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Proceedings of the National Conference on Recent Trends in Engineering Sciences 2k11

(18)ROAD CONSTRUCTION WITH PLASTIC WASTES


S.V.SHEIKNA LEBBAI1 , S.SIVA PRAKASH2
E-MAIL:pulipoo87@gmail.com, sheik_irf@yahoo.com

Abstract: This paper conducted a study on recycling plastic waste and blending it with bitumen to lay roads
in India and compare with the environmental and economic conditions in Bangladesh. The intention is to
improve awareness and encourage change in policy and practice. The technology is simple but innovative
mixing plastic 8% with bitumen 92% for road surfaces. Shredded plastic waste acts as a strong binding
agent for tar, making the asphalt last longer by rendering it more impervious to water. The normal road
surface last 3-4 years and the road constructed with plastic waste last at least 7-8 years.

A well-constructed plastic road will result in the following:


• Strength of the road increase
• Better assistance to water and water stagnation
• No stripping and have no pot holes.
• Better soundness property
• Cost of the is less
• To control environmental pollution. Such as cost of the road are just about 4-5
percentages less than normal road.

INTRODUCTION: PROD AREA BITU PLAS BITUME COST


Waste plastic is grinded and made into UCTS MEN TICS N REDU
powder 3 to 4% plastic is mixed with the NEED NEED SAVED CED
bitumen. Plastic increases the melting ED ED
point of the bitumen and makes the road Road 1kmx3 9tonne 1tonne 1tonnes Rs.
retain its flexibility during winters .75m s s 15000
resulting in its long life. Use of shredded Block 1kmx3 Nil 40tonn Nil 20%
plastic waste acts as a strong binding .75m es
agent for tar making the asphalt last Roofin 1mx1 Nil 250gm 100% To
long. By mixing plastic with bitumen the g sheets m s evaluat
ability of the bitumen to withstand high ed
temperature increases. The plastic waste
is melted and mixed with bitumen in 39km of plastic roads in rural area the
particular ratio. Normally, blending takes chemistry involves transforming all
place when temperature reaches 45.5 polythene material in pulp and mixing it
degree Celsius but when plastic is mixed, with tar and aggregate.
it remains stable even at 55 degree ECONOMIC DETAILS:ECONOMIC
Celsius RESEARCH:
Indian road sector has found a new Economies of most Asian countries:
technique to construct more durable road • Average daily earning of poorest
plastic to be precious waste plastic. The is $2(Rs.80)
district administration of kancheepuram • Reward for daily collection of
in tamilnadu is currently laying down dirty plastic wastes
A. 20kgs Rs.200=5$

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Proceedings of the National Conference on Recent Trends in Engineering Sciences 2k11

B. 30kgs Rs300=7.50$ to 60 micron (Aluminum coated also)


• Using plastic waste for blending packing materials used for biscuits,
with bitumen(due to affordable chocolates, etc.
cost of collection) attractive
METHODOLOGY:
economically and practical.
Disposal of waste materials
including waste plastic bags is a menace
ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS:
and has become a serious problem,
It has been found that modification of
especially in urban areas, in terms of its
bitumen with shredded waste plastic
misuse, its dumping in the dustbins,
marginally increases the cost by about
clogging of drains, reduced soil fertility
Rs.2500/tone. However this marginal
and aesthetic problem etc. waste plastics
increase is compensated by increase in
are also burnt for apparent disposal,
the volume of the total mix, there by
causing environmental pollution. The
resulting in less overall bitumen content,
laboratory studies conducted by CRRI in
better performance and environmental
utilization of waste plastic bags in
conservation with usage of waste plastics.
bituminous concrete mixes have proved
COST:
that these enhance the properties of mix
• Collection of littered plastics in addition to solving disposal problems.
:Rs. 0.5lakh The results indicated that there was an
• Cost of shredder and other improvement in strength properties when
equipment :Rs. 0.5lakh compared to a conventional mix.
• Laying of roads with material, REUSE OF PLASTICS WASTE IN
labour etc. :Rs. 4lakh ROAD CONSTRUCTION:
TOTAL : Rs. 5lakh Polymer blended Bitumen shows
MATERIALS REQUIRED: higher softening point, lower penetration
• Aggregate point, and better ductility. Polymer
• Bitumen coated aggregate blended with bitumen
• Shredding waste plastic shows higher Marshall Value and better
• Curing materials stripping value showing that the mix is
SPECIFICATIONS FOR WASTE more suited for road laying.
PLASTIC: PROCESS OF ROAD LAYING
The following types of waste plastic can USING POLYMER-AGGREGATE-
BITUMEN MIX: The plastic waste
be used in the construction of rural roads:
(bags, cups, thermo Cole) made out of
Films(carry bags, cups)thickness up to 6 PE, PP, & PS are separated, cleaned if
micron(PE, PP and PS) Hard needed and shredded to small pieces
foams(PS)any thickness Soft foams(PE (passing through 4.35mm sieve). The
and PP) Laminated plastics thickness up aggregate (granite) is
heated to 170 degree Celsius in the Mini added and mixed well. As the polymer
hot Mix Plant and the shredded plastic and the Bitumen are is the molten state
waste is added, it gets softened and (liquid state) they get mixed and the
coated over the aggregate. Immediately blend is formed at surface of the
the hot Bitumen (160 degree Celsius) is aggregate. The mixture is transferred to

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Proceedings of the National Conference on Recent Trends in Engineering Sciences 2k11

the road and the road is laid. This METHOD II (DRY PROCESS):
technique is extended to Central Mixing Waste polymer is added on the hot
Plant too. aggregate(170◦C).The polymer gets
coated over the aggregate uniformly. The
SPECIALITIES OF PLASTIC ROAD: bitumen is added; mixing of bitumen
with polymer takes place at the surface of
• Better Roads-longer life the aggregate around 155-163◦C. With
• Use of waste Plastics the increase in surface area of contact,
mixing of polymer with bitumen is better.
• Saving of Bitumen
Hence, blend with better binding property
• Costs Less Saving is formed.
• Costs Less job for Self Help
Groups FLOW CHART SHOWING
• Simple process, needs to new METHOD FOR CONSTRUCTION
Machinery OF ROAD RAW MATERIAL:
• Helps to Save Cost of Bitumen Bitumen Polymer Wastes (carry bags,
• Improves performance of Roads (60/70 & 80 /100) cups & thermocole)
• Solves problem of Plastic Waste Segregation
Disposal
• Practical Experience of our COMPARISION OF AGGREGATES
Industry Introducing the Change COATED AGGREGATE:
& Resistance-Authorities,
Contractors, Politicians, Mostly Coated Aggregate is used for wet
Citizens. process method.

PROCESS CHART OF WASTE PLASTICS PLAIN AGGREGATE:


COATED AGGREGATE-BITUMEN MIX: Mostly Plain Aggregate is used for dry
Aggregate shot Aggregates process method.
Waste Plastics Poly.Coated Aggregate ADVANTAGES OF PLASTICS-
Hot Bitumen 160 ◦C BITUMEN ROAD:
PolymerCoatedRoad Laying (120◦C) Better binding property. Higher softening
AggregateBitumenMixture point; withstands high temperture. Lower
METHOD I (WET PROCESS): penetration value; withstands higher load.
Blending of waste plastics by direct No stripping-Resists the permeation of
mixing of shredded polymer with hot water. Higher Marshal Stability –
bitumen at 160◦C.Mixing of higher increased strength of road. Operation
percentage of polymer difficult because temperture range: 160-170 degree celsius.
of difference in viscosities of molten Cost less compared to CRMB. Waste
polymer and Bitumen. Powerful Plastics (MSW, road side etc.). Better
mechanical stirrer required for effective disposal of waste plastics No toxic gas
mixing. Also required addition of evaluation – No to Dioxin. Waste plastics
stabilizers and proper cooling.

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Proceedings of the National Conference on Recent Trends in Engineering Sciences 2k11

disposal- No longer a problem. Plastics Coated with plastics waste provide no pot
bitumen road are cheap and good. hole formation.
COMPARISION TABLE DIFFERENCE OF THE PLASTIC AND
WITH PLASTIC AND WITHOUT NON-PLASTIC ROAD
PLASTIC: PENETRATION TEST:
The durability of the roads laid out with
The penetration test is used to determine
shredded plastic waste is much more
the hardness or softness of bitumen by
compared with roads with asphalt with
measuring the depth in tenths of a
the oridinary mix. Roads laid with plastic
millimeter to which a standard loaded
waste mix are found to be better than the
needle will penetrate vertically in five
conventional ones. The biniding property
seconds. The penetrometer consists of a
of plastic makes the road last longer
needle assembly with a total weight of
besides giving added strength to
100g and device for releasing and locking
withstand more loads.while a normal
in any position. The bitumen is softened
‘highway quality’ roads lasts four to five
to a pouring consistency, stirred
years it is claimed that plastic-bitumen
thoroughly and poured into containers to
roads can last upto 10years. Rainwater
a depth at least 15 mm in excess of the
will not steep through because of the
expected penetration. The sample
plastic in the tar. So, this technology will
containers are then placed in a
result in lessser road repairs. And as each
temperature controlled water bath at a
km of road with an average width
temperature of 250c for one hour.The
requires over two tones of polyblend,
sample with container is taken out and
using plastic will help reduce non-
the needle is arranged to make contact
biodegradabl
with the surface of the sample. The dial is
Stone Percentage Moisture set to zero or the initial reading is taken
and the needle is released for 5 seconds.
Aggregate of plastic Absorption
The final reading is taken on dial gauge.
At least three penetration tests are made
Without Plastic 0 4%
on this sample by testing at distances of
Coating
at least 10mm apart. Apart each test the
With Plastic coating 1% 2% needle is disengaged and wiped with
2% 1.1% benzene and dried. The depth of
3% Traces
penetration is reported in one-tenth
millimeter units. The mean value of three
measurements is reported as a penetration
BITUMEN COATING OVER PLASTIC value. It may be noted that the
COATED AGGREGATE: penetration value is largely influenced by
Plastics Road Resisting To Stripping. any in accuracy as regards pouring
Aggregate Coated with plain Bitumen temperature, size of needle, weight
shows 5% stripping after 24 hours. placed on the needle and the test
Aggregates Coated with Plastics Waste temperature.
followed by bitumen shows NIL
Stripping even after 72 hours. Aggregates

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Proceedings of the National Conference on Recent Trends in Engineering Sciences 2k11

ORDINARY Penetration value compared with ordinary bitumen road


BITUMEN: Sample without plastic material. Although this
I 97 practice is slightly uneconomical the road
laid using plastic waste requires less
II 95
thickness and long life compared to
ordinary bitumen road.
PLASTIC MIXED BITUMEN 5 %: REFERENCE:
Dr.V.Vasudevan TEC, Madurai and
Sample Penetration value CRRI article on website.
I 87.5 Dr.Sanghitha, Scientist flexible pavement
II 89 article on web site.
Dr.S.S.Varuma department of physics
RESULT: S.L.I.E.T presentation on website.
In the case of penetration test, the U.S.D.A Technology develop the plastic
penetration value of bitumen is lower road on September 1996 by Jeffry E.
than that of ordinary bitumen. Hence moll; B.E Senior project leader.
more loads can act on it.
OTHER TESTS: U.S.D.A Technology develop the plastic
• Ductility test
road on September 1996 by Ricky
• Impact test
Kiramoto, Engineering Assistance
• Abrasion test
Recycling used agricultural plastics
• Softening point testsare done and
the results were found James W .Gareth, Pavia D. Kowal, Penn
successfully. state university, Agricultural and
CONCLUSION: biological Engineering
India’s initiative in waste utilization has
been increasing in every sector because Plastic Trial Procedure Oaktech
of unavailability and depletion of raw Environmental website Accessed 9-11-
materials. In road construction the usage 1006
of stone aggregate is more. When plastic Dr. Aslam, Professor & Head, Er.
materials is used with stone aggregate the Shahan-ur-Rahman, Lecturer,
load capacity is increased with high Department of civil Engineering, Integral
impact resistance and low abrasion, University,Lucknow

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