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Measurement

and
Regulation

George Markogiannakis
Mechanical Engineer MSc

Energy Policy Analysis Department


Centre for Renewable Energy Sources and Saving

Potenza October 2010


Regulation
• Regulation of process variable in order to
maintain process operate at a condition
set by control variable.
• Good control/regulation ensures that
process operates when and how needed
thereby saving energy.
(Example: Cruise control in a car and a house thermostat are common
examples of how controllers are used to automatically adjust some variable
to hold the measurement (or process variable) at the set-point.

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Regulation -Basic terms
• Actual value:
The measured value is each physical value of interest for the application, e.g. room
temperature. For example, this actual value is measured by means of a sensor.
• Desired value:
The value which is required! This value is entered into the regulator and serves as
the preset value or target value for the regulation process.
• Correction variable:(i.e. error)
The signal that the regulator puts out in order to match the actual value with the
desired value!
• Positioning element:
The device that receives the signal from the regulator (= the correction variable)
and puts into effect a response to produce the desired value, e.g. a valve or mixer
or electrical drive
• Disturbance variable:
This is every variable which negatively affects the measured value and makes
further compensatory regulation necessary. In the case of room temperature, this
can be incoming sunshine or an open window for example.
• Regulation device:
A regulation device is defined as being a combination of a sensor, regulator and
positioning element
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Regulation
Conventional control Process

Set Point

Process Variable Controller Output

Actuator

Controller

Valve
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Regulation - Types of regulators
• Electrical regulating device:
The valve positioning is influenced electrically;
• Pneumatic regulating device:
Compressed air is necessary in order to influence the positioning element;
• Electro-pneumatic regulating device:
The actual value is measured and reinforced electronically. However, influencing
the positioning element occurs pneumatically.
• Electro-hydraulic regulating device:
The actual value is measured and reinforced electronically. However, influencing
the positioning element occurs hydraulically.
•Additionally, regulators can be differentiated by means of their regulating behaviour. A
regulator can either be continuous or discontinuous.
•Discontinuous means that it can only accept particular values e.g. a valve that can either
be open or closed.
•In the case of a continuous regulator, the positioning element itself alters the correction
variable independently of the regulation difference.

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Regulation
Control Station

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Regulation
SCADA - Reactor

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Regulation - Measurement: Pressure

Differential
Absolute Pressure Pressure 8
Regulation
Pressure Transducer

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Regulation
Infrared Thermometer

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Regulation
Thermocouple

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Regulation
pH Electrode

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Regulation
Butterfly valve

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Regulation
Control Valves

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Regulation

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Regulation
over swinging distance
Basic principle

Tolerance area
Tolerance area

Settling time

Regulation start time


Disturbing jump answer of control loop Settling time
Over swinging distance

Leading jump answer of control loop 16


Regulation
P-Regulator

D=0 undamped oscillation


D=0,2 damped oscillation
Proportional-Regulator

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Regulation
PID Control

D action
P action I action

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Regulation
Temperature Programmer

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Regulation - Scheme, example air conditioning

Filter Lufterhitzer
Cooling recorder Ventilator
Außenluft
External air Zuluft
Input air

Temperature
sensor
Außenluft-
External air
Positioning
klappe
flap valve
element
Stellglied

Regler
Regulator

Temperatur-
Temperature
wähler
selector

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Regulation - Scheme, example oven
Process data measurement for a Modern oven temperature regulation
modern oven regulation
exhaust

Volume flow Burning


Pressure gas
Temperature
Analysis
Temperatur From
Volume flow oil at
Density oven
Quality inlet

Oil temperature oven outlet


Temperature of exhaust
Local temperature

exhaust

air Burning gas

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Regulation
Regulation Scheme

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Regulation
Optimising Regulation
Energy Savings

Energy Saved

Energetic Costs

Investment Costs

Maintenance Costs

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Regulation
Optimising Regulation
Pressure
Traditional load regulation

Variable speed

Potential energy saving


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Regulation
Optimising Regulation
Normal Star/Triangle Starting
Current Star Triangle
conection conection

Current peak due to


S/T starter

Nominal current 160 A

Time (s)

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Thank you for your attention

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