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Writing lab.

Reports (Experimental report) 實驗報告寫作

Lease use the following format when writing up your lab. Report.

Name: ________________( ) Class: ______

(B1: 15 marks)
Title (標題 ): The name of the experiment or the topic of which the experiment related.

Hypothesis (假說 ): One or a few sentences to put forward a tentative (試.驗性的 / 假定的 / 推測
Depend on 的) explanation proposed to account for some specific observation
experiment (not merely educated guesses based on collected observation;
creating hypothesis requires background information as well as an element of
guessing, but not all educated guesses are hypothesis)

Principle of design (實驗設計理念 ) : Not the biological principle or knowledge but the
introduction of how the design of experiment and the steps
fulfill the requirements and achieve the objective.

Objective (目標 ): To determine……; OR To find out……; OR To test the hypothesis…..

OR To identify……; OR To ……
(In one sentence explain what you are trying to find out in this lab.;
if you are testing a hypothesis, state the hypothesis clearly but concisely and
use the “ if…..then …..” format)

Date of performance: This is the date on which the lab was done, NOT when it has
(進行實驗日期 ) written up!!!

Materials and Reagents: List the materials and apparatus used in the
(物料及試劑 /試藥 /反應物 ) experiment; volume of liquid or number / amount of
taken can also be stated.

Procedure / Methods or Methodology:  Explain how the experiment was done;

(步驟 / 方法 )  Write the processes step by step clearly and precisely as
what you have done in the investigation (in past tense);
 if a proposal of the experimental design is required
instead, you may use present tense in the verbs;
 The volume of liquid used, amount of materials and the

time period for treatment or time taken in conducting
the experiment are required to state clearly;
 Always organize the steps well, orderly and logically,
e.g. 1. xxxxxxxxxxx
2. yyyyyyyyyyyy
3. zzzzzzzzzzzzz;
 Repeated sentences or similar descriptions can be
simplied by some other words if appropriate, to avoid
too complicated and reluctant sentences;
 Diagrams or tables are wise and appropriate ways for
the presentation of the experimental set-up and the
different treatments carried out, especially when they
are too complicated; diagrams, tables, graphs, etc. can
make the instruction more clearly;
 State the precautions : Give reasons for any
precautions or cautions taken;
 DON’T neglect this parts because most of the score
is allocated in this section !!! Very important !!
i.e. this is the easiest part to be deducted in area B1 !
Results / Observation (結果 / 觀察 ): Include any data, data tables, charts answer any procedure
questions; also include all the data you saw, measured, and /
or collected;
 Diagrams: All drawings must be done in PENCIL (not ink);
 Biological drawings must be done on a separate sheet of
white unlined paper;
 Graphs: All graphs must be done on proper graph paper and
must be done in PENCIL;
 Table: Usually a good method for presenting your results;
 All the diagrams, drawings, graphs and tables must have
titles, labelings / labeling axes and labeling lines, remarks,
etc., depending on the type of presentation used;
 Score is not focused on the data or numeric values, instead,
the accuracy of taking the results, the sense of taking results
precisely and the clearness on presentation of results are
always the most important, so pay attention in choosing an
appropriate ways in presenting the data and making a good
and clear presentation !!

Discussion:  Interpretation of the results is the most important part
(討論 ) (Answer all the assigned questions in complete sentences if
 Don’t start your answers with “Yes”, “No” or “Because” !!
 Each answer must make sense when read on its own, i.e. rephrase
the wording of the question as part of your answer;
 Organize the points orderly and logically;
 Usually, interpretation of your results in relation to the objective
or hypothesis stated before is required;
 * Descriptions on the results, any control experiment conducted,
sources of errors, methods for improvement, drawbacks of the
experimental set-up, limitations, any extension of your
investigations proposed, any supportive / positive / negative
results or some unexpected occurrences, any explanation of what
you have found out, significance or biological importance of the
findings or even some educated and relevant knowledge can also
be discussed;
 DON’T neglect this parts because most of the score in area
B2+B3 is allocated in this section !!! Very important !!
i.e. this is the easiest part to be deducted in area B1 !

Conclusion (總結 / 結論 ):  Summarize what you have found out in this experiment;
 Keep it simple and with respect to the “Objective” ;
 Only a few sentences are necessary. Was the hypothesis
supported or rejected. What are the consequences in either case?
 Also DON’T neglect this part as this may affect the impression of
marker and results in poor organization of the whole report.

 Your report must be written in pen (not red ink); or it may be typed (no bonus for typed
 You must use a ruler to underline all headings, for drawing graphs or tables, and for pointer
lines on any drawings.
 Your report must be neat and tidy and, above all, it must be easy to read.
 Illegible reports will be returned unmarked.
 You must always write using complete sentences. Answers which are not in full sentences may
be marked incorrect!
 Do not copy. Copied work and the work from which it is copied will receive a zero mark!
 Lab reports will be collected at the beginning of the period on the Due Date (Reports for TAS
must be handed in on time at the end of the period).
 Late reports lose marks or even unaccepted !

Planning sheet for conducting investigation