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AUTOCAD Mechanical 2000

Tutorials

17320-010000-5080 June 28, 1999


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Content

Introduction...................................................................................................... 1
Prerequisites...........................................................................................................2
How the Tutorials Are Organized..........................................................................2
Methods for Accessing AutoCAD Mechanical Commands ..................................2
Styles for Different Input Actions .........................................................................3

Chapter 1: Working with Templates ............................................................... 5


Key Terms ..............................................................................................................6
Working with Templates .......................................................................................7
Getting Started ...................................................................................................7
Setting Up the Starting Layer.............................................................................8
Setting the Mechanical Options ........................................................................9
Specifying the Drawing Limits.........................................................................10
Saving a Template ............................................................................................10
Using a Template .............................................................................................11

Chapter 2: Extending the Design of a Lever ................................................. 13


Key Terms ............................................................................................................14
Extending the Design ..........................................................................................15
Getting Started .................................................................................................15
Preliminary Settings: Snap Configuration .......................................................16
Creating Construction Lines (C-Lines) ............................................................17
Creating additional C-Lines.............................................................................19
Creating a Contour and Applying a Fillet .......................................................22
Creating a Contour and Trimming Projecting Edges ......................................24
Cross-Hatching the Lever.................................................................................26
Dimensioning the Lever ..................................................................................27
Creating a Detail and Additional Dimensions ................................................29

Chapter 3: Dimensioning and Annotations.................................................. 33


Key Terms ............................................................................................................34
Dimensioning ......................................................................................................36
Automatic Dimensioning ................................................................................36
Editing Dimensions with Power Commands ..................................................39
Inserting Annotations ......................................................................................43
Inserting a Drawing Border..............................................................................46

Contents | v
Chapter 4: Working with Layers and Layer Groups..................................... 49
Key Terms ............................................................................................................50
Working with Layers and Layer Groups .............................................................51
Understanding Layer Management .................................................................51
Getting Started .................................................................................................51
Changing a Layer By Selecting Objects ...........................................................52
Creating Layer Groups .....................................................................................53
Using a Layer Group to Copy Objects .............................................................58

Chapter 5: Working with a Bill of Material and a Parts List ....................... 61


Key Terms ............................................................................................................62
Inserting a Part Reference ................................................................................63
Placing Balloons ...............................................................................................66
Creating a Parts List .........................................................................................71
Merging and Splitting Items in a Parts List .....................................................75
Collecting Balloons ..........................................................................................77
Sorting and Renumbering Items on a Parts List ..............................................79
Using Filters......................................................................................................81

Chapter 6: Working with Model Space and Layouts.................................... 85


Key Terms ............................................................................................................86
Working with Model Space and Layouts ............................................................87
Getting Started .................................................................................................87
Creating a Scale Area........................................................................................88
Creating a Detail ..............................................................................................90
Generating a New Viewport.............................................................................91
Inserting an User Through Hole ......................................................................93
Creating a Subassembly in a New Layout........................................................97

Chapter 7: Designing a Cam ........................................................................ 103


Key Terms ..........................................................................................................104
Cam Design .......................................................................................................105
Getting Started ...............................................................................................105
Configuring the Cam Plate Calculations.......................................................106
Creating Movement Sections.........................................................................108
Creating Velocity and Acceleration Curves...................................................110
Creating Cam Geometry from the Graph .....................................................111
Creating NC Data...........................................................................................112

vi | Contents
Chapter 8: Calculating Moment of Inertia and Deflection Line ............... 115
Key Terms ..........................................................................................................116
Calculating Moment of Inertia and Deflection Line ..........................................117
Getting Started ...............................................................................................117
Calculating the Moment of Inertia................................................................118
Calculating the Deflection Line.....................................................................119

Chapter 9: Creating a Shaft With Standard Parts....................................... 125


Key Terms ..........................................................................................................126
Creating a Shaft with Standard Parts ................................................................127
Configuring the Snap Options ......................................................................127
Starting and Configuring the Shaft Generator ..............................................127
Creating Cylindrical Shaft Sections and Gears..............................................129
Inserting a Spline Profile................................................................................130
Inserting a Chamfer and a Fillet ....................................................................131
Inserting a Shaft Break ...................................................................................132
Creating a Side View of the Shaft ..................................................................133
Inserting a Thread ..........................................................................................134
Editing and Inserting a Shaft Section ............................................................134
Replacing a Shaft Section ...............................................................................136
Inserting a Bearing .........................................................................................137

Chapter 10: Performing a Shaft Calculation............................................... 139


Key Terms ..........................................................................................................140
Performing a Shaft Calculation .........................................................................141
Getting Started ...............................................................................................141
Creating the Contour of a Shaft ....................................................................142
Specifying the Material ..................................................................................143
Placing the Supports ......................................................................................143
Specifying the Loads ......................................................................................144
Calculating the Shaft and Inserting the Results ............................................147

Chapter 11: Working with Standard Parts.................................................. 149


Key Terms ..........................................................................................................150
Working with Standard Parts ............................................................................151
Getting Started ...............................................................................................151
Inserting a Screw Connection........................................................................152
Copying a Screw Connection with Power Copy ...........................................157
Using Power Recall and Performing a Screw Calculation .............................158
Editing a Screw Connection with Power Edit................................................164
Working with Power View .............................................................................166
Deleting with Power Erase .............................................................................168

Contents | vii
Inserting a Hole..............................................................................................169
Inserting a Pin ................................................................................................171
Hiding C-Lines ...............................................................................................172
Simplifying the Representation of Standard Parts.........................................173

Chapter 12: Chain Calculation .................................................................... 175


Key Terms ..........................................................................................................176
Chain Calculation .............................................................................................177
Getting Started ...............................................................................................177
Performing a Length Calculation ..................................................................178
Optimizing the Chain Length .......................................................................180
Inserting Sprockets.........................................................................................181
Inserting a Chain ...........................................................................................184

Chapter 13: Calculating a Spring ................................................................ 187


Key Terms ..........................................................................................................188
Calculating a Spring ..........................................................................................189
Getting Started ...............................................................................................189
Starting the Spring Calculation .....................................................................190
Specifying the Spring Layout .........................................................................192
Calculating and Selecting the Spring.............................................................196
Inserting the Spring .......................................................................................196
Copying the Spring with Power Copy ...........................................................197
Editing the Spring with Power Edit ...............................................................198

Chapter 14: Using FEA to Calculate Stress .................................................. 201


Key Terms ..........................................................................................................202
2D FEA ...............................................................................................................203
Getting Started ...............................................................................................203
Calculating the Stress in a Lever ....................................................................203
Defining Loads and Supports.........................................................................205
Calculating the Results ..................................................................................207
Evaluating and Refining the Mesh ................................................................208
Improving the Design ....................................................................................210
Recalculating the Stress..................................................................................211

viii | Contents
Introduction

In This Chapter

Learning how to use AutoCAD Mechanical „ Prerequisites

2000 for all your mechanical design needs is „ How the tutorials are
organized
exciting. This book contains a series of tutorials
„ Methods for accessing
to teach you how to use AutoCAD Mechanical AutoCAD Mechanical
2000 commands
2000. The tutorials provide a comprehensive
„ Styles for different input
overview of the mechanical design process as actions

well.

Drawing files have been included with the

program specifically for the tutorials. These

drawing files provide the initial state for

starting the tutorial exercises.

1
Prerequisites
Installing AutoCAD Mechanical 2000 with typical or full
installation, the tutorial drawings will automatically be installed.
Selecting the compact installation, the tutorial drawings will not be
installed.
If you select the custom installation, be sure that you have selected
the online help files to install the tutorial drawings as well.
Because of the fact that the tutorial is completely based on ISO
standard, please be sure to have the ISO standards selected during
installation. If you have already installed AutoCAD Mechanical
2000 without the ISO standard part standard, please install the
ISO standard part standard now.

How the Tutorials Are Organized


The tutorials are organized so that each of the tutorial exercises
deals with a special function or group of function in
AutoCAD Mechanical 2000.
The tutorial exercises 9 to 14 deal with AutoCAD Mechanical 2000
Power Pack functions and can only be worked through if you have
installed the Power Pack.
At the beginning of each tutorial, there is a list of Key Terms. These
terms contain pertinent mechanical design terminology and
definitions. Understanding the terms before you begin the lessons
will help you in the tutorials.

Methods for Accessing AutoCAD


Mechanical Commands
AutoCAD Mechanical 2000 provides several methods for accessing
the commands. You can choose the method you prefer. In the
tutorial, all the methods are included in the step-by-step
procedures. You decide which method to use. Here is an example
of a step that includes the command access options:

2 | Introduction
1 Open the file tut_ex01 in the acadm\tutorial folder.

Toolbutton Open
Menu File > Open
Command OPEN

Styles for Different Input Actions


The tutorials contain different styles for different user input actions
for more clarity. These styles are:
User Actions: This style is represented in italics. It is used for all
actions the user has to make, for example
selections.
KEYSTROKES: This style is represented in All Caps. It is used for
keystrokes the user has to make, for example
confirmations.
User Entries: This style is represented bold. It is used for entries
the user has to make using the keyboard, for
example length or diameter specifications.
Here is an example that contains the different input styles:

2 Choose the Edit icon and respond to the prompts as follows:

Select object: Select the first cylindrical section, P1


Specify length <12>: Press ENTER
Specify diameter <20>: Enter 18

Getting Started | 3
4
Working with Templates

In This Chapter
1
In this tutorial, you learn about the AutoCAD „ Setting up the starting
layer
Mechanical predefined templates and how to
„ Setting the mechanical
create your own user-defined templates. options

„ Specifying the drawing


limits

„ Saving a template

„ Using a template

5
Key Terms

Term Definition
base layer A layer made up of working layers and standard parts layers. Base layers are
repeated in every layer group.

layer group A group of associated or related items in a drawing. A major advantage of


working with layer groups is that you can deactivate a specific layer group and a
complete component. The drawing and its overview are enhanced with a
reduction in regeneration time.

part layers A layer where the standard parts are put. All standard parts layers have the suffix
AM_*N.

template A file with predefined settings to use for new drawings; however, any drawing
can be used as a template.

working layer The layer where you are currently working.

6 | Chapter 1 Working with Templates


Working with Templates

Getting Started
In AutoCAD Mechanical, you can use templates (*.dwt files) to
create drawings.
You can use the predefined templates, which contain settings for
various drawings, such as acad.dwt or acadiso.dwt, and are supplied
with AutoCAD Mechanical or you can create your own templates.
Any drawing can serve as a template. When you use a drawing as a
template, the settings in that drawing are used in the new drawing.
Although you can save any drawing as a template, you should
prepare templates to include settings and drawing elements that
are consistent with your office or project standards such as the
following
• unit type and precision
• drawing limits
• snap, grid, and ortho settings
• layer organization
• title blocks, borders, and logos
• dimension and text styles
• linetypes and lineweights
If you start a drawing from scratch, AutoCAD Mechanical reads the
system defaults, which have a predefined standard, from the
registry.
If you create a new drawing, based on an existing template, and
make changes to the drawing, those changes do not affect the
template.
To begin working with templates immediately, you can use the
predefined template files stored in the acadm\template folder.
However, for this tutorial you will create your own template.

Getting Started | 7
Setting Up the Starting Layer
Each time you start AutoCAD Mechanical, layer 0 is active. Since
layer 0 does not belong to the Mechanical layers, it is not displayed
in the Layer Control dialog box of AutoCAD Mechanical, if you
select Mechanical Layer in the Show field.
Therefore, you need to specify the mechanical layer AM_0 as the
default starting layer.
1 Start the Layer Control command.
Toolbutton Layer Control
Menu Assist > Layer / Layer Group > Layer / Layer Group
Control
Command AMLAY

2 In the Layer Control dialog box, choose the Layer Control tab, and
specify:

Name: AM_0
3 Choose Current.

4 Choose OK.

The toolbar shows that the active layer is AM_0.

8 | Chapter 1 Working with Templates


Setting the Mechanical Options
In the Mechanical Options dialog box, you can specify general
settings for AutoCAD Mechanical.
1 Start the Mechanical Options command.
Menu Assist > Mechanical Options
Command AMCONFIG

2 In the Mechanical Options dialog box, choose the General tab,


and specify:

Standard: ISO
Measurement: Metric
Scale: 1:1

3 Choose OK.

NOTE When you change the settings in the Standard field, all
standard-related settings are changed (Dimensioning, BOM,
Symbols, …) and saved in the template file.

Setting the Mechanical Options | 9


Specifying the Drawing Limits
Now, specify the drawing limits according to size A0
(841 x 1189 mm). This limits your drawing space to the specified
size.
1 Start the Drawing Limits command.
Menu Assist > Format > Drawing Limits
Command LIMITS

2 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Specify lower left corner or [ON/OFF] <0.00,0.00>: Press ENTER


Specify upper right corner <420.00,297.00>: Enter 840,1188

Now, the limits are expanded to A0 format.

Saving a Template
Now, save the previously changed drawing as a template.
1 Start the Save As command.
Menu File > Save As
Command SAVEAS

2 In the Save Drawing As dialog box, specify:

File name: my_own_template


Save as type: AutoCAD Drawing Template File (*.dwt)

10 | Chapter 1 Working with Templates


3 In the Template Description dialog box, specify:

Description: Tutorial Template


Measurement: Metric

4 Choose OK.

Using a Template
Next, you start a new drawing and select a starting template.
1 Start the New command.
Toolbutton New
Menu File > New
Command NEW

2 In the Create New Drawing dialog box, select the Use a Template
icon, and specify:

Select a Template: My_own_template

3 Choose OK.

Now, you start the new drawing, using the settings in the
previously saved template.
In the next step, you specify your template as the default template.
4 Start the Mechanical Options command.

Using a Template | 11
Menu Assist > Mechanical Options
Command AMCONFIG

5 In the Mechanical Options dialog box, choose the General tab,


choose Browse, and select my_own_template.

6 Choose OK

Now, the my_own_template file will be used when you start


AutoCAD Mechanical.

12 | Chapter 1 Working with Templates


Extending the Design of a Lever

2
In This Chapter

In this tutorial, you extend the design of an „ Using the library to


insert a part
existing lever using various possibilities. You also
„ Preliminary settings:
create a drawing detail and some dimensioning snap configuration

options. „ Creating construction


lines

„ Creating additional
construction lines

„ Creating a contour
and applying a fillet

„ Creating a contour
and trimming
projecting edges

„ Cross-hatching the
lever

„ Dimensioning the
lever

„ Creating a detail and


additional dimensions

13
Key Terms

Term Definition
(C-lines) Lines, which are infinite in both directions or rays, which are infinite starting at a
construction lines point that can be inserted into the drawing area. You use C-lines to transfer
important points (for example, center points of bores) into other views or
drawing areas.

construction A line or an arc created with construction lines. Using construction geometry in
geometry 2D drawings helps define the shape of a contour.

detail A portion of a design drawing that cannot be clearly displayed or dimensioned in


the overall representation (surface texture symbols) but can be enlarged to show
the details.

distance snap To give the dimensions in a drawing a uniform appearance, Power Dimensioning
and Automatic Dimensioning enable automatic insertion of the dimension line at
a defined distance from the object being dimensioned. While dragging the
dimension line dynamically, you will find that it remains "fixed" and is highlighted
in red as soon as the required distance to the object being dimensioned is
reached.

Library A feature that makes it possible to store parts such as blocks and drawings in a
library. For every inserted part, an icon can be created. The icon is put in the
display section on the right side of the dialog box along with an assigned name.

Power Command A collective term for the Power Copy, Power Recall, Power Edit, Power
Dimensioning, Power Erase, and Power View commands.

Power Power Dimensioning is a very useful tool for generating linear, radial and
Dimensioning diameter dimensions, which minimizes the number of the individual actions
required while generating a dimension. Power Dimensioning selects the type of
linear dimension (horizontal, vertical, or aligned), based on the selected point,
and the dimensions of the drawing can have a uniform style using the distance
snap.

14 | Chapter 2 Extending the Design of a Lever


Extending the Design

Getting Started
First, you load the initial drawing. Here, you use the Library to do
this.
1 Start the Library.
Toolbutton Library
Menu Insert > Library
Command AMLIBRARY

2 Double-click the tut_ex02 file in the Library, or select Insert from


the context menu.

3 Respond to the prompt as follows:

Insertion point: Specify any point in the drawing


4 Start the Zoom Window command.
Toolbutton Zoom Window
Menu View > Zoom > Window
Command ZOOM

Getting Started | 15
5 Zoom in to the part of the drawing shown in the following figure.

Preliminary Settings: Snap Configuration


In addition to the AutoCAD snap, Mechanical snap options, like
arc radial, arc tangent, and so forth are available. You also have
four different snap settings, which can be configured separately for
a quick switch to a different snap setting. For example, you can use
different snap settings for detailing or general design.
Before starting the design, you should define the object snaps,
which you will use in later operations.
1 Start the Power Snap settings.
Toolbutton Power Snap Settings 1 - 4
Menu Assist > Draft Settings > Power Snap Settings 1 - 4
Command AMPOWERSNAP

2 In the Power Snap Settings dialog box, specify:

Setting 1: Endpoint, Intersection


Setting 2: Endpoint, Center, Quadrant, Intersection, Parallel
Setting 3: Perpendicular

16 | Chapter 2 Extending the Design of a Lever


3 After configuring the settings, activate Setting 1, and choose OK.

TIP The object snap functions are also accessible: hold down the
SHIFT key, and click the right mouse button.

Creating Construction Lines (C-Lines)


Construction lines are very useful when you start your design
process. With their help, you draw some kind of a design grid with
your defined values for distance and angles. After generating the
design grid, you simply trace your contour with the contour layer.
Now insert the construction lines, which will help with the
drawing of contour lines.
1 Start the Draw C-Lines command.
Toolbutton Cross
Menu Design > Construction Lines > Draw C-Lines
Command AMCONSTLINES

2 In the Construction Lines dialog box, choose the Cross icon.

Creating Construction Lines (C-Lines) | 17


3 Respond to the prompt as follows:

Insertion point: Specify the intersection of line b and line c

Next, draw two lines parallel to the vertical and horizontal lines of
the construction line cross.
4 Start the Draw C-Lines command.
Toolbutton Parallel with Full Distance
Menu Design > Construction Lines > Draw C-Lines
Command AMCONSTLINES

5 In the Construction Lines dialog box, choose the Parallel with Full
Distance icon.

6 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Select XLINE, RAY or LINE: Select line c


Distance(xx|xx|xx..) or Insertion point: Enter 3|9
Side to offset: Specify a point to the left of line c

18 | Chapter 2 Extending the Design of a Lever


7 Insert the second set of parallel lines, and respond to the prompts
as follows:

Select XLINE, RAY or LINE: Select line b.


Distance(xx|xx|xx..) or Insertion point: Enter 4.5|9.5
Side to offset: Specify a point below line b
8 Press ENTER.

Creating additional C-Lines


AutoCAD Mechanical offers a choice of C-line options.
1 Activate snap setting 2.
Toolbutton Power Snap Settings 2
Menu Assist > Draft Settings > Power Snap Settings 2
Command AMPSNAP2

2 Start the Draw C-Lines command.


Toolbutton Two Points or Angle
Menu Design > Construction Lines > Draw C-Lines
Command AMCONSTLINES

3 In the Construction Lines dialog box, choose the Two Points or


Angle icon.

Creating additional C-Lines | 19


4 Respond to the prompts as follows:

First point: Select intersection at point 3


Second point or Angle (xx|xx|xx..): Move the cursor over line a and
then back to the rectangle. When the Parallel symbol appears, click.

5 Press ENTER to finish the command.

Now, you draw tangential circles between the diagonal C-line and
the right vertical line and lower horizontal line of the rectangle.
6 Start the Draw C-Lines command.
Toolbutton Circle Tangent to 2 Lines
Menu Design > Construction Lines > Draw C-Lines
Command AMCONSTLINES

7 In the Construction Lines dialog box, choose the Circle Tangent to


2 Lines icon.

20 | Chapter 2 Extending the Design of a Lever


8 Draw the two circles by responding to the prompts as follows:

Select point for tangent: Select point P1


Select point for tangent: Select point P2
Diameter: Enter 2
Select point for tangent: Select point P3
Select point for tangent: Select point P1
Diameter: Enter 2
9 Press ENTER to end the command.

All construction lines have been inserted, and the contour can be
generated.

Creating additional C-Lines | 21


Creating a Contour and Applying a Fillet
Now, you connect the two tangential circles with the right part of
the rectangle, to build a filleted triangle.
1 Start the Polyline command.
Toolbutton Polyline
Menu Design > Polyline
Command PLINE

2 Create the contour by responding to the prompts as follows:

Specify start point: Specify the intersection at P1


Specify next point or [Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]:
Specify P2
Specify next point or [Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]:
Enter A
Specify endpoint of arc or
[Angle/CEnter/CLose/Direction/Halfwidth/Line/ Radius/Second
pt/Undo/Width]: Specify P3
Specify endpoint of arc or
[Angle/CEnter/CLose/Direction/Halfwidth/Line/ Radius/Second
pt/Undo/Width]: Enter L
Specify next point or [Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]:
Specify P4
Specify next point or [Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]:
Enter A
Specify endpoint of arc or
[Angle/CEnter/CLose/Direction/Halfwidth/Line/ Radius/Second
pt/Undo/Width]: Specify P5
Specify endpoint of arc or
[Angle/CEnter/CLose/Direction/Halfwidth/Line/ Radius/Second
pt/Undo/Width]: Enter CL

22 | Chapter 2 Extending the Design of a Lever


Now, erase the C-Lines. You can erase all C-lines by calling one
command.
3 Erase C-Lines.
Toolbutton Erase All C-Lines
Menu Modify > Erase > Erase All C-Lines
Command AMERASEALLCL

TIP You can switch C-lines on and off temporarily by choosing


Assist > Layer/Layergroup > C-Line On/Off.
4 Apply a fillet to the corner of the triangle.
Toolbutton Fillet
Menu Modify > Fillet
Command AMFILLET2D

5 Respond to the prompts as follows:

(Dimension mode:OFF)(Trim mode) Current fillet radius = 2.5


Select first object or [Polyline/Setup/Dimension]: Press ENTER
6 In the Fillet radius dialog box, specify:

Input: 1
Trim Mode: On

7 Choose OK.
8 Respond to the prompts as follows:

(Dimension mode:OFF)(Trim mode) Current fillet radius = 1


Select first object or [Polyline/Setup/Dimension]: Enter P
Poly Select 2D polyline: Select a point on the polyline near the corner
9 Press ESC to cancel the command.

The triangular contour is complete.

Creating a Contour and Applying a Fillet | 23


Creating a Contour and Trimming Projecting
Edges
Now, you create another part of the contour and trim projecting
edges.
1 Activate Power Snap Setting 3 command.
Toolbutton Power Snap Settings 3
Menu Assist > Draft Settings > Power Snap Settings 3
Command AMPSNAP3

Next, insert the next contour.


2 Start the Line command.
Toolbutton Line
Menu Design > Line
Command LINE

3 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Specify first point: Hold down the SHIFT key, right-click, and choose
Intersection
_int of: Select line a, P1
and: Select intersection on line b, P2
Specify next point: : Hold down the SHIFT key, right-click, and choose
Perpendicular. Then trace over line e, and click the perpendic. point, P3
Specify next point: Drag the cursor to the right, crossing over line c,
and select the Extended Intersection point, P4
Specify next point: Press ENTER

Now, trim the projecting edges at the upper edge of the lever.

24 | Chapter 2 Extending the Design of a Lever


4 Start the Trim command.
Toolbutton Trim
Menu Modify > Trim
Command TRIM

5 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Projection = UCS, Edge = None


Select cutting edges:
Select Objects: Select line 1
Select Objects: Select line 2
Select Objects: Press ENTER
<Select object to trim>/Project/Edge/Undo: Select line 3
<Select object to trim>/Project/Edge/Undo: Select line 4
<Select object to trim>/Project/Edge/Undo: Press ENTER

6 Zoom to the extents of the lever.


Toolbutton Zoom Extents
Menu View > Zoom > Extents
Command ZOOM

The contour is complete and looks like this:

Creating a Contour and Trimming Projecting Edges | 25


Cross-Hatching the Lever
Cross-hatching is easy with AutoCAD Mechanical. Just choose one
of the predefined cross-hatching styles, and click a point within
the contour to be hatched.
1 Start the Hatch command, using an angle of 45 degrees and 2.5
mm / 0.1 inch spacing.
Toolbutton Hatch 45 deg.,2.5mm/0.1 inch
Menu Design > Hatch > Hatch 45 deg.,2.5mm/0.1 inch
Command AMHATCH_45_2

2 Respond to the prompt as follows:

Select additional boundary or point in area to be hatched or [Select


objects]: Click a point inside the contour (outside the cutouts)

The lever is hatched. It looks like this:

26 | Chapter 2 Extending the Design of a Lever


Dimensioning the Lever
Now, dimension the lever, using the Power Dimensioning
command.
1 Start the Power Snap Setting 1 command.
Toolbutton Power Snap Settings 1
Menu Assist > Draft Settings > Power Snap Settings 1
Command AMPSNAP1

2 Start the Power Dimensioning command.


Toolbutton Power Dimensioning
Menu Annotate > Power Dimensioning
Command AMPOWERDIM

3 Respond to the prompts as follows:

(SINGLE) First extension line origin or


[Angular/Options/Baseline/Chain/ Update] <Select>: Select the first
corner point of the lever opening, P1
Second extension line origin: Select the second corner point, P2
Place dimension line [Options/Pickobj] <Options>: Drag the
dimension line to the left until it is highlighted, and click at P3

Dimensioning the Lever | 27


4 In the Power Dimensioning dialog box, specify:

Upper deviation: +0.1

5 Choose OK.
6 Press ESC to cancel the command.

The lever looks like this:

28 | Chapter 2 Extending the Design of a Lever


Creating a Detail and Additional Dimensions
Now, define a detail of the upper part of the lever.
1 Start the Detail command.
Toolbutton Detail
Menu Design > Detail
Command AMDETAIL

2 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Center of circle or [Rectangle/Object]: Click a point in the center of


the area to be detailed
Specify radius or [Diameter]: Drag the radius to the appropriate size

3 Choose OK.

4 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Move the title (<Return> for current position): Press ENTER to select
the default position
Place the detail view: Select a location to the right of the lever
Select next point of connection line\<Return> for none: Press ENTER
for no connection line

Creating a Detail and Additional Dimensions | 29


NOTE Some entities such as dimensions and symbols are
automatically filtered out in the detail function.

Now, add a dimension to the detail.


5 Start the Power Dimensioning command.
Toolbutton Power Dimensioning
Menu Annotate > Power Dimensioning
Command AMPOWERDIM

6 Respond to the prompts as follows:

(SINGLE) First extension line origin or


[Angular/Options/Baseline/Chain/ Update] <Select>: Press ENTER
[Picking arc/circle yields radius/diameter dimension or pick dimension
to edit]: Select the radius, as indicated by the arrow in the following
drawing

30 | Chapter 2 Extending the Design of a Lever


7 In the Power Dimensioning dialog box, under Radius Dimensions,
select the fourth icon from the left. Choose OK.

8 Select an appropriate position for the dimension.


9 Deactivate the tolerances or fits in the Power Dimension dialog
box, if necessary, and choose OK.

10 Press ESC.

Now, the lever looks like this:

Creating a Detail and Additional Dimensions | 31


NOTE The Power Dimensioning command recognizes the different
scale area. If you dimensioned the radius in the original drawing, the
dimension value would be the same. The text height is also the same,
as related to the standard.

32 | Chapter 2 Extending the Design of a Lever


Dimensioning and Annotations

In This Chapter
3
In this tutorial, you learn how to add dimensions „ Automatic
dimensioning
to your drawing with automatic dimensioning.
„ Editing dimensions
Then you change the dimensions with Power with Power
Commands
Commands. You also learn how to add
„ Inserting annotations
annotations to your drawing and insert a drawing
„ Inserting a drawing
border. border

33
Key Terms

Term Definition
annotation An object, such as text or geometry, that is attached to a drawing to describe a
design. Examples are surface finish symbols, callout balloons, and BOMs (bills of
materials).

baseline dimension A dimension that is aligned to extension lines and read from the bottom or right
side of the drawing.

centerline Line in the center of a symmetrical object. When you create centerlines, you
specify the start and end points.

datum identifier A symbol consisting of a frame with a reference letter.

drawing border A standardized frame that is used for technical drawings.

drawing title The drawing title is drawn in the lower right corner of the drawing and provides
information about your drawing. Some title attributes are pre-assigned. You can
modify or add attributes.

feature control Symbol that gives an accurate and concise meaning to specifying geometric
frame symbol characteristics and tolerances. Notes can supplement symbols where appropriate.

feature identifier Specifies individual features for tolerancing.


symbol

fit Range of tightness or looseness in mating parts (for example shafts or holes).
Tolerances in these dimensions are expressed in standard form.

fit name Name of the selected fit (for example H7).

geometric The general term applied to the category of tolerances used to control form,
tolerance profile, orientation, location, and run out.

multi edit An option where you determine a selection set of dimensions and edit them
together.

Power A command useful for generating linear, radial, and diameter dimensions while
Dimensioning minimizing the number of the individual actions for generating a dimension.
Power Dimensioning automatically selects the type of the linear dimension
(horizontal, vertical, aligned) based on the selected point.

34 | Chapter 3 Dimensioning and Annotations


Power Erase Command for deleting. Use Power Erase when you delete part reference numbers
or dimensions that were created with Power Dimensioning.

surface texture Symbol that specifies surface texture finish. The symbols conform, in terms of
symbol their geometry and annotations (which includes text and other symbols), to
international drafting standards.

title block A title block contains a series of attributes some already have values. The pre-
assigned values can be modified, and the vacant attributes can be completed
with new values.

tolerance The total amount by which a given dimension (nominal size) may vary (for
example, 20 ± 0.1).

Creating a Detail and Additional Dimensions | 35


Dimensioning
AutoCAD Mechanical offers various dimensioning tools. Here you
will learn to use automatic dimensioning to add dimensions to a
bush. You also learn how to change these dimensions
1 Open the file tut_ex03 in the acadm\tutorial folder.
Toolbutton Open
Menu File > Open
Command OPEN

The file contains a drawing of a bushing.

Automatic Dimensioning
First you dimension the shaft of the bushing using automatic
dimensioning.
1 Start Automatic Dimensioning.
Toolbutton Automatic Dimensioning
Menu Annotate > Automatic Dimensioning
Command AMAUTODIM

2 In the Automatic Dimensioning dialog box, choose the Parallel tab


and specify:

Type: Baseline

36 | Chapter 3 Dimensioning and Annotations


3 Choose OK.
4 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Select objects: Select the complete shaft


Select objects: Press ENTER
First extension line origin: Select the lower leftmost corner of the shaft,
P1
Place dimension line [Options/Pickobj] <Options>: Drag the
dimensioning downwards until it snaps in (highlighted), and click
Starting point for next extension line: Press ENTER to end the command

In the next step, you generate the shaft dimensioning.

Automatic Dimensioning | 37
5 Start Automatic Dimensioning.
Toolbutton Automatic Dimensioning
Menu Annotate > Automatic Dimensioning
Command AMAUTODIM

6 In the Automatic Dimensioning dialog box, choose the Shaft /


Symmetric tab, and specify:

Type: Full Shaft

7 Choose OK.
8 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Select objects: Select the complete shaft


Select objects: Press ENTER
Select Centerline or new starting point: Select the shaft centerline
Place dimension line [Options/Pickobj] <Options>: Drag the
dimensioning to the right until it snaps in (highlighted), and click
Starting point for next extension line: Press ENTER to end the
command

38 | Chapter 3 Dimensioning and Annotations


Editing Dimensions with Power Commands
Some dimensions in the drawing are not necessary. In the next
step, you delete the dimensions that you don’t need.
1 Start Power Erase.
Toolbutton Power Erase
Menu Modify > Power Commands > Power Erase
Command AMPOWERERASE

2 Respond to the prompt as follows:

Select objects: Select the baseline dimensions 2 and 61 and the shaft
dimensions 12, 14 and 36, and press ENTER

The dimensions are deleted, and the other dimensions are


rearranged. Your drawing should now look like this:

Editing Dimensions with Power Commands | 39


Now, add a single dimension with a fit using Power Dimensioning.
3 Start Power Dimensioning.
Toolbutton Power Dimensioning
Menu Annotate > Power Dimensioning
Command AMPOWERDIM

4 Respond to the prompts as follows:

(SINGLE) First extension line origin or


[Angular/Options/Baseline/Chain/ Update] <Select> : Select point P1
as shown in the following figure
Second extension line origin: Select point P2
Place dimension line [Options/Pickobj] <Options>: Drag the
dimensioning to the left until it is highlighted, and click

40 | Chapter 3 Dimensioning and Annotations


5 In the Power Dimensioning dialog box, check the Enable field,
choose the Fits tab, and specify:

Fit symbol: H7

6 Choose OK.

Now continue to apply an angular dimensioning.


7 Respond to the prompts as follows:

(SINGLE) First extension line origin or


[Angular/Options/Baseline/Chain/ Update] <Select> : Enter A
Select arc, circle, line or RETURN: Select the line at point P1
Second line: Select the line at point P2
Dimension arc line location (Angle): Drag the dimension to a suitable
position, and click
Dimension text (Click=Options) <45>: Press ENTER

8 Press ENTER to end the command.

Next, you add a fit to the shaft dimensions using Multi Edit.

Editing Dimensions with Power Commands | 41


9 Start Multi Edit.
Toolbutton Multi Edit
Menu Modify > Modify Dimension > Multi Edit
Command AMDIMMEDIT

10 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Select objects: Select the dimensions 18 and 30


Select objects: Press ENTER
11 In the Power Dimensioning dialog box, check the Enable field,
chose the Fits tab, and specify:

Fit symbol: h7

12 Choose OK.

The fit description h7 is added to the dimensions.

42 | Chapter 3 Dimensioning and Annotations


Inserting Annotations
Annotations are objects used to describe the design, like surface or
weld symbols. In this exercise, you will insert a surface texture
symbol, a datum identifier, and a feature control frame.
First, you add a surface texture symbol. A surface texture symbol is
a symbol that describes the roughness of a face. It can also provide
information about the finishing method.
1 Start the Surface Texture command.
Toolbutton Surface Texture
Menu Annotate > Symbols > Surface Texture
Command AMSURFSYM

2 To locate the symbol respond to the prompts as follows:

Start Point: Specify the leader line start point at P1


Next Point <Symbol>: Specify the second leader line point at P2
Next Point <Symbol>: Press ENTER

3 In the Surface Texture dialog box, choose the Symbol tab, and
specify:

Surface Type: Select the middle icon


A ’: 6.3

Inserting Annotations | 43
4 Choose OK.

Next, you add a datum identifier and a feature control frame. The
datum identifier marks a reference face for a geometric tolerance,
and the feature control frame provides information about the
toleranced face, allowed deviation, and the type of tolerance.
5 Start the Datum Identifier command.
Toolbutton Datum Identifier
Menu Annotate > Symbols > Datum Identifier
Command AMDATUMID

6 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Start Point: Specify the leader line start point at P1


Next Point <Symbol>: Specify the second leader line point at P2
Next Point <Symbol>: Press ENTER

7 In the Datum Identifier dialog box, enter A, and choose OK.

44 | Chapter 3 Dimensioning and Annotations


8 Start the Feature Control Frame command.
Toolbutton Feature Control Frame
Menu Annotate > Symbols > Feature Control Frame
Command AMFCFRAME

9 To locate the symbol, respond to the prompts as follows:

Start Point: Specify the leader line start point at P1


Next Point <Symbol>: Specify the second leader line point at P2
Next Point <Symbol>: Specify the second leader line point at P3
Next Point <Symbol>: Press ENTER

10 In the Feature Control Frame dialog box, choose the Frame tab,
and specify:

Sym: Select the symbol for the geometric tolerance circular run-out
Tolerance: 0.01
Datum 1: A

Inserting Annotations | 45
11 Choose OK.

Now, your complete bushing looks like this:

Inserting a Drawing Border


Finally, you insert a drawing border.
1 Start the Drawing Title/Borders command.
Toolbutton Drawing Title/Borders
Menu Annotate > Drawing Title/Revisions > Drawing
Title/Borders
Command AMTITLE

46 | Chapter 3 Dimensioning and Annotations


2 In the Drawing Borders with Title Block dialog box, specify:

Paper Format: AM_A4

3 Choose OK.
4 Respond to the prompt as follows:

Insertion point: Specify an insertion point in the lower left corner


5 In the Change Title Block Entry dialog box, specify:

Description, max. 20: Bushing

Inserting a Drawing Border | 47


6 Choose OK.
7 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Select Objects: Select the complete shaft


Select Objects: Press ENTER
New location for objects: Place the bush in the middle of the drawing
border

Finally, your drawing looks like this:

48 | Chapter 3 Dimensioning and Annotations


Working with Layers and Layer
Groups

In This Chapter
4
In this tutorial, you learn more about the various „ Changing a layer by
selecting objects
commands used for working with layers and layer
„ Creating layer groups
groups.
„ Using a layer group to
copy objects

49
Key Terms

Term Definition
base layer A layer made up of working layers and standard parts layers. Base layers are
repeated in every layer group.

layer group A group of associated or related items in a drawing. A major advantage of


working with layer groups is that you can deactivate a specific layer group and a
complete component. The drawing and its overview is enhanced with a
reduction in regeneration time.

part layers The layer where the standard parts are put. All standard parts layers have the
suffix AM_*N.

working layer The layer where you are working.

50 | Chapter 4 Working with Layers and Layer Groups


Working with Layers and Layer Groups

Understanding Layer Management


Layers can be customized and renamed according to your needs
using:
„ Mechanical Options dialog box > Layer / Object Settings…
„ Layer 0 is a default layer and not a mechanical layer, because this
layer has special properties (by block). If you want to have this
special property available, just rename e.g. layer AM_0 to 0 in the
Mechanical Options.
„ Because AutoCAD 2000 always starts with Layer 0, we
recommend using template files, where layer AM_0 is always the
starting layer.
„ If you move elements on layer 0 to other layer groups, you are
asked if you always want to move the elements on layer group
layergroupname-AM_0.

Getting Started
Open the initial drawing.
1 Open the file tut_ex04 in the acadm\tutorial folder.
Toolbutton Open
Menu File > Open
Command OPEN

2 Zoom to the extents of the drawing.


Toolbutton Zoom Extents
Menu View > Zoom > Extents
Command ZOOM

3 Zoom in to the area marked with W1 and W2.


Toolbutton Zoom Window
Menu View > Zoom > Window
Command ZOOM

Understanding Layer Management | 51


4 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Specify first corner: Specify W1


Specify opposite corner: Specify W2

Changing a Layer By Selecting Objects


First, you move the layer (and layer group) containing two objects
to another layer (and layer group) by selecting an object in the
aforementioned layer (and layer group).
1 Start the Move to Another Layer command.
Toolbutton Move to Another Layer
Menu Modify > Properties > Move to Another Layer
Command AMLAYMOVE

2 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Select objects: Specify the centerlines of the differential gear, P1 and P2


Select objects: Press ENTER
Specify new layer using object, layer field or keyboard (RETURN for
dialog): Specify the engine centerline, P3

52 | Chapter 4 Working with Layers and Layer Groups


The centerlines of the differential gear are moved to the layer and
layer group of the engine centerline.

Creating Layer Groups


Layer groups provide an easy and intelligent way to structure
assembly drawings. Using layer groups enable you to highlight
single parts and lock and freeze whole parts. This gives you a better
overview of your assembly drawing.
First, you move a block to a layer group.
1 Start the Move to Another Group command.
Toolbutton Move to Another Group
Menu Modify > Properties > Move to Another Layer
Group
Command AMLGMOVE

2 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Select objects: Specify the gear, P1


Select objects: Press ENTER

Creating Layer Groups | 53


3 In the Layer Control dialog box, choose the Create button, and
create a new layer group called Gear. Choose OK.

4 In the Named Block dialog box, choose Yes All.

The complete block is moved to the layer group Gear.


NOTE You can also perform the task with single elements. Using
the Named Block dialog box, you can specify whether to move only
the block or to move the block and all parts and lines to the new layer
group.

54 | Chapter 4 Working with Layers and Layer Groups


Now, you create two new layer groups and move the parts (blocks)
to those groups.
5 Start the Layer Group Control command.
Toolbutton Layer Group Control
Menu Assist > Layer / Layer Group > Layer / Layer Group
Control
Command AMLG

6 In the Layer Control dialog box, choose the Layer Group Control
tab, and choose Create. Enter Coverplate for the layer group name.
7 Choose Create again, and create a layer group called Bushing.
Choose OK.

8 Start the Move to Another Group command.


Toolbutton Move to Another Group
Menu Modify > Properties > Move to Another Layer
Group
Command AMLGMOVE

9 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Select objects: Specify the coverplate, P1


Select objects: Press ENTER

Creating Layer Groups | 55


10 In the Layer Control dialog box, select the layer group Coverplate,
and choose OK.

11 In the Named Block dialog box, choose Yes All.

Now, move the bushing to the new Bushing layer group.


12 Start the Move to Another Group command.
Toolbutton Move to Another Group
Menu Modify > Properties > Move to Another Layer
Group
Command AMLGMOVE

56 | Chapter 4 Working with Layers and Layer Groups


13 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Select objects: Specify the bushing, P1


Select objects: Press ENTER

14 In the Layer Control dialog box, select the layer group Bushing,
and choose OK.

15 In the Named Block dialog box, choose Yes All.

Creating Layer Groups | 57


The coverplate and the bushing have now been moved to their
respective layer groups.

Using a Layer Group to Copy Objects


Now, copy the objects of the layer group Shaft to a new drawing
border.
1 Zoom to the extents of the drawing.
Toolbutton Zoom Extents
Menu View > Zoom > Extents
Command ZOOM

2 Start the Visibility Enhancement command.


Toolbutton Visibility Enhancement
Menu Assist > Layer / Layer Group > Visibility
Enhancement
Command AMLAYVISENH

3 In the Visibility Enhancement dialog box, specify:

Focus Enhancer: Special coloring for non-current Layer Groups

4 Choose OK.

58 | Chapter 4 Working with Layers and Layer Groups


5 Start the Layer Group Control command.
Toolbutton Layer Group Control
Menu Assist > Layer / Layer Group > Layer / Layer Group
Control
Command AMLG

6 In the Layer Control dialog box, choose the Layer Group Control
tab, and select the layer group Shaft. Choose the Current button,
and then choose OK.

In the following drawing, you can see which elements belong to


the current layer.

Using a Layer Group to Copy Objects | 59


7 Start the Copy command.
Toolbutton Copy
Menu Modify > Copy > Copy
Command COPY

8 Respond to the prompt as follows:

Select objects: Select Layer Group Control


Toolbutton Layer Group Control
Menu Assist > Layer / Layer Group > Layer / Layer Group
Control

9 In the Layer Control dialog box, choose the Layer Group Control
tab, and select the layer group Shaft. Choose the Selection Set
button. In the AutoCAD dialog box, choose OK.
10 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Select objects: Press ENTER


Specify base point or displacement, or [Multiple]: Specify a point on
the shaft
Specify second point of displacement or <use first point as
displacement>: Specify another point in the drawing border on the
right

60 | Chapter 4 Working with Layers and Layer Groups


Working with a Bill of Material
and a Parts List

In This Chapter
5
In this tutorial, you learn how to create and „ Creating part
references
modify part references and balloons, insert and
„ Inserting and
edit a parts list, and work with the bill of material modifying balloons

(BOM) database. „ Inserting and


modifying parts lists

61
Key Terms

Term Definition
balloon Circular annotation tag that identifies a bill of material item in a drawing. The
number in the balloon corresponds with the number of the part in the bill of
material.

bill of material A dynamic database containing a list of all the parts in an assembly. Used to
generate parts lists that contain associated attributes such as part number,
manufacturer, and quantity.

BOM attribute An entity that contains attributes by default (the attribute is invisible) that can
add information to and describe details of a part in the drawing. The values of
these attributes are transformed into the parts list attributes when converting
BOM attributes and creating a parts list.

part reference Part information for a bill of material, which is attached to the part in the
drawing.

parts list A dynamic list of parts and associated attributes generated from a bill of material
database. The parts list automatically reflects additions and subtractions of parts
from an assembly.

62 | Chapter 5 Working with a Bill of Material and a Parts List


Inserting a Part Reference
The part reference the part information required for the bill of
material. The information of the part reference is available in the
parts database for creating a parts list.
Here, you use the part reference command to enter part
information for your part.
First, load the initial drawing.
1 Open the file tut_ex05 from the acadm\tutorial folder.
Toolbutton Open
Menu File > Open
Command OPEN

2 Zoom in to the area of interest, marked with W1 and W2.


Toolbutton Zoom Window
Menu View > Zoom > Window
Command ZOOM

3 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Specify first corner: Specify W1


Specify opposite corner: Specify W2

Inserting a Part Reference | 63


4 Start the Part Reference command.
Toolbutton Place Reference
Menu Annotate > Parts List > Create BOM Attribute
Command AMPARTREF

5 Respond to the prompt as follows:

Select point or [Block/Copy/Reference]: Specify P1

6 In the Part Ref Attributes dialog box, enter the settings shown
below.

7 Choose OK.

The Part Reference is inserted into the drawing.


8 Start the Part Reference command again.
Toolbutton Place Reference
Menu Annotate > Parts List > Create BOM Attribute
Command AMPARTREF

64 | Chapter 5 Working with a Bill of Material and a Parts List


9 Right click to display the context menu and select Reference, or
enter R at the Command prompt.

10 Select the first part reference (P1) in the drawing to create a


reference. This means that the same part shows a quantity of 2 in
the BOM database.

NOTE You can use the option Copy to create a new part with
similar text information.
11 Select the insertion point (P2).

The Part Ref Attribute dialog box is displayed.


12 Choose OK.
13 Start the Edit Part Reference command.
Toolbutton Edit Part Ref Data
Menu Annotate > Parts List > Edit BOM Attribute
Command AMPARTREFEDIT

14 Pick the part reference at P3.

Inserting a Part Reference | 65


The Part Ref Attributes dialog box is displayed.
15 For Reference Quantity, enter 3, and choose OK.

NOTE For the related nut and the screw connection on the right
side the reference quantity is already changed in the drawing.
16 Zoom extents to display the entire drawing.

Placing Balloons
1 Start the Balloon command.
Toolbutton Place Balloon
Menu Assist > Parts List > Place Balloon
Command AMBALLOON

2 Respond to the prompt as follows:

Select part/assembly or [Auto/Collect/Manual/One/Renumber]:


Enter A

66 | Chapter 5 Working with a Bill of Material and a Parts List


The command line options include:
Auto – Creates balloons for selected part references and aligns them
horizontally or vertically.
Collect – Creates a multiple balloon or attaches new balloons to an
existing balloon.
Manual – Creates a new part reference with a balloon.
One – Creates a single balloon.
Renumber – Renumbers selected balloons in the drawing and
changes item numbers in the BOM.
TIP If you use one of the commands AMBALLOON or AMPARTLIST
the BOM-database will be created automatically. This means all part
references will be added to the database and item numbers will be
created inside the database.
To create and edit a database manually, you can also use the AMBOM
command .
3 Use a window to select all objects from W3 to W4.

TIP Use right-click to switch between the horizontal or vertical


orientation of the balloons.
4 Place the balloons horizontally, above the assembly.

Because the balloons are numbered automatically, depending on


where you have located the part references, the appearance of your
drawing can be different.

Placing Balloons | 67
5 Start the Balloon command again.
Toolbutton Place Balloon
Menu Annotate > Parts List > Place Balloon
Command AMBALLOON

6 On the command line, enter Renumber.


7 Respond to the prompt as follows:

Enter starting item number: <1>: Press ENTER


Enter increment: <1>: Press ENTER
Select balloon: Select the balloons from 1 to 7, in the order shown
above and press ENTER

Your drawing needs to look like the following in order for you to
to continue:

NOTE Since balloon 7 has a reference, you do not have to select


balloon 8. It will get the number 7 automatically.
8 Use a window to select the 6 balloons on the right. This turns on
the grips.

68 | Chapter 5 Working with a Bill of Material and a Parts List


9 Right-click to activate the context menu. Choose Reorganize.
10 Move the cursor through the center of balloon 1 to get the
horizontal tracking line.

NOTE Make sure that the OTRACK function is active.


11 Move the cursor to the right, along the line, and select a insertion
point.

The result needs to look like the following:

TIP You can reorganize one balloon by selecting and using grip
point editing.
Create a part reference and a balloon in one step with the manual
option.
12 Start the AMBALLOON command again, and choose Manual.
13 Click a point inside the shaft.

Placing Balloons | 69
TIP Instead of selecting a point to create a part reference, you can
use Copy or Reference from the Manual option, to get the information
from an existing balloon or part reference.
14 In the Part Ref Attribute dialog box, enter the following settings,
and choose OK.

15 Press ENTER to start the leader line of the balloon in the center of
the part reference.
16 Move the cursor through the center of balloon 1 to get the
tracking line, and enter the insertion point.

TIP Instead of entering the insertion point, you can select another
point to create an extended leader line.

70 | Chapter 5 Working with a Bill of Material and a Parts List


17 Press ENTER.

Creating a Parts List


1 Start the Parts List command.
Toolbutton Place Parts List
Menu Annotate > Parts List > Parts List
Command AMPARTSLIST

2 Respond to the prompt as follows:

Select border: Move the cursor over the border until the tooltip AM_A2
is displayed, and pick the border
3 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Parts List name <Parts List>. Press ENTER


Select type of Parts List: [All/Parts/Range] <All>: Press ENTER

The parts list appears dynamically on the cursor.


4 Move the cursor to the top of the title block. Click to insert the
parts list.

The parts list should look like the following:

Creating a Parts List | 71


TIP If you are working with more than one drawing border, you can
create border-specific parts lists. In this case, a BOM database is
created for each border automatically when the AMBALLOON or
AMPARTLIST commands are used.
You can use the AMBOM command to create or edit a BOM manually.
An example of a BOM database that contains more than one border is
shown below. Selecting BORDER1 or BORDER2 displays the contents
for each BOM database.

5 Start the Edit Part List/Balloon command.


Toolbutton Edit Part List/Balloon
Command AMEDIT

6 Select balloon 2.

The Balloon dialog box is displayed.

7 Enter 8.8 in the Material column, as shown above.

72 | Chapter 5 Working with a Bill of Material and a Parts List


8 Choose OK. Notice the changes in your parts list.

TIP Choose Apply to see the results in the drawing immediately


without leaving the dialog box. All changes made in the dialog box are
associative and change the data in the drawing immediately.
9 Double-click the parts list.

The Parts List dialog box is displayed.

You can edit your data in this dialog box. Some examples are
shown next.
10 Select 8.8 in the Material column, and move the cursor down three
cells to copy the data into these rows.

11 Select the Set Value button. The Set Value dialog box is
displayed.

Creating a Parts List | 73


12 Choose OK. The result should look like the following.

13 For the two nuts (ISO 4034 M6), from 8.8 to 8, change the material
by double-clicking the field.

The result should look like the following:

TIP Using the context menu inside a field provides additional


functions such as cut, copy, and paste.

74 | Chapter 5 Working with a Bill of Material and a Parts List


Merging and Splitting Items in a Parts List
1 In the Parts List dialog box, select the field to the left of row 1,
hold down CTRL, and select row 6, as shown below.

2 Select the active Merge button to merge these two items


together.

Item 1 now has a quantity of 2, and Item 6 is missing.

Selecting several rows allows you to merge or split items. The selected
rows need to have the same entries.
3 Choose Apply to display the changes in the drawing.

Balloon 1 is displayed twice.

Merging and Splitting Items in a Parts List | 75


TIP Select the gray field to the left of row 1, and the active split icon
is displayed.

In this case, if you choose split, you can select one of the two part
references in the drawing to split them.
Selecting the gray field in the upper left corner near Item allows you to
select all rows at once, as shown in the following.

In this case, the merge and split icons are active.


Selecting one of the icons allows you to merge or split all items at
once. All data will be compared, and if it is the same, they are merged
together. Otherwise, if they are merged items they are split at once.
Now that you have merged the bearing, you can delete one of the
balloons and add an additional leader.
4 Use Power Erase, and select the left balloon with the item
number 1.

76 | Chapter 5 Working with a Bill of Material and a Parts List


5 Press ENTER to delete the balloon.

NOTE Deleting a balloon in the drawing, doesn’t delete any data.


Data is only lost if you delete a part reference. You can add more than
one balloon to a part reference, for example, to create a balloon with
the same item number, for the same part in another view.
6 Select the remaining balloon 1.
7 Right-click to display the context menu. Select Add Leader.
8 Select the start point in the center of the bearing, and move the
cursor near the number 1 in the balloon.
9 Select that point. Your drawing should look like the following:

Collecting Balloons
Collecting balloons enables you to place balloons of related parts
to one leader line. For example, you can place the balloons of a
screw and a nut to one common leader line.
1 Use a window to zoom in the top view of the drawing.
Toolbutton Zoom Window
Menu View > Zoom > Window
Command ZOOM

Collecting Balloons | 77
2 Start the AMBALLOON command.
Toolbutton Place Balloon
Menu Annotate > Parts List > Place Balloon
Command AMBALLOON

3 Respond to the prompt as follows:

Select part/assembly or [Auto/Collect/Manual/One/Renumber]:


Enter C
4 Select the part reference of the left nut, and press ENTER.

5 Select balloon 2. The collected balloon is displayed.


6 Move the cursor to switch between the horizontal or vertical
orientation of the balloons. Select the point for vertical
orientation.

78 | Chapter 5 Working with a Bill of Material and a Parts List


7 Repeat the collect balloon command for the screw and nut on the
right side.
8 Use Power Erase to delete balloons 4 and 5.

The result should look like this:

Sorting and Renumbering Items on a Parts List


You can sort a parts list for manufacturing and sort standard parts
with updated item numbers.
1 Zoom to the extents of the drawing.
Toolbutton Zoom Extents
Menu View > Zoom > Extents
Command ZOOM

2 Double-click the parts list to display the Parts List dialog box.

Sorting and Renumbering Items on a Parts List | 79


3 Select the Sort button to display the Sort dialog box.

TIP You can sort within a selection set, otherwise you are sorting all
items.
4 Enter the settings in the dialog box, as shown below.

5 Choose OK to see the following results.

6 Click the Item cell to select the Item column.

7 In the Set Value dialog box, select the Set Value icon , and
change the Start value

80 | Chapter 5 Working with a Bill of Material and a Parts List


8 Choose OK to return to the Parts List dialog box. Choose Apply to
see the results in the drawing (also the balloons).

The result should look like the following.

9 Choose OK to return to the drawing.

Using Filters
You can create and use one or more filters for every parts list you
have inserted in the drawing.
1 Double-click the parts list to display the Parts List dialog box.
2 Move the cursor over the white Filters field, and right-click.

3 Select Add Filter to display the List of Filters dialog box.

Using Filters | 81
4 Select Custom and choose OK. The details for this filter are
displayed.

5 Set the following values to define the filter.

6 Activate the filter with the Custom check box.

7 Choose Apply in the Parts List dialog box. The Standards that
contain ISO are displayed.

8 Choose OK. The filtered parts list is displayed in the drawing. The
defined filters are saved with the parts list and can be used again
later.

If you only want to print the filtered list, choose the Print icon

82 | Chapter 5 Working with a Bill of Material and a Parts List


9 Choose Cancel to close the dialog box. The filter will not be used
in this drawing again.

The result looks like the following:

Using Filters | 83
84
Working with Model Space and
Layouts

In This Chapter
6
In this tutorial, you learn to create scale areas and „ Creating a scale area

viewports as well as detail views in model space „ Creating a detail

and in the layout. „ Generating a new


viewport

„ Inserting an user
through hole

„ Creating a
subassembly in a new
layout

85
Key Terms

Term Definition
base layer A layer made up of working layers and standard parts layers. Base layers are
repeated in every layer group.

detail A portion of the design drawing that cannot be clearly displayed or dimensioned.
The overall representation (surface texture symbols) can be enlarged.

drawing A layout of drawing views in model space or layout.

drawing mode Establishes the settings for paper space so that you can create a drawing of your
model. When Drawing mode is off, you are in model space.

layer group A group of associated or related items in a drawing. A major advantage of


working with layer groups is that you can deactivate a specific layer group and a
complete component. The drawing and its overview are enhanced by reduction
in regeneration time.

layout The tabbed environment in which you create and design paper space floating
viewports to be plotted. Multiple layouts can be created for each drawing.

Power A command useful for generating linear, radial, and diameter dimensions, which
Dimensioning minimizes the number of the individual actions while generating a dimension.
Power Dimensioning automatically selects the type of the linear dimension
(horizontal, vertical, aligned), based on the selected point.

scale area Displays a particular scale area (corresponds to zoom viewport). The respective
scales can be viewed before zooming.

scale monitor A function where you can control the scale for each viewport.

viewport In Drawing mode, a bounded area that displays a drawing view.

view scale The scale of a base drawing relative to the model scale. Also, the scale of
dependent views relative to the base view.

working layer The layer where you are currently working.

86 | Chapter 6 Working with Model Space and Layouts


Working with Model Space and Layouts
Using model space and layouts, you can create different views with
different scales from the same model. The main advantage to
working with layouts is that you always have associated views; that
is, if you make changes in one viewport, those changes are made in
all other viewports as well, since each viewport is just another view
of the same model.

Getting Started
In this tutorial, you work with viewports. You generate an
associative detail and create a subassembly drawing.

1 Open the file tut_ex06 in the acadm\tutorial folder.


Toolbutton Open
Menu File > Open
Command OPEN

The drawing contains parts of a four-stroke engine.

Getting Started | 87
Creating a Scale Area
To generate correct views with correct zoom factors in a layout,
you must define a scale area in model space.
First, create the scale area.
1 Start the Viewport/Scale Area command.
Toolbutton Viewport/Scale Area
Menu View > Viewports > Viewport/Scale Area
Command AMSCAREA

2 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Define the border ...


First point or [Circle/Object]: Select the drawing point 1
Second point: Select the drawing point 2

3 In the Scale Area dialog box, specify:

Scale: 1:1

88 | Chapter 6 Working with Model Space and Layouts


4 Choose OK.

In the next step, you use Viewport Auto Create to create a viewport
automatically.
Here, the viewport will be created, because of the defined scale
area.
5 Start the Viewport Auto Create command.
Toolbutton Viewport Auto Create
Menu View > Viewports > Viewport Auto Create
Command AMVPORTAUTO

6 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Enter layout name (<Return> for "Layout1"): Press ENTER


Select target position (<Return> for current position): Zoom to the
extents of the drawing
Toolbutton Zoom Extents
Menu View > Zoom > Extents
Command ZOOM

7 Respond to the prompt as follows:

Select target position (<Return> for current position): Place the viewport on
the left, inside the drawing border

Creating a Scale Area | 89


Creating a Detail
There are two types of details, associative and non-associative. In
this exercise, you create an associative detail, because you use a
viewport.
Create an associative detail of the valve.
1 Start the Detail command.
Toolbutton Detail
Menu Design > Detail
Command AMDETAIL

The viewport is activated automatically. You will recognize it by its


thick (highlighted) frame.
5 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Define the enlargement area for the detail ...


Center of circle or [Rectangle/Object]: Select drawing point 3
Specify radius or [Diameter]: Drag the radius to drawing point 4
3 In the Detail dialog box, specify the settings shown in the
following figure..

90 | Chapter 6 Working with Model Space and Layouts


4 Choose OK.
5 Respond to the prompt as follows:

Move the title (<Return> for current position): Press ENTER


Select target position (<Return> for current position): Place the detail
to the right of the current viewport

Generating a New Viewport


Now, you create a viewport inside a layout.
1 Start the Viewport/Scale Area command.
Toolbutton Viewport/Scale Area
Menu View > Viewports > Viewport/Scale Area
Command AMVPORT

Generating a New Viewport | 91


2 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Define the border ...


First point or [Circle/Object]: Select drawing point 5
Second point: Select drawing point 6
3 In the View dialog box, specify:

Scale: 5:1

4 Choose Midpoint <.

The drawing is changed to model space so that you can define the
midpoint.
5 Select the endpoint of the centerline, as shown in the following
figure.

6 In the View dialog box, choose OK.

Now, your drawing looks like this:

92 | Chapter 6 Working with Model Space and Layouts


Inserting an User Through Hole
To demonstrate the main advantage of working with layouts, you
will insert a user through hole in the housing. Notice that this
change is immediately displayed in every view.
Now, insert a user through hole in the previously created viewport.
1 Activate the previously created viewport.
Toolbutton Paper/Model Space
Command MSPACE

The viewport has a thick (highlighted) frame.


2 Start the Through Hole command.
Toolbutton Through Hole
Menu Content > Holes > Through Holes
Command AMTHOLE

Inserting an User Through Hole | 93


3 In the Browser, choose User Through Holes – Front View.
4 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Specify insertion point: Hold down the shift key and press the right
mouse button. Choose Midpoint from the context menu.
Specify insertion point:_mid of Select the midpoint of the housing, P1
Specify the hole length: Select the perpendicular point, P2

5 In the User Through Holes – Nominal Diameter dialog box,


specify:

Nominal Diameter: 8

6 Choose Finish.

The user through hole is inserted into your drawing. Now, the
drawing looks like this:

94 | Chapter 6 Working with Model Space and Layouts


Because of the associativity, the through hole created in the detail
view appears in the original view.
In the next step, you dimension the through hole diameter in the
detail view. Since the dimension is to appear only in the detail
view, you generate the dimension directly in the layout without
having a viewport active.
7 Change to the layout.
Toolbutton Paper/Model Space
Menu
Command PSPACE

8 Start the Power Dimensioning command


Toolbutton Power Dimensioning
Menu Annotate > Power Dimensioning
Command AMPOWERDIM

9 Respond to the prompts as follows:

(SINGLE) First extension line origin or


[Angular/Options/Baseline/Chain/ Update] <Select>: Select the first
edge of the hole
Second extension line origin: Select the second edge of the hole
Place dimension line [Options/Pickobj]: Drag the dimension line to the
right until it is highlighted, and click
(SINGLE) First extension line origin or
[Angular/Options/Baseline/Chain/ Update] <Select>: Press ENTER

Inserting an User Through Hole | 95


10 In the Power Dimensioning dialog box, choose OK.

Now, the viewport looks like this:

NOTE You can also dimension the hole in model space and turn off
the layer of one specific viewport. But the dimension text will only be
correct in the 1:1 viewport and not in the detail view. Therefore, you
can dimension directly on the layout.

96 | Chapter 6 Working with Model Space and Layouts


Creating a Subassembly in a New Layout
If you use layer groups in your assembly drawing, you can easily
create detail and subassembly drawings in layouts. You can switch
off selected layer groups in the viewports, so that only the detail or
subassembly is visible.
Now, create an associative view of a subassembly in layout 2.
1 Change to layout 2, by selecting the Layout 2 tab on the bottom of
your drawing area, as shown below.

2 Start the Viewport/Scale Area command.


Toolbutton Viewport/Scale Area
Menu View > Viewports > Viewport/Scale Area
Command AMVPORT

3 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Define the border ...


First point or [Circle/Object]: Select drawing point 7
Second point: Select drawing point 8
4 In the View dialog box, specify:

Scale: 5:1

Creating a Subassembly in a New Layout | 97


5 Choose Midpoint <.

The drawing is changed to model space.


6 Specify the point, as shown in the following drawing:

7 In the View dialog box, choose OK.

The viewport is created. It looks like this:

98 | Chapter 6 Working with Model Space and Layouts


Other objects are still visible around the subassembly. You use the
Layer Control command to hide them.
8 Start the Layer Group Control.
Toolbutton Layer Group Control
Menu Assist > Layer / Layergroup > Layer/Layer Group
Control
Command AMLG

9 In the Layer Control dialog box, choose the Layer Group Control
tab, mark SUBASSEMBLY1, and choose Current.
10 Move the cursor to the icon in the column Viewport Control, and
right-click.
11 In the context menu, choose Select Viewport.

Creating a Subassembly in a New Layout | 99


12 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Select viewports: Select the viewport frame


Select viewports: Press ENTER

The Layer Control dialog box is displayed.


13 In the Layer Control dialog box, move the cursor to the icon in the
Freeze column and the Base Layer Group row, and click.

14 Choose OK.

AutoCAD Mechanical freezes the Base Layer Group, and the


subassembly remains visible. Your drawing looks like this:

100 | Chapter 6 Working with Model Space and Layouts


Now, you can finish your detail drawing with text, remarks,
annotations, and so on.
NOTE When you plot the drawing, the red viewport frame is
turned off automatically. If you have a plotter or printer driver
installed, use the plot command, and preview the drawing.

Creating a Subassembly in a New Layout | 101


102
Designing a Cam

In This Chapter
7
In this exercise, you perform a cam calculation. „ Configuring the cam
plate calculation
The cam contour is calculated based on existing
„ Creating movement
boundary conditions. Data for NC production is sections

also created. „ Creating velocity and


acceleration curves

„ Creating a cam
geometry from the
graph

„ Creating NC data

103
Key Terms

Term Definition
acceleration Graph of acceleration of the straight driven element of the rotation angle
acceleration of a rocker and the cam plate angle of rotation.

cam Types of gears for obtaining unusual and irregular motions that would be difficult
to produce otherwise.

curve path Geometric shape of the cam.

movement The representation of the cam as a graph of the lift and the angle of rotation of
diagram the cam plate (straight driven element). If the driven element is a rocker, the lift
corresponds to an angle of rotation of the rocker.

movement section Part of the movement diagram. Some sections are defined by design. For
example, the maximum lift of 15 mm is reached at an angle of 90°.

NC Numerical Control. Used in the manufacturing industry to represent the control


on machine tool movement through numeric data for 2 to 5 axis machining.

resolution Controls the precision of curves. A low value increases computing time. Use a
higher value for initial design.

step width Specifies the distance between the points used for the NC records

velocity Graph of the speed of the straight driven element, or the rotation angle of a
rocker and the cam plate angle of rotation.

104 | Chapter 7 Designing a Cam


Cam Design
With cam plates, you can implement all movements required in
the scope of process control with a minimum number of gear
elements. The basis for systematic design procedures is offered
using standardized laws of movement in the development of new
cam gears.
With AutoCAD Mechanical create cams (cam plates and cylindrical
cams) based on sections drawn in a movement diagram. You can
also calculate velocity and acceleration of an existing section of the
movement diagram. The cam curve path can be determined via the
calculated cam sections. An existing curve path can be scanned
and transferred in the movement diagram. A driven element can
be coupled to the cam. NC data can be created via the curve path.

Getting Started
With cam design, you can generate a flat or cylindrical cam. In this
example, you create a flat cam from a diagram.
Insert the initial drawing.
1 Open the file tut_ex07 in the acadm\tutorial folder.
Toolbutton Open
Menu File -> Open
Command OPEN

2 Zoom to the extents of the drawing.


Toolbutton Zoom Extents
Menu View -> Zoom -> Extents
Command ZOOM

3 Zoom in to the area marked with W1 and W2.


Toolbutton Zoom Window
Menu View -> Zoom -> Window
Command ZOOM

4 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Specify first corner: Specify W1


Specify opposite corner: Specify W2

Getting Started | 105


Now you can start designing the cam plate.

Configuring the Cam Plate Calculations


The first task is to specify the settings for the cam plate
calculations.
Here you define the resolution, the base diameter, the revolution
of the cam, and the scale for velocity and acceleration.

1 Start the cam configuration.


Toolbutton Cam Configuration
Menu Content -> Cam Plates and Cylinders -> Cam
Configuration
Command AMCAMCONF

2 In the Configuration dialog box, specify:

Resolution: 2
Base Diameter for CAM: 0
Revolutions of cam: 1000
Scale for velocity v: 0.01
Scale for acceleration a: 0.0001

106 | Chapter 7 Designing a Cam


3 Choose OK.

Two icons in the Configuration dialog box show the two cam
calculating options: flat cams and cylindrical cams (in case of
parallel lift). Note that in our example, the velocity is inscribed in
color 1 (red), and the acceleration in color 3 (green).
Next you specify the baseline and cam position.
NOTE The base cam diameter with stroke 0 can have the value 0 or
a positive value. The following figure explains the meaning of the base
diameter. The cam radius with stroke 0 is composed of the half base
diameter and the distance (X), calculated from the diagram. In case,
the base diameter is 0, only the distance calculated from the diagram
will be
effective.

4 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Specify 0° point on baseline: Select the left end of line a at point 1


Specify 360° point on baseline: Select the right end of line a at point 2
Specify center of cam: Select the centerline cross midpoint at point 3
Specify 0° direction of cam <0>: Press ENTER
Select baseline for diagram to store the configuration: Select line a

Configuring the Cam Plate Calculations | 107


Next you create the movement sections.

Creating Movement Sections


In this section, you create two movement sections.
The gap between the defined movements in the diagram (b, c, d)
needs to be connected by a polynom of 5 degrees. In 80 percent of
all cases, you need a polynom of 5 degrees to get a smooth
transition between two movements (for example, between b and
c).
The program only supports a polynom of 5 degrees.
The movement sections are created by the transition command
using the start point and the end point of the section, as well as
the first and second derivations at these points.

108 | Chapter 7 Designing a Cam


1 Start the Transition command.
Toolbutton Transition
Menu Content -> Cam Plates and Cylinders ->
Transition
Command AMCAMTRANS

2 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Specify start point: Select the right end of line b


Specify ending point: Select the left end of line c
Specify slope at start point or velocity[mm/s] or [Read from v-
diagram]: Select a point on line b
Specify slope at the end point or velocity[mm/s] or [Read from v-
diagram]: Select a point on line c
Enter acceleration at start point a[mm/s^2] or [Read from a-diagram]
<0.00>: Press ENTER
Enter acceleration at end point a[mm/s^2] or [Read from a-diagram]
<0.00>: Press ENTER

The movement section is automatically drawn.


3 Repeat steps 1 and 2 to define the second movement section
between lines c and d.

The resulting movement sections should look like the following:

Creating Movement Sections | 109


Creating Velocity and Acceleration Curves
The Calculate Vel/Acc command determines the velocity and
acceleration of an existing section of the movement diagram. The
calculation uses the graphical commands and is based on the
gradient of the movement diagram. Consequently, the beginning
and the end of these curves may not coincide precisely with the
ends of the movement section. For this purpose, you simply select
the existing movement sections.
In order to complete the velocity and acceleration curves, you need
to generate the velocity and acceleration curves for sections b, c,
and d. The previous section only resulted in the respective curves
for sections b – c and c – d.

1 Start the velocity and acceleration calculation.


Toolbutton CalculateVel/Acc Graphs
Menu Content -> Cam Plates and Cylinders ->
CalculateVel/Acc Graphs
Command AMCAMGRAPH

2 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Select movement diagram for cam:


Select objects: Select lines b, c and d
Select objects: Press ENTER

NOTE In this case, the movement sections b, c, and d appear


horizontal in the movement graph. Thus, velocity and acceleration are
equal to 0 (the lines overlap on line a).

110 | Chapter 7 Designing a Cam


Creating Cam Geometry from the Graph
In this section, you generate the cam geometry from the previously
created movement graph.
Creating the curve path is easy; you select the sections in the
movement diagram. The colors of the sections correspond to the
colors of the curve path sections. The curve path is developed in
counter-clockwise direction.

1 Start the command Create Cam from Graph.


Toolbutton Create Cam from Graph
Menu Content -> Cam Plates and Cylinders -> Create
Cam from Graph
Command AMCAMCRCAM

2 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Select movement diagram for cam:


Select objects: Select the lines b, c, d and the previously created
movement (sections b – c and c – d)
Select objects: Press ENTER
Select movement diagram for cam:
Select objects: Press ENTER

AutoCAD draws the cam geometry from the movement diagram as


represented in the following figure:

Creating Cam Geometry from the Graph | 111


Creating NC Data
Now, you generate the NC data for a milling machine to produce
the part.

1 Start the NC Data calculation.


Toolbutton Calculate NC Data
Menu Content -> Cam Plates and Cylinders -> Calculate
NC Data
Command AMCAMNC

2 In the Create NC-Data dialog box, specify:

New Origin for Milling Machine: On


Enter the step width: 0.5

3 Choose OK.
4 In the Enter filename dialog box, enter Cam.nc as the filename,
and choose Save.
5 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Select cam polyline (offset may be needed for cylinder cam): Select
the 5 path sections around point 3
Select objects: Press ENTER

112 | Chapter 7 Designing a Cam


6 Continue to respond to the prompts as follows:

Specify coordinate origin for milling machine: Select the intersection at


point 4
Reverse direction due to milling tool [Y/N] <N>: Press ENTER

The NC data is created from the geometry and stored in the


specified file. Next, you need to define the run-out and run-in
points of the milling cutter.
7 Continue to respond to the prompts as follows:

Specify run-out from end point: Select the intersection at point 5


Specify run-in to starting point: Select the intersection at point 5

The generation of the NC data is completed. The NC data can be


displayed with any text editor as represented in the following
figure:

Creating NC Data | 113


114 | Chapter 7 Designing a Cam
Calculating Moment of Inertia
and Deflection Line

In This Chapter
8
In this tutorial, you calculate the moment of „ Calculating the
moment of inertia
inertia for a profile section, and calculate the
„ Calculating the
deflection line on a beam, based on the profile deflection line

calculation.

115
Key Terms

Term Definition
deflection line Deflection lines are calculated based on the predefined force direction (F) or to
radial direction (s).

deflection moment Deflection moment is calculated based on the predefined force direction (F) or to
radial direction (s).

distributed force A force that is spread over a certain area.

fixed support A support that is fixed to the part and cannot be moved.

load Forces and moments, which act on a part.

moment of inertia An important property of areas and solid bodies. Standard formulas are derived
by multiplying elementary particles of area and mass by the squares of their
distances from reference axes. Moments of inertia, therefore, depend on the
location of reference axes.

movable support Support that is not fixed.

point force A force that is concentrated on a point.

116 | Chapter 8 Calculating Moment of Inertia and Deflection Line


Calculating Moment of Inertia and Deflection Line
4 4
The measurement unit for the moment of inertia is mm or inches .
These are geometrical values, which appear at deflection, torsion,
and buckling calculation. AutoCAD Mechanical uses the result of
the moment of inertia calculation for the deflection line
calculation.
Moment of inertia calculations are performed on cross sections of
beams or on other objects that can be represented as closed
contours. Calculations can be performed on a cross section of any
shape, as long as the geometry of the cross section forms a closed
contour.
AutoCAD Mechanical determines the center of gravity for a cross
section, draws the main axes, and calculates the moment of inertia
for each of those axes. You can also select a load direction for a
cross section; AutoCAD Mechanical calculates the moment of
inertia and angle of deflection for that load.
NOTE The ISO standard part standard has to be installed for this
tutorial exercise.

Getting Started
First, you load the drawing.
1 Open the file tut_ex08 in the acadm\tutorial folder.
Toolbutton Open
Menu File > Open
Command OPEN

The drawing contains this profile:

Calculating Moment of Inertia and Deflection Line | 117


Calculating the Moment of Inertia
Before you can perform any calculations on a profile, you need to
know its moment of inertia.
1 Start the calculation for the moment of inertia.
Toolbutton Moment of Inertia
Menu Content > Calculations > Moment of Inertia
Command AMINERTIA

2 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Select objects: Select the entire profile section


Select objects: Press ENTER
Is the area filled correctly? (Y/N)? <Y>: Press ENTER

The coordinates of the centroid and the moment of inertia along


the principle axes are displayed on the command line, as follows:
Coordinates of centroid (in user coordinates):
X coordinate: 228.071933 Y coordinate: 150.027674
Moments of inertia along principal axes:
I1: 2.359e+004 I2: 1.4095e+004
Axis angle for major moment (I1): 5.3

Now, define the direction of the loads: they must be in one plane.
3 Respond to the prompt as follows:

Specify direction of load forces (must all lie in one plane): Enter 270

The data for this load direction is displayed on the command line,
as follows:
Effective moment of inertia for this load direction: 2.341e+004
Angle of deflection: 266.5
Maximum distances neutral line - border:
Extension side: 16.690 Compression side: 14.444
Now, you have to enter a description for the calculated profile and
locate the block with the calculation data in the drawing.
4 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Enter description: Enter Frame Profile


Insertion point: Place the calculation block next to the profile

118 | Chapter 8 Calculating Moment of Inertia and Deflection Line


Your drawing looks like this:

NOTE The main axes, 1 and 2, are the axes with the most and least
deflection. The F arrow displays the direction of the force, the s arrow
displays the resultant deflection. The moment of inertia block shows
the moments related to the main axis, the maximum distances from
the edges, and the calculated area. For more detailed information, see
the online help.
A side view of the profile has been created for the deflection line.
5 Zoom to the extents of the drawing.
Toolbutton Zoom Extents
Menu View > Zoom > Extents
Command ZOOM

Calculating the Deflection Line


The calculation of the deflection line requires the calculation result
from the moment of inertia calculation.
Now, you calculate the deflection line under a specific load
situation.

Calculating Moment of Inertia and Deflection Line | 119


1 Start the deflection line calculation.
Toolbutton Deflection line
Menu Content > Calculations > Deflection Line
Command AMDEFLINE

2 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Select Moment of Inertia block: Select the previously generated


calculation block, P1
Specify start point or [Existing beam]: Select the left end of the beam,
P2
Specify end point: Select the right end of the beam, P3

3 In the Beam Calculation dialog box, choose Table.

4 In the Material dialog box, select ANSI standard and the material
Al. bronze cast.

NOTE If ANSI standard is not installed at your system, selecting a


different standard according to your preference is also possible, but
the results will differ from the results in this tutorial exercise (if you
select DIN for example, you can select a similar material like
AlMgSi0.5F22 to achieve similar results).

120 | Chapter 8 Calculating Moment of Inertia and Deflection Line


Next, you define the supports and the loads.
5 Choose the Fixed Support icon, and respond to the prompt as
follows:

Insertion point: Select the left edge of the beam


6 Choose the Movable Support icon, and respond to the prompt as
follows:

Insertion point: Select the right edge of the beam


7 Choose the Uniform Load icon, and respond to the prompts as
follows:

Insertion point: Select the left edge of the beam


Endpoint: Select the midpoint of the beam using the midpoint snap
Uniform Load [N/mm] <50.00> : Enter 10
8 Choose the Moment icon, and respond to the prompts as follows:

Insertion point: Select a point approximately in the middle of the


uniform load
Bending Moment (Nm) <10.00> : Enter 3
9 In the Beam Calculation dialog box, choose Moments and
Deflection.
10 In the Select Graph dialog box, select the options as shown in the
figure below, and choose OK.

Calculating Moment of Inertia and Deflection Line | 121


11 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Enter scale for bending moment line (drawing unit:[Nm] <1:1>:


Press ENTER
Enter scale for deflection line (drawing unit:mm) <20:1>: Press ENTER
Insertion point: Select an appropriate position in the drawing

The result looks like this:

The calculation result block displays all important data on your


calculation:

122 | Chapter 8 Calculating Moment of Inertia and Deflection Line


Calculating Moment of Inertia and Deflection Line | 123
124
Creating a Shaft With Standard
Parts

In This Chapter
9
In this tutorial, you learn how to use the shaft „ Configuring the snap
options
generator. You create and edit shaft sections. You
„ Starting and
also insert a bearing and perform a bearing configuring the shaft
generator
calculation.
„ Creating shaft
sections

„ Inserting a profile

„ Inserting a chamfer
and a fillet

„ Inserting a shaft break

„ Creating a side view

„ Inserting a thread

„ Editing and inserting a


shaft section

„ Replacing a shaft
section

„ Inserting a bearing

125
Key Terms

Term Definition
bearing calculation Calculates limiting value, dynamic and static load rating, dynamic and static
equivalent load, and fatigue life in revolutions and hours.

chamfer A beveled surface between two faces or surfaces.

dynamic Calculation required for a revolving bearing. The result is the Adjusted Rating Life.
calculation This is the life associated with 90% reliability with contemporary, commonly used
material, and under conventional operating conditions. With the number of
revolutions you get the life in working hours.

dynamic dragging The act of determining the size of a standard part with the cursor while inserting
it into a side view. The standard part is displayed dynamically on the screen and
can be dragged to the next possible size and length. The values (sizes) are taken
from the Standard parts database.

fillet A curved transition from one part face or surface to another. The transition cuts
off the outside edge or fills in the inside edge.

gear Any several arrangements, especially of toothed wheels in a machine, which allow
power to be passed from one part to another to control the power, speed, or
direction of movement.

radius reflection Thin line that represents the radius in the side or top view.
line

shaft break Interruption of a shaft. A shaft can be interrupted at a point, and the shaft break
symbols are inserted in a suitable size.

shaft generator Tool to draw rotationally symmetric parts. A shaft is usually created from left to
right using different sections. These sections are positioned automatically one
after the other. Additionally, any shaft section can be inserted, deleted, or edited.

126 _ Chapter 9 Creating a Shaft With Standard Parts


Creating a Shaft with Standard Parts
In this section you generate a shaft with standard parts with the
shaft generator. You also perform a bearing calculation.
NOTE The ISO standard part standard has to be installed for this
tutorial exercise.

Configuring the Snap Options


First, you configure the snap options.
1 Start the Power Snap Settings.
Toolbutton Power Snap Settings 1-4
Menu Assist > Draft Settings > Power Snap Settings 1-4
Command AMPOWERSNAP

2 In the Power Snap Settings dialog box, activate the tab Setting 4
and configure the snap settings as shown in the following:

3 Choose OK.

Starting and Configuring the Shaft Generator


In the next steps, you start and configure the shaft generator.
1 Start the Shaft Generator command.
Toolbutton Shaft Generator
Menu Content > Shaft Generator
Command AMSHAFT2D

Configuring the Snap Options | 127


2 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Specify start point or select centerline [New shaft]: Enter 150,150


Centerline ending point: Enter 240,150

NOTE The start and end points of the centerline are only important
in determining the direction. The length of the centerline is
automatically adapted to the length of the shaft.
3 In the Shaft Generator dialog box, press the appropriate button,
and enter the values as indicated in the following:

4 Choose the Config button to start the Shaft Generator


Configuration, and configure the shaft generator as shown in the
following figure:

5 Choose OK. You return to the Shaft Generator dialog box.

128 _ Chapter 9 Creating a Shaft With Standard Parts


Creating Cylindrical Shaft Sections and Gears
The shaft generator is configured. Now you want to generate the
first shaft segments.
1 Choose the lower cylinder button to define a cylinder section, and
respond to the prompts as follows:

Specify length <50>: Enter 12


Specify diameter <40>: Enter 20
2 Choose the gear button, and enter the values for module, number
of teeth, and length as shown in the following figure:

NOTE Here, the DIN standard requires that you give the module.
The ANSI standard requires the reciprocal 1/module. You can switch
between these two representations using the DIN and ANSI toggle.
3 Choose the lower cylinder button to define a further cylinder
section, and respond to the prompts as follows:

Specify length <12>: Enter 5


Specify diameter <20>: Enter 20
4 Choose the gear button, and enter the values for module, number
of teeth, and length as shown in the following figure:

Creating Cylindrical Shaft Sections and Gears | 129


5 Choose the lower cylinder button to define another cylinder
section, and respond to the prompts as follows:

Specify length <5>: Enter 4


Specify diameter <20>: Enter 24
6 Choose the lower cylinder button to define another cylinder
section, and respond to the prompts as follows:

Specify length <4>: Enter 33


Specify diameter <24>: Enter 20

Now, you have created the first five sections of the shaft as
represented in the following figure:

Inserting a Spline Profile


Now, you add a spline profile to the shaft.
1 Choose the Profile button.
2 Choose ISO 14 in the database browser.
3 In the Splined Shaft ISO 14 dialog box, select the nominal size
6 x 13 x 16 and define a length of 26. Choose OK.

130 _ Chapter 9 Creating a Shaft With Standard Parts


Now, you have created another section of the shaft as represented
in the following figure:

Inserting a Chamfer and a Fillet


In this step, you apply a chamfer and a fillet to the shaft.
1 Choose the Chamfer icon to apply a chamfer to a shaft section,
and respond to the prompts as follows:

Select object: Select the leftmost cylinder section as shown in the


following figure, P1
Specify length (max. 12) <2.5>: Enter 2
Specify angle (0–79) <45>: Enter 45

Inserting a Chamfer and a Fillet | 131


2 Choose the Fillet icon to apply a fillet to a shaft section, and
respond to the prompts as follows:

Select object: Select the cylinder section between the two gears as
shown in the following figure, P1
Enter radius (max. 5.00) <2.50>: Enter 2

After applying the chamfer and the fillet, the shaft looks like the
following figure:

Inserting a Shaft Break


Here, you insert a shaft break in the drawing.
1 Choose the Break icon to insert shaft break, and respond to the
prompts as follows:

Specify point: Select the midpoint of the cylindrical section as shown in


the following figure
Specify length <5>: Enter 10

The shaft break is inserted.

132 _ Chapter 9 Creating a Shaft With Standard Parts


Creating a Side View of the Shaft
Next, you insert a side view of the shaft.
1 Choose the Side view icon.
2 In the Side view from dialog box, select right. Choose OK.

3 Respond to the prompt as follows:

Specify insertion point: Press ENTER

The right side view is inserted at the proposed position as shown in


the following figure:

Creating a Side View of the Shaft | 133


Inserting a Thread
Now, you add a thread to the shaft.
1 Choose the Thread button to insert a thread, and select ISO 261 –
M in the browser.
2 In the Thread ISO 261 – M dialog box, select M10 and enter a
length of 20. Choose OK.

The thread is added to the shaft, which looks like this now:

Editing and Inserting a Shaft Section


In this section, you edit an existing shaft section and insert a new
section.
1 Choose the Edit button, and respond to the prompts as follows:

Select object: Select the first cylindrical section, P1


Specify length <12>: Press ENTER
Specify diameter <20>: Enter 18

134 _ Chapter 9 Creating a Shaft With Standard Parts


The diameter is changed to 18 while the length remains 12.
2 Choose the Insert button, and respond to the prompt as follows:
Specify point: Select a point after the second gear, P1

3 Choose the Slope icon, and respond to the prompts as follows:

Specify length or [Dialog] <20>: Enter 4


Specify diameter at start point <24>: Enter 28
Specify diameter at end point or [Slope/Angle] <20>: Enter 22

A slope is inserted at the specified point.

Editing and Inserting a Shaft Section | 135


Replacing a Shaft Section
The previously inserted slope needs to be deleted again.
1 Choose the Undo button.

The previous slope insertion is undone.


Now, replace an existing shaft section. To do this, you change the
settings in the configuration.
2 Choose the Config button to start the shaft generator
configuration, and change the setting For Segment inserted to
Overdraw. Choose OK.

3 Choose the Slope icon, and respond to the prompt as follows:

Specify length or [Dialog] <20>: Enter D


4 In the Shaft Generator – Cone dialog box, make the following
settings and choose OK.

The slope replaces the cylindrical shaft section.

136 _ Chapter 9 Creating a Shaft With Standard Parts


Inserting a Bearing
Here, you insert a bearing and perform a bearing calculation.
1 Choose the Standard Parts button, and select a radial bearing ISO
355 in the browser. Respond to the prompts as follows:

Specify insertion point on shaft contour: Specify point P1


Direction to Left/Right: Select a point to the right

2 In the ISO 355 dialog box, choose Next >.

Inserting a Bearing | 137


3 In the ISO 355 dialog box, specify the loads as shown, and choose
Next >.

4 In the ISO 355 dialog box, select the bearing 2BD – 20 x 37 x 12,
and choose Finish.

The bearing is inserted, and you can select the available sizes by
dragging.
5 Choose 2BD – 20 x 37 x 12 and press ENTER.

The bearing is inserted.

6 Choose Close to leave the Shaft Generator.

138 _ Chapter 9 Creating a Shaft With Standard Parts


Performing a Shaft
Calculation

In This Chapter
10
In this tutorial, you perform a calculation on an „ Creating the contour of a
shaft
existing shaft. You apply various loads to a
„ Specifying the material
supported shaft, perform the calculation, and
„ Defining the supports
insert results into a drawing.
„ Specifying the loads

„ Calculating and inserting


the results

139
Key Terms

Term Definition
deflection line Deflection line calculations are based on the predefined force direction (F) or the
radial direction (s).

deflection moment Deflection moment calculations are based on the predefined force direction (F) or
the radial direction (s).

fixed support A support that is fixed to a part and cannot be moved.

load The forces and moments that act on a part.

gear Any several arrangements, especially of toothed wheels in a machine which


allows power to be passed from one part to another so as to control the power
speed or the direction of movement.

movable support A support that is not fixed.

point force A force that is concentrated on a point.

stress Force or pressure on a part. Stress is the force per area.

140 | Chapter 10 Performing a Shaft Calculation


Performing a Shaft Calculation
With AutoCAD Mechanical, you can perform a shaft calculation
using a contour created with the Shaft Generator or any other
symmetric shaft contour. The function provides a static
calculation, which is important for the design of the shaft and the
bearing load.
NOTE The ISO standard part standard has to be installed for this
tutorial exercise.

Getting Started
In this tutorial, you calculate a gear box shaft. The general way to
calculate an existing shaft is to define the contour and insert forces
and supports. The routine calculates all necessary values and draws
the respective graphs for moment and deflection.
First, you insert the initial drawing.
1 Open the file tut_ex10 in the acadm\tutorial folder.
Toolbutton Open
Menu File -> Open
Command OPEN

2 Zoom to the extents of the drawing.


Toolbutton Zoom Extents
Menu View -> Zoom -> Extents
Command ZOOM

3 Zoom in to the shaft using Zoom Window.


Toolbutton Zoom Window
Menu View -> Zoom -> Window
Command ZOOM

4 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Specify first corner: Specify point P1


Specify opposite corner: Specify point P2

Getting Started | 141


Creating the Contour of a Shaft
First, you create the contour of the shaft.
1 Start the Shaft Calculation.
Toolbutton Shaft Calculator
Menu Content -> Calculations -> Shaft Calculation
Command AMSHAFTCALC

2 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Select contour or [Create contour] <Create>: Enter C


Select objects for outer contour
Select objects: Select the complete shaft
Select objects: Press ENTER
Select shaft centerline: Select the centerline of the shaft

After you have created the contour of the shaft, the Shaft
Calculation dialog box is displayed so that you can select the
boundary conditions, the material, and the representation of the
calculation results.

142 | Chapter 10 Performing a Shaft Calculation


Specifying the Material
You specify the material by entering its characteristics in the
respective fields or by selecting it from a table containing the most
commonly used materials.

1 Choose Table, select the ANSI standard, and select the material
SAE 1045 from the table.

NOTE If the ANSI standard is not installed on your system, you can
select a different standard, but the results may differ from the results in
this tutorial (if you select DIN for example, you can select a similar
material like, E335, to achieve similar results).

Placing the Supports


Now, you specify the positions where the shaft is to be supported.
1 In the Shaft Calculation dialog box, select the Fixed Support icon,
and respond to the prompt as follows:

Fixed Support
Insertion point: Select the midpoint of the leftmost shaft section
2 Select the Fixed Support icon again, and respond to the prompt as
follows:

Fixed Support
Insertion point: Select the midpoint of the third cylindrical shaft
section, as shown in the following drawing

Specifying the Material | 143


Specifying the Loads
After specifying the positions of the supports, you specify the
effective loads.
1 In the Shaft Calculation dialog box, select the Gear icon and
respond to the prompt as follows:

Gear
Insertion point: Select the midpoint of the second gear, as shown in the
following figure

2 In the Gear dialog box, specify:

Torsion Moment: 15
Pitch Diameter d1: 38

144 | Chapter 10 Performing a Shaft Calculation


3 Choose OK.
4 Select the Point Load icon, and respond to the prompts as follows:

Point Load
Insertion point: Select the midpoint of the profile section, as shown in
the following figure
Specify an rotation angle: Press ENTER

5 In the Point Load dialog box, specify:

Point Load: 2500

Specifying the Loads | 145


6 Choose OK.
7 Select the Torque icon, and respond to the prompt as follows:

Torsion Moment
Insertion point: Select the midpoint of the profile section as shown in
the following figure

8 In the dialog box, specify:

Torsion Moment: 15

9 Choose OK.

You have finished specifying the boundary conditions, and you are
returned to the Shaft Calculation dialog box.

146 | Chapter 10 Performing a Shaft Calculation


Calculating the Shaft and Inserting the Results
Now, you calculate the shaft and insert the results in your drawing
in three graphs.
1 Choose Moments and Deformations to start the calculation.
2 In the Select Graph dialog box, select options as shown in the
following figures and choose OK.

3 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Specify first corner point: Press ENTER


Enter scale for deflection line dy (drawing unit : mm) <200:1>: Press
ENTER
Enter scale for deflection line dz (drawing unit : mm) <20000:1>:
Press ENTER
Enter scale for torsion moment line (drawing unit : Nm) <2:1>: Press
ENTER
Insertion Point: Select an appropriate point to the right of the shaft

The deflection and torsion moment lines are inserted


automatically.
Your drawing looks like this:

Calculating the Shaft and Inserting the Results | 147


The result table gives you the most important information for your
calculated shaft such as safety factor, maximum deflection,
maximum stress, etc.

148 | Chapter 10 Performing a Shaft Calculation


Working with Standard Parts

In This Chapter
11
In this tutorial, you learn to work with standard „ Inserting a screw
connection
parts. You insert a screw connection, a hole,
„ Copying a screw
and a pin. You also edit the standard parts with connection with Power
Copy
Power Commands. „ Inserting a screw
connection with Power
Recall and performing a
screw calculation

„ Editing a screw
connection with Power
Edit

„ Working with Power


View

„ Deleting with Power


Erase

„ Inserting a hole

„ Inserting a pin

„ Hiding C-lines

„ Simplifying the
representation of
standard parts

149
Key Terms

Term Definition
background A contour that is covered by another contour or by objects that are lying behind
another contour, in the 3D sense. A background may be a foreground for an
additional contour.

C-line (construction A line that is infinite in both directions or infinite starting at a point which can be
line) inserted into the drawing area. You use C-lines to transfer important points (for
example, center points of bore holes) into other views or drawing areas.

countersink A chamfered hole that allows bolt and screw heads to be flush or below the part
surface.

dynamic dragging The act of determining the size of a standard part with the cursor while inserting
it into a side view. The standard part is displayed dynamically on the screen and
can be dragged to the next possible size and length. The values (sizes) are taken
from the Standard parts database.

Power Command Summary term for Power Copy, Power Recall, Power Edit, Power Dimensioning,
Power Erase and Power View.

Power Copy A command that copies a drawing object to another position in the drawing.
Power Copy produces an identical copy of the copied object.

Power Edit A edit command for all objects in your drawing.

Power Erase Command for deleting. Use Power Erase when you delete part reference numbers
or when you delete dimensions that were created with Power Dimensioning.

Power Recall A command that lets you click an existing drawing object and places you in the
correct command for creating that object.

Power View A tool where you can quickly and easily create a standard part top view from a
side view.

representation Standard parts representation in a drawing in normal, simplified, and symbolic


mode.

150 | Chapter 11 Working with Standard Parts


Working with Standard Parts
AutoCAD Mechanical Power Pack provides a large selection of
standard parts to work with, including regular and fine threads and
many types of holes. With the AutoCAD Mechanical Power Pack,
you can insert complete screw connections (screws with holes and
nuts) in one step. Some intelligence has been built into this
process. For example, if you select a screw with a metric thread,
you get only metric threads when you add any additional parts
such as threaded holes or nuts.
NOTE The ISO standard part standard has to be installed for this
tutorial exercise.

Getting Started
First, insert the initial drawing.
1 Open the file tut_ex11 in the acadm\tutorial folder.
Toolbutton Open
Menu File > Open
Command OPEN

The gearbox is not completed yet. We want to add standard


components and show, how easy it is to edit standard parts with
an automatic update of the background objects.
2 Zoom in to the differential gear, using the Zoom Window
command.
Toolbutton Zoom Window
Menu View > Zoom > Window
Command ZOOM

3 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Specify first corner: Specify point P1


Specify opposite corner: Specify point P2

Getting Started | 151


Inserting a Screw Connection
Now, you insert a screw connection at the differential gear
housing.
1 Start the Screw Connection command.
Toolbutton Screw Connection
Menu Content > Screw Connection
Command AMSCREWCON

2 In the Screw Connection dialog box, choose the Screw button.

152 | Chapter 11 Working with Standard Parts


3 In the Please select a Screw dialog box, select Socket Head Types.

4 Then select ISO 4762 and Front View.

Inserting a Screw Connection | 153


5 In the Screw Connection dialog box, choose the upper Hole
button. Then select Holes, Through Cylindrical, and ISO 273
normal.
6 In the Screw Connection dialog box, choose the lower Hole
button. Then select Inner Threads, Blind, and ISO 262.
7 In the Screw Connection dialog box, specify the size M4, and
choose Next >.

154 | Chapter 11 Working with Standard Parts


8 In the Screw Assembly Grip Representation - Front View dialog
box, select Normal, and choose the Finish button.

9 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Specify insertion point of first hole: Specify point P1


Specify endpoint of first hole [Gap between holes]: Specify point P2
Drag Size: Drag the screw connection dynamically to the size M4 x 16,
and click
Drag Size: Enter 12

Inserting a Screw Connection | 155


Now, you have inserted the screw connection, specified a screw
length of 16 mm, and specified a blind hole depth of 12 mm.
NOTE During dragging, the size of the screw is shown in the status
bar, where the coordinates are usually displayed.

The background is automatically hidden, and your drawing should


look like this:

156 | Chapter 11 Working with Standard Parts


Copying a Screw Connection with Power Copy
With Power Copy, you can copy complete objects, including the
information attached to those objects. In the case of a screw
connection, you copy the whole screw connection to another
location. The background is automatically updated.
Now, copy the previously inserted screw connection with the
Power Copy command.
1 Start the Power Copy command.
Toolbutton Power Copy
Menu Modify > Power Commands > Power Copy
Command AMPOWERCOPY

2 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Select object: Select the previously inserted screw


Specify insertion point: Specify the point as shown in the following
figure
Specify rotation angle: Enter 0

The screw is copied to the specified location. Your drawing should


look like this:

Copying a Screw Connection with Power Copy | 157


Using Power Recall and Performing a Screw
Calculation
With Power Recall, you can call a function just by clicking an
object in a drawing. In this exercise, you click a screw connection,
so the Screw Connection command will start.
Use Power Recall to recall the screw connection. Edit the screw
connection, calculate it, and insert it into the drawing at the cover
plate.
1 Zoom to the extents of the drawing.
Toolbutton Zoom Extents
Menu View > Zoom > Extents
Command ZOOM

2 Zoom in to the cover plate using Zoom Window.


Toolbutton Zoom Window
Menu View > Zoom > Window
Command ZOOM

3 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Specify first corner: Specify point P1


Specify opposite corner: Specify point P2

158 | Chapter 11 Working with Standard Parts


4 Start the Power Recall command.
Toolbutton Power Recall
Menu Modify > Power Commands > Power Recall
Command AMPOWERRECALL

5 Respond to the prompt as follows:

Select object: Select the screw, P1

Using Power Recall and Performing a Screw Calculation | 159


6 In the Screw Connection - Front View dialog box, delete the ISO
273 normal hole by clicking the Delete (X) button to the right of
the ISO 273 normal field.

NOTE You have to delete the ISO 273 hole from the screw
connection, because otherwise, the built-in intelligence would prevent
the selection of a countersink screw since it doesn’ t match with the
ISO 273 through hole.

160 | Chapter 11 Working with Standard Parts


7 In the Screw Connection dialog box, choose the Screw button.
Then Countersink Head Type, ISO 10642, and Front View.
8 In the Screw Connection dialog box, choose the upper Hole
button. Then select Holes, Countersinks, and ISO 7721.
9 In the Screw Connection dialog box, choose the lower Hole button.
Then select Inner Threads, Through, and ISO 262 (Regular Thread).

Now, use the Precalculation function of the Screw Connection


dialog box to calculate the screw connection.
10 In the Screw Connection dialog box, choose the Precalculation
button.

11 In the Screw Diameter Estimation – VDI2230 dialog box, specify:

Material Class: 10.9


Applied Force: 1500 N
Nature of Load: Static and Centric applied Axial Force (upper-left icon)
Method for Tightening Screw: Mechanical Screw Driver

The Result field displays a sufficient diameter of M4.

Using Power Recall and Performing a Screw Calculation | 161


12 Choose OK.
13 In the Screw Connection dialog box, the calculation has marked
M4. Choose the Finish button.

14 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Specify insertion point of first hole: Specify point P1


Specify endpoint of first hole [Gap between holes]: Specify point P2
Drag Size: Drag the screw connection dynamically to the size M4 x 12
and click
Drag Size: Enter 8

162 | Chapter 11 Working with Standard Parts


Now, you have inserted the specified screw connection with a
screw length of 12 mm and a blind hole depth of 8 mm. Your
drawing should look like this:

Using Power Recall and Performing a Screw Calculation | 163


Editing a Screw Connection with Power Edit
Instead of having to use different editing commands for different
objects, you can use just one command, Power Edit, for editing all
objects in a drawing with built-in intelligence. Using Power Edit on
a screw connection, the whole assembly can be edited and will be
updated in your drawing with an automatic background update.
Now, edit the second screw at the cover plate to get the same
countersink screw.
1 Start the Power Edit command.
Toolbutton Power Edit
Menu Modify > Power Commands > Power Edit
Command AMPOWEREDIT

2 Respond to the prompt as follows:

Select object: Select the lower screw at the cover plate, P1

3 In the Screw Connection dialog box, delete the ISO 273 normal
hole by clicking the delete (X) button to the right of the ISO 273
normal field.
4 In the Screw Connection dialog box, choose the Screw button.
Then Countersink Head Type, ISO 10642, and Front View.
5 In the Screw Connection dialog box, choose the upper Hole
button. Then Holes, Countersinks, ISO 7721.
6 Select M4 and choose the Finish button.

164 | Chapter 11 Working with Standard Parts


7 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Specify insertion point of first hole [Gap before hole]: Specify point P1
Specify endpoint of first hole [Gap between holes]: Specify point P2
Drag Size: Drag the screw connection dynamically to the size M4 x 12
and click
Drag Size: Enter 8

The edited screw connection is inserted. Your drawing should look


like this:

Editing a Screw Connection with Power Edit | 165


Working with Power View
With Power View, you can quickly generate a top or bottom view
of a side view of a standard part and vice versa.
Now, use Power View to insert the screws into the top view of the
coverplate.
1 Zoom to the extents of the drawing.
Toolbutton Zoom Extents
Menu View > Zoom > Extents
Command ZOOM

2 Zoom in to the coverplate, using Zoom Window.


Toolbutton Zoom Window
Menu View > Zoom > Window
Command ZOOM

3 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Specify first corner: Specify point P1


Specify opposite corner: Specify point P2

166 | Chapter 11 Working with Standard Parts


4 Start the Power View command.
Toolbutton Power View
Menu Modify > Power Commands > Power View
Command AMPOWERVIEW

5 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Select object: Select the screw at the cover plate, P1


Specify insertion point: Specify the centerline cross at the top view of
the cover plate, P2

Working with Power View | 167


The top view of the screw connection is inserted into the top view
of the coverplate. Your drawing should look like this:

NOTE Since you made the Power View to a screw connection, you
can insert a top view of the screw connection. If you select a screw
that is not part of a screw assembly, you can insert a top view or a
bottom view.
6 Repeat steps 4 and 5 to insert the top view of the screw at the
other three centerline crosses of the top view of the coverplate.

The coverplate should look like this:

Deleting with Power Erase


Power Erase is an intelligent erase command. It detects the object
information of a part. If you delete a screw connection with Power
Erase, the representation of the background is automatically
corrected.
Now, delete a screw using the Power Erase command.

168 | Chapter 11 Working with Standard Parts


1 Start the Power Erase command.
Toolbutton Power Erase
Menu Modify > Power Commands > Power Erase
Command AMPOWERERASE

2 Respond to the prompt as follows:

Select objects: Select the screw, P1, as shown in the following drawing
Select objects: Press ENTER

The screw connection is deleted and the lines and hatch are
restored. Your drawing should look like this:

Inserting a Hole
Now, you replace the previously deleted screw connection with a
pin. Insert a blind hole for the pin.
1 Start the Blind Hole command.
Toolbutton Blind Holes
Menu Content > Holes > Blind Holes
Command AMBHOLE

Inserting a Hole | 169


2 In the Select a Blind Hole dialog box, select acc. to ISO 273 and
Front View.
3 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Specify insertion point: Specify point P1


Specify rotation angle: Specify point P2

4 In the acc. to ISO 273 - Nominal Diameter dialog box, select a size
of 5, and choose the Finish button.

5 Continue to respond to the prompt as follows:

Drag Size Enter 20

The blind hole is inserted. Your drawing should look like this:

170 | Chapter 11 Working with Standard Parts


Inserting a Pin
Now, insert a pin into the blind hole.
1 Start the Cylindrical Pins command.
Toolbutton Cylindrical Pins
Menu Content > Fasteners > Cylindrical Pins
Command AMCYLPIN

2 In the Select a Cylindrical Pin dialog box, select ISO 2338 and
Front View.
3 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Specify insertion point: Specify point P1


Specify rotation angle: Specify point P2

4 In the ISO 2338 - Nominal Diameter dialog box, select a size of 5,


and choose the Finish button.

5 Continue to respond to the prompt as follows:

Drag Size Drag the pin to size 5 h8 x 18 and click the left mouse
button
6 In the Select Part Size dialog box, select 5 h8 x 18, and choose OK.

Inserting a Pin | 171


The pin is inserted. Your drawing should look like this:

Hiding C-Lines
For a better overview, you can hide the C-lines by turning them off
temporarily.
1 Zoom to the extents of the drawing.
Toolbutton Zoom Extents
Menu View > Zoom > Extents
Command ZOOM

2 Start the C-Line On/Off command.


Toolbutton C-Line On/Off
Menu Assist > Layer / Layergroup > C-Line On/Off
Command AMCLINEO

All C-lines are turned off temporarily.

172 | Chapter 11 Working with Standard Parts


Simplifying the Representation of Standard
Parts
In some cases, for example in complex assemblies, it is helpful to
have a simplified representation of the standard parts for a better
overview. With AutoCAD Mechanical Power Pack, you can switch
between different representation types without losing object or
part information.
Now, you change the representation of the differential gear screws.
1 Start the Change Representation command.
Toolbutton Change Representation
Menu Content > Change Representation
Command AMSTDPREP

2 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Select objects: Select the differential gear with a window


Select objects: Press ENTER

Simplifying the Representation of Standard Parts | 173


3 In the Switch Representation of Standard Parts dialog box, select
Symbolic, and choose OK.

The representation of the selected standard parts is simplified. Your


drawing should look like this:

The standard parts library of AutoCAD Mechanical 2000 is not


only a simple block library, but also an intelligent library, that
helps you design with standard parts in a very effective way.

174 | Chapter 11 Working with Standard Parts


Chain Calculation

In This Chapter
12
In this tutorial, you calculate a chain length „ Performing a length
calculation
and insert sprockets and chain links into a
„ Optimizing the chain
drawing. length

„ Inserting Sprockets

„ Inserting a Chain

175
Key Terms

Term Definition
partition Distance in mm or inches between centers of adjacent joint members. Other
dimensions are proportional to the pitch. Also known as pitch.

pitch diameter The diameter of the pitch circle that passes through the centers of the link pins as
the chain is wrapped on the sprocket.

roller chain A roller chain is made up of two kinds of links: roller links and pin links alternately
and evenly spaced throughout the length of the chain.

sprocket A toothed wheel that transfers the power from the chain to the shaft or the other
way round.

176 | Chapter 12 Chain Calculation


Chain Calculation
NOTE The ISO standard part standard has to be installed for this
tutorial exercise.

Getting Started
First, load the initial drawing.
1 Open the file tut_ex12 in the acadm\tutorial folder.
Toolbutton Open
Menu File > Open
Command OPEN

2 Zoom in to the area of interest, marked with W1 and W2.


Toolbutton Zoom Window
Menu View > Zoom > Window
Command ZOOM

3 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Specify first corner: Specify W1


Specify opposite corner: Specify W2

The drawing contains a chain housing, sprocket positions, and

Getting Started | 177


points.

Performing a Length Calculation


1 Start the Length Calculation command.
Toolbutton Length Calculation
Menu Content > Chains / Belts > Length Calculation
Command AMCHAINLENGTHCAL

2 In the Belt and Chain Length Calculation dialog box, choose the
Library button.

3 In the Library, select ISO 606 metric.


4 In the Select Part Size dialog box, specify:

Standard: ISO 606 – 05B – 1

5 Choose OK.

178 | Chapter 12 Chain Calculation


6 In the Belt and Chain Length Calculation dialog box, choose OK,
and respond to the prompts as follows:

Specify 1st point for tangent or [Undo] <exit>: Select circle a at


point 1
Specify 2nd point for tangent: Select circle c at point 2
Specify 1st point for tangent or [Undo] <exit>: Select circle c at
point 3
Specify 2nd point for tangent: Select circle b at point 4
Specify 1st point for tangent or [Undo] <exit>: Select circle b at
point 5
Specify 2nd point for tangent: Select circle a at point 6
Specify 1st point for tangent or [Undo] <exit>: Press ENTER
Select circle to store tangents: Select circle a

The tangent definition is finished, and the length of the chain is


calculated. Because the length is divided into whole numbers of
links, one sprocket has to be moved to achieve such a length.
7 Continue responding to the prompts as follows:

Select pulleys or sprockets to be moved.


Select objects: Select circle b
Select objects: Press ENTER
Specify base point or displacement: Select the center of circle b
Specify second point of displacement: Select the center of the cross at
point 8
Select pulleys or sprockets to be moved.
Select objects: Press ENTER

Performing a Length Calculation | 179


AutoCAD has calculated the new length, which is still not a
multiple of the chain division. Therefore, the chain arrangement
has to be optimized:

Number of links in chain:121 Distance to next link: 6.88567 mm

Optimizing the Chain Length


Now, optimize the chain length.
1 Start the Length Calculation command.
Toolbutton Length Calculation
Menu Content > Chains / Belts > Length Calculation
Command AMCHAINLENGTHCAL

2 In the Belt and Chain Length Calculation dialog box, check


Optimization, Translation, and Direction >>, and specify:

Required number of links: 122

3 Choose OK.
4 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Select pulleys or sprockets to be moved.


Select objects: Select the relocated circle b
Select objects: Press ENTER
Specify direction angle to move: Enter 90

Sprocket b is moved until a chain length of 122 links is achieved.

180 | Chapter 12 Chain Calculation


5 In the Belt and Chain Length Calculation dialog box, choose
Cancel, to cancel the optimization.

Now, your drawing looks like this:

Inserting Sprockets
Now, insert the sprockets.
1 Start the Draw Sprocket/Pulley command.
Toolbutton Draw Sprocket/Pulley
Menu Content > Chains / Belts > Draw Sprocket/Pulley
Command AMSPROCKET

2 In the Pulleys and Sprockets dialog box, specify:

Number of teeth: 19
Number of Teeth to Draw: 19

3 Choose OK.

Inserting Sprockets | 181


4 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Specify center of wheel: Select the center of circle a


With Centerlines <Yes>: Press ENTER
Insert part reference: Press ENTER

The sprocket is isnerted into the drawing.


Now, insert the next two sprockets.
5 Start the Draw Sprocket/Pulley command again.
Toolbutton Draw Sprocket/Pulley
Menu Content > Chains / Belts > Draw Sprocket/Pulley
Command AMSPROCKET

6 In the Pulleys and Sprockets dialog box, specify:

Number of teeth: 13
Number of Teeth to Draw: 13

7 Choose OK.
8 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Specify center of wheel: Select the center of circle b


With Centerlines <Yes>: Press ENTER
Insert part reference: Press ENTER
9 Start the Draw Sprocket/Pulley command again.
Toolbutton Draw Sprocket/Pulley
Menu Content > Chains / Belts > Draw Sprocket/Pulley
Command AMSPROCKET

182 | Chapter 12 Chain Calculation


10 In the Pulleys and Sprockets dialog box, specify:

Number of teeth: 51
Number of Teeth to Draw: 3
Insertion Angle for Sprocket/Pulley: 180

11 Choose OK.
12 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Specify center of wheel: Select the center of circle a


With Centerlines <Yes>: Press ENTER
Insert part reference: Press ENTER

The last sprocket is inserted as a simplified representation with


only three teeth, as specified in the dialog box.
Now, your drawing looks like this:

Inserting Sprockets | 183


Inserting a Chain
Finally, insert a chain.
1 Start the Draw Chain/Belt Links command.
Toolbutton Draw Chain / Belt Links
Menu Content > Chains / Belts > Draw Chain/Belt Links
Command AMCHAINDRAW

2 In the Draw Chain dialog box, specify:

Number of Links to Draw: 122

3 Choose OK.
4 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Select polyline and starting point: Select the polyline near point 9
Please wait ... calculating chains
Number of links in chain:122 Distance to next link: 0 mm
Please wait ... calculating chains
Is position of link correct [Y/N=Rotation] <Yes>: Press ENTER
Insert part reference: Press ENTER

The chain is inserted.


Your drawing looks like this:

184 | Chapter 12 Chain Calculation


Inserting a Chain | 185
186
Calculating a Spring

In This Chapter
13
In this tutorial, you calculate a spring for „ Starting the spring
calculation
existing boundary conditions and insert the
„ Specifying the spring
spring into a drawing. You also copy and edit layout

the spring, using the Power Copy and Power „ Calculating and selecting
the spring
Edit commands.
„ Inserting the spring

„ Copying the spring with


Power Copy

„ Editing the spring with


Power Edit

187
Key Terms

Term Definition
belleville spring A washer-type spring that can sustain relatively large loads with small deflections.
washer The loads and deflections can be increased by stacking the springs.

compression spring A spring type that can be compressed and can absorb pressure forces.

dynamic dragging The act of determining the size of a standard part with the cursor while inserting
the part into a side view. The standard part is displayed dynamically on the
screen and can be dragged to the next possible size and length. The values (sizes)
are taken from the Standard parts database.

extension spring A spring type that can absorb tension forces.

Power Copy A command that copies a drawing object to another position in the drawing.
Power Copy produces an identical copy of the copied object.

Power Edit A single edit command for all objects in a drawing.

torsion spring A spring type that can absorb torque forces.

188 | Chapter 13 Calculating a Spring


Calculating a Spring
With the AutoCAD Mechanical Power Pack spring function, you
can insert compression, extension, torsion, and Belleville washer
springs. The calculation is carried out in accordance with DIN 2098
or ANSI. The standard sizes of the springs can be selected from DIN
®
2098/Gutekunst/SPEC catalogs. To make the operation as simple
and as clear as possible, the same methods are used to insert all the
spring types.
NOTE The ISO standard part standard has to be installed for this
tutorial exercise.

Getting Started
In this tutorial, you create a compression spring in two different
compression situations. You calculate and insert the spring in an
existing drawing.
First, you insert the initial drawing.
1 Open the file tut_ex13 in the acadm\tutorial folder.
Toolbutton Open
Menu File > Open
Command OPEN

Zoom in to the area with the springs.


Toolbutton Zoom Window
Menu View > Zoom > Window
Command ZOOM

2 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Specify first corner: Specify first corner


Specify opposite corner: Specify opposite corner

Getting Started | 189


The drawing shows two views (A and B) of the lever and spring
housing, to reflect two different states of compression.

Starting the Spring Calculation


First, you specify the spring to calculate.
1 Start the Springs command.
Toolbutton Springs
Menu Content > Springs
Command AMSPRING

2 In the Select Springs dialog box, specify:

Compression Springs: On
Select from Table: On

190 | Chapter 13 Calculating a Spring


3 Choose OK.
4 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Specify starting point or [Existing Spring]: Specify point P1, as shown


in the following figure
Specify direction: Specify point P2

®
5 In the Browser, choose SPEC Catalog B.

The Compression Springs dialog box is displayed.

Starting the Spring Calculation | 191


Specifying the Spring Layout
Now, you specify the spring layout.
1 In the Compression Springs dialog box, specify:

Standard Cases: Select the icon on the right in the first row
Exact Match for: Lengths

2 Choose Next.

Now, you specify the geometric boundary conditions.


3 In the Compression Springs - Select dialog box, select the options
as shown below, and click the < button to the right of the Da <=
field.

192 | Chapter 13 Calculating a Spring


4 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Specify contour for outside diameter Da: Select one of the upper
corners of the spring housing

Now, define the initial spring length.


5 Click the < button to the right of the L1= field, and specify the
spring length.

6 Respond to the prompt as follows:

Specify spring length L1 (L2 = 80): Select a point, as shown in the


following figure

Specifying the Spring Layout | 193


Use view B of the lever and spring housing to define the
compressed spring length.
7 Click the < button to the right of the L2= field, and specify the
spring length.

8 Respond to the prompt as follows:

Specify spring length L2 (L1 = 32): Select a point, as shown in the


following figure

194 | Chapter 13 Calculating a Spring


Now, you have defined the geometric boundary conditions, and
you can proceed with the calculation.
9 Select the Calculation and Dynamic Stress options, as shown
below, and choose Next.

Specifying the Spring Layout | 195


Calculating and Selecting the Spring
Now, you choose the applicable buckling case. For this tutorial, the
first buckling case can be applied.
1 Select the leftmost icon, and choose OK.

AutoCAD starts to calculate the possible springs. The previously set


boundaries limit the selection to three different springs. The
selection takes place when you drag the spring dynamically. The
selected spring is displayed on the command line.
®
2 Drag the cursor until the spring SPEC – 0.059 x 0.480 x 1.5
appears on the command line. Select the spring.

The Compression Spring - Drawing dialog box is displayed.

Inserting the Spring


Now, specify the spring representation.
1 Select the leftmost icon, and choose Next.

196 | Chapter 13 Calculating a Spring


In this tutorial exercise, no rod is required.
2 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Select rod (only closed contours) <Enter=continue>:


Select objects: Press ENTER
Insert part reference: Press ENTER

The spring is inserted as shown below.

Copying the Spring with Power Copy


Now, copy the previously inserted spring from view A to view B,
using the Power Copy command.
1 Start the Power Copy command
Toolbutton Power Copy
Menu Modify > Power Commands > Power Copy
Command AMPOWERCOPY

2 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Select objects: Select the spring in view A


<Base point or displacement>/Multiple: Select the upper-right corner of
the spring housing in view A
Second point of displacement: Select the upper-right corner of the
spring housing in view B

Copying the Spring with Power Copy | 197


3 Continue responding to the prompts as follows:

Select rod (only closed contours) <Enter=continue>:


Select objects: Press ENTER
Insert part reference: Press ENTER

The spring is copied into view B. However, you need to adjust the
length of the spring in view B.

Editing the Spring with Power Edit


TIP You can also start Power Edit by double-clicking the object you
want to edit - in this case the spring.
1 Start the Power Edit command.
Toolbutton Power Edit
Menu Modify > Power Commands > Power Edit
Command AMPOWEREDIT

198 | Chapter 13 Calculating a Spring


2 Respond to the prompt as follows:

Select object: Select the spring in view B

The Compression Spring - Drawing dialog box is displayed.


3 Choose the < button to the right of the Lx= field, and specify the
spring length.

4 Respond to the prompt as follows:

Specify spring length Lx (L1 = 32): Select a point, as shown in the


following picture

5 Choose Next, to insert the spring.

Editing the Spring with Power Edit | 199


6 Continue to respond to the prompts as follows:

Select rod (only closed contours) <Enter=continue>:


Select objects: Press ENTER
Insert part reference: Press ENTER

AutoCAD Mechanical reinserts the spring in its new compressed


length into the housing.

TIP If there is a rod in the center of the compression spring, you


have to select the rod so that the representation of the background
will be displayed correctly.
The Spring command provides a very useful tool for generating
complex springs in your design.

200 | Chapter 13 Calculating a Spring


Using FEA to Calculate
Stress

In This Chapter
14
In this tutorial, you calculate stresses in a lever, „ Calculating the stress in a
lever
using the finite element analysis, and use the
„ Defining loads and
results to improve the design of the lever. supports

„ Evaluating and refining the


mesh

„ Improving the design

„ Recalculating the stress

201
Key Terms

Term Definition
distributed force A force that is spread over an area.

FEA Finite Element Analysis. A calculation routine, or method. Calculates stress and
deformation in a plane for plates with a specified thickness, or in a cross section
with individual forces, stretching loads, and fixed and/or movable supports. The
FEA routine uses its own layer group for input and output.

fixed support A support that is fixed to a part and is fixed in axial direction.

load Forces and moments that act on a part.

movable support A support that is not fixed in axial direction.

Power Edit A single edit command for the objects in your drawing.

stress Force or pressure on a part. Stress is force per area.

202 | Chapter 14 Using FEA to Calculate Stress


2D FEA
Getting Started
Design sophistication in the area of mechanical engineering and
construction is increasing. Therefore, the calculations relating to
these designs have to be performed using more advanced tools in
order to assure reliability.
To determine the stability and durability of a given structure under
various loading situations, you need to observe the stress and
deformation in the components while they are being loaded. A
structure is considered to be durable if the maximum stress is less
than what the material permits.
Various computational methods have been developed for
calculating deformation and stress conditions. One of these
methods is called the Finite Element Analysis.
The knowledge gained from this stress rating may lead to changing
the structure in certain areas, which in turn necessitates changes to
the design.
The FEA routine uses its own layer group for input and output.
Note that FEA is not designed for solving all special FEA tasks. Its
purpose is to provide you with a quick idea of the stress and
deformation distributions.
NOTE The ISO standard part standard has to be installed for this
tutorial exercise.

Calculating the Stress in a Lever


1 Open the file tut_ex14 in the acadm\tutorial folder.
Toolbutton Open
Menu File > Open
Command OPEN

The drawing contains a lever, which is the basis for your


calculations.
2 Zoom in so that the lever fits on your screen.
Toolbutton Zoom Window
Menu View > Zoom > Window
Command ZOOM

Getting Started | 203


3 Activate the FEA calculation.
Toolbutton FEA
Menu Content > Calculations > FEA
Command AMFEA2D

4 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Specify interior point: Specify a point inside the contour

The FEA 2D Calculation dialog box opens so that you can define
border conditions and perform calculations.

Select the thickness and the material of the lever.


5 In the Default section, enter a thickness of 10.

204 | Chapter 14 Using FEA to Calculate Stress


6 Choose Table, and select the material from your preferred standard
table:
Select Al. alloys die-cast if you prefer to use ANSI materials.
Select AlMg5F25 if you prefer to use DIN materials.

NOTE The results will differ slightly from the tutorial, depending on
the selected material.

Defining Loads and Supports


To perform calculations, you need to define the loads and
supports.
1 Choose the moveable line support button, and respond to the
prompts as follows:

Specify insertion point <Enter=Dialogbox> : Specify point 1


Specify endpoint: Specify point 2
Specify side from endpoint: Specify a point above the contour

2 Choose the moveable line support button again, and respond to


the prompts as follows:

Specify insertion point <Enter=Dialogbox> : Specify point 3


Specify endpoint: Press ENTER to define the starting point as the endpoint

Defining Loads and Supports | 205


3 Choose the line force button, and respond to the prompts as
follows:

Specify insertion point <Enter=Dialogbox> : Specify point 5


Specify endpoint: Specify point 4
Specify side from endpoint: Specify a point to the right of the specified
points
Enter a new value <1000 N/mm>: Enter 500

4 Choose the line force button, and respond to the prompts as


follows:

Specify insertion point <Enter=Dialogbox> : Specify point 6


Specify endpoint: Specify point 7
Specify side from endpoint: Specify a point to the right of the specified
points
Enter a new value <1000 N/mm>: Enter 500

206 | Chapter 14 Using FEA to Calculate Stress


Calculating the Results
To calculate the results, you need to generate a mesh.
TIP If you calculate results without creating a mesh in advance, the
mesh will be created automatically.
1 Choose the mesh button.

2 Choose the isolines (isoareas) button.


3 In the FEA 2D Isolines (Isoareas) dialog box, select the Graphic
Representation button on the right, and choose OK.

4 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Specify base point <Return = in boundary>: Press ENTER to place the


isoareas in the boundary
Insertion point: To the left of the part, select a suitable location for the
table
<Return>: Press ENTER to return to the dialog box

The result looks like this:

Calculating the Results | 207


After calculation, the support forces are displayed near the support
symbol.

Evaluating and Refining the Mesh


The stress table allocation relative to the lever shows heavy
concentration of local stress near drawing points 8 and 9. Refine
the mesh near these points to obtain more exact calculation results
for the points of interest.
1 Choose the refining around point button, and respond to the
prompts as follows:

Specify center point 1 <Return=Continue>: Specify several points near


points 8 and 9
Specify center point 1 <Return=Continue>: Press ENTER to continue
meshing
<Return>: Press ENTER to return to the dialog box

208 | Chapter 14 Using FEA to Calculate Stress


After this step, you get a refined mesh at the specified points.
Recalculate the stress representation.
2 Choose the isolines (isoareas) button.
3 In the FEA 2D Isolines (Isoareas) dialog box, choose the Graphic
Representation button on the right, and choose OK.

4 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Specify base point <Return = in boundary>: Press ENTER to place the


iso-areas in the boundary
Insertion point: To the left of the part, select a suitable location for the
table
<Return>: Press ENTER to return to the dialog box

Evaluating and Refining the Mesh | 209


Improving the Design
The results show a critical area around point 8 that can be
improved by applying a larger radius. Before changing the
geometry, the results and solutions have to be deleted.
1 Choose the Delete Solution button.
2 In the AutoCAD Question dialog box, choose Yes to delete the
solutions and results.

3 In the AutoCAD Question dialog box, choose No to keep the loads


and supports.

4 Start Power Edit to change the radius, and respond to the prompt
as follows:
Toolbutton Power Edit
Menu Modify > Power Commands > Power Edit
Command AMPOWEREDIT

Select objects: Select the radius at point 8

5 In the Fillet Radius dialog box, specify:

Input: 10

210 | Chapter 14 Using FEA to Calculate Stress


6 Choose OK.

Select objects: Press ENTER to cancel the command


The radius of the fillet is changed to 10.

Recalculating the Stress


Before recalculating the stress division of the lever, calculate and
display the deformation.
1 Restart the FEA routine.
Toolbutton FEA
Menu Content > Calculations > FEA
Command AMFEA2D

2 Respond to the prompt as follows:

Specify interior point: Specify a point inside the contour


3 In the FEA 2D Calculation dialog box, select material and the
thickness as described earlier in this chapter (see steps 5 and 6 on
page 4).
4 Choose the deformation button.
5 In the FEA 2D - Deformed Mesh dialog box, choose OK.

6 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Specify base point <Return = in boundary>: Press ENTER to place the


deformed mesh in the boundary

Recalculating the Stress | 211


Insertion point: To the right of the part, select a suitable location for
the table
<Return>: Press ENTER to return to the dialog box

The result looks like this:

Recalculate the stress division of the lever.


7 Choose the isolines (iso-areas) button.
8 In the FEA 2D Isolines (Iso-areas) dialog box, choose the Graphic
Representation button on the right, and choose OK.

9 Respond to the prompts as follows:

Specify base point <Return = in boundary>: Press ENTER to place the


iso-areas in the boundary
Insertion point: To the left of the part, select a suitable location for the
table
<Return>: Press ENTER to return to the dialog box

The final result looks like this:

212 | Chapter 14 Using FEA to Calculate Stress


Recalculating the Stress | 213
214
Index

A C
acceleration................................. 104, 107 calculate results...................................207
angular dimensioning ........................... 41 calculation result block .......................122
annotations...................................... 34, 43 cam......................................................104
associative detail................................... 87 cam configuration ...............................106
automatic dimensioning.................. 36, 38 cam geometry......................................111
cam plate calculations.........................106
B cam plates and cylindrical cams .........105
background ................................. 150, 156 centerline...............................................34
balloon ............................................ 62, 67 chain....................................................184
base layer .................................... 6, 50, 86 chamfer .......................................126, 131
base layer group.................................. 100 change representation .........................173
baseline dimension ............................... 34 C-line ............................................14, 150
bearing calculation...................... 126, 127 C-line options........................................19
belleville spring washer ...................... 188 collect balloon.......................................79
bill of material ...................................... 62 compression spring .....................188, 190
blind hole ............................................ 156 construction geometry...........................14
BOM attribute....................................... 62 construction lines ....................14, 17, 150
BOM database ...................................... 65 contour ..................................................21
copy objects ..........................................58
countersink..........................................150
countersunk .................................161, 164

215
cross-hatching....................................... 26 fit description ........................................42
current layer.......................................... 59 fit name .................................................34
curve path ................................... 104, 111 fixed support .......116, 121, 140, 143, 202
cylindrical pins ................................... 171
cylindrical shaft section ...................... 129 G
D gear..............................................126, 140
geometric tolerance...............................34
datum identifier............................... 34, 44 graphic representation.........................207
define border conditions ..................... 204
deflection ............................................ 147 H
deflection line ............. 116, 119, 120, 140 hiding c-lines.......................................172
deflection moment ...................... 116, 140
deformation......................................... 211 I
delete solution..................................... 210
initial spring length .............................193
detail ................................... 14, 29, 86, 90
inserting a pin......................................171
dimensioning tools................................ 36
direction of the loads .......................... 118 L
distance snap......................................... 14
distributed force.......................... 116, 202 layer group ..................................6, 50, 86
drawing ................................................. 86 layer groups...........................................53
drawing border................................ 34, 46 layout ..............................................86, 87
drawing limits ....................................... 10 library............................................14, 178
drawing mode ....................................... 86 load......................116, 121, 140, 202, 205
drawing title.......................................... 34
dynamic calculation............................ 126
M
dynamic dragging ............... 126, 150, 188 material ...............................................120
dynamic stress..................................... 195 mechanical options .................................9
merge ....................................................75
E model space...........................................87
edit balloon ........................................... 72 moment of inertia........116, 117, 140, 202
edit part list ........................................... 72 movable line support...........................205
edit part reference ................................. 65 movable support..................................121
editing dimensions................................ 39 move to another group ..........................55
effective loads..................................... 144 move to another layer ...........................52
exact match ......................................... 192 movement diagram .............................104
extension spring.................................. 188 movement sections......................104, 108
multi edit .........................................34, 41
F multiple balloon ....................................67
FEA............................................. 202, 203 N
FEA calculation .................................. 204
feature control frame ...................... 44, 45 NC data .......................................104, 112
feature control frame symbol................ 34
feature identifier symbol....................... 34
O
fillet....................................... 23, 126, 131 optimization ........................................180
filters..................................................... 81 optimize chain length..........................180
fit .......................................................... 34

216 | Index
P snap settings..........................................16
sort parts list..........................................80
part layers ......................................... 6, 50 specifying material..............................143
part reference .................................. 62, 64 spline profile .......................................130
parts list........................................... 62, 71 split........................................................75
perform calculations ........................... 204 spring ..................................................189
point force................................... 116, 140 spring layout .......................................192
point load ............................................ 145 spring representation...........................196
Power Commands................... 14, 39, 150 standard parts ......................................151
Power Copy ................ 150, 157, 188, 197 standard parts library ..........................174
Power Dimensioning .... 14, 27, 34, 86, 95 starting layer ...........................................8
Power Edit ..150, 164, 188, 198, 202, 210 step width ............................................104
Power Erase .............. 35, 39, 76, 150, 168 stress............................................140, 202
Power Pack ............................................. 2 support forces......................................208
Power Recall............................... 150, 158 supports .......................................121, 205
power snap settings............................. 127 surface texture symbol ....................35, 43
Power View ................................ 150, 166 symbolic..............................................174
precalculation...................................... 161
projecting edges.................................... 24 T
R template.........................................6, 7, 10
thread ..................................................134
radius reflection line ........................... 126 title block ........................................35, 47
recalculate stress representation ......... 209 tolerance................................................35
recalculating stress division................ 211 top view...............................................166
refined mesh ....................................... 209 torque ..................................................146
representation...................................... 150 torsion moment ...................................146
resolution ............................................ 104 torsion spring ......................................188
S transition .............................................108
translation............................................180
scale area......................................... 86, 88
scale monitor......................................... 86 U
screw assembly grip representation.... 155 uniform load........................................121
screw connection ................................ 152 user through hole ..................................93
screw diameter estimation .................. 161
Selection Set ......................................... 60 V
set value ................................................ 73
velocity........................................104, 107
shaft break................................... 126, 132
velocity and acceleration calculation..110
shaft calculation.......................... 141, 142
view scale..............................................86
shaft contour ....................................... 141
viewport ....................................86, 87, 91
shaft generator .................... 126, 127, 141
viewport auto create..............................89
shaft generator configuration.............. 128
visibility enhancement ..........................58
shaft section ........................................ 134
side view ............................................. 166 W
side view of the shaft .......................... 133
simplified representation .................... 173 working layer ..............................6, 50, 86

Index | 217