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Control System Technology


Control Systems
Control meaning
Control means that you want to be adapted to certain object where you need to apply essential
operation for certain target to become real. Thus a control system is a group of components that
maintains desired results by applying another variable as a manipulator.

Automatic control
Automatic control is the control equipment to be automatically controlled by electronics gadget.
Baths, Circulators
and Chillers from
-120 to +425°C

Diagram above is a simple example of water level in a tank that are being controlled. In this
example the object is the tank, the target is to maintain the level of the tank to h even when you
open the valve V1. This can be done if the valve V2 controlled the water that coming into the tank.

Block diagram
The control system is being represented by a block diagram which has signal input, signal lines
and signal output. An example of a water control system can be given as

The loop in a block diagram indicates the concept being used. Like example above there is no
feedback so the system is an open loop system.

Closed loop system

A system that has feedback is called closed loop system. Example of a closed loop system is
given as:

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Transfer functions
Transfer function of a component shows relationship between input signal and output. Two
important terms relating to transfer function is the size of the signal input compares to output and
delay between input when the signal about to reach the output. Linear device means that signal
input form remains the same after it reaches the output

Transfer functions definition diagram

The ratio of the amplitude output signal divides with its input defines the transfer function. We
call this ratio as gain of the device.
Level control
Continuous level

Measuring timing difference

Let say the input signal after reaching the output was delayed by the time t = - α/ω second. This
means that the input signal crosses zero when ωt/α = 0 and the output signal crosses zero when
ωt + β = 0The timing difference is calculated shown below:

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Phase difference
The phase difference between input and output is the phase angle of the output signal minus
phase angle from the input. Unit measured in degrees.

Complex number transfer function

Let the input of a transfer function be represented by A/α and the output by the complex number
B/β . Then the transfer function G can be shown to be:

Amplitude gain
Gain of a component can also be defined as the change in the output amplitude to the change in

Gain unit
Unit for gain depends on the unit used by input and output. If an amplifier is producing 10 volts
output in volts where inputs unit is also in volts then the gain unit will be volts per volts.

Frequency response
At 1 hertz frequency a certain electronic control system might have a gain 0.995 and a phase
difference 5.71 degrees. This is called the frequency response of the system.

Open loop control merit demerit

The open loop control system has got its own merit and demerit. It is easy to build open loop

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control and harder for closed loop control system. Take an example of a gun. When you release
the bullet, the bullet travels on its own. Suppose a wind come pass by the bullet might not hit the
target and this is one of demerit in open loop control system.

Closed loop control system

A closed loop system will need a feedback so that the output signal will be fed back to the input.
In this way the the measured value will end up in the desired value. This is done by the closed
loop due to the feedback path that ends up in the input. Closed loop control system in block
diagram can be shown basically in the form below:

Poultry House 1. Manipulation: Use control action to manipulate some

Full Automation
variable in order to reduce error.
System for Poultry
Layer, Broiler, 2. Measurement the value of controlled variable.
Breeder control
3. Compute error made by the system then used that error
to push the output to desired value.

Deriving transfer function

The closed loop control system transfer function or C/R can be derived by writing the output of
the error detector in terms of reference R and primary feedback Cm.

Use substitution method to erase E and Cm.

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1) Size and timing. Transfer function

2) Gain = 29.0
Phase difference= - 1°
Transfer function = 29.0/-1°

Gain = 10.0
Phase difference = 2°
Transfer function = 10/-2°
4) C/R = G/(1 - GH)

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Input Output relationship
1) Give two parts of relationship between input and output of a component name and the function
that helps to promote this relationship? Give an example of an open loop system?

Gain phase difference

2) Determine the gain phase difference and transfer function for each of the following
input/output conditions. The components are linear.

No. Frequency Input Amplitude Output Input phase Output phase


1 36 kHz 0.4 volts 11.6 volts 20° 19°

2 0.4 Hz 5% 50% 10° 12°

Feedback control system

3) You are a teacher working in a robotic institute. Your friend ask you about control systems.
You are required to explain the operation performed by a feedback control system. You must be
able to explain how the system works by explaining each component and each signal in the
control system.

Primary feedback signal

4) Primary feedback signal is inverted then added to the reference signal to form error signal. The
feedback is the negative feedback but if you want positive feedback just turn the error signal into
plus. Show how can you do this and derive the formula positive feedback transfer function?

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