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МИНИСТЕРСТВО СЕЛЬСКОГО ХОЗЯЙСТВА РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ

ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ


ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ
ВЫСШЕГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ
ВОРОНЕЖСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ АГРАРНЫЙ
УНИВЕРСИТЕТ ИМ. ИМПЕРАТОРА ПЕТРА I

Кафедра русского и иностранных языков

ENGLISH FOR PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND LAW

Учебное пособие по дисциплине «Иностранный язык» для обучающихся


по направлениям
38.03.04 «Гуманитарное и муниципальное управление» и 40.03.01 «Юриспруденция»

Воронеж 2020

1
УДК [352+354] = 20 (075)
ББК 66.3 (2Рос)12+63.3–3я7
Е56

Рецензенты:

П.В. Сысоев, доктор педагогических наук, профессор, начальник управления научно-


исследовательской деятельности студентов и молодых ученых Тамбовского государ-
ственного университета им. Г.Р. Державина

К.В. Капранчикова, кандидат педагогических наук, доцент кафедры русского и ино-


странных языков Воронежского государственного аграрного университета им. импера-
тора Петра I

Саенко Е.С.

Е56 English for Public Administration: учебное пособие для обучающихся по спе-
циальностям «Гуманитарное и муниципальное управление» и «Юриспруденция» гума-
нитарно-правового факультета / Саенко Е.С.– Воронеж: ФГБОУ ВО Воронежский
ГАУ, 2020. - 92 с.

ISBN 978-5-7267-0941-3

© Саенко Е.С., 2020


© Оформление. ФГБОУ ВО Воронежский ГАУ, 2020

2
MAP OF THE BOOK

Lesson 1 Introducing Yourself


page 5
Lesson 2 Academic Life
page 9
Lesson 3 Countries: the United States of America
page 14
Lesson 4 Countries: the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
page 17
Lesson 5 Countries: the Russian Federation
page 19
Lesson 6 Public Administration
page 21
Lesson 7 Jobs in Public Administration
page 23
Lesson 8 City Managers
page 25
Lesson 9 What is Government
page 27
Lesson 10 Types of Governments
page 29
Lesson 11 Law
page 31
Lesson 12 Civil Law System
page 32
Lesson 13 Common Law System
page 34
Lesson 14 Administrative Law in Civil Law Countries
page 36
Lesson 15 Administrative Law in Common Law Countries
page 38
Lesson 16 Three Branches of the USA and the UK Governments
page 40
Lesson 17 Political System in Russia
page 42
Lesson 18 Labor Law
page 44
Lesson 19 Occupations
page 46
Lesson 20 A Public Administration Career
page 48
Lesson 21 CV Writing Tips
page 50
Lesson 22 Human Resources
page 52
Lesson 23 The Local Authority
page 54
Lesson 24 Local Government Structure in the UK

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page 56
Lesson 25 London Local Government
page 58
Lesson 26 Local Government in the USA
page 60
Lesson 27 Town and Township Government in the United States
page 62
Lesson 28 Local Government in Russia
page 64
Lesson 29 The highest Official of the Subject of the Russian Federation
page 66
Lesson 30 A Government Budget
page 68
Lesson 31 Taxes
page 70
Lesson 32 Public Finance
page 72
Lesson 33 Regulatory Economics
page 74
Lesson 34 What is Demography
page 76
Lesson 35 Public Affairs in Government Sector
page 78
Lesson 36 What is Public Policy
page 80
Lesson 37 The Civil Service in the UK
page 82
Lesson 38 Urbanization
page 84
Lesson 39 Rural Areas in the United States
page 86
Lesson 40 A Rural Settlement in Russia
page 88
Appendix
page 90

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LESSON 1

Introducing Yourself
1. Answer the questions in pairs. Use the phrases in the box to help you.

My name is … My surname name is …


I’m from … I’m …
It’s … I like …

1. What is your name?


2. What is your surname?
3. Where are you from?
4. How old are you?
5. What is your phone number?
6. What is your hobby?

2. Read the paragraphs and match them with the people in the photos.

1. ______. My name is Kira Platonova. I am from Ryazan, Russia. After finishing school, I
passed the entrance exams and entered State Agrarian University - Timiryazev Moscow Ag-
ricultural Academy, the faculty of Veterinary Medicine. I am the first-year student. I am 18. I
rent a small flat with my friend not far from the university. My parents live in Ryazan. My
mother is a housewife and my father is a vet surgeon. In my free time, I work as a volunteer
in an environmental organization. We plant trees, clean lakes and rivers and pick up litter in
the streets, and look after sick animals. I am also fond of horse riding and drawing.

5
2. ______. My name is Pierre Lacroix. I’m from Ottawa. It is the capital city of Canada. I am
18 years old and I am a student at University of Ottawa. I study Biochemistry, Microbiology
and Immunology. I have a brother and a sister. We live with our parents in a large house in
the suburbs of Ottawa. My parents are engineers. I speak English and French quite well. In
my free time I like reading novels, watching TV and playing computer games.

3. ______. I am Clare Simpson. I am 19. I study at Oxford University, law faculty. Oxford Uni-
versity is one of the leading and most respected universities in the world. I am not from Ox-
ford, I am from Liverpool, England. Now I live in a small flat on the university campus, my
mother and sister live in a house in Liverpool. I want to become a lawyer as my mother that
is why I study hard and do a lot of extra courses. When I am free of studies, I go out with my
friends, learn Chinese and play volleyball in a local university team.

3. Complete the sentences with correct names: Pierre, Clare, Kira.


1. ______________ is from Canada.
2. ______________ rents a small flat.
3. ______________ is from Ryazan.
4. ______________ speaks English and French quite well.
5. ______________ learns Chinese.
6. ______________ studies Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology.
7. ______________ is fond of horse riding and drawing.
8. ______________ lives with parents.
9. ______________ studies Veterinary Medicine.
10. _____________ studies law at Oxford University.
4. Complete the questions with the following questions words: what, how old, what,
who, where, what, whose, how many.
1. ___________ is Kira Platonova from?
2. ___________ is Clare Simpson?
3. ___________ is Pierre’s occupation?
4. ___________ is Kira’s faculty?
5. ___________ is the capital city of Canada?
6. ___________ is fond of horse riding?
7. ___________ people are there in Pierre’s family?
8. ___________ future profession is a lawyer?
5. Now match the questions to the answers.
A. There are four people in his family.
B. She’s from Ryazan, Russia.
C. Kira.
D. She’s 19.
E. It’s Clare’s.
F. It’s the faculty of Veterinary Medicine.
G. It’s Ottawa.
H. He’s a student.
6. Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions from exercise 4.

6
7. Complete the chart about the students from the article in exercise 2.

Clare Pierre Kira


Native city

Country

University

Faculty

Age

Family

Languages

Hobbies

8. Choose one student from the article in exercise 2and speak about her or him. Use
the chart to help you.

7
9. Study the vocabulary below.
Name I’m…
My name is…
My surname is…
City, Country I’m from…
I was born in…
My native town is…
I live in…
I rent a flat/a room.
I live on the university campus.
I live in a hostel.
University I’m the first-year student.
I study at…
I study at the faculty of…
Age I’m …years old
I was born on the (date) …of (month)… in (year)…
Family My family is big/small.
I have a sister/brother.
My mother/father is a (profession)…
My mother/father works as a…
Languages I speak… quite well.
I understand…
I want to learn…
I want to speak …fluently.
I want to improve my level of English (German, French, Chinese).
I want to attend an English (German, French, Chinese) course.
Hobbies I like…
I’m fond of…
I’m interested in…
In my free time, I…

10. Now write 10-15 sentences about yourself. Then introduce yourself to the class.

_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________

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LESSON 2

Academic Life
1. Answer the questions.

1. What university do you study at?


2. What is your faculty?
3. What world leading universities do you know?
4. Would you like to study abroad? Why/why not?

2. Match the words to their definitions.

A. a library D. a discovery
B. a graduate E. a campus
C. scientific F. research

1. someone who has a degree from a university


2. a study to discover new facts
3. a fact or thing that someone finds out about
4. a building that has a collection of books
5. the land and buildings of a university or college
6. about or relating to science

3. Work in pairs. Write a list of more words related to universities. Think of people,
places, things and processes.

_____________________________ _____________________________
_____________________________ _____________________________
_____________________________ _____________________________
_____________________________ _____________________________
_____________________________ _____________________________
_____________________________ _____________________________
_____________________________ _____________________________
_____________________________ _____________________________

4. Answer the questions about the universities below.

a. Harvard University
b. The University of Melbourne
c. The University of Cambridge

1. Where are these universities?


2. What are they famous for?

5. Now read the article and match each paragraph to the correct university. Then
find the following things:

9
A. two graduates of the University of Cambridge
B. a group of eight old and respected universities in the northeastern US
C. the opposite of public
D. a synonym to respected
E. three academic schools.

1. ________________________ was
founded in 1209 in England. It is one of the
best and the most prestigious universities in the
world. The University of Cambridge has 31
colleges and six academic schools. The univer-
sity houses 114 libraries with over 8 million
volumes. Many important scientific discoveries
were made by Cambridge graduates, such as
Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin and others.

4. _____________________
is a private university in Massachusetts,
the USA and a member of the Ivy
League. Harvard was founded in 1636
and is the oldest university in the Unit-
ed States. Eight American presidents
graduated from Harvard. The university
is made up of ten faculties and the Rad-
cliffe Institute for Advanced Study. The
Harvard Library includes 18.9 million
volumes. Harvard University has
22,000 students.

5. ___________________ is a
university located in Melbourne, Australia.
Founded in 1853, it is Australia's second
oldest university. There are 12 colleges lo-
cated on the main campus and in nearby
suburbs offering academic, sporting and
cultural programs as well as accommoda-
tion for students. The University of Mel-
bourne houses 11 separate academic units
with numerous institutes and research cen-
ters. It also houses the Melbourne Business
School and the Melbourne Law School.
6. Choose the correct answer.

1. The University of Cambridge was founded in ___________ in England.


a. 1290 b. 1209 c. 1219
2. Harvard University is a private university in ________________.
a. Texas b. Missouri c. Massachusetts
3. The University of Cambridge has __________ colleges and six academic
schools.
a. 31 b. 30 c.13

10
4. ________________ is Australia's second oldest university.
a. The University of Cambridge
b. Harvard University
c. The University of Melbourne
5. The University of Cambridge houses ___________ libraries with over 8 mil-
lion volumes.
a. 140 b.114 c.141
6. The University of Melbourne houses 11 separate academic ________ with nu-
merous institutes and research centers.
a. schools b. units c. museums
7. Complete the sentences.
1. The University of Cambridge has 31 _______________ and six academic
_______________.
2. Many important scientific _______________were made by Cambridge
_______________.
3. Harvard University is made up of ten _______________.
4. The Harvard Library includes 18.9 million _______________.
5. The University of Melbourne houses 11 separate academic _______________
with numerous institutes and _______________ centers.
6. The University of Cambridge is one of the best and the most
_______________ universities in the world.
7. The University of Cambridge _______________114 libraries with over 8 mil-
lion volumes.
8. Harvard University has around 22,000 _______________.
9. The University of Melbourne is Australia's second oldest _______________.
10. The University of Melbourne houses 12 colleges located on the main
_______________ and offers academic, sporting and cultural _______________as well
as _______________for students.
8. Find the information on the Internet about one of the world-famous universities
and make a report in the class. Use the plan and useful phrases below to help
you.

1. Foundation It was founded in …

2. Location It is located in …

3. Faculties It has … / It contains …

4. Number of students It has … / There are about …

5. Library The university has a … / There are …

6. Other facilities The university houses … / The university is made up of

7. Famous graduates … graduated from the university

1. Answer the questions.

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Voronezh State Agricultural University named after Emperor Peter the Great
1. Answer the questions.
1. How old is Voronezh State Agricultural University?
2. How many faculties does it have?
3. How many students study at the university?
4. Do you know any famous graduates of the university?
5. Why did you enter the university?
2. Match the words to their definitions.
A. rural F. workshop
B. animal breeding G. exhibition center
C. humanities H. major
D. land survey I. education
E. merchandising
1. the most important subject that a college or university student is studying
2. the process of teaching and learning, usually at school, college, or university
3. a room or building where tools and machines are used for making or repairing things
4. the way in which shops and businesses try to sell their products
5. the opposite of urban
6. a very large building used for exhibitions, and often other events such as concerts
7. the activity of keeping animals to produce young animals
8. the measuring and recording of the details of an area of land
9. literature, language, history, philosophy, and other subjects
3. Read the article and complete it with the following words: cooperation, goal, qual-
ified, faculties, region, educational, founded, students, buildings, post-graduate.

VORONEZH STATE AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY NAMED AFTER


EMPEROR PETER THE GREAT

Voronezh State Agricultural University was 1)_____________in 1912 and named af-
ter Emperor Peter the Great. It is the oldest academic institution in the Central Black Earth
2) _____________ and the second largest agricultural academic institution. Nowadays, the
university is an 3) _____________ and cultural center of the Black Earth region. It is also
one of the leaders in the sphere of international 4) _____________. It has partners in more
than 25 countries. There are many international programs based on educational exchange.
More than 15,000 5) _____________ study at the University, including students
from abroad. The University houses seven 6) _____________: Rural Engineering; Agricul-

12
tural Science, Agricultural Chemistry and Ecology; Veterinary Science and Animal Breed-
ing; Humanities and Law; Land Survey; Technology and Merchandising; and the faculty of
Economics.
The University includes 8 academic 7) _____________with spacious classrooms, a
modern library, a museum, a botanic garden, laboratories, workshops, computer rooms,
farms, and an exhibition center.
The University gives students an opportunity to choose from 19 majors, 30 speciali-
zations and 52 qualifications. 8) _____________ students can choose from 36 specializa-
tions. The education is provided by 9) _____________teachers, assistant professors and pro-
fessors. The University is headed by the Rector.
At present, the main 10) _____________ of the University is to make it a leader in
the Russian market of agricultural education.

4. Decide if the statements are true or false. Correct false statements.

1. Voronezh State Agricultural University was founded in 1911.


2. The University is the second oldest academic institution in the Central Black Earth re-
gion.
3. The university has partners in more than 25 countries.
4. More than 1500 students study at the University.
5. The University houses 7 faculties.
6. The University has farms and an exhibition center.
7. Post-graduate students can choose from 63 specializations.
8. The University provides many international programs based on educational exchange.
9. The University is headed by the Rector.
10. The University gives students an opportunity to choose from 9 majors.
5. Complete the sentences with the underlined words from the article in exercise 6.
1. We apply efficient ____________ techniques to grow and harvest crops.
2. The _____________ year starts in September and finishes in June.
3. Our university provides ____________ opportunities in more than 30 countries.
4. The majority of ____________ of the faculty work full-time.
5. A ___________ can include books, periodicals, newspapers, magazines, films, maps,
and documents.
6. Nowadays, higher ____________ is facing many problems which must be solved ur-
gently.
7. The company is a ____________ in the sphere of manufacturing of agricultural
equipment.
8. Many scientific experiments are conducted in ____________.

13
LESSON 3

Countries: the United States of America

1. Do the quiz. Use the Internet to help you.

1. Which country has the population of 144 million people? A. The USA
B. The UK
C. Russia

2. Where are the Rocky Mountains? A. The USA


B. The UK
C. Russia

3. The capital of the USA is … A. New York


B. London
C. Washington

4. The United Kingdom is made up of … A. Three countries


B. Four countries
C. Two counties

5. The biggest lake in the world is in … A. The USA


B. The UK
C. Russia

6. Which city stands on the river Thames? A. Moscow


B. Los Angeles
C. London

7. The population of the UK is over … A. 150 million


B. 57 million
C. 86 million

8. Where is St. Basil's Cathedral? A. London


B. Saint Petersburg
C. Moscow

2. Work in pairs. Write more facts about one of the countries in the quiz. Use the
internet to help you.
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________

14
3. Read the article and choose the best title.
A. The largest country B. Columbus’s discovery C. South American continent
THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

The United States of America is one of the largest countries in the world. The population of the
country is about 250 million. It is situated on the North American continent and is washed by three
oceans: the Pacific, the Atlantic and the Arctic. The country has a lot of mountains, rivers, and lakes.
The highest mountains are the Rocky Mountains, the Cordillera, and the Sierra Nevada. The longest
rivers are the Mississippi and the Missouri.
The capital of the USA is Washington. It was named after the first president George Washing-
ton. It stands on the Potomac River. The Capitol is in the Centre of the city. The White House is the
place where the president of the USA lives and works. Washington has many sights: the Library of Con-
gress, the Lincoln memorial, the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, the National Gallery of Arts and others.
The USA is a country of highly developed industry and agriculture. It is one of the leading pro-
ducers of copper, oil, iron ore and coal. There are many farms with various agricultural products: grain,
fruit and vegetables.
The United States is a federal republic consisting of 50 states, each of which has its own gov-
ernment. The powers of the government are divided into 3 branches: the executive, headed by the
President, the legislative, headed by the Congress, and the juridical. The Congress consists of the Sen-
ate and the House of Representatives. There are two main political parties in the USA: the Republican
and the Democratic.
4. Complete the chart.

The population:
The capital city:
The highest mountains:
The longest rivers:
Number of states:
Industrial products:
Agricultural products:
Branches of power:
Political parties:

5. Choose the correct answer.


1. The population of the country is about ____________ million.
a. 200 b. 215 c. 250

15
2. The USA is situated on the__________________.
a. North American continent b. African continent c. South American
continent
3. The capital of the USA is__________________.
a. New York b. Las Vegas c. Washington
4. The USA is a country of highly developed ____________and agriculture.
a. science b. industry c. evolution
5. Washington stands on the ________________river.
a. Potomac b. Missouri c. Amazon
6. The United States is a federal republic consisting of _____ states.
a. 60 b. 61 c. 50
7. The Congress consists of the Senate and the House of_________________.
a. Senate b. Parliament c. Representatives
8. There are _____________ main political parties in the USA.
a. three b. two c. four

6. Complete the sentences with the words from the box.

people Pacific states decisions nationalities branches


President Atlantic Constitution

1. There are fifty ________________in the United States of America.


2. The USA is washed by the ______________Ocean in the west, by the
_______________Ocean in the east.
3. More than 250 million__________________ live in the United States.
4. The people of the United States are a mixture of many different_________________.
5. The US government has three__________________: legislative, executive, judicial.
6. The __________________ gives many powers to the Congress.
7. The _______________ signs bills and then they become law.
8. The Vice President and members of the Cabinet help the President to
make______________________.

7. Discuss the questions in pairs.

1. What are the differences between the USA and your country?
2. What is your country’s relationship with the United States these days?
3. What images come to mind when you hear the country USA?
4. What do you think about American people?
5. Who are the most famous American people you know?
6. What do you know about the geography of the USA?
7. What do you know about American culture?
8. Would you like to visit the USA, or live there? Why/why not?

16
LESSON 4

Countries: the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Norther Ireland


1. Work in pairs. Decide if the statements are true or false.
1. The UK is a parliamentary republic.
2. The Head of the state is the prime minister.
3. The British Parliament consists of three chambers.
4. Cardiff is the capital of Scotland.
5. London stands on the river Severn.
6. There are three main political parties in Great Britain.

2. Read the article and check your answers in exercise 1. Then complete the sen-
tences below with the correct number.
THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND

A. The UK consists of _______ countries.
B. The population of the UK is over _______ million.
C. There are _______ the most important parts of London.
D. The population of London is more than _______million people.
E. The British Parliament consists of _______chambers.









The United Kingdom of Great Britain is situated on the British Isles. The United
Kingdom is made up of four countries: England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland.
Their capitals are London, Cardiff, Edinburgh, and Belfast. The population of the UK is
over 57 million.
The capital city is London, which stands on the river Thames. It’s one of the oldest
and most beautiful cities in the world. The population of London is more than 8 million
people. The most important parts of London are: the City, the East End, the West End
and Westminster. Thousands of companies, business organizations, banks and offices
are situated in the City. Many theaters, museums, galleries and restaurants are situated
in the West End. East End is the place where working class lives. Westminster area con-
tains many sightseeing buildings such as Westminster Abbey, the Houses of Parliament,
the Tower, St. Paul's Cathedral and many others.
The UK is a highly developed industrial country. It produces and exports machin-
ery, electronics, textile, aircraft, and navigation equipment.
The UK is a constitutional monarchy. The Head of the State is the Queen but in
fact, the country is ruled by the Prime Minister. The British Parliament consists of two
chambers: the House of Lords and the House of Commons. There are three main political
parties in Great Britain: the Labour party, the Conservative party, and the Liberal party.

17
3. Complete the chart.

Countries:
The population:
The capital city:
The capital city population:
Most important sights of London:
Industrial products:
Form of state:
Political parties:

4. Complete the sentences.


1. The United Kingdom is made up of E_____________, W_____________,
S_____________, and Northern I_____________.
2. The c _____________city is London, which stands on the r _____________Thames.
3. The p_____________ of London is more than 8 million people.
4. Thousands of companies, business organizations, banks and offices are situated in the
C_____________.
5. Many theaters, museums, galleries and restaurants are situated in the
W_____________ E_____________.
6. E_____________ E_____________ is the place where working class lives.
7. The UK is a highly developed i_____________ country.
8. It produces and exports m_____________, e_____________, t_____________,
a_____________, and navigation e_____________.
9. The UK is a constitutional m_____________.
10. The Head of the State is the Q_____________ but in fact, the country is ruled by the
P_____________ M_____________.
5. Choose the correct alternative.
1. The UK is a constitutional monarchy made up of four separate continents/countries.
2. London is the biggest city in the UK and also its capital/constitutional city.
3. The Prime Minister/Senate rules the country.
4. The UK is a developed/population country with the sixth largest economy in the
world.
5. The UK is a small country with an area/equipment of 245.000 square kilometres.
6. The country is separated/produced from Europe by the North Sea in the east and by
the English Channel in the south.
7. The British Liberal /Parliament consists of two chambers: the House of Lords and the
House of Commons.
6. Discuss the questions in pairs.
1. What is Britain most famous for?
2. What do you know about British food and weather?
3. What would you like to do and see in Britain on a three-week holiday?
4. Would you like to live in Great Britain?
5. Who is the most famous British person ever?
6. Do you like British fashion and music? Give some examples.

18
LESSON 5

Countries: the Russian Federation


1. Answer the questions. Then read the article and check your answers.
1. Is the Russian Federation the largest country in the world?
2. What is the population of Russia?
3. What is the capital city of Russia?
4. Is the Russian Federation a constitutional monarchy?

2. Complete the article with the following words: President, lake, capital, master-
pieces landscapes, rivers, highly, population, country, center.
THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

The Russian Federation is the largest 1)_______________ in the world with


the total area of about 17 million square kilometers. Russia is situated in Eu-
rope and in Asia. The 2)_______________ of Russia is about 142 million people.
Russia has a great variety of 3)_______________. There are plains and for-
ests, highlands and deserts, tundra and taiga. There are lots of mountains and
over two million rivers in the country. The main 4)_______________are the Vol-
ga, the Ob, the Yenisei and the Lena. The deepest 5)_______________ in the
world is Lake Baikal, situated in Russia.
Moscow is the 6)_______________ of Russia and its political, industrial,
scientific, financial and cultural 7)_______________. It’s one of the most beauti-
ful cities in the world. It is situated on the Moskva River. Moscow was founded
in 1147 by Yury Dolgoruky. The heart of Moscow is Red Square. The Kremlin
and St. Basil's Cathedral are 8)_______________ of Russian architecture. Moscow
is famous for its theatres. The best known of them is the Bolshoi Opera House.
There are more than 80 museums in Moscow. The most widely-known are The
Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts and the State Tretyakov Gallery.
Russia is a 9)_______________ developed industrial country. It has the
world’s largest reserves of mineral and energy resources. The country is rich
in oil, coal, iron ore, natural gas, copper, nickel and other mineral resources.
Russia is a parliamentary republic headed by the 10)________________.
The legislative powers are exercised by the Duma.

3. Decide if the statements are true or false. Correct false statements.


1. The Russian Federation is the biggest country in the world.
2. The total area of Russia is about 23 million square kilometers.
3. Russia is situated in Europe and in Asia.

19
4. The population of Russia is about 242 million people.
5. In Russia you can find plains and forests, highlands and deserts, tundra and taiga.
6. The deepest lake in the world is Ladoga Lake, which is situated in Russia.
7. Saint Petersburg is the capital of Russia
8. Moscow is situated on the Moskva River.
9. Moscow was founded in 1140.
10. Russia is a federal republic.

4. Match the words to their definitions.


A. masterpiece
B. desert
C. plain
D. oil
E. iron
F. copper
1. an area, often covered with sand or rocks, where there is very little rain and not many
plants.
2. a soft reddish-brown metal that allows electricity to pass through it, and is used to
make electrical wires.
3. a work of art such as a painting, film, or book that is made with great skill.
4. a chemical element that is a greyish-coloured metal. It is strong, used in making steel.
5. a large area of flat land
6. the thick dark liquid from under the ground from which petrol is produced

5. Discuss the questions in pairs.

1. What is Russia famous for?


2. What do you think about Russian people?
3. What has Russia given to Europe and the world?
4. What do you know about the geography of Russia?
5. Who are the most famous Russian people you know?
6. What things about Russia do you think Russians are proud of?
7. What do you think Russia will be like 50 years from now?

6. Prepare a presentation about one of the capital cities: Washington, London or


Moscow. Use the Internet to help you.

___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

20
LESSON 6

1. Match the words with the definitions.

1. government a. connected with the government and the ser-


vices it provides for the people.
2. public b. the state of being equal, especially in status,
rights, or opportunities.
3. civil servant c. the state of being free from danger or threat.
4. legislation d. fairness in protection of rights and punish-
ment of wrongs.
5. citizen e. a law or set of laws.
6. equality f. a group of people that governs a state or na-
tion.
7. justice g. a person who works in the civil service.
8. security h. a person who belongs to a particular coun-
try.

2. Read and translate the article.

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

Public administration has two meanings.


First, it is the implementation of government
policy. Second, it is an academic discipline that
studies this implementation and prepares civil
servants for working in the civil service.
Public administration improves man-
agement of the government and improves poli-
cies so that government can function better. Pub-
lic administrators are civil servants working in
public departments and agencies at all levels of
government.
They perform a wide range of functions,
including managing city budgets, developing
policy and legislation, implementing policies,
and analyzing data to determine public needs. These functions provide for the well-being of
citizens. In universities, professors of public administration study government decision mak-
ing, analyze policies, and think about how to improve policies and programs.
The goals of public administration are related to the democratic values of improving
equality, justice, security, efficiency and effectiveness of civil services.

3. Decide True or False. Correct false sentences.

1. Public administration has three meanings.


2. Public administration is the implementation of government budget.
3. Public administration as an academic discipline prepares civil servants for working in the
civil service.
4. Public administrators are civil servants working in public departments and agencies.
5. University professors of public administration study government decision making and ana-
lyze policies.
6. The goals of public administration are related to the democratic parties.

21
4. Choose where the words best fit the gaps. Then translate the sentences.

1. government/justice
a. The ____________ is planning to implement a new tax system.
b. The police do all they can to bring criminals to ____________.
2. citizen/equality
a. They are fighting for ____________ of women.
b. She is a British ____________, but lives in India.
3. service/budget
a. The President didn’t approve the ____________ for the next year.
b. American civil servants and academics promoted civil ____________ reform in 19th centu-
ry.
4. administration/administrators
a. Public ____________ is both an academic discipline and a field of practice.
b. Public ____________ are public servants working in public departments and agencies.
5. decisions/ policies
a. Public administration attempts to explain how ____________ in government are made.
b. A public administrator manages public agencies, sets budgets, and creates government
____________.
6. career/nonprofit
a. Public administration courses teach a range of skills that are essential for a ____________
in public service, policy or government.
b. Public administration trains people to become managers in government and ____________
organizations.
7. internship/participants
a. Public administration professionals are the ______________ in the creation and implemen-
tation of public policy.
b. The government ____________ makes civil servants more effective public sector leaders.
8. private/management
a. Policy analysis and ____________ are the basic areas in public administration.
b. After graduation you can work in the public sector or for ____________ organizations.

5. Complete the gaps and then translate the words and phrases.

1. _u_li_ a_mi_is_r_ti_n
2. c_v_l se_v_c_
3. _i_i_ _er_an_s
4. g_v_rn_e_t
5. b_d_e_
6. p_l_c_
7. _e_is_a_io_
8. _u_li_ needs
9. c_ti_en_
10. _qu_li_y
11. j_st_c_
12. s_c_r_t_

22
LESSON 7

1. Complete the article with the phrases from the box.

a large employer in public administration individuals to plan and oversee various


departments the day-to-day activities of local governments within government
and non-profit organizations

JOBS IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

Most public administration positions are found 1) _________________________ at all


levels. Individuals who want to work in public administration have a wide range of jobs from
which they can choose.

Federal Government Jobs


The federal government is 2)
_________________________. Some of the
most common choices are in management, busi-
ness and financial occupations:
Financial manager
Human resources manager
Labor relations adviser
Tax analyst
Budget analyst

Local and State Government Jobs

In local and state governments, you can


find a variety of public administration jobs.
These positions involve monitoring 3)
_________________________, including long-
term project planning. The most common jobs
are in business and financial areas:
City Manager
Chief administrative officer
Human services director
Urban planner

Non-Profit Jobs
Non-profit organizations hire 4)
_________________________. Non-profit insti-
tutions encompass a wide variety of organiza-
tions, including hospitals, environmental or hu-
man rights advocacy organizations, charities and
arts organizations:
Fundraising manager
Program director
Marketing executive
Advertising director

23
2. Match.

1. Financial manager a. советник по вопросам отношений с


профсоюзами
2. Human resources manager b. главный администратор
3. Labor relations adviser c. представитель городской
администрации
4. Budget analyst d. начальник службы социального обес-
печения
5. Tax analyst e. директор службы рекламы
6. Chief administrative officer f. директор по персоналу
7. City manager g. руководитель программы
8. Human services director h. руководящий работник службы марке-
тинга
9. Advertising director i. управляющий фондом сбора средств
10. Program director j. финансовый менеджер
11. Marketing executive k. налоговый аналитик
12. Fundraising manager l. специалист по анализу бюджета и
управления
13. Urban planner m. планировщик городов

3. Match the job titles with their descriptions.

A. Marketing executive
B. Financial managers
C. Tax analysts
D. Human resources managers
E. Chief administrative officers
F. Budget analysts

1. _______________ are responsible for providing financial advice and undertaking


related accounts administration. They advise on business planning and help in decision mak-
ing processes to ensure that businesses are financially successful.
2. _______________ are responsible for leading an organization’s Human Resources
programs and policies as they apply to employee relations, compensation, benefits, safety,
performance and staffing levels.
3. _______________ are top executives who supervise the daily operations of a busi-
ness and are ultimately responsible for its performance. They are in charge of administrative
management of private, public or governmental corporations and the de facto heads of the or-
ganization.
4. _______________ help public and private institutions organize their finances. They
prepare budget reports and monitor institutional spending. They work in government agencies
and companies.
5. _______________ ensure that the organization that employs them is paying the cor-
rect amount of taxes. They are responsible for collecting and preparing tax data, reviewing
returns, performing tax research, and maintaining records.
6. _______________ are responsible for maximizing profits through developing sales
strategies that match customer requirements and by promoting products, services or ideas.

24
LESSON 8

1. Complete the article with the following words: hire, familiar, take action, involved,
prepare, employed.

CITY MANAGERS

City managers are professional administra-


tors who try to make city governments operate
with the efficiency of successful businesses. How-
ever, they are not authorized to 1) __________ on
their own. Their work is directed by elected offi-
cials, such as mayors and city councils, who 2)
__________ them.
City managers 3) __________ budgets,
hire administrative officers, oversee record keep-
ing, and supervise the heads of such departments
as law enforcement, fire protection, and sanitation.
Because many cities employ great numbers of un-
ionized teachers, police officers, firefighters, and
refuse workers, city managers are usually 4) __________ in labor relations and contract nego-
tiations. They often meet with business and community groups to explain city policies and
hear citizens' demands.
City managers must be 5) __________ with all aspects of government and public
works. However, they cannot take sides publicly in political disputes.
Most city managers are 6) __________ by governments of small and medium-size cit-
ies - generally those with populations of ten thousand to five hundred thousand people.
Smaller cities may only have a city manager and one administrative assistant. In larger cities a
manager may have an assistant manager for each department, such as transportation or educa-
tion.

2. Decide True or False. Correct false sentences.

1. City managers are hired by mayors and city councils.


2. City managers are authorized to take action on their own.
3. Refuse workers are involved in labor relations and contract negotiations.
4. City managers often meet with business and community groups.
5. It is not necessary for city managers be familiar with all aspects of government and public
works.
6. Larger cities may only have a city manager and one administrative assistant.

3. Match.

1. an elected official a. требования граждан


2. a mayor b. состоящий в профсоюзе
3. to oversee record keeping c. конфликт
4. a dispute d. образование
5. education e. переговоры
6. a city council f. мэр
7. law enforcement g. выборное должностное лицо
8. citizens' demands h. трудовые отношения между админи-

25
страцией и профсоюзами
9. unionized i. муниципальный совет, городская дума
10. negotiations j. мусорщик
11. a refuse worker k. правоохранительные органы
12. labor relations l. осуществлять надзор за делопроизвод-
ством

4. Choose the correct alternative. Then translate the sentences.

1. City managers are in charge of implementing policies adopted by the city's elected offic-
ers/officials.
2. City managers supervise city departments, maintain the city dispute/budget and represent
the municipality in a variety of settings.
3. They research issues important to the city and advise the mayor/education and council on
the best course of action.
4. City managers working for larger municipalities usually have a citizen/staff to help them
with their workload.
5. Managers of smaller cities perform a wider variety of tasks/departments.
6. They work with the mayor and heads of each department/enforcement to make sure that
city finances remain balanced.
7. City managers deliver information to city leaders and public/policies.
8. The leader of each city department reports to the refuse worker/city manager.
9. In many cases, city managers appoint the head of each negotiation/department.
10. City managers are responsible for hearing the concerns and requests of their communi-
ty/unionized and bringing them to the government.

5. Read and translate.

WHAT KNOWLEDGE IS NEEDED TO BE A CITY MANAGER?

Administration and Management - Knowledge of business and management principles


involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership
technique, and coordination of people and resources.
Personnel and Human Resources - Knowledge of principles and procedures for per-
sonnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotia-
tions.
Law and Government - Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, government
regulations, and executive orders.
Economics and Accounting - Knowledge of economic and accounting principles and
practices, the financial markets, banking and the analysis and reporting of financial data.
Public Safety and Security - Knowledge of policies, procedures, and strategies to pro-
mote effective local, state, or national security operations for the protection of people, data,
property, and institutions.
Psychology - Knowledge of human behavior and performance; individual differences
in ability, interests, personality and motivation.
Sociology and Anthropology - Knowledge of social behavior, trends, human migra-
tions, ethnicity, cultures and their history and origins.

26
LESSON 9

1. Translate the words and phrases.

1. government (n) 7. force (n)


2. rule (v) 8. disagreement(n)
3. law (n) 9. knowledge(n)
4. tax (n) 10. military(adj)
5. justice (n) 11. advisor(n)
6. punishment (n) 12. invade(v)

2. Read the article.

WHAT IS GOVERNMENT

A government is a group of people that have the power to rule in a territory, according
to the law. This territory may be a country, a state or province within a country, or a region.
Governments make laws, rules, and regulations, collect taxes and print money. Governments
have systems of justice that contain the acts or activities that are against the law and describe
the punishments for breaking the law. Governments have a police force to make sure people
follow the laws. Governments have diplomats who communicate with the governments of
other countries. Diplomats try to solve problems or disagreements between two countries,
which can help countries to avoid a war, make commercial agreements, and exchange cultural
or social experiences and knowledge. Governments have a military force such as an army that
protects the country if other countries attack or which can be used to attack and invade other
countries. The leader of a government and his or her advisors are called the administration.

3. Decide True or False. Correct false sentences.

1. A government is a group of people that rule in a country.


2. Governments can’t make laws.
3. Governments have systems of justice that collect taxes.
4. If somebody breaks the law, he or she gets a punishment.
5. A police force prints money.
6. Governments have diplomats who communicate with the administration of other coun-
tries.
7. Governments have a military force such as diplomats.
8. A military force protects the country if other countries attack it

27
4. Answer the questions.

1. What is a government?
2. What are government’s responsibilities?
3. What does a police force do?
4. Who communicates with the governments of other countries?
5. What do diplomats try to do?
6. What does a military force do?

5. Match.

1. to contain a. решать
2. to break the law b. избегать
3. to collect c. обменивать
4. to make sure d. защищать
5. to solve e. соблюдать закон
6. to exchange f. нарушать закон
7. to follow the law g. описывать
8. to protect h. убедиться
9. to describe i. собирать
10. to avoid j. содержать, иметь

6. Read and translate the article.

ANCIENT GREECE GOVERNMENT

The Ancient Greeks are most fa-


mous for their ideas and philosophies on
government and politics. The first de-
mocracy ideas were first developed and
used as a primary form of government in
Greece.
A concept of a city-state was in-
troduced there. It made a city-state a ma-
jor city in the surrounding areas. Each
city-state had its own rule and govern-
ment. Sometimes the city-states fought
with each other. Athens and Sparta were
the two largest city-states and they had
many wars and battles.
There were three main types of government. Democracy is a government ruled by the
people, or assembly. Officials and leaders were elected and all citizens had a say. Monarchy is
a single ruler like a king. In Athens this ruler was called a Tyrant. Oligarchy is when the gov-
ernment is ruled by a small group of people. Over time some city-states, like Athens changed
governments. Sometimes they were ruled by Tyrants and, at other times, they were a democ-
racy. Democracy in Ancient Greece was very direct. The Greeks had officials to run the gov-
ernment, however, most of these officials were chosen by a lottery. So every citizen had a
chance, regardless of their popularity or wealth, to become an official.

28
LESSON 10

TYPES OF GOVERNMENTS

1. Match the types of governments with the key words. If necessary use a diction-
ary.

1. Democracy a. a king, a queen, to inherit, royal

2. Oligarchy b. a small group of powerful people

3. Monarchy c. one ruler, a dictator

4. Dictatorship d. to vote, elections, political parties, people

2. Read the article and check your ideas from exercise 1.

Democracy. The most common


type of government in the Western world
is called democracy. In democracies, peo-
ple in a country can vote during the elec-
tions. Political parties are organizations of
people with similar ideas about how a
country should be governed. Democracy
is the government of the people, by the
people and for the people.

Monarchy. A monarchy is a gov-


ernment ruled by a king or a queen who
inherits their position from their family,
which is often called the "royal family."
There are two types of monarchies: abso-
lute monarchies and constitutional monar-
chies. In an absolute monarchy, the ruler
has no limits on their powers. In a consti-
tutional monarchy a ruler's powers are limited by a document called a constitution.

Dictatorship. Under a dictatorship, the government is run by one person who has all
the power over the people in a country. Originally, the Roman Republic made dictators to
lead during a war. In modern times, a dictator's rule is not stopped by any laws, constitutions,
or other social and political institutions.

Oligarchy. An oligarchy is a government ruled by a small group of powerful people.


An oligarchy is different from a true democracy because very few people are given the chance
to change things. An oligarchy does not have to be hereditary. An oligarchy does not have one
clear ruler, but several powerful people.

29
3. Answer the questions.

1. What is a political party?


2. What are the two types of monarchies?
3. In what type of government are ruler’s powers limited by a constitution?
4. Who has all the power over the people in a country?
5. Can a dictator’s rule be stopped by laws?
6. How is an oligarchy different from a true democracy?

4. Match the words from the article with their definitions.

1. An election
2. A king
3. A ruler
4. A constitution
5. A war
6. Hereditary

A. A male monarch who rules a kingdom


B. Something inherited through the family
C. A choice, particularly a voting
D. A person who rules or governs
E. An armed conflict within a country or between countries
F. A system of laws and principles

5. Complete the sentences with the words from the article in exercise 2.

1. Democracy is the _____________ of the people.


2. A monarchy is a government ruled by a _______ or a _______.
3. An oligarchy does not have to be ___________.
4. The Roman Republic made _________ to lead during a war.
5. Political parties are __________ of people with ________ ideas about how a country
should be governed.
6. An oligarchy does not have one clear ________.
7. Under a ___________, the government is run by one person.
8. In democracies, people in a country can _______ during the ___________.

6. Read and translate the article.

CONSTITUTION

The constitution of a country (or a state) is a special type of law document that tells
how its government has to work. It tells how the country's leaders have to be chosen and how
long they stay in office, how laws are made, and what rights are people guaranteed.
The concept of a constitution dates to the city-states of ancient Greece. In modern Eu-
rope, written constitutions came into greater use during the eighteenth and nineteenth centu-
ries. Constitutions such as that of the United States, created in 1787, were influenced by the
ancient Greek models. During the twentieth century, an increasing number of countries
around the world concluded that constitutions are a necessary part of democratic or republican
government. Many countries adopted their own constitutions.

30
LESSON 11

1. Translate the words and phrases.

1. Govern (v) 9. Welfare (n)


2. Behavior (n) 10. Inhibit (v)
3. Court (n) 11. Freedom (n)
4. Judicial (adj) 12. Contribute (v)
5. Coercive (adj) 13. Enforce (v)
6. Unacceptable (adj) 14. Facilitate (v)
7. Penalty (n) 15. Prohibit (v)
8. Remedy (n) 16. Improve (v)

2. Read the article.

LAW

Law is the body of official


rules and regulations, generally
found in constitutions, legislation,
judicial opinions which are used to
govern a society and to control the
behavior of its members. The na-
ture and functions of law have var-
ied throughout history. In modem
societies, some authorized bodies
such as a legislature or a court
makes the law. It is ensured by the
coercive power of the state, which
enforces the law by means of ap-
propriate penalties or remedies.
Formal legal rules and actions are usually distinguished from other means of social
control and guides for behavior such as morality, public opinion, and custom or tradition. Of
course, a lawmaker may respond to public opinion or other pressures, and a formal law may
prohibit what is morally unacceptable.
Law serves a variety of functions. Laws against crimes, for example, help to maintain
a peaceful, orderly, relatively stable society. Courts contribute to social stability by resolving
disputes in a civilized way. Property law and contract law facilitate business activities and
private planning. Laws limiting the powers of government help to provide some degree of
freedom that would not otherwise be possible. Law has also been used as a mechanism for
social change; for instance, at various times laws have been passed to inhibit social discrimi-
nation and to improve the quality of individual life in matters of health, education, and wel-
fare.

3. Translate the text and answer the questions.

1. What is law?
2. Who makes law in modern societies?
3. What are the functions of law?

31
4. Complete the definitions with the underlined words from the article in exercise 2.

1. ______________is the branch of civil law that deals with oral and written agreements.
2. A ______________ is an argument or quarrel.
3. A _____________ is a legislator.
4. ______________ is a system or collection of ideas of right and wrong conduct.
5. ______________ is a treatment based on class or category, such as race or gender.
6. A ________________ is the system of fundamental laws and principles of a govern-
ment.
7. A _______________ is a community of interdependent individuals.

5. Complete the sentences with the following words: penalty, freedom, government, pro-
hibit, crime, court.

1. We have a police force and a _________ system to apply the laws equally to all.
2. People can come together and choose a form of ____________ suitable to them.
3. He is paying the __________for the loss of a hundred thousand innocent lives.
4. A bill he introduced to __________the importation of slaves was passed in 1778.
5. ____________ of speech and assembly can be threatening to government officials.
6. He tried to commit the ________, and only an accident prevented him from doing it.

6. Translate.

a. Authority g. Legal action


b. Court h. Legal system
c. Govern i. Legislation
d. Judge j. Rule
e. Law enforcement agency k. Judiciary
f. Lawyers l. Tribunal

7. Match the words from exercise 6 with the definitions. Then translate them.

1. A body that is appointed to make a judgment or inquiry t____________


2. A country’s body of judges j____________
3. An act or acts passed by a law-making body l ____________
4. Behavior recognized by a community as binding or enforceable by authority
r____________
5. Legal proceedings l____________ a ____________
6. An official body that has an authority to try criminals, resolve disputes, or make other legal
decisions c____________
7. An organization responsible for enforcing the law, especially the police l____________
e____________ a____________
8. A senior official in a court of law j____________
9. The body or system of rules recognized by a community which is enforceable by estab-
lished process l____________ s____________
10. The control resulting from following a community’s system of rules a ____________
11. Members of the legal profession l____________
12. To rule a society and control the behavior of its members g ____________

32
LESSON 12

1. Read and translate the article.

CIVIL LAW SYSTEM

Civil law system is one of the two


major legal systems of the modern world
which is different from common law sys-
tem. The origin of the civil law system is
ancient Rome. Civil law concepts come
from Roman law. An important feature
of Roman law was that it did not depend
on legal precedent by earlier cases but on
the facts and merits of the current case.
The civil law system is used in countries
such as Germany, France, in many coun-
tries which were colonies of European
countries and in some Asian countries. It
has also been adopted in Latin America as
well as in some parts of Asia and some African
countries. There are about 150 countries worldwide that use mainly civil law systems. About
80 countries use the common law system.
Civil law developed in Europe during the middle ages, at the same time common law
developed in England. The rules and principles of civil law are found in codes which are
available to both citizens and legal professionals. These codes clearly explain everyone's
rights and duties.
Civil law deals with civil relationships such as citizenship, marriage, divorce, and cer-
tain contractual arrangements from other codes such as those dealing with criminal law. Civil
law involves cases where there are private disputes between individuals or parties that cannot
be resolved outside the court system. Torts, contracts and negligence are integral parts of civil
law.

2. Decide True or False. Correct false sentences.

1. Civil law system is one of the two major social systems of the modern world.
2. The origin of the civil law system is ancient Rome.
3. Roman law depended on legal precedent by earlier cases.
4. The civil law system is used in countries such as Germany and France.
5. There are about 160 countries worldwide that use mainly civil law systems.
6. About 180 countries use the common law system.
7. Civil law developed in Europe in the 21st century.
8. Civil law deals with disputes between individuals in such areas as contracts, property, etc.

3. Choose the correct alternative.

1. Civil law system is one of the two merits/major legal systems of the modern world which
is different from common law system.
2. The origin of the civil law system is ancient Greece/Rome.

33
3. The civil law system is used in many countries which were colonies/codes of European
countries.
4. Civil law developed/dispute in Europe during the middle ages.
5. The rules and principles of civil law are found in codes which are available to both rela-
tionships/citizens and legal professionals.
6. Civil law deals with civil relationships such as citizenship/citizens, marriage, divorce, and
certain contractual arrangements.
7. Civil law involves cases where there are private disputes between individuals or parties that
cannot be resolved outside the contract/court system.
8. Torts, contracts and negligence/ precedent are integral parts of civil law.
4. Match the words with their definitions. Then translate them.

1. Legal precedent a. an action or suit at law or something that forms sufficient


grounds for bringing an action.

2. Case b. a union established between a man and to form a legal familial


bond.

3. Merit c. the ending of a marriage by a legal process

4. Citizenship d. something a person is allowed to have or do

5. Marriage e. a set of laws or regulations

6. Divorce f. a legal term used in deciding a legal case, meaning a trait or


ability

7. Code g. the fact or status of being a citizen of a particular place

8. Court system h. something that a person is expected or required to do by moral


or legal obligation

9. Negligence i. an action that wrongly causes harm to someone but that is not a
crime and that is dealt with in a civil court

10. Rights j. failure to use the degree of care appropriate to the circumstanc-
es, resulting in an unintended injury to another.

11. Duties k. a court decision that is cited as an example or analogy to resolve


similar questions of law in later cases

12. Tort l. a system of courts of law for the administration of justice

34
LESSON 13

1. Read and translate the article.

COMMON LAW SYSTEM

The term common law can re-


fer to two things. The common law is
the body of law formed through court
decisions, as opposed to law formed
through statutes or written legislation.
A common law system is the system
of jurisprudence that is based on the
doctrine of judicial precedent.
English law, also called Eng-
lish Common law, is the legal system
developed in England in about 1066
and is still in use today. As a legal
system it has spread to former Eng-
lish colonies including Australia, Canada, the United States and New Zealand, as well as
many other countries. English law is unique as it is based on applying legal precedent to pre-
sent and future decisions made by judges. A judge must follow past legal decisions made by
higher courts but not necessarily those made by lower courts. English law is not based on a
constitution and there is no codification of laws. However, there are unofficial publications
that provide organized lists of current laws. The Parliament has the power to create laws
which are automatically considered valid and may not be reviewed by the courts. Only the
Parliament has the power to change a law.
Democratic countries that have adopted the common law system have legislative bod-
ies at the center of their democracies, and these bodies regularly pass new legislation. This
legislation is then interpreted and applied by the judiciary during trials; these rulings are ap-
plied in future cases. Large bodies of law, for example those relating to property, contracts
and torts, are traditionally part of the common law. More modern areas of law such as em-
ployment law, intellectual property law and health and safety tend to be based on statute ra-
ther than on common law.

2. Decide True or False. Correct the false statements.

1. The term common law can refer to the body of law.


2. English Common law is the legal system developed in France in about 1066.
3. English Common law system is still in use today.
4. Australia, Canada, the United States and New Zealand have Common law system.
5. English law is based on applying legal precedent to past decisions made by judges.
6. A judge follows past legal decisions made by lower courts but not those made by higher
courts.
7. The Parliament has the power to create laws which are automatically considered valid.
8. No entity has the power to change a law in England.
9. Democratic countries have legislative bodies, and these bodies pass new legislation.
10. Employment law, intellectual property law and health and safety are based on common
rather than on statute law.

35
3. Complete the sentences with the words from the article in exercise 1.

1. The common law is the body of law formed through court __________, as opposed to law
formed through statutes or written __________.
2. A common law system is the system of __________ that is based on the doctrine of judicial
__________.
3. English law is based on applying legal precedent to present and future decisions made by
___________.
4. A judge must follow past legal decisions made by __________ courts but not necessarily
those made by __________ courts.
5. English law is not based on a __________ and there is no __________ of laws.
6. The Parliament has the __________ to create laws which are automatically considered
__________.
7. Only the Parliament has the power to change a __________.
8. Democratic countries have __________ bodies at the center of their democracies, and these
bodies regularly pass new legislation.
9. This legislation is then interpreted and applied by the __________ during __________.
10. Large bodies of law relating to __________, __________ and ___________, are tradi-
tionally part of the common law.
11. More modern areas of law such as __________ law, __________ property law and health
and safety tend to be based on __________ rather than on common law.

4. Study the differences between Common law and Civil law systems. Translate.

____________ ___________
____________ ___________

____________ ___________
____________ ___________

____________ ___________
____________ ___________
____________ ___________
____________ ___________
____________ ___________

____________ ___________
____________ ___________
____________ ___________

____________ ___________
____________

36
LESSON 14

1. Read and translate the article.

ADMINISTRATIVE LAW IN CIVIL LAW COUNTRIES

Administrative law is the body of


law that governs the activities of adminis-
trative agencies of government. Govern-
ment agencies regulate social, economic
and political spheres of human interaction
in such areas as police law, international
trade, manufacturing, environment, taxa-
tion, immigration and transport.
In Brazil, unlike most Civil-law ju-
risdictions, there is no specialized court or
section to deal with administrative cases. In
1998 a constitutional reform introduced
regulatory agencies as a part of the executive branch. Since 1988 Brazilian administrative law
has been strongly influenced by the judicial interpretations of the constitutional principles of
public administration: legality, publicity of administrative acts, morality and efficiency.
In France most claims against the national or local governments as well as claims
against private bodies providing public services are handled by administrative courts. The
main administrative courts are the Tribunaux Administratifs and appeal courts.
Administrative law in Germany generally rules the relationship between authorities
and the citizens. It establishes citizens’ rights and obligations. It is a part of the public law,
which deals with organization and acting of the public administration. It also contains rules,
regulations, orders and decisions created by and related to administrative agencies, such as
federal agencies, federal state authorities, and urban administrations.
Administrative law in Italy is a branch of public law. It governs the organization of the
public administration and the relationship between the administration and the citizens. The
administrative power in Italy is used to organize resources and people in order to achieve the
public interest objectives.

2. Complete the sentences with the correct countries: Brazil, France, Germany, or Italy.

1. The main administrative courts in __________ are the Tribunaux Administratifs and appeal
courts.
2. In 1998 a constitutional reform introduced regulatory agencies as a part of the executive
branch in __________ .
3. Administrative law in __________ governs the organization of the public administration
and the relationship between the administration and the citizens.
4. Administrative agencies, such as federal agencies, federal state authorities, and urban ad-
ministrations can be found in __________ .
5. In __________ there is no specialized court or section to deal with administrative cases.
6. Most claims against the national or local governments as well as claims against private
bodies are handled by administrative courts in __________.
7. Constitutional principles of public administration in __________ are legality, publicity of
administrative acts, morality and efficiency.

37
3. Match.

1. government agency a. международная торговля

2. manufacturing b. регулирующий орган

3. international trade c. юридическая правомерность

4. taxation d. публичное освещение

5. regulatory agency e. правительственное учреждение

6. executive branch f. требование

7. legality g. апелляционный суд

8. publicity h. частная организация

9. claim i. представитель власти

10. private body j. налогообложение

11. appeal court k. система органов исполнительной


власти
12. authority l. производство

4. Complete the sentences with the following words: agencies, cases, executive, adminis-
trative, interest, citizens, law, judges, regulatory, relationship, court, human.

1. It is important to control government according to the interests of both state and


__________.
2. In France, Italy, Germany and a number of other countries, there is a system of administra-
tive court that deals with administrative __________.
3. As a natural consequence, __________ law develops on its own independent lines.
4. Administrative law encompasses laws and legal principles governing the administration
and regulation of government __________.
5. Generally, administrative agencies are created to protect a public __________.
6. Administrative law __________ hear cases, find the facts and apply the law.
7. The __________ branch can afford fair procedures to the people of Florida through admin-
istrative law.
8. Professional associations, government boards and __________ agencies make rules that
affect our daily lives.
9. The resolution of disputes involving government laws and how they are applied is called
administrative __________.
10. Administrative __________ deals with administrative cases.
11. Administrative law establishes the __________ between authorities and the citizens.
12. Government agencies regulate social, economic and political spheres of __________ in-
teraction.

38
LESSON 15

1. Read and translate the article.

ADMINISTRATIVE LAW IN COMMON LAW COUNTRIES

Most countries that follow the principles of common law have developed procedures
for judicial review that limit the reviewability of decisions made by administrative law bodies.
American administrative law often involves independent agencies. Many independent
agencies of the United States government are created by statutes enacted by Congress. People
often deal with administrative agencies when they apply for government benefits, for example
to create and enforce workplace safety regulations.
United Kingdom administrative law is a branch of public law concerned with the
composition, procedures, powers, duties, rights and liabilities of public bodies that administer
public policies. The general principle is that a public official must act fairly, reasonably and
according to the law.
Canadian administrative law is the body of law that addresses the actions and opera-
tions of governments and governmental agencies. The administrative law concerns the man-
ner in which courts can review the decisions of administrative decision-makers such as
boards, tribunals, commissions, or agencies.
Administrative law in Singapore is a branch of public law that is concerned with the
control of governmental powers. Administrative law requires administrators - ministers, civil
servants and public authorities to act according to the law. Singapore administrative law is
based on English adminis-
trative law, which was in-
herited in 1965.
Australian adminis-
trative law defines the pow-
ers and responsibilities held
by administrative agencies
of Australian governments.
It is basically a common law
system, with an increasing
statutory overlay that has
shifted its focus toward cod-
ified judicial review and to
tribunals with extensive ju-
risdiction.

2. Complete the sentences with the correct countries: the USA, the UK, Canada, Singa-
pore, or Australia.

1. Administrative law in __________ is a branch of public law that is concerned with the con-
trol of governmental powers.
2. In __________ administrative law defines the powers and responsibilities held by adminis-
trative agencies.
3. Many independent agencies of __________ government are created by statutes enacted by
Congress.
4. The administrative law in __________ concerns the manner in which courts can review the
decisions of administrative decision-makers.

39
5. The general principle of __________ administrative law is that a public official must act
fairly, reasonably and according to the law.
6. __________ administrative law is based on English administrative law, which was inherit-
ed in 1965.
7. People often deal with administrative agencies when they apply for government benefits in
__________ .
8. Administrative law in __________ is basically a common law system, with an increasing
statutory overlay.

3. Match.

1. a judicial review a. законоположение; статут

2. a statute b. Конгресс

3. Congress c. государственное должностное лицо

4. government benefits d. государственный служащий

5. a public official e. техника безопасности на рабочем ме-


сте
6. a civil servant f. судебный пересмотр; судебный
надзор
7. a tribunal g. судебное или арбитражное учрежде-
ние
8. an extensive jurisdiction h. государственные льготы и пособия

9. codified i. расширенная юрисдикция

10. workplace safety j. кодифицированный

4. Complete the sentences with the following words: industry, laws, security, departments,
non-profit, benefits, state. Then translate the sentences.

1. Administrative law may also apply to review of decisions of so-called semi-public bodies,
such as __________ corporations.
2. Administrative law is the body of law created by the agencies and __________ of the gov-
ernment.
3. People often deal with administrative agencies and administrative law when they apply for
government ____________ .
4. Congress has passed ___________ that allow disabled individuals to receive government
assistance.
5. The Social Security Administration is created to implement Congress's social __________
and disability laws.
6. Administrative agencies also implement federal and state laws affecting almost every
__________.
7. States have their own administrative agencies to implement and execute laws passed by
their __________ legislatures.

40
LESSON 16

1. Match. Then read the article and check.

1. Executive Branch a. headed by Congress.


2. Legislative Branch b. headed by the president.
3. Judicial Branch c. headed by the Supreme Court.

THREE BRANCHES OF THE USA GOVERNMENT

In 1787 the leaders of American states gathered to write the Constitution - a set of
principles that told how the new nation would be governed. The leaders of the states wanted a
strong and fair national government. But they also wanted to protect individual freedoms and
prevent the government from abusing its power. They believed they could do this by having
three separate branches of government: the executive, the legislative and the judicial.
Executive branch: Headed
by the president. The president car-
ries out federal laws and recom-
mends new ones, directs national
defense and foreign policy, and
performs ceremonial duties. Pow-
ers include directing government,
commanding the Armed Forces,
dealing with international powers,
acting as chief law enforcement
officer, and vetoing laws.
Legislative branch: Headed
by Congress, which includes the
House of Representatives and the
Senate. The main task of these two
bodies is to make the laws. Its
powers include passing laws, originating spending bills (House), impeaching officials (Sen-
ate), and approving treaties (Senate).
Judicial branch: Headed by the Supreme Court. Through court cases, the judicial
branch explains the meaning of the Constitution and laws passed by Congress. The Supreme
Court rules whether something is constitutional or unconstitutional - whether or not it is per-
mitted under the Constitution.

2. Answer the questions.

1. When did the leaders of American states gather to write the Constitution?
2. What is a constitution?
3. Who is the head of the executive branch?
4. What does the president do?
5. What do presidential powers include?
6. Who is the head of the legislative branch?
7. What does Congress consist of?
8. What are the functions of the House of Representatives and the Senate?
9. Who is the head of the judicial branch?
10. What is the function of the judicial branch?

41
3. Choose the correct alternative.

1. In 1787 the leaders of American states gathered to write the Constitution/Congress.


2. The leaders of the states identified three branches of enforcement/government: the execu-
tive, the legislative and the judicial.
3. The executive branch is headed by the parliament/president.
4. The president carries out federal/family laws and recommends new ones.
5. The president directs national defense/development and foreign policy.
6. Powers include directing government, commanding the Armed Forces/Fights, dealing with
international powers, etc.
7. The legislative branch is headed by The Senate/Congress.
8. The judicial branch is headed by the Supreme Court/Armed Forces.

4. Choose the correct answer. Then translate the article.

THREE BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT IN THE UK


In the majority of modern democracies power is divided among three branches of gov-
ernment: executive, legislative and judicial. This is done to support 1) __________ and as a
result provide equality and right protection for citizens.
British Parliament is the legislative 2) __________ of government. It is made up of
two parts - elected House of Commons and partly elected House of Lords. Any Bill passed by
the Parliament gains legitimate 3) __________ only when the Queen approves. Judiciary is
often considered the most efficient check on the Parliament, because any 4) __________ of
parliament can be called to the court to respond for their actions.
The 5) __________ branch is made up of the government machine itself, starting with
the 6) __________ minister and their office and down to the local branches of government
such as city 7) __________. They are the ones 8) __________ for implementing the Bills
produced by the Parliament. Their actions are mainly limited by the judiciary and publicity.
Judiciary is the last branch of power in the UK and it is made up of the 9) __________
system with the Supreme Court on top. Its members have a great power because they are the
ones who 10) __________ what the law actually implies in any given case. The power of
judges in the UK is even higher because UK does not have a written 11) ___________ and
therefore there is no supreme set of laws collected in one place to be available for the 12)
__________. Due to this enormous power judiciary has a large amount of checks and balanc-
es.

1. a. demonstration b. domestic c. democracy


2. a. branch b. majority c. bill
3. a. elected b. branch c. power
4. a. member b. check c. citizen
5. a. exercise b. executive c. execute
6. a. power b. prime c. modern
7. a. masters b. monarchy c. majors
8. a. responsible b. judge c. court
9. a. court b. country c. Congress
10. a. enormous b. available c. decide
11. a. office b. members c. constitution
12. a. citizens b. imply c. amount

42
LESSON 17

1. Match.

1. Commander-in-chief a. палата
2. A legislative bill b. субъект
3. A chamber c. утвердить договор
4. Federation Council d. Федеральное Собрание
5. An entity e. главнокомандующий
6. To approve a treaty f. законопроект
7. Federal Assembly g. Совет Федерации
8. A draft law h. законодательный акт

2. Read the article.

POLITICAL SYSTEM IN RUSSIA

The executive power is split between the President and the Prime Minister. The Pres-
ident is the head of state and is elected by vote every six years. The President determines the
basic domestic and foreign policy, is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, can veto
legislative bills, etc. Government duties are split between ministries. The head of government,
the prime minister, is appointed by the president and confirmed by the State Duma.
The legislature is represented by the Federal Assembly of Russia. It has two cham-
bers: the State Duma and the Federation Council. The Federal Assembly involves making
federal laws, approving treaties, declaring war and having the power of the purse.
Unlike the State Duma, the Council isn’t directly elected. It consists of representatives
of Russia’s federal entities. The Council works to complete and vote on draft laws. But it also
has special powers of its own, including the declaration of a presidential election, impeach-
ment of the President and decisions on the use of the armed forces outside Russia’s territory.
The State Duma is the lower house of the Russian Parliament. All bills, even those
proposed by the Federation Council, must first be considered by the State Duma. Once a bill
is passed by a majority in the Duma, a draft law is sent back to the Federation Council.
The judicial power is vested in courts and administered by the Ministry of Justice.
Three types of court make up the Russian judiciary: The courts of general jurisdiction, subor-
dinated to the Supreme Court; the arbitration court system under the High Court of Arbitra-
tion; the Constitutional Court.

43
3. Continue the sentences.

1. The President is the head of state and is _____________________________________.


2. The prime minister is appointed by _____________________________________.
3. The legislature is represented by _____________________________________.
4. The Federal Assembly has two chambers: _____________________________________.
5. The Federal Assembly functions are to _____________________________________.
6. The Federation Council isn’t _____________________________________.
7. The Council works to _____________________________________.
8. The State Duma is _____________________________________.
9. All bills must be _____________________________________.
10. The judicial power is _____________________________________.

4. Match.

a. The Ministry of Justice


b. The Prime Minister
c. The State Duma
d. The Federal Assembly
e. The Federation Council
f. The President
1. __________ is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces.
2. __________ heads the judicial power.
3. __________ can declare a presidential election or impeachment of the President.
4. __________ is appointed by the president and confirmed by the State Duma.
5. __________ makes federal law, approves treaties, and declares war.
6. __________ is the lower house of the Russian Parliament.

5. Complete the crossword with the English equivalents of the following verbs from ex-
ercise 2:

1. объявлять
2. выбирать
3. подтверждать (across)
3. считать; полагать (down)
4. представлять
5. определять
6. вносить предложения
7. назначать
8. включать; содержать
9. накладывать вето

44
LESSON 18

1. Read the article.

LABOR LAW

Labor law (also known as labor law or employ-


ment law) regulates the relationship between workers,
employing entities, trade unions and the government.
There are two categories of labor laws; collective and
individual. Collective labor law involves relationships
between the union and the employer. Individual labor
law involves concerns for employees' rights in the
workplace.
United States labor law sets the rights and duties
for employees, labor unions, and employers in the Unit-
ed States. These rules are designed to keep workers safe
and make sure they are treated fairly, although these
laws protect employers’ interests as well. Employment
laws are based on federal and state constitutions, legisla-
tion, and administrative rules.
United Kingdom labor law regulates the relations
between workers, employers and trade unions as well as
in the USA. Employees in the UK benefit from em-
ployment rights, which are found in various acts and
regulations. This includes the right to a minimum wage,
28 days paid holidays, the right to leave for child care,
and the right to request flexible working hours, the right
to retire, and a sick leave.

2. Choose the correct alternative.

1. Labor law regulates the ___________ between workers, employing entities, trade unions
and the government.
a. ratio b. concern c. relationship
2. There are two categories of labor laws; ___________ and individual.
a. collective b. rights c. employment
3. Collective labor law involves relationships between the __________, the employer and the
employee.
a. request b. hours c. union
4. Individual labor law involves concerns for employees' rights in the ____________.
a. duties b. acts c. workplace
5. Employment laws are based on federal and state _____________, legislation, and adminis-
trative rules.
a. flexible b. constitutions c. wage
6. Employees in the UK ____________ from employment rights, which are found in various
acts and regulations.
a. child care b. benefit c. retire

45
3. Choose where definitions best fit. Then translate the sentences.

1. employer/employee
a. ____________ is a person who works for another person or for a company for wages or a
salary.
b. ___________ is a person or business that employs one or more people, especially for wag-
es or salary.
2. trade union/labor law
a. ___________ is a law that governs the employer-employee relationship.
b. ___________ is an organization whose membership consists of workers and union leaders,
united to protect and promote their common interests.
3. maternity leave/sick leave
a. ___________ is a period in which a woman is legally allowed to be absent from work to
give birth or take care of infant children.
b. ___________ is an absence from work permitted because of illness.
4. minimum wage/annual leave
a. ___________ is a wage fixed by legal authority or by contract as the least that may be paid.
b. ___________ is the time a person is allowed to take off work as holiday in any one-year
period.
5. unsocial working hours/pension
a. __________ is an amount of money that a company or the government pays to a person
who is old or sick and no longer works.
b. __________ are working hours different from normal office or factory hours that prevent
an employee from enjoying family life and the usual social activities.
6. job security/job safety
a. ___________ describes policies and procedures to ensure the safety and health of employ-
ees within a workplace.
b. ___________ is an assurance that an individual will keep his or her job without the risk of
becoming unemployed.
7. bonus/salary
a. ___________is an additional compensation given to an employee above his/her normal
wage.
b. ___________ is a fixed amount of money periodically paid to a person for regular work or
services.
8. to be dismissed/to be promoted
a. ___________ means to get a more important or responsible job or rank.
b. ___________ means to end the employment or service.
9. benefits package/severance package
a. ___________ is pay and benefits employees receive when they leave employment at a
company.
b. ___________ is the total amount of pay and all the other advantages that an employee may
receive such as bonuses, health insurance, a company car, etc.

4. Find the English equivalents to the words in the box. Use exercise 1 and exercise 3.

социальный пакет, трудовое право, декретный отпуск, работодатель, работник, минималь-


ный размер оплаты труда, выходное пособие, премия, профсоюз, получить повышение,
медицинская страховка, отпуск по болезни, охрана труда, гарантия трудовой занятости,
заработная плата, ежегодный трудовой отпуск

46
LESSON 19

1. Match the occupations on the left with the job descriptions.

OCCUPATIONS
a. mechanic i. receptionist
b. real estate agent j. architect
c. accountant k. waiter
d. secretary l. journalist
e. tailor m. social worker
f. plumber n. teller
g. nanny o. electrician
h. carpenter

1. An ____________ designs houses and buildings.


2. A ____________ writes for magazines and newspapers.
3. A ____________ helps people with family problems.
4. An ____________ installs and fixes lights, wiring, etc.
5. A ____________ sells houses, property, and buildings.
6. A ____________ builds furniture and houses.
7. An ____________ keeps financial records and does tax forms.
8. A ____________ looks after children.
9. A____________ works as a cashier in a bank.
10. A ____________ repairs car engines.
11. A ____________ answers the phone and greets people in an office.
12. A ____________ takes orders and serves people in restaurants.
13. A ____________ makes and alters clothes.
14. A____________ fixes water pipes, toilets, and sinks.
15. A ____________ types letters and files office information.

2. Read the sentences below and write the name of the described occupation.

1. This person works in a courthouse A j_______________

2. This person works in a hospital, looks A n_______________


after patients, and helps the doctors

3. This person fights fires A f_______________

4. This person maintains and enforces A p_______________ o_______________


order, and arrest criminals

5. This person operates a farm or culti- A f_______________


vates land
6. This person is elected to be the head A m______________
of the government of a city or town

47
3. Match each quality with the correct definition.

WHAT MAKES A GOOD EMPLOYEE?

1. responsible/reliable a. is on time
2. punctual b. doesn’t tire easily
3. energetic c. acts like an adult, not a child
4. mature d. does what he/she says

5. honest e. has good manners


6. conscientious f. works well with others
7. polite g. tell the truth, doesn’t lie or steal
8. cooperative h. takes the job seriously

9. thorough i. orderly, works according to plans


10. patient j. can accept new or different ideas
11. organized k. can wait, doesn’t give up easily
12. open-minded l. pays attention to details

13. neat m. correct


14. flexible n. can accept change easily
15. accurate o. clean and tidy
16. motivated p. pushes himself/herself to do a good job

17. creative q. not lazy


18. hardworking r. can control himself/herself
19. resourceful s. talented for making new ideas, things
20. disciplined t. can solve problems and make decisions

4. Make a list of ten occupations and write two qualities that you feel are most important
for each job.

5. Complete the sentences with correct words from the box.

reliable, motivated, flexible, punctual, creative, organized, cooperative, energetic,


resourceful, strengths

1. A person who can adapt to change easily is _______________.


2. Mary is a very _______________ person. I can always depend on her.
3. Artists and musicians are usually _______________ very people.
4. An ________________ person plans things carefully and keeps things in order.
5. She is a very ____________________ cook. If she doesn’t have one of the ingredients, she
just substitutes something else.
6. He is not very _______________. He doesn’t work well with his coworkers.
7. When an interviewer asks you about your ________________ he wants to know about your
good qualities.
8. A _______________ student likes to learn and doesn’t have to be pushed to do it.
9. He is rarely on time. He is not a very _______________ person.
10. He is a very _______________ person. He can work long hours without getting tired.

48
LESSON 20

1. Match the words with their definitions. Then translate.

1. job advertisement a. a short document that describes your


education, skills, work experience
2. cover letter b. a special skill or type of experience or
knowledge that is needed to do a partic-
ular job
3. curriculum vitae (cv) c. someone who applies for a job

4. qualification d. an announcement in a newspaper about


a job vacancy
5. requirement e. an official document that employers ask
all applicants for a position to fill in
6. applicant f. a special skill or type of experience or
knowledge that makes someone suitable
to do a particular job
7. job application form g. a letter that is sent with CV to explain
the reason for applying for a job

2. Read and translate the article.

A PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION CAREER

A public administration career is a good choice for people who are interested in ad-
ministration but also in communications. As a public administrator you can expand your
knowledge in administration by focusing on leadership and problem solving cases for the sake
of the company's organization.
To be a public administrator you must have a degree in public administration; such
degree is designed to teach students about governance and public management. As a result of
these studies, the professional will be able to work in government institutions as a legislator, a
city manager, or a court clerk. He/she can take up many other public and private management-
related jobs.
The salaries on this career can vary depending on the position, although it is known
that there is a bigger chance to find a job in the public sector where the salary always rely on
the state funds. On the other hand, working for the public sector is a good option because it
usually gives benefits to the employee that the private sector does not offer.
A public administrator CV should be complete and contain your whole professional
experience.

3. Complete the sentences.

1. A public administration __________ is a choice for people interested in public sector.


2. As a public administrator you can expand your __________ in administration.
3. To be a public administrator you must obtain a __________ in public administration.
4. The professional can work in government institutions as a __________ or a city manager.
5. The __________ on this career can vary depending on the position.
6. A public administrator __________ should contain your whole professional experience.

49
4. Complete the job advertisement with the following words: budget, implementation, tal-
ented, master’s degree, support, salary.

JOB ADVERTISEMENT

The City of Topeka is seeking a 1)


___________ individual for the position of
Assistant City Manager. Topeka is the
capital city of Kansas and has a population
of 127,000, employs 1,200, and has an an-
nual operating 2) __________ of $ 270
million.
Applicants will perform administra-
tive work in analyzing, controlling, rec-
ommending and supervising the 3)
__________ of policy concerning manage-
rial, operational, and financial matters. Ap-
plicants are also responsible for coordinating city services and activities and providing com-
plex administrative 4) ____________ to the City Manager.
The successful applicant will hold a 5) __________ in public administration or related
field; have five years experience in public administration, including supervisory responsibil-
ity; possess extensive knowledge of the principles and practices of public administration and
management; public policy development; community relations; governmental finance and
budgeting; public planning; and project management. 6) __________ range: $ 50000-75000,
depending on qualifications.

2. Answer the questions.

1. What job position is advertised?


2. What are the responsibilities of applicants?
3. What degree is required?
4. What other qualifications are required?
5. How much will applicants earn?

3. Read the cover letter. Choose the correct alternative.

Dear Sir/Madam,
I am interested in the position/applicant of Assistant City Manager of Topeka, Kansas.
I learned about the job posting in the CV/job advertisement and found my talents and experi-
ence to match your requirements/qualifications for the position.
I have an extensive knowledge/application on the day-to-day operations related to
administrations. I can prepare a city budget which is effective, monitor it and execute it in the
proper manner. Furthermore, I am capable of conducting public meetings with all types of
groups of people such as stakeholders, businessmen and the general crowd. My past experi-
ences/cover letters will indicate my leadership qualities and how I have handled difficult situ-
ations. My experience and knowledge to carry out the responsibilities makes me an ideal can-
didate/degree for the position.
Best regards,
John Smith
Enclosure: CV

50
LESSON 21

1. Match the headings with the paragraphs. Translate the article.

A. Presentation is the key


B. Making the most of skills
C. Get the basics right
D. Including references
E. Tailor the CV to the role
F. Understand the job description
G. Making the most of experience

CV stands for curriculum vitae which


is Latin for “course of life”. When it comes
to applying for a job, a CV is the first thing
you do.
Writing a successful CV is easy when
you know how. It's a case of taking all your
skills and experience and tailoring them to
the job you're applying for.
1. _______________ There is no right or
wrong way to write a CV but there are some
basic sections you should cover. These in-
clude: personal and contact information; edu-
cation and qualifications; work experience;
skills, achievements, interests, hobbies; and some references.
2. _______________ A successful CV is always carefully and clearly presented, and printed
on clean, crisp white paper. The layout should always be clean and well structured and CVs
should never be crumpled or folded. A good CV presentation is clear and concise. You don't
need pages and pages of paper - you just keep things short.
3. _______________ The clues are in the job advertisement, so read the details from start to
finish. Take notes and create bullet points, highlighting everything you can satisfy and all the
bits you can't.
4. _______________ When you've established what the job entails and how you can match
each requirement, create a CV specifically for that role. Remember, there is no such thing as a
generic CV. Every CV you send to a potential employee should be tailored to that role so
don't be lazy and hope that a general CV will work. Create a unique CV for every job you ap-
ply for.
5. _______________ Under the skills section of your CV don't forget to mention key skills
that can help you to stand out from the crowd. These could include: communication skills;
computer skills; team working; problem solving or speaking a foreign language. Include any-
thing that shows how diverse, interested and skilled you are.
6. ________________ Use positive language under the work history and experience sections,
such as "developed", "organized" or "achieved". Try to relate the skills you have learned to
the job role you're applying for.
7. _______________ References should be from someone who has employed you in the past
and can prove your skills and experience. If you've never worked before you can use a teacher
or tutor as a referee.

51
2. Complete the CV with the following information: education, qualifications and skills,
experience, objective, references, John Smith.

1. ________________
1652 Garden Street
Houston, TX 77032
Telephone (832)2332144
J.smith@gmail.com
2. _______________
To obtain a government administrator position where I can put all my experience in public
administration.
3. _______________
Designer of new organizational systems to optimize productivity.
Excellent oratory skills and presentation abilities.
Capable of developing a strong empathy for people.
Knowledge about all computer operating systems.
Fluent Spanish.
4. _______________
Leeding Engines Ltd. Office of Public Policy - Houston, TX
Public Administrator, 2015 - Present
Provided public administration management support to Project Managers to facilitate strate-
gies and to enhance the company's image.
Petrox Oil Company Office of Urban Development - Houston, TX
Service Representative, 2012 - 2015
Provided assistance to the public about housing programs.
5. ______________
University of Houston. Houston, TX
Master of Public Administration 2012
MBA, 2010
6. ______________
Professional and personal references are available on request.

3. Decide True or False.

1. John wants to obtain a government administrator position.


2. John speaks Chinese fluently.
3. He has worked for four different companies.
4. He is responsible for enhancing the company's image.
5. John studied in Spain.
6. John is good at presentation abilities.

52
LESSON 22

1. Match each group of Human Resources terms with an appropriate heading. Translate
the terms.

A. retire, portable, period of service, contribution


B. accident, warning, inspector, first aid
C. strike, deal, dispute, agree
D. contract, tribunal, dismissal, union rights
E. time management, leadership, team building, assertiveness training
F. course, role-play, visual aid, self study
G. interview, objectives, performance, review
H. wages, bonus, commission, incentive
I. interview, apply, CV, headhunt
J. returner, flexible hours, homeworking
K. duties, hours, holidays, full-time

1. working conditions __________


2. recruitment __________
3. training __________
4. management development __________
5. equal opportunities __________
6. pay __________
7. health and safety __________
8. employees relations __________
9. employment law __________
10. appraisal __________
11. pensions __________
2. The words below relate to the functions of Human Resources Management. Complete
the chart and translate the words.

Noun: thing Noun: person Verb


Analysis Analyst
Appraiser Appraise
Compensation
Developer
Employer/employee
Interviewer/interviewee
Recruiter
Trainer/
Election Selector

53
3. Read the article.

PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT

Personnel management is the


field of management which has to do
with planning, organizing, and control-
ling various operative activities of a
labor force.
The main objective of personnel
management is to have a desirable
working relationship between employer
and employees.
Planning, organizing, motivat-
ing and controlling are basic functions
of personnel management.
The planning function of a personnel manager is to determine a course of action. This
involves developing a personnel programme and specifying what and how operative person-
nel functions are to be performed.
After plans have been developed, the personnel manager must establish an organiza-
tion to carry them out. This function, therefore, calls for groupings of personnel activities, as-
signment of different activities to different individuals, delegation of authority to carry them
out and provision for coordination of authority relationships horizontally and vertically in the
organization structure.
Motivation involves guiding and supervising the personnel. Personnel managers must
develop in the workers a keen appreciation of the organization policies and motivate them to
improve performance.
Control involves measuring performance and correcting negative decisions through di-
rect observation, direct supervision, as well as reports, records and audit.

4. Choose the correct alternative.

1. Personnel management is the field of a __________ management.


a. people force b. union c. labor force
2. The main goal of personnel management is to establish a desirable working __________
between employer and employees.
a. relationship b. personnel c. objective
3. Planning, organizing, motivating and controlling are basic __________ of personnel man-
agement.
a. motivation b. controls c. functions
4. The planning function of a personnel manager is to determine a __________ of action.
a. structure b. delegation c. course
5. ___________ involves guiding and supervising the personnel
a. record b. motivation c. audit
6. Personnel managers must develop in the workers a keen ___________ of the organization
policies and motivate them to improve performance.
a. appreciation b. audit c. provision
7. Control involves measuring performance and correcting negative ____________ .
a. observation b. decisions c. supervision

54
LESSON 23

1. Complete the article with the following words: occasions, councillor, maintenance,
supply, taxes, auditors.

THE LOCAL AUTHORITY

The local authority comprises local gov-


ernments, parish councils, boroughs and mu-
nicipal corporations. These bodies are set up
to deal with matters of local concern. The 1)
__________ is elected at local government
elections, by those who live in the area. Coun-
cillor’s powers, duties and functions are de-
fined by an Act of Parliament.
Each local government has a council
with a chairman or mayor at its head. This
chairman or mayor presides over the meetings
of the council. He or she also represents the
town or district on important civic 2) __________.
The power of the local authority differs from country to country. However, in most
countries, they are responsible for such things as water 3) __________, drainage, sewerage,
waste disposal, street cleaning, community health services, the 4) __________ of roads,
parks, markets and gardens, cleaning of drains, bushing of roads, provision of fire services
and the maintenance of sports facilities.
The local authority is financed through central government grants, property 5)
__________ and loans. The central government ensures that the money is properly spent by
employing 6) __________ whose job it is to examine and check the accounts of the local au-
thorities.
Local authorities play an important role in the commercial, social and economic de-
velopment of the country.

2. Answer the questions.

1. What does the local authority comprise?


2. How is the councillor elected?
3. What defines councillor’s powers, duties and functions?
4. What are chairman or mayor’s functions?
5. What are the local authorities in most countries responsible for?
6. How is the local authority financed?

3. Match the words to make phrases from the article in exercise 1.

a. local e. waste
b. parish f. street
c. civic g. community
d. municipal h. property

55
1. _______________ cleaning
2. _______________ authority
3. _______________ disposal
4. _______________ taxes
5. _______________ council
6. _______________ corporations
7. _______________ health service
8. _______________ occasions

4. Complete the sentences with the phrases from exercise 3.

1. For over 40 years, ____________________ has been recognized as one of the most re-
spected health systems in the region.
2. ____________________ will be conducted from March 1 to December 15 to eliminate lit-
ter, and leaves from the streets.
3. ____________________ includes collection, transport, treatment and disposal of waste to-
gether with monitoring and regulation.
4. A ____________________ is an organization that is officially responsible for all the public
services and facilities in a particular area.
5. He was often called upon to take part in ____________________ such as opening a new
football stadium.
6. ____________________ has a variety of powers and duties, all of which impact directly on
the community.
7. As a taxpayer, you have online access to the information about your
____________________.
8. In Brazil, ____________________ are called municípios and are created by means of local
legislation at the state level.

5. Choose the correct alternative. Then translate the article.

A local government is an administrative 1) body/county for a small geographic area,


such as a city, town, county, or state. Local governments can elect 2) officials/offices, enact
taxes, and do many other things that a national government would do, just on a smaller scale.
Common names for local governments include state, province, region, department,
county, prefecture, district, city, township, town, borough, parish, municipality, shire and vil-
lage. Local authorities are responsible for a wide range of 3) environmental/public services in
a particular area. Local authorities promote the interests of the local 4) commerce/community,
including the social, economic, environmental, recreational, cultural, community or general
development of the area.
Responsibilities of local authorities are broken down into the following categories:
housing, planning, roads, development incentives and controls, environmental 5) protec-
tion/property, recreation facili-
ties. One of fundamental roles of
6) elected/election local gov-
ernment is the representation of
local communities, voicing local
concerns and responding to local
needs.

56
LESSON 24

1. Match. Then read the article.

A. County council
B. District council
C. Unitary authorities
D. Metropolitan district
E. London Borough

1. совет округа
2. совет графства
3. округ Лондона
4. столичный округ
5. унитарные образования (элемент системы местного управления)

LOCAL GOVERNMENT STRUCTURE


IN THE UK

Local government in England operates


under a one tier system - unitary authorities, or
a two tier system - county and district councils.
There are five types of local authority in Eng-
land: county councils, district councils, unitary
authorities, metropolitan districts and London
boroughs.
County councils cover the whole of the
county and provide the majority of public ser-
vices in their particular area. County councils
are responsible for: education, highways,
transport planning, passenger transport, social
care, libraries, waste disposal and strategic
planning.
Each county is divided into several dis-
tricts. District councils cover a much smaller
area and provide more local services.
Many large towns and cities and some
small counties are unitary authorities. They are local authorities that are responsible for the
provision of all local government services. Unitary authorities are responsible for: education,
social care, housing, leisure and recreation, environmental health, waste collection, waste dis-
posal, planning applications, strategic planning and local taxation collection.
Metropolitan districts are unitary authorities; and they perform the same functions.
London is divided into 32 London boroughs and the City of London. Each London
borough is a unitary authority.
In both Wales and Scotland there is a single tier system of local government. In Northern Ire-
land there are elected local boroughs, city and district councils that provide services such as
waste disposal, street cleaning and recreation.

57
2. Choose the correct answer.

1. There are five types of __________ in England.


a. executive authority b. social care c. local authority
2. County councils provide the majority of __________.
a. public services b. public leisure c. education
3. Each county is divided into several __________.
a. districts b. authorities c. boroughs
4. District councils cover a much smaller area and provide more local _________.
a. services b. districts c. recreation
5. Many large towns and cities and some small counties are unitary __________.
a. education b. waste collection c. authorities
6. London is divided into 32 London __________ and the City of London.
a. councils b. boroughs c. counties
7. In Wales and Scotland there is a single __________ system of local government.
a. tier b. taxation c. health
8. In Northern Ireland there are ___________ local boroughs, city and district councils.
a. elected b. environmental c. cleaning

3. Match the words with the definitions. Then translate them.

1. Education a. the provision of what is necessary for


the health and welfare of a person or
group of people.
2. social care b. includes things involving travel, rec-
reational activities, and restaurants,
etc.
3. housing c. the collection and transportation of
waste to the place of treatment or
discharge by municipal services.
4. leisure and recreation d. utilization of waste.
5. environmental health e. a formal request to a local authority
for permission to build something
new or to add something to an exist-
ing building.
6. waste collection f. the action or process of teaching
someone especially in a school, col-
lege, or university.
7. waste disposal g. a systematic process of planning a
desired future, and transforming it
into goals or objectives.
8. planning application h. the collection of money people pay
to the government by local authori-
ties.
9. strategic planning i. the branch of public health that is
concerned with all aspects of the
natural and built environment.
10. local taxation collection j. buildings or structures that individu-
als and their family may live in.

58
LESSON 25

1. Translate the words and phrase in the box.

Greater London Authority Mayor of London London Assembly London bor-


ough councils City of London City of London Corporation the Lord Mayor of
the City of London

2. Read the article.

LONDON LOCAL GOVERNMENT

Local government in London takes


place in two tiers; a citywide, strategic tier
and a local tier. Citywide administration is
coordinated by the Greater London Au-
thority, while local administration is car-
ried out by 33 smaller authorities.
The Greater London Authority con-
sists of two elected parts. They are the
Mayor of London, who has executive
powers, and the London Assembly, which
examines the Mayor's decisions. The
Greater London Authority is responsible
for strategic planning, policing, the fire
service, most aspects of transport and eco-
nomic development. The current Mayor of
London is Sadiq Khan who was elected in
2016. Health services in London are managed by the national government.
The 33 local authorities are the 32 London borough councils and the City of London
Corporation. They are responsible for local services not overseen by the Greater London Au-
thority, such as local planning, schools, social services, and local roads. The London boroughs
have a council made up from representatives from political parties. The City of London does
not have a conventional local authority, but is governed by the historic City of London Corpo-
ration which is elected by both residents and businesses, and which has existed since the Mid-
dle Ages. The head of the Corporation is the Lord Mayor of the City of London, which is a
different position from Mayor of London. The City of London also has its own police force.

3. Complete the sentences.

1. Local government in London takes ____________________________________________.


2. Citywide administration is coordinated by the ___________________________________.
3. Local administration is carried out by __________________________________________.
4. The Greater London Authority consists of ______________________________________.
5. The Mayor of London has ___________________________________________________.
6. Health services in London are managed ________________________________________.
7. The 33 local authorities are __________________________________________________.
8. The head of the Corporation is _______________________________________________.

59
4. Match the underlined words from the article with their Russian equivalents.

1. действующий в данный момент _______________


2. средневековье _______________
3. представители _______________
4. исполнительные полномочия _______________
5. в масштабах города _______________
6. охрана правопорядка _______________
7. полиция, полицейские силы _______________
8. общепринятый, основанный на договоре _______________
9. решения _______________
10. жители и представители коммерческих организаций _______________

5. Complete with the correct preposition. Then make your own sentences using the
phrases.

1. To take place __________


2. To be carried _________ by
3. To be coordinated __________
4. To be responsible __________
5. To be made __________ from
6. To be governed __________
7. To be different __________

6. Choose where the words best fit. Then translate the sentences.

1. services/duty
a. The City of London provide the majority of day-to-day __________for their local residents.
b. The Mayor has a __________ to develop strategies on culture and tourism, economic de-
velopment, and transport.
2. disabled/salary
a. Unlike officers, who are paid employees of the council, councillors are not paid a
__________.
b. They repair and maintain 95 per cent of London's roads, deal with parking enforcement,
and pay £260 million a year to allow older and __________ Londoners free travel on buses.
3. boroughs/councillors
a. Each of the 32 London __________ are divided into wards.
b. Each ward is usually represented by three elected __________.
4. members/traditions
a. The City of London has retained its very strong __________.
b. It is run on a non-party political basis through its Lord Mayor and __________ of the Court
of Common Council.
5. mayor/force
a. Since 1839 it has also run its own police __________, the City of London Police.
b. The __________is elected directly by Londoners.
6. separation/executive
a. There is a clear ___________ of powers between the Mayor and the Assembly.
b. The Mayor has an __________ role, setting an overall vision for London and defining clear
strategies on a range of issues.

60
LESSON 26

1. Complete the article with the phrases from the box.

from state to state such special purpose districts tiers of local government:
counties and municipalities single municipal government

LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN THE UNITED STATES

Local government in the Unit-


ed States refers to governmental ju-
risdictions below the level of the
state. Most states have at least two 1)
_________________. In some states,
counties are divided into townships.
There are several different types of
jurisdictions at the municipal level,
including the city, town, borough, and
village. The types and nature of these
municipal entities varies 2)
_____________________.
Many rural areas and even
some suburban areas of many states
have no municipal government below
the county level. In other places con-
solidated city-county jurisdictions
exist, in which city and county func-
tions are managed by a 3)
______________________. In some states, towns are the primary unit of local government
and counties have no governmental function but exist in a purely perfunctory capacity.
In addition to general-purpose local governments, there may be local or regional spe-
cial-purpose local governments, such as school districts and districts for fire protection, sani-
tary sewer service, public transportation, public libraries, or water resource management. 4)
______________________ often encompass areas in multiple municipalities.

2. Translate the article.

3. Answer the questions.

1. How many tiers of local government do most states in the USA have?
2. What are the types of jurisdictions at the municipal level?
3. How do the types and nature of the municipal entities vary in the USA?
4. What are the examples of local or regional special-purpose local governments?

61
4. Match.

1. county a. формальная функция


2. public transportation b. ряд
3. perfunctory capacity c. обслуживание хозяйственно-бытовой
канализации
4. water resource management d. район округа штата
5. school district e. особое назначение
6. sanitary sewer service f. округ
7. township g. школьный округ
8. tier h. единый орган местного
самоуправления
9. special-purpose i. управление водными ресурсами
10. single municipal government j. общественный транспорт

5. Complete the paragraphs of the article with the correct words below.

Local governments generally include two1) __________: counties, also known as bor-
oughs in Alaska and parishes in Louisiana, and municipalities, or cities/towns. In some states,
counties are divided into townships. Municipalities can be structured in many ways, as de-
fined by state 2) __________, and are called townships, villages, boroughs, cities, or towns.
Various kinds of districts also provide functions in local government outside county or munic-
ipal boundaries, such as school 3) _________ or 4) __________ protection districts.
(constitutions, districts, tiers, fire)

Municipal 5) __________- those defined as cities, towns, boroughs (except in Alaska),


villages, and townships - are generally organized around a 6) __________ center and in most
cases correspond to the geographical designations. Municipalities vary greatly in size, from
the millions of 7) __________ of New York City and Los Angeles to the 287 people who live
in Jenkins, Minnesota.
(population, governments, residents)

Municipalities generally take responsibility for parks and 8) __________ services, po-
lice and fire 9) __________, housing services, emergency 10) __________services, municipal
courts, transportation services, including 11) __________transportation, and public works
(streets, sewers, snow removal, signage,
etc.).
(recreation, medical, public, de-
partments)

Whereas the federal government


and state governments share 12)
__________ in countless ways, a local
government must be 13) __________
power by the state. In general, mayors,
city councils, and other governing bodies
are directly 14) __________ by the peo-
ple.
(granted, elected, power)

62
LESSON 27

1. Choose the correct words to complete the gaps. Then translate the article.

TOWN AND TOWNSHIP GOVERNMENT


IN THE UNITED STATES

Town and township government is the oldest 1) __________ form of government in


the United States. Today, 20 states have the town or township form of local government. In
many rural areas, towns or townships are the only unit of local government that serves the
basic 2) __________ of the community.
Towns and townships are governed by a 3) __________ of three, five or seven elected
members. The board serves as the legislative body, setting policy, adopting budgets, and levy-
ing 4) __________. The board also performs a number of executive functions.
Small towns and townships may have no formal department structure and only one or
two full- or part-time 5) __________. Larger towns and townships may have separate depart-
ments for police, 6) __________ protection, finance, community services, and parks and rec-
reation.
The responsibilities and form of town or township government are specified by the
state 7) ___________. State laws authorize towns and townships to perform a wide variety of
functions. The most common duties of towns and townships include: • road and bridge
maintenance • property tax administration • fire and police protection • emergency medical
services • land use planning and zoning • garbage collection and recycling • cemetery man-
agement • elections administration • environmental protection • parks and recreation facili-
ties.
Towns and townships are funded through property taxes. Other sources of financial 8)
_____________ include state shared revenues, user and administrative fees and special as-
sessments.

1. a. exciting b. existing c. including


2. a. needs b. fees c. units
3. a. budget b. board c. property
4. a. towns b. townships c. taxes
5. a. needs b. departments c. employees
6. a. tax b. fire c. community
7. a. legislatures b. perform c. recycling
8. a. emergency b. cemetery c. support

63
2. Decide True or False. Correct false sentences.

1. Town and township government is the most modern form of government in the USA.
2. Today, 30 states have the town or township form of local government.
3. In many rural areas, towns or townships are the only unit of local government.
4. Towns and townships are governed by a city manager.
5. The board performs a number of executive functions.
6. Small towns and townships may have a formal department structure.
7. The responsibilities of town or township government are specified by the state legislatures.
8. Towns and townships are funded through transport taxes.

3. Choose the correct alternative. Then translate the phrases.

1. road and bridge magazine/maintenance


2. property/town tax administration
3. fire and police protection/property
4. emergency/legislature medical services
5. land use/tax planning and zoning
6. garbage collection and recycling/rural
7. cemetery management/government
8. levying/elections administration
9. environmental/elected protection
10. parks and recreation executive/facilities

4. Read and translate the article.

THE DEFINITION OF A TOWN IN THE USA

In the United States of


America, the meaning of the term
town is different in each state. In
some states it is a town. In other
states, like Wisconsin, a town is a
subdivision of a county. In other
states, like Michigan, the name
"town" has no official meaning.
People use it to describe any
place with a lot of people.
In the six New England
states, a town is a smaller part of the county. In many of these towns, town meetings are the
main form of government. In these states, the towns are really more important than the coun-
ty. In Connecticut and Rhode Island, for example, counties are only on the map and have no
power.
In New York, a town is also a smaller part of the county, but it is less important than
in New England. In New York, a town gives people more direct power than its county. In
New York, a town usually has some hamlets and villages. Villages have power without towns
and they are independent.
In Virginia, a town is similar to a city, but it can have a smaller number of people in it.
In Virginia cities are independent of counties and towns are part of a county

64
LESSON 28

1. Match.

1. municipal property a. доступное жилье


2. policing b. государственные доходы от сбора
налогов
3. regional taxes c. социальная защита
4. administrative divisions d. муниципальная собственность
5. tax revenue e. защита благополучия граждан
6. mandatory f. губернатор
7. a regional governor g. здравоохранение
8. welfare protection h. самоуправление
9. social security i. поддержание общественного по-
рядка
10. health care j. региональные налоги
11. affordable housing k. административные деления
12. self-governance l. мандатный, обязательный

2. Read and translate the article.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN RUSSIA

Under the Russian Constitution


the central government has significant
authority, regional and local governments
have authority over municipal property
and policing, and they can impose re-
gional taxes.
Russia’s administrative divisions
consist of regions (области), minority
republics, autonomous districts (округа),
territories (края), federal cities (Moscow
and St. Petersburg), and the one autono-
mous region (область).
Regional governments have tax revenue to support mandatory items in their budgets.
Legislation confirms the power of the federal government over the regions. Legislation enact-
ed in 2004 permitted the president to appoint the regional governors.
Today, the new federal districts began to replace the 11 traditional economic regions. The
Central district unites the city of Moscow with all administrative divisions within the Central
and Central Black Earth economic regions. The Northwest district combines the city of St.
Petersburg with all areas in the North and Northwest regions, including Kaliningrad region.
The Southern district includes the units of the North Caucasus economic region and the re-
public of Kalmykia. The Volga district merges two economic regions, Volga-Vyatka and
Volga. The Urals district consists of administrative divisions of the Ural economic region and
the West Siberia economic region. The Siberia district unites the rest parts of the West Siberia
economic region and the East Siberia. Finally, the Far East district is combined with the Far
East economic region.

65
The Constitution provides welfare protection, access to social security, pensions, free
health care, and affordable housing in local governments. The constitution also guarantees
local self-governance.

3. Continue the sentences.

1. Regional and local governments have authority over ___________________________.


2. Russia’s administrative divisions consist of _________________________________.
3. Legislation enacted in 2004 permitted _______________________________________.
4. The new federal districts began to replace _________________________________.
5. The Central district unites ___________________________________________________.
6. The Northwest district ___________________________________________________.
7. The Southern district includes _____________________________________________.
8. The Volga district merges ___________________________________________________.
9. The Urals district consists of _____________________________________________.
10. The Siberia district unites _____________________________________________.
11. The Far East district is combined _____________________________________________.

4. Read and translate the article.

ZEMSTVO IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE

Zemstvo, organ of rural self-


government in the Russian Empire was es-
tablished in 1864 to provide social and eco-
nomic services. It had a significant liberal
influence within imperial Russia. Zemstvos
existed on two levels, the uyezd (canton)
and the province. The uyezd assemblies
composed of delegates representing the in-
dividual landed proprietors and the peasant
village communes, and were elected the
provincial assemblies. Each assembly ap-
pointed an executive board and hired professional experts
to carry out its functions.
Generally dominated by the nobility, the zemstvos
suffered from legislation that restricted their authority,
from insufficient revenue, and from administrative controls
of a hostile bureaucracy. Nevertheless, they expanded the
network of elementary schools, constructed roads, provided
health care, and instructed the peasantry in agricultural
techniques. In the late 1890s they also agitated for constitu-
tional reform and stimulated revolutionary activity in
1904–1905 and 1917. Reorganized on a democratic basis
in 1917, the zemstvos were abolished after the Bolshevik
party came to power and were replaced by a system of
workers' councils.
(adopted from https://www.britannica.com)

66
LESSON 29

1. Read the article.

THE HIGHEST OFFICIAL OF THE SUBJECT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

A governor or a head of re-


gion is the chief executive of the
federal subjects of the Russian Fed-
eration. A governor is not directly
subordinate to the federal authori-
ties, but the political and ceremoni-
al head of the federal subject.
According to the current re-
vision of the Russian Constitution,
the Russian Federation consists of
85 federal subjects, therefore there
are 85 heads of regions in Russia.
The official title governor is mostly
used in Russia and it is traditionally
used in regions of Russia.
Regional governments in Russia are relatively powerful; each federal subject has its
own independent criminal and civil law codes, as well as manages its internal government.
The governor heads the executive branch in the federal subjects and may have considerable
control over government budgeting, the power of appointment of many officials, including
judges, and also plays a considerable role in legislation. In many territories the governor has
partial or absolute power to commute a criminal sentence.
All governors serve a five-year term for no more than two terms in row. In all federal
subjects, the governor is directly elected, and in most cases has considerable practical powers,
though this may be moderated by the legislature and in some cases by other elected executive
officials.
Governors give an annual report about their achievements in order to satisfy a consti-
tutional stipulation.

2. Decide True or False. Correct false sentences.

1. A governor is a head of state in Russia.


2. A governor is directly subordinate to the federal authorities.
3. The Russian Federation consists of 95 federal subjects.
4. The official title governor is mostly used in Russia.
5. Only some of the federal subjects have their own independent criminal and civil law codes.
6. The governor heads the executive branch in the federal subjects.
7. In many territories the governor has power to commute a criminal sentence.
8. All governors serve three-year terms.
9. The governor is directly elected.
10. Governors give reports three times a year

67
3. Choose the correct word.

1. A governor or a head of region is the __________ executive of the federal subjects of Rus-
sia.
a. basic b. chief c. care
2. A governor is not directly __________ to the federal authorities.
a. subordinate b. report c. relatively
3. According to the current revision of the Russian Constitution, the Russian Federation con-
sists of 85 federal __________.
a. executive b. legislature c. subjects
4. The official __________ governor is mostly used in Russia.
a. criminal b. tier c. title
5. Regional governments in Russia are __________ powerful.
a. relatively b. service c. governor
6. Every federal subject manages its __________ government.
a. internal b. equal c. federal
7. The __________ heads the executive branch in the federal subjects.
a. chief b. governor c. constitution
8. The governor may have considerable control over government ___________.
a. subordinate b. region c. budgeting
9. The governor has the power to appoint a ___________.
a. judge b. power c. subject
10. Governors give an ____________ report about their achievements.
a. ceremonial b. commute c. annual

4. Complete the chart. Then translate the words.

Noun: thing Noun: person Verb


1. Governor
2. Execution
3. Manage
4. Report
5. Subordinate
6. Moderation
7. Control
8. Legislator
9. Elect
10. Appointer

5. Match the underlined words from the article in exercise 1 with their Russian equiva-
lents below.

1. конституционная договоренность ____________________________


2. губернатор ____________________________
3. назначение на должность ____________________________
4. субъекты Российской Федерации ____________________________
5. глава администрации ____________________________
6. смягчить уголовное наказание ____________________________
7. пятилетний срок ____________________________
8. уголовный и гражданский кодексы ____________________________

68
LESSON 30

1. Match.

1. revenues and expenses ограниченные ресурсы


2. index государственное потребление
3. income tax Показатель
4. scarce resources инвестиционные затраты
5. government consumption подоходный налог
6. investment expenditures профицитный бюджет
7. surplus budget доходы и расходы
8. government receipts бюджетные поступления

2. Read the article.

A GOVERNMENT BUDGET

A government budget is an
annual financial statement present-
ing the government's revenues and
spending for a financial year that
is often passed by the legislature,
approved by the chief executive or
president. Only certain types of
revenue may be imposed and col-
lected to form a budget. Property
tax is frequently the basis for mu-
nicipal and county revenues, while
income tax is the basis for state
revenues.
The two basic elements of any budget are the revenues and expenses. In the case of the
government, revenues are derived primarily from taxes. Government expenses include spend-
ing on current goods and services, which economists call government consumption; govern-
ment investment expenditures such as infrastructure investment or research expenditure.
Government budgets have economic, political and technical basis. Unlike a pure eco-
nomic budget, they are not entirely designed to allocate scarce resources for the best econom-
ic use. They also have a political basis to obtain benefits and avoid burdens. The technical el-
ement is the forecast of the likely levels of revenues and expenses.
A budget can be of three types:
Balanced Budget: When government receipts are equal to the government expenditure,
it is called a balanced budget.
Deficit Budget: When government expenditure exceeds government receipts, the
budget is said to be deficit. A deficit budget can be of three types, Revenue, Fiscal and Prima-
ry deficit.
Surplus Budget: When government receipts are more than expenditure.
Government budget is an important instrument of economic policy and an index of
government's functioning.

3. Translate the article.

69
4. Answer the questions.

1. What is a government budget?


2. What are the two basic elements of any budget?
3. What do government expenses include?
4. What are three basis of a government budget?
5. What are three budget types?

5. Complete the sentences.

1. A government budget is an __________ financial statement presenting the government's


revenues and spending for a financial year.
2. A government budget is often passed by the __________, approved by the __________
__________ or president.
3. Certain types of ___________ are imposed and collected to form a budget.
4. The basis for municipal and county revenues is __________ tax.
5. ___________ tax is the basis for state revenues.
6. The __________ and ___________ are the two basic elements of any budget.
7. Government expenses include spending on current __________ and __________.
8. Government budgets have economic, political and technical __________.
9. When government receipts are __________ to the government ____________, it is a bal-
anced budget.
10. When government expenditure exceeds government __________, the budget is
__________.

6. Choose the correct alternative. Then translate the article.

BUDGET TYPES

Union Budget: The union budget is the budget prepared by the central government for
the 1) country/surplus as a whole.
State Budget: In countries like India, there is a federal system of 2) govern-
ment/income thus every state prepares its own 3) deficit/budget.
Plan Budget: It is a 4) document/expense showing the budgetary provisions for im-
portant projects, programmes and schemes included in the central plan of the country. It also
shows the central 5) scarce/assistance to states and union territories.
Performance Budget: The central ministries and 6) departments/sales dealing with de-
velopment activities prepare performance budgets, which are circulated to 7) proper-
ty/members of parliament. These performance budgets present the main projects, programmes
and activities of the government in the light of specific objectives and previous years' budgets
and 8) achievements/derived.
Supplementary Budget: This budget 9) index/forecasts the budget of the coming year
with regards to revenue and expenditure.
Zero-Based Budget: This type of budget is defined as the budgetary process which requires
each ministry or department to justify its entire budget in detail. It is a system of budget in
which all government expenditures must be 10) justified/receipt for each new period.

70
LESSON 31

1. Read the article.


TAXES

Tax is money that people pay to the


government. In ancient times, people from one
city or region attacked people from another
place, and make them pay tribute. Tribute
meant that the conquered people had to pay
money or things like fur or gold, and then con-
queror stopped attacking them.
Nowadays, the government makes its
citizens pay money. Then the money goes to
pay people who work for the government and
to pay for things that the government does, such
as building roads and bridges.
There are many different kinds of taxes. Some
taxes are based on how much money a person earns. The more money is earned, the more a
person must pay. This is called an income tax. There are three different types of income taxes:
flat income tax, progressive income
tax, regressive income tax.
Other taxes are based on how
much a person buys. This is a sales
tax or value added tax (VAT).
There are also taxes based on
how much a person owns, called
property tax. Things like houses have
a property tax on them.
Paying taxes should be done in
a way that is comfortable to the tax-
payer. Collecting taxes should be as
cheap as possible to the government.
The government uses the money collected from taxes to pay for things. For example, people
who work for the government must be paid, so some taxes are used to pay these people. Taxes
are also used to pay for education, health care, and to maintain things like roads, bridges,
sewers, and buildings.

2. Match the terms with their definitions.

a. Income tax
b. Property tax
c. A taxpayer
d. Sales or value added tax

1. __________ is based on how much a person owns.


2. __________ is a type of tax based on how much money a person earns.
3. __________ is a tax based on how much a person buys.
4. __________ is someone who pays taxes.

71
3. Match the sentence halves.

1. The tax money goes a. from taxes to pay for things.


2. Paying taxes should be done in a b. education, health care, and to main-
way tain things like roads.
3. The government uses the money col- c. how much money a person earns
lected
4. Taxes are also used to pay for d. to pay people who work for the gov-
ernment.
5. Property taxes based on e. money that people pay to the gov-
ernment.
6. Income taxes are based on f. are based on how much a person
buys.
7. Tax is g. that is comfortable to the taxpayer.
8. Value added taxes h. how much a person owns.

4. Choose the correct alternative. Then translate the article.

DEPARTMENT OF TAXATION AND FINANCE IN NEW YORK STATE

The mission of 1)
__________ of taxation and fi-
nance in New York State is to effi-
ciently collect tax revenues in sup-
port of state services and programs
while acting with 2) __________
and fairness in the administration
of the tax laws of New York State.
The department 3)
__________ more than 40 state
and local taxes and fees, including
more than $14 billion in local sales
tax and $8 billion in local income
tax. In regard to real 4)
__________ taxes, the department oversees the administration of more than $50 billion 5)
__________ and works directly with nearly 1,000 local governments.
A key department focus is the balance of efforts to promote voluntary compliance - the
cornerstone of New York State's system of taxation - with the duty to 6) __________ New
York's tax laws.

1. a. department b. depart c. departure


2. a. integral b. integrity c. internal
3. a. administers b. administrator c. administration
4. a. proper b. properly c. property
5. annually b. annual c. annulation
6. forceful b. enforce c. enforcement

72
LESSON 32

1. Match the words with the definitions.

A. Public Finance
B. Public Expenditure
C. Public Revenue
D. Public Debt
E. Public Budgeting

1. A plan for financing a government during a definite period.


2. A total income of a government
3. The total of all borrowing of a government, minus repayments denominated in a country's
home currency.
4. The branch of economics which assesses the government revenue and government expendi-
ture.
5. Spending made by the government of a country on collective needs and wants such as pen-
sion, provision, infrastructure.

2. Read the article.

PUBLIC FINANCE

Public finance, according to the traditional definition of the subject is that branch of
economics which deals with the income and expenditure of a government. According to Ad-
am Smith, public finance is "The investment into the nature and principles of state expendi-
ture and state revenue is called public finance".
The scope of the science of public finance nowadays has widened. Modern govern-
ments have to perform multifarious functions to promote the welfare of its citizens. In addi-
tion to maintaining law and order within the country and provision of security from external
aggression, it has to perform many economic and commercial functions.
Today, an increase in the expenditure of the public authorities has taken place because
of the increased activities of the government. The sources of revenue have also increased.
Taxes are levied not only for raising the revenue but are used as an important instrument of
economic policy.
Public finance includes the study of financial administration and control as well. The study of
public finance is split up into four parts; Public Expenditure, Public Revenue, Public Debt and
Budgeting.

73
3. Complete the sentences.

1. Public finance deals with the __________ and __________ of a government.


2. Modern governments have to perform multifarious functions to promote the __________ of
its __________.
3. Governments have to perform many __________ and ___________ functions.
4. Today, the __________ of the public __________ has increased activities.
5. The sources of __________ have also increased.
6. __________ are levied not only for raising the __________ but are used as an important
instrument of __________ policy.
7. Public finance includes the study of __________ administration and ___________ as well.
8. Public finance is divided up into four parts; Public __________, Public __________, Public
__________ and Budgeting.

4. Choose the correct word. Then translate the article.

GOVERNMENT DEBT

Governments take loans, issue


bonds and make financial 1)
__________. Government debt (also
known as public debt or national debt)
is 2) __________ owed by any level of
government: central or federal govern-
ment, 3) __________ government or
local government. Some local govern-
ments issue bonds based on their taxing
authority, such as tax increment bonds
or revenue bonds.
As the government represents
the people, government debt can be
seen as an indirect debt of the 4)
__________. Government debt can be categorized as 5) __________ debt, owed to lenders
within the 6) __________, and external debt, owed to foreign lenders. Governments usually
borrow by issuing securities such as government bonds and bills. Less creditworthy countries
sometimes borrow directly from commercial 7) ___________ or international institutions
such as the International Monetary Fund or the World Bank.

1. a. price b. lender c. investments


2. a. bank b. money c. borrow
3. a. monetary b. commercial c. municipal
4. a. taxpayers b. bills c. debt
5. a. internal b. monetary c. represent
6. a. world b. bonds c. country
7. a. credit b. banks c. external

5. Find the English equivalents to the words in the box. Use exercise 4.

налоговые органы, ценные бумаги, государственные облигации и векселя, кредито-


способный, международный валютный фонд, иностранные кредиторы

74
LESSON 33

1. Match.

1. remedying market failure a. нести наказание

2. public statutes b. соответствие стандарту

3. sale and consumption of alcohol c. рецептурные лекарственные


средства
4. standard compliance d. устранение неэффективности
рынка
5. prescription drugs e. патронажная служба или попече-
ние по месту жительства
6. personal or residential care f. общий закон

7. licensing process g. процесс лицензирования

8. suffer a penalty h. продажа и потребление алкоголя

2. Read the article. Then translate.

REGULATORY ECONOMICS

Regulatory economics is the


application of law by government or
independent administrative agencies
for various purposes, including reme-
dying market failure, protecting the
environment, planning an economy,
etc.
Economic regulation is gener-
ally defined as legislation imposed by
a government on individuals and pri-
vate sector firms in order to regulate
and modify economic behavior. Most
governments have some form of regu-
lation to manage possible conflicts between public services and commercial organizations.
The ideal goal of economic regulation is to ensure the delivery of a safe and appropriate ser-
vice, not discouraging the effective functioning and development of businesses. For example,
in most countries, regulation controls the sale and consumption of alcohol and prescription
drugs, as well as food business, provision of personal or residential care, public transport,
construction, film and TV, etc.
Regulation can have several elements:
A licensing process is approving and permitting the operation of a service, usually by
a named organization or person; an inspection process means ensuring standard compliance,
including reporting and management of non-compliance; a de-licensing process through
which an organization or person, is ordered to stop or suffer a penalty.

75
3. Decide True or False. Correct false sentences.

1. Regulatory economics is the application of law by commercial organizations.


2. Economic regulation is defined as legislation imposed by a government on individuals and
private sector firms.
3. Economic regulation regulates and modifies economic behavior.
4. The minority of governments have some regulation to manage possible conflicts.
5. The ideal goal of economic regulation is to ensure the development of a safe and appropri-
ate service.
6. Economic regulation can control the sale and consumption of alcohol.
7. A de-licensing process is approving and permitting the operation of a service.
8. An inspection process includes reporting and management of non-compliance.

4. Choose the correct alternative.

1. Regulatory economics is the application of law/sale by government.


2. Economic regulation recovers residential/market failure, protects the environment, plans
an economy, etc.
3. Economic regulation is legislation provision/imposed by a government on individuals and
private sector firms.
4. Most governments apply regulation to manage possible conflicts between personal/public
services and commercial organizations.
5. The objective of economic regulation is to ensure the compliance/delivery of a safe and
appropriate service.
6. Economic regulation can control the sale and consumption/care of alcohol and prescrip-
tion/compliance drugs, as well as food business.
7. A de-licensing/licensing process is approving and permitting the operation of a service,
usually by a named organization or person.
8. A de-licensing/licensing process through which an organization or person, is ordered to
stop or suffer a penalty.

5. Complete the article with the following words: efficiency, microeconomic, outcomes,
taxes, public, governments, water, expenditure. Then translate the article.

ECONOMICS OF THE PUBLIC SECTOR

Economics of the 1) __________ sector is the study of government policy through


economic 2) __________ and equity. Public sector economics is directly relevant to our eve-
ryday lives. It affects the 3) __________ we pay, the buses and trains on which we travel, the
workers who empty our bins, the gas and electricity delivered to our homes, and even the 4)
__________ coming out of our taps!
Public sector economics is concerned with justifying the existence of 5) __________
and explaining how they can affect economic activity. Traditionally, public-sector economics
has been concerned with the study of how governments can deal with the failure of markets to
achieve efficient 6) __________. Possible remedies which are considered include using public
7) ___________ and taxation, taking some firms into state ownership and introducing regula-
tion. These are all areas of 8) __________ theory, policy and practice.

76
LESSON 34

1. Translate the words and phrases.

1. birth 6. birth rate


2. migration 7. life expectancy
3. aging 8. to tackle
4. death 9. reliable data
5. to inhabit 10. to contribute

2. Read the article.

WHAT IS DEMOGRAPHY?

Demography is the science of populations. Demographers seek to understand popula-


tion dynamics by investigating three main demographic processes: birth, migration, and ag-
ing, including death. All three of these processes contribute to changes in populations, includ-
ing how people inhabit the earth, form nations and societies, and develop culture.
Today, there is growing interest among the public in demography, as “demographic
change” has become the subject of political debates in many developed countries. Most of
these countries have birth rates below the replacement level of 2.1 children per woman, and,
at the same time, life expectancy has been rising considerably and continues to rise - a devel-
opment sometimes called “the aging of societies.”
While demography cannot offer political advice on how to tackle demographic
change, demographers seek to describe the phenomena related to this change, and to under-
stand their causes. Using reliable data and the statistical processing of these data, modern de-
mographic research embraces many scientific disciplines, including mathematics, economics
and other social sciences, geography or biology.

3. Complete the sentences.

1. Demography is the science of __________.


2. Demographers try to understand population __________ by investigating three main de-
mographic processes: birth, __________, and aging, including __________.
3. These processes __________ to changes in populations.
4. Today, there is growing ___________ among the ___________ in demography.
5. “Demographic change” has become the __________ of political ___________ in many de-
veloped countries.

77
6. Most of these countries have ___________ rates below the replacement level of 2.1 chil-
dren per woman.
7. Life ___________ has been rising considerably and continues to rise.
8. Demographers seek to describe the ___________ related to this change, and to understand
their causes.
9. Using __________ data and the ___________ processing of these data, modern demo-
graphic _________ embraces many scientific disciplines.

4. Choose the correct alternative. Then translate the article.

SCIENCE OF POPULATION

1) __________ can change through three processes: fertility, mortality, and migration.
Fertility 2) __________ the number of children that women have. Mortality is the study of the
causes, consequences, and 3) __________ of processes affecting death to members of the
population. Demographers most commonly study mortality using the Life Table, a statistical
device which provides information about the mortality 4) __________ in the population.
Migration refers to the 5) __________ of people from a locality of origin to a destina-
tion place across some political boundary.
Demography is widely taught in many universities across the world. The discipline at-
tracts students with initial training in 6) __________ sciences, public administration, statistics
or 7) __________ studies. Being at the crossroads of several disciplines such as sociology,
economics, epidemiology, geography, anthropology and history, demography offers tools to
approach a large range of population issues. It combines a technical quantitative approach
with many methods borrowed from social or other 8) ___________.

1. a. populations b. popular
2. a. involvement b. involves
3. a. measurement b. measure
4. a. conditional b. conditions
5. a. movement b. move
6. a. society b. social
7. a. healthy b. health
8. a. sciences b. scientific

5. Match the terms with the definitions. Then translate.

The total fertility rate The Birth Rate Doubling time Natural change The
Crude Life expectancy Death Rate

1. ____________________ represents births in a given year for every 1000 persons.


2. ____________________ represents deaths in a given year per 1000 people.
3. ____________________ in population is the difference between births and deaths.
4. ____________________ is the average number of children that would be born to a woman
during her lifetime.
5. ____________________ is the number of years it will take to double the present popula-
tion given its present rate of growth.
6. ____________________ is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is ex-
pected to live.

78
LESSON 35

1. Read the article.

PUBLIC AFFAIRS IN GOVERNMENT SECTOR

Government relations
and public affairs are the types
of public relations that deal
with how an organization in-
teracts with the government,
with governmental regulators,
and the legislative and regula-
tory arms of government.
Government relations are the
branch of public relations that
helps an organization com-
municate with governmental
publics.
Public affairs are the type of public relations that helps an organization interact with
the government, legislators, interest groups, and the media. Public affairs are often issues of
public concern that involve grassroots initiatives, meaning that everyday citizens organize and
create a movement in favor of a certain issue or perspective. In that case, public affairs spe-
cialists would work to resolve conflict or negotiate on behalf of an organization, working with
these groups to create an inclusive solution to problems. Public affairs specialists might focus
on a particular area of public policy, such as international trade agreements or exchange rates,
security and terrorism, equitable wages and working conditions. Public affairs are also used to
communicate about policy and procedures with investors, employees as well as communities.

2. Choose the correct answer.

1. Government relations and public affairs are


a. the types of public relations.
b. the types of public administration.
2. Government relations help an organization
a. communicate with business entities.
b. communicate with governmental publics.
3. Public affairs help an organization interact
a. with public concern.
b. with the government, legislators, interest groups, and the media.
4. Public affairs are issues of public concern
a. that involve grassroots initiatives.
b. that involve district councils.
5. Public affairs specialists might focus on
a. a particular area of public policy.
b. a particular area of agricultural sector.
6. Public affairs are used to communicate about policy and procedures
a. with local taxation collection.
b. with investors, regulatory publics, employees.

79
3. Complete the crossword with the English equivalents of the words in the box. Use the
underlined words in exercise 1 to help you.

справедливая заработная плата, нормативно-правовой рычаг, решение, вести перегово-


ры, курс обмена валют, законодатель, безопасность, группа лиц, имеющих общие инте-
ресы, торговое соглашение

4. Choose the correct alternative. Then translate the article.

GOVERNMENT AFFAIRS MANAGERS

Government affairs managers are public relations 1) community/specialists who coor-


dinate legislative efforts by working with state, local, and federal governments as well as the
2) minority/media. They help meet legislative goals by creating policy proposals and working
with government agencies and 3) citizens/civilization. Government affairs managers are gen-
erally responsible for a group of staff 4) members/trade. As part of their jobs, government
affairs managers may perform 5) research/objective, manage internal and external communi-
cation. To ensure message continuity, they work internally with other management staff
members and oversee 6) legislation/employees. They may also participate in financial matters
including 7) publicity/budgeting and management. Externally, they work with government
officials, including 8) senators/security, advocacy groups and citizens to convey their legisla-
tive goals.
As part of their job, government af-
fairs managers 9) prepare/provision reports
and presentations. They write talking points
and often serve as a point of contact for the
10) security/media. They must also be pre-
sent at forums and events. They may be re-
quired to travel in order to fulfill this job du-
ty.

80
LESSON 36

1. Read the article.

WHAT IS PUBLIC POLICY?

Public policy is the means by which a government maintains order or addresses the
needs of its citizens through actions defined by its constitution. Public policy is a term used to
describe a collection of laws, mandates, or regulations established through a political process.
In the United States, for example, there have been recent changes to the health care
system that now require every citizen to have health insurance. After a series of debates, eval-
uations, and analysis, the federal government arrived at the conclusion that this would be in
the best interest of citizens and began crafting bills, insurance mandates, and other pieces of
legislation to establish a system for how Americans receive health care treatment.
Imagine a jigsaw puzzle that contains 250 pieces. Now pretend that each of those 250
puzzle pieces represents a law. When you put all the pieces together properly, you arrive at
your complete picture, which, in the case of this metaphor, would be the public policy.
Because public policies are in place to address the needs of people, they are often bro-
ken down into different categories as they relate to society. Looking at some examples of
these categories should give you an idea of how public policy fits into each area of society.
Another important type of public policy in a society is its legal policy. Legal policy
covers the laws used to determine, among other things, what will be considered a crime, how
that crime will be punished, and who will be responsible for handing out the punishment. For
example, in most cases, the
act of murder is a crime that
is often punished with a
prison sentence or even the
death penalty. The classifi-
cation of murder as a crime
and the common punishment
for the crime are both exam-
ples of how a government
responds to a problem using
public policy.

2. Complete the sentences.

1. Public policy is defined as a way government maintains __________ or addresses the needs
of its __________.
2. Public policy is a term used to describe a ___________of laws, mandates, or __________
established through a political process.
3. In the United States, there have been recent changes to the __________ care system that
now require every citizen to have health __________.
4. After a series of __________, __________, and ___________, the federal government ar-
rived at the conclusion that this would be in the best ___________ of citizens.
5. The government began crafting __________, insurance ___________, and other pieces of
legislation to establish a system for how Americans receive health care _____________.
6. ____________ policy covers the laws used to ___________, among other things, what will
be considered a __________, how that crime will be punished, and who will be responsible
for handing out the __________.

81
3. Complete the crossword.

Across
2. Risk-transfer mechanism that ensures full or partial financial compensation for the loss or
damage.
3. The laws, priorities and governmental actions that reflect the attitudes and rules selected for
the public.
5. An organized group of people associated together for religious, cultural, scientific, politi-
cal, patriotic purposes.
7. Confinement in prison as a punishment imposed on a person who has been found guilty of
a crime.
8. A person who legally belongs to a country and has the rights and protection of that country.

Down
1. Complex of facilities, organizations, and trained personnel engaged in providing medical
service within a geographical area.
4. An illegal act for which someone can be punished by the government.
6. The unlawful killing of another human being without justification or excuse.

4. Complete the sentences with the following words: composed, constitutions, account,
problems, level, supports. Then translate the sentences.

1. The foundation of public policy is __________ of constitutional laws and regulations.


2. Public policy is considered strong when it solves __________ efficiently and effectively.
3. Public policy __________ governmental institutions, and encourages active citizenship.
4. Public policy is embodied in __________, legislative acts, and judicial decisions.
5. Public problems can originate on the local, national, or international __________.
6. Government officials are expected to meet public sector ethics and take the needs of all
stakeholders into __________.

82
LESSON 37

1. Read the paragraphs and match them with the headings. Then translate the article.

a. Professions
b. Who we are
c. What we do

THE CIVIL SERVICE IN THE UK

1.______ . The Civil Service helps the


government develop and implement its
policies as effectively as possible. It
provides services directly to people all
over the country, including:
• paying benefits and pensions
• running employment services
• running prisons
• issuing driving licenses
The Civil Service also has staff
working on policy development and
implementation, including analysts,
project managers, lawyers and econo-
mists.
2._____ . The Civil Service in the UK is politically impartial and independent of government
and work in central government departments, agencies, and non-departmental government
bodies (NDPBs). The Civil Service does not include government ministers, members of the
British Armed Forces, the police, officers of local government or NDPBs of the Houses of
Parliament, employees of the National Health Service (NHS), or staff of the Royal House-
hold.
The British Civil Service is co-ordinated and managed by the Prime Minister. The
most senior civil servant in a department is a permanent secretary. As the Civil Service is ac-
countable to the public it needs to meet the highest possible standards.
• integrity - putting the obligations of public service above personal interests.
• honesty - being truthful and open.
• objectivity - basing advice and decisions on rigorous analysis of the evidence.
• impartiality - acting according to the merits of the case and serving governments of
different political parties equally well.
3._____ . The Civil Service is made up of 25 professions. Each profession has developed its
own competency framework, which supports the wider civil service framework. The Civil
Service is made up of a wide range of professional roles – from communicators and engi-
neers, to procurement managers and lawyers. In most cases membership of professions is
open to anyone working in government departments, agencies or non departmental public
bodies. Some professions also permit membership to professionals outside of government.

2. Decide True or False. Correct false sentences.

1. The Civil Service of the UK helps the Armed Forces develop and implement its policies.
2. The Civil Service is politically dependent on government.

83
3. Civil servants work in central government departments, agencies, and non-departmental
government bodies (NDPBs).
4. The Civil Service includes the staff of the Royal Household.
5. The British Prime Minister coordinates and manages the Civil Service.
6. The Civil Service meets such standards as integrity, honesty, objectivity, impartiality.
7. The Civil Service is made up of 35 professions.
8. The Civil Service isn’t made up of a wide range of professional roles.

3. Translate. Use the article in exercise 1.

1. Государственный служащий 6. Компенсационные выплаты и пенсии


2. Королевский двор 7. Тюрьмы
3. Менеджеры по закупкам 8. Государственная служба здравоохранения
4. Муниципальные власти 9. Трудовая занятость
5. Вневедомственный прави- 10. Вооруженные силы
тельственный орган

4. Match the words to make phrases from the article in exercise 1. Then translate them.

1. Personal a. Minister
2. Government b. development
3. Civil c. interests
4. Political d. parties
5. Permanent e. service
6. Competency f. forces
7. Policy g. bodies
8. Prime h. secretary
9. Health i. servant
10. Armed j. framework

5. Complete the article with the following words: resources, services, individual, area, en-
vironment, government, data.

A CIVIL SERVANT

A Civil Servant is an 1)___________who works in numerous departments and agen-


cies of the Civil Service which provide 2)_________ directly to the public and to the govern-
ment. The various departments and agencies of the Civil Service work with the
3)_____________ to create and implement policies which will impact upon the lives of peo-
ple living in the United Kingdom. The particular roles of each department vary greatly and
Civil Servants often specialize in a specific 4)______________. The tasks performed by a
senior Civil Servant include: formulating policies and overseeing the implementation of them
in practice; interpreting complex written information; interpreting complex statistical
5)______________; managing 6)_______________; keeping up to date with political issues
and the economy.
Most Civil Servants work in an office 7) ____________but this depends upon which
department an individual is employed in. For example, some Civil Servants work at airports
or at ferry terminals.

84
LESSON 38

1. Read the article.

URBANIZATION

Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban areas and the ways how
society adapts to the change. It the process when towns and cities are formed and become
larger as more people begin living and working there. It is predicted that by 2050 about 64%
of the developing world and 86% of the developed world will be urbanized.
Urbanization is relevant to a range of disciplines, including geography, sociology,
economics, urban planning and public health. Urbanization creates enormous social, econom-
ic and environmental changes. There are some causes of urbanization:
Industrialization is a trend representing a shift from the old agricultural economics to
non-agricultural economy, which creates a modernized society and attract people to move
from rural to urban areas to have better employment opportunities.
Commerce and trade play a major role in urbanization. The distribution of goods and
services and commercial transactions in the modern era has developed modern marketing in-
stitutions and exchange methods that have given rise to the growth of towns and cities.
There are numerous social benefits attributed to life in the cities and towns. Examples
include better educational facilities, better living standards, better sanitation and housing, bet-
ter health care, better recreation facilities, and better social life in general.
Modernization plays a very important role in the process of urbanization. As urban ar-
eas become more technologically advanced and offer highly sophisticated communication,
infrastructure, medical facilities, liberalization, and other social amenities.

2. Decide True or False. Correct false sentences.

1. Urbanization is a movement of the population from rural to urban areas.


2. Urbanization is the process when towns and cities are formed and become bigger.
3. By 2150 about 64% of the developing world and 86% of the developed world will be ur-
banized.
4. Urbanization creates minor social, economic and environmental changes.
5. Industrialization is the balance between the old agricultural economics and non-agricultural
economy.

85
6. The distribution of goods and services and commercial transactions in the modern era has
given rise to the growth of towns and cities.
7. Social benefits include better educational facilities, better living standards, better sanitation
and housing, better health care, etc.

3. Choose the correct alternative.

1. Urbanization is relevant/relation to a range of disciplines, including geography, sociology,


economics, urban planning and public health.
2. Urbanization creates enormous social, economic and environmental shift/changes.
3. Industrialization creates a facility/modernized society and attracts people to move from ru-
ral to urban areas.
4. There are numerous social benefits/communication attributed to life in the cities and
towns.
5. Urban areas become more commerce/technologically advanced and offer highly sophisti-
cated communication, infrastructure, medical facilities/education, liberalization, etc.

4. Find the English equivalents to the words in the box.

социально-бытовое обслуживание, развивающиеся страны, развитые страны, ме-


дицинские учреждения, образовательные учреждения, сельская местность, воз-
можности трудоустройства, товары и услуги, коммерческие операции, социаль-
ные льготы, санитарные условия, торговля.

5. Match the words to make phrases about the negative effects of urbanization. Then
match the phrases with the Russian equivalents: загруженность дорог, жилищные
проблемы, неудовлетворительное состояние здоровья и распространение болезней,
появление трущоб, проблема безработицы, проблемы водоснабжения и водоотве-
дения, перенаселённость.

1. Housing a. spread of diseases


2. Over b. of slums
3. Development c. Unemployment
4. Problem of d. Crowding
5. Traffic e. sanitation problems
6. Water and f. Problems
7. Poor health and g. Congestion

6. Read and translate the article about solutions to the problems of urbanization.

To lessen the negative effects of rapid urbanization while at the same time conserving
natural ecosystems, private investments should be encouraged so as to utilize natural re-
sources and create more job opportunities. Tourism promotion and the sustainable exploita-
tion of natural resources can create more jobs for the urban populations. Subsidies and grants
may as well be provided to foreign and private investment in environmentally friendly devel-
opment projects that encourage job creation. Key stakeholders in urban areas must provide
campaigns and counseling for effective medical health clinics and family planning to help re-
duce the high rates of population growth. Medical health clinics oriented towards family
planning options must be made accessible across the entire urban area with the objective of
controlling diseases and population growth.

86
LESSON 39

1. Read the article.

RURAL AREAS IN THE UNITED STATES

Rural areas have few people and busi-


nesses spread out over a large area. In the United
States, a rural area is a town with fewer than
1,000 people per 2.6 square kilometers.
A rural areas population density is very
low. Agriculture is the primary industry in most
rural areas. Most people live or work on farms
or ranches.
Throughout the world, more people live
in rural areas than in urban areas. However, this
has been changing rapidly. In Asia, for example,
the urban population will increase by almost 2 billion by 2050.
People are migrating to urban areas for many reasons, including agricultural technolo-
gy, industrial technology, and the hope of changing their economic circumstances. Agricul-
tural technology has decreased the need for agricultural workers. Industrial technology has
created many jobs in urban areas. Universities, hospitals, and regional government, are usual-
ly located in urban areas. Many rural residents travel to cities to take advantage of economic
opportunities there.
The cost of living in urban areas is usually
much higher than in rural areas. It costs more to
rent a house, buy food, and use transportation.
For this reason, wages are usually higher in urban
areas. The search for higher wages is another rea-
son why people migrate from rural areas.
In the United States, rural areas take up
about 98 percent of the country but are home to
only 25 percent of the population. By contrast, in
Ethiopia, a less-developed country where agricul-
tural jobs are much more common, 87 percent of
the people live in rural areas.

2. Complete the sentences with the correct number.

1. In the United States, a rural area is a town with fewer than _________ people per
_________ square kilometers.
2. In Asia, for example, the urban population will increase by almost __________ billion by
__________.
3. In the United States, rural areas take up about __________ percent of the country but are
home to only __________ percent of the population.
4. In Ethiopia, a less-developed country where agricultural jobs are much more common,
__________ percent of the people live in rural areas.

3. Translate the article.

87
4. Match the words and phrases with their definitions.

1. Industry community or village.


2. Settlement condition or situation.
3. Circumstance activity that produces goods and services.

4. Urban area settlement larger than a village and smaller than a city.
5. Town job or work.
6. Employment developed, densely populated area.

7. Farm large settlement with a high population density.


8. City land cultivated for crops, livestock, or both.
9. Cost of living money needed to maintain life.

10. Wage an increase in the number of people living in a city.


11. Transportation money paid to a person for providing goods or services.
12. Urbanization movement of people or goods from one place to another.

13. Rural area regions with low population density.


14. Economic opportunity small human settlement found in a rural setting.
15. Village situation for a person to improve the standard of living.

16. Industrial technology to move from one place to another.


17. Population density the art and science of performing manufacturing tasks.
18. Migrate the number of people living in a set area.

5. Choose the correct answer. Then translate the article.

IMMIGRATION CONTROL

1) __________ control and management is a central activity of all sovereign states.


This activity goes beyond the control of borders: it includes the 2)__________ of immigrants,
the management of periods of 3) __________, the implementation of policies to support 4)
__________ as well as the design of operations to deport or detain individuals. Despite a
growing 5) __________of market actors in this vast policy sector, public administrations re-
main dominant actors when it comes to the design, 6) ____________ and steering of public
policies related to immigration.
The current refugee “crisis” showed that it is of great 7) _____________ to design and
implement immigration policies. Immigration is the object of public policies and political
administrative processes. Because of this, it is crucial to 8) ____________ the role of public
administrations in policy genesis, development and implementation.

1. a. migrate b. immigration
2. a. selection b. selective
3. a. residence b. residential
4. a. integration b. integrate
5. a. involve b. involvement
6. a. implement b. implementation
7. a. importance b. important
8. a. consideration b. consider

88
LESSON 40

1. Match.

1. 39,2 million a. thirty thousand


2. 27% b. three thousand
3. 150 000 c. two thousand and four
4. 24 409 d. thirty nine point two
5. 1865 e. twenty seven per cent
6. 2004 f. twenty thousand
7. 1000 g. one hundred and fifty thousand
8. 3000 h. twenty four thousand four hundred and nine
9. 15 000 i. fifteen thousand
10. 20 000 j.one thousand eight hundred and sixty five
11. 30 000 k. one thousand

2. Read the article.

A RURAL SETTLEMENT IN RUSSIA

Russian rural areas occu-


py two thirds of the country terri-
tory. The total population of rural
areas is 39,2 million, which is
27% of the country population.
About 150 000 villages constitute
24 409 rural administrations fur-
ther grouped into 1865 adminis-
trative districts.
A rural settlement is a
self-governing political division
in Russia. Political authority in
rural settlements is exercised by
the inhabitants, either directly or
through elected bodies.
A rural settlement is a constituent part of a municipal district, a political entity created
as part of municipal reforms in 2004. A municipal district may include urban settlements,
which are composed of various urban communities.
The term "rural settlement" is also used in its generic sense to denote any rural inhab-
ited place. The rural settlement serves as the administrative center for the locality, which is
defined taking into account local traditions and existing social infrastructure.
As a general rule, a rural settlement will consist of either one rural community with a
population of 1,000 or more, or several rural communities each with a population less than
1,000. In areas of greater population density, a rural settlement may consist of either one rural
community with a population of 3,000 or more, or several rural communities each with a
population less than 3,000. The population of rural settlement usually varies from a few dozen
people up to 15,000 or 20,000 inhabitants. There are rural settlements with a population of
more than 30,000.

89
3. Answer the questions.

1. What territory do rural areas in Russia occupy?


2. What is the total population of rural areas in the country?
3. What is the definition of a rural settlement in Russia?
4. How is political authority in rural settlements exercised?
5. What does a rural settlement consist of?

4. Complete the sentences.

1. Russian rural areas ___________ two thirds of the country territory.


2. The total ___________ of rural areas is 39,2 million.
3. About 150 000 villages ___________ 24 409 rural administrations further grouped into
1865 administrative ___________.
4. A rural _____________ is a self-governing political __________ in Russia.
5. Political ___________ in rural settlements is exercised by the ___________, either directly
or through _____________ bodies.
6. A rural settlement is a political ____________ created as part of municipal reforms.
7. A municipal ___________ may include ___________ settlements, which are composed of
various urban communities.
8. The rural settlement serves as the administrative ___________ for the locality, which is de-
fined taking into account local ______________ and existing social ____________.
9. The population of rural settlement usually ____________from a few ____________ people
up to 15,000 or 20,000 inhabitants.
10. There are ______________ settlements with a _____________ of more than 30,000.

5. Read and translate the article.

RURAL DEVELOPMENT

Rural development is the process of


improving the quality of life and economic
well-being of people living in relatively iso-
lated and sparsely populated areas.
Rural development has traditionally
focused on the exploitation of land-intensive
natural resources such as agriculture and for-
estry. However, changes in global produc-
tion networks and increased urbanization
have changed the character of rural areas.
Tourism and recreation have replaced re-
source extraction, forestry and agriculture.
The need for rural communities to approach
development from a wider perspective has created more focus on a broad range of develop-
ment goals rather than merely creating incentive for agricultural or resource based businesses.
Education, entrepreneurship, physical infrastructure, and social infrastructure all play an im-
portant role in developing rural regions. Rural development is also characterized by its em-
phasis on locally produced economic development strategies. In contrast to urban regions,
which have many similarities, rural areas are highly distinctive from one another. For this rea-
son there is a large variety of rural development approaches used globally.

90
APPENDIX

Numbers 1-20 Numbers 20-1,000,000,000


1 one 30 thirty
2 two 31 thirty-one
3 three 40 forty
4 four 47 forty-seven
5 five 50 fifty
6 six 59 fifty-nine
7 seven 60 sixty
8 eight 63 sixty-three
9 nine 70 seventy
10 ten 72 seventy-two
11 eleven 80 eighty
12 twelve 86 eighty-six
13 thirteen 90 ninety
14 fourteen 94 ninety-four
15 fifteen 100 one hundred
16 sixteen 250 two hundred and fifty
17 seventeen 1,000 one thousand
18 eighteen 1,00,000 one hundred thousand
19 nineteen 1,ooo,ooo,ooo one billion
20 twenty

Ordinal numbers
1st the first 17th the seventeenth
2nd the second 18th the eighteenth
3rd the third 19th the nineteenth
4th the fourth 20th the twentieth
5th the fifth 21st the twenty-first
6th the sixth 22nd the twenty-second
7th the seventh 23rd the twenty-third
8th the eighth 24th the twenty-fourth
9th the ninth 25th the twenty-fifth
10th the tenth 26th the twenty-sixth
11th the eleventh 27th the twenty-seventh
12th the twelfth 28th the twenty-eighth
13th the thirteenth 29th the twenty-ninth
14th the fourteenth 30th the thirtieth
15th the fifteenth 31st the thirty-first
16th the sixteenth

Years
2008 two thousand and eight 1950s the nineteen fifties
1900 nineteen hundred 1960s the nineteen sixties
1959 nineteen fifty-nine 80s the eighties
2000 the year two thousand 100 years century
2017 twenty seventeen

91
Seasons
Winter]
Spring
Summer in
Autumn

Months
January
February
March
April
May
June in
July
August
September
October
November
December

Days of the week


Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday on
Friday
Saturday
Sunday

in the morning
in the afternoon
in the evening
at night
at noon

Dates
1.09.2017 (on) the first of September, twenty seventeen

Fractions and decimals


1/4 a quarter (
1/2 a half
3/4 three quarters
1/3 a third
2/3 two thirds
0.25 point two five or nought point two five, or zero point two five
1.5 one point five
8.56 eight point five six

92