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Basics of

Current and Voltage Transformers


Power Transmission and Distribution

Author

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Page 241 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Equivalent current transformer circuit

N1
I 2′ = I1 ⋅
I1 jX1 R1 N2 jX2 R2 I2

P1 Im S1
N1 N2 U Zm Zb
2

P2 S2
Ideal CT

X1 = Primary leakage reactance


R1 = Primary winding resistance Power Transmission and Distribution
X2 = Secondary leakage reactance
Z0 = Magnetizing impedance
R2 = Secondary winding resistance
Zb = SecondaryAuthor
load
Note: Normally the leakage fluxes X1 and X2 can be neglected

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Page 242 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Current transformer, simplified equivalent circuit

1 : N2 jX2 R2

i1 i2
ZB

N2
i'1 = ⋅ i1 i2
1 L2<< LW R2

Power Transmission and Distribution


LW im
RB

Author

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Page 243 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Current transformer:
Phase displacement (δ) and current ratio error (ε)

N1
I1 .
N2

I1 ε
N1

I2

N2

I2
δ
Power Transmission and Distribution

Zb
Author

Im

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Page 244 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
CT classes to IEC 60044-1: 5P or 10P

Pi = I sec .2 × R CT
Specification: 300/1 A 5P10, 30 VA RCT ≤ 5 Ohm
Rated burden
Ratio In -Prim / In -Sek. (nominal power) PNB
5% accuracyat I= n x In Accuracy
limit factor ALF
Actual accuracy limit factor
in operation is higher as the CT Pi + PNB Dimension criterium:
ALF ' = ALF × I
is normally underburdened : Pi + PBB ALF ' ≥ SC − max × KTF
Operating ALF: ALF‘ I n and Distribution
Power Transmission

KTF (over-dimensioning factor) considers the single sided CT over-magnetising due to the d.c.
Author
component in short circuit current ISC.
KTF values required in practice depend on relay type and design.
Recommendations are provided by manufacturers (see Application Guides)
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Page 245 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Definition of the CT knee-point voltage

U2
10 %

UKN IEC 60044-1 Class PX


formerly
50 %
British Standard BS3938:
Class X
Power Transmission and Distribution

Author
Im

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Page 246 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Current transformer, Standard for steady-state performance

IEC 60044-1 specifies the following classes:

Current error Angle error δ


Accuracy class at nominal Total error at n x In
at rated current
current (In) (rated accuracy limit)
In

5P ±1% ± 60 minutes 5%
10P ± 5% 10 %
Power Transmission and Distribution

Author

Copyright © Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.


Page 247 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Current transformers, Standard for transient performance

IEC 60044-6 specifies four classes:

Class Error at rated current Maximum error at Remanence


rated accuracy limit
Ratio error Angle error

TPX
(closed iron core)
± 0,5 % ± 30 min εˆ ≤ 10% no limit

TPY
with anti-remanence ± 1,0 % ± 30 min εˆ ≤ 10% < 10 %
air gap

TPZ εˆ ≤ 10% Power Transmission and Distribution


± 1,0 % ± 180 ± 18 min negligible
linear core
(a.c. current only)

TPS Special version for high impedance protection


Author No limit
closed iron core (Knee point voltage, internal secondary resistance)

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Page 248 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Current transformer saturation

Steady-state saturation with AC current

Power Transmission and Distribution

Author

Transient saturation with offset current

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Page 249 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Transient CT saturation due to DC component

ISC Short circuit current

DC flux non-saturated

ΦS

Φ
AC flux
Power Transmission and Distribution

Author

Im Magnetising current

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Page 250 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Course of CT-flux during off-set short-circuit current

ΙP primary current
t t
d.c. component B ω ⋅TN ⋅TS − TN −
= 1+ (e − e TS )

~
TN − TS

TS
t
BMax ⎛T ⎞ − N TS TN
= 1+ ω ⋅TS ⋅ ⎜⎜ ⎟
TN B~
total flux ⎝ TS ⎠
B
TN ⋅ TS TS
t B Max = ⋅ ln
BMax TS − TN TN
transient
d.c. flux B~ 1
LW Power Transmission and Distribution
TS = =
a.c. flux Ri + RB ω ⋅ tanδ
Author 10900
t For 50 Hz: TS = [ms]
B~
δ [min ]

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Page 251 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
CT transient over-dimensioning factor KTF

KTF
TS
∞ (KTF ≈1+ωTN)
⎛ TN ⎞ TS − TN
6 KTF = 1+ ωTS⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ 5000 Closed iron core
0
⎝ TS ⎠
5
0
1000
4 TS [ms]
0
500
3
0 250
2
0 100 Linear core
Power Transmission and Distribution
1
TN = network time constant
0
(short-circuit time constant)
Author
TS = CT secondary time constant
50 100 150 200 TN [ms]

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Page 252 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
CT with closed iron core,
Over-dimensioning factor KTF‘ for specified time to saturation (tM)

tM
15 tM → ∞
K‘td 50 ms
14
40 ms
10 ⎛ tM ⎞
30 ms ⎜ - ⎟
K' TF = 1 + ωTN ⋅ ⎜1 - e T N ⎟
⎜⎜ ⎟⎟
20 ms ⎝ ⎠
6
5
10 ms Power Transmission and Distribution
tM → ∞ :
XN
Author KTF = 1+ ωTN = 1+
RN
0 20 40 60 80 100 [ ms]

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Tp
Page 253 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
CT over-dimensioning factor KTF (tM,TN)
in the case of short time to saturation (tM)

KTF
tM 180
4 Θ (tM,TN)
10 ms (el. degree) 160
3.5
140
3
8 ms 120
2.5 tM
100
2
80 10 ms
1.5 6 ms 8 ms
60 6 ms
Power Transmission and Distribution
4 ms
1 40
4 ms 2 ms
0.5 Author 20
2 ms
0 0
0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100

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Page 254 2007-08 T
N in ms Author TPTD
N inSE
msPTI
Current transformer
magnetising and de-magnetising

ΙP

t
BMax
t

B = BR + (BMax. − BR ) ⋅ e TS

BMax BR
B
BR Power Transmission and Distribution

Ιm
Author
t Ιm

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Page 255 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Current transformer
Course of flux in the case of non-successful auto-reclosure

Bmax

tF1 = duration of 1st fault

t tDT dead time


Power Transmission and Distribution
tF1 tDT tF2 tF2 =duration of 2nd fault

⎡ tF1 tF1 tDT+tF2 ⎡ tF2 tF2


Bmax ⎢ ω ⋅TN ⋅TS − TN − ⎤ Author
− ω ⋅ TN ⋅TS − − ⎤
= 1+ (e − e TS ⎥ ⋅ e TS + ⎢1+ (e TN − e TS ⎥
Bˆ~ ⎢ TN −TS ⎥ ⎢ TN −TS ⎥
⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦

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Page 256 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Current transformer
magnetising curve and point of remanence

I II III
B

up to 80%

< 10%
negligible

H = im ⋅ w

Power Transmission and Distribution


I: closed iron core (TPX)
II: core with anti-remanence air-gaps (TPY)
Author III: Linearised core (TPZ)

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Page 257 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Current transformers TPX und TPY
Course of the flux with non-successful auto-reclosure

BR closed iron core (TPX)

Power Transmission and Distribution


core with anti-
remanence air-gaps (TPY)
BR
Author

tF1 tDT tF2 t

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Page 258 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Standards of voltage transformers

VT classes to IEC 60044-2


Class Permissible error at 0.05 ·UN and 1.0 · UN
designation Voltage error FU Angle error δ All 3P and 5P protection CTs must
3P 120 minutes additionally comply with one of the
± 3.0 % below VT metering classes!
5P ± 6.0 % 240 minutes

VT classes for measurement IEC 60044-2


Class Permissible voltage error in % Permissible angle error in minutes
designation at 1.0 · UN at 1.0·UN
Power Transmission and Distribution
0.1 0.1 5
0.2 0.2 10
0.5 0.5 20
Author
1 1 30
3 3 Not determined

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Page 259 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Capacitive voltage transformer,
Equivalent circuit

400 kV
3
C1 = 5 nF

20 kV RF
100 V
C2 = 95 nF LF CF ZB
3 3

CE = C 1 + C 2
LO Power Transmission and Distribution

C1 RE RF R'B
U*1 = UP ⋅ C RT LT U*2
C1 + C2
T
Author LF CF
L'B

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Page 260 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Transient performance of CVTs,
Recommendations acc. to IEC 60044-5

Us (t)
Ratio ⋅100%
2 ⋅ Us
Measured voltage transients after fault at
voltage maximum and zero-crossing Time Classes
(Example) Ts
in ms 3PT1 3PT2 3PT3
6PT1 6PT2 6PT3
10 --- ≤ 25 ≤4

20 ≤ 10 ≤ 10 ≤2

40 ≤ 10 ≤ 2 ≤2
t
60 ≤ 10 ≤ 0.6 ≤2

90 ≤ 10 ≤ 0.2 ≤2
Power Transmission and Distribution
Legend:
UP(t) Primary voltage Recommendations to IEC 60044-5
US(t) Secondary voltage
Author
(1) Fault inception
(2) Aperiodic damping of US(t)
(3) Periodic damping of US(t)

Copyright © Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.


Page 261 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
CT dimensioning K OD = KTF

Pi + PBN RCT + RBN rated CT burden: PBN


ALF' = ALF ⋅ = ALF ⋅ internal burden of the CT: Pi=Ri ⋅ I2N2
Pi + PB RCT + RB
Actual connected burden : PB= RB ⋅ I2N2
P + PB RCT + RB RB=Rl+RR= burden resistance
ALF = ALF'⋅ i = ALF'⋅ Rl= resistance of connecting cables
Pi + PBN RCT + RBN RR= burden resistance of the relay

I
with ALF ' ≥ K OD ⋅ K Theory: No saturation
K' TF =
BMax
= 1 + ωTN = 1 +
XN
IN
Bˆ ~
for the total
short-circuit duration:
RN

K OD ≥ K TF ⋅ K Re m No saturation for ω TN ⋅ TS

tM ⎤
⎡ Transmission andtMDistribution
Power
⋅ −

the specified time tM: K ' 'TF = ⎢1 + (e TN − e TS ⎥


1 ⎢ TN − TS ⎥
K Re m = Practice:Author ⎣ ⎦
% Remanence
1−
100 Remanence only considered in extra high voltage systems (EHV)
KTF-values acc. to relay manufacturers‘ guides

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Page 262 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
Practical CT requirements
Transient over-dimensioning factors KTF (AR not considered)

Distance Close-in fault: Fault atbalance point:


7SA6 and 7SA522 KTF ≥ 5 KTF ≥ 2 ( ≥ 1 if TN < 30ms)

Overcurrent ALF‘≥ I>>setting/ IN, at least 20


7SJ56

Internal fault External fault


Transformer Differential KTF≥ 0.75 KTF≥ 1.2
7UT6 (Saturation free (Saturation free
time ≥ 4 ms) time ≥ 5 ms)
Line differential KTF≥ 0.5 KTF≥ 1.2 Power Transmission and Distribution
7SD61 (Saturation free (Saturation free
time ≥ 3 ms) time ≥ 5 ms)
Bus differential KTF≥ 0.5Author KTF≥ 0.5
7SS52 (Saturation free (Saturation free
time ≥ 3 ms) time ≥ 3 ms)

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Page 263 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
CT dimensioning for
Example differential protection (1)

1. Calculation of fault currents 110/20 kV


40 MVA OH-line:
110 kV, 3 GVA F1 F2 F3 F4
uT=12% l = 8 km,
zL‘= 0,4 Ω/km
Net
300/1A 1200/1A 200/1A 200/1A

∆ IT ∆ IL ∆ IL
7SD61
7UT61

Impedances related to 110 kV: Impedances related to 20 kV:

U N 2 ⎡ kV 2 ⎤ U N 2 ⎡ kV 2 ⎤
⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ 110 2 20 2
⎢⎣ Power⎥⎦ Transmission and Distribution
Net : ZN = = = 4.03 Ω Net : ZN = = = 0.13 Ω
SSC ' ' [MVA ] 3000 SSC ' ' [MVA ] 3000

U N 2 ⎡ kV 2 ⎤ U N 2 ⎡ kV 2 ⎤
⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ uT [% ] 110 2 12 % Author ⎢⎣ ⎥⎦ uT [% ] 20 2 12 %
ZT = ⋅ = ⋅ = 36.3 Ω Transf. : ZT= ⋅ = ⋅ = 1.2 Ω
PN -T [MVA ] 100
Transf. :
PN -T [MVA ] 100 40 100 40 100

Line : Z L = l[km ]⋅ z L ' [Ω/km ] = 8 ⋅ 0,4 = 3,2 Ω


Copyright © Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.
Page 264 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
CT dimensioning for
Example differential protection (2)

1.1 ⋅ U N / 3 1.1 ⋅ 110kV/ 3 1.1 ⋅ U N / 3 1.1 ⋅ 20kV/ 3


F1 I F1 = = = 17.3 kA F3 I F3 = = = 9.55 kA
ZN 4.03Ω Z N + ZT 0.13Ω + 1.2Ω

1.1 ⋅ U N / 3 1,1 ⋅ 110kV/ 3 1.1 ⋅ U N / 3 1,1 ⋅ 20kV/ 3


F2 I F2 = = = 1.73 kA F4 I F4 = = = 2.8 kA
Z N + ZT 4.03Ω + 36.3Ω Z N + Z T + Z L 0.13Ω + 1.2Ω + 3.2 Ω

Dimensioning of the 110 kV CTs for the transformer differential protection:


Manufacturer recommends for relay 7UT61: 1) Saturation free time ≥ 4ms for internal faults
2) Over-dimensioning factor KTF ≥ 1,2
for through flowing currents (external faults)
The saturation free time of 3 ms
corresponds to KTF≥ 0,75
See diagram, page 59 Power Transmission and Distribution

Criterion 1) therefore reads:


For criterion 2) we get:
I 17300
ALF' ≥ K TF ⋅ F1 = 0,75 ⋅ = 43 Author I 1730
IN 300 ALF' ≥ K TF ⋅ F2 = 1,2 ⋅ =7
IN 300

The 110 kV CTs must be dimensioned according to criterion 1).


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Page 265 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
CT dimensioning for
Example differential protection (3)

We try to use a CT type: 300/1, 10 VA, 5P?, internal burden 2 VA.


Pi + Poperation 2 + 2.5
ALF ≥ ⋅ ALF ' = ⋅ 43 = 16.1 (Connected burden estimated to about 2.5 VA)
Pi + Prated 2 + 10
Chosen, with a security margin : 300 /1 A, 5P20, 10 VA, R2≤ 2 Ohm (Pi ≤ 2VA)
Specification of the CTs at the 20 kV side of the transformer:
It is good relaying practice to choose the same dimensioning as for the CTs on the 110 kV side:
1200/1, 10 VA, 5P20, R2≤ 2 Ohm (Pi ≤ 2VA)
Dimensioning of the 20 kV CTs for line protection:
For relay 7SD61, it is required: 1‘) Saturation free time ≥ 3ms for internal faults
2‘) Over-dimensioning factor KTF ≥ 1.2
for through flowing currents (external
Power faults)
Transmission and Distribution
The saturation free time of 3 ms corresponds
to KTF≥ 0.5
See diagram, page 59
Author
Criterion 1‘) therefore reads: For criterion 2‘) we get:
I 9550 The 20 kV line CTs
ALF' ≥ K TF ⋅ F3 = 0.5 ⋅ = 24 I 2800
IN 200 ALF' ≥ KTF ⋅ F4 = 1.2 ⋅ = 16.8 must be dimensioned
IN 200 according to criterion 1‘).
Copyright © Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved.
Page 266 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI
CT dimensioning for
Example differential protection (4)

For the 20 kV line we have considered the CT type: 200/5 A, 5 VA, 5P?, internal burden ca. 1 VA

Pi + Poperation 1+1
ALF ≥ ⋅ ALF ' = ⋅ 24 = 8 (Connected burden about 1 VA)
Pi + Prated 1+ 5

Specification of line CTs:

We choose the next higher standard accuracy limit factor ALF=10 :


Herewith, we can specify: CT Type TPX, 200/5 A, 5 VA, 5P10, R2≤ 0.04 Ohm ( Pi≤ 1 VA)

Power Transmission and Distribution

Author

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Page 267 2007-08 Author PTD SE PTI