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Project ON

0PERATION AND PRODUCTION


MANAGEMENT
MONNOO TEXTILE MILL

Submitted to:
Prof. Zia-ur-Rehman

MUHSAN SHAKOOR 381


03336247717

8th semester (2006-2010)

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Company Overview

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The Monnoo Family is a traditional name in Pakistan that has been the story of success
for the industrial growth of the country. A name that unique stands out as the pioneer industrial
family that has played a significant role in the growth of the economy.

The growth of the Group down through the decades has played a positive role in
dominating the local industry and providing a secure future for its employees. The
transformations brought about in the local industries by the Monnoo Group have made them
pioneers in the technological and customer oriented business conglomerates.

The Group now owns 12 Textile units, a Sugar Mill, Agricultural Farms and extensive
research units catering to various agricultural products. As innovators in their fields, the Group
has kept pace with the latest state of the art technologies, through which the Group now produces
superior international quality products for clients worldwide. The Monnoo Group has developed
with remarkable speed from a traditional, family owned textile company into a modern high-tech
industrial and agricultural conglomerate. The core business of Monnoo Group is international
product recognition in Textiles (Yarns, Ecru yarn, Fancy/Novelty yarns, Melange Yarns and
sewing threads) and in Agriculture products (Sugar, Tissue Culture, Orchards and Farms).With
outstanding growth and development in yarns and bringing about innovations in fancy yarns,
they have one of the most sophisticated and modern mills in Pakistan.

After Partition, their acquisition of a rubber factory was traded for an old textile mill,
installed with a total of 2400 spindles. By the year 1965 the group had a total number of 5 textile
mills. During the troubled time of partition of the sub-continent, the Monnoo family shifted to
East Pakistan and later on set up five Spinning mill operations, 3 in west Pakistan and 2- in east
Pakistan.

A number of companies associated with the group are serving the country since its
inception and are indeed amongst the pioneers of the spinning industry in Pakistan. Beginning
with one spinning mill to 12 spinning mills consisting of more than 200,000 spindles with over
8000 employees. Most of the companies associated with the group are leaders in the areas of
their activity, and have been ISO Certified.

Quality control

"We the Monnoo Group is committed to assure a system for consistent quality at all
levels of procurement, Production and Marketing Management according to the specification and
requirements of the Buyer" Our quality policy is supported by department wise measurable
quality objectives and it is ensured that customer requirements are determined and met with the
aim of enhancing customer satisfaction. In addition to that, control of documentation has been
established and maintained to provide evidence of conformity to customer requirement and of
the effective operation of the quality management system. Management representative conducts
management review meeting on regular basis for the improvement of the effectiveness of the
quality management system and its processes and ensuring

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1: The availability of resources
2: Customer feed back including Customer complaints and improvement of product related to
customer requirements.
3: Use of Statistical Techniques like Fishbone diagrams to identify the root cause of the
problems.
4: The effective implementation of the corrective or preventive action, follow up actions
especially from previous management review. &
5: Process performance and Product conformity

Being a Quality Management System company, we are committed to strive for


continuous improvement in every thing we do. We have developed a Customer Satisfaction
Survey, this survey is one of out source for providing us with your highly valued feedback,
improvement required to sustain this continuous improvement process. Customer Satisfaction
Survey is available On-Line. If you have any complaints you can fill up the form and you will be
contacted immediately.

Mission Statement

We have built our reputation on quality, Flexibility, service, and integrity. Our real
strength is personalized service in an expeditious manner. We continue to invest in the most
modern equipment available so that we can manufacture a high quality product for our
customers. We can design and develop various yarns for customers, and can supply small
quantities as well as large quantities of our product. The mission statement of Monnoo Group is
to be recognized as the premier fancy yarn supplier to the markets we serve by providing quality
yarns while constantly focusing on our customer's expectation and maintaining a competitive
position within the world of textile.

We recognize, utilize and develop the unique talents of each employee, while
manufacturing the highest quality textile products. However, we have highly qualified amid
professional staffs who are experts in their field. Our mission will be accomplished through
excellence in customer service, sales and manufacturing supported by the teamwork of all
associates. We will continue our tradition, established in 1940, of honesty, fairness and integrity
in relationships with our customers, vendors and community.

Future Business Vision

We are committed to becoming the premier manufacturing organization in the textile


industry maintaining market leadership in the present business and diversifying into value added
projects with the object of maximizing returns for all the stakeholders.

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Our Strategy
We have made pioneering efforts in development of new products, which has enabled us
to emerge as a market leader. This together with an innovative and professional management
style has helped us to build a strong and financially sound base.

Our Strengths
We are determined to convert our vision into reality by using innovation to create a
market niche for our products and by investing in facilities, people, systems and new technology,
diversification into value addition and improvements in productivity and service to customers.

Raw Cotton
Raw Cotton is purchased with strict quality control measures. Prior to purchasing,
samples of each lot of cotton are tested in the In-House centralized cotton testing labs to ensure
required quality parameters. The inspection and testing procedure in lab ensures that incoming
raw material is not used o processed until these levels have been inspected or otherwise verified
as conforming to client's requirements

Industry View
Textile is the most important industry of Pakistan. It accounts for approximately 60
percent of manufacturing employment, over 80 percent of total exports and over 20 percent of
value addition production. The textile industry was based upon locally-grown cotton, but now we
are importing regularly from U.S.A., Australia and China to meet the buyer requirements.
Machinery
In the year 2005, Monnoo textile Ltd has commissioned a state of art ring spinning unit
at Muzzaffargarh near Multan. This unit produces the best yarn in Pakistan for both weaving and
knitting. It is equipped with 45,000 spindles, Reiter Blow room with Vision Shield, Truetzchler
Blowroom with Loptex, Schalafhorst 338 with Quantum II Yarn Clearers and Reiter Combers E-
65. Apollo had an initial installed capacity of 12,480 spindles. As the mill continuously updated
its manufacturing facilities, a major expansion / modernization program took place in 1988 with
the commencement of Apollo Mills Unit No.2. The most modern machinery from Japan and

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Western Europe was added to the spinning facilities in this unit. Apollo has now two units,
comprising of 90,600 spindles.
Contamination
To meet the requirements of our customers for supplying yarn of acceptable level of
contamination, We at Apollo employ extra labour force to take out the contamination from raw
cotton.

Further, we have also installed the LOPTEX SORTER with SONIQ and also the
VISION SHEILD which is detection and rejection system of Foreign Fiber and Foreign
Material. This is the ideal solution to contamination problem in raw materials.

Also, in our Latest Schalafhorst 338 Autoconers / Splicers, we have installed USTER
QUANTUM 2 yarn clearers, which also detect contamination and cut the contamination
portion of yarn, if any.

Monnoo textile Ltd adheres to the principal of "customer priority, success by quality",
and is expanding its business territory to the customer lifestyle spectrum. The types of challenges
that Apollo choose to embrace are always innovative. At Apollo yarns produced in all two units
satisfy a broader customer base.

Location Planning Strategies


Capabilities and the Location Decision
 Often driven too much by short-term considerations
 wage rates
 exchange rates
 Better approach is to consider how location impacts development of long-term
capabilities
Six Step Process

 Identify sources of value


 Identify capabilities needed

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 Assess implications of location decision on development of capabilities
 Identify potential locations
 Evaluate locations
 Develop strategy for building network of locations
Stage 1: Regional-International

 Minimize transportation costs and provide acceptable service


 Proper supply of labor
 Wage rates
 Unions (right-to-work laws)
 Regional taxes, regulations, trade barriers
 Political stability
Stage 2: Community

 Availability of acceptable sites


 Local government attitudes
 Regulations, zoning, taxes, labor supply
 Tax Incentives
 Community’s attitude
 Amenities

Stage 3: Site

 Size
 Adjoining land
 Zoning
 Drainage
 Soil
 Availability of water, sewers, utilities
 Development costs

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Plant Layout
Introduction
 Plant layout planning includes decisions regarding the physical allocation of the
economic activity centers in a facility.
 An economic activity center is any entity occupying space.
 The objective of plant layout planning is a more effective work flow at the
facility, allowing workers and equipment being more productive.
 Facility layout techniques apply to the case where several physical means have to be
located in a certain area, either industrial processes or services.
 The objective of the chapter is not only Plant layout but re-layout also (most common
situation for a company).
 To carry out an appropriate plant layout, it’s important to take into account the business
strategic and tactical objectives
 Example: space requirements/cost per m2 in Malls; accessibility/privacy in
offices.
 To make a decision about layout planning, 4 different questions must have an answer:
 Which centers do we have to consider?
 How much space and capacity is required for each center?
 If there is not enough space, productivity may be reduced.
 Too much space is expensive and may also reduce productivity.
 How must the space be configured at each center?
 Space quantity, shape and the elements of the work center are related to
each other.
 Where should each center be located at within the facility?
 The allocation of the different centers may affect productivity.
 The plant layout process starts at an aggregate level, taking into account the different
departments. As soon as we get into the details, the different issues arise, and the original
configuration may be changed through a feedback process.

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 Most (if not all of them) layouts are designed properly for the initial conditions of the
business, although as long as the company grows and has to be adapted to internal and
external changes, a re-layout is necessary.

 The reasons for a re-layout are based on 3 types of changes:


 Changes in production volumes.
 Changes in processes and technology.
 Changes in the product.
 The frequency of the re-layout will depend on the requirements of the process.
 Symptoms that allow us to detect the need for a re-layout:
 Congestion and bad utilization of space.
 Excessive stock in process at the facility.
 Long distances in the work flow process.
 Simultaneous bottle necks and workstations with idle time.
 Qualified workers carrying out too many simple operations.
 Labor anxiety and discomfort. Accidents at the facility.
 Difficulty in controlling operations and personnel.

Objectives of Plant Layout


 The main objective consists of organizing equipment and working areas in the most
efficient way, and at the same time satisfactory and safe for the personnel doing the work.
 Sense of Unity
 Minimum Movement of people, material and resources.
 Safety

 The feeling of being a unit pursuing the same objective.


 In the movement of materials and personnel work flow.
 Flexibility

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 In designing the plant layout taking into account the changes over short and medium
terms in the production process and manufacturing volumes.
 These main objectives are reached through the attainment of the following facts:
 Congestion reduction.
 Elimination of unnecessary occupied areas.
 Reduction of administrative and indirect work.
 Improvement on control and supervision.
 Better adjustment to changing conditions.
 Better utilization of the workforce, equipment and services.
 Reduction of material handling activities and stock in process.
 Reduction on parts and quality risks.
 Reduction on health risks and increase on workers safety.
 Moral and workers satisfaction increase.
 Reduction on delays and manufacturing time, as well as increase in production
capacity.

Factors affecting Plant Layout


 The final solution for a Plant Layout has to take into account a balance among the
characteristics and considerations of all factors affecting plant layout, in order to get the
maximum advantages.
 The factors affecting plant layout can be grouped into 8 categories:
 Materials
 Machinery
 Labor
 Material Handling
 Waiting Time
 Auxiliary Services
 The building

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 Future Changes
 The factors affecting plant layout can be grouped into 8 categories:
 Materials
 The layout of the productive equipment will depend on the characteristics
of the product to be managed at the facility, as well as the different parts
and materials to work on.
 Main factors to be considered: size, shape, volume, weight, and the
physical-chemical characteristics, since they influence the manufacturing
methods and storage and material handling processes.
 The sequence and order of the operations will affect plant layout as well,
taking into account the variety and quantity to produce.
 The factors affecting plant layout can be grouped into 8 categories:
 Machinery
 Having information about the processes, machinery, tools and necessary
equipment, as well as their use and requirements is essential to design a
correct layout.
 The methods and time studies to improve the processes are closely linked
to the plant layout.
 Regarding machinery, we have to consider the type, total available for
each type, as well as type and quantity of tools and equipment.
 It’s essential as well to know about space required, shape, height, weight,
quantity and type of workers required, risks for the personnel,
requirements of auxiliary services, etc.
 The factors affecting plant layout can be grouped into 8 categories:
 Labor has to be organized in the production process (direct labor, supervision and
auxiliary services).
 Environment considerations: employees’ safety, light conditions, ventilation,
temperature, noise, etc.
 Process considerations: personnel qualifications, flexibility, number of workers required
at a given time as well as the type of work to be performed by them.

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 Material handling does not add value to the product; it’s just waste.
 Objective: Minimize material handling as well as combining with other operations when
possible, eliminating unnecessary and costly movements. The factors affecting plant
layout can be grouped into 8 categories:
 Labor
 Labor has to be organized in the production process (direct labor, supervision and
auxiliary services).
 Environment considerations: employees’ safety, light conditions, ventilation,
temperature, noise, etc.
 Process considerations: personnel qualifications, flexibility, number of workers required
at a given time as well as the type of work to be performed by them.
 Material Handling
 Material handling does not add value to the product; it’s just waste.
 Objective: Minimize material handling as well as combining with other operations when
possible, eliminating unnecessary and costly movements.
 The factors affecting plant layout can be grouped into 8 categories:
 Waiting time - Stock
 Objective: Continuous Material Flow through the facility, avoiding the
cost of waiting time and demurrages that happen when the flow stops.
 On the other hand, the material waiting to flow through the facility not
always represents a cost to avoid. As stock sometimes provides safety to
protect production, improving customer service, allowing more economic
batches, etc.
 It’s necessary then to consider space for the required stock at the
facility when designing the layout.
 Resting time to cool down or heating up…

Types of Plant Layout

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 The production process normally determines the type of plant layout to be applied to the
facility:
 Fixed position plant layout
 Product stays and resources move to it.
 Product oriented plant layout
 Machinery and Materials are placed following the product path.
 Process oriented plant layout (Functional Layout).
 Machinery is placed according to what they do and materials go to them.
 Cell Layout
 Hybrid Layout that tries to take advantage of different layouts types.
 Product oriented plant layout
 This type of plant layout is useful when the production process is organized in a
continuous or repetitive way.
 Continuous flow: The correct operations flow is reached through the
layout design and the equipment and machinery specifications.
 Repetitive flow (assembly line): The correct operations flow will be based
in a line balancing exercise, in order to avoid problems generated by bottle
necks.
 The plant layout will be based in allocating a machine as close as possible to the
next one in line, in the correct sequence to manufacture the product.
 Product oriented plant layout
 Advantages:
 Reduced material handling activities.
 Work In Process almost eliminated.
 Minimum manufacturing time.
 Simplification of the production planning and control systems.
 Tasks simplification.
 Disadvantages:
 No flexibility in the production process.

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 Low flexibility in the manufacturing times.
 High capital investment.
 Every workstation is critical to the process.- The lack of personnel or shut
down of a machine stops the whole process.
 Monotonous work.
 Process oriented plant layout (Functional Layout)
 This type of plant layout is useful when the production process is organized in
batches.
 Personnel and equipment to perform the same function are allocated in the same
area.
 The different items have to move from one area to another one, according to the
sequence of operations previously established.
 The variety of products to produce will lead to a diversity of flows through the
facility.
 The variations in the production volumes from one period to the next one (short
periods of time) may lead to modifications in the manufactured quantities as well
as the types of products to be produced.

Cellu

Process (Functional) Layou

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1. Why my tractor has started consuming excessive engine oil?

Why it happens?
When the tractor is used for running purposes without load for a longer period as low as
30 hrs, it starts consuming oil. The recommended limit of oil consumption is 0.5 lit of oil
after 100 lit of diesel.

Remedy
1) Park the tractor at level ground.
2) Check levels of engine oil & diesel.
3) Make up oil level to the “Max” mark, diesel to full tank.
4) Set engine speed to 1800 rpm with the help of hand throttle up to consumption of 1 full
diesel tank.
5) Park tractor at level ground and stop the engine.
6) Wait for at least 1 hr
7) Checks for possible drop in oil level on dipstick.
8) Make up oil level to “Max” mark with the help of a measure.
9) Check for leaks if any I-e; engine main oil seal, timing seal, sump joints, cam shaft seal
etc.
10) Check possible leaks in the air intake system.
11) Do not remove thermostat valve from the engine.
If the problem persists, go to checking or register to a complaint.

2. Why my tractor has started consuming excessive diesel?

1) Use proper implement according to the HP of the tractor.


2) Select gear according to the soil conditions.
3) Do not under speed/over speed engine according to load. Run engine at 1800 rpm.
4) Adjust type pressure according to use of tractor. See operator’s instruction book.
5) Adjust top link length.
6) Use right category balls for right type of implement linkages.
7) Adjust stabilizer/check chains.

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8) Change diesel filter at recommended intervals.
9) Wash diesel tank every 1000 hrs of running.
10) Adjust injector/nozzle pressure every 1000 hrs.
11) Refer to operator’s instruction book or consult dealer or register a complaint.

3. Why the Hydraulic system of my tractor jerks while lifting up the implement?
1) Have you changed the hydraulic oil after 30 hrs of operation? If not this problem is
going to become even worse. Change hydraulic oil immediately if not already
changed. Refer to operator’s instruction book.
2) Change hydraulic filter. Take your tractor to authorized w/shop and let our skilled
mechanic do it.
3) Check hydraulic system control valve and adjust if necessary.
4) Do not adjust position control lever beyond “up” mark.
5) Check hydraulic oil level. It should be between “min” & “max” mark.
6) Check for possible hydraulic oil leaks.
7) If the problem persists consult your dealer or register a complaint.

Plant Layout for a Service Business

 Most of the concepts and techniques explained here can be applied to any plant layout,
including services.
 Examples: Line Balancing for Restaurant self-services; Process oriented layout
for Hospitals.
 Service Businesses have a more direct customer focus:
 Sometimes, the customer is required at the facility for the company to be able to
perform the service.
 Frequently, the layout is focused on the customer satisfaction than on the
operation itself.
 Some of the objectives include comfort ability during the performance of the
service, as well as making attractive those areas in direct contact with the
customer.

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 Service Businesses have a more direct customer focus:
 The customer, with his/her presence, creates the work flow.
 The workload forecast and the activities planning is not as accurate as it is
in a manufacturing environment.
 Queues:
 Seasonal and heterogeneous demand: execution time can be
variable.
 Services are intangible: adjustment between demand and
production can not be done through inventory management.
 Queues are formed by people: higher implications for the layout.
 Plant layout for a commerce:
 Objective: Maximize the net benefit per m2 of shelves.
 If sales are directly related to the exposition of products to the customer, the
objective will consist of exposing as many products as possible to the customers
in the available space.
 This has to take into account to leave enough space for the movement
among shelves, not making the layout uncomfortable for the customer.
 Aspects:
 Allocation of daily consumption products at the periphery.- Allocation of
impulsive purchase and high profit margin products in prominent places.
 Eliminate aisles that allow the customers to go from one row to other
without going through them completely.
 Plant layout for a commerce:
 Aspects:
 Global organization of the available space:
 Allocation of attraction products on both sides of a row, and
dispersion of them to increase the exposition of adjacent products.
 Use the end of a row as a place for exposition.

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 Creation of the business image through a careful selection of the
first section where the customers are getting into the facility.
 Allocation of products in the exposition areas:
 This aspect remains within the commercial function. It is called
merchandising.
 Three Retail Layout Patterns
 Grid
 Rectangular with parallel aisles; formal; controls traffic flow; uses selling
space efficiently.
 Free-Form
 Free-flowing; informal; creates "friendly" environment; flexible.
 Boutique
 Divides store into a series of individual shopping areas, each with its own
theme; unique shopping environment.

 Objective: Optimal relationship between space and material handling costs.


 Aspects to be considered: cubic space utilization, storing equipment and methods,
material protection, allocation of different parts, etc.
 A warehouse layout is more complicated when:
 The different customer orders take into account a high number of references.
 There are frequent orders of low number of units for the same product.
 In this case, the material handling costs for each roundtrip move would be
excessively high.
 Solutions for this problem: Aggregation of units for several orders, or
establishment of optimal routes for each order.

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Zones Zones Control
station Shipping

Click to add title doors

Trailer

Trailer

Feeder Feeder
lines lines Overflo
w

Systematic Layout Planning

P-Q Analysis

Definition
Diagram activity relationships
P roduct
Flow

Chart relationship (flow, functional)

Establish space requirements Space Availability


Analy sis

Diagram space relationships

Maintenance
Sy nthesis P ractical Limitations Adjustment QC
Space Availability
Mat. Handling

P roject P roject P roject


Evaluation A B C

Evaluate alternative arrangements


Selection

Detail selected layout, install SLP M ethod


M uther (1973)
Im plem entation
INSTALACION

 Process oriented plant layout

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 It’s essential to design a flexible plant layout, taking into account as well the need
of flexibility for the material handling equipment to be used.
 Main disadvantage of this layout:
 Low operations and material handling efficiency when comparing to a
plant layout oriented to the product.
 On the other hand, technology development is facilitating getting over this
disadvantage (i.e.- CNC Equipment).
 Analysis
 Decision to be made: Relative location of the different working areas
(same type of equipment).
 Criteria: reduction of distance and material handling costs: Increase of
operations efficiency.
 Process oriented plant layout
 Analysis
 If it exists a clear material flow that carries out more volume than anyone
else, the layout could be similar to a Product oriented plant layout.
 The main factor for the analysis is the material handling and transportation
costs among the different working areas.
 Sometimes, quantitative information relative to material handling flows is
not available, or it’s not the main factor to be considered, being the
qualitative factors the most important ones in this case.
 Process oriented plant layout
 Analysis
 Process:
 Information gathering.
 Plan development.
 Quantitative criteria: transportation costs.
 Qualitative criteria: closeness priorities.
 Information gathering

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 We have to know the space requirements by working area.
 Demand forecast – production plan – working hours –
number of workers and equipment.
 Consider demand and production fluctuations.

Information gathering
 When the objective is the reduction of material handling costs, we can solve the problem
in quantitative terms:
• Traffic intensity matrix: Number of material handling moves
among departments (information provided by historical data, route
sheets and production plans).
• Distance matrix: Distances among areas at the plant and places
where the different working areas could be allocated.
Cost matrix: Cost of material transportation.- It depends on the type of equipment to be used.
 Sometimes, quantitative information is not available, or the importance of distance
among areas depends on qualitative factors (i.e.- a hospital X-ray room may be close to
the trauma medicine room).
 Plan development
 Once the sizes of the different areas have been determined, the next step is to organize
the different areas within the existent facility, or to determine the desired shape for the
facility construction.
 There are multiple possible solutions, so the selected one will be the good one that
complies with the max. Number of constraints.

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P-Q Analysis

Quantity Product
Layouts

Fixed
Position
Layouts Mixed Layouts Process Layouts

Number of Different Products

DIRTY QC
EMPTY
BOTTLES

WASHER
WAREHOUSE UNCASER

FILLER/ MANUAL
PASTEURIZER CROWNER SIGHTI NG EBI

COMPLEMENTARYACTIVITIES

BI -DIRCTIONALTABLE

MANUAL
FGI SIGHTING LABELLER

COMPLEMENARYACTIVITIES LABELLER

MANUALPACKING

PALLETIZER
PACKER

PACKER

WAREHOUSE DISTRIBUTOR
CUSTOMERS

Analysis

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Quantitative criteria: Transportation costs.

With the information gathered in the previous 3 matrixes, the objective is to minimize the
transportation costs.
Total Transportation Cost:
 Objective: Finding the combination of dij that minimizes TTC.
 This formula is complicated for common cases, due to the number
of different possibilities (i.e.- for 10 sections, the alternatives
would be 3,628,000).
Quantitative criteria: Transportation costs.
 Use of heuristics: Algorithm of basic transposition
 Initial arbitrary layout: base permutation.
 Transportation cost calculation for this layout.
 Generation of all possible permutations among activities,
interchanging the ones in the initial arbitrary layout 2 to 2:

Transportation cost calculation for each of the generated permutations: If we get one with a
lower cost than the base, this last one becomes the base permutation and the process starts again
until there is no one with a lower cost.
In practice, we have to take into account certain constraints and circumstances that have to be
considered, apart from the quantitative criteria of the transportation costs.
Once this information is taken into account, the next step will be to perform the spatial design of
the different departments.

Closeness priorities
 Technique: Systematic Layout Planning (SLP)
 Closeness priorities have a letter code:

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Technique: Systematic Layout Planning (SLP): Example.

 Detailed layout
 Equipment and machinery layout within each area or department, getting a
detailed layout of installations and all elements.

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 There could appear some issues like scales, elevators, columns, floor
resistance, roof height, etc. not considered in previous stages, that could
make necessary the review of the solution.
Cellular Layout

 Work cells
 Definition:
 Group of equipment and workers that perform a sequence of operations
over multiple units of an item or family of items.
 Looks for the advantages of product and process layouts:
 Product oriented layout: Efficiency
 Process oriented layout: Flexibility
 Applies the principles of Groups’ Technology to Manufacturing:
 Grouping outputs with the same characteristics to families, and assigning
groups of machines and workers for the production of each family.
Applies the principles of Groups’ Technology to Manufacturing:
 Sometimes, these outputs will be final products or services; some other
times, they will need to integrate to a final product.
 In this case, the work cells would need to be located close to the main
production line, to facilitate the assembly of the component at the moment
and place required.
 Real Work Cells: the grouping of workers and equipment is a fact:
 At the same time as identifying family of products and grouping of
equipment, it’s essential to perform an internal layout of the cell (by
product, by process or a combination of both…generally by product).
Applies the principles of Groups’ Technology to Manufacturing:
 Virtual Work Cells: identifying and dedicating certain equipment to the
production of certain families of outputs, but without grouping them
physically within the cell:

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 The only issue is the identification of equipment and families of products,
without performing an internal layout of the cell.
 Residual Work Cells: only used when there is a specific item that has not
been associated to any family, or a specialized equipment can not be
included within a work cell due to its general use.
 Advantages: lower production cost and better supply and customer service
time.
Applies the principles of Groups’ Technology to Manufacturing:
 Steps to follow:
 Select product families.
 Determine work cells.
 Detail the work cells’ internal organization or layout.
 Regarding product grouping to be produced at the same work cell, we
need to determine which the condition that allows such grouping is.
 Once product families are determined, creating a work cell for each family
might be the best solution, although is not always like that (sometimes it’s
even impossible).
Applies the principles of Groups’ Technology to Manufacturing:
 Approaches used to identify families and work cells:
 Classification and codification of all items to be manufactured, and
comparison among them to define families. After that, it’s required
to identify the cells and equipment to manufacture those families.
 Creation of work cells by grouping of equipment. In this case, we
still need to define the families.
 Definition of families by similar manufacturing routes. Still
pending the cells’ identification.
 Simultaneous identification of families and cells, based on the
similarity of products and their needs of equipment and vice versa.
 Applies the principles of Groups’ Technology to Manufacturing:

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 A component that does not use all machines within its work cell can be
accepted, as well as a machine that does not process all components in its
group.
 However, it’s essential to avoid that a component or machine interacts
with other machine or component outside of its cell.
 If it’s not possible avoid this situation, the solution will be
duplicating the piece of equipment, or process the item in more
than one cell.- Sometimes a residual cell might be needed to absorb
a component like this or to include a general type of equipment
that we can not duplicate.
 Applies the principles of Groups’ Technology to Manufacturing:
 In general, the steps to follow to reorganize the layout will be:
 Incompatible equipment must be located in separate cells.
 Each component should be produced only in 1 cell.
 Each type of equipment should be located only in 1 cell.
 Investment in duplicating equipment should be minimized.
Purchasing Department

Purchasing refers to a business or organization attempting to acquire goods or services to


accomplish the goals of the enterprise. Though there are several organizations that attempt to set
standards in the purchasing process, processes can vary greatly between organizations. Typically
the word “purchasing” is not used interchangeably with the word “procurement”, since
procurement typically includes Expediting, Supplier Quality, and Traffic and Logistics (T&L) in
addition to Purchasing.

Purchasing managers/directors, and procurement managers/directors guide the


organization’s acquisition procedures and standards. Most organizations use a three-way check
as the foundation of their purchasing programs. This involves three departments in the
organization completing separate parts of the acquisition process. The three departments do not
all report to the same senior manager to prevent unethical practices and lend credibility to the
process. These departments can be purchasing, receiving; and accounts payable or engineering,

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purchasing and accounts payable; or a plant manager, purchasing and accounts payable.
Combinations can vary significantly, but a purchasing department and accounts payable are
usually two of the three departments involved.

When the receiving department is not involved, it's typically called a two-way check or
two-way purchase order. In this situation, the purchasing department issues the purchase order
receipt not required. When an invoice arrives against the order, the accounts payable department
will then go directly to the requestor of the purchase order to verify that the goods or services
were received. This is typically what is done for goods and services that will bypass the
receiving department. A few examples are software delivered electronically, NRE work (non
reoccurring engineering services), consulting hours, etc...

Historically, the purchasing department issued Purchase Orders for supplies, services,
equipment, and raw materials. Then, in an effort to decrease the administrative costs associated
with the repetitive ordering of basic consumable items, "Blanket" or "Master" Agreements were
put into place. These types of agreements typically have a longer duration and increased scope to
maximize the Quantities of Scale concept. When additional supplies are required, a simple
release would be issued to the supplier to provide the goods or services.

Another method of decreasing administrative costs associated with repetitive contracts


for common material is the use of company credit cards, also known as "Purchasing Cards" or
simply "P-Cards". P-card programs vary, but all of them have internal checks and audits to
ensure appropriate use. Purchasing managers realized once contracts for the low dollar value
consumables are in place, procurement can take a smaller role in the operation and use of the
contracts. There is still oversight in the forms of audits and monthly statement reviews, but most
of their time is now available to negotiate major purchases and setting up of other long term
contracts. These contracts are typically renewable annually.

This trend away from the daily procurement function (tactical purchasing) resulted in
several changes in the industry. The first was the reduction of personnel. Purchasing departments
were now smaller. There was no need for the army of clerks processing orders for individual
parts as in the past. Another change was the focus on negotiating contracts and procurement of

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large capital equipment. Both of these functions permitted purchasing departments to make the
biggest financial contribution to the organization. A new terms and job title emerged – Strategic
sourcing and Sourcing Managers. These professionals not only focused on the bidding process
and negotiating with suppliers, but the entire supply function. In these roles they were able to add
value and maximize savings for organizations. This value was manifested in lower inventories,
less personnel, and getting the end product to the organization’s consumer quicker. Purchasing
manager’s success in these roles resulted in new assignments outside to the traditional
purchasing function – logistics, materials management, distribution, and warehousing. More and
more purchasing managers were becoming Supply Chain Managers handling additional
functions of their organizations operation. Purchasing managers were not the only ones to
become Supply Chain Managers. Logistic managers, material managers, distribution managers,
etc all rose the broader function and some had responsibility for the purchasing functions now.

In accounting, purchases are the amount of goods a company bought throughout this
year. They are added to inventory. Purchases are offset by Purchase Discounts and Purchase
Returns and Allowances. When it should be added depends on the Free On Board (FOB) policy
of the trade. For the purchaser, this new inventory is added on shipment if the policy was FOB
shipping point, and the seller remove this item from its inventory. On the other hand, the
purchaser added this inventory on receipt if the policy was FOB destination, and the sellers
remove this item from its inventory when it was delivered.

Goods bought for the purpose other than direct selling, such as for Research and
Development, are added to inventory and allocated to Research and Development expense as
they are used. On a side note, equipments bought for Research and Development are not added
to inventory, but are capitalized as assets. Sources of Labor

Source of Labor was a rap band loosely associated with the female rap act Beyond
Reality, both of which performed at the all day Rap Festival (featuring 30 or more of the top
regional rap/hip-hop acts of that time). The event much like Lollapolooza, was strictly Rap and
was called "Phunky Phat 95." It took place at the Evergreen State College during the summer of
1995. Source of Labor's contributions to northwest hip hop were extremely influential in shaping
post-Nastmix hip-hop. Some credit the group's front man, Wordsayer, with personally moving

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hip-hop out of Seattle's Central District and into the rest of the city. Labour economics seeks to
understand the functioning and dynamics of the market for labour. Labour markets function
through the interaction of workers and employers. Labour economics looks at the suppliers of
labour services (workers), the demanders of labour services (employers), and attempts to
understand the resulting pattern of wages, employment, and income.

In economics, labour is a measure of the work done by human beings. It is conventionally


contrasted with such other factors of production as land and capital. There are theories which
have developed a concept called human capital (referring to the skills that workers possess, not
necessarily their actual work), although there are also counter posing macro-economic system
theories that think human capital is a contradiction in terms.

Planning and Control Systems


The Planning Process

Few managers realize that a company plan must provide the framework for the company
control system. If missions, goals, strategies, objectives, and plans change, then controls should
change. Unfortunately, they seldom do. Although this error occurs at the top, repercussions are
felt at all levels.

Often, too, the standards of the control systems are derived from previous years budgets
rather than from current objectives of company plans The result is that employees at lower levels
are simply given "numbers to make" based on factors of which they have little knowledge and
over which they have practically no influence.

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The above schematic shows the important interrelationships between planning and
control. As you can see, the control process does not begin after the entire planning process ends,
as most managers believe.

After objectives are set in the first step of the planning process, appropriate standards
should be developed for them. Standards are units of measurement established to serve as a
reference base and are useful in determining time lines, sequences of activities, scheduling, and
allocation of resources.

For example, if objectives are set and work is planned for 18 people on an assembly line,
standards or reasonable expectations of performance from each person then need to be clearly
established.

T he second significant interaction between planning and control occurs with the final
step of the control process-taking corrective action. This can take several forms, but two of the
most effective are to change the objectives or alter the plan.

Managers dislike doing either; but if a positive motivational climate is to be established,


these ought to be the first two corrective actions attempted. Objectives and standards are based
on assumptions, but if these assumptions prove inaccurate, then objectives and standards require

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alteration. Thus sales quotas assigned on the premise of a booming economy can certainly be
altered if, as is often the case, the economy turns sour.

Likewise, if the assumptions are accurate and objectives and standards have not been
met, then it is possible that the plan developed was inadequate and needs to be changed.

The control process - consider the effects

Planning and organizing are two management functions that have been popular research
areas in recent years. Control, the third well-known management function, has received
surprisingly little attention.

This is perhaps because the task side of control is noticed and the behavioral or human side is
largely overlooked. But as previously noted, managers should carefully consider the behavioral
aspects of the process when designing a control system if employees are to be motivated to
accomplish assigned tasks.

Step 1: Setting Performance Standards

Performance standards may be set by staff or managers, by managers and staff, or by


managers with input from employees whose performance is being measured. The last method is
the best because employees believe that line and staff do not have enough information about the
conditions of various jobs to set realistic standards.

Managers should see that objectives and standards are measurable and that individuals
are held accountable for their accomplishment. The level of difficulty should be challenging but
within the capabilities of the employee. Standards set too low are usually accomplished but not
exceeded, while standards set too high usually do not motivate the employee to expend much
effort to reach the goal.

It is important that standards be complete; however, it is difficult to develop a single


standard or goal that will indicate the effective overall performance. For example, consider the
automobile dealer who decided to measure sales peoples performance on the basis of the number

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of automobiles sold. Sales increased impressively, but it was later learned that many sales had
been made to poor credit risks, and too high prices had been allowed on trade-ins.

Too many managers are looking for that one magic number that will tell them how well
the company is doing or how their employees are performing. Standards for the automobile
salespeople might have included number of sales, losses from poor credit risks, and profit on
resales. Standards should also be expressed in terms that relate to the job and are meaningful to
the employees.

For example, the foremen in one plant were assigned standards based on break-even
analysis, although none of them had any knowledge of this analytical technique. From a
behavioral standpoint, it is extremely important that the employee be able to significantly
influence or affect the standard assigned.

In the early 1970's, the performance of a hotel manager in Florida was based on profit
and room occupancy rates. During this period, OPEC caused a fuel crisis and relatively few
tourists could travel to Florida. The hotel manager was penalized for failing to accomplish a
standard over which, in this case, he had no influence.

Finally managers should see that the number of standards assigned, like planning
objectives, are limited and placed in priority order for the employee. If there are too many
controls assigned, the employee will not be able to give enough attention to any of them and will
become frustrated and confused.

Step 2: Measure and compare actual with planned results

As with setting standards, the objectivity of the measurement and the person who
measures and compares the performance are important. Measuring and comparing can be
accomplished by the person performing the task, by the boss, or by a staff person; even an
automated system can measure and compare. From a behavioral standpoint, the last method is
the least popular, followed by measurement by a staff person only.

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An employee believes an automated system, a staff person, or even the boss does not know
enough about the conditions of the job to make a fair comparison between actual and planned
results.

Also, the employee often distrusts the staff person and sometimes even the boss. At the
same time, the employee is usually not trusted enough by the company to perform the
measurement and comparison alone. The best solution is to have the measurement done by the
person most trusted by the employee and to allow the employee some input.

Behavioral Responses to Control Systems

When employees have relatively low trust in a control system, they sometimes behave in
various ways that are harmful to the organization. They may do what is required by the system.

For example, when bonuses for salespeople in a department store were based on sales volume,
many employees soon lost interest in customers who did not immediately purchase an item, and
they spent little time helping customers, making merchandise attractive, or performing stock
work.

Quite often employees will report data in such a way that performance will look good for
a particular time period. Some control systems will also cause employees to report invalid or
misleading data about what can be done.

For example, it is not uncommon at budget time for managers to ask for larger amounts
than needed if they believe their requests will be reduced. In many organizations budget setting
sessions are largely negotiating games with little effort given to establishing realistic standards.
The advent of computer-based management information systems has also caused invalid data to
be provided. These systems sometimes require historical cost, production, and other data that are

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simply not available and cannot be provided. When pressed, however, the data are estimated,
often inaccurately.

Finally, control systems that employees view as clearly threatening will cause strong
resistance, perhaps the best example of this is automatic data systems. These systems create new
experts with much power, are often not well understood, and, therefore are feared by many
employees.

Step 3. Evaluate results, give feedback and coach

The third step is most effective when steering controls are selected. With these controls,
forecasters of the results can also be used for early warning that specific actions may be required.

For example, high morale is a popular goal but one that is difficult to measure. Forecasters such
as number of accidents, absenteeism, and employee turnover may be evaluated together and
serve as a surrogate measure for increasing or declining morale.

However, careful evaluation must be used. If the accident rate increases rapidly in the
production area, it would suggest declining morale when a significant increase is caused by
employee carelessness. However, if the cause is related to equipment that suddenly wears out,
then there probably is not a relationship between accident rate and low morale.

It is essential that managers carefully evaluate deviations before taking action. It is also
important that they remember that deviations can be positive as well as negative and that they
reward employees for positive deviations. Unfortunately, this step is often omitted and only the
negative aspects of deviation receive attention.

Who should receive feedback from this evaluation and how often should it be offered?

• The person who is accountable for accomplishing the standard should receive the
information first.
• The employee's boss, or whoever is in a position to reward the employee should receive
the information at about the same time or a little later.

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• Then peers, staff people, subordinates. and other line people can receive the information.
At this time, the boss ought to have some suggestions about how to get back on course if
the employee needs help.

The boss's most important job is coaching subordinates. And a good planning control
system provides an excellent framework for such coaching.

Feedback must be reliable, relatively frequent, and prompt. The feedback has to be
reliable for the employees to be able to change the behavior or plan in order to get on course.
Frequency of information has to do with the interval for which data are received.

If, for instance, costs would not normally get out of control in a short period, then
monthly reports might be adequate. On the other hand, a delay of six months might allow the
situation to get so far out of control that it would be too late to take corrective action.

Sometimes prompt feedback can create problems. Today's computer-based control


systems can provide feedback on a real time basis, but such speed can be harmful from a
behavioral standpoint. This kind of speed causes undue pressure because there is no time for the
manager to use discretion and make changes.

A company director recently described his company's "outstanding" planning-control


system. He proudly explained a feedback system that provided information on a continuous basis
to every employee concerning his or her progress toward a numbers goal. 'When numbers
weren't being made, more pressure was applied.'

Employees were confused because there was no plan to change, and consequently,
standards and objectives were not changed. The company had a standards-control system based
on numbers: but objectives, plans, evaluation, and coaching did not exist. It is this sort of system
that causes low morale and unethical and illegal behavior - all in the name of control.

Step 4. Take corrective action

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Making changes as the activity is in progress is a form of corrective action. The real
correction occurs when warnings rose by the forecasters or predictors are confirmed.

The corrective action can be changing objectives, standards, plans, and the like, but it can
also be penalizing employees when the objectives, standards, and plans are determined to be
appropriate and employees have not met them.

However, there usually are several alternative corrective actions that can be taken and
often more than one will prove effective. The planning control system is not effective until
corrective action is taken and this action begins a new planning-control cycle.

Training

The term training refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a
result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful
competencies. It forms the core of apprenticeships and provides the backbone of content at
institutes of technology (also known as technical colleges or polytechnics). In addition to the
basic training required for a trade, occupation or profession, observers of the labor-market[who?]
recognize today the need to continue training beyond initial qualifications: to maintain, upgrade
and update skills throughout working life. People within many professions and occupations may
refer to this sort of training as professional development.

Some commentators use a similar term for workplace learning to improve performance: training
and development. One can generally categorize such training as on-the-job or off-the-job:

• On-the-job training takes place in a normal working situation, using the actual tools,
equipment, documents or materials that trainees will use when fully trained. On-the-job
training has a general reputation as most effective for vocational work.
• Off-the-job training takes place away from normal work situations — implying that the
employee does not count as a directly productive worker while such training takes place.
Off-the-job training has the advantage that it allows people to get away from work and

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concentrate more thoroughly on the training itself. This type of training has proven more
effective in inculcating concepts and ideas.

Training differs from exercise in that people may dabble in exercise as an occasional activity for
fun. Training has specific goals of improving one's capability, capacity, and performance.

Compare:

• Education
• Learning

Types of training

Physical training

Physical training concentrates on mechanistic goals: training-programs in this area


develop specific skills or muscles, often with a view to peaking at a particular time. Some
physical training programs focus on raising overall physical fitness.

Training inside an organization

Organizations can use training as a reward, they are investing money in their employees,
this will gain further employee moral. They are also rewarding themselves and obtaining better
and higher skilled employees and this has to be positive for any business

In military use, training means gaining the physical ability to perform and survive in
combat, and learning the many skills needed in a time of war. These include how to use a variety
of weapons, outdoor survival skills, and how to survive capture by the enemy, among others. See
military education and training.

For psychological or physiological reasons, people who believe it may be beneficial to


them can choose to practice relaxation training, or autogenic training, in an attempt to increase
their ability to relax or deal with stress. While some studies have indicated relaxation training is

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useful for some medical conditions, autogenic training has limited results or has been the result
of few studies.

Religion and spirituality

In religious and spiritual use, training may refer to the purification of the mind, heart,
understanding and actions to obtain a variety of spiritual goals such as closeness to God or
freedom from suffering. Note for example the institutionalized spiritual training of Threefold
Training in Buddhism, or discipleship in Christianity.

Artificial-intelligence feedback

Researchers have developed training-methods for artificial-intelligence devices as well.


Evolutionary algorithms, including genetic programming and other methods of machine learning,
use a system of feedback based on "fitness functions" to allow computer programs to determine
how well an entity performs a task. The methods construct a series of programs, known as a
“population” of programs, and then automatically test them for "fitness", observing how well
they perform the intended task. The system automatically generates new programs based on
members of the population that perform the best. These new members replace programs that
perform the worst. The procedure repeats until the achievement of optimum performance. In
robotics, such a system can continue to run in real-time after initial training, allowing robots to
adapt to new situations and to changes in themselves, for example, due to wear or damage.
Researchers have also developed robots that can appear to mimic simple human behavior as a
starting point for training.

Product design

Product design is concerned with the efficient and effective generation and development
of ideas through a process that leads to new products.

Product Designers conceptualize and evaluate ideas, making them tangible through products in a
more systematic approach. Their role is to combine art, science and technology to create tangible
three-dimensional goods. This evolving role has been facilitated by digital tools that allow

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designers to communicate, visualize and analyze ideas in a way that would have taken greater
manpower in the past.

Product design is sometimes confused with industrial design, industrial design is concerned with
the aspect of that process that brings that sort of artistic form and usability usually associated
with craft design to that of mass produced goods.

Process

Product designers follow various methodologies that requires a specific skill set to complete

Initial Stage

• Idea Generation can be from imagination, observation, or research.


• Need Based Generation can be from the need to solve a problem, the need to follow the
popular trends, or the need for a product to do a specific task.

Mid Stage

• Design Solutions arise from meeting user needs, concept development, form exploration,
ergonomics, prototyping, materials, and technology.
• Production involves fabrication and manufacturing the design.

Final Stage

Marketing involves selling the product. It can either be client based


which mean the client buys the design and manufactures it and then
sells it to customers. Or it can be user based where the product is sold
directly to the user by the designer.
PRODUCT DESIGN PROCESS
After identification of a priority market and generation of a set of initial ideas, the next
task is to “design” the product. Consider design as the designation of the key benefits the
product is to provide, the psychological positioning of these benefits versus competitive
products, and the fulfillment of the product promises by physical features.

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THE DESIGN PROCESS
The design process can be viewed as being made up of a managerial and consumer
component. The managerial sub process represents a categorization of the types of managerial
decisions made in new product development. The consumer response sub process represents a
categorization of the steps' analysts proceed through as they study the market to help managers
design new products.

Opportunity Identification
The managerial sub process begins with opportunity identification through market
definition as a proactive design strategy. Management examines the opportunities, searches for
new opportunities, and from these opportunities selects the market that has the great potential to
achieve managerial tools. As the product is developed based on the design process, this market
definition is continually modified and refined until a final strategy is ready for formal testing.

Consumer Measurement
Early in the design process the emphasis should be on gaining an understanding of the
consumer, thus the consumer response investigation begins with qualitative consumer
measurement. The qualitative measurement puts management in touch with market by providing
insight on what motivates consumers, how consumers see the market, how consumer make their
purchases, and so on.

Models of Consumers
The models, focused around the awareness, perception, preference, segmentation,
availability and choice factors described earlier, help management diagnose the market by
providing a specific representation of each component in the consumer response process.

They identify the design features and products characteristics that make the greatest compact on
consumer response and direct the design process to the product or service strategy that is most
likely to succeed in the marketplace.

Perception identifies the key dimensions that are most relevant to consumer.

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Preference identifies how consumers use the perceived dimensions to evaluate product.

Segmentation determines whether the best strategy is to have one product for all
consumers or whether to have a multiplicity of products, each directed at a specific group
consumers.

Prediction of Market Behavior


Management selects the characteristics for a new product and establishes an advertising
and promotional strategy. The perception model predicts how the new product will be perceived
by each consumer, how the new product will be compared to existing ones, and determine the
probability that any given consumer will actually purchase the new product.

Evaluation
Management weights this prediction as well as production costs, political constraints, technology
constraints, material availability, firm image, complementary with product line, and other aspects
of new product introduction to arrive at GO/NO GO decision.

Refinement
The product is improved based on the diagnostic information from models of the
consumers

KEY POINTS OF THE DESIGN PROCESS

1. A new product is both a physical product and a psychological positioning.

2. The design process is interactive.

3. Both prediction and understanding are necessary.

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4. The level of analysis should be appropriate to the strategic decision.

5. The design process blends managerial judgment with qualitative and quantitative techniques.
Scheduling

Scheduling is a key concept in computer multitasking, multiprocessing operating system and


real-time operating system designs. Scheduling refers to the way processes are assigned to run
on the available CPUs, since there are typically many more processes running than there are
available CPUs. This assignment is carried out by software’s known as a scheduler and
dispatcher.

The scheduler is concerned mainly with:

• CPU utilization - to keep the CPU as busy as possible.


• Throughput - number of processes that complete their execution per time unit.
• Turnaround - total time between submission of a process and its completion.
• Waiting time - amount of time a process has been waiting in the ready queue.
• Response time - amount of time it takes from when a request was submitted until the first
response is produced.
• Fairness - Equal CPU time to each thread.

In real-time environments, such as mobile devices for automatic control in industry (for example
robotics), the scheduler also must ensure that processes can meet deadlines; this is crucial for
keeping the system stable. Scheduled tasks are sent to mobile devices and managed through an
administrative back end.

Types of operating system schedulers

Operating systems may feature up to 3 distinct types of schedulers: a long-term scheduler


(also known as an admission scheduler or high-level scheduler), a mid-term or medium-term
scheduler and a short-term scheduler. The names suggest the relative frequency with which these
functions are performed.

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Long-term scheduler

The long-term, or admission, scheduler decides which jobs or processes are to be


admitted to the ready queue; that is, when an attempt is made to execute a program, its admission
to the set of currently executing processes is either authorized or delayed by the long-term
scheduler. Thus, this scheduler dictates what processes are to run on a system, and the degree of
concurrency to be supported at any one time - i.e.: whether a high or low amount of processes are
to be executed concurrently, and how the split between IO intensive and CPU intensive
processes is to be handled. In modern OS's, this is used to make sure that real time processes get
enough CPU time to finish their tasks. Without proper real time scheduling, modern GUI
interfaces would seem sluggish.

Long-term scheduling is also important in large-scale systems such as batch processing


systems, computer clusters, supercomputers and render farms. In these cases, special purpose job
scheduler software is typically used to assist these functions, in addition to any underlying
admission scheduling support in the operating system.

Mid-term scheduler

The mid-term scheduler temporarily removes processes from main memory and places
them on secondary memory (such as a disk drive) or vice versa. This is commonly referred to as
"swapping out" or "swapping in" (also incorrectly as "paging out" or "paging in"). The mid-term
scheduler may decide to swap out a process which has not been active for some time, or a
process which has a low priority, or a process which is page faulting frequently, or a process
which is taking up a large amount of memory in order to free up main memory for other
processes, swapping the process back in later when more memory is available, or when the
process has been unblocked and is no longer waiting for a resource.

In many systems today (those that support mapping virtual address space to secondary
storage other than the swap file), the mid-term scheduler may actually perform the role of the
long-term scheduler, by treating binaries as "swapped out processes" upon their execution. In this
way, when a segment of the binary is required it can be swapped in on demand, or "lazy loaded".

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Short-term scheduler

The short-term scheduler (also known as the CPU scheduler) decides which of the ready,
in-memory processes are to be executed (allocated a CPU) next following a clock interrupt, an
IO interrupt, an operating system call or another form of signal. Thus the short-term scheduler
makes scheduling decisions much more frequently than the long-term or mid-term schedulers - a
scheduling decision will at a minimum have to be made after every time slice, and these are very
short. This scheduler can be preemptive, implying that it is capable of forcibly removing
processes from a CPU when it decides to allocate that CPU to another process, or non-
preemptive (also known as "voluntary" or "co-operative"), in which case the scheduler is unable
to "force" processes off the CPU.

Dispatcher

Another component involved in the CPU-scheduling function is the dispatcher. The


dispatcher is the module that gives control of the CPU to the process selected by the short-term
scheduler. This function involves the following:

• Switching context
• Switching to user mode
• Jumping to the proper location in the user program to restart that program

The dispatcher should be as fast as possible, since it is invoked during every process
switch. The time it takes for the dispatcher to stop one process and start another running is
known as the dispatch latency. [Galvin, 157]

Scheduling criteria

Different CPU scheduling algorithms have different properties, and the choice of a
particular algorithm may favor one class of processes over another. In choosing which algorithm
to use in a particular situation, we must consider the properties of the various algorithms. Many
criteria have been suggested for comparing CPU scheduling algorithms. Which characteristics

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are used for comparison can make a substantial difference in which algorithm is judged to be
best. The criteria include the following:

• CPU Utilization. We want to keep the CPU as busy as possible.


• Throughput. If the CPU is busy executing processes, then work is being done. One
measure of work is the number of processes that are completed per time unit, called
throughput. For long processes, this rate may be one process per hour; for short
transactions, it may be 10 processes per second.
• Turnaround time. From the point of view of a particular process, the important criterion is
how long it takes to execute that process. The interval from the time of submission of a
process to the time of completion is the turnaround time. Turnaround time is the sum of
the periods spent waiting to get into memory, waiting in the ready queue, executing on
the CPU, and doing I/O.
• Waiting time. The CPU scheduling algorithm does not affect the amount of the time
during which a process executes or does I/O; it affects only the amount of time that a
process spends waiting in the ready queue. Waiting time is the sum of periods spend
waiting in the ready queue.
• Response time. In an interactive system, turnaround time may not be the best criterion.
Often, a process can produce some output fairly early and can continue computing new
results while previous results are being output to the user. Thus, another measure is the
time from the submission of a request until the first response is produced. This measure,
called response time, is the time it takes to start responding, not the time it takes to output
the response. The turnaround time is generally limited by the speed of the output device.

It is desirable to maximize CPU utilization and throughput and to minimize turnaround


time, waiting time, and response time. In most cases, we optimize the average measure.
However, under some circumstances, it is desirable to optimize the minimum or maximum
values rather than the average. For example, to guarantee that all users get good service, we may
want to minimize the maximum response time. Investigators have suggested that, for interactive
systems, it is more important to minimize the variance in the response time than to minimize the
average response time. A system with reasonable and predictable response time may be

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considered more desirable than a system that is faster on the average but is highly variable.
However, little work has been done on CPU-scheduling algorithms that minimize variance.

Scheduling disciplines

Scheduling disciplines are algorithms used for distributing resources among parties which
simultaneously and asynchronously request them. Scheduling disciplines are used in routers (to
handle packet traffic) as well as in operating systems (to share CPU time among both threads and
processes), disk drives (I/O scheduling), printers (print spooler), most embedded systems, etc.

The main purposes of scheduling algorithms are to minimize resource starvation and to ensure
fairness amongst the parties utilizing the resources. Scheduling deals with the problem of
deciding which of the outstanding requests is to be allocated resources. There are many different
scheduling algorithms. In this section, we introduce several of them.

Shortest remaining time

Also known as Shortest Job First (SJF). With this strategy the scheduler arranges
processes with the least estimated processing time remaining to be next in the queue. This
requires advanced knowledge or estimations about the time required for a process to complete.

• If a shorter process arrives during another process' execution, the currently running
process may be interrupted, dividing that process into two separate computing blocks.
This creates excess overhead through additional context switching. The scheduler must
also place each incoming process into a specific place in the queue, creating additional
overhead.
• This algorithm is designed for maximum throughput in most scenarios.
• Waiting time and response time increase as the process' computational requirements
increase. Since turnaround time is based on waiting time plus processing time, longer
processes are significantly affected by this. Overall waiting time is smaller than FIFO,
however since no process has to wait for the termination of the longest process.

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• No particular attention is given to deadlines; the programmer can only attempt to make
processes with deadlines as short as possible.
• Starvation is possible, especially in a busy system with many small processes being run.

Fixed priority pre-emptive scheduling

The O/S assigns a fixed priority rank to every process, and the scheduler arranges the
processes in the ready queue in order of their priority. Lower priority processes get interrupted
by incoming higher priority processes.

• Overhead is not minimal, nor is it significant.


• FPPS has no particular advantage in terms of throughput over FIFO scheduling.
• Waiting time and response time depend on the priority of the process. Higher priority
processes have smaller waiting and response times.
• Deadlines can be met by giving processes with deadlines a higher priority.
• Starvation of lower priority processes is possible with large amounts of high priority
processes queuing for CPU time.

Round-robin scheduling

The scheduler assigns a fixed time unit per process, and cycles through them.

• RR scheduling involves extensive overhead, especially with a small time unit.


• Balanced throughput between FCFS and SJN, shorter jobs are completed faster than in
FCFS and longer processes are completed faster than in SJN.
• Fastest average response time, waiting time is dependent on number of processes, and not
average process length.
• Because of high waiting times, deadlines are rarely met in a pure RR system.
• Starvation can never occur, since no priority is given. Order of time unit allocation is
based upon process arrival time, similar to FCFS.

Multilevel queue scheduling

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This is used for situations in which processes are easily into different groups. For example, a
common division is made between foreground processes and background (batch) processes.

Overview
Scheduling CPU Turnaround Response Deadline Starvation
Throughput
algorithm Utilization time time handling free

First In First Out Low Low High Low No Yes

Shortest Job
Medium High Medium Medium No No
First

Priority based
Medium Low High High Yes No
scheduling

Round-robin
High Medium Medium High No Yes
scheduling

Multilevel
Queue High High Medium Medium Low Yes
scheduling

How to choose a scheduling algorithm

When designing an operating system, a programmer must consider which scheduling


algorithm will perform best for the use the system is going to see. There is no universal “best”
scheduling algorithm, and many operating systems use extended or combinations of the
scheduling algorithms above. For example, Windows NT/XP/Vista uses a multilevel feedback
queue, a combination of fixed priority preemptive scheduling, round-robin, and first in first out.
In this system, processes can dynamically increase or decrease in priority depending on if it has
been serviced already, or if it has been waiting extensively. Every priority level is represented by
its own queue, with round-robin scheduling amongst the high priority processes and FIFO among
the lower ones. In this sense, response time is short for most processes, and short but critical
system processes get completed very quickly. Since processes can only use one time unit of the
round robin in the highest priority queue, starvation can be a problem for longer high priority
processes.

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Simplification
simplification (equivalent to conjunction elimination) is a valid argument and rule of inference
which makes the inference that, if the conjunction A and B is true, then A is true, and B is true.

In formal language:

or

The argument has one premise, namely a conjunction, and one often uses simplification in longer
arguments to derive one of the conjuncts.

An example in English:

It's raining and it's pouring.

Therefore it's raining.

Quality control

Quality control is a process by which entities review the quality of all factors involved
in production. This approach places an emphasis on three aspects:

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1. Elements such as controls, job management, defined and well managed processes[1][2],
performance and integrity criteria, and identification of records
2. Competence, such as knowledge, skills, experience, and qualifications
3. Soft elements, such as personnel integrity, confidence, organizational culture, motivation,
team spirit, and quality relationships.

The quality of the outputs is at risk if any of these three aspects is deficient in any way.

Total quality control

Total Quality Control is the most important inspection control of all in cases where,
despite statistical quality control techniques or quality improvements implemented, sales
decrease.

If the original specification does not reflect the correct quality requirements, quality
cannot be inspected or manufactured into the product.

For instance, the parameters for a pressure vessel should include not only the material
and dimensions, but also operating, environmental, safety, reliability and maintainability
requirements.

Quality control in project management

In project management, quality control requires the project manager and the project team
to inspect the accomplished work to ensure that it's aligned with the project scope

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