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Chapter 4

Reacting Mixtures

4.1 Basic Kinetic Theory of Gas

- Relation between temperature and average kinetic energy of gas molecules.

4.2 Covalent Bonding

- Ionic bonding, covalent bonding and metallic bonding.


- Covalent bonding forces and potential energy.
- Covalent bonding energy.

4.3 Reaction Kinetics

- Chemical kinetics of oxidation process.


- Interaction with surroundings.
- Exothermic and endothermic process.

4.4 Fuels and Combustions

- Hydrocarbon fuel and oxidation process.


- Some definitions in this course.
1. Air fuel ratio: The ratio of the mass of the air to the mass of the fuel for a combustion process.
2. Complete combustion: If all carbon in the fuel oxidized to CO2, all hydrogen oxidized to H2O, and all
sulphur oxidized to SO2.
3. Incomplete combustion: If the combustion products contain any unburned/oxidized fuel or components
such as C, H2, CO, or OH.
4. Stoichiometric or theoretical air: The minimum amount of air needed for the complete combustion of a
fuel.
5. Stoichiometric or theoretical combustion: The ideal combustion process during which a fuel is burned
completely with theoretical air.
6. Excess air: The amount of air in excess of the stoichiometric amount.
7. Deficiency of air: The amounts of air less than the stoichiometric amount.
8. Standard reference state: 1 atmospheric pressure or 1 bar and 25 ºC.
- Some assumptions in this course.
1. Air is completely dry, unless the humidity is mentioned.
2. In 4.76 kmol of air consists ONLY of 1 kmol of oxygen and 3.76 kmol of nitrogen, unless is mentioned
otherwise.
3. Combustion is complete, unless is mentioned otherwise.
4. No work done in a combustion chamber, unless is mentioned otherwise.
5. All reactants and products of combustion are behaved as an ideal gas.
6. Standard reference state is referring to reference state used in by thermodynamics property tables in the
textbook.

4.5 Enthalpy of Combustions

- Enthalpy of combustions.
- Heating values.
- The tables of enthalpy of combustions for various substances and enthalpies of ideal gas at different state.

4.6 First Law Analysis of Reacting Systems

- First law analysis of a steady flow system.


- First law analysis of a closed system.
Reacting Mixtures 41

4.7 Adiabatic Flame Temperature

- Definition and methods used to approximate it.

4.8 Third Law of Thermodynamics

- Entropy for various ideal gases at specified temperature and pressure.


- Using entropy from the tables.

4.9 Second Law Analysis of Reacting Systems

- Second law analysis of a steady flow system.


- Gibbs function.
- Reversible work and irreversibility of combustion processes.

4.10 Fuel Cell

- Work potential from fuel cell.