKaIDwr~Kp'.b!McEYio 1'~Ma'IlmY; M (lC()i6'ef[Ho~ero !1.Il!Jll.oc'IpaJIlMUKifIOOMe A.ny~ (iEiltOOIcapa,Hcm ~()iHra!IB:», mropa61iL/1.a ~m<UJjaB M<OGleB'e B ] 899 rQJily. iPatiO'£y ::'1:y ,OlE! 110CB·j[TJ.~JI H. K.MlBOOBOK<l~.

H311~cn:H QrpewmlJ( 1'1. KaI{ 'j)earp~hm ~~~,. oor~aBmH!0i ,!I;(3KOpamrn: ]I, MapIIEHEi)l;OO)M waTpe K OaJIezy ({T:(oP'C<lp'» A;!J;aF.Ia .~ one_pe (\lJ:eMOl:l}} !y6flJlJWre~f[a, K CIJIeK1'aKIDIM IffiQ, Il.1>I;lCaJM MelepJ]_~_l'I}(u «.CnellHe}), «(iaM Jl.lIyEpim,. (iHenpoIl!l!.eru'l1l:ID} 1l: MOC:rroB~ C,KOM X:Y;q())KeCTIle!.lIHmi Tenpe, pemlfool~p~~ ~. lCOIO])MX. 61>mil K CrnHnCJiaBc~. f' .. Byp-

VASillrren:yants taught Painting and ifthe lfutory \),f Arts at EjillimLru~dti:!li: S~ry. Havmg returned to Russia, be We~:ll tt'! Pttsia wi th an exped:i~i,O!JI. (lrgMli~e:d by the Oriental Depat_[;@e.nt of Russian BmpefQ£ts A.rchaeQlogioa~ Soc~ety: It ls- ~lOt 1ry raere chance, Ulat mwy lOof arnst. s painti:n:gs were inifluenceilby orit:IJtm poetry'. SUlooyantsis love fur Ori.OO!tal ·art and eulrore JQ@ntinued IDOl' the :rest of his tife. He preselilitOOhis work «Young Gulf :Shllgs: Roses of MuseUa ·00 the airls ,of S]]irtlZ~j!ilt~he 24th Exh:fbi!:ion ef the ASSoclati0n 1),£ Travelling Ad Ellnioitioms in 1896. Tu painting il.eeply ~mp[~"s:s!ed 1. Ye, Repin with. its originality and artistic care for meticulous, almost ooperoeptibte deta:l]s,.

BOIOk: illUStli1tiiOriS imn.:a v'et){ important part of Smenymil'S':!:! _ereamve heritage. He_ ~ had iUustrateda'bolut forty wo'r:li::s o~ Uter,a.mre .. Among th:em.:(,:;'IriQ..~ of lJ:e Pen» by A. lsaturyan, «SPngs offue OriePlh} by ASpenwru-ov,Annemam foJ]{ &:i:ty aleS, tale, <iHaji~Mu[at(~ by L, 'TClThSroy alld the fairy-tde ~oeA_:sh_ik~~l;l)i;) by M.t.ermomtov. 8ur,ellyants's work, refle.otJJng the :Crimean ifIemes, and particularly his j[J.nstr:atioml, pertaining to the peer «Ihe Bnkl:lcThlirsar-ai F'Cllltltai[![>l by PU:s.bkin,.tmblished in ] 899, are of gl}eatest inJte.re!lt The artist dedicated this work to-l.KAiyfLZovSky.

SW"e[[ymts i5 also-..renowued ss atheatee artist, who created the soenery for Aclan'J'c ballet «Corsair» and RUbiru;.h~ew:fi opera ({DemOID) iin Marlmsky n.eI?ltre, for the MererliElk's p~a:y;s «The Blind}'}, ·(tTher·e Tm;,lde)f~ ,~(rhe U]]jb:iddef1l~~,. preduoed -by K+ Stanisl.avsky,. C. B~:rdzha]ov and II. Alexandrov,. in M'fls(:'O'w A..rt Thetre. In' 1905 Moscow rut TE:atre rev:ill:ved

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iKaJIOB U H, AneI«::m;!l;pOB. B 1905 ro.n;y MO,Cl'OCIBCKUH XYli\om:c>cmCil'lllliri Tearp BQ~ 306HOBHJI noCTaHOBKY qeXOBCKOU {{~ II xyJIlOlJreGTIle;lEIROM o.pop~meIDDI Cypemmna, B pe:n;eH3'IIJIX na, ~TH C-!leKTalJ:(JHf Iq)IITH~ KH WMe..tW.Jm TWmH'fmmylO paoO"I'Y xy.n03l:sima. IiI· OCH'DOf: TBop'IeCl(oro RaCJiI~J!:

B .. Cypeamm;a - lJWI:IQmHcm.le DOJIIom:a. ,C;Wl- 3aIHHide C )iICI'llSBDro n IICTOpHe.iitlp!..Ummcooo u:apo;n;.a. Cpe;nt: Hnx - {(ilolOJIl}'TM» H «110- opaHHM CBJITLIHJD>, o:rjlMHBWm'l TpartWJOO apAC!.Hc.KQFO aap<laa, reHoD;ll)l apMm D cyTaHc'KOH TypIUfD B 90~l:. ronax F.lpOIDJIOm C'1i:O-J]!e1'WI. O,lJ;I!ll R3 JIlY'lIIlliX naM:a~B ap. MimC1«rrro pannero cpe,lUleBe-RiOBJ.JI 3::m~:FJiIeJI OII BKapere(~KOBJ,. C~: ])'Bnam.te 5mb 3qM1)MJmIW}, Hapo,!::I)Jo:~ apMJIHCi@R rre.reD,!lI;l)i;i I1ii.Be.\IHO T-eMa ~I ,<<CeMIIpa.MHna y 1'OJJaJ Apa Ilpespacaoree. 3nJ: pafiofit 6l>lJl[lj :lipeJlCTa_RJlem.I BCBOeepeMlI IDl. BMCT8BKaX nepe;u;aR)f{Hm{i.Q'B,. a c,eiP;uli~ mIo.WI:IDTC'! lIocrommeM rOcy.lIJl.pCTBeHHoii. Kap~ TImBo]i ranepea ApMeHHH B Bpeaaae. CeMoil: H3BeCmoit U3 xapnm Cypemm:u;a BlL:Jl:erea «CanoMtm, ORa. (h,IJIa npe,nc:E']B.1Ie.!HOl. aa .BhlCTMK3X. B Mm'ElX(H:Ie ]), 1912 ro.uy II aa BCeMHpHClU BhlCTaBIo:<e B BeneQIDIB 1914.FQ~ .!!I1Y. CypeHllillU; BOIlleJiI BHCTOjpl!ID- oreseCl'.BeBHoii Kym,'rYPId He tnm.OO'K3:K l!lOmOllliceu, apXHTeIcrOp, IIJIJIIDc'Ijparop. DO :H EaR IlepeBOp;'DIR. BJI<\1l;eTQrn;mi pyccKlJ!o~. aHr'JDIitC.K1l_M; HeMe:JlKHM~ .mam.1mcmiM. 4lp~ CIrnM. IICnaaCTnliiM" IJ~pCHp;CKHM lI'lYPeQ,KHM K3WKaMH. EMy :nPIlll.a,D;il!eJ.K:<iiE OepeBQJlMC a:e:rn11ii:J~CKOro aa apMm'lcl\:1li!i mmc ille:KcmIpa, Yamn;AA, ~ aeMell,"KOm nreI'oi;l. ~oro~ :IJIElllHDC1l> mrrepeCOB llIIo6~ana Bap,Etl1eca AImnu!IlHim Ii: o6~,eC'me.HHoij ~e.I.I'I:eJIJI.:Hocm:. OH GhlQ: OJ!JJW}d D3 YlJPe;rprreneif n BceMHp~ HOI1O' CLe3,!m: Ky,f{Q}KHBKOB, yqaC'IBOBaJI B ·00[31" P;UHUH COIQ3a Xy)lO~1UIROB Apr.leElIIH.

Cbekbov"s p]ay«The Sea-gull», the scenety made by Surenyants. Critics mentioned the Wonted work of thee artist in their notices about these plays. t.b.e main. part of Smenyants;s creative he.fiUli!e is presented by paint1rogSt connected with lire aad history of Armenian people, Among them; «1'he Abandoned» and <me SacriiJ.ege», whioh [efTI.ected the tragedy of Armen:i8n peqple. the massacre of Armenlans in Sultan's Turkey in the '90s of Ihe las:t c-entury; He pictured one of the best Arme.nian mormments of the Ea!:ly Middle Ages in m, painting <~Ihe St Ripsime Church neat Echmiadzin», The theme of the paintiug «Semilr.a.miliis at the .Dead nOGY of Alit the Handsomes is influenced by foil;: Am:umian lege.mi!., At one time, the;w w@rks were presented at the exhib itrena of «Peredvlzhnlkix (Association of rraveUin8 Art Exhibitions,. and now they are the p'I'uperty of State Art GaUer:y in, Yerevmt. The most fruuous Surenyaats's painting is «Salome», which was, presen~ed at the exhibitions in Muruoh in 1912 and at the World EXhib~non m Ve-mce in 1914.

Swcayarnts we:mt FlowmJl. in biiSoo:ry not only as mil artist arolutect, iUustmtor, but. also as a translator who eeuldread Russian, English, German, Italian, French, Spanish, Persian. and Turkish.. He translased the works of Shakespeare, W1Udle Hom English and the worksof Goethe from German int.o Arme~ian ~angu1l:ge, Bemg a many-sidoo pen;olnality, Vmdges A!kopovlch eng~ him}se~f in ,SOC:iill] acti:v:~ty. He was one of the fullmiders of 'lllilJ.e 2nd A:1l-~ussia ArtmstsT Congress, he: partitipated inthe foundation of (he Umon of Artists of Armenia, took an active part;~11 tile work of Association of

11

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a.mllE:Ei!~) pa6OTil.TIB ro.Ba:p:!'l_;_~eC1:Be nepe)iJIH'JK!HlIKOB. ;D;paMaTJr.":IHQ Sa,_RQH':I~ma.elli. )KH::lm. sroro 'EaJ:Ia:fIT~ JleJ[QB.eoca, HeC'KOJ.!I.I.;O Jrel' EmIa pOOOTa Cyp~m:J:u.:a Ha,It 9(;" KE3aM~ ApMJIHCIIDi!! :l:J,e~. Ha.l!le~ ]In Imo(l,nO!):BO'pHQe nop~ecrBO l0i R03MOOKI!)OCTh 3apaOm:an. ea sasaae rymroH1fI6 He' (lnpaa~ .!!I.IDinl'C,1>. f.IIipe)K,rI,e scere, 1[0 npI£'mH6 Heo\Jy31'"' ,1!tal'mloro Hpaua 3aK~I!J'lHU.

lB Q.l!Ii'E[OM JO lIHCeM 6p~ Apl~ecy 1I 1913 rop,y CypellllJfl!l, nHCa!Il: id-Iac'IiP0emlle :r~acolla ·3aBil~ITl" OT CH:IDl(eHruI II nossnee[tBl]. .aKIDJmI H (l'COOeHHO (rfIl!Q)j!aq)blem 'OOilIl:.li!o,ii HOf~». H .n;ei:tcTIlJI'reJll1..HQ. 3aqac~ ~', l!]PH:cnyWUB<l:llC~ K MHeIrIIID c.rryg:amn.1X mq.1!l;ei. 3aRlCtJiWi: 3aC'HUU!1!J)!J;!HQCl.jT1> nOC'l'G.:amuile 1I31.U!l:Ieml1}li_ [l 3C;KH3hl. H ~TO EIpOll:OlI" marrOCb B Te<IeHilt'l HecIroiOCffiKl1X. ner, ·(<ECJJII cKruKY. '"ITO Y Meu KPO[[lQW'illT c:eI)Au:e, - nacan Cyp eHlUJ:IJ;" - 11:'0 STO .llOJllKHQ 6mb no:!:t1\!.lliQ ~B npD.tQM c.Mb]CJ;Ie •.•. , 3:ro-r 6om,mQH H IiLll"~~ ll1;epI(Q~mw Ja~illi B IIDUlJ,e KOIiU;OB ;iJ;j)]je;!ii;eT MeWI ,,1];0 Kpaffilei HUW)eTfiI H 'o~!!:,. ,~) H :mJrrpec.!IInMOOIl:eHHe Q~a.J'JIM~·L npopol\lecImM. nQcJ]e~OJIDall[em:ei]' pa.ijon.:r ~a,!B; ~CIW3!"tll!m H ee 3a:E!I,I~p.m,elme:M Il 19 ]7ro:.!I.Y BMeC1i18 C :x;y,rJ,IDK!HJHKOM no npn~ Irn3}jJ],IOM)' IHC,KyDCTBY TapllJ:}lQcQ.M Cyp~ FEliiJm rq:me-xu B JIJHy; XY,!!IiOliKlml( IiIlOCeJI1EJiIOJI B HIDKHeM n1l*e COCe)lII'lel"iO C qepmiBI>ID ll:OM!l. ilPHCTY!mJI!1: H pa;G'~ TIO POCIIJl)CH :o;ep.KB1'l:. O~aRO IlcIrope Cypea'Ji!HIJ! mmwnC\lJ M<'I:I!'IeplIam;Il!O'M: IIO;IDl.ep)KKH 3aKa3c'!lI'l!iKTh. ~'l.lj;i ~n:rpHpOBaH no ®Pa1IQl{[!]'· 3HMQH I 918' ro.u,a xy]]),~j( 'Dm\'!eJilO 3a€iOJJ,l~'J1,~l.1!Pa;I]].J:q IIDfimroDu ero ~ necreaa. Hc' CTJPaCT'" Hoe :llI'ieJ!imne UBep:m:m:bpaOQ1!)' ITpH;D;a_oo,. JIO CHll!bl,

TroveUing A:rt Exhlb.~~ioIli5,

Th.e Hf<e of th'FS talented man was crowned with !'II very dramatic end. S:ure:llyant:s had been working on the dtaffs' of the Mnemanchurch. 'flDt some yean:. Ifi$ lil()pes :for fmitful creative wort. and ]J(lI)s:~bmty of eallL1ing mOl'IDey did [lot eeme true, first, cd' aU,lbecl'mSo6 of an u:noonlf-oUable ~emper of the customer, ill 19'1:3 S1ll!re.Il){f1Dt;s W[l)te in one ofhlsletfiel1l to his orol1ler t\itmhes; ~((3u1dist:r¥'s mood dependJs Orl a reduction and jncreas~ in sha!re fflte~ a~dlmOiS1l: of all, on the pooagra elf hLis sore leg,» Jrnd.eed, influenced 'Dy Incompetent people' III opinion, the castemer made the aTtis~ alter hts dIta.ft.s. ThIS s:iltuatl.on. lasted for years. ·«If I $~y, that my heart is bteedmg, $U1'e:nyanb wrote, you have to take it literally ... Th;h! brig and profitable ,eb.11t'Ch . order w;ill finaUy lead me to ~bj eat m~se,lY and de~atx.» And this pm!ils,e rom!e~. out ,to be a prophecy,.

Tm: 1'9' 17, on compliel~on tlf~hed.raft.~ which had. taken many j{'eMS., SureJ1ymts cameto Y,abKa along witiw~he applied art [JOOnteT Taragross, "[he ~:Sts. settled on the ~'llnd nool of the hQusenext 00 tiJn>: church, and started paloting it. But sQon afte.:I' it Surenyants liOiSt ~arl!ld;al mpport of the ~U5tQm~r. who had emi~, to fra]]:ce. fu wi.rnt:e>r ot 191.8 the mist fell grarvely ill The par8i]isls ehained him 1:0 bed. But an ardent del:ire· to 't"<l'mp~de the work sttettg)llien.ed him.

Surenysnts survived the G.erlll~n o,ccup.atio!ll. tile in vas,i<'!J:i. 01 the ({ENl'BNTE:~)!s. D~rrikiIDl's and W.r~r5 ann~es. He was !l!sled to .emigrate. 'On!: he categorically 1):::OOsoo. S'01i~ bunger ood.

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C;ypeH:f.lHI{ nejJt;'!JIGIJl F1eMe~KI OKKYE1il- diseases:d!id not kill the thirst fur ~nllli

IJ;KlQ~lllj)l1XO,n; M1t'aF.I.TfI!, .!]!eHHlllJRa H Bpaua- m_·hi\1Jl.~· rie"uwas eili1JthulSwasfdica1l'y pamJtlng

reas, E~ npe](JIar'.'lJlIH: ;;Ij.f.JI[])HpaB!ln~ HO' t~e dome, bu.t~unfbrtuna:toel~, did mot o.HI(3:reropH~eC.K1( Q']:!:C~mIc,q. _ 'Fbmp~etel:he~ain.ti.ng of the . chw:ob wacll:s: .•

O)!t}mo"J!eirrBI), roJIO.llli~,e cymecTIloBa-:; '.- :mihe ,artist d!~ed ~E A,tl:mi1. 1921. The old HU0:., oo.ae:mn He y61-JJJ1H B HeM *'.a:JK,llY 'mop: .; ~~ t:\::sidents of Yalta say" ·lihirt he pro~ooted his

'IeCTBa. 011 61:.TIt YBJE;elleHpoc:rm.cibID KYll0i. cr~aJtion the Jttmenioo .chUfCh 'to the very

!la. 60., K COlKa:JreHDH). ae; ycm:m AonnC<v:Fl. iast day of h~s Iii!., it was not by men;

CTem,] n;e;pm"H. XYJliQmBjrn( YMeJI :B1I.lIpMe chance fjh&t he was bmed at the walls o:f

1921 ro,lta. IIo oocnoMHF.!~ CTapmKlI= the church. He could never have 1magmed,

noa 5ImrI>l~ ,i'\O .l]OCJI~ero ,lJ,IUI on oXP1l:HaIl tilh~thiSHSwan song» would; be embodied

~e . ,E{eTIli:El!ll.e ~ apM!l!BCKYID m;epROlBlJ,. FIe ilD!ID a majestic m<on'U1t!:e11lt, iI1ie ~ had

c~.JI.fuJQ 'em [!QXOP0HHJru y eecrea .. 3nn' passed. The cmch was duilaged d~

I1e.mt:tlieCTBeHmirn: nmmI"ImK cran JIeQem1- the (h",eat Patriotic War. FoIL' lWUW ~R~:3IfS the

HOH necsea 'FUaJITJUIDOI\O apM!iliJ!ICIro'irO building had not beeJ1JJ. serv:mg as a cifmroh,.

mruKHJIKa. being used fox the ()i*e:rp~es. In the

IRnll ~. 3,u;am;:e~eprKl'IIll!J;QCTJPaJlMO 1960s i~ wastIransfe.rmd tothe p.lZlsoossiom.

B Emp-i-IO)it B~roJiI~ Orexte~CTI!eHHQ[jj ll<IitJ:!Jw. "ef Yal~ Muse'IUP of Re;gional Stud~es,

;!I;O[IIDl1re rtI,!{hI I'ICnOJTh30lBaIIO(Kb. He TID nasaa- where run ex.posli.tianon the p1:e

~~+ 13 'n960,x OO;D;ax OHQ ,f.}:hlJJ!O lJ!.epe,li(.a~ :revollJtio~ary perioo il)f Y,a.1'm'~ hl'ostory

HO IDmmCKOM·Y KpSleBe.ll'JiCCKO.Mj1 M)'S!ero, was opened.. Then ~heA:rchaeoli.:lgic.a'l

I;ll;C OEJ.lIa M'Kpl>ril'a 3I«lfl03mJ,IDI [[0 ,!lopel3o- Department was: situn~ed. b:e~ The cllll!W(}h

mO~O:lmoM:y HCjpIfQ.!J:Y IfCropHH JiJJl'hl, 3a~ was repaired and restored lily the 15{l1h

TeeM 9;.!i;e($iPa3MeCTImCJlapXeOJl"o~ec~ Ya]ta',s F.oundation rumi'\lfeJsatJ{.Not 0uce

(IT',!iieJ]~ K [:50~:l1IenIlD .ffi:t'rfJQepw» OI.TIli3!llhe building was used b}j' c:inem.aIDgnlphe.rs.

!"'I'1ryleMOHT,t<;n.'.OBa:Hll 1'1 'peCra6pHpOlBaRa"3.1IEJli~ 'CIc TI

""~l' '~.'.!" It 'CaJ:!JJ be see1ID, ~n Ute ,run-vies im.e r~LJ'mmen

Fe~.s.h>. «Meg Mend», {{Ihe GoclflY">;, «'The T"]:liI~ee fat MeID~, ~{ShiJeThd ana Sworm)·. 1ioday tthecbll!rC:h. resumed pedomting its origin.al functio,n. Ito was: CQDSi!C[~ 'bY Fatther ~eremiy Makiyoo ifitl.d [1;Q'W' it is QPetl 'b the belivers,

fUn: MBoIDlq:)arno n;c.]]01lb30Dai.!lOCIo· :!OnleM~1" 'I'OFpa(lliOTal\fl\l, Ero MO;.KjfO YBHJle'U lB ip~MEIX.(;Op~ IC:BJI'l!XII'ClHopreHIiJ», ({M,ecc MeHm), <~OBQ!!I;}),,({TpB TOHC~'Im, {(mIlT H

Me<:J:)}.

Gero,!l;IDI ~epm~BQ';IapameJEO ee nepllO.~Hoe ;HlMHif1i'IeJm.e •. OHiE. OG.I'!OeR!l 'O'lUOM H!epe~nleM ManurHOM H O'I'K]_;H.:nn ,fUll\!: M~ py~.

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