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THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA

MINISTRY OF WORKS

Standard Specification for Road Works - 2000


Standard
Specification
for
Road Works

June 2000
ISBN 9987 - 8891 - 2 - 3
THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA
MINISTRY OF WORKS

Standard
Specification
for
Road Works
STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000

-81(
,6%1

Reproduction of extracts from this document may


be made subject to due acknowledgement of the
source.
Although this document is believed to be correct at
the time of printing, the Ministry of Works does not
accept any contractual, tortious or other form of
liability for its content or for any consequences
arising from its use. People using the information
contained in the document should apply and rely
on their own skill and judgement to the particular
issue that they are considering

Printed by: Novum Grafisk AS, Skjetten, Norway


Layout: Rolf Johansen, ViaNova and Jan Edvardsen, ICG, Norway

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS ,,


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000

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This Standard Specifications for Road Works - 2000 has been prepared as a
component under the Institutional Cooperation between the Ministry of Works (MoW),
Central Materials Laboratory (CML) and the Norwegian Public Roads Administration
(NPRA). The Government of Tanzania and the Norwegian Agency for International
Development (NORAD) have jointly financed the project, which forms part of a
programme to establish technical standards, guidelines and specifications for road and
highway engineering.
This document has been prepared by a Working Group under the supervision of a
Steering Committee comprising the following members from the Ministry of Works:
Mr. JL Ngumbulu Director of Trunk Roads (&KDLUPDQ)
Mr. JW Kijazi Director of Rural Roads
Mr. DJ Mariki Ag. Chief Engineer, CML
Mr. LJ Mujjungi Ag. Chief Engineer, Design and Construction, Trunk Roads
Mr. GJ Kinyero Ag. Chief Engineer, Design and Construction, Rural Roads

The Working Group consisted of the following members:


Mr. AS Idabaga MoW
Mr. ST Rwegumisa MoW
Mr. C Overby NPRA
Mr. R Johansen ViaNova (6HFUHWDU\)

The Steering Committee and the Working Group wish to acknowledge the significant
contribution from all people giving critical comments and advice during the preparation
of this document. In particular, the comprehensive input from contributors within the
Ministry of Works and the private sector who commented on the draft, is gratefully
acknowledged.

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS ,,,


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000

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Acknowledgements
Table of Contents
Crossection Terminology

Series 1000 General


Series 2000 Drainage
Series 3000 Earthworks and Pavement Layers of Gravel or Crushed Stone
Series 4000 Bituminous Layers and Seals
Series 5000 Ancillary Roadworks
Series 6000 Structures
Series 7000 Tolerances, Testing and Quality Control

Appendices:
Appendix 1 Summary of Pay Items
Appendix 2 List of Clauses Referring to the Special Specifications or Drawings

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS ,9


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000

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THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS 9


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 1000 - GENERAL

SERIES 1000
General

SECTION PAGE
1100 DEFINITIONS AND TERMS 1000-2
1200 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS AND
PROVISIONS 1000-6
1300 CONTRACTOR’S ESTABLISHMENT ON
SITE AND GENERAL OBLIGATIONS 1000-20
1400 ENGINEER’S ACCOMMODATION AND
ATTENDANCE UPON ENGINEER AND
HIS SITE PERSONNEL 1000-22
1500 ACCOMMODATION OF TRAFFIC 1000-30
1600 OVERHAUL 1000-34
1700 ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AND
WASTE DISPOSAL 1000-35

CONTENTS OF THE STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD WORKS 2000:


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
CROSSECTION TERMINOLOGY
SERIES 1000 GENERAL
SERIES 2000 DRAINAGE
SERIES 3000 EARTHWORKS AND PAVEMENT LAYERS OF GRAVEL OR CRUSHED STONE
SERIES 4000 BITUMINOUS LAYERS AND SEALS
SERIES 5000 ANCILLARY ROADWORKS
SERIES 6000 STRUCTURES
SERIES 7000 TOLERANCES, TESTING AND QUALITY CONTROL
APPENDICES

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 1000 - 1


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 1000 - GENERAL

SERIES 1000: GENERAL Unless inconsistent with the context, in these


Specifications, the following terms, words or
expressions shall have the meanings hereby assigned
SECTION 1100: DEFINITIONS to them. CROSSECTION TERMINOLOGY, page V, refers for
details on the cross-sectional elements of the road.
AND TERMS
1101 ACCEPTED
CONTENTS: Accepted in writing by the Engineer (or by the Employer
where appropriate) as meeting the requirements of the
CLAUSE PAGE Contract Documents and of any authorised variations
1101 ACCEPTED 1000-2 thereto. “Acceptance” means accepted in writing as
1102 ACCESS CULVERT 1000-2 aforesaid. “Acceptable” means acceptable to the
1103 AGGREGATE 1000-2 Engineer as aforesaid.
1104 APPROVED 1000-2
1105 ASPHALT CONCRETE SURFACING 1000-2 1102 ACCESS CULVERT
1106 BASE COURSE 1000-2 An access culvert provides an opening under an
1107 BITUMINOUS MIX 1000-2 intersecting side road or entrance to plots along the
1108 BITUMINOUS SEAL 1000-2 project road.
1109 BORROW AREA 1000-2
1110 BORROW PIT 1000-2 1103 AGGREGATE
1111 BORROW MATERIAL 1000-2 Crushed stone of specified size and quality to be used
1112 BRIDGE 1000-2
in the Works.
1113 CARRIAGEWAY 1000-3
1114 CATCHWATER DRAIN OR BANK 1000-3
1115 CERTIFICATE OF GUARANTEE 1000-3 1104 APPROVED
1116 COMMON EXCAVATION 1000-3 Approved in writing by the Engineer, including
1117 CONDITIONS OF CONTRACT 1000-3 subsequent written approval or confirmation of previous
1118 CROSSFILL 1000-3 verbal approval by the Engineer. “Approval” means
1119 CULVERT 1000-3 approval in writing as aforesaid.
1120 CUT 1000-3
1121 DIRECTED 1000-3 1105 ASPHALT CONCRETE SURFACING
1122 EARTHWORKS 1000-3 The layer - or layers - of a bituminous mix constructed
1123 EARTHWORKS MATERIAL TYPES 1000-3 on top of the base course made of a mixture to
1124 EMBANKMENT 1000-3 predetermined proportions of aggregate, filler and
1125 FILL 1000-3 bituminous binder material prepared in a mixing plant to
1126 FORMATION LEVEL 1000-3 meet the requirements for surfacing material class
1127 GRADE LINE 1000-3 AC20, AC14 or AC10 and placed by means of a paving
1128 GRADING MODULUS (GM) 1000-3 machine.
1129 IMPROVED SUBGRADE 1000-3
1130 INLET AND OUTLET DRAINS 1000-3 1106 BASE COURSE
1131 LANE 1000-3 A layer of material constructed on top of the subbase or
1132 LOT 1000-3 in the absence thereof, the improved subgrade layer. A
1133 MEDIAN 1000-3 base course may extend to outside the carriageway.
1134 MEDIAN DRAIN 1000-3
1135 MITRE DRAIN AND BANK 1000-3 1107 BITUMINOUS MIX
1136 OVERBURDEN 1000-3
A mixture of a bituminous binder and aggregate, but
1137 PAVEMENT 1000-3 excluding penetration macadam.
1138 PAVEMENT MATERIAL CLASSES 1000-3
1139 PIONEER LAYER 1000-4
1140 PRESPLITTING 1000-4 1108 BITUMINOUS SEAL
1141 ROADBED 1000-4 A bituminous surfacing made by the application of one
1142 ROAD PRISM 1000-4 or more layers of bituminous binder with layers of
1143 ROAD RESERVE OR RIGHT-OF-W AY 1000-4 aggregate in successive layers.
1144 ROCK EXCAVATION 1000-4
1145 ROLLER PASSES 1000-4 1109 BORROW AREA
1146 SERVICES 1000-4 An area within designated boundaries, approved for the
1147 SHOULDER 1000-4 purpose of obtaining borrow materials.
1148 SHOULDER BREAKPOINT 1000-4
1149 SIDE DRAIN 1000-4 1110 BORROW PIT
1150 SIDEFILL 1000-4 The excavated pit in a borrow area.
1151 SLOPE 1000-5
1152 SPECIFICATIONS 1000-5 1111 BORROW MATERIAL
1153 SPOIL (MATERIAL) 1000-5
Any gravel, sand, soil, stones or ash obtained from
1154 STABILISATION 1000-5 borrow areas, dumps or sources other than cut within
1155 SUBBASE 1000-5 the road prism and which is used in the construction of
1156 SUBGRADE, IMPROVED 1000-5
the Works. It shall not include crushed stone or sand
1157 SUBSOIL DRAINAGE SYSTEM 1000-5 obtained from commercial sources and blasted rock for
1158 SUBSIDIARY W ORKS 1000-5 crushing.
1159 SUBSTRUCTURE 1000-5
1160 SUITABLE MATERIALS 1000-5
1161 TOPSOIL 1000-5 1112 BRIDGE
1162 TRAVELLED W AY 1000-5 A structure for carrying motor, railways, pedestrian or
1163 UNSUITABLE MATERIALS 1000-5 other traffic or services over a river, watercourse,
1164 VERGE 1000-5 railway line or any other gap, with a single span length,
1165 WORKING DRAWINGS 1000-5 or sum of span lengths, of 2.0 metres or more. The
1166 QUARRY 1000-5 length is measured between the abutment faces, or pier
head faces respectively, along the centre line of the
road at girder-bed level.

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 1000 - 2


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 1000 - GENERAL

1113 CARRIAGEWAY classified as fill when placed below the improved


The surface normally traversed by vehicles and which subgrade layers.
consists of one or a number of contiguous traffic lanes,
include auxiliary lanes and shoulders. 1126 FORMATION LEVEL
The level of the top of the final layer of earthworks upon
1114 CATCHWATER DRAIN OR BANK which the pavement layers are placed.
A longitudinal drain or bank outside the road prism for
diverting water that should otherwise flow into the road 1127 GRADE LINE
prism. The grade line is a reference line in the Drawings of the
longitudinal sections of the road indicating at regular
1115 CERTIFICATE OF GUARANTEE intervals the elevations according to which the road is to
A signed statement by a person having legal authority be constructed. The grade line may refer to the level of
to bind a company or supplier to its product, and which the completed road, base or any other layer and may
confirms that the materials and test results conform to indicate the elevations either along the carriage way
the standards of the Specifications. centre line or along any designated position on the road
cross-section.
1116 COMMON EXCAVATION
Classification of excavation for payment purposes. 1128 GRADING MODULUS (GM)
Denotes all excavation, except rock excavation, The cumulative percentages by mass of material in a
required from the road prism, drains, etc. according to representative sample of aggregate, gravel or soil
the Drawings and the Specifications. retained on the 2 mm, 0.425 mm and 0.075 mm sieves,
divided by 100.
1117 CONDITIONS OF CONTRACT
The appropriate edition of the General Conditions of 1129 IMPROVED SUBGRADE
Contract issued for execution of the Contract together The upper layer or layers of the earthworks, which is
with any Special or Particular Conditions of Contract constructed directly onto the fill or in some cases onto
forming part of the Contract. the roadbed.

1118 CROSSFILL 1130 INLET AND OUTLET DRAINS


Crossfill is earthworks materials taken from cuts in the Channels leading into or discharging from culverts
road reserve and placed in embankments at a distance storm water conduits and minor bridges.
of 50m or less from its original position, measured along
the centreline of the road. 1131 LANE
Part of a travelled way intended for a single stream of
1119 CULVERT traffic in one direction, which has normally been
A structure other than a bridge, which provides an demarcated as such by road markings.
opening under the carriageway or median for drainage
or other purposes. 1132 LOT
A sizeable portion of work or quantity of material which
1120 CUT is assessed as a unit for the purpose of quality control
A section of the road where the formation level is below and selected to represent material or work produced by
the original ground level requiring excavations for the essentially the same process and materials.
construction of the pavement layers.
1133 MEDIAN
1121 DIRECTED The area between the two travelled ways of a dual
Direction in writing by the Engineer including verbal carriageway, excluding the inner shoulders.
direction when subsequently confirmed in writing.
1122 EARTHWORKS 1134 MEDIAN DRAIN
Term describing all processed material below the A longitudinal drain situated between the inner
formation level including improved subgrade layers, fill shoulders of a dual carriageway.
and prepared roadbed.
1135 MITRE DRAIN AND BANK
1123 EARTHWORKS MATERIAL CLASSES A drain constructed at an angle to the centreline of the
Materials used in earthworks, complying with the road to divert water from a side drain. Mitre drains
requirements of the Specifications, classified as follows: include mitre banks placed across the side drains.

G15 natural gravel/soils with nominal CBR value 1136 OVERBURDEN


of minimum 15 Material within a borrow area, which is not required or is
G7 natural gravel/soils with nominal CBR value unsuitable for use in construction.
of minimum 7
G3 natural gravel/soils with nominal CBR value 1137 PAVEMENT
of minimum 3 The upper layers of the road comprising the improved
DR Dump rock, un-graded waste rock subgrade, subbase, base or gravel wearing course or
bituminous surfacing and the shoulder layers.
1124 EMBANKMENT
A section of the road where the formation level is above 1138 PAVEMENT MATERIAL CLASSES
the original ground level. Materials used in the pavement, complying with the
requirements of the Specifications, classified as follows:
1125 FILL
That portion of the road prism consisting of approved Unbound natural gravel materials:
imported material which lies above the roadbed and is G80: natural gravel with nominal CBR value of
bounded by the side slopes, on which the improved minimum 80
subgrade layers, subbase, base course, shoulders and G60: natural gravel with nominal CBR value of
are to be constructed. Material imported to replace minimum 60
unsuitable material in the roadbed shall also be
THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 1000 - 3
STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 1000 - GENERAL

G45: natural gravel with nominal CBR value of Sand seal: bituminous seal made with
minimum 45 approved sand for aggregate, placed in a
G25: natural gravel with nominal CBR value of single layer or in two layers as specified
minimum 25 Slurry seal: bituminous layer made with
GW: gravel wearing course for gravel roads or approved crusher dust for aggregate, mixed
unpaved shoulders with bitumen emulsion and water to form a
mixture poured into the surface as specified
Unbound crushed aggregate for base course:
CRR: crushed aggregate made from fresh, 1139 PIONEER LAYER
quarried rock compacted to a percentage of An initial layer constructed over a weak roadbed where
the apparent density of the rock, with selected material is used to provide a stable platform for
enhanced requirements for workmanship the construction of subsequent layers.
during construction
CRS: crushed aggregate made from stones,
1140 PRESPLITTING
boulders, oversize from borrow pits or
Establishment of a free surface, or shear plane, in rock
quarried rock, compacted to a percentage
cuts, by controlled use of explosives in specially aligned
of the maximum dry density of the material
and closely spaced drill holes along the slope line.
at BS-Heavy compaction

Cemented materials for base course or subbase: 1141 ROADBED


C2: material with a nominal unconfined The natural in situ material on which the fill, or in their
compression strength of minimum 2 MPa absence, any pavement layers, are to be constructed.
cemented by stabilisation with an approved
chemical stabiliser 1142 ROAD PRISM
C1: material with a nominal unconfined That portion of the road construction included between
compression strength of minimum 1 MPa the original ground level and the outer boundaries of the
cemented by stabilisation with an approved slopes of cuttings, fills and side drains. It shall not
chemical stabiliser include the selected layer, subbase, base course,
CM: material with a nominal unconfined surfacing, shoulders or roadbed.
compression strength of minimum 0.5 MPa
modified by stabilisation with an approved 1143 ROAD RESERVE OR RIGHT-OF-WAY
chemical stabiliser The entire area included by the boundaries of road as
proclaimed.
Bituminous mixes for base course:
DBM40: hot mixed material of bitumen and
1144 ROCK EXCAVATION
aggregate having a maximum particle
Classification of excavation for payment purposes.
size of 40 mm
Denotes excavation required from the road prism,
DBM30: hot mixed material of bitumen and
drains, etc. according to the Drawings and the
aggregate having a maximum particle
Specifications, that requires drilling and blasting or the
size of 30 mm
use of pneumatic or hydraulic jackhammers in order to
LAMBS: hot mixed material of bitumen and
be loosened sufficiently for loading and transportation.
aggregate have large particle size as
prescribed in the Specifications
BEMIX: cold mixed material of bitumen emulsion 1145 ROLLER PASSES
and aggregate Unless otherwise specified in the Specifications, an
FBMIX: cold mixed material of foamed bitumen area will be taken to have received one roller pass
and aggregate when a roller has passed over such area once.
Additional passes made only as a result of nominal
Penetration macadam for base course: overlapping so as to ensure full coverage shall not be
PM80: penetration macadam where the main taken into account.
fraction of the aggregate has largest
particle size of a 80 mm 1146 SERVICES
PM60: penetration macadam where the main Cables, pipes or other structures, such as conduits for
fraction of the aggregate has largest electricity, telephone and telegraph connections, water,
particle size of a 60 mm sewage, etc.
PM30: penetration macadam where the main
fraction of the aggregate has largest 1147 SHOULDER
particle size of a 30 mm (a) When referring to this as a surface: The area
between the outside edge of the travelled way and
Bituminous surfacing: the shoulder break point.
AC20: hot mixed asphalt concrete material of (b) When referring to this as a pavement layer: The
bitumen and aggregate having a maximum upper pavement layer lying between the outside
particle size of 20 mm edge of the base course and the shoulder
AC14: hot mixed asphalt concrete material of breakpoint.
bitumen and aggregate having a maximum 1148 SHOULDER BREAKPOINT
particle size of 14 mm
The line along which the extended flat planes of the
AC10: hot mixed asphalt concrete material of
surface of the shoulder and the outside slope of the fill
bitumen and aggregate having a maximum
and pavement intersect.
particle size of 10 mm
Surface dressing: bituminous seal made with
approved chipping of near similar particle 1149 SIDE DRAIN
size, placed in a single layer or in two An open longitudinal drain situated adjacent to and at
layers as specified the bottom of cut or fill slopes.
Otta Seal: bituminous seal made with
approved graded aggregate, placed in a 1150 SIDEFILL
single layer or in two layers as specified That portion of the imported material which lies outside
the compacted fills, shoulders, base course and
subbase and is contained within such surface slopes as

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 1000 - 4


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 1000 - GENERAL

shown on the Drawings as side fill or as directed by the 1165 WORKING DRAWINGS
Engineer. Shop drawings, steel bending schedules, stress sheets,
fabrication and erection drawings, falsework drawings,
1151 SLOPE and any other supplementary drawings or data which
Unless otherwise stated, slope is given in terms of the the Contractor is required to submit to the Engineer for
ratio of the vertical difference in elevation between any approval before such Works commence.
two points and the horizontal distance between them.
This ratio may also be expressed as a percentage. 1166 QUARRY
Area other than cuts within the road prism where rock is
1152 SPECIFICATIONS extracted for production of crushed aggregate and
The Specifications relating to a specific project, which which is used in the construction of the Works.
form part of the Contract documents for such project,
and which contain the Standard Specifications together
with supplementary and/or amending specifications
issued in the Special Specifications.

1153 SPOIL (MATERIAL)


Material originating from construction operations and
which is not utilised for construction purposes.

1154 STABILISATION
The treatment of the materials used in the construction
of the roadbed, earthworks or pavement layers by the
addition of a cementitious binder such as lime or
Portland cement. Asphalt mixes and concrete shall not
be considered as materials that have been stabilised.

1155 SUBBASE
The layer of material on top of the improved subgrade
layers or fill and below the base course and shoulders.

1156 SUBGRADE, IMPROVED


The layer of material on top of the roadbed, or fill, and
below the subbase.

1157 SUBSIDIARY WORKS


Works which are subsidiary to or necessary or essential
to, or in support of, or usual to, the execution and
completion of other Works.

1158 SUBSTRUCTURE
All of that part of the structure below the bearings of
simple and continuous span bridges, below skewbacks
of arches, below deck slab of box and slab culverts,
together with return walls and wingwalls.

1159 SUBSOIL DRAINAGE SYSTEM


A system of subsoil drainage pipes (including any
permeable material) constructed to intercept and
remove subsoil water.

1160 SUITABLE MATERIAL


Materials that comply with the requirements of these
Specifications in respect of the relevant layer or position
where the material is intended to be used.

1161 TOPSOIL
Organic or unsuitable materials in the upper strata
encountered after clearing of the vegetation.

1162 TRAVELLED WAY


That portion of the carriageway, which includes the
various traffic lanes and auxiliary lanes but excludes the
shoulders.

1163 UNSUITABLE MATERIAL


Materials that do not comply with all the requirements of
these Specifications in respect of the relevant layer or
position where the material is intended to be used.

1164 VERGE
The area between the outer edge of the road prism and
the boundary of the road reserve.

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 1000 - 5


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 1000 - GENERAL

SERIES 1000: GENERAL 1201 SCOPE


(a) General
SECTION 1200: GENERAL This Section covers matters which relate to the Contract
as a whole. Definitions, phrases or wording which would
REQUIREMENTS AND otherwise require repetition in other sections of the
PROVISIONS Specifications are also covered by clauses in this
Section. Matters covered by the Conditions of Contract
are not repeated in this Section, except where
CONTENTS: necessary for providing more detailed information.
CLAUSE PAGE
(b) Modifications of and amendments to the
1201 SCOPE 1000-6 Standard Specifications
1202 SERVICES 1000-6 The Standard Specifications are to be read together
1203 ROAD INTERSECTIONS AND JUNCTIONS 1000-7 with modifications, additions or amendments which are
1204 PROGRAMME OF W ORKS AND written in the Special Specifications.
TEMPORARY W ORKS 1000-7
1205 WORKMANSHIP AND QUALITY CONTROL 1000-8 (c) Precedence of Specifications
1206 THE SETTING OUT OF WORK AND In any case where there appears to be any conflict
PROTECTION OF BEACONS 1000-8 between the Standard Specifications and the Special
1207 NOTICES, SIGNS AND ADVERTISEMENTS 1000-9 Specifications, the Special Specifications shall govern.
1208 METHODS OF MEASUREMENTS 1000-10
1209 METHODS OF PAYMENT 1000-10
1210 CERTIFICATE OF COMPLETION OF THE 1202 SERVICES
WORKS 1000-11
1211 TRAFFIC OVER COMPLETED PAVEMENT (a) Location of Services
LAYERS 1000-11
The Contractor shall acquaint himself with the position
1212 ALTERNATIVE DESIGNS AND OFFERS 1000-11 of all existing services, such as drains, underground
1213 VARIATION FROM SPECIFIED NOMINAL and overhead telephone and electricity lines, ducts,
RATES OF APPLICATION OR NOMINAL
poles, water mains, fittings, railway lines, etc. before
MIX PROPORTIONS 1000-12 any excavation or other work likely to affect the existing
1214 CONTRACTOR’S ACTIVITIES IN RESPECT services is commenced.
OF PROPERTY OUTSIDE THE ROAD
RESERVE AND OF SERVICES MOVED, The Employer will, in the Contract documents, provide
DAMAGED OR ALTERED 1000-13 information regarding the location of existing utility
1215 LAND ACQUISITION 1000-14
services, but the Employer does not accept
1216 INFORMATION FURNISHED BY THE responsibility for the accuracy of this information.
EMPLOYER 1000-14
1217 PROTECTION OF THE W ORKS AND
The Contractor shall check and determine on the site
REQUIREMENTS TO BE MET BEFORE the position of any services shown on the Drawings.
CONSTRUCTION OF W ORK 1000-14 This shall be done by consultation with owners of
1218 FAULTY W ORK, REMEDIAL WORK 1000-15
services, visual inspections, using detecting apparatus
1219 WATER 1000-15 and by making excavations as required to expose the
1220 AUTHORISED MEASUREMENTS AND position of the service. This shall also be done where
TOLERANCES 1000-16
no services are nevertheless believed to be present.
1221 DRAWINGS PROVIDED BY THE The positions of all services so detected shall be
CONTRACTOR 1000-16 marked carefully and then drawn in on the Drawings.
1222 USE OF EXPLOSIVES 1000-16
These services will then be defined as known services.
1223 WORK ON, OVER, UNDER OR
ADJACENT TO RAILWAY LINES 1000-17 (b) Damage to Services
1224 THE HANDING-OVER OF THE SITE 1000-17
The Contractor shall take all reasonable precautions not
1225 HAUL ROADS 1000-17 to damage the services during the search, when the
1226 MEASUREMENT OF DEPTH OF onus shall rest with him to prove that, in the event of
TRENCHES AND FOUNDATION
damage being done to such services during the search,
EXCAVATIONS 1000-17 it was not his fault that they had been damaged. The
1227 ACCESS TO CONTRACTOR’S RECORDS, Contractor will be held responsible for any damage
MONTHLY SITE MEETINGS AND
caused by him to known services, unless he can prove
PROGRESS PHOTOGRAPHS 1000-17 that he has taken all the above precautions to the
1228 LEGAL PROVISIONS 1000-18 satisfaction of the Engineer
1229 FINAL CLEARANCE 1000-18
1230 RECORDING OF INFORMATION The Contractor shall take all reasonable precautions to
RELATING TO CLAIMS FOR ADDITIONAL protect existing services during construction and during
COMPENSATION OR EXTENSION OF
the relocation of such services. Where protective
TIME 1000-18 measures involve the construction of permanent work,
1231 ELECTRICITY SUPPLY 1000-18 the Contractor shall execute the work in accordance
1232 POSITION OF WORKS 1000-18
with the Engineer’s instructions, and payment shall be
1233 ACCESS TO SITE 1000-18 made as provided for in the Special Specifications.
1234 COOPERATION AT SITE 1000-18
1235 ROADS AND SITE TO BE KEPT CLEAN 1000-18
All pipes, cables, conduits or other known services of
1236 SECURITY OF THE W ORKS 1000-18 any nature whatsoever damaged as a result of the
1237 SAFETY 1000-18 Contractor’s operations shall be repaired and reinstated
1238 METHOD OF W ORKING 1200-19
forthwith by the Contractor or by the Authority
1239 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 1200-19 concerned, to the satisfaction of the Engineer, all at the
expense of the Contractor.

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 1000 - 6


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 1000 - GENERAL

(c) Safety by overhead power lines (g) Payment


Where work is to be carried out in the vicinity of Any work required to be undertaken by the Contractor
overhead power lines, the Contractor shall ensure that in protecting or moving and relocation of public services
all persons working in such areas are aware of the for which no provision is made in the Contract
relatively large distance that high voltage electricity can Documents, will be classified and paid for at Daywork
“short” to earth when cranes, or other large masses of Rates, or if no applicable Daywork Rates exist, the
steel, are in the vicinity of power lines. The Contractor Contractor shall submit a quotation for the Engineer’s
shall be required to work outside the clearances stated approval.
in BS 162 which gives safe clearance for the various
voltages. 1203 ROAD INTERSECTIONS AND JUNCTIONS
Except where otherwise specified, no additional
(d) Relocation of Services payment over and above payment for the various items
It shall be clearly understood that, in certain instances, of work included in this Contract will be made for the
existing services can be relocated only after the construction, in a confined space, of curves, tapers, bell
Contractor has advanced sufficiently on or has mouths, traffic islands, farm accesses and other
completed certain sections of earthworks or certain appurtenant Works in connection with the construction
structures. Whenever services are encountered which and maintenance of road intersections and junctions.
interfere with the execution of the Works and which
require to be moved and relocated, the Contractor shall The Contractor shall be required to provide the safe and
advise the Engineer, who will determine the extent of unrestricted flow of public traffic at all times during the
work, if any, to be undertaken by the Contractor in construction and maintenance of such intersections and
moving, relocating and reinstating or protecting such junctions.
services.

The Contractor shall be responsible for arranging the 1204 PROGRAMME OF WORKS AND
removal or alteration of such services in conjunction
with and to specifications of the relevant statutory TEMPORARY WORKS
authority subject to the prior agreement of the Engineer
and where necessitated by the Works. (a) Programme of works
In accordance with relevant clauses of the Conditions of
A Provisional Sum for this work has been included in Contract and prior to commencement of permanent
the Bill of Quantities. Subject to prior agreement of the works, the Contractor shall submit a fully detailed and
Engineer, and upon production of receipts, the time related programme showing the order of procedure
Contractor will be reimbursed the net cost of such work and method in which the Contractor propose to carry
plus the percentage inserted by the Contractor in the out the Works. The programme shall be so detailed as
Bill of Quantities for his overheads and costs, in making to show:
the arrangement, for co-ordinating the work and − The order of work.
effecting payment. − Planned rate of progress.
− Amount and type of equipment proposed.
(e) Negotiations with owners of services − Details of methods to be employed.
The Contractor shall work in close co-operation with − Details of Temporary Works.
private Owners or public authorities controlling services,
which have to be protected, moved or relocated. The programme shall not be in form of a bar chart only,
Details regarding the state of negotiations concluded but shall show clearly the anticipated quantities of work
between the Employer and the Owner at the time of to be performed each month, as well as the anticipated
bidding in respect of the time when either the Owner is earnings for the various sections of work. Further it shall
prepared to start moving such services or when the show the critical path of activities.
Contractor is required to or will be allowed to start
moving the services, and the duration of such The Works shall be carried out so as to achieve a
operations, will either be stated in the bid documents or continuous and consecutive output of fully completed
be made available to bidders. Further such road. The order of execution of the Works shall be
consultations and negotiations with private owners or subject to reasonable adjustment as requested by the
public authorities shall be carried out as required by the Engineer.
Contractor. Should the Owners of services refuse to
co-operate with the Contractor in a reasonable manner Should the Contractor fall behind with the programme
in connection with the protection or moving of services submitted by him in terms of the relevant clause of the
belonging to them, the Contractor shall refer the matter Conditions of Contract, which programme has been
to the Engineer. approved by the Engineer, or if the sequence of
operations is altered, or if the programme is deviated
(f) Programming relocation of services from in any other way, the Engineer may, without
When the Contractor details his program of work as prejudice to the Employer’s rights in terms of the
referred to in the relevant clause of the Conditions of relevant clause of the Conditions of Contract, require
Contract, he shall, in consultation with the Engineer, the Contractor to submit, within seven days of the date
clearly indicate as to when he proposes to start with on which he has received a notice to this effect, a
and conclude the moving of each service or when he revised programme in terms of this Clause, which
will require the Owner to start with and conclude the indicates the manner in which the Contractor
moving of each service. Should it there after, through undertakes to complete the Works within the required
delays on the part the Employer or the Owner of the time. Any proposal in the revised programme to
service to be moved, be impossible to adhere to the accelerate the rate of progress shall be accompanied
programme of work, such programme shall be suitably by positive steps to increase production by more and/or
amended by the Contractor in consultation with the better labour and equipment being provided on the site
Engineer so as to limit, in so far as is possible, the or by the available labour and equipment being utilised
extent of any damages or delays. Should it be more effectively.
impossible to limit entirely the damages or delays
resulting from the amendments necessary to the Failure on the part of Contractor to work according to
programme of work, the Contractor shall be reimbursed the programme or revised programmes, shall be
for any additional costs incurred or damages suffered sufficient reason for the Employer to take steps as
by him. provided for in the Conditions of Contract and shall be

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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 1000 - GENERAL

construed, as not executing the Works in accordance adequate proof of compliance with the specified
with the Contract. requirements.

The approval by the Engineer of any programme shall No specific pay items are provided as compensation for
have no contractual significance other than that the the above obligations, including the provision of all
Engineer would be satisfied if the work is carried out in samples delivered to the Engineer, the repair of places
accordance with such programme and that the from which samples were taken, and the provision of
Contractor undertakes to carry out the work in the necessary personnel and testing apparatus and
accordance with the programme. facilities, for which compensation shall be included in
the bid rates of the Contractor for the various items of
(b) Temporary works work to which these obligations apply.
The Contractor shall supply the Engineer with drawings
for approval showing the layout and general The Contractor’s attention is also drawn to the
arrangement of all Temporary Works he proposes to provisions of SERIES 7200 in regard to instituting
construct for the purpose of the Contract including, but specific process-control systems. The Contractor's
not limited to: attention is also drawn to the provisions of the various
sections of the Specifications regarding the minimum
− Camps, including accommodation for staff and frequency of testing that will be required to undertake
labour. process control. The Contractor shall at his own
− Offices discretion increase this frequency where necessary to
− Laboratory ensure adequate control.
− Workshops
− Stores The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer for
− Aggregate crushing plants examination, the results of all relevant tests,
− Bitumen storage facilities, etc. measurements and levels indicating compliance with
the Specifications on completion of every part of the
− Concrete manufacturing plants
Work.
− Precast concrete yards
− Temporary river crossings
− Temporary bypass and access roads.
1206 THE SETTING OUT OF WORK AND
PROTECTION OF BEACONS
No separate payment will be made for Temporary The Contractor’s attention is drawn to the requirements
Works, the relevant cost being included in the rates of of the relevant clause of the Conditions of Contract, and
the Bill of Quantities for other work. he shall also comply with all legal provisions in regard
to surveying and setting out work.
1205 WORKMANSHIP AND QUALITY
The Contractor shall be responsible for the proper and
CONTROL accurate setting out of the works as required in the
The onus rests with the Contractor to produce work Contract documents. The Contractor shall provide all
which conforms in quality and accuracy of detail to all survey and measuring equipment and instruments
the requirements of the Specifications and Drawings, necessary for his use in the execution of the scheduled
and the Contractor shall, at his own expense, institute a Works.
quality control system and provide experienced
engineers, foremen, surveyors, materials technicians, The Contractor shall allow in his bid rates for being
other technicians and other technical staff, together with unable to use up to 30% of the Engineer’s control points
all transport, instruments and equipment, to ensure where such are provided in the Contract, through loss
adequate supervision and positive control of the Works or damage occasioned prior to the commencement
at all times. The Contractor shall provide chainmen and date. When the Contractor requires the establishment
labourers as necessary for the Engineer to carry out of a new control point or points due to the above
checks on the Works. mentioned loss or damage he shall advise the Engineer
who will, if he deems it necessary, arrange for the
The Contractor shall conduct tests or have them establishment of a new control point or points.
conducted continually on a regular basis, to check the
properties of natural materials and processed natural Control points not affected by the works shall be
materials and of products manufactured on the site, protected and preserved by the Contractor. In the case
such as concrete and asphalt. Although not a of negligence on the part of the Contractor, or his
requirement for the Contractor to conduct regular tests employees, resulting in the destruction of control points,
on any commercially produced products such as an amount equal to the cost of replacing the same may
cement, bitumen, steel and pipes, the Contractor shall be deducted from subsequent payments due the
remain fully responsible for any defective material or Contractor.
equipment provided by him. Similarly, the quality of all
elements of the Works shall be checked on a regular Control points affected by the works shall be offset by
basis so as to ensure compliance with the specified the Contractor to the satisfaction of the Engineer.
requirements.
The Contractor shall, prior to any setting out, submit to
The intensity of control and of tests to be conducted by the Engineer for his approval, the method of setting out
the Contractor in terms of these obligations is not he proposes to employ. The plan shall include the
specified but shall be adequate to ensure that proper accuracy, positions of the various types of stakes,
control is being exercised. method of marking stakes, and methods to be used for
protecting stakes, etc. No survey work shall proceed
Where any natural materials or products made from prior to the Engineer's approval of the Contractor's plan.
natural materials are supplied, and upon completion of At least 24 hours before he intends to survey any
each element of the construction work, the Contractor portion of the Works, the Contractor shall give written
shall test and check such materials, products and/or notice to the Engineer. Such notice shall include time,
elements for compliance with the specified location and type of Works to be set out. The Contractor
requirements and shall submit his results to the shall set out the Works and obtain approval of his
Engineer for approval. Such submission shall include setting out before proceeding with construction.
all his measurements and test results and shall furnish

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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 1000 - GENERAL

In general, the Contractor shall check for the existence trigonometrical survey beacons, all as shown on the
of original marks, lines and levels of reference not less Drawings.
than one month prior to commencing works in any
section, to allow sufficient time for reinstatement of Accurate control of line and level shall be provided by
markings, and checking of lines and levels. Any the Contractor at all stages of construction as detailed
discrepancies encountered shall be immediately in SECTION 7300 of these Specifications.
reported to the Engineer, for instruction and co-
ordination. The Contractor shall be deemed to have Where directed by the Engineer, the Contractor shall
allowed in his bid price for checking and reinstatement provide to the Engineer camber boards to the profile of
of original markings. the normal camber, 3.0 m long straight edges and
measuring wedges.
Special care shall be exercised during construction not
to damage, displace or disturb property and The camber boards shall be constructed of stout timber,
trigonometrical survey beacons. If such beacons are angle iron or metal tubes so as to span 6.5 m without
disturbed or destroyed by the Contractor they shall be deflection, and preferably supported on trollies and
replaced without delay by a registered land surveyor at fitted with a device for raising and lowering the board.
the Contractor's expense. In cases where displacement The bottom of a timber board shall be shoed with steel
of or damage to such beacons is unavoidable the plate, the width of the timber, and at least 5 mm thick.
Contractor shall also be responsible for relocation or The construction of the boards shall be to the
suitably referencing later reinstatement of such beacon satisfaction of the Engineer.
at his own cost.
The 3.0 m long straight edges and measuring wedges
The Engineer may if he deems it necessary, revise the shall be made of durable strong materials such that
line and grade and will require the Contractor to adjust they are inflexible and will not warp and do not suffer
the stake-out accordingly. from abrasion.

The Contractor shall check the condition of all reference The setting-out of work will not be measured and paid
and level beacons and shall satisfy himself that they for separately, and compensation for the work involved
have not been displaced and are true in regard to will be deemed to be covered by the rates bid and paid
position and level. If beacons have been destroyed, for in the various items of work included in this Contract.
displaced or damaged before the site is handed over to No separate payment will be made to the Contractor for
the Contractor, the Engineer will arrange to have new the provision of camber boards, straight edges and
beacons installed. A beacon, which has been displaced, measuring wedges, their cost being included by the
shall not be used unless its true position and level have Contractor in his rates in the Bill of Quantities.
been re-established and the new values verified by the
Engineer. No separate payment will be made for stake-out,
adjustments to the stake-out, or to establish and
Where a beacon is likely to be displaced during compute new points/benchmarks the relevant costs
construction operations, the Contractor shall establish being deemed to be included in the bid rates for other
suitable reference beacons at locations where they will items in the Bill of Quantities.
not be displaced during construction. No beacon shall
be covered over, displaced or destroyed before 1207 NOTICES, SIGNS AND
accurate reference beacons have been established and ADVERTISEMENTS
details of the positions and levels of such beacons have
The Contractor and subcontractors shall not erect any
been submitted to and approved by the Engineer. The
signs, notices or advertisements on or along the Works
Contractor’s reference beacons shall be of at least the
or the site of the works without the approval of the
same quality and durability as the existing beacons.
Engineer or according to format given by the Engineer.
The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer the method
No sign boards other than those specified above will be
of setting-out he proposes to employ. To ensure
permitted on or adjacent to the Works, except that the
beyond all doubt that the complex elements of the road,
Contractor may permit each of his sub-contractors to
such as traffic interchanges, structures and other 2
display one, and only one, signboard of less than 2 m at
important features are located truly and correctly, the
the works office.
Contractor shall check all setting-out by a second
method. The Engineer may at any time request the
At each end of the Works the Contractor shall provide
Contractor to submit proof that his setting-out has been
and erect, as part of his obligations under SECTION
satisfactorily checked.
1300, and on approved locations, at the starting and
ending points of the Works, sign boards of sound,
In cases where the displacement of or damage to
weather proof construction, painted by an approved firm
property beacons or trigonometrical survey beacons is
of sign writers in accordance with the details shown on
unavoidable, the Contractor shall notify the Engineer in
the Drawings.
good time so that he may arrange to have such
beacons suitably referenced and later on reinstated.
These signs are to be erected not later than one month
The cost of such work, if paid for by the Contractor,
after the Contractor has been given access to the site.
shall be reimbursable as extra work, as provided for in
the Conditions of Contract.
The Engineer shall have the right to have any sign,
notice or advertisement moved to a better position or to
For the purposes of this Clause and of the relevant
have it removed from the site of the Works if it should in
clause of the Conditions of Contract, any beacon made
any way prove unsatisfactory, inconvenient or
from a metal peg cast in concrete and any boundary
dangerous to the general public.
beacon, whether or not cast in concrete, shall be
regarded as a beacon. Centre-line pegs shall not be
All advertisements, notices and signs shall be removed
classified as beacons.
by the Contractor upon issuance of the final certificate
of completion.
To protect beacons, the boundary fences of the road
reserve shall be splayed at corners so as to avoid the
use of corner posts in the same position as property or

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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 1000 - GENERAL

1208 METHODS OF MEASUREMENTS The Contractor shall note that the cost of all Works and
materials for minor construction details at bridges, for
(a) Units of measurements example small quantities of caulking compound and
All work shall be measured in accordance with the SI joint filler (other than expansion joints), anchor-bar
system of metric units. covers, etc, not shown in the Bill of Quantities, shall be
included in the bid rates for concrete.
(b) Bill of Quantities
The quantities set out in the Bill of Quantities are This CLAUSE shall apply in full to all pay items except
estimated quantities and are used for the comparison of where these requirements may be specifically amended
bids and for awarding the Contract. It must be clearly in each case.
understood that only the actual quantities of work done
or materials supplied will be measured for payment, and
that the scheduled quantities may be increased or (c) The Meaning of certain phrases in payment
decreased as provided for in the Conditions of Contract. clauses

(c) Measurement of completed Work (i) Procuring and furnishing (material).


All distances along the centre line of the road as shown Where any of the words “supply”, “procure”,
on the Drawings are horizontal distances, which will be “provide”, “provision of”, “furnish (material)”, are
used in calculating the quantities of fill and pavement used in the description of a pay item, it shall mean
layers for purposes of payment. All cross-sections shall the supply and delivery to the point of use of all
be taken in a vertical plane. materials of any kind required for the work covered
by the particular pay item, including all tax,
No material shall be measured in the vehicle for purchase costs, claims, damages, royalties and
payment purposes. transport costs involved, but excluding overhaul. In
the case of borrow materials, stone and sand, it
The quantity of bituminous and similar materials to be shall also include all negotiations with the Owners
paid by volume shall be measured at the temperature of concerned, excavating, producing, preparing,
application and paid for in accordance with approved processing, testing, hauling and delivering the
application rates. material to the point of use; the construction, repair,
maintenance and making good after completion of
The quantity of bitumen in mixes and stabilisers in all access roads, and all work required in opening,
cemented materials shall be paid by mass in using and finishing off borrow pits unless covered
accordance with approved mix design proportions. by other pay items in the Bill of Quantities.

Structures shall be measured to the neat lines shown (ii) Placing Material
on the Drawing and shall include any changes ordered The phrase “placing material” shall mean the off-
in writing by the engineer and, for purposes of payment, loading, spreading, blending, processing, watering,
the calculated volume of concrete structures shall mixing, shaping and compacting (where specified)
include the volume of reinforcing steel, and minor ducts of the material in the pavement layer, fills and
up to 150 mm in diameter. bypasses, as well as the procuring, furnishing,
applying and admixing of water, the breaking-down
of oversize material, the removing of oversize
1209 METHODS OF PAYMENT material which cannot be broken down, correcting
irregular or uneven surfaces or layers, the thickness
of which is not to specification, finishing-off to
(a) Contract rates
within the specified tolerances, the refilling of test
In computing the final Contract amount, payment shall
holes and maintaining the completed work. In the
be based on the actual quantity of authorised work
case of asphalt course and bituminous seals, it
done in accordance with the specifications and
shall also mean the heating and spraying of binder,
drawings. The bid rates shall apply, subject to the
the spreading of aggregate or asphalt mixtures,
provisions of the Conditions of Contract, irrespective of
rolling, compacting, finishing-off to within the
whether the actual quantities are more or less than the
specified tolerances, and maintaining the completed
scheduled quantities.
work.
Where no rate or price has been entered against a pay
The phrase, “procuring, furnishing and placing”
item in the Bill of Quantities by a bidder it shall be
shall mean procuring and furnishing in addition to
understood that he does not require any compensation
placing, all as defined herein.
for such work. Where, however, a pay item described
in these Specifications or in the Special Specifications
(d) Pay Items
does not appear in the Bill of Quantities, the Contractor
The description under the pay items in the various
will receive reasonable compensation for such work if
sections of the Specifications, indicating the work for
required, unless anything to the contrary has been
which allowance shall be made in the bid rates for such
determined elsewhere.
pay items, are for the guidance of the Contractor and
do not necessarily repeat all the details of work and
(b) Rates to be inclusive
materials required by and described in the
The Contractor shall accept the payment provided for in
Specifications.
the Contract and represented by the rates bid by him in
the Bill of Quantities, as payment in full for executing
These descriptions shall be read in conjunction with the
and completing the work as specified, for procuring,
relevant Specifications and Drawings, and the
furnishing, placing and installing all materials, for
Contractor shall, when bidding, bear in mind that his
procuring and providing labour, supervision,
rates shall be inclusive as specified in SUBCLAUSE (b)
constructional plant, tools and equipment, for wastage,
above.
transport, loading and off-loading, handling,
maintenance, temporary work, testing, quality control
(e) Materials on the Site
including process control, overheads, profit, risk and
Payment in terms of the relevant clause of the
other obligations and for all other incidentals necessary
Conditions of Contract for materials on the site, which
for the completion of the work and maintenance during
have not yet been incorporated in the works, will be
the period of maintenance.
calculated at 80% of their purchase price, or, in the

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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 1000 - GENERAL

case of crushed stone which has not been purchased 1211 TRAFFIC OVER COMPLETED PAVEMENT
but has been produced on the site, at 50% of the bid LAYERS
rate for such material.
Traffic over structures or pavement layers of an
uncompleted road shall, in addition to other restrictions
The Engineer may at his sole discretion allow payment
specified elsewhere, be restricted to equipment
under “materials on the site” in respect of articles such
required for its construction, with the provision that
as precast beams manufactured and stored off site,
traffic for hauling material over pavement layers, in so
subject to their having been completed, to proof of their
far as is possible, shall be limited to a minimum by the
ownership as being that of the Contractor, and to the
use of construction roads and deviations.
articles being clearly marked with the Contractor’s
name, the Contract number and other particulars in
Traffic over all public roads, structures or the completed
accordance with the Engineer’s instructions.
road will be restricted to the maximum axle load
permitted in terms of statutory provisions. Any damage
(f) Rate-only items
caused by the Contractor’s traffic shall be repaired at
Against an item in the Bill of Quantities where no
his own cost.
quantity is given but a rate only is required, the
Contractor shall fill in a rate or amount which will
constitute payment for work which may be done in 1212 ALTERNATIVE DESIGNS AND OFFERS
terms of this item. Such rate only item is used where it Unless anything to the contrary has been determined
is estimated that little or no work will be required under elsewhere in the Contract documents, a bidder may,
the item, or where the item is to be considered as an together with his bid for the original designs contained
alternative for another item where a quantity is given, in the Contract documents, submit alternative designs
or for variations in rates of application or mix and offers for consideration. Such alternative designs
proportions in terms of CLAUSE 1213. and offers shall be subject to the following conditions
and requirements.
Work under rate-only items will be paid for only if it has
been executed in terms of a written instruction by the (a) Bids
Engineer. An alternative offer or design will be considered only if
the bid for the original items has been fully priced and
(g) Provisional Sums completed.
The Bill of Quantities may contain Provisional Sums, so
designated, which are entered as a preliminary Unless the alternative offer stipulates to the contrary, it
allowance to cover the cost of work, materials, goods or shall be assumed that the period for completion of the
services to be provided by the Contractor and which Works shall be the same as for the original design.
have not been fully specified or measured or to cover
the cost of unforeseen items of work or contingent An alternative offer or design shall be submitted
expenditure, for which no rates are applicable but for together with the bid for the original items or design,
which the Contractor is to be paid according to the otherwise it will not be considered when bids are
applicable provisions of the Contract. adjudicated.

Work done under such Provisional Sums shall only be Calculations, drawings and a modified Bill of Quantities
executed upon a written order by the Engineer which (as determined hereafter) in respect of each alternative
order shall also specify the method of payment. The offer or design shall accompany the alternative bid
expenditure in respect of a Provisional Sum for work offer.
ordered by the Engineer shall be entirely at his
discretion and any final expenditure in respect of a (b) Design codes
Provisional Sum may be more, less or equal to the Alternative designs shall be executed strictly in
amount provided in the Bill of Quantities. accordance with the appropriate design codes and
prescriptions of the Employer. Copies of such codes
Payment as specified in the order given by the Engineer and prescriptions will be available for perusal at the
shall be either at contract rates, where such are office of the Engineer, but the onus rests with the
applicable, or where none is applicable, the Contractor Contractor to ensure that he complies with the design
shall submit a separate quotation to the Engineer. requirements of the Employer.

(h) Retention money (c) Preliminary calculations


All payments are subject to deduction of Retention Preliminary calculations for an alternative design shall
Money, as provided in the Conditions of Contract. be submitted with the bid. Such calculations shall give
adequate details so as to enable an assessment to be
1210 CERTIFICATE OF COMPLETION OF THE made of the general efficacy of the design and of its
principal elements, also of the degree to which the
WORK design prescriptions and codes of the Employer are
A certificate of completion of the Works (Taking Over being complied with. The calculations shall be clear
Certificate) in terms of the relevant clause of the and in a logical sequence and shall clearly reflect all the
Conditions of Contract will be issued only if the design assumptions.
following sections of the Works as may be applicable
have, inter alia, been duly completed. (d) Preliminary drawings
− the gravel wearing course, seals, asphalt or Preliminary drawings of the alternative designs shall
concrete pavement. also be submitted with the bid. These drawings shall
− all above-ground and subsoil drainage structure comprise adequate layout plans, elevations and
− all fencing. sections and shall clearly illustrate the general efficacy
− the finishing-off of medians and slopes of cuts and of the design and its principal elements. Foundation
fills depths and other elements depending on foundation
− all the necessary road signs and road-surface conditions shall, in so far as may be applicable, be in
markings. accordance with foundation particulars appearing in the
− all guard-rails Contract document.
− all structures.
Drawings for alternative designs shall be prepared in
accordance with the provisions of CLAUSE 1221.

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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 1000 - GENERAL

(e) Quantities No work which will be affected by an alternative design


Each alternative offer shall be accompanied by a may be commenced, unless the Drawings, Bill of
modified priced Bill of Quantities compiled in Quantities and prices for such alternative design have
accordance with the Standard Specifications, in so far been approved. Should the Contractor fail to modify any
as it is applicable. In addition to the Bill of Quantities, a drawings, calculations, quantities, prices or any other
set of calculations shall be supplied to show how the particulars to the satisfaction of the Engineer, the
quantities have been determined. All assumptions in alternative design will be rejected and the original
regard to foundation conditions or other factors which design shall be constructed for the same amount as has
will determine quantities shall be clearly and been bid for the alternative design.
conspicuously marked by underlining or colouring, and
shall indicate whether or not the assumptions have (j) Responsibility for alternative design
been based on information furnished in the Contract The approval of a design by the Engineer shall in no
documents (with the necessary references). way relieve the Contractor of his responsibility to
produce a design which conforms in all respects to all
(f) Further details the specified requirements and which will be suitable for
Should the Engineer find that the calculations and the purpose envisaged.
drawings submitted for alternative designs are not
complete enough for proper adjudication of the Should it appear later during construction or during the
alternative designs, it may mean that no further maintenance period that the design does not conform to
consideration will be given to such alternative designs. the specified requirements, the Contractor only shall be
The Employer, however, reserves the right to call on the liable for any damage arising therefrom and he shall, at
bidder to submit such further calculations and drawings his own expense, do all the necessary work to ensure
as may be required. If such further details are not that the structure conforms to all the specified
submitted within ten days of having been requested, the requirements.
alternative designs may possibly not be given further
consideration (k) Payments for alternative design
Payments for alternative designs will be based on the
(g) Preliminary adjudication of alternative designs finally approved Bill of Quantities and rates for such
The Engineer will undertake a preliminary scrutiny of designs. The lump sum for an alternative design will
any alternative designs for compliance with the remain fixed and will be the final amount payable to the
specified requirements of the Employer. Should he find Contractor in regard to such design, except only for
any mistakes or unsatisfactory aspects, he may afford deviations arising from:
in the Contractor the opportunity to rectify them within a − foundation conditions which differ from foundation
period to be determined by the Engineer. However, it is conditions shown in the contract documents, or in
emphasised that the preliminary scrutiny of the design regard to assumptions regarding foundation
and bid by the Engineer, by its very nature, cannot be conditions stated in his bid by the Contractor and
comprehensive, and no guarantee can be given in this accepted by the Engineer.
regard that all the mistakes made by the Contractor will − changes not arising from any failure or fault of the
in fact be detected. Any correction of such mistakes Contractor, but from modifications requested by the
shall be made with the bid price of the Contractor being Engineer.
retained, and, wherever necessary, the priced Bill of
Quantities for the alternative design shall be adjusted (l) Cost of checking alternative designs
accordingly. The Contractor shall, in his bid for each alternative
design, include an item to cover the cost for checking
(h) Acceptance of alternative design his design. This item shall be 5% of the bid amount of
The Contractor shall note that the acceptance of a bid the design without any price adjustment in terms of the
which includes alternative designs shall mean that the relevant clause of the Conditions of Contract being
alternative designs have been approved in principle considered, and the amount will be payable to the
only. If the final calculations, drawings and details do Engineer only upon an authorisation issued by the
not comply with the specified requirements, such Employer.
alternative designs may be rejected, unless they are
suitably amended by the Contractor so as to be (m) Alternative Offers
acceptable to the Engineer. Alternative offers in this context shall mean offers not
relating to a structure, such as a bridge, which requires
(i) Final drawings and calculations and the price. a comprehensive structural analysis. It involves, in the
Bill of Quantities main, offers for the use of other materials, construction
Where a bid with an alternative design has been programmes, alternative routes, etc. In this case the
accepted, the Contractor shall, not less than three provisions of CLAUSE 1212 will still apply, except in the
months before he intends starting with the construction case where the Employer may agree to amend or
of such design, submit to the Engineer a complete set delete certain of the provisions, depending on the
of working drawings, detailed calculations and a nature of the offer, but subject to a written agreement
complete Bill of Quantities, for approval. The Bill of beforehand with the Employer.
Quantities shall be based on the preliminary Bill of
Quantities, but with the necessary adjustments in 1213 VARIATION FROM SPECIFIED NOMINAL
quantities and prices and with the bid price for the
alternative design being retained.
RATES OF APPLICATION OR NOMINAL
MIX PROPORTIONS
Within six weeks of having received the above, the The various sections of these specifications specify
Engineer will indicate which drawings, calculations, nominal rates of application or nominal mix proportions
quantities, prices and other particulars are acceptable for materials such as bituminous materials, aggregates,
to him and which not, with reasons furnished. The fillers, stabilising agents, paint and the like. Bidders
Contractor shall then submit to the Engineer in good shall base their bids on these nominal rates of
time any modified drawings and other particulars for application and mix proportions.
approval, for which he will require two weeks. Any delay
arising from the fact that the amended particulars do not Where such nominal rates of application or mix
meet the requirements shall be the responsibility of the proportions are specified, provision is made for
Contractor. deviations in the quantities of material in consequence
of the rates of application or mix proportions prescribed

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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 1000 - GENERAL

by the Engineer in each particular case in consideration (iii) The reinstatement of property occupied, used,
of the available materials and the conditions on the site. damaged or destroyed, or compensation therefor in
lieu of reinstatement.
Where the actual rates of application or mix proportions
used in the works vary from the specified nominal rates (iv) The procedure for the moving of services and
and mix proportions, adjustment of compensation will details as to how and when this is to be done.
be made:
(v) Any similar matter directly related to the
− as a payment to the Contractor in respect of any Contractor’s activities on or in respect of private
authorised increase in quantities which exceed property or services.
those specified, where such increase has been
ordered, in writing, by the Engineer These agreements shall be signed by all the parties
or concerned and delivered to the Engineer.
− as a refund to the Employer in respect of the
decrease in quantities which are less than those Where the Contractor cannot obtain the Owner’s
specified, irrespective of whether such decrease agreement in writing, he shall refer the matter to the
results from an authorised decrease in the rates of Engineer and shall furnish him with details, in writing, of
application or mix proportions, or from unauthorised any verbal agreement made.
reduction on the part of the Contractor.
(c) Notice on owner
Payment for a prescribed rate of application or mix Where, in addition to any agreement with the Owner of
proportion shall be based on the actual rate of any property to be entered upon or temporarily
application or mix proportion used, provided that this occupied or any service to be moved, it is understood or
does not exceed the prescribed rate of application or required that the Contractor shall serve notice on the
mix proportion, plus any tolerance in the rate of Owner immediately before actually entering upon or
application or mix proportion allowed. If the actual rate occupying the private property or moving a service,
of application or mix proportion is below the prescribed and shall give proper notice thereof in writing, and the
rate of application or mix proportion ordered, payment Engineer shall be supplied with a copy of such notice,
shall be based on the actual rate of application or mix together with acknowledgement of receipt.
proportion regardless of any tolerance allowed.
Notwithstanding the above, the Engineer shall be fully (d) Completion statement from owner
entitled to reject work which has not been constructed On completion of his operations, the Contractor shall
in accordance with the specifications or the rate of obtain, from the owner concerned, a written statement
application or mix proportions prescribed by him. to the effect.

The Employer shall be refunded for any decrease in the (i) that the Contractor has fulfilled his obligations under
specified rates of application or mix proportions at the a written agreement
same rate per unit of measurement as that bid by the
Contractor for additional materials required by an (ii) in the absence of a written agreement, that the
increase in the rates of application or mix proportions. Owner has received all the compensation he is
entitled to and is also satisfied that all property
occupied, including borrow pits, haul roads and
1214 CONTRACTOR’S ACTIVITIES IN construction roads, has been properly restored and
is in a satisfactory condition.
RESPECT OF PROPERTY OUTSIDE THE
ROAD RESERVE AND OF SERVICES All such statements shall be signed, dated and
MOVED, DAMAGED OR ALTERED delivered to the Engineer.

(a) Statutory provisions (e) Use of land outside provided area


The Contractor shall exercise any rights that may be Should the Contractor wish to use land outside the area
ceded to him by an Authority in terms of any statutory provided by the Employer for storing or keeping
provisions for purposes of executing the Contract, on material or equipment required for the construction of
condition that: the permanent works, it will be subject to the following:

(i) the Contractor complies strictly with the (i) That the Engineer approves any area selected for
requirements of such statutory provisions, this purpose.
particularly in regard to the matters relating to
serving notice on the Owner or consultation with (ii) That such land be physically separated from any
him. production plant or activities and suitably fenced in.

(ii) In each case a written agreement is made with the (iii) That the area used for the aforesaid purpose be
Engineer regarding the details of the Contractor’s surveyed, and, where the land does not belong to
proposed actions before the rights of the Contractor the Contractor, he shall enter into a contract of
in terms of the statutory provisions are exercised. lease with the Owner of such land in respect of the
full period for which such land shall be used for
(b) Agreements with Owners or Legal Users of such purpose,
property
The Contractor shall put in writing all his agreements (iv) Which contract shall stipulate that the Owner shall
with Owners of property outside the road reserve or of not have any right whatsoever to any material
services inside or outside the road reserve in respect of stockpiled on such land during the currency of the
the following matters: contract of lease. That suitable, permanent
reference beacons, approved by the Engineer, be
(i) The location, extent and use of borrow pits, haul placed next to the area, at the cost of the
roads, construction roads and bypasses outside the Contractor, for use by the Engineer with a view to, if
road reserve. applicable, taking cross-section for determining
quantities.
(ii) Compensation, if applicable, for land or materials
taken or for land temporarily used or occupied. (v) That only material use for this contract shall be

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 1000 - 13


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 1000 - GENERAL

stored on such land. which conclusions can be drawn from any


investigations made. It also applies to any materials
(f) Fences, gates and signs (private) utilisation plan provided, as the diagram may be subject
The Contractor shall be responsible for ensuring that to major alterations during the progress of the work,
livestock cannot stray as a result of his operations or depending on site conditions.
enter a construction area including borrow areas. When
existing fences and gates have to be removed or The Employer will not accept any liability for the
altered for the proper execution of the Works or are correctness or otherwise of the information furnished or
required to exclude livestock, the Contractor shall, at his for any resulting damage, whether direct or
own expense, erect temporary fencing and gates, and if consequential, should it appear, during the course of
necessary, provide watchmen to ensure that livestock the Contract, that the information supplied is either
cannot stray. New tension wires shall be used when re- incorrect or not representative.
erecting existing mesh fences. For permanently
relocated existing fences and new fences, each
horizontal wire shall be tensioned between braced 1217 PROTECTION OF THE WORKS AND
posts using a wire strainer. Each wire shall also be REQUIREMENTS TO BE MET BEFORE
securely fixed to each post using wire ties through
drilled holes. CONSTRUCTION OF WORK

The permanent relocation of existing fences and private (a) Nature of ground and condition of work
signs and the construction of new permanent fences as The Contractor must satisfy himself as to the general
shown or as directed by the Engineer shall be paid for circumstances at the site of the Works and the
at the contract price per unit of measurement shown in construction thereon, the form of river beds, and banks,
the Bill of Quantities which price shall include for the flows in the rivers, the surface of the ground and
furnishing and placing all materials, including all labour, nature of the materials to be excavated, the possibility
equipment, tools and incidentals necessary to complete of subsidence from soft ground and bad and broken
the work. materials, and falls of rock in or arising out of the
Works, and the possibility of floods and landslides, and
1215 LAND ACQUISITION the rates and prices in the Bill of Quantities will be held
to cover all such contingencies.
All land to be permanently used or occupied by the
Works will be provided by the Employer, but the
In order to minimise the possible adverse effects of
approval of the Engineer must be sought before entry
flooding the drainage of the natural ground in the
upon the land.
vicinity of the earthworks and the drainage works
generally shall be carried out in advance of the rest of
In all cases, the Contractor shall be required to make all
the Works.
necessary arrangements with local authorities and
owners or legal occupants of the land and to pay the
(b) Landslides
cost of compensation on behalf of the Employer. For
The removal of materials in slips, slides or subsidences
this purpose, the Contractor will liaise with the regional
and overbreaks of rock extending beyond the lines and
administration or the appropriate authority and advise of
slopes or below the levels shown on the Drawings or
the intention to commence work of any kind.
required by the Engineer will not be paid for unless
such occurrences were, in the opinion of the Engineer,
The Employer will refund to the Contractor such
beyond the control of the Contractor and could not have
payments, as provided in the Bill of Quantities, and all
been prevented by the exercise of due care and
lands so purchased shall be the property of the
diligence.
Employer.
Where payment is made for the removal of such
The attention of the Contractor is drawn to the
materials, it will be paid as a variation at the appropriate
provisions of CLAUSE 1214 as regards his activities on
rate inserted in the Bill of Quantities having regard to
private land and to SECTION 3400 for acquisition of land
the condition and situation of the material at the time of
for borrow pits, quarries and temporary works.
removal and regardless of its condition and situation
prior to the slip.
The Contractor shall observe all the legal provisions
and the provisions of the Special Specifications in
(c) Drainage
respect of his activities at borrow pits and when
The provision of temporary drainage work such as
finishing off the borrow pits.
drains, open channels, banks, etc and providing and
operating temporary pumps and such other equipment
The Contractor shall satisfy himself that all necessary
as may be necessary for adequately protecting,
negotiations have been made with the Owner or Legal
draining and de-watering the Works and temporary
Occupants of the ground prior to entry.
works. This will be in addition to any permanent
drainage works specified and installed, and in addition
1216 INFORMATION FURNISHED BY THE to any temporary drainage works specifically paid for
EMPLOYER separately as in the case of deviations.
Certain information contained in these contract
documents or provided separately is being offered in (d) Damage by wet material
good faith, but, in the circumstances pertaining to the Material in borrow pits shall not be allowed to become
type of information furnished, no guarantee can be excessively wet. All completed layers shall be properly
given that all the information is necessarily correct or drained, dumps of material on completed layer work
representative of the in situ condition. shall not inhibit surface drainage or form wet spots
under and around dumps, and all parts of the Works
This applies more specifically to all soil tests, soil shall be protected against erosion by floods and rain.
mapping, drilling results, geophysical survey, geological
reports, borrow-pit information, material surveys and Material shall not be spread on a layer that is so wet as
reports, and similar information, the accuracy of which to result in the danger of any damage being caused to
is necessarily subject to the limitations of testing, the layer during compaction of a subsequent layer, or
sampling, the natural variation of material or formations when opened to traffic.
being investigated and the measure of certainty with

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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 1000 - GENERAL

When material is spread out on the road, the Contractor In particular, remedial measures shall ensure full
shall ensure that, during wet periods, it will have a good compliance with the requirements of the Specifications
cross-fall and a light compaction on the surface in order of the final product, shall not endanger or damage any
to facilitate run-off during rainy weather. other part of the Works, and shall be carefully controlled
and submitted to the Engineer for examination when
(e) Fill and cut slopes completed or at any intermediate stage as may be
Fill and cut slopes shall be repaired immediately required.
whenever damaged by surface water. Where erosion
occurs on high fills, the slopes shall be repaired by For the guidance of the Contractor, an indication is
cutting back to form benches and by compacting the given below of what would normally be required in the
backfill mechanically to the specified densities, using more common cases of defects or damage, but the
suitable light equipment. Engineer will in no way be bound to accept or approve
the measures given below, as the actual remedial
(f) Excavations measures will be dictated by the circumstances of each
Excavations for pipe drains, culverts, service ducts and particular case.
similar structures shall be adequately protected against
the possible ingress of water during rainstorms.
(b) Earthworks
(g) Completed layer work
All completed layer work shall be protected and (i) Where a cut slope has been over excavated or
maintained until the following layer is constructed. undercut or where the floor of a cutting has been
Maintenance shall include immediate repairs to any taken too deep, back filling and re-compaction shall
damage or defects which may occur and shall be be carried out as set out in SECTION 7400. All
repeated as often as may be necessary to keep the necessary measures shall be taken to drain away
layer continuously intact and in good condition. groundwater that may accumulate in back filled
sections.
(h) Preparation of layer work
Before any completed layer is primed or a succeeding (ii) Excess width of fills shall to be trimmed down if
layer is constructed thereon, any damage to the existing required by the Engineer.
layer shall be repaired, so that, after repair or
reconstruction if necessary, it will conform in all (iii) Where erosion has damaged the surface of cuts or
respects to the requirements specified for that layer. All fills, the damage shall be made good by back filling
repair work other than minor surface damage repairs with suitable material and re-trimming. In more
shall be submitted to the Engineer for inspection before serious cases in the opinion of the Engineer, the
it is covered up. slopes shall be cut back by benching, back filled
and compacted to the required standard of
The previously constructed layer shall be thoroughly compaction with suitable light equipment and then
cleaned by the removal of all foreign material before re-trimmed, all in accordance with SECTION 7400.
construction of a succeeding layer or application of a
prime coat, surfacing or surface treatment. In the case (c) Stabilising
of all bituminous work in particular, the existing layer Any sections failing to meet the requirements specified
shall be thoroughly broomed and all dung, clay, mud or damaged to the extent that they require breaking-up
and other deleterious material completely removed. and re-compaction will have to be re stabilised with the
Where necessary, the surface shall be sprayed with type and quantity of stabilising agent ordered by the
water before, during and after brooming to remove all Engineer. The Engineer may also order that the layer
foreign material. be removed entirely and replaced with fresh material to
be stabilised.
Work performed as part of the above obligations shall
not be measured and paid for separately, and the cost (d) Local defects in pavement layers
thereof shall be included in the rates bid for the various Where remedial measures are taken to make good
items of work requiring protection and the items for the local defects, the width of the area to be repaired by
Contractor’s establishment on the site, as specified in machines shall be such as will be necessary to
SECTION 1300. accommodate the full width of the machines used, and
it shall be of a reasonable length to ensure effective
operation by the machinery. The depth to which
1218 FAULTY WORK, REMEDIAL WORK material will have to be removed will depend on the
type of material. Gravel will require breaking up to a
(a) General depth of at least 75 mm and crushed stone will usually
Any work which fails to comply with the Specifications require breaking up over its full depth. Asphalt material
shall be rejected and the Contractor shall, at his own will normally require removal over its full depth.
expense, make good any defects, as directed by and to
the satisfaction of the Engineer. (e) Concrete
Concrete work will normally require the cutting-back
When any part of the Works or any equipment or and complete removal of any weak or honey combed
material is found, upon examination by the Engineer, sections and making good by using special epoxy
not to conform to the requirements or at any stage adhesives to bind fresh concrete to old concrete.
before final acceptance is damaged so that it no longer Cracks, when permitted to remain, shall be injected with
conforms to the requirements of the Specifications, the suitable epoxy compounds, and test cores shall then be
Engineer may order its complete removal and drilled for testing the efficacy of the injection process.
replacement, at the Contractor’s expenses, with
satisfactory work, equipment or material, or he may 1219 WATER
permit the Contractor to apply remedial measures in It is the Contractor’s responsibilities to provide clean
order to make good any such defects or damage. The and sufficient supply of fresh water for both construction
actual remedial measures taken shall at all times be purposes and also for all the houses, camps, offices,
entirely at the Contractor’s own initiative, risk and costs, workshops, laboratories, etc.
but subject to the Engineer’s approval regarding the
details thereof. The construction water shall be clean, free from
suspended solids and undesirable concentrations of
THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 1000 - 15
STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 1000 - GENERAL

deleterious salts and from any matter in quantities


considered by the Engineer to be deleterious to the The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer for his
proposed work. The water shall be applied at the adjudication one transparent polyester print, 0.05mm
location, in the amounts, and during the hours, including thick, of each drawing prepared by him. The standard
nights, as directed by the Engineer. of detailing and quality of print shall be the same as
those of the Drawings supplied to the Contractor under
The distributors used for watering shall be equipped the Contract.
with spray bar and shall be of ample capacity and of
such design as to ensure uniform application of water in The Drawings shall be compiled in the English
the amounts directed by the Engineer. language and shall comply in all respect with the
requirements of the Employer.
Water supplied to the Resident Engineer’s offices,
laboratories and all houses and camps shall be Accepted Drawings shall form an integral part of the
drinkable to the satisfaction of the Medical Officer of the Contract documents, and any drawing not accepted and
Area and the Engineer. The water for drinking and signed will not be permitted on the site of the Works for
cooking purposes shall be filtered, boiled or treated as construction purposes and/or used for the manufacture
necessary for human consumption. All water sources of any item. Notwithstanding the approval and/or
used shall be approved by the Engineer. acceptance and signing of the Drawings, the Contractor
shall take full responsibility for all details, discrepancies,
The Contractor’s attention is drawn to the fact that no omissions, errors, etc, in respect of the said Drawings
separate payment will be made for the provision of as well as for the consequences thereof.
water and the Contractor shall include in his rates and
lump sum items for the provision of all water required in The Contractor shall submit only fully complete
and for the Works. Drawings in accordance with this specification and shall
not be entitled to claim for delays resulting from the
1220 AUTHORISED MEASUREMENTS AND submission of incomplete drawings. The Engineer will
TOLERANCES require a period of four to eight weeks, depending on
circumstances, for reviewing the complete drawings.
The work specified in the various sections of these
specifications shall comply with the various dimensional
No direct payment for design, preparation and
and other tolerances specified in each case. Where no
submission of Drawings will be made and all costs shall
tolerances are specified, the standard of workmanship
be included in the rates bid for the relevant pay items as
shall be in accordance with normal good practice. No
provided in the Bill of Quantities. The cost of reviewing
representation is made that the full specified tolerances
the design/drawings shall be for the Contractor’s
will be available independently of each other, and the
account.
Contractor is cautioned that the liberal or full use of any
one or more tolerances relating to other aspects of the
Work may lead to its rejection. The latter would apply 1222 USE OF EXPLOSIVES
particularly in respect of level tolerances on layer work For handling of explosives and blasting, the Contractor
and the related requirements regarding layer shall employ only persons experienced in blasting and
thicknesses. these persons must be in possession of an approved
current blasting certificate or be able to demonstrate
In the description of certain pay items, where it is stated their experience to the satisfaction of the Engineer. The
that quantities will be determined from the authorised purchase, transport, storage and use of explosives shall
dimensions, this shall be taken to mean the dimensions be carried out in accordance with the most recent
as specified or shown on the Drawings, or, if changed, Explosive Ordinance and Rules issued by the
as finally instructed by the Engineer, without any Government of Tanzania.
allowance for tolerances being specified. If the work is
therefore constructed in compliance with the authorised The Contractor shall use explosives for blasting in
dimensions, plus or minus any tolerances allowed, connection with the Works only at such times and
quantities will be based on the authorised dimensions places and in such a manner as the Engineer may
regardless of the actual dimensions to which the work is approve but such approval shall not relieve the
constructed. Contractor from his responsibilities for injury, loss,
inconvenience and annoyance to persons, damage to
Where the work is not constructed in accordance with the work and adjoining structures, roads, places and
the authorised dimensions, plus or minus any things, and injury or damage to animals and property
tolerances allowed, the Engineer may nevertheless, in consequent to the use of such explosives. The
his sole discretion, accept the work for payment. In Contractor shall be entirely liable for any accident which
such cases no payment will be made in respect of may occur and shall save the Employer and the
quantities of work or material in excess of those Engineer harmless and indemnified from all claims
calculated from the authorised dimensions and where arising therefrom. Where loss, inconvenience, injury or
the actual dimensions are less than the authorised accident is likely to be caused to persons, animals,
dimensions, minus any tolerance allowed. Quantities for works, property, places and things, the Engineer shall
payment shall be based on the actual dimensions as have the power to regulate or prohibit blasting and in
constructed. the event of such regulations or prohibition the
Contractor shall have no claims against the Employer.
1221 DRAWINGS PROVIDED BY THE
Contractor will be permitted to use explosives for
CONTRACTOR breaking up rock and hard materials during excavation,
Where the Contractor is required to prepare any for demolishing existing structures, and for such other
drawings for the purpose of this Contract, they shall be purposes for which it may normally be required, on the
prepared as specified below and in accordance with approval of the Engineer and subject to the following
any further requirements specified by the Engineer. conditions:

The Contractor shall be provided with one transparent − The Engineer will have the right to prohibit the use
polyester standard drawing sheet and one steel of explosives in cases where, in his opinion, the risk
schedule sheet, which shall be used as masters for all of injury to persons or damage to property or
drawings prepared by him and submitted to the adjoining structures is too high. Such action by the
Engineer for consideration Engineer shall not entitle the Contractor to any
THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 1000 - 16
STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 1000 - GENERAL

additional payment for having to resort to other less falsework and formwork plans.
economical methods of demolition unless otherwise
provided in the Special Specifications or the Bill of 1224 THE HANDING OVER OF THE SITE
Quantities. The Site will be handed over to the Contractor for
− The provisions of SECTION 3300 shall be complied construction, subject to such conditions as may be
with. specified in the Special Specifications regarding matters
− Legal provisions in regard to the use of explosives such as the sequence in which sections will be handled
and the requirements of the Inspector of Explosives over and must be completed, the maximum total length
or equivalent shall be strictly complied with. of bypasses that will be allowed to be in operation at
− The Contractor shall, at his own cost, make any time and any other matters relating to the
arrangements for supplying, transporting, storing Contractor’s use and occupation of the Site.
and using explosives.
− Before any blasting is undertaken, the Contractor 1225 HAUL ROADS
together with the Engineer, shall examine and The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer for
measure up any buildings, houses or structures in approval full details of any haul construction roads he
the vicinity of the proposed blasting and establish proposes to build. Such details shall be submitted well
and record, together with the Owner thereof, the in advance in order to afford the Engineer sufficient time
extent of any cracks or damage that may exist to investigate their implications. Haul roads may not be
before blasting operations are commenced. It shall built without the Engineer’s prior approval, and shall be
be the responsibility of the Contractor to make kept to a minimum, particularly in areas where their
good, at his own expense, any further damage to impact on the environment may be serious.
such houses, buildings or structure which results
from the blasting operations. 1226 MEASUREMENT OF DEPTH OF
− Where there is danger of damage to power or
telephone lines or underground or other services or TRENCHES AND FOUNDATION
any other property, the Contractor shall suitably EXCAVATIONS
adapt his method of blasting and the size of the Where trenches or foundation excavations are required
charges, and shall take adequate protective below the level of mass excavations for the road prism,
measures, such as cover blasting, in order to limit the depth of excavation of the trenches or foundation
the risk of damage as far as possible. shall be measured from ground level after completion of
− The Engineer shall, twenty- four hours before each the mass excavation, unless the Engineer is satisfied
blasting operations is carried out, be advised that the excavation of the trenches or foundation from
thereof, in writing, unless otherwise agreed on the the original ground level or any lower lever was
Engineer. unavoidable. The Contractor shall ensure that he
− No explosives of any kind shall be used by the obtains such instructions in good time and, where
Contractor without the prior consent of the Engineer required, shall submit proposals to the Engineer for
in writing. The Contractor shall purchase and import approval.
his own explosives for use in connection with the
Works and shall comply with all relevant 1227 ACCESS TO CONTRACTOR’S RECORDS,
ordinances, instructions and regulations which the MONTHLY SITE MEETINGS AND
Employer, or other person or persons having due
authority, may issue from time to time regarding the
PROGRESS PHOTOGRAPHS
handling, transportation, storage and use of The Engineer shall at all times have full access to all
explosives. files, drawings, documents, records and whatsoever in
connection with the execution of the Works.
− The Contractor shall comply with the Statutory
Regulations in force in Tanzania regarding the use
The Contractor or his authorised representative shall
and storage of explosives.
attend monthly meetings on the site with
− Before commencing demolition work on any unit the
representatives of the Employer and Engineer, at dates
Contractor shall ensure that all affected public
and times to be determined by the Employer. Such
utilities have been disconnected as directed by the
meetings will be held for evaluating the progress of the
Engineer and any necessary temporary
Contract which any of the parties represented may wish
arrangements made. Any material or equipment
to raise.
required by the Employer shall be transferred to his
own store and the remaining debris shall become
The Contractor shall arrange with a photographer
the property of the Contractor who shall dispose of
approved by the Engineer for the taking of progress
it from the Site.
photographs during the construction of the Works The
− The Contractor shall at all times when engaged in Contractor shall submit each month good quality
blasting operations post sufficient warning flags and photographs of at least 5 different subjects as agreed
other measures to the full satisfaction of the with the Engineer. For each subject, the Contractor
Engineer. shall supply at least three colour photographs plus the
negatives reproduced in three sets in size 100 x 150
1223 WORK ON, OVER UNDER OR ADJACENT mm. The photographs shall be arranged in plastic
TO RAILWAY LINES photo-pockets with 3 photographs on each side and
All work carried out on, over, under or adjacent to with a label next to the photograph giving appropriate
railway lines shall be carried out strictly in accordance title and a number with reference to a suitable key plan.
with the latest edition of the Specifications of the Negatives shall also be suitably filed and referenced.
relevant Rail Authority, a copy of which will normally be
included in the Special Specifications or where the copy If so specified in the Special Specifications the progress
included in the Special Specifications is amended or photographs shall be taken by digital camera (min. 2.1
superseded by another, the Contractor shall obtain the million pixels). In this case a CD-ROM with the
latest edition, which shall be kept on the site before any photographs as well as prints as specified above shall
work of this nature is commenced. be provided. No separate payment will be made for
attending site meetings or furnishing progress
Attention is drawn particularly to the requirements photographs, the relevant cost being included by the
contained in the Specifications regarding the approval Contractor in his rates in the Bill of Quantities.
that must be obtained from the Rail Authority for a work
permit or occupation of its property and the approval of

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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 1000 - GENERAL

1228 LEGAL PROVISIONS expense. He must make allowances for the use of the
The Contractor shall keep himself fully conversant with said supplies and equipment by all sub-contractors.
the latest enactment, provisions and regulations of all
legislative and statutory bodies and in all respects and Once equipment becomes redundant and having
at all time shall comply with such enactment, provisions received the approval from the Engineer, the Contractor
and regulations in regard to executing the Contract. shall disconnect and remove said equipment and make
good any works disturbed at his own expense.
1229 FINAL CLEARANCE
Upon completion of each section of the Works, 1232 POSITION OF WORKS
Contractor shall cleanup the site, remove all temporary The Works are shown on the Drawings, but the precise
buildings, plant and debris. He shall level off and fine positions, lines and directions of all the Works are not
grade all excavated material which is surplus to necessarily indicated and will be determined by the
requirements. The whole of the site shall be left in a Engineer as the Contract proceeds.
clean and workmanlike condition to the satisfaction of
the Engineer. No separate payment shall be made for 1233 ACCESS TO SITE
any work included in the paragraph and the costs shall The Contractor shall make his own arrangements for
be deemed to be included in the rates of the relevant access to the various parts of the Site where works are
items entered in the Bill of Quantities. to be constructed but all such accesses shall be subject
to the approval of the Engineer.
1230 RECORDING OF INFORMATION
RELATING TO CLAIMS FOR ADDITIONAL Where the access to the Site proposed to be used by
Contractor lies across the land of any third party, the
COMPENSATION OR EXTENSION OF Contractor shall produce to the Engineer the written
TIME consent of the owner and the occupier of the land over
Should any circumstances arise or order be given by which the access lies before making use of the same.
the Engineer which the Contractor considers may fairly The Contractor shall also make a record to be agreed
entitle him to additional compensation, or extension of by the Engineer of the conditions of the surfaces of any
time for completion of the Contract, then the Contractor land (and of any crops on such land) over which access
shall at the earliest practicable opportunity inform the lies before he uses it for access purposes and he shall
Engineer of these circumstances so that he may have keep all such surfaces in a reasonable state of repair
the opportunity to investigate the circumstances and during the execution of the Works. On the termination of
take such action as he considers desirable in order to the Contractor's use of such access he shall restore the
reduce possible costs to the Employer. The Contractor lands to a condition at least equal to that existing before
shall at the same time inform the Engineer of his his first entry on them.
intention either to claim additional compensation or
extension of time, or to reserve his right to claim at a 1234 CO-OPERATION AT SITE
later stage. The Contractor shall also state on which All work shall be carried out in such a way as to allow
clause or clauses of the Conditions of Contract, the access and afford all reasonable facilities for any other
Special Specifications or other parts of the Contract Contractor and his workmen and for all the workmen of
Documents his claim is based. the Employer and any other person who may be
employed in the execution and/or operation at or near
In order that the extent and validity of such claims may the Site of any work in connection with the Contract or
be properly assessed when they are submitted at a otherwise.
later date, all circumstances relating to claims must be
investigated, recorded and agreed upon as far as The Contractor shall use his best endeavours to co-
possible between the Contractor and the Engineer as operate with such persons without interfering with them
and when they occur. For this purpose the Contractor and shall observe all the instructions and orders of the
shall furnish the Engineer from day to day with records, Engineer in that connection.
in a form approved by the Engineer, of all the facts and
circumstances that the Contractor considers relevant In the preparation of his programme of work the
and may wish to rely upon in support of his claims. The Contractor shall at all times take full account of and co-
Engineer may in turn record such other facts and ordinate with the programming of work of other
circumstances as he considers relevant and the contractors.
Contractor shall for this purpose, supply him with all the
information that he may require in this respect. 1235 ROADS AND SITE TO BE KEPT TIDY
The Contractor shall take all necessary care and
The Engineer and the Contractor shall at the time of
precautions to ensure that roads and thoroughfares
recording, indicate in writing and by signature, their
used by him either for the construction of the Works or
agreement or disagreement as to the correctness of the
for the transport of equipment, labour and materials are
information recorded. Additional compensation shall for
kept in good repair and conditions and not damaged or
the purposes of this Clause be taken to mean
made untidy as a result of such construction or
compensation over and above the payments at unit
transport. In the event of their becoming thus dirtied in
rates and prices bid or agreed upon for work ordered by
the opinion of the Engineer, the Contractor shall
the Engineer.
immediate take all necessary steps to rectify as
required by the Engineer.
1231 ELECTRICITY SUPPLY
The Contractor shall provide and maintain at his own 1236 SECURITY OF THE WORKS
expense his own electricity supply. This supply must be
Watching of the Works shall be provided by the
adequate to supply the area set aside for the housing of
Contractor at his own expense. If the Engineer
his staff and for his own and the Engineer's office, site
considers it necessary he will order in writing that
laboratory as well as for the housing of the Engineer's
additional watchmen be provided all at the Contractor's
staff.
expense.
The Contractor shall provide and maintain all necessary
temporary power and lighting and all associated 1237 SAFETY
apparatus for the duration of the Contract at his own The Engineer shall be notified by the Contractor
immediately any accident occurs whether on Site or off

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 1000 - 18


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 1000 - GENERAL

Site in which the Contractor is directly involved which the Contractor’s his overheads and costs in making the
results in any injury to any person whether directly arrangement, for co-ordinating the work and effecting
concerned with the Site or whether a third party. Such payment.
initial notification may be verbal and shall be followed
by a written comprehensive report within 24 hours of
the accident.

Transportation of any material by the Contractor shall


be in suitable vehicles which when loaded do not cause
spillage and all loads shall be suitably secured. Any
vehicle which does not comply with this requirement or
any of the local traffic regulations and laws shall be
removed from the Site.

Arrangement shall be made with the appropriate


Authority before entering in or working on existing and
associated works.

1238 METHOD OF WORKING


The method of working to be adopted shall be such as
to permit the satisfactory completion of the Works and
to limit disturbance and damage to a minimum.
Constructional equipment used in the execution of the
Works shall be of a design and be used in a manner
approved by the Engineer.

The Engineer may at any time withdraw his approval


and Contractor shall immediately adopt another method
of working. The Contractor shall have no claim against
the Employer for costs incurred by him in changing the
method of working or in the provision and use of other
equipment.

1239 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT


ITEM UNIT
12.01 LAND ACQUISITION:
(a) ARRANGE AND PAY COMPENSATION PROVISIONAL
FOR ACQUISITION OF LAND FOR THE SUM
WORKS.
(b) ALLOW FOR CONTRACTOR’S PERCENT (%)
OVERHEADS AND PROFITS AS A
PERCENTAGE OF SUBITEM 12.01(a)

The Provisional Sum shall be for reimbursed the net


cost for compensation and purchase of land subject to
the agreement of the Engineer, and upon production of
receipts. The percentage inserted by the Contractor
shall be for overheads and costs.

ITEM UNIT
12.02 RELOCATION OF SERVICES:
(a) ARRANGE AND PAY FOR REMOVAL PROVISIONAL
AND/OR ALTERATION TO SERVICES SUM
PROVIDED BY AGENCIES FOR
ELECTRICITY SUPPLY, WATER
SUPPLY OR TELECOMMUNICATION
SERVICES.
(b) ALLOW FOR CONTRACTOR’S PERCENT (%)
OVERHEADS AND PROFITS AS A
PERCENTAGE OF SUBITEM 12.02(a)

The Provisional Sum shall be for reimbursement of the


net cost for arranging the removal or alteration of all
existing services, such as drains, underground and
overhead telephone and electricity lines, ducts, poles,
water mains, fittings, railway lines, etc. before any
excavation or other work likely to affect the existing
services is commenced. Payment is subject to the
agreement of the Engineer, and upon production of
receipts

The percentage inserted by the Contractor shall be for

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 1000 - 19


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 1000 - GENERAL

SERIES: 1000 GENERAL comply with the Conditions of Contact, particularly in


respect of the insurance’s and sureties required and his
general obligations to the public and the Employer. He
SECTION 1300: CONTRACTOR’S shall comply with all the regulations of statutory bodies.

ESTABLISHMENT ON SITE (f) Liaison with Government and Police Officials


The Contractor shall take all the necessary steps to
AND GENERAL comply with the Conditions of Contract. The Contractor
OBLIGATIONS shall keep in close contact with the Police and other
Government officials of the area regarding their
requirements in the control of traffic and other matters
CONTENTS: and shall provide all assistance or facilities which may
CLAUSE PAGE be required by such officials in the execution of their
duties.
1301 SCOPE 1000-20
1302 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 1000-20
1303 CONTRACTOR’S OFFICES, STORES, 1303 CONTRACTOR’S OFFICES, STORES,
WORKSHOPS, CAMPS, ETC. 1000-20
1304 PAYMENT 1000-21 WORKSHOPS, CAMPS, ETC.
(a) General
If the Contractor needs areas in addition to the land
made available to him, it is entirely up to him to make
1301 SCOPE whatever arrangements he deems necessary with land
This Section covers the establishment of the occupiers regarding use of additional land for the
Contractor’s organisation, camp and constructional
purpose of erecting camps, workshops, garages,
plant on the site and their removal on completion of the stockpiling of materials, housing of labour and staff,
contract. It also covers payment for certain general
welfare facilities, etc, and all costs incurred in
obligations, risk and liabilities and general items of cost connection with rental or lease of such land shall be at
not covered elsewhere. the Contractor’s expense.

However, offices for the Contractor’s supervisory staff


1302 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS and administration shall be erected by the Contractor at
his own expense at a location to be agreed upon with
(a) Camps, constructional plant and testing the Engineer.
facilities
The Contractor shall establish his construction camps, The land available to the Contractor shall be as follows:
offices, stores, workshops and testing facilities on the − The Land occupied by the Permanent Works.
site. The exact location of these facilities shall be − The Land occupied by approved temporary
approved beforehand by the Engineer. Accommodation, diversion routes.
ablution and other facilities for site staff shall also be − The Land indicated on the Drawings or
provided as required and the standard of subsequently approved by the Engineer as borrow
accommodation and the location of all facilities shall areas or as quarries.
comply with the requirements of the authorities − The Land required for housing, plant yard,
concerned and those of the Engineer. workshops and offices subject to the Engineer’s
approval of locations and layouts of such
Prior to starting with construction, the Contractor, shall installations.
also move all constructional plant and personnel to the
− Subject to the approval of the Engineer, any land
Site. On completion of the work and after receiving
lying within the boundaries of the right-of-way (as
approval in writing from the Engineer, all constructional
shown on the plan and profile drawings) may also
plant, buildings, fencing and other temporary structures
be made available to the Contractor as working
shall be removed and the camp site shall be restored to
space or borrow areas for fill material.
its original condition and left neat and tidy.
Before giving such approval the Engineer will give
(b) Building regulations
particular attention to the temporary and permanent
All buildings erected by the Contractor upon the site
effects of the proposed activities on the drainage of the
and camp site or sites and the layout of the buildings
area and the Contractor’s proposals for reinstatement.
and the sites shall comply with the Laws of Tanzania
and all Bye-Laws in so far as they are applicable.
(b) Contractor’s offices, stores and workshops
The Contractor shall provide and maintain at an
(c) Sign boards
approved location a suitable main office together with
The Contractor shall provide and erect a sign board at
such site offices as may be necessary for the efficient
the main entrances to the Site and at the site camp,
control of the Works. He shall also provide and maintain
where directed by the Engineer. The boards, with
on approved sites sufficient suitable stores, tanks and
suitable inscription, shall include the name of the
workshops for the proper storage of materials, fuel,
Project, the name of the Employer, the name of the
plant and equipment and the efficient maintenance of all
Financing Institution, the name of the Consultant and
such plant and equipment.
the name of the Contractor etc. The boards approx.
3.30 m x 3.20 m size, shall be approved by the
The stores shall be of such size and construction as to
Engineer, before erection.
provide adequate storage and protection for stocks of
materials, fuel, spares and the like in quantities
(d) Maintenance during construction
ensuring uninterrupted progress of the work and the
During construction the Contractor’s camps, staff living
workshops shall be suitably equipped for carrying out
quarters and other facilities shall be maintained in a
major repairs, overhaul or modification by the
neat and tidy condition.
Contractor of all plant and equipment in or on the Works
and other work connected with the permanent work.
(e) Legal and contractual requirements and
responsibility to the public
The Contractor shall take all the necessary steps to
THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 1000 - 20
STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 1000 - GENERAL

(c) Contractor’s quarters and camps


The Contractor shall provide, erect, maintain and clear
away on completion all quarters and camps for staff and
labour necessary for the efficient control and execution
of the Works. Suitable, sufficient and properly equipped
messing, cooking and sanitary accommodation, an
adequate supply of clean water, proper disposal of
refuse and sewerage and sufficient labour in
attendance shall be provided. The Contractor shall be
responsible for meeting the requirements of the local
authorities, labour officers and other officers regarding
the camp accommodation, sanitation and messing of all
workmen and provide the staff necessary for proper
control and supervision.

All sites selected by the Contractor for the erection of


offices, stores, workshops, quarters, camps and the like
are subject to the prior approval of the Engineer. The
Contractor shall, by notice in writing, indicate his
requirements for sites well in advance in order that the
Engineer and the Regional Administration may consult
local interests.

(d) First aid


The Contractor shall provide, equip and maintain
adequate first-aid stations throughout the Works, and
erect conspicuous notice boards directing where these
are situated and provide all requisite transport. The
Contractor shall comply with the government medical or
labour requirements at all times and provide, equip and
maintain base dressing stations where directed and at
all times have experienced first-aid personnel and
dressers available throughout the Works for attending
minor injuries.

(e) Measurements and payment


Compliance with the requirements, performance of all
work, furnishing of all equipment, materials, including
water, labour, tools and incidentals necessary to
complete the work prescribed in this Clause shall not be
measured for direct payment but shall be considered as
a subsidiary obligation of the Contractor, covered under
the prices quoted for other contract items.

1304 PAYMENT
ITEM UNIT
13.01 CONTRACTORS OBLIGATIONS:
(a) SURETIES LUMP SUM
(b) INSURANCE OF W ORKS LUMP SUM
(c) INSURANCE OF CONSTRUCTIONAL LUMP SUM
PLANT & EQUIPMENT
(d) THIRD PARTY INSURANCE LUMP SUM

Payment of the lump sum bid under SUBITEMS 13.01(a),


(b), (c) and (d) shall include full compensation for the
Contractor’s charges in respect of the general
obligations. Should the value of the works (excluding
any payment in terms of the Conditions of Contract)
increase or decrease by more than 25 percent (less
allowances, if any, in the bid price adjustments in terms
of the General Conditions of Contract), the lump sum
bid for SUBITEMS 13.01(a), (b), (c) and (d) will be
increased or decreased by an equal percentage which
is in excess of the said limit of 25 percent.

Payment in respect of compliance with the provisions of


this Clause will be made in full at the lump sum entered
in the Bill of Quantities when the Contractor has fulfilled
all the requirements of this Clause.

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 1000 - 21


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 1000 - GENERAL

SERIES 1000: GENERAL stock of all expendable items, such as light bulbs, light
tubes, kitchenware, soap, towels, toilet paper, paper
towels, drinking cups, materials and accessories and at
SECTION 1400: ENGINEER’S all times ensure proper and continuing functioning of all
components and parts of the Engineer’s houses and
ACCOMMODATION AND office.
ATTENDANCE UPON ENGINEER The houses, offices and installations, etc. including all
AND HIS SITE PERSONNEL required equipment to be provided under this Contract
shall be handed over to the Engineer in finished and
fully habitable condition not later than 4 months after
CONTENTS: the Engineer’s order to commence Work (according to
the relevant clause of the Conditions of Contract) and
CLAUSE PAGE
such buildings shall be to the entire satisfaction of the
1401 SCOPE 1000-22 Engineer. Suitable temporary office and residential
1402 FACILITIES FOR THE ENGINEER 1000-22 accommodation for the Engineer and his staff shall be
1403 HOUSES FOR THE ENGINEER 1000-11 provided from the date of the order to commence the
1404 OFFICE FOR THE ENGINEER 1000-11 Works until such time as the permanent office and
1405 WASH HOUSE 1000-11 residential accommodation are available for use.
1406 SITE CABIN / OFFICE 1000-11
1407 VEHICLES FOR THE ENGINEER AND (b) Siteworks for “Engineers Compound”
EMPLOYER 1000-11 The houses and buildings shall be sited within the
1408 ATTENDANCE UPON ENGINEER 1000-11 “Engineers Compound” to the satisfaction of the
1409 PROVISION OF SURVEY EQUIPMENT 1000-11 Engineer. The Type I, II and III houses shall be placed
1410 LABORATORY 1000-11 on separate plots of approximately 0.2 hectares each.
1411 MEALS IN CONTRACTOR'S MESS HALL 1000-11 The location of the houses shall be separate from that
1412 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 1000-11 of the Contractor’s staff housing.

Separate access roads 3 m wide shall be provided for


each house and shall be surfaced with at least 150mm
1401 SCOPE consolidated thickness of gravel properly graded,
The Section covers the provision of accommodation cambered, drained and culverted.
and facilities for the supervisory staff of the Engineer
and for the Employer. The Contractor shall be responsible for raising the
ground (if necessary), grading and drainage in the
vicinity of each facility, with suitable access walkways,
1402 FACILITIES FOR THE ENGINEER gravelling, seeding and sodding of the ground, all as
directed and approved by the Engineer. Also, the
(a) General Contractor shall construct a roofed parking area for the
Engineer near the buildings, large enough for 8
The Contractor shall provide and maintain an office,
houses, site cabins, vehicles, survey equipment etc. for vehicles, and a satisfactory access road to the parking
area. The ground around the buildings, the parking area
the Engineer, his staff and for the Employer. Materials
and the access road shall be raised high enough for
and workmanship shall be to generally recognised
standards for temporary, prefabricated or permanent them not to be inundated during the rainy season.
buildings of this type. Detailed drawings showing the
Outside lighting, around the buildings and on the
design, the construction details, the type of materials
proposed and their characteristics, shall be submitted parking area, shall be installed to the satisfaction of the
Engineer, and appropriate signs shall be erected to
by the Contractor for the Engineer’s approval, which
inform the public of the purpose of the facilities.
shall be obtained before starting the construction of the
office or houses or ordering the relevant materials.
The whole of the “Engineer’s Compound” shall be
fenced with chain link fencing (or equivalent) 2.0 m
All buildings for accommodation, offices and
laboratories shall be constructed from approved high, with necessary gates complete with padlock and
chain as directed by the Engineer. The Contractor shall
materials. Materials containing asbestos shall not be
be responsible for the security of the compound and
used.
shall provide such gatemen and watchmen, etc., as
required to ensure this security.
The Contractor shall provide the buildings with potable
water, electricity, sanitary installations, sewage disposal
(c) Construction
arrangements, air-conditioning, furniture and
The housing shall consist of concrete block masonry or
equipment, and shall maintain them, all to the
prefabricated timber units on concrete floors raised not
satisfaction of the Engineer 24 hours of the day during
the Contract Period. less than 150 mm above natural ground level.

The roofs shall be constructed from aluminium or


All facilities shall conform to the best standards for the
required types. The facilities described herein shall be corrugated iron roof sheeting and the roof space
between the sheeting and the ceilings shall be
understood to represent the minimum requirements.
adequately ventilated and the openings shall be
The Contractor shall provide all additional incidentals
necessary, so that the facilities will be completely screened with mesh screening to prevent the entry of
vermin, etc. into the roof space.
adequate and satisfactory in every respect for the
intended use. All equipment and furniture shall be new
and unused when initially put in place. The ceilings shall not be less than 2.8 m inside height
and shall be of 10 mm hard boarding or similar
approved materials.
The Contractor shall maintain, replace and/or restore as
directed, any facilities or parts thereof that become
Air conditioners shall be wall mounted - not window
damaged, worn out, lost or stolen, except through
mounted.
causes due to negligence of the occupying Engineer’s
staff. The Contractor shall also provide an adequate
Internal wall partitions shall be of timber framed

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 1000 - 22


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 1000 - GENERAL

construction lined both sides. All doors shall be of flush (b) Furniture and equipment
timber type, plywood faced and a minimum size of 2.0 The general description of the type of houses to be
m x 0.80 m. All timber construction shall be termite supplied is as follows:
proofed.
(i) Type I House
The windows shall be dust proof, of aluminium framing As illustrated in the Drawings having an internal
2
with glass tightly fitted or similar approved and shall be floor area of approximately 150 m complete with
located in the design to provide the maximum amount furnishings and equipment as listed in TABLE
of cross ventilation. 1403/1. The cost of providing the houses,
furnishings, equipment, water, electrical supply,
The kitchens shall be equipped with adequate benches, drainage and maintenance during the whole period
wall cupboards and shelves and with a stainless steel of the Contract shall be deemed to be included in
double sink with hot and cold running water built into a the Bill of Quantities.
special sink cabinet.

The bedrooms shall be provided with built in wardrobes TABLE 1403/1


and wall mirrors. TYPE I HOUSE FURNITURE AND EQUIPMENT.
NEW FURNITURE AND EQUIPMENT, TO THE APPROVAL OF
Bathrooms shall be provided with western flush type THE ENGINEER.
WC with hinged cover, shower with hot and cold
running water and soap dish on wall, wash basin with Furniture
hot and cold running water, and wall mirror with light Kitchen Table (Formica Top) 1 No.
above. Kitchen Chair 4 No.
Dining Table 1 No.
Toilets shall be provided with western flush type WC Dining Chairs 6 No.
with hinged cover, wash basin with hot and cold running Dining Chairs with arms 2 No.
water and wall mirror with light above. Writing Desk (3 drawer) 1 No.
Book shelf 1 No.
(d) Finishing Settee (3 cushions) 1 No.
All external walls and doors shall be provided with one Easy Chairs 4 No.
prime coat, one undercoat and two finishing coats of Coffee Tables 2 No.
gloss paint. Internal walls, doors and ceilings shall be Sideboard 2 No.
painted with one prime coat, one undercoat and two
finishing coats of P.V.C. emulsion paint. All paint shall Beds, double with inner-spring mattress 2 No.
be from an approved manufacturer. The concrete floor Beds, single with inner-spring mattress 3 No.
shall be covered with an approved type of P.V.C. floor Pillows 10 No.
tiles or sheeting. Side Tables 5 No.
Dressing Tables with mirrors 2 No.
All windows and doors shall be burglar-proofed and Dressing Table Stools 2 No.
insect-screened to the satisfaction of the Engineer. Chest of Drawers 3 No.
Bedside Chairs 5 No.
(e) Services
The Contractor shall provide, maintain and install the Bathroom Cabinet with Mirror 1 No.
following services to the Engineers approval : Bathroom Stool 1 No.
Floor Rugs 5 No.
(i) Adequate piped supply of clean potable water
connected to toilets, bathrooms and kitchens in Equipment
each house. Air Conditioner 12,000 BTU/hr 4 No.
2
Refrigerator min. 0.40 m (Electric frost
(ii) An automatic 270 litre electric immersion water free) 1 No.
heater in each house Types I-III (see below) Electric or gas cooker with 4 burners,
connected to the piped water supply. separate grill and oven 1 No.
Fume Hood 1 No.
(iii) 220 Volt, 50 cycle A.C. electricity supply with Water Filter 2 No.
sufficient wiring, light fittings and socket outlets Dust Bin metal with lid (outdoor type) 1 No.
in each house. The power shall be adequate to Door Mats 2 No.
operate the electrical equipment specified. Vacuum Cleaner (electric) 1 No.
Socket outlets shall be provided in each room Ceiling Fans 3 No.
to the Engineers approval. Set of 8 pieces crockery, cutlery, Glassware 1 Set
Set of Kitchen utensils 1 Set
(iv) Suitable soil and waste water drainage. Set of Pots, pans, etc. 1 Set
2
Deep Freeze cabinet 0.40 m 1 No.
(v) Water borne sewage disposal Fire Extinguisher 2 No.
Standard lamps 2 No.
(vi) Rubbish disposal by providing outside bins and Table Lamps 2 No.
a daily collection service to a central disposal Toilet Tissue Holders 2 No.
area. Waste Baskets 5 No.
Vacuum Cleaner (electric) 1 No.
Mixer (Electric Portable) 1 No.
1403 HOUSES FOR THE ENGINEER Bedside lights 5 No.
Wall lights 6 No.
(a) General Pelmets and runners all windows
Upon completion of the Contract, the houses, furniture, Curtains all windows
equipment and services specified herein shall revert to Bedsheets 20 No.
either the Contractor or the Employer as set out in the Pillow cases 10 No.
Special Specifications. Blankets 10 No.
Towel rails 2 No.

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 1000 - 23


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 1000 - GENERAL

(ii) Type II House furnishings, equipment, water, electrical supply,


As illustrated in the Drawings having an internal drainage and maintenance during the whole period
2
floor area of approximately 130 m complete with of the Contract shall be deemed to be included in
furnishings and equipment as listed in TABLE the Bill of Quantities.
1403/2. The cost of providing the house,
furnishings, equipment, water, electrical supply
drainage and maintenance during the whole period TABLE 1403/3
of the Contract shall be deemed to be included in TYPE III HOUSE FURNITURE AND EQUIPMENT.
the Bill of Quantities. NEW FURNITURE AND EQUIPMENT, TO THE APPROVAL OF
THE ENGINEER.

TABLE 1403/2 Furniture


TYPE II HOUSE FURNITURE AND EQUIPMENT. Kitchen Table (Formica top) 1 No.
NEW FURNITURE AND EQUIPMENT, TO THE APPROVAL OF Kitchen Chair 4 No.
THE ENGINEER. Dining Table 1 No
Dining Chairs 4 No.
Furniture Writing Desk (2 drawers) 1 No.
Book Shelf 1 No.
Kitchen Table (Formica top) 1 No. Settee (3 Cushion) 1 No.
Kitchen Chair 4 No. Easy Chairs 2 No.
Dining Table 1 No. Coffee Table 1 No.
Dining Chairs 4 No. Sideboard 1 No.
Dining Chairs with arms 2 No. Beds, single with inner-spring mattresses 2 No.
Writing Desk(3 drawers) 1 No. Pillows 2 No.
Book shelf 1 No. Side Table 1 No.
Settee (3 cushions) 1 No. Dressing Table 1 No.
Easy Chairs 3 No. Dressing Table Stool 1 No.
Coffee Tables 2 No. Chest of Drawers 1 No.
Sideboard 1 No. Bathroom Cabinet with Mirror 1 No.
Beds, single with inner-spring mattress 3 No. Bathroom stool 1 No.
Beds, double with inner-spring mattress 1 No. Floor Rugs 4 No.
Pillows 8 No.
Side Tables 4 No. Equipment
Dressing Tables with mirrors 1 No. Air Conditioner 12,000 BTU/hr 2 No.
Dressing table stools 1 No. Refrigerator min. 0.40 cu.m (Electric frost
Chest of Drawers 2 No. free) 1 No.
Bedside Chairs 4 No. Beds, single with inner-spring mattress 2 No.
Bathroom Cabinet with Mirror 1 No. Electric or gas cooker with 2 burners,
Bathroom Stool 1 No. separate grill and oven 1 No.
Floor Rugs 4 No. Fume Hood 1 No.
Water Filter 1 No.
Equipment Dust Bin Metal with Lid (outdoor type) 1 No.
Air Conditioner 12,000 BTU/hr 2 No. Door Mats 2 No.
2
Refrigerator min. 0.40 m (Electric frost Vacuum Cleaner (electric) 1 No.
free) 1 No. Ceiling Fans 2 No.
Electric or gas cooker with 4 burners, Set of 4 pieces crockery, cutlery, glassware 1 Set
separate grill and oven 1 No. Set of Kitchen utensils 1 Set
Fume Hood 1 No. Set of Pots, pans, etc. 1 Set
Vacuum Cleaner (electric) 1 No. Mixer (Electric Portable) 1 No.
Fire Extinguisher 2 No. Fire Extinguisher 1 No.
Mixer (Electric Portable) 1 No. Standard lamps 1 No.
Water Filter 1 No. Bedside lights 2 No.
Dust Bin Metal with lid (outdoor type) 1 No. Wall lights 3 No.
Door Mats 2 No. Pelmets and runners all windows
Ceiling Fans 2 No. Curtains all windows
Set of 6 pieces crockery, cutlery, glassware 1 Set Bedsheets 8 No.
Set of Kitchen utensils 1 Set Pillow cases 4 No.
Set of Pots, pans, etc. 1 Set Blankets 4 No.
2
Deep Freeze cabinet 0.40 m 1 No. Towel rails 1 No.
Standard lamps 2 No. Toilet Tissue Holder 1 No.
Bedside lights 4 No. Waste Baskets 2 No.
Wall lights 5 No.
Pelmets and runners all windows
Curtains all windows (iv) Multiple Living Accommodation
Bedsheets 16 No. 1 block of 4 units of multiple living accommodation
2
Pillow cases 8 No. each unit consisting of 17m , containing two rooms
Blankets 8 No. with common ablution block, kitchen, dining room
Towel rails 2 No. and external veranda all to the approval of the
Table Lamps 1 No. Engineer, as shown in the Drawings, complete with
Toilet Tissue Holders 1 No. furnishings and equipment as listed in TABLE
Waste Baskets 4 No. 1403/4.

(iii) Type III House


As illustrated in the Drawings having an internal
floor area of approximately 70 sq.m. complete with
furnishings and equipment as listed in TABLE
1403/3. The cost of providing the house,

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 1000 - 24


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 1000 - GENERAL

TABLE 1403/4 and telefaxes. The Contractor shall pay all charges
MULTIPLE LIVING ACCOMMODATION, HOUSE FURNITURE associated with the Engineer’s electricity supply and
AND EQUIPMENT. telephone/fax including toll calls lawfully demanded by
NEW FURNITURE AND EQUIPMENT, TO THE APPROVAL OF the electricity authority and the telecommunication
THE ENGINEER. service throughout the Contract Period.

Furniture The Contractor shall provide an access road at least 3.0


Kitchen Table (Formica Top) 1 No. m wide to the Engineer’s office and parking area for 10
Kitchen Chair 4 No. cars. The road and car park shall be surfaced with a
Dining Table 1 No. minimum of 150 mm compacted thickness of gravel.
Dining Chairs 8 No.
Sideboard 2 No. The office shall be erected and handed over to the
Beds, single with mattresses 8 No. Engineer fully furnished and equipped, within three
Pillows 8 No. months from the date of the Engineers order to
Side Table 8 No. commence work.
Bedside Chair 16 No.
Bathroom Cabinet with Mirror 2 No. (b) Construction
Bathroom stool 2 No. The office shall be dimensioned as shown in the
Drawings with a minimum of 2.8 m headroom internally,
Equipment complete with ceiling, smooth concrete or wooden floor
Electric Fan 8 No. and a 2.7 m wide covered veranda extending along the
2
Refrigerator min. 0.40 m (Electric or full length of the front. The rooms shall be adequately
equivalent) 1 No. ventilated and lighted.
Fire Extinguisher 4 No.
Vacuum Cleaner 1 No. The roofs shall be constructed from aluminium or
Electric Cooker with 4 burners, separate corrugated iron roof sheeting and the roof space
large grill and oven 1 No. between the sheeting and the ceilings shall be
Water Filter 1 No. adequately ventilated and insulated and the openings
Dust Bin Metal with Lid (outdoor type) 1 No. shall be screened with mesh screening to prevent the
Door Mats 2 No. entry of vermin, etc. into the roof space.
Ceiling Fans 2 No.
Set of 10 pieces crockery, cutlery, Internal wall partitions shall be timber framed and lined
glassware 1 Set both sides. All doors shall be of flush timber type,
Set of Kitchen utensils 1 Set plywood faced and a minimum size of 2.0 m x 0.80 m.
Set of Pots, pans, etc. 1 Set All doors shall be provided with locks with three keys
Mixer (Electric Portable) 1 No. outside doors with cylinder locks. All external walls and
Wall lights 3 No. doors shall be provided with one prime coat, one
Pelmets and runners all windows undercoat and two finishing coats of gloss paint.
Curtains all windows Internal walls, doors and ceilings shall be painted with
Bedsheets 32 No. one prime coat, one undercoat and two finishing coats
Pillow cases 16 No. of P.V.C. emulsion paint. All paint shall be from an
Blankets 16 No. approved manufacturer.
Towel rails 3 No.
Toilet Tissue Holder 1 No. (c) Furniture and equipment
Waste Baskets 2 No. The Site office for the Engineer shall be complete
with furnishings and equipment as listed in TABLE
Each unit shall be furnished with one bed, complete 1404/1.
with mattress, one table and 2 chairs and one electric
fan. The cost of providing the block of 4 units, furniture,
equipment, water, electrical supply, drainage and TABLE 1404/1
maintenance during the whole period of the Contract OFFICE FOR THE ENGINEER. FURNITURE AND EQUIPMENT.
shall be deemed to be included in of the Bill of NEW FURNITURE AND EQUIPMENT, TO THE APPROVAL OF
Quantities. THE ENGINEER.

Meeting table 3.0 m x 1.2 m with 6


1404 OFFICE FOR THE ENGINEER chairs 1 No.
Ceiling fans 6 No.
(a) General Air conditioners 12,000 BTU/hr. 4 No.
Upon completion of the Contract, the Engineer’s office Desks 1.5 m x 0.75 m with 2 chests of
buildings, furniture, equipment and services specified drawers. 8 No.
herein shall revert to either the Contractor or the Chairs with arms. 8 No.
Employer as set out in the Special Specifications. Table 1.5 m x 0.75 m with 2 drawers
and 2 chairs. 1 No.
The Contractor shall provide, furnish and maintain office Typist’s table with 1 chest of drawers
accommodation for the Engineer as detailed hereunder. and chair. 1 No.
Typewriter, Electric 430 mm carriage. 1 No.
The Site office shall be erected at a location to be Plan tables and stools. 2 No.
agreed with the Engineer. The plot shall be not less Personal computers in number and
than 0.3 hectares in area and if so required shall be equipped as specified in Special
fenced with a 2.0 m high chain link fence and gate, with Specifications.
padlock and chain. Laptop computers in number and
equipped as specified in Special
A telephone and telefax shall be provided for the use of Specifications.
the Engineer and the offices shall be provided with A3 laser printer or equivalent,
electric lighting all to the satisfaction of the Engineer. compatible with the above personal
The telefax shall have a separate dedicated telephone computer with supply of A4 and A3
line. The Engineer’s telephone and telefax shall be paper and consumables, as specified
completely independent of the Contractor’s telephones and number as in Special

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 1000 - 25


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 1000 - GENERAL

Specifications. included in the rates the Bill of Quantities.


Colour printer inkjet or equivalent
compatible with above laptop computer Upon completion of the Contract, the Engineer’s wash
with supply of A4 paper and house, furniture, equipment and services specified
consumables, in number and as herein shall revert to either the Contractor or the
specified in Special Specifications. Employer as set out in the Special Specifications.
UPS (Uninterruptable Power Supply)
with surge protector, capable to support 1406 SITE CABIN / OFFICE
and back-up all computer equipment as The Contractor shall, if so instructed by the Engineer,
specified in Special Specifications. provide and maintain during the duration of the Contract
Complete set of the latest editions of portable site cabins. Each site cabin shall have a floor
software complete with manuals and 2
area of at least 10 m and shall be equipped with one
floppy discs/CD-ROM of a type bedstead including mattress, blankets, pillows, bed
compatible with the personal computer sheets, one wardrobe, one desk with drawers, one
disc drives, as specified in Special metal cabinet, shelves, two chairs and a small gas
Specifications. refrigerator These units shall be positioned always
Safe for cash and valuables, min. size close to the Work and moved from one location to
approx. 0.8 m x 0.5 m x 0.4 m, to be another by the Contractor as may be directed by the
concreted in place (either wall or floor Engineer. The Contractor shall supply the units with
mounted) complete with lock and keys. 1 No. light, potable water if possible and sanitary facilities.
2 Drawing tables A1 size with Drawing
machines 2 No. The cost of providing the Site Cabins furnishing,
2 Drawing table stools 2 No. equipment, water, electrical supply (where available),
1 Set plan drawers (6 drawers) 1 No. moving the site cabins to different locations and
1 Two drawer steel lockable filing maintenance during the whole period of the Contract
cabinet 1 No. shall be deemed to be included in the price inserted in
Set of transparent plastic curve guides, ITEM 14.04 of the Bill of Quantities.
metric. 1 No.
Electronic calculators, in number and Upon completion of the Contract, the Engineer’s site
type as specified in Special cabin/office, furniture, equipment and services specified
Specifications herein shall revert to either the Contractor or the
Electronic desk calculators with printer, Employer as set out in the Special Specifications.
type as specified in Special
Specifications 1 No. 1407 VEHICLES FOR THE ENGINEER AND
Fire Extinguisher, type as specified in
Special Specifications 3 No. EMPLOYER
First aid kits 2 No. The Contractor shall provide new vehicles as listed
Snake bite kit 1 No. below licensed and comprehensively insured for
Adjustable planimeters 2 No. replacement value and shall maintain and provide fuel,
Stapling machines 8 No. oil and replacement parts during the whole of the
Paper punches 8 No. Contract period. The vehicles shall be for the exclusive
Binding machine 1 No. use of the Engineer, his staff and the Employer during
A3 size photocopy machine with the Contract period. The Contractor shall also insure
accessories and supplies as specified the vehicles and passengers fully comprehensively for
in Special Specifications 1 No. any driver at all times throughout the Contract Period.
Single side band multi-channel radio
communication equipment of minimum (i) 4 Wheel Drive Station Wagon
2,500 km range together with free (iii) 4 Wheel Drive Pickup, with double cabin.
standing antenna of appropriate heights
and one set of matching crystals with The vehicles under (i) shall have factory installed air-
that of the Employer’s communication conditioning units and power steering. The vehicles
system Base and mobile sets in shall have diesel-engines and shall be provided with the
number and as specified in the Special following optional equipment, factory installed seat
Specifications. belts, rear pintle hook, front hook, door mirrors, two
Water filters 4 No. spare wheels, toolbox with necessary tools, jack etc.
Thermos jug 4.5 litres capacity 8 No. Makes of vehicles shall be approved by the Engineer
12 Cups, 12 glasses and coffee sets prior to ordering.
All other office equipment necessary
including stationery. The Contractor shall service and maintain in good
working order the vehicles at all times. In the event of
The Site office shall be connected to a water and an any vehicle being unavailable for the use due to
electricity supply. The Contractor shall be responsible accident, damage or its being maintained or repaired,
for cleaning and maintaining the office and toilets and the Contractor shall immediately provide a substitute
shall provide soap, towels and all necessary fittings and acceptable to the Engineer.
cleaning materials.
In the event of the Contractor defaulting on this
1405 WASH HOUSE obligation, the Engineer shall be authorised to hire a
substitute similar vehicle for the period of non-
The Contractor shall provide a Washhouse comprising
2 availability of the Contractor’s vehicles, and the cost
two rooms of 20 m each with electricity, water, waste
incurred will be recovered from the Contractor.
water outlet and water borne sewage disposal and
equipped with two automatic washing machines, two
Upon completion of the Contract, the Engineer’s
stainless steel tubs with hot and cold running water and
vehicles specified herein shall revert to either the
automatic electric water heater, all to the approval of
Contractor or the Employer as provided for in the
the Engineer.
Special Specifications.
The cost of providing the house, furnishing, equipment,
water, electrical supply and maintenance during the
whole period of the Contract shall be deemed to be
THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 1000 - 26
STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 1000 - GENERAL

1408 ATTENDANCE UPON ENGINEER Reflective road safety vests 12 No.


Drawing boards (fieldbook frames A4
(a) Staff size,metal or wood with plastic cover) 10 No.
The Contractor shall provide night and day watchmen,
gardeners, labourers, cleaners and sanitary staff as well The Contractor shall be solely responsible for the
as all necessary cleaning materials as may be required maintenance of all such instruments and shall ensure
by the Engineer to keep the offices, the laboratory and that they are at all times in good condition and
houses in first class condition. adjustment. Repairs shall only be carried out by
persons or organisations approved by the Engineer.
(b) Stationery
The Contractor shall provide any stationery required for Supply of miscellaneous survey items (e.g. spray paint,
the office and laboratory of the Engineer. beacon materials, spades, axes, rubber boots,
assistants, drawing equipment, approved surveying
(c) Assistance to the Engineer forms A4 size and field-surveying books).
The Contractor shall provide all assistance such as
labourers, all tools and protective clothing, wooden
pegs, iron pins and pickets, water, cement and 1410 LABORATORY FOR THE ENGINEER
aggregate for concreting, transport for labour and
materials, as may be required by the Engineer and his (a) General
staff for checking, setting out, surveying and measuring The Contractor shall provide, erect and maintain for the
or testing the work. duration of the Contract a laboratory adjacent to the
Engineers Representative’s office or where directed by
(d) Payment the Engineer.
No separate payment will be made for attendance upon
the Engineer the relevant cost being included by the Upon completion of the Contract, the Engineer’s
Contractor in rates in the Bill of Quantities or laboratory buildings, Laboratory equipment, air
elsewhere. If the Contractor fails in his obligations conditioners and furniture specified herein shall revert
under this Specifications, the Engineer is authorised to to either the Contractor or the Employer depending on
employ any staff and/or labourer and to buy any which of the pay items in CLAUSE 1412 are invoked in
material, as mentioned above, and the costs incurred the Special Specifications.
will be recovered from the Contractor.
The Laboratory shall be dimensioned as shown in the
1409 PROVISION OF SURVEY EQUIPMENT Drawings with a minimum of 2.8 m headroom internally
The Contractor shall provide at all times during the complete with ceiling, smooth concrete floor and a 5m
period of the Contract all such workmen and wide covered veranda extending along the length of the
instruments for the exclusive use of the Engineer as he front with a concrete floor for drying of material and
may deem to be necessary for carrying out his duties in sufficient covered outdoor space for location of soaking
connection with the Contract. The workmen shall be basins for CBR testing where required.
selected for their intelligence and knowledge of the
English language and as far as possible the same men The rooms shall be adequately ventilated and lighted.
shall be provided throughout the period of the Contract. Walls shall be constructed of prefabricated timber
sections or sand cement blocks. All external doors shall
Upon completion of the Contract, the Engineer’s survey be provided with cylinder locks with three keys.
equipment specified herein shall revert to either the
Contractor or the Employer as set out in the Special The working area floor shall have a strengthened
Specifications. section incorporated consisting of 3.0 m x 3.0 m x 450
mm mass concrete plinth. A separate sample store of at
The instruments to be provided include those given in least 12 m² floor area shall be provided.
TABLE 1409/1 or equivalent as specified in Special
Specifications: The laboratory shall be provided with electric lighting
and power points to the satisfaction of the Engineer (to
be 220 Volts, 50 cycles).
TABLE 1409/1
NEW SURVEY EQUIPMENT, TO THE APPROVAL OF THE The permanent fixtures in the laboratory shall include
ENGINEER. − 2 no. double draining board stainless sinks, piped
drinkable water supply to each and waste water
Item Number outlets.
Total station of approved type 1 No. − Work benches, comprising a working surface and
Electronic Distance Meter 1 No. one full length and width shelf under, of seasoned
Tripods 3 No. timber 1.0 m wide and 0.9 m high.
Levels 2 No. − Soaking tanks for CBR and concrete specimens
Metal levelling staves 5m (foldable) 3 No. shall be provided at floor level, in the stores section
Steel tape 50 m 2 No. of the laboratory and on the veranda. The CBR tank
Steel tape 25 m 5 No. shall have drainage pipes built in.
Fibre-glass tapes 50 m 4 No.
Ranging rods, 2.5 m long 8 No. The laboratory for the Engineer shall be complete with
Ranging rods 2.5 m (metal, joinable) 6 No. furnishings and equipment as listed in TABLE 1410/1.
Optical squares 1 No.
Spare batteries 2 No.
Rapid Charger 1 No. TABLE 1410/1
Reflectors with mounts 5 No. LABORATORY FOR THE ENGINEER. FURNITURE AND
Triple prism mount with reflectors 1 No. EQUIPMENT. NEW FURNITURE AND EQUIPMENT, TO THE
Tribrachs 4 No. APPROVAL OF THE ENGINEER.
Steel hammers (4 kg) 2 No.
Spirit levels for staves 6 No. Desks 1.5 m x 0.75 m with 2 chests of
Metal pocket rules (5m) 10 No. drawers. 2 No.
Surveying umbrella 2 No. Arm chairs 2 No.
Chairs 6 No.
THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 1000 - 27
STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 1000 - GENERAL

Air Conditioners 12,000 BTU/hr. 5 No. 2 No. MUNICIPAL SERVICES FOR MULTIPLE UNIT)
Work benches in numbers as given in the ACCOMMODATION UNITS FULLY X (MONTH)
Special Specifications FURNISHED AND EQUIPPED FOR THE
Curing tanks. 3 No. ENGINEER
Stationery cupboard 2 cu. m. 2 No. (j) MAINTAIN AND PAY ALL RENTS AND (HOUSE
Book-cases, purpose made to accept box MUNICIPAL SERVICES FOR FULLY UNIT)
files 2 No. FURNISHED AND EQUIPPED X (MONTH)
Shelves 2.0m long 2 No. TEMPORARY ACCOMMODATION AND
Stools, lm high 4 No. OFFICES FOR THE ENGINEER
Stools, 0.4m high 4 No.
Metal Filing Cabinet 2 drawers 2 No.
All SUBITEMS 14.01(a) to (j) shall be applied in the case
where the houses, furniture and equipment reverts to
(b) Testing equipment, materials and testing either the Employer or Contractor upon completion of
standards the Contract.
The Contractor shall provide and install in the laboratory
2 stainless steel fan-circulated drying ovens, minimum
70 litre capacity, and all the necessary apparatus and ITEM UNIT
materials for the performance of all tests required for 14.02 OFFICES FOR THE ENGINEER
the testing and control of the works and materials. (a) PROVIDE FULLY FURNISHED AND LUMP SUM
EQUIPPED OFFICES FOR THE ENGINEER
The Contractor shall supply one new copy of the latest
edition of the Specifications for all referred material (b) MAINTAIN AND PAY ALL RENTS AND (OFFICE
MUNICIPAL SERVICES FOR FULLY UNIT)X
standards and testing standards used for the Contract.
FURNISHED AND EQUIPPED OFFICES (MONTH)
FOR THE ENGINEER
All the laboratory equipment, including air conditioners,
shall be new and of a make approved by the Engineer.
Both SUBITEMS 14.02(a) and (b) shall be applied in the
The Contractor shall immediately after the award of the case where the houses, furniture and equipment reverts
Contract prepare and submit for the approval of then to either the Employer or Contractor upon completion of
Engineer a list showing all instruments and apparatus to the Contract.
be purchased.

1411 MEALS IN CONTRACTOR'S MESS HALL ITEM UNIT


The contractor, when so required by the Engineer, shall 14.03 WASH HOUSE FOR THE
provide meals in the Contractor's mess hall for the ENGINEER:
Employer’s visiting staff and other official visitors on (a) PROVIDE AND MAINTAIN FULLY LUMP SUM
agreement with the Engineer. Meals shall include food FURNISHED AND EQUIPPED WASH
and drinks of good quality and in an adequate quantity. HOUSE FOR THE ENGINEER
(b) MAINTAIN AND PAY ALL RENTS AND (WASH HOUSE
MUNICIPAL SERVICES FOR FULLY UNIT) X
1412 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT FURNISHED AND EQUIPPED WASH (MONTH)
HOUSE FOR THE ENGINEER
ITEM UNIT
14.01 HOUSES FOR THE ENGINEER: Both SUBITEMS 14.03(a) and (b) shall be applied in the
(a) PROVIDE TYPE I HOUSE FULLY LUMP SUM case where the houses, furniture and equipment reverts
FURNISHED AND EQUIPPED FOR THE to either the Employer or Contractor upon completion of
ENGINEER the Contract.
(b) PROVIDE TYPE II HOUSE FULLY LUMP SUM
FURNISHED AND EQUIPPED FOR THE
ENGINEER ITEM UNIT
(c) PROVIDE TYPE III HOUSE FULLY LUMP SUM 14.04 SITE CABIN/OFFICE FOR THE
FURNISHED AND EQUIPPED FOR THE ENGINEER:
ENGINEER (a) PROVIDE FULLY FURNISHED AND LUMP SUM
(d) PROVIDE MULTIPLE ACCOMMODATION LUMP SUM EQUIPPED SITE CABIN / OFFICE
UNITS FULLY FURNISHED AND FOR THE ENGINEER
EQUIPPED FOR THE ENGINEER (b) cabin / office for the Engineer (SITE CABIN
(e) PROVIDE FULLY FURNISHED AND LUMP SUM MAINTAIN AND PAY ALL RENTS /OFFICE UNIT)
EQUIPPED TEMPORARY AND MUNICIPAL SERVICES FOR X (MONTH)
ACCOMMODATION AND OFFICES FOR FULLY FURNISHED AND EQUIPPED
THE ENGINEER SITE

(f) MAINTAIN AND PAY ALL RENTS AND (HOUSE


MUNICIPAL SERVICES FOR TYPE I UNIT) Both SUBITEMS 14.04(a) and (b) shall be applied in the
HOUSE FULLY FURNISHED AND X (MONTH) case where the houses, furniture and equipment reverts
EQUIPPED FOR THE ENGINEER to either the Employer or Contractor upon completion of
the Contract.
(g) MAINTAIN AND PAY ALL RENTS AND (HOUSE
MUNICIPAL SERVICES FOR TYPE II UNIT)
HOUSE FULLY FURNISHED AND X (MONTH)
ITEM UNIT
EQUIPPED FOR THE ENGINEER
14.05 FOUR WHEEL DRIVE STATION
(h) MAINTAIN AND PAY ALL RENTS AND (HOUSE
WAGON FOR THE ENGINEER:
MUNICIPAL SERVICES FOR TYPE III UNIT)
HOUSE FULLY FURNISHED AND X (MONTH) (a) PROVIDE VEHICLES FOR THE LUMP SUM
EQUIPPED FOR THE ENGINEER ENGINEER (SPECIFY TYPE AND
NUMBER)
(i) MAINTAIN AND PAY ALL RENTS AND (HOUSE

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 1000 - 28


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 1000 - GENERAL

(b) OPERATE AND MAINTAIN VEHICLES VEHICLE equipment, wash house and site cabin for the
(SPECIFY TYPE AND NUMBER) FOR AN X MONTH Engineer’s Representative will be made at the Lump
AVERAGE OF 2500 KM PER MONTH Sum entered in the Bill of Quantities, for each single
(c) OPERATE VEHICLES SPECIFIED FOR KILOMETRES item of each type, on the following basis:
TRAVEL DISTANCE IN EXCESS OF (km)
AVERAGE 2500 KM PER MONTH (i) 50% of the Lump Sum when the respective facilities
are completed, and accepted by the Engineer, fully
furnished and equipped.
All SUBITEMS 14.05(a) to (c) shall be applied in the case
where the vehicles revert to the Employer or Contractor (ii) 50% of the Lump Sum will be paid in equal
upon completion of the Contract. instalments over the Contract period. The
instalments shall be deemed to cover maintenance
of buildings, furniture, equipment and services,
ITEM UNIT supply of electricity and water as specified in the
14.06 FOUR WHEEL DRIVE DOUBLE Specifications. The Employer may withhold or
CAB PICK-UP FOR THE ENGINEER reduce any instalments if the Contractor fails in his
(a) PROVIDE VEHICLES FOR THE LUMP SUM maintenance obligations.
ENGINEER AND EMPLOYER (SPECIFY (LS)
TYPE AND NUMBER) All payments are subject to deduction of Retention
Money, as provided in the Conditions of Contract.
(b) OPERATE AND MAINTAIN VEHICLES VEHICLE X
(SPECIFY TYPE AND NUMBER) FOR MONTH Payment for operating and maintaining vehicles under
AN AVERAGE OF 2500 KM PER
ITEMS 14.05 and 14.06, SUBITEMS (b) and (c) above, for
MONTH
the Engineer, his staff and the Employer’s, will be made
(c) OPERATE VEHICLES SPECIFIED FOR KIILOMETRES as follows:
TRAVEL DISTANCE IN EXCESS OF (km)
AVERAGE 2500 KM PER MONTH (i) By rates per vehicle month, SUBITEM (b). Such rates
shall include for the first 2,500 km per vehicle
All SUBITEMS 14.06(a) to (c) shall be applied in the case travelled in any calendar month. Should a vehicle
where the vehicles revert to either the Employer or be used for less than 2,500 km in a particular
Contractor upon completion of the Contract. month, then the unused distance shall be offset
against months when the distance travelled
exceeds 2,500 km.
ITEM UNIT
(ii) By a rate per km, SUBITEM (c), over and above the
14.07 SURVEY EQUIPMENT FOR THE LUMP SUM
first 2,500 km per vehicle travelled in any one
ENGINEER calendar month, subject to the condition mentioned
(a) PROVIDE SPECIFIED SURVEY LUMP SUM in above.
EQUIPMENT FOR THE ENGINEER
(b) MAINTAIN SPECIFIED SURVEY MONTH The rates bid by the Contractor shall include for
EQUIPMENT FOR THE ENGINEER provision of the vehicle all licensing, insurance, fuel,
lubricants, maintenance and repairs, drivers salaries
and allowances and replacement of the vehicles should
Both SUBITEMS 14.07(a) and (b) shall be applied in the this be considered necessary by the Engineer.
case where the survey equipment reverts to either the
Employer or Contractor upon completion of the All payments are subject to deduction of Retention
Contract. Money, as provided in the Conditions of Contract.

ITEM UNIT ITEM UNIT


14.08 LABORATORY FOR THE LUMP SUM
14.10 MEALS IN CONTRACTOR’S MESS NUMBER
ENGINEER HALL FOR THE EMPLOYER’S STAFF (no)
(a) PROVIDE LABORATORY FULLY LUMP SUM
FURNISHED FOR THE ENGINEER
Payment for provision of meals shall be made at the
(b) MAINTAIN LABORATORY FULLY MONTH unit price for which payment shall be full compensation
FURNISHED FOR THE ENGINEER for all costs incurred for providing either breakfast,
lunch or supper respectively as required.
Both SUBITEMS 14.08(a) and (b) shall be applied in the
case where the laboratory and furniture reverts to either
the Employer or contractor upon completion of the
Contract.

ITEM UNIT
14.9 LABORATORY EQUIPMENT FOR LUMP SUM
THE ENGINEER
(a) PROVIDE SPECIFIED LABORATORY LUMP SUM
EQUIPMENT FOR THE ENGINEER
(b) MAINTAIN SPECIFIED LABORATORY MONTH
EQUIPMENT FOR THE ENGINEER
Both SUBITEMS 14.9(a) and (b) shall be applied in the
case where the laboratory equipment reverts to either
the Employer or Contractor upon completion of the
Contract.

Payment for providing vehicles, for providing and


maintaining houses, offices, laboratory, survey

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 1000 - 29


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 1000 - GENERAL

SERIES 1000: GENERAL survey beacons. In exceptional cases where this is not
possible, the Contractor shall notify the Engineer in
good time so that he may arrange to have them suitably
SECTION 1500: ACCOM- referenced before they are displaced.

MODATION OF TRAFFIC (e) Access to properties


The Contractor shall also provide and grant access to
CONTENTS: persons whose properties fall within or adjoin the area
over which he is working, and in this respect the
CLAUSE PAGE Contractor’s attention is drawn to the Conditions of
1501 SCOPE 1000-31 Contract.
1502 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 1000-31
1503 TEMPORARY TRAFFIC CONTROL (f) Approval of deviations
FACILITIES 1000-31 The need for details concerning all deviations shall be
1504 CONSTRUCTION OF DEVIATIONS 1000-32 approved by the Engineer before the construction of
1505 TEMPORARY DRAINAGE W ORKS 1000-32 such deviations commences, and the Contractor shall
1506 EARTHWORKS FOR DEVIATIONS OR satisfy himself before bidding that he can make
EXISTING ROADS USED AS DEVIATIONS 1000-33 arrangements in respect of any deviations as may be
1507 GRAVELLING OF DEVIATIONS OR OF necessary for the safe and convenient passage of
EXISTING ROADS USED AS DEVIATIONS 1000-33 traffic.
1508 ASSISTANCE TO THE PUBLIC 1000-33
1509 USE OF MINOR PRIVATE ROADS AS (g) Temporary Works
DEVIATIONS 1000-33 The deviations provided by the Contractor shall include
1510 RIDING QUALITY AND MAINTENANCE OF the construction of temporary gates, grid gate, fences,
DEVIATIONS AND EXISTING ROADS drainage works and other incidentals considered by the
USED AS DEVIATIONS 1000-33 Engineer to be necessary.
1511 SIGNS, BARRIERS AND TEMPORARY
FENCING, GATES AND GRID GATES 1000-34 (h) Public services
1512 ACCOMMODATION OF TRAFFIC W HERE The Contractor, in co- operation with the Engineer, shall
THE ROAD IS CONSTRUCTED IN HALF make arrangements for all public services such as
WIDTHS 1000-34 power lines, telephone lines, water mains, etc, to be
1513 THE USE OF DEVIATION BY THE moved where required for the construction of deviations
CONTRACTOR 1000-34 and he shall be solely responsible for the safety of such
1514 OBLITERATION OF DEVIATIONS 1000-34 services. No payment will be made for any additional
1515 PENALTY FOR FAILURE TO COMPLY expenses caused by delays in moving such services.
WITH THESE SPECIFICATIONS 1000-34 Where the moving of services is not required, the
1516 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 1000-34 Contractor shall clearly indicate where such services
cross the deviation so that these points will be clearly
visible to the operating staff.

1501 SCOPE
This section covers the construction and maintenance 1503 TEMPORARY TRAFFIC CONTROL
of the necessary deviations and detours, barricades FACILITIES
and signs, and everything necessary for the safe and
easy passage of all public traffic during the construction (a) Programme for control of traffic
and maintenance periods also the obliteration of Following the award of the Contract, the Contractor
deviations as they become redundant. shall submit to the Engineer a detailed Programme for
Passing of Traffic. Such programme shall be approved
by the Engineer before the Contractor commences
1502 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS work, and shall show amongst other things the method
of protection of the public and give details of the hours
(a) Handing over the Site of operation, location, types and numbers of traffic
The Site will be handed over to the Contractor in the safety devices, barricades, warning signs, flagmen and
lengths and sequence specified in the Special the like. The Programme for Passing of Traffic shall be
Specifications in accordance with and complementary to the
Programme of Works submitted under SECTION 1200
(b) Providing deviations above.
Except where the existing road is to remain in use for
through traffic, the Contractor shall provide, construct or In the preparation of this Programme of Passage of
put in order such deviations as may be provided for Traffic, the Contractor should take into consideration
deviating traffic from such sections of the road as are the following:
handed over to him. − The Contractor shall conduct his operation in such
a manner that no greater length or amount of work
The Contractor shall be responsible for the safe and is undertaken than he can carry out efficiently
easy passage of public traffic past or over sections of having due regards to the rights and convenience of
roads of which he has occupation. The Contractor shall the public.
at all times in all his operations and in using his − If the Contractor proposes a road closure he shall
constructional equipment take the necessary care to provide an alternative routing of the traffic which
protect the public and to facilitate the flow of traffic. must be approved by the Engineer.
− No revisions shall be made to the approved
(c) Minimum vertical clearance Programme for Passing of Traffic without the prior
The minimum vertical clearance over any section of a written permission of the Engineer, and the
deviation shall be 5m. Contractor shall allow 14 days for the Engineer to
review any request for a revision of the Programme
(d) Property and survey beacons for Passage of Traffic.
Where possible, deviations shall be constructed so as − The Programme for Passage of Traffic shall
not to damage or displace property or trigonometrically- conform in all respects with the requirements of this

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 1000 - 30


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 1000 - GENERAL

Specification. passing through, over or across the Works, shall be


kept to a minimum. They shall, in no case exceed half
(b) Traffic control devices an hour and should normally be less than 20 minutes.
Traffic –control devices involve, but are not restricted to, Any method of working which requires road closures in
the use of flagmen, traffic lights, portable STOP and GO excess of 30 minutes shall be the subject of 48 hours
sings, and traffic – control signs, whichever may be the prior notice to and agreement of the Engineer, who may
most suitable methods under prevailing circumstances. refuse to allow such closure in default of due notice.

The type of construction, spacing and placement of The Contractor shall take particular care, when passing
traffic control facilities shall be in accordance with the traffic through his Works, that all excavations and other
prescriptions and recommendation of the latest edition hazards are properly protected with barriers and are
of the relevant Road Traffic Signs Manual, and in illuminated at night.
accordance with the drawings and instructions of the
Engineer. The various traffic- control facilities which
may be required are the following, or as directed by the 1504 CONSTRUCTION OF DEVIATIONS
Engineer:
(a) General
(i) Road signs and barricades Where in the opinion of the Contractor it is preferable
Road signs shall include all road signs in the R, W not to pass traffic through the Works, the Contractor
and G series, which shall also include danger plates will, upon previous approval of the Engineer, be allowed
and movable barricades (ROAD CLOSED signs to construct and maintain deviations provided that such
and the chevron type). Road signs shall be made of deviations are passable to traffic at all times, subject to
steel sheets, 1.40 mm thick, or other materials the provisions of SECTION 1507 below.
approved by the Engineer; all background letters
and symbols shall be of engineering – grade The length of the deviations shall be of the shortest
reflective material. Road signs shall comply with practical length having regard to gradient and
the requirements of SECTION 5400. obstruction and shall be sited as agreed between the
Engineer and the Contractor.
(ii) Channelisation devices and barricades
Channelisation devices shall include cones, Where required in the Special Specifications or by the
delineators and drums. Barricades include barrier Engineer, temporary deviations shall be provided with
lattices or other types as shown on the Drawings bituminous surfacing in accordance with the
and movable barricades. requirements of the Special Specifications or of SERIES
4000, or as may be prescribed by the Engineer.
Steel drums shall be cut, painted white and
provided with reflective tape strips as shown on the (b) Widths, gradient, camber
Drawings. Drums shall be kept in position with For the deviation of an existing trunk road, the
ballast of sand or soil.. Stones shall not be used for carriageway width of the temporary road shall be the
this purpose. Drums shall be maintained in a clean width of the existing carriageway or 6.0m whichever is
and serviceable condition. the lesser. If wider deviations are required, such widths
shall be specified in the Special Specifications or on the
(iii) Barriers Drawings.
Barriers for preventing vehicles from leaving the
permitted lanes may consist of guardrails on both For the deviation of a minor public road or a private
sides of steel drums for separating two opposite road, the width of the temporary carriageway shall be
traffic streams, movable concrete barriers (New the same as the existing carriageway, or such lesser
Jersey type), or ordinary guardrails which comply width as agreed by the Engineer.
with the provision of SECTION 5200.
Where in the opinion of the engineer, it is impracticable
(iv) Warning devices and traffic lights to provide a two-lane deviation, a single lane
Warning devices consist of amber flicker lights. carriageway not less than 3.0 m wide with traffic control
Traffic lights shall be operated automatically, by and passing places shall be provided.
radio or manually in a proper manner by adequately
trained staff. The verges of the deviation shall be cleared and
maintained clear for a width of at least 1.5 m beyond
(v) Road markings the edge of the carriageway or such lesser width as the
Road markings, as specified in SECTION 5500, may Engineer may agree.
be required on sealed surfaces and will include
road marking studs wherever necessary. The road The gradient of any deviation shall not be greater than
markings shall be made in accordance with the 10% except with the express approval of the Engineer,
provisions of SECTION 5500. Any painted road and any acute intersection of gradient shall be properly
markings which no longer apply shall be removed graded to a smooth vertical curve, to the satisfaction of
or over painted with black road paint. Road marking the Engineer.
studs shall be removed completely.

(c) Passage and control of traffic


1505 TEMPORARY DRAINAGE WORKS
It is an intention of the Contract that public traffic should
be able to pass along the road to be
(a) General
reconstructed/rehabilitated including bridges at all times
Temporary ditches and culverts of adequate size and
during construction and in all weather. For this purpose,
strength shall be provided alongside and under the
the Contractor will be required to order his work etc. in
temporary road to the satisfaction of the Engineer.
such a way as to assure that a single lane at least 3.0m
wide is available for public traffic at all times and he
The Contractor shall construct the necessary temporary
shall furnish sufficient pilot-cars and drivers, competent
drainage works such as side drains, catch water drains,
flagmen and the like to control and regulate the flow of
mitre drains, culverts, etc to deal adequately with
traffic under one-way traffic operations.
surface run- off. The temporary culverts of adequate
type and size shall be installed on existing drainage
The frequency and duration of delays to traffic while

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 1000 - 31


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 1000 - GENERAL

channels wherever required by the Engineer. Any required minimum density.


suitable prefabricated culverts salvaged from an
existing road or an abandoned deviation may be re- 1508 ASSISTANCE TO THE PUBLIC
used if in a good condition and approved by the The Contractor shall be responsible for safely
Engineer. maintaining and directing traffic through or around any
part of the Works included in the Contract, with the
(b) Temporary bridges maximum practical convenience, for the full twenty four
Where it is necessary to construct a deviation to permit hours of each day.
construction of a new bridge the Contractor shall
provide and maintain a temporary bridge over the The Contractor shall render to the public all possible
waterway. The minimum clear width of a temporary assistance when they are passing over roads
bridge shall be 3.5 m and the strength shall be maintained by him and over minor, private or temporary
adequate for normal road vehicles. The bridge design roads or bridges when used as deviation or when
and specification shall be approved by the Engineer passing through the Works.
before construction is commenced. Approach roads
shall comply with CLAUSE 1504 above. Whenever the Contractor’s operations create a
condition hazardous to traffic or to the public, he shall
(c) Drifts furnish, erect and maintain such fences, barricades,
Where a road is deviated to cross a large watercourse lights, signs and other services, as are necessary to
which is impracticable to bridge or culvert, a drift shall prevent accidents or damage or injury to the public.
be constructed of stones or small boulders with the
intersections filled with spalls to make a firm bottom. The Contractor shall also train and furnish such guards
This pitching shall be carried up the banks of the and flagmen as are necessary to give adequate
watercourse above the flood level of the stream. The warning to traffic or to the public of any dangerous
dimension of the drift shall be such that there is less conditions that might be encountered and shall provide
than 0.15 m of water over the road at all times, except prompt assistance to any vehicle experiencing difficulty
in flood. The edge of the drift shall be defined with posts in passing over the Works under construction, or
or other markers and a gauge installed to indicate the through any deviations or roads maintained by the
maximum depth of water over the road. The minimum Contractor, if necessary by providing a towing vehicle,
width of the drift shall be 3.5 m. labour and tow rope to assist such vehicles.
The Contractor shall render to the public all possible Should the Contractor appear to be neglectful or
assistance, particularly in times of flood, and if negligent in furnishing warning and protective
necessary shall provide a vehicle, labour and tow rope measures, as above provided, the Engineer may direct
to extract vehicles immobilised in the drift. attention to the existence of hazard, and the necessary
warning and protective measures shall be furnished and
1506 EARTHWORKS FOR DEVIATIONS OR installed at the Contractor’s expense. Should the
EXISTING ROADS USED AS DEVIATIONS Engineer point out the inadequacy of warning and
The Contractor shall shape and grade the deviations protective measures, such action on the part of the
and shall make full use of all material that can be Engineer shall not relieve the Contractor from
obtained from alongside the deviation, from side cuts or responsibility for public safety or relieve him of his
from the immediate vicinity. If an adequate quantity of obligation to furnish and pay for these devices.
material cannot be obtained in this manner, he shall
import material from other sources. Where necessary, 1509 USE OF MINOR PRIVATE ROADS AS
cuttings shall be made to obtain a satisfactory vertical DEVIATION
alignment. The Contractor shall also perform the Where agreed by the Engineer that the Contractor may
necessary clearing and grubbing, including the removal use a minor or private road as a deviation, the
of all trees and stumps. Where the subgrade is not Contractor shall be entirely responsible for negotiation
sufficiently dense in its natural state, it shall be given with and obtaining the prior consent of the authorities
three roller passes compaction as specified in SERIES and owners, and shall pay for any additional
3000 prior to the construction of the earthworks. maintenance costs or shall if necessary, himself
maintain the minor road for the period it is used as a
All material shall be watered, mixed and compacted deviation, shall reinstate the road afterwards to the
with suitable compaction equipment to give sufficient satisfaction of the authority or owner, and shall
density to the material so that it will be capable of compensate the authority or owner for any damage
carrying traffic without undue wear or distress. In case arising out of the use of the road as a deviation.
of disagreement between the Engineer and the
Contractor as to the adequacy of this compaction, dry The standard of such minor or private road when used
density of 90% of BS-heavy density shall be taken as as a deviation shall at least comply with Clause above
the required minimum density. for temporary roads and if necessary the Contractor
shall, at his own expense improve the road to bring it to
Wherever possible, fords shall be constructed from rock this standard before it is used as a deviation, and shall
fill or course material. Pollution and siltation of water maintain it to that standard while it is used as deviation.
courses shall be controlled. The Contractor shall
construct cuttings where required. The length of the deviation shall not be excessive and
shall be kept as short as practicable. As a guide, any
1507 GRAVELLING OF DEVIATIONS OR part of the deviation shall generally not exceed twice
EXISTING ROADS USED AS DEVIATIONS the undeviated length of the corresponding part of the
The deviations shall be provided with a wearing course original road, while the total route distance via all
of suitable gravel approved by the Engineer. deviations shall generally not exceed that via the
original road by more than 25%.
The Contractor shall provide, spread, water mix and
compact such material to a density where it can carry 1510 RIDING QUALITY AND MAINTENANCE
traffic without undue wear and tear. In case of OF DEVIATIONS AND EXISTING ROADS
disagreement between the Engineer and the contractor USED AS DEVIATIONS
as to the adequacy of compaction, a dry density equal
The surface of all deviations shall be maintained
to 90% of BS-Heavy density shall be taken as the

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 1000 - 32


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 1000 - GENERAL

smooth, free from ruts and potholes and loose material, two way traffic over the entire width at the end of each
and shall be graded and watered as required. day’s work the Contractor shall provide adequate
flagmen, signs, traffic lights, barricades, light a and the
Where existing roads are to be used as deviations, the necessary staff at his own cost to ensure a free flow of
Contractor shall after consultation with the Owner or traffic alternatively in each direction through the entire
Authority having control of such road, carry out any period when the roadway is open to one way traffic
improvements, repairs, alterations or additions to such only.
roads as may be required to bring them to a conditions
suitable for traffic and to the satisfaction of the 1513 THE USE OF DEVIATIONS BY THE
Engineer. CONTRACTOR
Where the Contractor constructs haul or construction
All deviations and existing roads used as deviation shall
roads for accommodating construction traffic, he shall
be maintained by the Contractor in a safe trafficable
construct and maintain them at his own cost and in
condition. The roads and deviations shall be graded
accordance with details previously agreed with the
and watered to provide a smooth riding surface free
Engineer, in writing. Such roads shall be obliterated and
from corrugations and to keep dust down. All potholes
their surfaces properly reinstated when no longer
shall be repaired immediately.
required, all at the Contractor’s owns cost.
The Contractor shall also water the deviations to keep
The Contractor shall have the right to use public roads,
down dust or to facilitate the proper suppressant as
including deviations open to public traffic, but where his
may be required instead of water if considered by the
own traffic causes excessive damage or wear to such
Engineer to be more effective. All drainage works shall
roads or constitutes a condition hazardous to public
be maintained in a good working order.
traffic, the Engineer shall have the right to regulate his
traffic over such deviations and require the Contractor
1511 SIGNS, BARRIERS AND TEMPORARY to provide at his own cost, such maintenance as in the
FENCING, GATES AND GRID GATES Engineer’s opinion will be necessary.
The Contractor shall be responsible for the provision,
erection, maintenance and removal of all temporary 1514 OBLITERATION OF DEVIATIONS
signs and barriers necessary for safety and When traffic is routed permanently onto the new road
convenience, to pass traffic not only upon the existing following the completion of construction, the deviations
road to be constructed or realigned and such temporary which are no longer required and , unless otherwise
roads or bridges as he may construct, but also on all instructed by the Engineer, such sections of obsolete
minor and private roads off the site of the Works which roads and road marking as instructed by the Engineer,
are used as deviations. Temporary “Advance Detour shall be obliterated in accordance with SECTION 5800.
Signs” shall be erected before any road junction and a
“Detour Sign” shall be erected at the junction of the 1515 PENALTY FOR FAILURE TO COMPLY
deviation route and other minor roads where there is
any possibility of the diverted traffic mistaking the route WITH THESE SPECIFICATIONS
of the detour, and there shall be mounted on the same If the Engineer is not satisfied that the Contractor has
posts, a sign bearing the inscription “Detour”. fully complied with the provisions of these
Specifications having given adequate notice to the
In addition, any hazard such as a narrow bridge, drift, Contractor and in the event of the Contractor’s
level crossing, steep hill, sharp bend, etc. occurring on subsequent default, the Employer shall deduct from any
the deviation shall be marked by the Contractor with the payments due to the Contractor all reasonable
appropriate sign, if the existing sign is inadequate or expenses necessitated by the failure of the Contractor
none existent. All sharp bends, and all places where the to properly comply with the provisions of these
shoulder is higher than 2.0 m above the natural ground Specifications.
shall be marked with painted posts.
1516 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT
Where ordered by the Engineer or specified on the No separate payment will be made in respect of work
Drawings or in the Special Specifications, the undertaken in compliance with the provisions of this
Contractor shall make his own arrangements for Section. The relevant cost shall be included by the
providing either new fencing and gates or moving and Contractor in his rates in the Bill of Quantities or
subsequently reinstating existing fencing and gates in elsewhere, except where separate payment is specified
accordance with the provisions of SECTION 5300. in the Special Specifications and included in the Bill of
Quantities.
1512 ACCOMMODATION OF TRAFFIC WHERE
THE ROAD IS CONSTRUCTED IN HALF Construction of temporary deviations provided with
bituminous surfacing shall be taken to require separate
WIDTHS payment under the relevant items provided in SERIES
Whereby for reasons of difficult terrain or for any other 4000.
reason, the construction of deviations is not feasible,
the Contractor shall upon the written instruction the
Engineer, construct the road in half widths to allow
traffic to use that half of the road not under construction.
The length of the half width construction shall be kept to
a minimum, with provision for traffic travelling in
opposite directions to pass at frequent intervals.

The Contractor shall arrange his work so as to allow


traffic to have free one way access to at least half the
width of the roadway at all times during the
Construction period. He shall maintain that half of the
road, which is being used for traffic for the time being,
free from corrugations, to the satisfaction of the
Engineer

Should the road be not in a safe trafficable condition for


THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 1000 - 33
STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 1000 - GENERAL

SERIES 1000: GENERAL shortest route approved by the Engineer. The haul
distance for borrow materials shall be measured to the
nearest 0.1 km.
SECTION 1600: OVERHAUL
Any handling of materials such as stabilisation, crushing
and/or screening oversize materials, etc. shall not have
CONTENTS: any effect on the haul distance.
CLAUSE PAGE
(c) Free- haul distance
1601 SCOPE 1600-35 The free haul distance shall be the distance which
1602 DEFINITIONS 1600-35 material as described in SUBCLAUSE 1602(a) must be
1603 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 1600-35
transported on any trip before overhaul becomes
payable. This distance shall be as given in TABLE
1602/1 for material in the respective layers.
1601 SCOPE Overhaul shall apply to all overhaul in excess of the
This Section covers the hauling of overhaul materials as distance given for materials where the following
defined herein from the place of excavation to the material types are prescribed as a minimum quality in
position of placement, where such haul distance is in the Specifications or on the Drawings:
excess of free haul distance as defined herein.

Overhaul will be paid for as specified in the Special TABLE 1602/1


Specification. FREE HAUL DISTANCES

Free haul
1602 DEFINITIONS Material for layer distance
(km)
(a) Layers to which overhaul applies Fill and improved subgrade layers 1.0
The Contractor’s attention is drawn to that overhaul will (G3, G7, G15, DR)
only be paid for in the cases where it is so specified in Subbase and base course 2.0
the Special Specification. Overhaul material shall be (G25, G45, G60, G80, C2, C1, CM)
transported material to which overhaul applies when
hauled in excess of the free haul distance and shall Gravel wearing course (GW) 5.0
include only the gravel materials, soil or rock materials
used in the construction of fills, pavement layers, banks (d) Overhaul distance
and dykes as follows: The overhaul distance shall be the total haul distance,
minus the free haul distance measured to the nearest
(i) Earthworks where the following material types are 0.1 km.
prescribed as the minimum quality:
− Fill materials: G3, Dumprock (e) Quantity of material
− Improved subgrade: G7, G15 The quantity of material overhauled shall in all cases be
measured in the same manner as the item for the layer
(ii) Pavement layers where the following material types to which the overhaul applies.
are prescribed as the minimum quality:
− Subbase or base course: G25, G45, G60, G80, 1603 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT
C2, C1, CM Overhaul will only be paid for in the cases where it is so
− Gravel wearing course: GW specified in the Special Specifications. In the cases
where overhaul is paid for, the measurement and
Overhaul shall not be paid for materials made from payment shall be as follows:
crushed stone or crushed rock such as material types
CRR and CRS, nor for materials used in side fill,
bituminous layers and bituminous seals, concrete and ITEM UNIT
rip-rap.
16.01 OVERHAUL OF MATERIAL
HAULED IN EXCESS OF ITS
(b) Haul distance
RESPECTIVE FREE HAUL DISTANCE
The haul distance shall be the distance between the
centre of volume of the overhaul material in the cut or (a) MATERIAL FOR FILL OR IMPROVED CUBIC METRE
borrow pit before excavation and the centre of volume SUBGRADE LAYERS X KILOMETRE
3
of the portion of the fill constructed with the overhaul (m km)
material. (b) MATERIAL FOR PAVEMENT LAYERS CUBIC METRE
AS SPECIFIED X KILOMETRE
3
The distance between the centres of volume shall be (m km)
measured along the centre line of the road, and any (c) MATERIAL FOR GRAVEL WEARING CUBIC METRE
additional distance of haul ascribed to the following of a COURSE X KILOMETRE
3
different haul route will not be considered. Cut and fill (m km)
volumes for ramps, road approaches and connections
on either side of the road shall be considered as The unit of measurement shall be the cubic metre of
concentrated at the centre line of the main roadway overhaul material for layers described in CLAUSE
under construction for computing overhaul quantities for 1602(a), measured in accordance with CLAUSE 1602(e),
payment, unless otherwise specified in the Special hauled in excess of free haul distance prescribed in
Specifications. CLAUSE 1602(c), multiplied by the overhaul distance
measured for payment purposes in as described
The haul distance for material from borrow pit shall be CLAUSE 1602(d),
measured along the shortest route determined by the
Engineer as being feasible and satisfactory. Should the The bid rates overhaul shall include full compensation
Contractor choose to haul material over some other for hauling material in excess of the free haul distances.
long route, computations for payment shall nevertheless
be based on the haul distance measured along the
THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 1000 - 34
STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 1000 - GENERAL

SERIES 1000: GENERAL undesirable visual impact of straight lines. Movement


of labour and equipment within the right-of-way and
over routes provided for access to the work shall be
SECTION 1700: performed in a manner to prevent damage to grazing
land, crops, or property.
ENVIRONMENTAL
Except as otherwise provided in this Specifications
PROTECTION AND WASTE special reseeding or replanting will not be required
DISPOSAL under these specifications; however, on completion of
the work, all work areas not seeded shall be scarified
and left in a condition which will facilitate natural
CONTENTS: revegetation, provide for proper drainage, and prevent
CLAUSE PAGE erosion. All unnecessary destruction, scarring, damage,
or defacing of the landscape resulting from the
1701 SCOPE 1000-36 Contractor’s operations shall be repaired, replanted,
1702 GENERAL 1000-36 reseeded or otherwise corrected as directed by the
1703 LANDSCAPE PRESERVATION 1000-36 Engineer, and at the Contractor’s expense.
1704 TEMPORARY SOIL EROSION CONTROL 1000-37
1705 PRESERVATION OF TREES AND The species used for replanting must not be listed as a
SHRUBBERY 1000-37 noxious weed and the seed blends used must not
1706 PREVENTION OF W ATER POLLUTION 1000-38 contain seeds from such.
1707 ABATEMENT OF AIR POLLUTION 1000-38
1708 DUST ABATEMENT 1000-38 The use of fertiliser can only be carried out with the
1709 NOISE ABATEMENT 1000-39 approval of the Engineer. Especially near open water
1710 LIGHT ABATEMENT 1000-39 and at sandy soils near drinking water interests, the use
1711 PRESERVATION OF HISTORICAL AND of fertilisers should be avoided. Leaching from manure
ARCHEOLOGICAL DATA 1000-39 to open water areas could also cause nutrients pollution
1712 PESTICIDES 1000-39 to the waters, and the application of such should
1713 CLEANUP AND DISPOSAL OF W ASTE therefore be avoided, and only carried out if approved
MATERIALS 1000-39 by the Engineer. When available well decomposed
1714 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 1000-40 compost should be preferred to manure.

(b) Construction roads


The location, alignment, and grade of construction
1701 SCOPE roads shall be subject to approval of the Engineer.
This section covers the Environmental Protection and When no longer required by the Contractor,
Waste Disposal to be exercised by the Contractor in all construction roads shall, if required by the Engineer, be
work on the Contract. The obligations herein do not restored to the original contour and made impassable to
prejudice any other clauses in this Specification. vehicular traffic. The surfaces of such construction
roads shall be scarified as needed to provide a
1702 GENERAL condition which will facilitate natural revegetation,
The Contractor shall comply with the Statutory provide for proper drainage, and prevent erosion.
Regulations in force in Tanzania regarding
environmental protection and waste disposal and shall (c) Construction facilities
liase with the responsible national and local authorities. The Contractor’s workshops, office, and yard area shall
be located and arranged in a manner to preserve trees
The Contractor shall for those of his activities which and vegetation to the maximum practicable extent. On
have, or are likely to have, an impact on the abandonment, all temporary buildings, including
environment, keep records relating to: concrete footings and slabs, and all construction
- The amount of waste and by-products generated by materials and debris shall be removed from the site.
the activity The area shall be regraded, as required, so that all
- The economic value of the activity surfaces drain naturally, blend with the natural terrain,
- The observable effects of the environment and are left in a condition that will facilitate natural
- How far, in the opinion of the Contractor, the revegetation, provide for proper drainage, and prevent
provisions of the Statute has been complied with. erosion.

The Contractor shall afford the officials of the relevant (d) Blasting precautions
authorities free access to inspect the project site, plant, In addition to any requirements of local regulations, the
workshops and the like to check whether the provisions Contractor shall adopt precautions when using
in the Statute are being complied with. explosives which will prevent scattering of rocks,
stumps, or other debris outside the work area, and
prevent damage to surrounding trees, shrubbery, and
vegetation.
1703 LANDSCAPE PRESERVATION
(e) Quarries, borrow pits and storage areas etc.
(a) General
Problems with erosion in the borrow pit must be
The Contractor shall exercise care to preserve the avoided, if necessary by the construction of temporary
natural landscape and shall conduct his construction
banks, but preferably by the choice of pits.
operations so as to prevent any unnecessary
destruction, scarring, or defacing of the natural When they are no longer required, all quarry sites,
surroundings in the vicinity of the work. Except where
borrow pits and areas used for the disposal or storage
clearing is required for permanent works, approved of surplus materials and asphalt plants shall be
construction roads, or excavation operations, all trees, reinstated by landscaping including the replacement
native shrubbery, and vegetation shall be preserved
and spreading of topsoil as directed by and to the
and shall be protected from damage by the Contractor’s satisfaction of the Engineer. Steep quarry walls shall be
construction operations and equipment. The edges of fenced to prevent livestock and people falling in the
clearings and cuts through trees, shrubbery, and quarry. Permanent water holes shall be left unchanged
vegetation shall be irregularly shaped to soften the unless very close to settlements. Under these

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 1000 - 35


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 1000 - GENERAL

circumstances the local people should decide on the Where erosion is a problem, clearing and grubbing
future of the water holes. operations shall be so scheduled and performed that
grading operations and permanent erosion control
Material not capable of supporting vegetation shall be features can follow immediately thereafter if conditions
used as fill and subsequently evenly covered with soft permit; otherwise, temporary erosion control measures
materials. Spoil from road building, excess stockpiled may be required between successive construction
material etc. can only be used for fill in the borrow pit, stages.
provided it does not effect the hydrology of the site. If
there is not sufficient soft material the remaining The Engineer will limit the area of clearing and
portions shall be scarified along the contours to avoid grubbing, excavation, borrow and embankment
erosion. operations in progress commensurate with the
Contractor’s capability in keeping the finished grading,
Haul roads must be obliterated, scarified and earth mulching, seeding and other permanent erosion control
banks constructed to prevent erosion and all damaged measures current in accordance with the schedule.
fences and structures reinstated. Should seasonal limitations make such co-ordination
unrealistic, temporary erosion control measures shall be
Erosion mitigating measures shall be given priority to taken immediately to the extent feasible and justified.
ensure proper drainage, being of the great importance
around human habitation, where permanent water holes The Engineer may increase or decrease the amount of
might be a health risk. surface area of erodible earth material to be exposed at
one time by clearing and grubbing, excavation, borrow
It must be noted that the Taking-Over Certificate will not and fill operations as determined by his analysis of
be issued, before a proper reshaping and replanting of project conditions.
borrow pits has been carried out to the satisfaction of
the Engineer. In the event that temporary erosion control measures
are required due to the Contractor’s negligence,
carelessness or failure to install permanent controls as
1704 TEMPORARY SOIL EROSION CONTROL part of the Works, scheduled or ordered by the
Engineer, such Works shall be carried out by the
(a) Scope Contractor at his own expense.
These Works shall consist of temporary control
measures as shown on the Drawings or required by the The Works prescribed in this Clause shall not be
Engineer during the process of the Works, to control measured for direct payment, but shall be considered
soil erosion and water pollution, by use of berms, as subsidiary Works, the costs of which will be deemed
dykes, silt fences, brush barriers, dams, sediment to be included by the Contractor in his rates in the Bill of
basins, filter mats, netting, gravel, mulches, grasses, Quantities for other items of work.
slope drains, and other erosion control devices or
methods. Appropriate control measures will be required
to avoid emission of high concentration of sediments 1705 PRESERVATION OF TREES AND
into wetlands, swampy areas and other particular SHRUBBERY
sensitive areas.
(a) Preservation
The temporary erosion control provisions shall be All trees and shrubbery which are not specifically
coordinated with permanent erosion control features to required to be cleared or removed for construction
assure economical, effective and continuous erosion purposes shall be preserved and shall be protected
control throughout the period of the Works. from any damage that may be caused by the
Contractor’s construction operations and equipment.
(b) Construction Special care shall be exercised where trees or shrubs
A schedule of proposed temporary (and permanent) soil are exposed to injuries by construction equipment,
erosion control Works shall be developed by the blasting, excavating, dumping, chemical damage, or
Contractor at the commencement of the Contract, in other operations; and the Contractor shall adequately
consultation with the Engineer and to his satisfaction. protect such trees by use of protective barriers or other
methods approved by the Engineer. The removal of
The Contractor shall carry out (and maintain) temporary trees or shrubs will be permitted only after prior
erosion control to prevent soil erosion that will adversely approval by the Engineer.
affect construction operations, damage adjacent
properties, or cause contamination of adjacent streams The layout of the Contractor’s construction facilities
or other watercourses, lakes, ponds, swamps or other such as workshops, ware houses, storage areas, and
areas of water impoundment. Such Works may involve parking areas; location of access and haul routes; and
construction of temporary berms, dykes, dams, operation in borrow and spoil areas shall be planned
sediment basins, slope drains or use of temporary and conducted in such a manner that all trees and
mulches, mats, seeding or other control devices or shrubbery not approved for removal by the Engineer
methods as necessary to control erosion. Cut and fill shall be preserved and adequately protected from either
slopes shall be seeded and mulched as the excavation direct or indirect damage by the Contractor’s
proceeds, to the extent considered desirable and operations. Except in emergency cases or when
practicable by the Engineer. otherwise approved by the Engineer, trees shall not be
used for anchorage. Where such use is approved, the
Temporary erosion control may include construction trunk shall be wrapped with a sufficient thickness of
outside the right-of-way where such work is necessary, approved protective material before any rope, cable, or
as a result of roadway construction, such as borrow pit wire is placed.
and quarry operations, haul roads and equipment
storage sites. (b) Repair or treatment of damage
The Contractor shall be responsible for injuries to trees
The Contractor shall incorporate all permanent erosion and shrubs caused by his operations. The term “injury”
control features as shown on the Drawings into the shall include, without limitation, bruising, scarring,
Works at the earliest practicable time as outlined in his tearing, and breaking of roots, trunk or branches. All
schedule, to minimise the need for temporary erosion injured trees and shrubs shall be repaired or treated
control measures.
THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 1000 - 36
STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 1000 - GENERAL

without delay, at the Contractor’s expense. If damage flocculating processes that are not harmful to fish,
occurs, the Engineer will determine the method of repair recirculation systems for washing of aggregates, or
or treatment to be used for injured trees and shrubs as other approved methods. Any such wastewaters
recommended by an experienced horticulturist or a discharged into surface waters shall contain the least
licensed tree surgeon provided by and at the expense concentration of settleable material possible. For the
of the Contractor. All repairs or treatment of injured purpose of these specifications, settleable material is
trees shall be performed under the direction of an defined as that material which will settle from the water
experienced horticulturist or a licensed tree surgeon by gravity during a 1-hour quiescent detention period.
provided by and at the expense of the Contractor.
(b) Compliance with laws and regulations
(c) Replacement The Contractor shall comply with all applicable
Trees or shrubs that, in the opinion of the Engineer, are Tanzanian laws, orders, regulations, and water quality
beyond saving shall be removed and replaced early in standards concerning the control and abatement of
the next planting season. The replacements shall be water pollution.
the same species, or other approved species, and of
the maximum size that is practicable to plant and If wells or other water sources, nevertheless, are
sustain growth in the particular environment. polluted, it is the responsibility of the Contractor to
Replacement trees and shrubs shall be stayed, compensate for this and provide the consumers with
watered, and maintained for a period of 1 year. Any clean drinking water transported through pipes from an
replacement tree or shrub that dies shall be removed unpolluted source if required in the opinion of the
and replaced, as directed by the Engineer, with such Engineer.
replacements being maintained for a period of 1 year
from the date of replacement. 1707 ABATEMENT OF AIR POLLUTION
The Contractor shall comply with applicable Tanzanian
To obtain the maximum success with the planting, the laws and regulations concerning the prevention and
trees shall be well suited for the environment. This will control of air pollution.
normally mean native species of trees or cultivated
trees from local nurseries. Notwithstanding the above in conduct of construction
activities and operation of equipment, the Contractor
shall utilise such practicable methods and devices as
1706 PREVENTION OF WATER POLLUTION are reasonably available to control, prevent, and
otherwise minimise atmospheric emissions or
(a) General discharges of air contaminants.
The Contractor’s construction activities shall be
performed by methods that will prevent entrance, or The emission of dust into the atmosphere shall be
accidental spillage, of solid matter, contaminants, strictly controlled during the manufacture, handling, and
debris, and other pollutants and wastes into streams, storage of concrete and road aggregates, and the
flowing or dry watercourses, lakes, and underground Contractor shall use such methods and equipment as
water sources. Such pollutants and wastes include, but are necessary for the collection and disposal, or
are not restricted to, refuse, garbage, cement, concrete, prevention, of dust during these operations. The
sanitary waste, industrial waste, radioactive Contractor’s methods of storing and handling cement
substances, oil and other petroleum products, and pozzolans shall also include means of eliminating
aggregate processing tailings, mineral salts, and atmospheric discharges of dust.
thermal pollution.
Equipment and vehicles that show excessive emissions
Dewatering work for structure foundations or earthwork of exhaust gases due to poor engine adjustments, or
operations adjacent to, or encroaching on, streams or other inefficient operating conditions, shall not be
watercourses shall be conducted in a manner to operated until corrective repairs or adjustments are
prevent muddy water and eroded materials from made.
entering the streams or watercourses by construction of
intercepting ditches, bypass channels, barriers, settling Burning of materials resulting from clearing of trees and
ponds, or by other approved means. Excavated brush, combustible construction materials, and rubbish
materials or other construction materials shall not be will be permitted only when atmospheric conditions for
stockpiled or deposited near or on streambanks, lake burning are considered favourable and when authorised
shorelines, or other watercourse perimeters where they by the Engineer. In lieu of burning, such combustible
can be washed away by high water or storm runoff or materials may be disposed of by other methods as
can in any way encroach upon the watercourse itself. provided in this SPECIFICATION. Where open burning is
permitted, the burn piles shall be properly constructed
Turbidity increases in a stream or other bodies of water to minimise smoke, and in no case shall unapproved
that are caused by construction activities shall be materials, such as tires, plastics, rubber products,
strictly controlled. When necessary to perform required asphalt products, or other materials that create heavy
construction work in a stream channel, the turbidity may black smoke or nuisance odours, be burned.
be increased, as approved by the Engineer, for the
shortest practicable period required to complete such 1708 DUST ABATEMENT
work. This required construction work may include During the performance of the work required by these
such work as deviation of a stream, construction or specifications or any operations appurtenant thereto,
removal of cofferdams, specified earthwork in or whether on right-of-way provided by the Employer or
adjacent to a stream channel, pile driving, and elsewhere, the Contractor shall furnish all the labour,
construction of turbidity control structures. Mechanised equipment, materials, and means required, and shall
equipment shall not operate in flowing water except as carry out proper and efficient measures wherever and
necessary to construct crossings or to perform the as often as necessary to reduce the dust nuisance, and
required construction. to prevent dust which has originated from his operations
from damaging crops, orchards, cultivated fields, and
Wastewaters from aggregate processing, concrete dwellings, or causing a nuisance to persons. The
batching, or other construction operations shall not Contractor will be held liable for any damage resulting
enter streams, watercourses, or other surface waters from dust originating from his operations under these
without the use of such turbidity control methods as specifications on the right-of-way or elsewhere. The
settling ponds, gravel-filter entrapment dikes, approved
THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 1000 - 37
STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 1000 - GENERAL

Engineer may direct sprinkling or other measures for Contractor must be up to date on the definitions and
dust abatement if necessary to obtain adequate control. regulations pertaining to hazardous substances. These
are defined as substances (or compounds thereof)
1709 NOISE ABATEMENT which may endanger health of human, animals or the
The Contractor shall comply with applicable Tanzanian environment by reason of its toxic, corrosive, irritant,
laws, orders, and regulations concerning the sensitising, inflammable or radioactive nature.
prevention, control, and abatement of excessive noise. Hazardous substances are also such as depletes the
ozone layer.
Workers shall be sufficiently supplied with ear-
protection as required in the opinion of the Engineer For hazardous substances a permit for the possessing,
and instructed in using them. handling, import etc. is needed. The Contractor must
assure that he gets the needed permits for hazardous
Blasting, the use of jackhammers, pile driving, rock substances from a Licensing Officer appointed by the
crushing, or other operations producing high-intensity Minister. The Contractor must allow a certified inspector
impact noise may be performed at night only upon to control the Contractor's handling of hazardous
approval of the Engineer. compounds.

1710 LIGHT ABATEMENT


The Contractor shall exercise special care to direct all 1713 CLEANUP AND DISPOSAL OF WASTE
stationary floodlights to shine downward at an angle MATERIALS
less than horizontal. These floodlights shall also be
shielded so as not to be a nuisance to surrounding (a) Cleanup
areas. No lighting shall include a residence in its direct The Contractor shall, at all times, keep the construction
beam. area, including storage areas used, free from
accumulations of waste materials or rubbish.
The Contractor shall be responsible for correcting All waste water and sewage from office, residential and
lighting problems when they occur as directed by the mobile camps shall be piped to soak pits or other
Engineer. disposal areas constructed in accordance with local
government regulations, and where and when such
1711 PRESERVATION OF HISTORICAL AND regulations require it the Contractor shall obtain a
ARCHEOLOGICAL DATA permit or other appropriate documentation approving
the disposal methods being used.
The Contractor agrees that should he or any of his
employees in the performance of this contract discover
All used fuels, oils, other plant or vehicle fluids, and old
evidence of possible scientific, historical, prehistorical,
tyres and tubes shall be collected to a central disposal
or archaeological data he will notify the Engineer
point, on a regular basis and disposed of as specified
immediately giving the location and nature of the
below.
findings. Written confirmation shall be forwarded within
2 days. The Contractor shall exercise care so as not to
All household, office, workshop and other solid waste
damage artifacts or fossils uncovered during excavation
shall be collected to a central disposal area, on a daily
operations and shall provide such cooperation and
basis and disposed of in a manner approved by the
assistance as may be necessary to preserve the
Engineer.
findings for removal or other disposition by the
Employer.
Servicing of plant, equipment and vehicles shall
whenever possible be carried out at a workshop area.
Where appropriate by reason of a discovery, the
This workshop area shall be equipped with secure
Engineer may order delays in the time of performance,
storage areas for fuels oils and other fluids constructed
or changes in the work, or both. If such delays, or
in such a way as to contain any spillages which may
changes, or both, are ordered, the time of performance
occur, and similar storage where used fluids can be
and contract price shall be adjusted in accordance with
stored securely prior to their disposal.
the applicable clauses in the Conditions of this
Contract.
When servicing of plant, equipment and vehicles is
carried out away from the workshop area it shall be
The Contractor agrees to insert this Clause in all
done at locations and in such a manner as to avoid
subcontracts which involve the performance of work on
spillage and contamination of streams and other
the terrain of the site.
drainage courses. Any spillages shall be cleaned up by
either burning in place or collecting the contaminated
1712 PESTICIDES, TOXIC WASTE AND soils and burning them at the central disposal area, all
HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES to the satisfaction of the Engineer.
Pesticides include herbicides, insecticides, fungicides,
rodenticides, piscicides, surface disinfectants, animal Prior to completion of the work, the Contractor shall
repellents, and insect repellents. Should the Contractor remove from the vicinity of the work all plant facilities,
find it necessary to use pesticides in work areas of this buildings, rubbish, unused materials, concrete forms,
contract, he shall submit his plan for such use to the and other like material, belonging to him or used under
Engineer for written approval. his direction during construction. All work areas shall
be graded and left in a neat manner conforming to the
The Contractor shall read and comply with all labelling natural appearance of the landscape as provided
requirements when using pesticides. elsewhere in the Specifications.

Toxic waste must be collected in appropriate containers Any residue deposited on the ground from washing out
(depending on the compound) and kept in approved transit mix trucks or any similar concrete operations
storage. Depending on the compound in question shall be buried or cleaned up in a manner acceptable to
different ways of destruction will be necessary. the Engineer.

It is the responsibility of the Contractor to seek the In the event of the Contractor’s failure to perform the
required permissions to handle substances or above work, the work may be performed by the
compounds that are defined as hazardous, i. e. the Employer, at the expense of the Contractor, and his

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 1000 - 38


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 1000 - GENERAL

surety or sureties shall be liable therefor.

(b) Disposal of waste material


(i) General
Waste materials including, but not restricted to,
refuse, garbage, sanitary wastes, industrial wastes,
and oil and other petroleum products, shall be
disposed of by the Contractor. Disposal of
combustible materials shall be by burying, where
burial of such materials is approved by the
Engineer; by burning, where burning of approved
materials is permitted; or by removal from the
construction area. Disposal of noncombustible
materials shall be by burying, where burial of such
materials is approved by the Engineer, or by
removal from the construction area. Waste
materials removed from the construction area shall
be dumped at an approved dump.

(ii) Disposal of material by burying


Only materials approved by the Engineer may be
buried. Burial shall be in pits the location, size and
depth of which shall be approved by the Engineer.
The pits shall be covered by at least 0.6 metre of
earth material prior to abandonment.

(iii) Disposal of material by burning


All materials to be burned shall be piled in
designated burning areas in such a manner as will
cause the least fire hazards. Burning shall be
thorough and complete and all charred pieces
remaining after burning, except for scattered small
pieces, shall be removed from the construction area
and disposed of as otherwise provided in this
SUBLAUSE.

The Contractor shall, at all times, take special


precautions to prevent fire from spreading beyond
the piles being burned and shall be liable for any
damage caused by his burning operations. The
Contractor shall have available, at all times, suitable
equipment and supplies for use in preventing and
suppressing fires and shall be subject to all laws
and regulations locally applicable for
presuppression, suppression, and prevention of
fires.

(iv) Disposal of material by removal


Material to be disposed of by removal from the
construction area shall be removed from the area
prior to the completion of the work under these
specifications. All materials removed shall become
the property of the Contractor.

Materials to be disposed of by dumping shall be


hauled to an approved dump. It shall be the
responsibility of the Contractor to make any
necessary arrangements with private parties and
with local officials pertinent to locations and
regulations of such dumping. Any fees for charges
required to be paid for dumping of materials shall
be paid by the Contractor and shall be included in
the prices bid in the Bill of Quantities for other items
of work.

1714 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT


Except as specifically included in the Bill of Quantities
or otherwise provided above no separate measurement
or payment will be made for any work included in this
Section, the relevant cost of all these requirements
being included by the Contractor in his rates in the Bill
of Quantities for other items of work.

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 1000 - 39


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 2000 - DRAINAGE

SERIES 2000
DRAINAGE
SECTION PAGE
2100 DRAINS 2000-2
2200 PREFABRICATED CULVERTS 2000-8
2300 CONCRETE KERBING, CONCRETE
CHANNELLING, OPEN CONCRETE
CHUTES AND CONCRETE LININGS
FOR OPEN DRAINS 2000-19
2400 ASPHALT AND CONCRETE BERMS 2000-24
2500 PITCHING, STONEWORK AND
PROTECTION AGAINST EROSION 2000-26
2600 GABIONS 2000-31

CONTENTS OF THE STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD WORKS 2000:


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
CROSSECTION TERMINOLOGY
SERIES 1000 GENERAL
SERIES 2000 DRAINAGE
SERIES 3000 EARTHWORKS AND PAVEMENT LAYERS OF GRAVEL OR CRUSHED STONE
SERIES 4000 BITUMINOUS LAYERS AND SEALS
SERIES 5000 ANCILLARY ROADWORKS
SERIES 6000 STRUCTURES
SERIES 7000 TOLERANCES, TESTING AND QUALITY CONTROL
APPENDICES

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 2000 - 1


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 2000 - DRAINAGE

SERIES 2000: DRAINAGE All culverts indicated by the Engineer shall be cleared.
The Contractor shall remove all undesirable materials,
all silt, sediment, driftwood, debris and rubble that have
SECTION 2100: DRAINS accumulated in and around the culvert inlet and outlet
structures and in the culvert barrels. All materials
resulting from the clearing operations shall be disposed
CONTENTS: of at locations approved by the Engineer. The clearing
CLAUSE PAGE shall preferably be done by means of hand tools in
order to prevent damage to existing drainage and other
2101 SCOPE 2000-2 structures. The Contractor shall repair all structures
2102 OPEN DRAINS 2000-2 damaged by him at his own cost, and to the satisfaction
2103 BANKS AND DYKES 2000-2
of the Engineer.
2104 SUBSOIL DRAINAGE 2000-2
2105 CLASSIFICATION OF MATERIALS 2000-4
2106 MANHOLES, OUTLET STRUCTURES AND 2103 BANKS AND DYKES
CLEANING EYES 2000-4 Mitre banks, catchwater banks and dykes shall be
2107 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 2000-4 constructed of approved soil or gravel obtained from
2108 open-drain excavation or, if no suitable material can be
obtained from that source, from suitable alternative
sources, and be placed in such a way that the water will
flow on the natural ground and against the bank.
2101 SCOPE The banks and dykes shall be properly compacted to
This Section covers all work in connection with the 90% of BS-Heavy density in layers not exceeding 150
excavation and construction of open drains, subsoil
mm in thickness or as approved by the Engineer.
drainage and banks and dykes at the locations and to
the sizes, shapes, grades and dimensions as shown on If so preferred by the Contractor and approved by the
the Drawings or as directed by the Engineer, and the
Engineer, mitre banks may also be constructed of hand-
test flushing of subsoil drains. packed stone, provided that the interstices are filled
with an approved cohesive soil.
It also covers the cleaning of open drains and the
repairing of subsoil drainage. In special circumstances
this work may be executed outside the road reserve.
2104 SUBSOIL DRAINAGE
It also covers the clearing of existing culverts, including
amongst others the removal of all undesirable materials (a) Materials
that have accumulated in and around inlet and outlet
structures and in the barrels of the culverts. (i) Pipes
Pipes for subsoil drainage shall have the specified
internal diameter, which shall be not less than 100
2102 OPEN DRAINS mm, and shall be one of the following types:
Open-drain excavation shall involve the excavating of
open drains and channels, including channels to direct (1) Perforated pitch-fibre pipes complying with
the course of streams, all as shown on the Drawings or
SABS 921 or equivalent.
as directed by the Engineer.
(2) Perforated or slotted unplasticised PVC pipes
Any excavation required for constructing a channel or
complying with SABS 791 or equivalent.
open drain within the road prism, such as median
drains, side drains and open drains on excavation-slope (3) Perforated high-density polyethylene pressure
benches, shall be classed as Common Excavation or
pipes complying with the requirements of SABS
Rock Excavation as defined in CLAUSE 3603 and shall 533, Part II or equivalent.
be measured and paid for under SECTION 3600.
The size of perforations in perforated pipes shall in
Open drains shall be constructed true to line, grade and
all cases be 8 mm in diameter ±1.5 mm and the
cross-section and shall be so maintained for the
number of perforations per metre shall be not less
duration of the Contract.
than 26 for 100 mm pipes and 52 for 150 mm pipes.
Perforations shall be spaced in two rows for 100
Care shall be taken to avoid excavation below the
mm pipes and four rows for 150 mm pipes. All rows
required grades for the open drains and any excavation
shall be in the lower half of the pipe but no row shall
carried beyond the required grade shall be backfilled
be closer than 36 degrees to the invert. Perforations
with suitable, approved, material and compacted to at
in each row shall be a maximum of 100 mm centre
least 90% of BS-Heavy density by the Contractor at his
to centre.
own expense.
Slotted pipes shall have a slot width of 3 mm ±1.0
Material resulting from the excavations for open drains
mm and slot length of 8 mm ±1.5 mm and the inlet
shall be used in the construction of fills, banks and 2
area per metre shall not be less than 22.5 cm /m
dykes, or for other purposes, or shall be disposed of to
pipe. The arrangement of slots shall be to the
spoil, all as directed by the Engineer.
Engineer's approval.
If ordered by the Engineer, all existing open drains, but
Pipes without slots or perforations required for
excluding open drains constructed by the Contractor
conveying ground water from the subsoil drainage
himself, shall be cleared and, where necessary, shaped
proper to the point of discharge, shall be
by removing the sediment and trimming the floors and
unperforated pitch fibre, PVC or polyethylene pipes
sides.
of the types specified above, or concrete pipes
complying with the requirements of SABS 677, or
Any pitching of open drains ordered by the Engineer
equivalent.
shall be done in accordance with the requirements of
SECTION 2500. The concrete lining of open drains shall
be done as specified in SECTION 2300.

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 2000 - 2


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 2000 - DRAINAGE

(ii) Permeable filter material Pipes of the type and size required shall then be
Permeable filter materials for bedding and firmly bedded on the natural permeable filter
surrounding of drain pipes shall consist of crushed material, true to level and grade, and be coupled in
stone of suitable grading. Crushed stone shall be of accordance with the requirements. Thereafter the
hard, clean rock. If permeable filter material trench shall be backfilled with natural permeable
conforming to the criteria given below is not filter material in layers not exceeding 250 mm
obtainable in the opinion of the Engineer, then thickness and lightly compacted to such height
geotextile shall be used as directed by the above the pipes as shown on the Drawings or as
Engineer. directed by the Engineer. The natural permeable
filter material shall be lightly compacted and
Permeable filter material shall be free of organic trimmed to the required level. Further layers of finer
material, silt or clay lumps and shall conform to the natural permeable filter material shall then be
following requirements: placed, lightly compacted and finished to an even
(1) d85 for the permeable filter material shall be surface, as directed by the Engineer. The
minimum 1.25 times the width of the slots in the remainder of the trench, if any, shall be backfilled
drainage pipe with approved impermeable material and as
required by the Engineer, in layers not exceeding
(2) d15 for the permeable filter material shall be 100 mm, and compacted to at least the same
maximum 5 times d85 for the adjacent soils density as the surrounding material. The trench
(3) d50 for the permeable filter material shall be shall be specially protected against the ingress of
maximum 25 times d50 for the adjacent soils water until the impermeable layer has been
(4) d15 for the permeable filter material shall be completed. The width of the backfill that will be
minimum 5 times d15 for the adjacent soils measured for payment shall not exceed the
specified width of the trench.
(5) the permeable filter material shall have
maximum 50 % passing the 2 mm sieve The total thickness of each type of natural
(6) the permeable filter material shall have permeable filter material shall be carefully
maximum 3 % passing the 0.075 mm sieve controlled, and when the thinner layers are placed,
suitable spacers shall be used. When successive
where: layers are placed, the lower layer shall not be
d15, d50 and d85 are the corresponding grain walked on and, as far as possible, shall not be
sizes which 15%, 50% and 85% respectively disturbed. Care shall be taken to prevent the
passes in the sieve analysis contamination of natural permeable filter material
during construction of the subsoil drainage system
The filter criteria shall be complied with for both the and all natural permeable filter material
surrounding soil (subgrade) and for possible contaminated by soil or silt shall be removed and
pavement layers above the drain pipe. replaced by the Contractor at his own expense.

Sieve analysis of the surrounding subgrade and or Perforated and slotted pipes shall be jointed by
subbase shall be performed at each 100 m trench means of couplings. Perforated pipes shall be laid
and the filter material shall be adjusted according to with perforations at the top or bottom as may be
the above specified filter criteria. If necessary, the prescribed.
Engineer can at any position demand further sieve
analysis. The higher end of each subsoil drainage pipe shall
be sealed off with a loose concrete cap of class
The sieve analysis for the subgrade, subbase and 20/19 concrete, as shown on the Drawings, and at
filter materials must be approved by the Engineer the lower end the pipe shall be built into a concrete
before commencement of the drain pipe works. All head wall providing a positive outlet or it shall be
costs to perform sieve analysis are to be included in connected to storm water pipes or culverts. The
the rates for subsoil drains. complete system, together with head walls, shall be
constructed in one process starting at the lower
(iii) Geotextile fabric head wall.
Should the use of geotextile fabric in subsoil
drainage, or as filter blankets, or for any other Any section of a subsoil drainage system
purposes, be specified, it shall comply with the constructed of pipes without perforations or slots
requirements as specified in CLAUSE 3605. The shall be backfilled with impermeable backfill
fabric shall not be exposed to direct sunlight for material as described herein. Where suitable, the
prolonged periods and shall be protected from excavated material may be used for backfilling.
mechanical damage during installation and
construction. (ii) With polyethylene lining to trenches for subsoil
drainage systems
(iv) Composite in-plane draining fabric Where shown on the Drawings or directed by the
The make and class of fabric shown on the Engineer, trenches for subsoil drainage systems
Drawings or approved by the Engineer shall be shall be lined with approved polyethylene sheeting
used. 0.15 mm thick. The polyethylene sheet shall cover
the bottom of the trench and shall extend upwards
on both sides for as far as may be directed by the
(b) Construction of subsoil drainage systems Engineer in each particular case, in order to form a
waterproof channel. At joints the polyethylene
(i) With natural permeable filter material sheeting shall be heat-welded together or lapped by
Trenches for subsoil drainage systems shall be a minimum of 200 mm.
excavated to the dimensions and gradients shown
on the Drawings or as directed by the Engineer. When backfilling the trench with natural permeable
filter material, care shall be taken not to displace or
A layer of natural permeable filter material of the damage the polyethylene lining in any way. The
grade and thickness as shown on the Drawings use of plastic other than polyethylene will be
shall be placed on the bottom of the trench and be considered, provided that the material is of equal
lightly tamped and finished to the required gradient. quality and is approved by the Engineer.

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 2000 - 3


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 2000 - DRAINAGE

(iii) With geotextile fabric (a) Rock material


Where specified that geotextile fabric shall be used Material which conforms with the definitions in CLAUSE
for lining in subsoil drainage systems, it shall be 3603 shall be classified as rock material.
procured, furnished and installed as specified and
shown on the Drawings. The fabric shall not be (b) Soft Material
displaced or damaged in any way when the trench All materials not classified as rock material in
is being filled with natural permeable filter material. accordance with CLAUSE 3603 shall be classified as soft
The filter fabric shall be lapped both longitudinally material.
and transversely by at least 300 mm or as
prescribed by the manufacturers. The transverse 2106 MANHOLES, OUTLET STRUCTUREES
lap shall be positioned on top of the box forming the AND CLEANING EYES
drain and shall be stitched together with
Manholes, outlet structures and cleaning eyes for
plastic/galvanised wire or strong synthetic thread at
subsoil drainage systems shall be constructed in
1.0 m intervals. The longitudinal lap shall be in the
accordance with the details shown on the Drawings or
direction of flow.
in positions as instructed by the Engineer.
Geotextile fabric shall meet the requirements in
CLAUSE 3605 and shall be stored under suitable
cover. The fabric shall not be exposed to direct 2107 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT
sunlight for prolonged periods and shall be
protected from mechanical damage during ITEM UNIT
installation and construction. 21.01 EXCAVATION FOR OPEN DRAINS:
(a) EXCAVATING SOFT MATERIAL
(iv) With composite in-plane drainage fabric SITUATED WITHIN THE FOLLOWING
Wherever specified, composite in-plane drainage DEPTH RANGES BELOW THE
systems shall be constructed in accordance with SURFACE LEVEL:
the details shown on the Drawings. The elements of
the system shall be assembled above ground in (i) 0.5 m UP TO 1.5 m CUBIC METRE
3
manageable lengths, and all exposed surfaces shall (m )
be sealed with an approved geofibre seal. The (ii) Exceeding 1.5 m AND UP TO CUBIC METRE
3
trench sides shall be vertical and the composite in- 3.0 m (m )
plane system shall be installed against the side (iii) Exceeding 3.0 m PER CUBIC METRE
3
through which the subsoil flow is expected. The INCREMENT OF 1.5 m (m )
trench shall then be backfilled with sand, which (b) EXTRA OVER SUBITEM 21.01(a) FOR CUBIC METRE
shall be saturated with water after placement, up to EXCAVATION IN ROCK AS DEFINED IN
3
(m )
the prescribed level. The upper part of the trench CLAUSE 3603, IRRESPECTIVE OF
shall be backfilled with impermeable material which DEPTH:
shall be compacted to the density of the
surrounding material, in layers not exceeding 100
mm in thickness. The unit of measurement shall be the cubic metre of
material excavated in accordance with the authorised
(c) Test flushing dimensions, measured in place before excavation.
Final acceptance of longitudinal subsoil drains will be
subject to satisfactory test flushing after completion and Irrespective of the total depth of the excavation, the
installation of the rodding eye inlets. Flushing tests shall quantity of material in each depth range shall be
be carried out in the presence of the Engineer’s measured and paid for separately.
representative by flushing the drain and metering the The bid rates shall include full compensation for the
outflow to ensure the drain is clear of blockage. Should excavation of the material to the required lines, levels
blockages be apparent the Contractor shall locate and and grades and the disposal of the material as directed,
clear the obstruction and repeat the test. including all haulage.

(d) Transport and storing of drain pipes


The full length of the pipe shaft shall rest on the loading ITEM UNIT
area of the lorry used for transporting the pipes. 21.02 CLEARING AND SHAPING CUBIC
3
Overhanging of pipes, to prevent sagging and EXISTING DRAINS: METRE (m )
deformation shall be avoided. Rough handling and
dragging of pipes and fittings shall be avoided. All pipes The unit of measurement shall be the cubic metre of
and fittings shall be protected from sunlight during material excavated in accordance with the authorised
transportation by use of tarpaulins. Grass cover will not dimensions, measured in place before excavation.
be accepted.
The bid rates shall include full compensation for
The Contractor shall advise the manufacturer of the excavating the material to the required lines, levels and
climatic and transporting conditions at the site of the grades, protecting the existing drainage structure,
Works and shall seek his advice on the storage of PVC trimming the sides and floors of the open drains and the
materials on site. Subject to the Engineer's approval, disposal of the material as directed, including all
this advice shall be followed at all times. haulage.
PVC pipes shall not be stored on top of each other to a The clearing of existing concrete side drains will be
height exceeding 1.5 m. Pipes shall be staggered to measured and paid for under ITEM 21.18.
prevent the sockets to rest on the shaft of the pipes.
The first tier shall be placed on a well drained layer of
sand. ITEM UNIT
2105 CLASSIFICATION OF MATERIALS 21.03 EXCAVATION FOR SUBSOIL
All excavations for open drains and subsoil drainage DRAINAGE SYSTEMS:
systems shall be classified as follows for payment
purposes. (a) EXCAVATING SOFT MATERIAL
SITUATED WITHIN THE FOLLOWING
DEPTH RANGES BELOW THE

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 2000 - 4


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 2000 - DRAINAGE

SURFACE LEVEL: deducted when calculating the volume of the permeable


(I) 0.5 m UP TO 1.5 m CUBIC METRE material.
3
(m )
(II) Exceeding 1.5 m AND UP TO CUBIC METRE The bid rate shall include full compensation for
3.0 m
3
(m ) procuring, furnishing and transporting from the borrow
areas and placing the material as specified.
(III) Exceeding 3.0 m PER CUBIC METRE For payment purposes a distinction shall be made
3
INCREMENT OF 1.5 m (m ) between the different grades of crushed stone.
(b) EXTRA OVER SUBITEM 21.03(a) CUBIC METRE
3
FOR EXCAVATION IN ROCK AS (m )
DEFINED IN CLAUSE 3603, (b) CRUSHED STONE OBTAINED CUBIC
IRRESPECTIVE OF DEPTH: FROM COMMERCIAL SOURCES ON METRE
3
THE SITE (STATE GRADE) (m )
The unit of measurement shall be the cubic metre of
material excavated in accordance with the authorised The unit of measurement shall be the cubic metre of
dimensions, measured in place before excavation. crushed stone in place in the drains, calculated in
accordance with the authorised dimensions. The
Irrespective of the total depth of the excavation, the volume occupied by the pipes shall be deducted when
quantity of material in each depth range shall be calculating the volume of the permeable material.
measured and paid for separately.
The bid rate shall include full compensation for
The bid rates shall include full compensation for the procuring, furnishing and transporting approved
excavation of the material to the required lines, levels crushed stone from commercial suppliers, including the
and grades and the disposal of the material as directed, cost of transporting the material to the site, and placing
including a free haul of 1.0 km. the materials as specified. For payment purposes a
distinction shall be made between the different grades
Where subsoil drainage systems are adjacent to of crushed stone.
structures such as culverts, that part of the excavation
for subsoil drainage systems which can be made by
widening the excavation for the structure shall be ITEM UNIT
measured and paid for under excavation for such 21.07 NATURAL PERMEABLE
structure, and not under excavation for the subsoil MATERIAL IN SUBSOIL DRAINAGE
drainage systems. SYSTEMS (SAND):
(a) SAND OBTAINED FROM CUBIC
ITEM UNIT APPROVED SOURCES ON THE METRE
3
SITE (STATE GRADE) (m )
21.04 IMPERMEABLE BACKFILLING CUBIC
TO SUBSOIL DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
3
METRE (m ) (b) SAND OBTAINED FROM CUBIC
APPROVED SOURCES OUTSIDE METRE
3
THE SITE (STATE GRADE) (m )
The unit of measurement shall be the cubic metre of
completed backfill, measured in place in the subsoil
drainage systems and calculated in accordance with the The unit of measurement shall be the cubic metre of
authorised dimensions. approved sand in place in the drains, calculated in
accordance with the authorised dimensions. The
The bid rate shall include full compensation for volume occupied by the pipes shall be deducted when
procuring, furnishing, placing and compacting the calculating the volume of the permeable material.
backfilling including all haulage.
The bid rate shall include full compensation for
procuring, furnishing, transporting from the borrow
ITEM UNIT areas and placing the sand as specified.
3
21.05 BANKS AND DYKES CUBIC METRE (m ) For payment purposes a distinction shall be made
between the different grades of sand.
The unit of measurement shall be the cubic metre of
material, measured in place in the banks or dykes, and
calculated in accordance with the authorised ITEM UNIT
dimensions. 21.08 PIPES IN SUBSOIL DRAINAGE
SYSTEMS:
The bid rate shall include full compensation for
procuring, furnishing, placing, watering, compacting, (a) PITCH-FIBRE PIPES AND FITTINGS METRE
shaping and trimming the material in the banks and COMPLETE WITH COUPLING (STATE (m)
dykes including all haulage SIZE AND WHETHER OR NOT
PERFORATED)
(b) UNPLASTICISED PVC PIPES AND METRE
ITEM UNIT FITTINGS, NORMAL DUTY, COMPLETE (m)
21.06 NATURAL PERMEABLE WITH COUPLINGS (STATE SIZE AND
MATERIAL IN SUBSOIL DRAINAGE WHETHER OR NOT PERFORATED
SYSTEMS(CRUSHED STONE): SLOTTED)

(a) CRUSHED STONE OBTAINED CUBIC


FROM APPROVED SOURCES ON
3
METRE (m ) (c) HIGH-DENSITY TYPE POLY-ETHYLENE METRE
THE SITE (STATE GRADE) PRESSURE PIPES AND FITTINGS, (m)
COMPLETE WITH COUPLINGS (STATE
The unit of measurement shall be the cubic metre of SIZE, TYPE AND CLASS AND WHETHER
approved crushed stone in place in the drains, OR NOT PERFORATED)
calculated in accordance with the authorised (d) CONCRETE PIPES (STATE TYPE AND METRE
dimensions. The volume occupied by the pipe shall be DIAMETER) (m)

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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 2000 - DRAINAGE

The unit of measurement for pipes shall be the metre of keeping the excavations safe, dealing with any surface
pipe, measured in place along its centre line, including or subsurface water, procuring and furnishing all
the length of fittings. materials, providing, erecting and removing formwork,
mixing, transporting, placing and curing the concrete,
The bid rate shall include full compensation for and all labour and constructional plant required for
procuring, furnishing, laying and jointing the pipes and constructing the concrete outlet structures, manhole
fittings as specified. boxes, junction boxes and clearing eyes, complete as
specified.

ITEM UNIT
21.09 POLYETHYLENE SHEETING, SQUARE
ITEM UNIT
2
0.15 mm THICK, OR SIMILAR METRE (m ) 21.13 CONCRETE CAPS FOR SUB SOIL NUMBER
APPROVED MATERIAL, FOR DRAIN PIPES (no)
LINING SUBSOIL DRAINAGE
SYSTEM The unit of measurement shall be the number of caps
supplied and the bid rate shall include full compensation
The unit of measurement shall be the square metre of for supplying and installing the caps.
polyethylene sheeting installed, measured net from the
specified dimensions.
ITEM UNIT
The bid rate shall include full compensation for 21.14 REPAIRING OR REPLACING PROVISIONAL
procuring, supplying, cutting, overlapping, jointing, EXISTING DRAINAGE SYSTEMS SUM
placing and protecting the sheeting as specified, as well
as for wastage.
The provisional sum given for repairing existing
drainage systems shall be expanded in terms of the
ITEM UNIT Conditions of Contract.
21.10 SYNTHETIC-FIBRE FILTER SQUARE
2
FABRIC (DESCRIBE TYPE AND METRE (m ) ITEM UNIT
GRADE)
21.15 BACKFILLING EXISTING CUBIC
3
ERODED SIDE DRAINS METRE (m )
The unit of measurement shall be the square metre of
filter fabric supplied and installed as specified.
The bid rate shall include full compensation for The unit of measurement shall be the cubic metre of
furnishing procuring, cutting, overlapping, jointing, approved granular material placed and compacted to
placing and protecting the filter fabric as specified as 90% of BS-Heavy density, measured in place after
well as for wastage. compaction, where instructed by the Engineer.

The bid rate shall include full compensation for trimming


ITEM UNIT the side drains disposing of the resulting material and
procuring, furnishing, transporting, placing and
21.11 COMPOSITE IN-PLANE SQUARE compacting the granular material and all haulage.
2
DRAINAGE SYSTEMS METRE (m )
(DESCRIBE TYPE AND GRADE)
ITEM UNIT
The unit of measurement shall be the metre of 21.16 TEST FLUSHING OF PIPE NUMBER
composite in-plane drainage system measured in place SUBSOIL DRAINS (no)
along the centreline of the system.

The bid rate shall include full compensation for The unit of measurement shall be the number of tests
procuring, furnishing, assembling, installing and jointing satisfactorily completed on unblocked sections of drain.
the composite in-plane drainage system, including No payment will be made for tests which have to be
perforated or other types of pipes, complete as repeated due to blocked pipes or faulty workmanship.
specified
The bid rate shall include full compensation for the
provision of a water tanker, water, equipment and
ITEM UNIT labour necessary to carry out the tests, complete as
specified.
21.12 CONCRETE OUTLET
STRUCTURES, MANHOLE BOXES,
JUNCTION BOXES AND CLEANING ITEM UNIT
EYES FOR SUBSOIL DRAINAGE:
21.17 EXCAVATION FOR THE
(a) OUTLET STRUCTURES NUMBER (no) CLEARING OF EXISTING DRAINAGE
(b) MANHOLE BOXES NUMBER (no) SYSTEMS:
(c) JUNCTION BOXES NUMBER (no) (a) MANHOLES AND INLET AN OUTLET CUBIC METRE
3
(d) CLEANING EYES NUMBER (no) STRUCTURES (m )
(b) CULVERT BARRELS CUBIC METRE
3
The unit of measurement shall be the number of outlet (m )
structures, manhole boxes, junction boxes and cleaning (c) CONCRETE SIDE DRAINS CUBIC METRE
3
eyes for subsoil drainage systems constructed in (m )
accordance with the details on the Drawings and the
Engineer’s instructions. The unit of measurement shall be the cubic metre of
material excavated and removed, measured in place
The bid rates shall include full compensation for all before excavation.
excavation, backfilling, compacting to 90% of BS-Heavy
density, disposing of surplus excavated material,

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 2000 - 6


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 2000 - DRAINAGE

The bid rate include full compensation for excavating


the material, protecting the existing drainage structures,
dealing with any surface or subsurface water and
disposing of the excavated material, including shaping
and levelling - off piles of soil material. The bid rate
shall also include full compensation for all haulage of
the material.

ITEM UNIT
21.18 SELECTED BACKFILL CUBIC METRE
3
MATERIAL UNDER CONCRETE- (m )
LINED SIDE DRAINS COMPACTED
TO 90 % BS-HEAVY DENSITY

The unit of measurement shall be the cubic metre of


compacted material and the quantity shall be calculated
from the authorised dimensions given on the Drawings.

The bid rate shall include full compensation for


procuring as if from soft excavation or borrow pits,
breaking down, placing and compacting the material in
150 mm layers, transporting the top surface in
accordance with the Drawings.

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 2000 - 7


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 2000 - DRAINAGE

SERIES 2000: DRAINAGE (c) Corrugated metal culvert units


Corrugated metal culvert units shall comply with the
requirements of CKS 176 or equivalent for riveted and
SECTION 2200: PREFABRICATED nestable pipes and pipe arches, and CKS 437 or
equivalent for multiplate pipes and pipe arches.
CULVERTS
Metal culvert shall be supplied with inlet and outlet ends
CONTENTS: finished by one of the following two methods whichever
is shown on the Drawings or has been prescribed by
CLAUSE PAGE the Engineer:
2201 SCOPE 2000-8
2202 TYPES OF CULVERTS 2000-8 (i) Where no concrete inlet and outlet structures but
2203 MATERIALS 2000-8 bevelled pipe ends are required, inlet and outlet
2204 CONSTRUCTION METHODS 2000-9 units shall be bevelled to suit the skew angle of the
2205 EXCAVATION FOR CONSTRUCTION BY culverts and the side slope of the fill and pavement.
THE TRENCH METHOD 2000-9
2206 PREPARATION FOR CONSTRUCTION BY (ii) Where concrete inlet and outlet structures are
THE EMBANKMENT METHOD 2000-9 required, the ends of the culvert units shall be cut to
2207 UNSUITABLE FOUNDING CONDITIONS 2000-10 the required plan skew (if any ) and provided with
2208 CLASSIFICATION EXCAVATION 2000-10 anchor bolts projecting radially around the edge as
2209 DISPOSAL OF EXCAVATED MATERIAL 2000-10 shown on the Drawings for bonding the metal
2210 LAYING AND BEDDING OF culvert into the concrete inlet and outlet structures.
PREFABRICATED CULVERTS 2000-10
2211 BACKFILLING OF PREFABRICATED The Contractor shall not store any nestable culvert units
CULVERTS 2000-11 on the site in such a manner that moisture can
2212 INLET AND OUTLET STRUCTURES, accumulate between the contact faces of the nested
CATCHPITS AND MANHOLES 2000-12 units, as this may adversely affect the spelter coating
2213 REMOVAL OF EXISTING W ORK 2000-13 and render the units liable to rejection. Any units
2214 JOINING NEW W ORK TO OLD 2000-13 damaged by corrosion shall, if not rejected, be repaired
2215 SERVICES DUCTS 2000-13 by cleaning all affected areas and applying at least two
2216 CULVERTS ON STEEP GRADIENTS 2000-14 coasts of an approved zinc- rich epoxy primer which
2217 STORMWATER DUCTS, TREMIES AND complies with the requirements of SABS 926 or
OTHER CLOSED CONDUCTS 2000-14 equivalent, in accordance with the manufacture’s
2218 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 2000-14 instructions, or as directed by Engineer.

(d) Fine granular material


Wherever the use of fine granular material is specified
in this Section for bedding of culvert, it shall mean sand
2201 SCOPE or other cohesionless material, all of which shall pass
This Section covers work in connection with the through a 6.3 mm sieve and not more than 10% which
construction from prefabricated units of culvert and
shall pass through a 0.15 mm sieve.
other closed conduits such as storm water ducts,
tremies and service ducts, together with inlet and outlet (e) Protective coating for metal culverts
structures, manholes and other appurtenant structures.
Where soil or water conditions are likely to cause
excessive corrosion of metal culvert, the Engineer may
2202 TYPES OF CULVERT order that prefabricated units be protected by the
For the purpose of this specification, the term application of a mastic asphalt protective coating. The
“prefabricated culvert “ shall mean culvert constructed coating shall be applied to either the inside, the outside
from: or both sides of the metal culvert units as may be
− prefabricated concrete pipes with circular sections, directed by the Engineer.
hereafter referred to as “concrete pipe culverts”.
− prefabricated concrete culvert other than pipe The mastic asphalt shall bear a registered trademark,
culvert hereafter referred to as “portal culvert “ or and approved filler and shall be supplied as a spray or
“rectangular culvert “. brush-grade material as prescribed.
− prefabricated corrugated metal pipes and pipe
arches, hereafter referred to as “metal culvert” The surfaces to be protected shall be cleaned to
remove all moisture, dirt, oil, paint, grease, alkalis, rust,
Other types of prefabricated culvert not mentioned mill scale or other deleterious matter.
above such as wooden culverts or others, will be
specified in the Special Specifications or Bill of The material shall be mixed until all filler is uniformly
Quantities or on the Drawings as required. distributed.

2203 MATERALS Spray-grade mastic shall be applied by means of an


The prefabricated culvert units shall be factory airless gun and shall be of a suitable consistency
produced by a reputable manufacturer of these articles without the addition of harmful amount of thinners.
and shall comply with the following requirements:
Brush-grade mastic shall be applied with an ordinary
(a) Prefabricated concrete pipe culvert units roofing brush, with the second coat being applied at
Prefabricated concrete pipe culvert units shall comply right angles to the first coat.
with the requirements of SABS 677 or equivalent. Pipes
with ogee joints shall be provided, unless otherwise The final film thickness measured on the crest of
specified. corrugations shall be a minimum of 1.3 mm or such
other thickness as may be specified.
(b) Portal and rectangular prefabricated concrete
culvert units Care shall be taken not to damage the protective
Portal and rectangular prefabricated concrete culvert coating, and all damage to the coating shall be repaired
units shall comply with the requirements of SABS 986 before the culvert is put to use.
or equivalent.
THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 2000 - 8
STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 2000 - DRAINAGE

(f) Skewed ends 2205 EXCAVATION FOR CONSTRUCTION BY


Where culverts are to be constructed at a skew angle, THE TRENCH METHOD
the culvert shall be supplied with skew ends by the
manufacturer, if required. The cutting of skewed ends
(a) Depth of excavation
on site shall not be allowed.
In the case of culverts to be constructed by the trench
method, the Contractor shall first construct the fill,
Portal and rectangular units shall be provided with
subgrade and if necessary, the subbase to such level of
square ends and any portions that would otherwise be
the top of the culvert, as described herein after for the
cut off, shall project beyond the culvert head walls.
various types of culvert. The Contractor may then
commence excavating the trench for the culvert.
Where instructed by the Engineer, portal and
rectangular culverts shall be provided with skewed ends
The amount by which the excavation is to exceed the
constructed from cast in situ reinforced concrete in
proposed level of invert of the culvert shall be sufficient
accordance with the details shown on the Drawings.
to allow the type and thickness of bedding material to
be placed as specified or as shown on the Drawings.
(g) Defects
All broken, bent, chipped, cracked, dented, corroded or
(i) Concrete pipe culverts
otherwise damaged units shall be repaired to the
The minimum height of embankment construction
Engineer’s satisfaction or where this is not possible,
over the top of the proposed pipe culvert before
they shall be removed and replaced with undamaged
excavation may be commenced, shall be the
units.
minimum cover specified on the Drawings for the
type of pipe and bedding onto which it shall be laid.
Culvert units, which are thinner than the specified
thickness, or the spelter coating of which has been
The minimum amount by which the excavation is to
bruised or broken, or which may exhibit signs of faulty
exceed the proposed lever of the bottom side of the
work, will be rejected.
pipe shall be 75 mm or such other as may be
required for accommodating the type of bedding
The following defects will be rejected as poor work, and
required for the pipe in each case.
the presence of any of or all such defects or any other
defects in any individual unit or in general shall
(ii) Portal and rectangular culverts
constitute adequate reason for rejection: Uneven joints,
The minimum height of embankment construction
distorted shapes, deviations from a straight centre line,
over the top of the proposed culvert before
irregular or diagonally ruptured sides, loose rivets not in
excavation may be commenced, shall be 100mm or
line or irregularly spaced, poorly finished rivet heads,
such greater height as may be shown on the
illegible trade marks, or a lack of rigidity.
Drawings, whichever is the greater.
(h) Material at joints
The minimum amount by which the excavation is to
Joint filter seating material shall comply the
exceed the proposed level of the bottom of the
requirements of CLAUSE 6603.
culvert invert slab shall be 75 mm in the case of
culvert with pre cast invert slabs. In the case of
(i) In situ concrete
culverts with cast in situ invert slabs, the excavation
All concrete work shall be carried out in accordance
shall exactly accommodate the invert slab.
with the requirements of SECTIONS 6200, 6300 and
6400.
(iii) Metal culverts
The minimum height of embankment construction
2204 CONSTRUCTION METHODS over the top of the proposed metal culvert before
Prefabricated culverts shall be installed by either: excavation may be commenced, shall be the
− the “trench method”, where the units are laid in a minimum cover specified on the Drawings for the
trench excavated below the existing ground lever or type of metal culvert, or 0.25 times the diameter of
in a trench excavated in previously constructed pipes, or 0.25 times the span of pipe arches,
subgrade and if necessary, subbase layers; or whichever is the greatest.
− the “embankment method “, where the units are laid
The minimum amount by which the excavation is to
approximately on the existing ground surface and
exceed the proposed lever of the bottom of the pipe
the subgrade is then constructed on either side and
shall be 75 mm or such other amount required for
over the culvert.
accommodating the type of bedding required for the
culvert in each case.
Culverts shall be constructed by the method shown on
the Drawings or given in the Special Specifications
(b) Width of excavation
The width of excavations shall be sufficient to allow the
The large sizes of metal culvert and the large portal or
proper laying, bedding and backfilling of culverts. The
rectangular culverts shall normally be constructed by
widths of the excavation for each type and size of
the embankment method.
culvert shall be as shown on the Drawings or as may be
prescribed by the Engineer in writing.
Surface drainage shall controlled by the construction of
temporary earth berms and drainage channels.
If the width of an excavation is increased by the side of
the trench slipping or collapsing, the Contractor shall
The Contractor shall comply strictly with all the
immediately inform the Engineer and shall not proceed
appropriate statutory provisions in regard to trench
with any further laying of culverts or backfilling until the
excavations.
Engineer has reviewed the circumstances and has
given instructions as to the need for altering the class of
culvert or type of bedding.

2206 PREPARATION FOR CONSTRUCTION BY


THE EMBANKMENT METHOD
Where culvert are to be constructed by the
embankment method as defined in CLAUSE 2204 above,

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 2000 - 9


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 2000 - DRAINAGE

the Contractor shall level existing ground by excavating, the lower part of the pipe, which concrete shall
filling and compacting as may be necessary so as to extend upwards on both sides of the pipe to a
provide exactly the required slope and a uniform density specified portion of its height.
over the entire length of the culvert.
Before concreting, the pipes shall be supported on
The finished level of the ground for the bedding of the suitably shaped cradles at the correct level. No
culvert shall be the same depth below the proposed longitudinal construction joints on the horizontal
bottom level of the culvert as specified above in CLAUSE plane will be permitted.
2205 for the various types of culverts.
(ii) Class B and C beddings
2207 UNSUITABLE FOUNDING CONDITIONS The pipe shall be laid on a bedding cradle of
Where the bottom of the trench does not provide a compacted selected granular material as specified.
suitably firm foundation for the culvert on account of The bedding shall extend upwards on both sides of
soft, mucky or otherwise unsuitable material being the pipe to a specified portion of its height, as
encountered, the unsuitable material shall be excavated shown on the Drawings. Joint holes shall be formed
to a depth below the bottom of the culvert as may be in the bedding cradle for pipe sockets and
indicated by the Engineer. couplings, to ensure that each pipe is fully
supported throughout the length of its barrel on the
The Contractor shall excavate the unsuitable material to bedding cradle.
the depth indicated and shall replace it with gravel or
other approved material properly compacted to provide (iii) Class D bedding
a firm earth cushion. The pipes shall be laid on the situ material in the
excavation bottom after the bottom has been hand
The width of the excavation shall be as prescribed by trimmed to support the pipe along the entire length
the Engineer, but in the case of culverts to be of its barrel in accordance with the details shown on
constructed by the embankment method, the width shall the Drawings. Wherever necessary, the in situ
be at least one diameter or span, as the case may be material shall first be stabilised in accordance with
wider than the culvert on each side. the details shown on the Drawings or as prescribed
by the Engineer.
Other special construction methods may be shown on
the Drawings or specified in the Special Specifications (iv) Rock foundation
in specific cases. Where rock, shale or other hard material is
encountered on the bottom of excavations, the
2208 CLASSIFICATION OF EXCAVATION installation of pipes on Class B bedding shall
proceed as follows:
All excavations for prefabricated culverts shall be
classified as provided in CLAUSE 2105 for payment
(1) The material below the pipe shall be excavated
purposes.
and replaced with a bed of sand or approved
gravel or soil to a depth as shown on the
2209 DISPOSAL OF EXCAVATED MATERIAL Drawings or prescribed by the Engineer. Such
Where excavated material does not comply with the material shall be classed as backfill for
requirements for backfilling material as specified purposes of payment.
hereinafter or is surplus to backfilling requirements,
such excavated material shall be removed from the site (2) The backfill material shall be watered and
and used for rehabilitation of borrow pits or at other compacted to provide a firm earth cushion.
places as directed by the Engineer. Class B bedding shall then be prepared as
described in SUBCLAUSE 2210(a)(ii).
Material suitable for use in the Works, however, shall be
used as prescribed by the Engineer. (v) Concrete casing
Where shown on the Drawings or ordered by the
Payment for such material will be made as for Engineer, pipes shall be fully encased in concrete
excavation under ITEM 22.01, and also under the according to class and dimensions as shown on the
appropriate item for such part of the Works as may be Drawings or as ordered by the Engineer. Supports
constructed from such material. shall be provided close to the pipe ends to support
the pipes during the placing of concrete. The
No haulage will be paid for excavated material. concrete shall be so placed as to fill all spaces
below the pipe completely. Poker vibrators shall be
used to ensure the proper filling of all spaces below
2210 LAYING AND BEDDING OF and around the pipes with concrete. Concrete
PREFABRICATED CULVERTS casing shall be cast in one continuous operation
until completed.
(a) Concrete pipe culverts
Concrete pipe culverts shall be laid on Class A, B ,C or
D bedding as shown on the Drawings or as directed by (b) Portal and rectangular culverts
the Engineer. The pipe ends shall be laid hard up
against each other so as to obtain tight joints. Ogee (i) Cast in situ floor slabs
pipes shall be laid with their spigot ends downstream. Cast in situ floor slabs shall be constructed to the
The joints shall be sealed on the outside with two layers dimensions and at the locations as shown on the
of bitumen impregnated burlap as specified in Drawings or as may be prescribed by the Engineer.
SUBCLAUSE 2210 (b). They shall be reinforced with steel reinforcement as
detailed on the Drawings. Joints of the types
The insides of the culvert shall be smooth and without detailed on the Drawings shall be formed in the
any displaced joints. All pipes shall be laid true to line floor slabs, and the inlet and outlet structures.
and level.
(ii) Prefabricated floor slabs
(i) Class A bedding A layer of fine-grained material at least 75 mm thick
The pipe shall be laid with its bottom part on a 20 shall be placed on the bottom of the excavation,
MPa concrete bedding of specified thickness below levelled, compacted and trimmed to line and grade

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 2000 - 10


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 2000 - DRAINAGE

to form a bed to receive the precast slabs. The Jointing shall be done in accordance with CLAUSE 2214.
slabs shall be carefully placed on the prepared bed,
true to line and grade and so bedded that they will After completion of the extension or partial replacement
be uniformly supported over their whole area on the of a culvert, new approach slabs, head walls, wing
bedding. walls, catchpits etc, shall be constructed in accordance
with the Drawings and CLAUSE 2212.
(iii) Placing the portal portions of culverts
The portal portions of portal and rectangular (e) Construction of culverts in half widths in
culverts shall be placed accurately and existing roads
symmetrically on the floor slabs with a thin layer of If necessary for accommodating traffic or for any other
mortar of one part of cement and six parts of sand reasons or if so instructed by the Engineer, culverts
between the contact surface to ensure a firm and shall be constructed in half widths.
uniform support.
Unless otherwise prescribed, the downstream section
The units shall be butted end to end with butt joints, shall be constructed first. The end of the excavation
which joints shall be covered with two layers of adjoining the traffic lane shall be properly supported to
2
burlap of 340 g/m , pre-impregnated with a prevent displacement from occurring. The necessary
bituminous emulsion, or a similar approved warning signs shall be erected in accordance with
material. The strip of burlap shall be at least 150 requirements of SECTION 1500.
mm wide and placed symmetrically over the joint.
The units shall first be treated with a primer of 60% Where the culvert is constructed in an existing road and
bitumen emulsion over the width of the strip of it has been so prescribed by the Engineer, the
burlap. pavement layers at least shall be benched and
recompacted during backfilling. The depth of benching
Where two or more culverts are placed side by side shall equal the respective layer thickness, and the width
to form a multi-barrel culvert, the space between shall be at least 150 mm.
the culvert shall be filled with concrete up to the
level of the top of the culvert. Where prescribed, (f) General
filter fabrics shall be applied to the vertical outer The construction of culverts shall be commenced at one
faces in accordance with the details shown on the end of the culvert, the position of which shall be fixed as
Drawings. shown on the Drawings or as prescribed by the
Engineer.
(c) Metal culverts
The excavation shall be trimmed to the shape of the Units which have been deformed or cracked, or which
invert of the culvert and a bed of fine granular material are not constructed to the required lines, levels and
not less than 75 mm thick shall be placed, watered, grades or which become displaced in the process of the
compacted and shaped to enable the culvert to be work during the defects liability period shall be removed
bedded as shown on the Drawings. and replaced by the Contractor at his own expense.

Where rock is encountered, the depth of excavation Prefabricated units shall be lifted and handled by
shall extend to a depth of at least 200 mm below the means of approved lifting devices only. Lifting eyes
invert of the culvert, and shall be filled with granular shall be caulked with a suitable mortar after the units
material as before. have been installed.

The culverts shall be installed in accordance with the The Contractor shall exercise due care not to damage,
manufacturer’s recommendations as approved by the overstress or displace any prefabricated culverts with
Engineer. Where these Specifications are inconsistent his own traffic or compaction equipment. Where loads
with the manufacturer’s recommendations, these exceeding those prescribed in the appropriate statutory
Specifications shall have preference. Anchor bolts shall provisions are likely to pass over completed culverts,
be installed at the ends of metal pipe culverts in the Contractor shall provide additional cover over the
accordance with the manufacture’s instructions to bond culverts to ensure that design stresses on the culverts
them into inlet and outlet head walls, which head walls will not be exceeded.
shall be constructed as soon as possible after
installation of the culverts. All concrete work shall be carried out in accordance
with provisions of SERIES 6000.
No concrete bedding or casing shall be used in the
installation of metal culverts. When the Contractor is required to supply and install
culverts at slope exceeding 1:4, the work shall be
Where prescribed, the invert of metal culverts with carried out as specified in CLAUSE 2216.
diameters or spans exceeding 1500 mm which are laid
on steep grades shall be protected with a layer of 2211 BACKFILLING OF PREFABRICATED
concrete with dimensions and class shown on the CULVERTS
Drawings.
After the culverts have been firmly laid on the required
bedding as described in CLAUSE 2210, backfilling shall
(d) Extension of existing culverts
be carried out as follows:
Where an existing culvert requires extension or partial
replacement, the new section shall be placed at the
(a) Material for backfilling
same grade and where it joins the existing structures at
The material used for the backfilling of those portions of
the same level as the existing structure.
culverts subject to traffic loads shall be selected
Any sections of existing wing walls, approach slabs and
material of at least subbase quality or such other lower
head walls which may obstruct any work shall be
quality as may be permitted by the Engineer. Where the
demolished and removed. Existing culvert ends shall
excavated material is not of adequate quality, selected
not be damaged, but should damage occur, the repair
material shall be imported for this purpose. The
work shall be done before the placement of any fresh
Contractor shall in advance, ascertain from the
concrete or new culverts. Loose material shall be
Engineer as to which portions will require selected-
removed and joint faces thoroughly cleaned to the
quality material for backfilling.
satisfaction of the Engineer.

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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 2000 - DRAINAGE

In the case of concrete pipe culverts on Class B shall be packed to prevent the soil cement from flowing
bedding and metal culverts the backfilling material shall beyond the required limits.
be thoroughly tamped in under the flanks of the culverts
to provide a uniform bedding all to the Engineer’s Soil cement shall not be used for backfilling corrugated
satisfaction. Metal culverts shall be temporarily metal culverts.
ballasted during backfilling to prevent them from lifting.
(e) Haulage
(b) Backfilling When haulage is paid for in accordance with the
Backfilling alongside and over all culverts shall be Special Specifications a free haul distance of 1.0 km
placed at or near the optimum moisture content of BS- shall apply in respect of all imported materials used for
Heavy and compacted in layers not exceeding 150 mm backfilling the culverts. No overhaul shall be paid on
after compaction, or less if required, to a density of at any cement, water or concrete aggregates used.
least the density required for the material in adjoining
layers of fill, subgrade and subbase. The density of 2212 INLET AND OUTLET STRUCTURES,
backfilling in excavations made in natural ground shall CATCHPITS AND MANHOLES
be at least 90% of BS-Heavy density.
Inlet and outlet structures for prefabricated culverts as
well as catchpits and manholes shall be constructed in
Backfilling shall be carried out simultaneously and
accordance with the details shown on the Drawings.
equally on both sides of a culvert to prevent unequal
lateral forces from occurring.
(a) Excavation and backfilling
The specifications given elsewhere in this Section for
Where the Engineer so directs, metal culverts with large
excavating and backfilling the culverts shall apply with
diameters or spans or multi – barrel culverts shall be
changes as required to inlet and outlet structures,
constructed by the embankment method as defined in
catchpits and manholes.
SUBCLAUSE 2204(b). In such cases, the backfilling shall
be carried out to the same standard as described
No backfilling of a concrete structure may be done for a
above, simultaneously and equally on both sides of the
period of at least seven days after the structure has
culvert and placed over the culvert until the minimum
been completed, unless otherwise specified or directed
specified cover is obtained. The width of backfill on
by the Engineer.
each side of the culvert, after completion, shall be at
least equal to the diameter (or span) of one of the
(b) Concrete work
openings of the culvert.
Concrete work shall be carried out in accordance with
the provision of SERIES 6000 and the Drawings.
Metal culverts shall be backfilled symmetrically to
prevent distortion of the units, and the Contractor shall
(c) Brickwork
also ensure that the required cover as specified is in
Bricks shall be engineering bricks conforming to the
place to allow construction equipment to pass over it
requirements of SABS 227 or equivalent.
without causing damage.
The limit for water absorption in the 24-hour immersion
(c) Backfilling with concrete
test shall be 8%.
Whenever specified or as may be instructed by the
Engineer, the backfilling shall consist of concrete placed
Brickwork shall be built in English bond in a mortar
between the side of the culvert and the excavation up to
consisting of one part of cement and six parts of sand,
the top of the culvert.
or in stretcher bond where its thickness does not
exceed 115 mm. It shall be well and regularly bonded
(d) Backfilling with soil-cement
without any false headers. All bricks shall be unbroken,
When specified or ordered by the Engineer, the
except where required as closers. Bricks shall be well
backfilling of culverts shall be done using a wet or a stiff
wetted before laying and each brick shall be exceeding
mixture of soil cement in lieu of compacted gravel or
10 mm in thickness. All joints shall be filled solid with
lean concrete. A wet mixture of soil cement shall consist
mortar, and joints for exposed faces shall be pointed as
of an approved soil or gravel mixed with 5% of Ordinary
the work proceeds.
Portland cement and only sufficient water to give a
consistency that will permit the soil cement to be placed
Where pipes enter brickwork they shall be thoroughly
with vibrators, so that all voids between the pipes and
caulked into the wall and rendered with mortar.
the sides of excavations and between culverts in the
case of multi barrel culverts will be properly filled. A stiff
(d) Plaster
mixture of soil cement shall contain 3% of Ordinary
Where the plastering of brickwork is required, all joints
Portland cement and just sufficient water for it to be
shall be well raked out and the brick face thoroughly
placed and compacted like ordinary backfill material.
wetted before plaster is applied. Plaster shall not be
The height to which the soil cement backfill shall be
less than 12 mm or more than 20 mm thick. Plaster
taken shall be as prescribed by the Engineer or as
finish shall be smooth and even and shall not show any
shown on the Drawings, and any remaining backfill
trowel marks. Unless otherwise specified, all plaster
shall be carried out as described above with a granular
shall be finished with a steel trowel. Plaster shall consist
material.
of one part of cement to four parts of approved fine
sand.
The aggregate used for soil cement shall preferably be
a sandy material but may contain large particles up to
(e) Manhole covers, grid inlets etc
38 mm. It shall not have a Plasticity Index exceeding
Manhole covers and frames, grid inlets and other metal
10%. Detrimental percentages of silt or clay shall be
accessories shall be supported and or/or manufactured
avoided and the aggregate shall be obtained from an
in accordance with the details shown on the Drawings.
approved source.
Road and pavement manhole covers and frames shall
comply with the requirements of SABS 558 or
The soil cement shall be mixed on the Site with suitable
equivalent and shall be of the size and type indicated.
concrete mixers, and the water and cement contents
shall be carefully controlled. The material shall be
Before fixing manholes covers and frames they shall be
placed and then thoroughly compacted so that all voids
dipped in an approved preservative and gratings and
are filled as described above. At culvert ends, stones
frames painted with two coats of bituminous paint.

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 2000 - 12


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 2000 - DRAINAGE

Manhole frame shall be set firmly in a cement mortar to Fresh concrete shall be bonded to the old concrete in
leave the covers flush with the final surface. accordance with the requirements with the
requirements specified in SECTION 6400.
(f) Prefabricated concrete chambers and shafts
Prefabricated chambers and shafts shall be constructed Reinforced or plain concrete removed in the process of
from non-pressure concrete pipes which comply with partial demolition shall be measured and paid for under
the requirements of SABS 677 or equivalent. Pipes with ITEM 22.12 and the installation of dowels and those
ogee joints shall be provided unless otherwise surfaces treated with an epoxy bonding compound will
specified. The pipes shall be to the diameters specified. be paid for separately but no separate payment will be
All chambers and shafts shall be installed with the made for any other work described above, the cost of
spigot ends pointing upwards and shall be bedded in which shall be deemed to be included in the rates bid
mortar thoroughly caulked to ensure watertight joints. for the concrete supplied for extensions to the existing
structures.
(g) Benching
All benching shall be rendered in 20 mm granolithic 2215 SERVICE DUCTS
plaster and finished smooth and true with a steel trowel. Where required the Contractor shall construct services
Corners shall be rounded to dimensions shown on the ducts for the easy installation and maintenance of
Drawings. existing, new and future cables and other services.
Services ducts shall be constructed from one or more of
(h) Prefabricated inlet and outlet structures the following materials:
Where specified for use, prefabricated inlet and outlet − Normal – duty PVC pipes in accordance with SABS
structures shall be manufactured in accordance with the 791 or equivalent.
dimensions shown on the Drawings. The units shall be − Pitch-fibre pipes in accordance with SABS 921 or
laid and jointed generally as specified for prefabricated equivalent.
concrete pipe culverts. − Fibre-cement pressure pipes in accordance with
SABS 1223 or equivalent. Class C pipes shall be
(i) Prefabricated energy dissipaters in outlet
used unless other types are specified.
structures
− Reinforced-concrete pipes in accordance with
Where shown on the Drawings, the Contractor shall
SABS 677 or equivalent.
supply and install in the outlet structures, prefabricated
reinforced concrete energy dissipaters of Class 25/19
Where required, the pipes shall be cut length-wise and
concrete with dimensions as shown on the Drawings.
accurately in two halves. The actual type of pipe
All concrete work shall comply with the requirements of
required shall be in accordance with the Specifications.
SERIES 6000.
The pipes shall be installed in the required positions,
and accurate record shall be kept regarding the depth,
2213 REMOVAL OF EXISTING WORK position and number of pipes installed in each duct.
Where shown on the Drawings or directed by the Pipes shall be laid at the grades shown on the
Engineer existing inlets and outlets to pipe culverts shall Drawings to facilitate flushing with water and shall,
be demolished and debris or rubbish disposed of in an where required, be encased in concrete or soil cement.
approved waste site as directed by the Engineer.
Existing pipes shall be removed where necessary and The width of excavation for service – duct trenches
saved for later use. All such work shall be carried out to shall be equal to the nominal inside diameter of the
prevent damage being done to former work which is to pipe, plus 150 mm on each side of the duct. Where
remain. ducts consist of two or more units, the minimum
spacing between the units shall be 75 mm, and the 150
The Contractor’s attention is directed to the provisions mm side clearance specified above shall apply to the
of SECTION 3100 which specifies any structures which outside units of the group.
have to be removed as part of the clearing and
grubbing operations, the removal of which will therefore Below the carriageway the depth of excavation shall
not be measured and paid for under this Section. accommodate a minimum cover of 1.0 m above the
upper side of the installed services duct.
Pipes shall be carefully removed from existing culverts
and thoroughly checked. All pipes shall be joined with watertight couplings made
from the same materials as the pipe. Fibre-cement
Undamaged pipes shall be re-used in the Works where couplings shall be of rubber – ring type.
indicated by the Engineer. Pipes which cannot be re-
used shall remain the property of the Employer and Spit pipes shall normally be used only for providing
shall be stacked within the road reserve or where ducting for existing services which cannot be severed
directed by the Engineer. and threaded through the ducts. The pipes shall be
accurately cut longitudinally in two halves and opposite
2214 JOINING NEW WORK TO OLD halves shall be matched as sawn. Split pipes shall be
Where partial demolition is required for extension work placed around the service as required, firmly bound by
to existing structures, the contact face shall be cut to steel straps and finally encased in concrete if required.
predetermined lines and levels, any loose and
fragmented material shall be removed and projecting Excavating, laying and bedding the pipes shall be in
steel cleaned and bent as directed by the Engineer. accordance with the Specifications for prefabricated
Where partial demolition is not required, but extension culverts with any modifications as may be necessary or
work only, the contact surface shall be roughened and specified here.
cleaned of all dirt and loose particles.
Duct ends shall be provided with suitable conical
If dowels are required, they shall be installed in holes wooden stoppers to prevent dirt from entering the ducts.
drilled into the existing structures, in accordance with Two strands, 2.5 mm in diameter of galvanised steel
the details shown on the Drawings and secured by wire shall be threaded through each unit and shall
means of an approved type of epoxy resin grout. extend 2 m beyond each end and firmly wedge into
position with the wooden stoppers.

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 2000 - 13


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 2000 - DRAINAGE

The end of each duct shall be marked with a marker The unit of measurement shall be the cubic metre of
block constructed to the details shown on the Drawings. material excavated within the specified widths over the
Each duct marker block shall be at least 50 mm proud lengths and depths authorised by the Engineer in each
of the finished surface level. case. Excavation in excess of the widths specified or
authorised by the Engineer shall not be measured for
2216 CULVERTS ON STEEP GRADIENTS payment.
Where culverts are constructed on gradients exceeding
1:4, they shall be referred to as inclined culverts. Irrespective of the total depth of the excavation, the
Inclined culverts shall be constructed from the type of quantity of material in each depth range shall be
unit required, normally either circular concrete pipe measured and paid for separately.
units or metal culvert units as described in CLAUSE
2203. When measuring excavation for the removal of existing
culverts, the volume occupied by the culvert shall not be
Particular care shall be taken to protect excavations subtracted from the calculated volume of excavation.
against stormwater damage. The trenches shall be
excavated down to firm ground, and backfilled with In the case of manholes, catch pits and inlet and outlet
selected gravel or concrete if it is necessary to over- structures, the dimensions for determining the volume
excavate for obtaining a firm floor. of excavation shall be the neat outside dimensions of
the structure, plus an allowance of 0.5 m of working
After the outlet structures has first been completed, the space around the structure.
culvert units shall be laid in the normal manner by
starting from the lower end and placing successive units The bid rates shall include full compensation for all
firmly against each other to prevent subsequent excavation, temporary timbering, shoring and strutting,
movement. The lower unit shall be securely cast into for preparing the bottom of the excavation for the
the outlet structure, and metal culverts shall be provided culvert beds, the disposal of excavated material
with the necessary anchor bolts at both inlet and outlet unsuitable for backfilling, keeping excavations safe,
structures and also at all thrust and anchor blocks. dealing with any surface or subsurface water, and for
any other operations necessary for completing the work
Thrust and anchor blocks shall be constructed from as specified.
concrete as required in accordance with Drawings and
details furnished by the Engineer. Anchor bolts, straps No haulage will be paid.
and other anchoring devices required at anchor and
thrust blocks shall be provided.
ITEM UNIT
The backfilling of trenches shall be done in horizontal 22.02 BACKFILLING:
layers starting at the lower end. (a) USING EXCAVATED MATERIAL CUBIC METRE
3
(m )
2217 STORMWATER DUCTS, TREMIES AND (b) USING IMPORTED SELECTED CUBIC METRE
3
OTHER CLOSED CONDUITS MATERIAL (m )
The specifications given in this Section for culverts, (c) EXTRA OVER SUBITEMS 22.02 CUBIC METRE
including the method of measurement and payment, (a) AND (b) FOR SOIL CEMENT
3
(m )
shall apply with changes as required to the construction BACKFILLING (PERCENTAGE OF
of stormwater ducts, tremies or any other closed CEMENT INDICATED)
conduits constructed from the prefabricated units
described in CLAUSE 2203, whether intended for
The unit of measurement shall be the cubic metre of
drainage or for any other purpose.
material in place after compaction. The quantity shall be
calculated from the leading dimensions of the backfilling
No distinction will be made in the Bill of Quantities
as specified or as authorised by the Engineer.
between the construction of culverts as defined in
SECTION 1100 and that of the other closed conduits
If excavation were carried out in excess of the
described above, all being classed as culverts.
dimensions authorised by the Engineer, the quantity of
backfilling will nevertheless be based on the authorised
Tremies constructed from prefabricated units shall be
dimensions. The volume occupied by the culvert shall
classed as inclined culverts where laid to a grade
be subtracted when calculating the volume of
steeper than 1:4.
backfilling.

The bid rates shall include full compensation for


2218 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT backfilling under, alongside and over conduits, for
watering, and for compacting the backfill material to the
ITEM UNIT specified density. The bid rate for SUBITEM 22.02(b)
22.01 EXCAVATION: shall, in addition, include full compensation for
(a) EXCAVATING SOFT MATERIAL supplying selected material of sub base quality from
SITUATED WITHIN THE FOLLOWING
approved sources, including a free haul of 1.0 km in the
DEPTH RANGES BELOW THE
cases where haulage is paid for in accordance with the
SURFACE LEVEL: Special Specifications..
(I) 0.5 m UP TO 1.5 m CUBIC METRE The bid rate for SUBITEM 22.02(c) shall be additional to
3
(m ) the rates bid for SUBITEMS 22.02(a) and (b) and shall
(II) Exceeding 1.5 m AND UP TO CUBIC METRE include full compensation for all incidentals required for
3
3.0 m (m ) the complete backfilling with soil cement as specified.
(III) Exceeding 3.0 m PER CUBIC METRE
3
INCREMENT OF 1.5 m (m )
(b) EXTRA OVER SUBITEM 22.01(a) CUBIC METRE
ITEM UNIT
3
FOR EXCAVATION IN ROCK AS (m ) 22.03 CONCRETE PIPE CULVERTS:
DEFINED IN CLAUSE 3603, (a) ON CLASS A BEDDING (TYPE AND METRE (m)
IRRESPECTIVE OF DEPTH: DIAMETER INDICATED)

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 2000 - 14


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 2000 - DRAINAGE

(b) ON CLASS B BEDDING (TYPE AND METRE (m) INDICATED)


DIAMETER INDICATED) (b) WITHOUT PREFABRICATED FLOOR METRE (m)
(c) ON CLASS C BEDDING (TYPE AND METRE (m) SLABS (SIZE AND TYPE INDICATED)
DIAMETER INDICATED)
(d) ON CLASS D BEDDING (TYPE AND METRE (m) The unit of measurement for prefabricated portal or
DIAMETER INDICATED) rectangular culverts shall be the metre of culvert laid as
shown on the Drawings or as directed by the Engineer.
The unit of measurement for concrete pipe culverts
shall be the metre of culvert laid as shown on the The length shall be measured along the soffit of the
Drawings or ordered by the Engineer. The length shall culvert.
be measured along the soffit of the culvert.
The bid rates shall include full compensation for
The bid rates shall include full compensation for supplying, testing, loading, transporting and off-loading
providing, testing, loading, transporting and unloading all culverts, providing and placing the fine-grained
the culverts, for providing and placing the fine-grained material where required for installing the culverts, and
material, where required, and for the installation, laying installing, laying and jointing the culverts as specified,
and jointing of the culverts, as specified. including cutting them on the site, and waste.

Should it be inevitable for a section to be cut off from a Payment will be made separately for floor slabs of cast
concrete pipe unit of standard length, the full standard in situ concrete.
length of the unit shall be measured for payment. No
additional compensation for cutting and disposing of Payment shall distinguish between the different sizes
such section will be paid. and types of culverts and between culverts installed
with or without prefabricated floor slabs.
Upon payment, differentiation shall be made between
the various types and sizes of culverts and between the
culverts placed on A, B, C and D classes of bedding. ITEM UNIT
22.06 EXTRA OVER ITEMS 22.03 METRE
22.04 AND 22.05 FOR (m)
ITEM UNIT CONSTRUCTING INCLINED CULVERTS
22.04 METAL CULVERTS: STEEPER THAN 1:4.

(a) SIZE, WALL THICKNESS AND TYPE METRE (m)


INDICATED The unit of measurement shall be the metre of culvert
installed at a grade steeper than 1:4 as specified in
(b) CUTTING OFF BEVELLED AND/ OR NUMBER (no) CLAUSE 2216.
SKEW ENDS (SIZE AND TYPE
INDICATED) The bid rate shall include full compensation for
(c) ANCHOR BOLTS NUMBER (no) additional or more difficult work of any nature in regard
to laying, excavating and backfilling as may be required
The unit of measurement shall be the metre of culvert for installing the culverts at a grade steeper than 1:4.
laid, the number of cuts made and the number of
anchor bolts installed as shown on the Drawings or
ordered by the Engineer. ITEM UNIT
22.07 CAST IN SITU CONCRETE AND
In the case of a metal pipe, the culvert length shall be FORM WORK:
measured along the pipe centre line. In the case of a (a) IN CLASS A BEDDING, SCREEDS AND CUBIC
metal pipe arch, the culvert length shall be measured THE ENCASING FOR PIPES, INCLUDING METRE
along the bottom of the pipe arch. In both cases, the FORMWORK, (CLASS OF CONCRETE
3
(m )
length of bevelled and/or skew ends shall be included. INDICATED)

The bid rates shall include full compensation for (b) IN FLOOR SLABS FOR PORTAL OR CUBIC
providing, testing, loading, transporting and off-loading RECTANGULAR CULVERTS, INCLUDING METRE
3
the culverts, for providing and placing fine-grained FORMWORK AND CLASS U2 SURFACE (m )
material where required for the installation of culverts, FINISH (CLASS OF CONCRETE
and for installing, laying and jointing the culverts as INDICATED)
specified. Upon payment, a differentiation shall be (c) IN INLET AND OUTLET STRUCTURES, CUBIC
made between the various types and sizes of culverts CATCHPITS, MANHOLES, THRUST AND METRE
3
and also between culverts with differing wall ANCHOR BLOCKS, EXCLUDING (m )
thicknesses. FORMWORK BUT INCLUDING CLASS
U2 SURFACE FINISH (CLASS OF
Payment shall be made separately for the cutting of CONCRETE INDICATED)
bevelled and/or skew ends, and the bid rate shall (d) FORMWORK OF CONCRETE UNDER SQUARE
include full compensation for all work in connection with SUBITEM 22.07 (a) ABOVE TYPE OF METRE
the cutting of ends. FINISH INDICATED)
2
(m )
The bid rate per anchor bolt shall include full (e) IN CONCRETE LININGS FOR THE CUBIC
compensation for procuring, providing and installing the INVERTS OF METAL CULVERTS, METRE
3
bolts. INCLUDING FORMWORK AND CLASS (m )
U2 SURFACE FINISH (CLASS OF
CONCRETE INDICATED)
ITEM UNIT
22.05 PORTAL AND RECTANGULAR Measurement of formwork and cast in situ concrete
CULVERTS: shall be as specified in SECTIONS 6200 and 6400.
(a) COMPLETE WITH PREFABRICATED METRE (m) Payment for formwork and cast in situ concrete shall be
FLOOR SLABS (SIZE AND TYPE made as provided in SECTIONS 6200 and 6400, except

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 2000 - 15


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 2000 - DRAINAGE

that payment for the formwork for concreting in The unit of measurement shall be the cubic metre of
SUBITEMS 22.07(a), (b) and (e) shall not be made existing concrete removed.
separately, and the Contractor’s rates for concrete shall
include full compensation therefor. The bid rates shall include full compensation for all
demolition and for loading, transporting and disposing
No separate payment shall be made for the of the products of demolition, including a free haul of
construction of joints in culvert floor slabs or at inlet and 1.0 km.
outlet structures, and the bid rates for concrete shall
include full compensation for forming the joints Payment shall distinguish between plain and reinforced
complete in accordance with the details shown on the concrete. For the purpose of this item, reinforced
Drawings. concrete shall be defined as concrete containing at
least 0.2% of steel reinforcement measured by volume.

ITEM UNIT The bid rates shall also include full compensation for
22.08 CONCRETE BACKFILL FOR CUBIC cutting straight grooves of the specified depth at joint
CULVERT (CLASS INDICATED)
3
METRE (m ) positions where shown on the Drawings.

The unit of measurement shall be the cubic metre of ITEM UNIT


concrete backfill. The quantity shall be calculated from
the dimensions of the excavation as specified or as may 22.13 REMOVING AND RE-LAYING METRE (m)
be authorised by the Engineer, minus the volume taken EXISTING PIPES (SIZE AND TYPE OF
up by the culverts, irrespective of whether the actual BEDDING INDICATED)
excavation to be backfilled exceeds the specified or
authorised dimensions. The unit of measurement shall be the metre of existing
pipe removed and re-laid.
Payment shall be made as for concrete in ITEM 22.07
(a) above. The bid rate shall include full compensation for lifting,
loading, transporting, off-loading, and laying pipes
according to the Specifications. No haulage will be paid.
ITEM UNIT
22.09 PREFABRICATED CONCRETE NUMBER Payment for any excavation and backfilling required for
INLETS AND OUTLETS TO CULVERTS (no) the removal and relaying of existing pipes shall be
(SIZE AND TYPE INDICATED) made separately under ITEMS 22.01 and 22.02.

Where existing pipes are loaded, transported and used


Prefabricated concrete inlets and outlets for concrete in diversions, they shall not be measured for payment
pipe culverts shall be measured per inlet or outlet, under this item, but payment therefor shall be made in
complete in position. terms of SECTION 1500.
The bid rate shall include full compensation for
procuring, providing, loading, transporting, off-loading ITEM UNIT
and installing the inlets or outlets as specified.
22.14 REMOVING AND STACKING METRE
EXISTING PREFABRICATED PIPES (m)
ITEM UNIT (ALL SIZES)
22.10 STEEL
REINFORCEMENT: The unit of measurement shall be the metre of existing
prefabricated culverts removed and stacked.
(a) MILD STEEL BARS TONNE (t)
(b) HIGH-TENSILE STEEL BARS TONNE (t) The bid rate shall include full compensation for lifting,
(c) WELDED STEEL FABRIC KILOGRAMME (kg) loading, transporting to stack, off-loading, and stacking
the prefabricated culverts.
Measurement and payment for steel reinforcement shall Payment for any excavation and backfilling required for
be made as specified in SECTION 6300. removing, transporting and stacking the existing
prefabricated culverts shall be made separately under
ITEMS 22.01 and 22.02. No haulage will be paid.
ITEM UNIT
22.11 DOWELS FOR JOINING OLD KILOGRAMME
AND NEW CONCRETE (kg) ITEM UNIT
22.15 TREATING SURFACES WITH LITRE (l)
The unit of measurement shall be the kilogram of steel EPOXY RESIN FOR JOINING NEW TO
dowels installed. OLD CONCRETE (TYPE OF EPOXY
RESIN SPECIFIED)
The bid rate shall include full compensation for
supplying all materials, all cutting, drilling and grouting, The unit of measurement shall be the litre of epoxyresin
and any other operation or item necessary for the compound used at the specified rate of application.
proper execution of the work.
The bid rate shall include full compensation for
providing and applying the epoxy-resin compound.
ITEM UNIT
22.12 REMOVING EXISTING
CONCRETE: ITEM UNIT
3
(a) PLAIN CONCRETE CUBIC METRE (m ) 22.16 PROTECTIVE MASTIC SQUARE
2
(b) REINFORCED CONCRETE CUBIC METRE (m
3
) ASPHALT COATING FOR METRE (m )
CORRUGATED METAL CULVERT
UNITS (STATE WHETHER TO BE

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 2000 - 16


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 2000 - DRAINAGE

APPLIED BY BRUSH OR BY ITEM UNIT


SPRAY GUN) 22.18 BRICKWORK:
2
(a) 115 mm THICK SQUARE METRE (m )
The unit of measurement shall be the square metre of 2
protective coating applied as specified and as directed (b) 230 mm THICK SQUARE METRE (m )
2
by the Engineer. When both inside and outside surfaces (c) 345 mm THICK SQUARE METRE (m )
are treated, both surfaces shall be measured.
The unit of measurement shall be the square metre of
The bid rate shall include full compensation for brickwork built, calculated from the leading dimensions
procuring and furnishing the mastic asphalt, applying of the brickwork. Areas in walls occupied by conduits,
the material, and for all other additional work and shall not be included in the areas measured, and
incidentals required for providing the protective coating corners and intersections common to more than one
as specified. brick wall shall be measured only once.
The bid rates per square metre shall include full
compensation for the brickwork complete as specified,
ITEM UNIT including pointing and the building in of conduits.
22.17 MANHOLES, CATCHPITS, PRECAST
INLET AND OUTLET STRUCTURES
COMPLETE: ITEM UNIT
2
(a) MANHOLES (TYPE INDICATED) NUMBER 22.19 PLASTER: SQUARE METRE (m )
(no)
(b) CATCHPITS (TYPE INDICATED) NUMBER The unit of measurement shall be the square metre of
(no) plaster work provided.
(c) PRECAST INLET AND OUTLET NUMBER
STRUCTURES (TYPE INDICATED) (no) The bid rate shall include full compensation for raking
(d) EXTRA OVER OR LESS THAN SUBITEM METRE out joints in the brick work and applying a 1:4 plaster,
22.17 (a) FOR VARIATIONS IN THE (m) as specified, to all surfaces where required.
DEPTHS OF MAN HOLES FROM THE
STANDARD DEPTH DESIGNATED FOR
BIDDING PURPOSES (STANDARD DEPTH ITEM UNIT
AND TYPE OF CATCHPIT INDICATED) 22.20 BENCHING: SQUARE METRE (m
2
)
(e) EXTRA OVER OR LESS THAN SUB ITEM METRE
22.17 (b) FOR VARIATIONS IN THE (m) The unit of measurement shall be the square metre of
DEPTHS OF CATCHPITS FROM THE benching, measured in plan, constructed in Class 20/19
STANDARD DEPTH DESIGNATED FOR concrete with granolithic rendering.
BIDDING PURPOSES (STANDARD DEPTH
AND TYPE OF CATCHPIT INDICATED) The bid rate shall include full compensation for
procuring and furnishing all materials, placing the
The unit of measurement, in the case of SUBITEMS (a), concrete benching and rendering with the specified
(b) and (c) above, shall be the complete unit as shown granolithic rendering.
on the Drawings, including all concrete, brickwork,
covers, frames, grids and other accessories.
The bid rates shall include full compensation for ITEM UNIT
procuring, furnishing and installing, and laying where 22.21 ACCESSORIES:
applicable, the complete units except for excavation
and backfilling, which shall be measured separately. (a) MANHOLE COVERS INCLUDING NUMBER
FRAMES (DESCRIPTION) (no)
The bid rate shall also include full compensation for
connecting up to and building any conduits into the (b) INLET GRIDS INCLUDING FRAMES NUMBER
walls of the various structures. (DESCRIPTION) (no)
(c) STEP IRONS (DESCRIPTION) NUMBER
The unit of measurement in the case of SUBITEMS (d) (no)
and (e) above shall be the metre of increased or (d) ETC. FOR OTHER ACCESSORIES NUMBER
decreased depth of the manhole or catchpit measured (no)
in relation to the standard depth furnished for bidding
purposes. The unit of measurement shall be the number of each
type of accessory delivered and installed.
The bid rates per metre shall be an adjustment to the
compensation for the standard item, payable either as The bid rates shall include full compensation for
an increased compensation to the Contractor in the procuring, furnishing and installing the accessories.
case of an increased depth, or as a decrease in
compensation in the case of a decreased depth in
relation to the standard depth. ITEM UNIT

Where the above items of work cannot be conveniently 22.22 ANCHORS FOR PIPES NUMBER
standardised for payment according to complete units, (DESCRIPTION) (no)
the various types of work and items of material provided
shall be measured separately in accordance with ITEMS The unit of measurement shall be the number of
22.18 to 22.21 and such other items as may be complete anchors installed, including straps, bolts, etc,
necessary. but excluding any concrete work, which shall be
measured under SUBITEMS 22.07(c) and (d).
Concrete and formwork shall be measured and paid for
under SUBITEMS 22.07 (c) and (d) respectively, The bid rate shall include full compensation for
excavation under ITEM 22.01 and backfilling under ITEM procuring, providing and installing the anchors.
22.02.

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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 2000 - DRAINAGE

ITEM UNIT The unit of measurement for SUBITEMS 22.26(a) to (d)


22.23 SERVICE DUCTS: shall be the square metre of the layer reinstated where
instructed by the Engineer.
(a) ORDINARY PIPES (TYPE AND METRE
DIAMETER INDICATED) (m) The unit of measurement for SUBITEM 22.26(e) shall be
(b) SPLIT PIPES (TYPE AND DIAMETER METRE the metre of kerbing replaced due to trench excavations
INDICATED) (m) where instructed by the Engineer.

The unit of measurement shall be a metre of service Any reinstatement required beyond the agreed or
duct laid. instructed dimensions owing to damage caused by the
Contractor will not be measured for payment.
The bid rates shall include full compensation for
procuring, providing, and laying the pipes, including end The appropriate Sections of the Specifications shall
stoppers, draw wires and complete installation, but shall also be applicable to the reinstatement of the trenches.
exclude excavation, backfilling, and encasing with
concrete, which shall be measured for payment under The bid rates shall include full compensation for
the appropriate items of payment of this Section. procuring, furnishing, placing, compacting and finishing
all materials, providing all labour and constructional
plant, cutting and preparing the edges of the existing
ITEM UNIT surfacing, and protecting and maintaining the
completed reinstatement as specified.
22.24 DUCT MARKER BLOCKS NUMBER
(TYPE INDICATED) (no)
ITEM UNIT
The unit of measurement shall be the number of marker 22.27 PREFABRICATED REINFORCED NUMBER
blocks installed, and the bid rate shall include full CONCRETE SKEW END UNITS FOR (no)
compensation for manufacturing, delivering and CONCRETE CULVERTS CONSTRUCTED
installing the marker blocks, complete as shown on the AT A SKEW ANGLE (TYPE AND
Drawings. DIMENSIONS OF UNIT AND CLASS OF
BEDDING INDICATED)

ITEM UNIT
The unit of measurement shall be the number of each
22.25 HAND EXCAVATION TO CUBIC
type and size of prefabricated reinforced-concrete skew
DETERMINE THE POSITIONS OF METRE
3 end unit provided and installed, irrespective of the angle
EXISTING SERVICES (m ) of skew.

The unit of measurement shall be the cubic metre of The bid rates shall include full compensation for
material excavated within the lengths and widths providing, testing, loading and unloading the units,
authorised by the Engineer and the depth required to constructing the prescribed class of bedding, and for
expose the service. Excavation in excess of the installing, laying and joining the units, complete as
authorised dimensions shall not be measured for specified and in accordance with the details shown on
payment. the Drawings.

The bid rate shall include full compensation for all


excavation, backfilling, compacting to 90% of BS-Heavy
density, disposing of any surplus excavated material,
keeping the excavations safe, dealing with any surface
or subsurface water, taking special care to ensure that
services are not damaged in any way and any other
operation necessary for completing the work. The bid
rate shall also include all haulage of material. Any
damage to a service caused by the Contractor shall be
repaired at his own costs, to the satisfaction of the
Owner of the service and the Engineer.

No distinction will be made between rock and soft


material, neither will distinction be made between the
various types of services to be exposed or the depths to
which excavations are taken.

ITEM UNIT
22.26 REINSTATING TRENCHES
CROSSING ROADS:
(a) IMPROVED SUBGRADE LAYERS SQUARE
2
METRE (m )
(b) SUBBASE LAYERS SQUARE
2
METRE (m )
(c) BASE COURSE LAYERS SQUARE
2
METRE (m )
(d) BITUMINOUS SURFACING SQUARE
2
INCLUDING TACK COAT) METRE (m )
(e) KERBING METRE (m)

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 2000 - 18


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 2000 - DRAINAGE

SERIES 2000: DRAINAGE in situ only, except that side slabs may be precast.
Downpipes shall be prefabricated units.

SECTION 2300: CONCRETE


2304 CONSTRUCTION
KERBING, CONCRETE
CHANNELLING, OPEN (a) Excavation, and preparation of bedding

CONCRETE CHUTES AND (i) Kerbs and channels


Trenches for kerbs and channels shall be
CONCRETE LININGS FOR OPEN excavated to the required depth and all unsuitable
material shall be removed and replaced with a layer
DRAINS of approved bedding material at least 75 mm thick.
The bedding shall be compacted and accurately
CONTENTS: shaped to the required grade. No concrete or
precast concrete unit shall be placed on
CLAUSE PAGE uncompacted or disturbed material.
2301 SCOPE 2000-19
2302 MATERIALS 2000-19 (ii) Concrete linings
2303 TYPES OF STRUCTURES 2000-19 The excavation work for open drains shall be
2304 CONSTRUCTION 2000-19 executed and paid for in accordance with the
2305 INLET AND OUTLET STRUCTURES AND provisions of SECTION 2100.
TRANSITION SECTIONS 2000-21
2306 CONSTRUCTION TOLERANCES AND The excavations shall then be neatly trimmed to the
SURFACE FINISH 2000-21 lines and levels specified so as to permit the
2307 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 2000-21 accurate construction of the concrete linings. All
loose material shall be compacted to a density of
not less than 90% of BS-Heavy density.

2301 SCOPE Where the in situ material is unsuitable, the


This Section covers the construction of concrete Engineer may order that it be removed to the
kerbing and channelling, open concrete chutes and required depth and replaced with selected material
concrete linings for open drains at the locations and to compacted to a density of 90% of BS-Heavy
the details as shown on the Drawings or as directed by density.
the Engineer.
Where excavations for open drains are in rock, over
break shall be backfilled as ordered, either with
2302 MATERIALS mass concrete or with selected natural gravel or soil
compacted to a BS-Heavy density of at least 90%.
(a) Concrete
All concrete work shall be carried out in accordance (iii) Chutes
with the requirements of SECTIONS 6200, 6300 and
Excavations for chutes shall be neatly trimmed. All
6400. loose material shall be thoroughly compacted, and
where overbreak occurs in rock material, the
(b) Kerbing and channelling
excavations shall be backfilled with mass concrete.
Prefabricated kerbing and channelling shall comply with If required by the Engineer, the excavations shall be
the requirements of SABS 927 or equivalent. Cast in taken deeper to accommodate a concrete screed
situ kerbing and channelling shall be of the class of
cast to act as a working platform for the
concrete indicated. construction of the chutes.
(c) Joint sealant
(b) Prefabricated concrete kerbing and channelling
− Cold-applied joint sealant shall be a two-part Prefabricated concrete kerbing and channelling shall be
polysulphide sealing compound conforming to the laid on the approved bedding with close joints filled with
requirements of BS 4254. 3:1 sand: cement mortar not exceeding 10mm in
− Polyurethane-based joint sealants shall comply with thickness and neatly pointed with a pointing trowel. The
the requirements of SABS 1077 or equivalent. exposed faces of kerbs and edging shall be constructed
− Silicone-based joint sealants shall comply with the true to line and elevation. Kerbing around curves shall
requirements of the Special Specifications. first be laid along the full curve length before the joints
are filled, unless otherwise allowed by the Engineer.
(d) Bedding material Kerbs shall be temporarily propped during construction.
The material on which concrete kerbs and channels are
to be bedded shall consist of crushed stone, cinders, Unless otherwise instructed by the Engineer,
slag, sand or other approved porous material with a prefabricated concrete kerb units shall be 1.0 m in
maximum particle size of 14mm. length, except at curves at road junctions, where they
shall be 0.3 m in length.
Concrete may also be prescribed as bedding material,
in which case it shall comply with the requirements of Prefabricated concrete kerbs shall be laid with a Class
SECTION 6400. 1:4:8/25 cast in situ concrete support behind the kerbs
in accordance with the details shown on the Drawings.
2303 TYPES OF STRUCTURES
Kerbing shall include barrier kerbs, mountable and (c) Prefabricated concrete chutes on side slopes of
semi-mountable types. All these elements may be fills and cuts
prefabricated units or constructed in a continuous Prefabricated concrete chutes shall be manufactured in
operation using slipforms. Channelling may be cast in accordance with the dimensions shown on the
situ, prefabricated units or else of slipform construction. Drawings, and the units shall fit neatly into each other
Chutes may be either prefabricated units or cast in situ, as shown. The bottom unit shall rest against the outlet
and the concrete lining of open channels shall be cast structure or footing as shown on the Drawings.

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 2000 - 19


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 2000 - DRAINAGE

The units shall be laid true to line and grade from the of pure bitumen by mass, or with an approved anti-
bottom up so that each unit fits neatly into the previous adhesive before any adjoining slabs are cast.
one.
Expansion joints shall be made in accordance with the
A transition section shall be constructed at the inlet to Drawings.
lead the water into the chute as shown on the
Drawings. Where required, the surfaces on which concrete lining
is to be cast shall, after having been trimmed, be
(d) Slip – form kerbing covered with polyethylene sheeting 0.15 mm thick and
Slip-form kerbs and channels shall be placed on an all joints in the sheeting shall be overlapped by at least
approved bedding by a continuous process with an 150 mm.
approved machine. Contraction joints shall be sawn at
intervals shown on the Drawings or prescribed by the (h) Backfilling
Engineer in a manner so as not to cause the concrete After completing the concrete work, the spaces at the
to spall at the joint. The concrete shall be cured in backs of kerbs shall be backfilled with approved
accordance with the requirements of CLAUSE 6409. material to pavement or road shoulder level. Spaces
adjoining chutes shall be backfilled level with the side
The kerbs and channels shall be constructed true to line slope. Such backfill shall be placed in layers not
and elevation and shall have a neat appearance. exceeding 150 mm, or less as required, and each layer
Where transverse cracks occur, the Contractor shall shall be compacted to 90% of BS-Heavy density at or
replace the entire section between the contraction joints around optimum moisture content before the
at his own cost. succeeding layer is placed thereon.

(e) Cast in situ kerbs and channels Where kerbs and channels are laid after construction of
Forms for kerbs and channels shall be accurately set to the base, the spaces between the concrete and
line and elevation and shall be firmly held in position adjoining base shall be backfilled with premixed
during the placing of the concrete. Stops and jointing bituminous material.
material at the ends of sections shall be accurately
placed so as to ensure that joints between adjacent (i) Construction sequence
sections are truly perpendicular to the surface of the
concrete and at right angles to the edge of the road. (i) Where kerbs and channelling are constructed
before the base course:
After concrete has been placed in the forms, it shall be In this case, slip-form units or cast in situ units may
tamped and worked until mortar entirely covers any be constructed. During working and constructing
exposed faces. Exposed faces shall then be finished to the base, precautionary measures shall be taken to
smooth and even surfaces and edges shall be rounded prevent the concrete work from being damaged or
to the radii shown on the Drawings. shifted.

Forms shall be removed from any concrete surface that (ii) Where kerbs and channelling are constructed after
will be exposed, within a period of 24 hours of the the base course:
concrete having been placed. Minor defects shall be The base shall be constructed wider than the
repaired with a 2:1 sand: cement mortar. Plastering specified width, after which a neat trench shall be
shall not be permitted on exposed faces and all rejected dug for the kerbing or channelling. Any over-
portions shall be removed and replaced at the excavation shall be filled with concrete cast
Contractor’s expense. When completed, the sections simultaneously with the kerbs and channelling.
shall be cured in accordance with the requirements
specified in CLAUSE 6409. (iii) Where kerbs and channelling are constructed after
the asphalt surfacing:
The completed kerbs and channels shall be true to line The asphalt surfacing shall be constructed wider
and elevation and shall have an even and neat than the specified width and shall be cut back
appearance. accurately with a mechanical saw to a marked line
to give a neat joint line between the kerbs or
(f) Cast in situ chutes on cut slopes channelling and the asphalt layer. The base shall
Cast in situ concrete chutes on cut slopes, together with then be removed to the required depth.
the inlet and outlet structures, shall be constructed in
accordance with the Drawings. The class of concrete Any concrete spilt onto the asphalt surface shall be
shall be as indicated on the Drawings. removed. Where so required by the Engineer, the
Contractor shall, without any additional
Where required by the Engineer, a concrete screed compensation paint emulsion over the stained
shall first be cast on excavations that cannot be surface.
trimmed accurately. The screed shall be accurately
finished to the level of the underside of the chute floor (j) Protection
slab and allowed to set before the floor slab is cast. During transporting and laying care shall be taken to
Where the material being excavated cannot be protect all precast units against chipping or breakage.
accurately trimmed or where the chute sides have to
extend above the surface of cut slopes, the outer faces Concrete kerbing and channelling as well as any other
of the sides shall be cast against formwork. structures adjacent to the road shall be protected
against staining by bitumen being sprayed or premix
(g) Concrete-lined open drains being placed. Where bitumen is to be sprayed, all such
The exposed surfaces of the concrete linings of open work shall be completely covered with polyethylene
drains shall be given a Class U2 surface finish as sheeting at least 0.25 mm thick, specially reinforced
defined in CLAUSE 6209. Concrete shall be cured in paper or other approved material, properly secured to
accordance with the requirements of CLAUSE 6409. prevent the sheeting from lifting during windy
conditions. Any work stained by bitumen shall be
Sealed joints in concrete shall be in accordance with broken down and replaced, unless all such bitumen is
the details indicated on the Drawings and the provisions completely removed so as not to show any stains.
of SECTION 6600. Cold joints shall be painted with a Painting over stained concrete is strictly prohibited.
coat of approved bituminous emulsion containing 60%

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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 2000 - DRAINAGE

(k) Cutting existing bituminous surfacing and All cross–sectional dimensions shall be within 6 mm
pavement layers of the specified dimensions except that the
Where the Engineer instructs kerbing, channelling or underside of channelling may extend up to 25 mm
concrete – lined drains to be constructed against below the level at which it would have the required
existing bituminous surfacing, the full depth of the thickness.
bituminous surfacing, and the base and subbase if
necessary, shall be accurately cut with a mechanical (b) Concrete – lined opens drains and concrete
saw to the required line before the kerbing, channelling chutes
or concrete- lined drain is constructed. The edge shall Concrete – lined opens drains and concrete chutes
be vertical for kerbing and channelling. The concrete shall be constructed to within the following tolerances:
shall then be placed directly against the cut edge
without formwork. All material outside the cut edge shall (i) Horizontal alignment
be removed to the required depth before the concrete is The maximum deviation from the true position of
placed. The debris shall be disposed of at a dumping the edges or centre line shall be 25 mm.
site to be provided by the Contractor subject to the
approval of the Engineer. The bituminous surfacing (ii) Vertical alignment
shall be protected and kept clean to the Engineer’s The invert level of concrete lined open channels
satisfaction. shall nowhere deviated by more than 25 mm from
the required level and nowhere shall the open drain
2305 INLET AND OUTLET STRUCTURES AND inverts have an adverse grade.
TRANSITION SECTIONS
(iii) Trueness of exposed surface
Transition sections on kerbing, kerbing-channelling
When tested with a 3 m straight edge, no exposed
combinations and concrete- lined open drains shall be
surface shall show surface irregularities exceeding
constructed to the same standards and by the same
10 mm.
methods as described for the uniform sections, but with
the required modifications. Sections may be either
(iv) Cross – sectional dimensions
precast or cast in situ units.
All cross-sectional dimensions shall be within 10
mm of the specified dimensions and the average
Inlet and outlet structures may be either precast or
thickness of a floor or side slab shall not be less
partially precast concrete units or of cast in situ
than the specified thickness when considering any
concrete.
complete slab or slab sections with a surface area
2
of 10 m or more, and disregarding a thickness
Where shown on the Drawings or instructed by the
exceeding 10 mm of the specified thickness.
Engineer, the Contractor shall supply and install in the
outlet structures energy dissipaters consisting of
(c) Surface finish
prefabricated reinforced concrete blocks of Class 20/19
All unformed exposed concrete surfaces shall have a
concrete of the dimensions shown on the Drawings or
Class U2 surface finish and all formed exposed
listed in the Bill of Quantities. All concrete work shall
concrete surfaces shall have a Class F2 surface finish
comply with the requirements of SERIES 6000.
as defined in CLAUSE 6209.
Components such as grids, covers and frames shall be 2307 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT
in accordance with the details shown on the Drawings
and the requirements of SUBCLAUSE 2212 (e). ITEM UNIT
23.01 CONCRETE KERBING (CLASS
OF CONCRETE INDICATED FOR CAST
2306 CONSTRUCTION TOLERANCES AND IN SITU CONCRETE):
SURFACE FINISH (a) (DESCRIPTION OF TYPE WITH METRE (m)
REFERENCE OF DRAWING)
(a) Concrete kerbing and channelling (b) ETC FOR OTHER TYPES METRE (m)
Concrete kerbing and channelling shall be constructed
to within the following dimensional and alignment
tolerances:
ITEM UNIT
(i) Horizontal alignment 23.02 CONCRETE KERBING –
The maximum deviation of edges, centre line, or CHANNELLING COMBINATION (CLASS
vertical surfaces from the specified position shall be OF CONCRETE INDICATED FOR CAST
25 mm. IN SITU CONCRETE):
(a) (DESCRIPTION OF TYPE WITH METRE (m)
Further to the above, the maximum deviation of REFERENCE OF DRAWING)
edges, centre line or vertical surfaces from the
(b) ETC FOR OTHER TYPES METRE (m)
specified alignment, shall be 1:500 when taken over
any section exceeding 10m in length.
The unit of measurement shall be the metre of concrete
(ii) Vertical alignment and level kerbing, or a combination kerbing and channelling,
The inside edge of channelling shall nowhere be complete as constructed, measured along the front face
above the finished road nor more than 10 mm of the kerb.
below the finished road level. The invert level of
channels and open drains and the top of kerbing The bid for each metre of concrete kerbing and/or
shall nowhere deviate by more than 10 mm from kerbing channeling combination shall include full
the required level and nowhere shall channels or compensation for the necessary excavation and
drains have adverse grade. preparation of bedding, backfilling, formwork, finishing
and for procuring, furnishing and installing all materials,
(iii) Trueness of exposed surfaces kerbing and channeling and protecting it against
When tested with a 3 m straight – edge, no surface staining, supporting the kerbs with in situ cast concrete
irregularities shall exceed 6 mm. and filling and painting all joints, all complete as
specified.
(iv) Crossectional dimensions

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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 2000 - DRAINAGE

ITEM UNIT of which shall be deemed to be included in the rates bid


23.03 CONCRETE CHUTES (TYPICAL for concrete.
DESIGNS ):
The unit of measurement for other components such as
(a) (DESCRIPTIONS OF TYPE WITH METRE (m) grids shall be number of each type of component
REFERENCE TO DRAWING. STATE installed. The bid rates shall include full compensation
WHETHER PREFABRICATED OR CAST for procuring, furnishing and installing the components,
IN SITU AND CLASS OF CONCRETE including any painting or protective coating required in
(b) ETC FOR OTHER TYPES METRE (m) the Special Specifications or as shown on the
Drawings.
The unit of measurement shall be the metre of
completed chute as constructed, including any overlap
measured along the slope as laid but excluding ITEM UNIT
transition sections and inlet and outlet structures 23.07 TRIMMING OF
measured separately. EXCAVATIONS FOR CONCRETE-
LINED OPEN DRAINS:
The bid rate per metre shall include full compensation (a) IN SOFT MATERIAL AS DEFINED IN SQUARE
for procuring, furnishing and installing the completed CLAUSE 3603
2
METRE (m )
chutes as specified and all excavation and the
preparation of bedding, backfilling, formwork and (b) IN ROCK AS DEFINED IN CLAUSE SQUARE
2
finishing required. 3603 METRE (m )

The unit of measurement shall be the square metre of


ITEM UNIT excavation trimmed to receive concrete lining.
23.04 CAST IN SITU CONCRETE
CHUTES (MEASURED BY The bid rates shall include full compensation for all
COMPONENTS): labour, plant, material and other additional work and
incidentals necessary for trimming the excavations for
(a) CONCRETE (CLASS INDICATED ) CUBIC METRE open drains to the standard of finish required for the
3
(m ) construction of concrete linings. All excavation,
(b) FORMWORK (SURFACE FINISH SQUARE including the removal of unsuitable ground and
2
INDICATED ) METRE (m ) backfilling with suitable material, shall be measured and
paid for under SECTION 2100. Payment shall distinguish
Measurement and payment for formwork and concrete between trimming in soft material and trimming in rock
shall be as specified in SECTIONS 6200 and 6400 except material as defined in SECTION 2105. No extra payment
that payment for excavation and gravel or soil shall be made in respect of any soil or gravel backfilling,
backfilling shall be deemed to be include in the rates bid additional concrete or mass – concrete backfilling
for concrete and shall not be measured and paid for required on account of overbreak or unavoidable
separately. unevenness of the excavations in difficult ground, the
cost of which shall be deemed to be included in the bid
rates for trimming in rock material.
ITEM UNIT
23.05 INLET , OUTLET, TRANSITION
AND SIMILAR STRUCTURES (TYPICAL ITEM UNIT
DESIGNS): 23.08 CONCRETE LINING FOR
(a) (DESCRIPTION OF STRUCTURE, NUMBER (no) OPENS DRAINS:
TYPE, ETC, WITH REFERENCE TO (a) CAST IN SITU CONCRETE LINING CUBIC METRE
3
DRAWING AND CLASS OF (CLASS OF CONCRETE AND TYPE (m )
CONCRETE) OF OPEN DRAIN INDICATED)
(b) ETC FOR OTHER TYPES NUMBER (no) (b) CLASS U2 SURFACE FINISH TO SQUARE
2
CAST IN SITU CONCRETE (TYPE OF METRE (m )
The unit of measurement and payment shall be the OPEN DRAIN INDICATED )
number of completed units of each type of structure
constructed, and payment shall include full Measurement of and payment for concrete shall be as
compensation for all formwork, concrete, excavation, specified in SECTION 6400, but the bid rate shall include
trimming and backfilling, including such accessories as full compensation for painting open joint surface as
grids, etc as may be specified on the Drawings. specified.

The unit of measurement for surface shall be the


ITEM UNIT square metre of finished surface.
23.06 INLET, OUTLET,
TRANSITION AND SIMILAR The bid rate for surface finish shall include full
STRUCTURES (MEASURED BY compensation for all labour, plant, material and other
COMPONENTS): additional work and incidentals required for trimming the
concrete lining specified.
(a) CONCRETE (CLASS INDICATED) CUBIC METRE
3
(m ) ITEM UNIT
(b) FORMWORK (SURFACE FINISH SQUARE
INDICATED )
2
METRE (m ) 23.09 FORMWORK TO CAST IN SITU
CONCRETE LINING FOR OPEN DRAINS
(c) OTHER COMPONENTS NUMBER (no)
(CLASS F2 SURFACE FINISH):
(a) TO SIDES WITH FORMWORK ON THE SQUARE
The measurement and payment for formwork and INTERNAL FACE ONLY
2
METRE (m )
concrete shall be as specified in SECTIONS 6200 and
6400, except that excavation, trimming and backfilling (b) TO SIDES WITH FORMWORK ON SQUARE
2
shall not be measured and paid for separately, the cost BOTH INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL METRE (m )
FACES (EACH FACE MEASURED)

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 2000 - 22


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 2000 - DRAINAGE

(c) TO ENDS OF SLABS SQUARE The various layers shall not be measured separately for
2
METRE (m ) payment.

Measurement of and payment for formwork shall be as The bid rate shall include full compensation for all
specified in SECTION 6200. Formwork under SUBITEM labour, constructional plant and materials required for
23.09(a) shall be measured and paid for only when the cutting the surfacing and pavement layers to the
side slope of the slabs exceeds 1:2 and the slabs required depth, removing and disposing of the debris
cannot be constructed without formwork even when a and protecting and keeping the surfacing clean, all as
stiff concrete mix is used. When the Contractor elects to specified.
use precast side slabs, payment will be made for
formwork as if cast in situ concrete had been used.
ITEM UNIT
23.15 PRECAST CONCRETE NUMBER
ITEM UNIT BLOCKS IN OUTLET STRUCTURES (no)
23.10 SEALED JOINTS IN CONCRETE METRE
LININGS OF OPEN DRAINS (m) The unit of measurement shall be the number of
(DESCRIPTION OF TYPE WITH precast concrete blocks provided and installed as
REFERENCES TO DRAWING) shown on the Drawings or directed by the Engineer.

The unit of measurement shall be the metre of


completed joint of each size and type.
The bid rate shall include full compensation for the
supply of all materials and for all labour, formwork and
incidentals necessary for sealing the joint as shown on
the Drawings or set out in the Special Specifications.

ITEM UNIT
23.11 CONCRETE SCREED OR CUBIC
BACKFILL BELOW CHUTES (CLASS OF METRE
3
CONCRETE INDICATED) (m )

The unit of measurement shall be the cubic metre of


concrete screed or backfill as may be instructed by the
Engineer to be placed below chutes.

The bid rate shall include full compensation for


furnishing, procuring and placing the concrete in screed
or backfill.

ITEM UNIT
23.12 STEEL REINFORCEMENT:
(a) MILD STEEL BARS TONNE (t)
(b) HIGH TENSILE STEEL BARS TONNE (t)
(c) WELDED STEEL FABRIC TONNE (t)

Measurement and payment shall be in accordance with


the provisions of SECTION 6300.

ITEM UNIT
23.13 POLYETHYLENE SHEETING SQUARE
2
(0.15 mm THICK ) FOR CONCRETE- METRE (m )
LINED OPEN DRAINS

The unit of measurement shall be the square metre of


area covered with polyethylene sheeting.

The bid rate shall include full compensation for


procuring, furnishing and installing the polyethylene
sheeting, including wastage and overlap.

ITEM UNIT
23.14 CUTTING BITUMINOUS METRE (m)
PAVEMENT LAYERS FOR CONCRETE
KERBING, CHANNELLING OR
CONCRETE-LINED DRAINS

The unit of measurement shall be the metre of


bituminous surfacing and pavement layers cut where
instructed by the Engineer, irrespective of the depth cut.

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 2000 - 23


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 2000 - DRAINAGE

SERIES 2000: DRAINAGE The composition of the asphalt mix shall in all cases be
subject to the prior approval of the Engineer.

SECTION 2400: ASPHALT AND (b) Mixing plant


The mixing plant shall be in accordance with the
CONCRETE BERMS requirements of CLAUSE 4204.

(c) Mixing, transporting and placing


CONTENTS:
Asphalt with penetration – grade bitumen shall be
CLAUSE PAGE mixed, transported and placed in accordance with the
2401 SCOPE 2000-24 requirements of SECTION 4200, and asphalt with mix-
2402 MATERIALS 2000-24 grade bitumen emulsion in accordance with the
2403 COMPOUNDING, MIXING AND requirements of the Special Specification.
TRANSPORTING ASPHALT MIXES 2000-24
2404 PREPARING THE BERM FOUNDATION 2000-24 2404 PREPARING THE BERM FOUNDATION
2405 PLACING 2000-24 If shown on the Drawings, the prime coat sprayed onto
2406 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 2000-25 the base and shoulders shall extend over a wider area
to allow space for the berms to be placed.

Where the Engineer so instruct that berms shall be


2401 SCOPE constructed, the specified width of the base projecting
This Section covers the construction of asphalt or beyond the sides of the paved shoulders shall be
concrete berms at outer edge of paved shoulders. thoroughly cleaned. The shoulder material adjacent to
Berms shall be cast in situ in moulds or by means of a the base shall be compacted and trimmed to the upper
suitable machine to the dimensions shown on the level of the base and all loose material removed.
Drawings or as directed by the Engineer.
A prime coat consisting of 30% bitumen-emulsion shall
2
be applied at a rate of 0.40 l/m onto that part of the
berm foundation falling outside the paved surface of the
2402 MATERIALS road. In the case of asphalt berms, a tack of 0.40 l/m
2

over the entire berm foundation. The tack coat shall be


(a) Bituminous binder
left to break before the berm is placed.
Bituminous binder shall be a penetration –grade
bitumen or a mix- grade bituminous emulsion as may
be prescribed by the Engineer. Spray – grade emulsion 2405 PLACING
may be used as primer and tack coat. When the berms are placed, proper care shall be taken
at all times to ensure that the toe of the berm does not
The various bituminous materials shall comply with the encroach on the side of the carriageway or shoulder by
following specifications: more than 25 mm.
− Penetration- grade bitumen: AASHTO M20-70
or equivalent (a) Placing by hand
− The mixture shall be placed and shaped in situ in a rigid
Bituminous emulsions: AASHTO M140-88
and M208-96 or equivalent portable mould to form a trapezoidal kerb of the
dimensions indicated on the Drawings.
(b) Asphalt
Asphalt containing penetration- grade bitumen shall In the case of asphalt berms the mixture shall be
thoroughly compacted to form a hard unyielding berm,
comply with the requirements of SECTION 4200. The
aggregate grading shall lie between the limits indicated true to level shape and line with the specified
in TABLE 4202/3 for a fine continuously graded mix. tolerances. The moulds may be removed as soon as
the material has cooled to air temperature, or in the
The material of asphalt which contains mix –grade case of a cold asphalt mix as soon as it has hardened.
bitumen emulsion shall comply with the requirements of
(b) Placing by machine
the Special Specification.
A machine of approved design may be used for placing
The grading of the aggregate shall be subject to the the berm. In general, machine- placed work will not
prior approval of the Engineer. require any additional compaction. In areas where, in
the opinion of the Engineer, the compaction is
(c) Concrete inadequate, the machine shall be weighted with
All concrete work shall be carried out in accordance additional mass, or other measures shall be taken to
with the details shown on the Drawings and the ensure that adequate compaction is obtained.
requirements of SECTIONS 6200 and 6400.
(c) Placing under guardrails
Should the berm be placed first, the holes for the
guardrail posts shall be excavated with care to prevent
2403 COMPOUNDING, MIXING AND damage being done to the berm. Where chutes are
TRANSPORTING ASPHALT MIXES required against fills, the berm shall be discontinued for
the width of the top of the chute and finished to form a
(a) Compounding the mixtures proper inlet for the water into the chute, as indicated on
Asphalt containing penetration grade bitumen shall the Drawings.
contain by mass of the dry aggregate, 7% by total
weight of 60/70 or 80/100 penetration grade bitumen or (d) General requirements
as specified, and 1% of active filler. The berms shall be placed true to level, shape and line.
All berms deviating more than 10 mm from the specified
Asphalt containing mix- grade bitumen emulsion shall line when measured at the inner edge of either their
contain by mass of the dry aggregate, 7% of net crests or their bases, or of which the height or width,
bitumen. The asphalt mix shall be in accordance with measured at the crest, varies by more than 5mm from
the requirements of the Special Specifications. the specified height or width, will be rejected and shall

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 2000 - 24


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 2000 - DRAINAGE

be removed and replaced at the Contractor’s own Payment shall be made under this item for the coat if,
expenses. as instructed by the Engineer, it is applied in a separate
strip independently from the prime coat of the road or
The surface of concrete berms placed by machine, and shoulder surface.
all unformed surface, shall be given a Class U2 finish,
and formed surfaces a Class F2 finish. Joints shall be If applied as an integral part of the prime coat of the
provided at 3 m intervals in all concrete berms either by road or shoulder surface by the prime coat being
casting in alternate sections or by cutting machined- sprayed over a wider area to provide space for the
placed sections. All such joints shall be neatly formed berms, payment for the prime coat will not be made
and finished so as not to leave any irregularities or under this item.
loose concrete at the joints.

ITEM UNIT
2406 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 24.04 TRANSITION SECTIONS FOR NUMBER
NEW JERSEY TYPE OF RAILS) (no)
ITEM UNIT
24.01 ASPHALT BERMS: The unit of measurement shall be the number of
(a) PLACED WHERE THERE ARE NO METRE (m) completed asphalt transition sections constructed to the
GUARDRAILS (TYPES OF ASPHALT AND details shown on the Drawings.
BINDER INDICATED)
The bid rate shall include full compensation for
(b) PLACED AT EXISTING GUARDRAILS METRE (m)
procuring, providing, mixing and placing all material and
(TYPES OF ASPHALT AND BINDER for all labour, formwork and incidentals required for
INDICATED)
constructing complete transition sections as specified.

The unit of measurement shall be the metre of asphalt


berm placed as specified.

The bid rates shall include full compensation for


procuring, furnishing, mixing and placing the material
and all other work necessary for completing the asphalt
berms as specified.

The prime and tack coats shall be paid for under ITEM
24.03.

ITEM UNIT
24.02 CONCRETE BERMS:
(a) PLACED WHERE THERE ARE NO METRE (m)
GUARDRAILS (CLASS OF CONCRETE
INDICATED)
(b) PLACED AT EXISTING GUARDRAILS METRE (m)
(CLASS OF CONCRETE INDICATED)

The unit of measurement shall be the metre of concrete


berm placed as specified.

The bid rates shall include full compensation for


procuring, furnishing, mixing and placing the material
and all other work necessary for completing the
concrete berms as specified. The prime coat shall be
paid for under ITEM 24.03

ITEM UNIT
24.03 PRIME AND TACK COATS:
(a) PRIME COAT:
(i) UNDER ASPHALT BERMS SQUARE
2
(PRIME INDICATED) METRE (m )
(ii) UNDER CONCRETE BERMS SQUARE
2
(PRIME INDICATED ) METRE (m )
(b) TACK COAT (TYPE INDICATED) SQUARE
2
METRE (m )

The unit of measurement shall be the square metre of


completed prime coat or tack coat applied in
accordance with the Specifications.

The bid rates shall include full compensation for


procuring and providing all material and for mixing and
applying the adhesive and primer complete as
specified, including cleaning, compacting and trimming
the coat being primed.

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 2000 - 25


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 2000 - DRAINAGE

SERIES 2000: DRAINAGE (c) Sand

(i) Sand for concrete


SECTION 2500: PITCHING, Sand for concrete, cement slurry and cement
mortar shall comply with the relevant requirements
STONEWORK AND PROTECTION of SUBCLAUSE 6402(b) subject to testing in
accordance with the relevant CML test methods.
AGAINST EROSION
(ii) Sand bedding
CONTENTS: Sand for bedding used for paving blocks shall not
contain any deleterious impurities and shall comply
CLAUSE PAGE
with the grading requirements in TABLE 2502/ 1
2501 SCOPE 2000-26
2502 MATERIALS 2000-26
2503 STONE PITCHING 2000-27 TABLE 2502/1
2504 RIPRAP 2000-27 GRADING REQUIREMENTS FOR BEDDING SAND
2505 STONE MASONRY W ALLS 2000-28
2506 SEGMENTAL BLOCK PAVING 2000-28 Sieve size (mm) % Passing
2507 CAST IN SITU CONCRETE PITCHING 2000-29 10 100
2508 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 2000-29 5 95-100
2.36 80-100
1.18 50-85
0.600 25-60
2501 SCOPE 0.300 10-30
This Section covers the furnishing of materials and the 0.150 5-15
construction of a protective covering in stone pitching, 0.075 0-10
cast in situ concrete pitching, bricks or prefabricated
concrete blocks on exposed surfaces such as earth (iii) Sand for joints
slopes, drains and stream beds, as well as heavier Sand used for being brushed into the joints
protective layers in the form of riprap and the between pavement blocks shall all pass through a
construction of stone masonry for walls , all as shown 1.18 mm sieve, and between 10 and 15% of it shall
on the Drawings or ordered by the Engineer. pass through a 0.075 mm sieve.

(d) Paving blocks


2502 MATERIALS Paving blocks shall comply with the requirements of
SABS 1058 or equivalent for Class 25 paving blocks
(a) Stone where paving blocks are made from concrete, and
bricks used as paving blocks shall be facebrick units
(i) Pitching which shall comply with the requirements of SABS 227
Stone for pitching shall be sound, tough and or equivalent. Engineering units may also be used
durable, without any stones less than 200 mm in instead of facebrick units.
minimum dimension, except that smaller pieces or
spalls may be used for filling spaces between the The surface texture and colour of all units shall be
large stones. The shapes of the rocks or stones uniform.
shall be so as to form a stable protective layer of
the required thickness. Rounded boulders shall not Paving blocks for sidewalks shall be square
be used on slopes steeper than 2:1 unless grouted. prefabricated concrete blocks, 450mm x 450 mm x 50
mm in size and fabricated from Class 30 concrete. As to
All stone intended for use on a particular pitching appearance, the blocks shall comply with the
job shall be subjected to the prior approval of the requirements of Clause 3.3 of SABS 927 or equivalent.
Engineer. The upper surface shall have an approved pattern to
provide proper skid resistance.
(ii) Riprap
Stone for riprap shall be hard field or quarry stone Concrete grass blocks shall consist of concrete slabs of
not susceptible to disintegration or excessive the dimensions shown on the Drawings, with openings
weathering on exposure to the atmosphere or through the slab totalling at least 20% of the surface
water. It shall be free from soft material such as area.
sand, clay, shale or organic material and shall not
contain an excessive quantity of elongated stones. (e) Concrete
Concrete work shall be carried out in accordance with
The required size of the stone will depend on the provision of SECTION 6200, 6300 and 6400.
“critical mass” specified. At least 50% by mass of
the material comprising the riprap shall consist of (f) Wire
stones with a mass heavier than the critical mass, Wire for pitching kept in position by wires shall consist
and not more than 10% by mass of the material of 4 mm diameter galvanised wire, which complies with
shall consist of stones with a mass of less than 10% the requirements of SABS 675 or equivalent.
of the critical mass or more than 5 times the critical
mass. (g) Permeable material for filter layer
Permeable material for filter layers shall comply with the
(b) Cement requirements specified for permeable material for
Cement shall be ordinary Portland cement complying subsoil drains in CLAUSE 2104.
with the requirements of TZS 177:1999, BS 12 of the
latest issue or equivalent standard on approval of the (h) Geotextile fabric
Engineer. Synthetic- fibre filter fabric shall be of the grade and
type specified in the Bill of Quantities or Special
Specifications and shall comply with the requirements
of CLAUSE 3605.

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 2000 - 26


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 2000 - DRAINAGE

2503 STONE PITCHING Where required, weep holes shall be formed in the
pitching.
(a) Plain stone pitching
The area shall be prepared by excavating, shaping and (c) Wired and grouted stone pitching
trimming necessary for pitching and by thoroughly The area to be pitched shall be prepared as described
compacting the area by hand ramming to prevent in SUBCLAUSES 2503(a) and 2503(b) concrete bed
subsequent settlement. A trench shall be excavated as (Class 15 concrete) with a thickness of at least 75 mm
directed by the Engineer along the toe of any slopes to shall then be placed. The stone pitching shall be of
be pitched or along the unprotected edge of the pitching stones with a minimum dimension of 200 mm, which
in the beds of streams. Two pitching methods follow, shall be laid while the concrete is still fresh. Openings
and the method to be adopted shall be decided on by between stones shall be filled with cement grout as
the Engineer. described in SUBCLAUSE 2503(b), and care shall be
taken not to spill the grout onto the finally exposed
(i) Method 1 surfaces of the stones. Grout spilt onto the exposed
Commencing at the bottom of the trench, the stones surface of the stone shall be removed while still soft and
shall be laid and firmly bedded into the slope and the joints between stones shall be neatly finished.
against adjoining stones. The stones shall be laid
with their longitudinal axes at right angles to the Curing shall be done as described for grouted stone
slope and with staggered joints. The stones shall be pitching in SUBCLAUSE 2503(b).
well rammed into the bank or surface to be
protected and the spaces between the larger stones The completed pitching shall have an even compacted
shall be filled with spalls of approved pitching stone appearance and nowhere may the surface deviate by
securely rammed into place. more than 25 mm from the specified lines and grades.

Placing of rock by dumping shall not be allowed.


2504 RIPRAP
(ii) Method 2
The technique and requirements laid down in (a) General
Method 1 shall also apply to Method 2, except in Riprap shall consist of a course of large rock placed on
the following aspects: bank slopes and toes in stream and river beds and at
other localities where protection of this type may be
(1) No small stones or spalls shall be used to fill in required.
spaces between larger stones.
Two types of riprap are specified here, viz. one type
(2) Simultaneously with the placing of stones, top where the rocks are individually packed, which is
soil shall be introduced between individual designated as packed riprap, and the other type where
stones, and sufficiently rammed so as to the rock is dumped and then spread by machines,
provide a firm bonded structure. The topsoil which is designated as dumped riprap.
shall be provided to the full depth of the stone
pitching at any point. The surface of areas to receive riprap shall be neatly
trimmed to line and level and all loose material
(3) Rooted grass or tufts of grass shall then be compacted. The perimeters of riprap areas shall be
planted in the soil between stones and watered protected by the construction of either rock- filled
immediately and copiously and thereafter at trenches, walls or other structures as may be required.
regular intervals until the grass has been Perimeter trenches shall normally be backfilled with
established. rock of the same size and quality as that used in the
construction of the adjoining riprap, but any voids shall
Whichever of the above two methods is adopted, be filled with similar stone and the entire backfill shall
the finished surface of the pitching shall present an be well compacted.
even, tight and neat appearance with no stones
varying by more than 25 mm from the specified (b) Filter bed
surface grades or lines. The thickness of the The filter bed shall consist of a layer or layers of
pitching, measured at right angles to the surface, permeable material placed on the prepared surface to
shall not be less than 200 mm. the required thickness and each layer shall be finished
to an even surface and thickness. Compaction of
(b) Grouted stone pitching pervious material will not be required. Care shall be
The work shall be done in accordance with all the taken not mix various grades of filter material nor to
requirements specified for plain pitching in SUBCLAUSE disturb material already placed when subsequent layers
2503(a) above, except that the stone shall be or riprap are being placed.
thoroughly cleaned of adhering dirt or clay, moistened
and embedded in freshly laid cement mortar composed When the use of synthetic- fibre filter fabric is required,
of one part of cement to six parts of sand. Any spaces the material shall be placed on the prepared surface on
between the stones shall be filled with cement grout of the filter bed, depending on the instructions. The
the same composition as the mortar. The mortar and overlap between adjacent sheets shall be 150 mm
the grout shall be placed in a continuous operation for unless otherwise specified. Care shall be taken not to
any days run at any one location. The grout shall be damage the filter fabric when subsequent layers are
worked into the pitching to ensure that all spaces or being placed, nor to expose the filter fabric to the sun
voids between the stones will be completely filled with for periods exceeding three days before it is covered.
grout to the full depth of the stone pitching. Grout spilt
onto exposed surface of the stone shall be removed (c) Packed riprap
while still soft, and the joints between stones shall be Packed riprap shall be constructed from rocks placed
neatly finished. individually to stagger the joints and so as to be firmly
bedded in the prepared surface. The spaces between
The grouted pitching shall be cured with wet sacking or larger stones shall be filled with spalls or smaller stones
other approved wet cover for a period of not less than securely rammed into place. On inclined surfaces the
four days after grouting, and shall not be subjected to rock shall be laid in long horizontal strips starting from
loading until adequate strength has been developed. the bottom, and not in strips up the slope.

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 2000 - 27


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 2000 - DRAINAGE

The completed riprap shall present a tight and even environmentally compatible herbicide and ant poison
surface. Local surface irregularities of the riprap shall before the layer of sand for bedding is placed.
not exceed 150 mm.
(b) Sand for bedding
(d) Dumped A layer of sand for bedding shall be placed on top of the
Dumped riprap shall be constructed by dumping the prepared surface, and when still loose, accurately
stone on the prepared surface, spreading it by bulldozer floated to an uncompacted thickness of 30mm (±5mm)
or other suitable earth-moving equipment, and trimming so as to afford the correct level to the pavement after
it to the required lines and levels. The material shall be compaction. Sand for bedding shall be placed
placed in a manner that will prevent the segregation of immediately before the paving blocks are laid and shall
the smaller and larger stones and the top layer shall be not be compacted before the blocks have been laid.
tight with a minimum of voids.
(c) Laying the paving blocks
The pattern for laying the paving blocks shall be that as
2505 STONE MASONRY WALLS shown on the Drawings or approved or prescribed by
the Engineer. Unbroken blocks shall first be laid and
(a) General filler pieces afterwards. Filler pieces shall be neatly
Stone masonry walls may be plain packed stone walls sawn or hewn to fit exactly into the space to be filled.
with dry joints or otherwise mortared stone walls with Spaces of less than 25% of a full-sized block may be
stones bedded in cement mortar as indicated on the filled with 25 MPa concrete. The joints between blocks
Drawings, as specified or as may be ordered. shall be sized between 2 and 6 mm and the top faces of
blocks shall be flush. After the paving blocks have been
The minimum mass of each stone used shall be 10 kg laid, the pavement shall be compacted by two passes of
and its minimum dimension 75 mm. a suitable vibrating-plate compactor operating at a
frequency of 65 to 100 Hz and a low amplitude. Its plate
2
(b) Plain packed stone walls surface shall be 0.2 to 0.4 m and shall develop a
A foundation trench shall be excavated down to rock or centrifugal force of 7 to 16 kN.
to material with an adequate bearing capacity at a
minimum depth of 300 mm below ground lever. Larger After compaction of the pavement as described above,
selected stones shall be used for the foundation layer. joint sand shall be spread and brushed into the joints
Flat and stratified stones shall be laid with the largest until the joints have been properly filled. Any surplus
dimension in the horizontal plane. Stones shall be sand shall then be broomed off and pavement shall
packed individually to stagger the joints and to provide then be subjected to two further passes by the plate
a minimum of voids, and shall be firmly bedded against vibrator.
adjoining stones. The spaces between the larger
stones shall be filled with spalls securely rammed into (d) Edge beams
place. The larger stones shall not bear on the spalls Concrete edge beams or any such other edge supports
used for filling the voids. The top and ends of the wall shall be constructed onto the supporting layer in
shall be neatly finished with selected coping stones. accordance with the details shown on the Drawings,
and shall be constructed and left to cure before any
The appearance of the completed wall shall present an paving blocks are laid.
even and tight surface.
(e) Paving blocks for sidewalks
(c) Cement – mortared stone walls Paving blocks for sidewalks shall be laid in the same
The walling shall be constructed as specified in (b) way as that described above for paving blocks, also on
above, with the exception that the stones shall be a bed of sand but on the proviso that where so
wetted and set in a 6:1 sand:cement mortar. The specified, joints shall be filled with a 6:1 sand:cement
exposed parts of the stones on the wall faces shall be mortar instead of with sand only. In this case the width
cleaned of all mortar by washing or wire brushing. The of the joints between the stones shall be strictly in
mortar shall be flush pointed to the satisfaction of the accordance with the dimensions shown on the
Engineer, who may require a capping and end Drawings and the pavement shall be fully compacted
treatment of the same mortar. before the joints are filled.

Weep holes shall be provided as prescribed and shall (f) Concrete grass blocks
be cleaned of mortar or any other clogging material that Concrete grass blocks of the size specified or shown on
may have entered during construction. the Drawings shall be placed on areas prepared for
grassing as specified in SECTION 5700. The holes in the
The walling shall be protected from the elements and blocks shall be filled with topsoil, and grassed with
kept moist for a minimum period of four days after grass cuttings or hydro-seeding as specified in SECTION
completion. 5700.

2506 SEGMENTAL BLOCK PAVING (g) Finishing requirements

(a) General (i) Segmental block paving


The completed paving shall be even and neat, flush
The underlying layers for surfaces to be pitched shall be
constructed as specified or as indicated on the with the kerb or edge – beam and may not lie below
Drawings. Where no specified requirements have been the side of the kerbing. The final surface levels shall
nowhere deviate by more than 15 mm from the
set in respect of the underlying layers, the top layer
shall be mechanically compacted to at least 90% of BS- specified levels and and planes, and no
Heavy density down to at least 150 mm from the top. irregularities exceeding 10 mm may occur during
testing with a 3m straight- edge.
During this process the top layer shall be trimmed to the
required grades and levels.
(ii) Grass block pavement
The completed grass-block pavement shall have a
Where specified or required by the Engineer the
prepared surface shall be treated with approved neat and even appearance. The final surface of the
pavement may nowhere deviate by more than 15
mm from the specified levels and planes.

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 2000 - 28


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 2000 - DRAINAGE

2507 CAST IN SITU CONCRETE PITCHING CONSISTING OF:


3
The areas where cast in situ concrete pitching is to be (i) CRUSHED STONE CUBIC METRE (m )
constructed, trimmed and prepared as described in (ii) FILTER SAND OBTAINED CUBIC METRE (m
3
)
CLAUSE 2506 for block paving. The areas shall also be FROM BORROW PITS
treated with an environmentally compatible herbicide
and ant poison if required. The concrete shall comply (d) SYNTHETIC FIBRE FILTER FABRIC SQUARE METRE
2
with the requirements of SERIES 6000. (TYPE , CLASS AND GRADE (m )
STATED)
Prior to placing the concrete the surface shall be
watered and kept damp until the concrete has been The unit of measurement for riprap and filter layer
placed. The type of concrete used shall, unless (SUBITEMS 25.02(a), (b) and (c) above) shall be the
otherwise specified, be Class 20 and the concrete shall cubic metre of riprap or filter layer in place and shall
be accurately laid in alternate panels to the lines and include rock used in trench backfill. The unit of
levels indicated, after which the remaining panels shall measurement for SUBITEM 2502(d) shall be the square
be similarly placed. Accurately set-up guides shall be metre of filter fabric laid as specified, including overlaps.
used to achieve the required line and slope. The
concrete shall be thoroughly compacted and finished to The rates bid for SUBITEMS 25.02(a), (b) and (c) shall
a Class U2 surface finish. include full compensation for preparing the surfaces,
including excavation (but excluding excavation for
Where indicated, the concrete pitching shall be trenches and bulk excavations ) and for the furnishing,
contained by concrete edge beams being constructed transporting , handling and placing of riprap or filter
as described in SUBCLAUSE 2506 (d). layers. The rate bid for SUBITEM (d) shall include full
compensation for procuring and furnishing the filter
The concrete pitching shall be cured for at least seven fabric and for laying it as specified, including wastage.
days and no traffic shall be allowed to move across the Collectively the rates shall also include full
pitching before the specified 28-days strength has been compensation for all other incidentals necessary for
reached. completing the work as specified.

The final surface may nowhere deviate by more than 25


mm from the specified levels and planes and no ITEM UNIT
irregularities exceeding 10 mm occur during testing with 25.03 STONE MASONRY
a 3 m straight – edge. WALLS:
3
(a) PLAIN PACKED STONE WALLS CUBIC METRE (m )
3
2508 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT (b) CEMENT-MORTARED STONE CUBIC METRE (m )
WALLS
ITEM UNIT
25.01 STONE PITCHING: The unit of measurement for stone masonry walls shall
be the cubic metre of actual walling constructed and
(a) PLAIN PITCHING
2
accepted.
(i) METHOD 1 SQUARE METRE (m )
2 The bid rate for each type of stone wall shall include full
(ii) METHOD 2 SQUARE METRE (m )
2 compensation for furnishing all materials, trimming the
(b) GROUND STONE PITCHING SQUARE METRE (m )
2
areas, placing the stones and cement-mortared
(c) WIRED AND GROUTED STONE SQUARE METRE (m ) masonry where necessary, and all other work
PITCHING (TOTAL THICKNESS necessary for completing the walls in accordance with
INDICATED) the Specifications. Excavation of foundation trenches
will be paid for separately.
The unit of measurement for pitching shall be the
square metre of each type of pitching in place.
ITEM UNIT
The bid rate for each type of stone pitching shall include 25.04 CONCRETE PITCHING AND
full compensation for furnishing all materials, making all BLOCK PAVING:
excavations excluding trench and bulk excavations,
(a) CAST IN SITU CONCRETE SQUARE
compacting and trimming the excavated surfaces, 2
PITCHING (CLASS OF CONCRETE METRE (m )
forming and cleaning the weep holes, placing stones
AND THICKNESS OF PITCHING
and grouting or wiring and grouting where applicable,
INDICATED)
grassing and watering (applicable to Method 2) and for
all other work necessary for completing the pitching as (b) SEGMENTAL BLOCK PAVING SQUARE
2
specified. The bid rate for grouted stone pitching on a (TYPE AND THICKNESS METRE (m )
concrete bed shall also include full compensation for INDICATED)
the concrete bed. (c) PREFABRICATED CONCRETE SQUARE
2
GRASS BLOCKS METRE (m )
Excavations for foundation trenches and concrete edge
(d) PREFABRICATED CONCRETE SQUARE
beams and the construction of the concrete edge 2
PAVING BLOCKS FOR SIDEWALK METRE (m )
beams will be paid for separately.
PAVEMENT (THICKNESS
INDICATED)

ITEM UNIT
The unit of measurement shall be the square metre of
25.02 RIPRAP:
each type constructed.
3
(a) PACKED RIPRAP (CRITICAL MASS CUBIC METRE (m )
OF STONES INDICATED) The bid rates shall include full compensation for
3 furnishing all material, all excavation (but excluding bulk
(b) DUMPED RIPRAP (CRITICAL CUBIC METRE (m )
MASS OF STONE INDICATED ) excavation and excavation for foundation trenches and
edge beams), compacting and trimming all the
(c) FILTER BACKING (SUBCLAUSE
excavated areas, providing a sand bedding (SUBITEMS
2104 (a) (ii) AND 2504 (b)

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 2000 - 29


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 2000 - DRAINAGE

25.04(b) and (d)), laying and compacting the paving


blocks (SUBITEMS 25.04(b) and (d)), laying concrete
grass blocks (SUBITEM 25.04(c)), topsoiling and
grassing, (SUBITEM 2504(c)), constructing concrete
pitching, including normal formwork and the shaping of
surfaces (SUBITEM 25.04(a)), making and cleaning
weepholes (SUBITEM (a)) and for all other work
necessary for completing the work as specified.

ITEM UNIT
25.05 CONCRETE EDGE BEAMS CUBIC METRE
3
(CLASS OF CONCRETE (m )
INDICATED)

The unit measured shall be the cubic metre of concrete


in edge beams constructed as instructed.

The bid rate shall include full compensation for


furnishing all materials and labour, including formwork
as necessary, placing concrete and shaping all surfaces
and all excavations required (in all classes of material).

ITEM UNIT
25.06 PROVISION OF HERBICIDE
AND ANT POISON:
(a) PROVISION OF MATERIALS PRIME COST
SUM
(b) CONTRACTOR’S CHARGES AND PER CENT (%)
PROFIT ADDED TO THE PRIME
COST SUM

Payment under the prime cost sum for providing


environmentally compatible ant poison and herbicide
and the Contractor’s cost and profit in this respect shall
be made in accordance with the provisions of the
General Conditions of Contract, but, in addition, the
Contractor’s bid rate for costs and profit shall include
full compensation for applying the chemicals as
specified.

ITEM UNIT
3
25.07 FOUNDATION TRENCHES CUBIC METRE (m )

The unit of measurement shall be the cubic metre of


material excavated for foundation trenches irrespective
of the class or depth of material. The quantity shall be
calculated according to the dimensions shown on the
Drawings or instructed by the Engineer.

The bid rate shall include full compensation for the


excavation of the foundation trenches irrespective of the
class or depth of material complete as specified, or as
shown on the Drawings or as instructed by the
Engineer.

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 2000 - 30


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 2000 - DRAINAGE

SERIES 2000: DRAINAGE 2603 CONSTRUCTING GABION CAGES


(a) General
SECTION 2600: GABIONS Gabion cages shall be made from wire mesh of the size
and type and selvedge as specified below. The cages
CONTENTS: shall be subdivided into cells by wire mesh diaphragms
and will be of two types.
CLAUSE PAGE
2601 SCOPE 2000-31 (i) Boxes which are generally used for the construction
2602 MATERIALS 2000-31 of gabion walls. These boxes are subdivided into
2603 CONSTRUCTING GABIONS CAGES 2000-31 cells by diaphragms spaced at 1.0 m intervals. No
2604 CONSTRUCTING GABIONS 2000-32 diaphragms are required for a box of which the
2605 MEASUREMENT 2000-32 length does not exceed 1.5 m.

(ii) Mattresses which are generally used as single-layer


aprons only in revetments, channel linings, etc and
in which the maximum width shall be subdivided by
2601 SCOPE diaphragms into cells with a width of 600 mm or 1.0
This Section covers the construction of gabion walls m as specified in the Bill of Quantities.
and aprons for constructing retaining walls, lining
channels, revetments and other anti erosion structures.
The standard sizes of boxes and mattresses are as
follows:
Gabions shall be flexible galvanised steel – wire wire-
mesh cages packed with rock.
(1) Boxes:
− Length. 1, 2, 3 and 4 m
− Width 1.0 m
2602 MATERIALS − Depth . 0.3 m, 0.5 m and 1.0 m
− Diaphragm spacing 1.0 m
(a) Rock
Rock used as filling for cages shall be clean, hard, un- (2) Mattresses:
weathered boulders or rock fragments. No rock
− Length 6m
fragment shall exceed the maximum size given in
− Width 2m
TABLE 2602/ 1, and at least 85% of the rocks shall be of
a size equal to or above the average least dimension − Depth 0.2 m , 0.3 m and 0.5 m
size in TABLE 2602/1. − Diaphragm 600 mm or 1.0 m as specified

Other gabions may be supplied, provided that the


TABLE 2602/1 Engineer’s prior permission has been obtained.
ROCK SIZES
(b) Selvedges
Depth of Rock size according to the largest The cut edges of all mesh used in the construction of
cage (m) dimension of rock gabions, except the bottom edges of diaphragms and
end panels, shall be selvedged with wire with a
Average least Maximum
diameter as specified in SABS 1580 or equivalent.
dimension (mm) (mm)
0.2 125 150
Where the selvedge is not woven integrally with the
0.3 125 200
mesh but has to be tied to the cut ends of the mesh, it
0.5 125 250
shall be attached by tying the cut ends of the mesh to
1.0 125 250
the selvedge, so that a force of not less than 8.5 kN
applied in the same plane as the mesh at a point on the
(b) Wire
selvedge of a mesh sample of 1.0 m in length will be
All wire for making the gabions and for tying during the required to separate it from the mesh.
construction of the gabions shall comply with the
requirements of SABS 675 or equivalent for mild- steel (c) Diaphragms and end panels
wire. The diaphragms and end panels shall be selvedged on
the top and vertical sides only. The end panels shall be
(c) PVC- coated wire
attached by the cut ends of the mesh wires at the
The gabions of PVC –coated mesh shall be of an bottom of the panel being twisted around the selvedge
acknowledged make which shall be subject to approval on the base of the gabion. Similarly, the diaphragms
by the Engineer.
shall be attached by the cut ends of the mesh being
twisted to the twisted joints of the mesh in the base of
(d) Galvanising
the gabion. In each case the force required to separate
All wire used in the making of gabions shall be
the panels from the base shall be not less than 6 kN/m.
galvanised in accordance with the provisions of SABS
675 or equivalent for Class A heavy galvanised mild- (d) Binding and connecting wire
steel wire.
Sufficient binding and connecting wire for all the tying to
be done during construction of the gabions as specified
(e) Wire mesh
in CLAUSE 2604 below, shall be supplied with the
Wire mesh shall comply with the requirements of SABS
gabion cages. The diameter of the wire shall be 2.2
1580 or equivalent. mm.

(e) Tolerances
The tolerance on the specified diameter of all wire shall
(f) Geotextile filter below the gabions
be +2.5%. The length of the cages shall be subject to a
Geotextile filter materials shall comply with the
tolerance of ±10% and the width of the cages shall be
requirements of CLAUSE 3605.
subject to a tolerance of +5% and the depth of the
cages shall be subject to a tolerance of +5%.

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 2000 - 31


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 2000 - DRAINAGE

2604 CONSTRUCTING GABIONS The unit of measurement shall be the cubic metre of
each class of excavation made in accordance with the
(a) Preparing the foundation and surface authorised dimensions.
The surface on which the gabion cages are to be laid
prior to their filled with rock shall be levelled to the The bid rates shall include full compensation for
depth shown on the Drawings or as directed by the excavating in each class of material, including
Engineer so as to present an even surface. If unavoidable overbreak, the trimming of trenches and
necessary, cavities between rock protrusions shall be compacting the trench inverts, backfilling and
filled with material similar to that specified in SUBCLAUSE compacting the backfill, and the disposing of surplus
2602(a). Where required, a foundation trench along the excavated material.
toe of the revetment or wall shall be excavated to the
dimensions shown on the Drawings or indicated by the No haulage will be paid.
Engineer.

(b) Filter fabric ITEM UNIT


One layer of Grade 3 filter fabric shall be placed where 26.02 SURFACE PREPARATION FOR SQUARE
2
indicated on the Drawings or ordered by the Engineer. BEDDING THE GABIONS METRE (m )
The material shall placed, in accordance with the
instructions, in strips with a minimum overlap of 300 The unit of measurement for levelling and preparing
mm at the joints, and shall be properly fastened to surfaces for receiving the gabions shall be the square
prevent any movement or slipping while the gabions are metre to the neat dimensions of revetments, aprons or
being placed. wall foundations.
(c) Assembly
The bid rate shall include full compensation for
The methods of constructing, stretching, placing in excavating, filling any cavities with rock and levelling
position, wiring and filling the gabions with rock shall the ground surface so as to be ready for receiving the
generally be in accordance with the manufacturer’s gabion cages for retaining walls, aprons and
instructions which have been approved by the revetments.
Engineer, but nevertheless sufficient connecting wires
shall be tensioned between the vertical sides of all the
outer visible cells to prevent the deformation of boxes ITEM UNIT
as they are being filled with stone.
26.03 GABIONS:
It is essential that the corners of gabion cages be (a) GALVANISED GABION BOXES CUBIC
3
securely wired together to provide a uniform surface (DIMENSIONS OF BOX AND MESH METRE (m )
and ensure that the surface does not resemble a series SIZE INDICATED)
of block or panels. (b) PVC- COATED GABION BOXES CUBIC
3
(DIMENSIONS OF BOX AND MESH METRE (m )
The layout and the tolerances for the layout of the SIZE INDICATED)
boxes shall be as shown on the Drawings or as
instructed by the Engineer. (c) GALVANISED GABION CUBIC
3
MATTRESSES ( DIMENSIONS OF METRE (m )
MATTRESS, MESH SIZE AND
(d) Rock filling DIAPHRAGM INDICATED )
(d) PVC- COATED GABION CUBIC
3
(i) Boxes in retaining walls MATTRESSES, MESH SIZE AND METRE (m )
Particular care shall be taken in packing the visible DIAPHRAGM SPACING INDICATED)
faces of gabion boxes, where only selected stone of
the specified size shall be used so as to obtain as The unit of measurement shall be the cubic metre of the
even–faced finish. The boxes shall be filled in rock – filled cages and the quantity shall be calculated
layers to prevent deformation and bulging. Boxes from the dimensions of the gabions indicated on the
shall be filled to just below the level of the wire Drawings or prescribed by the Engineer, irrespective of
braces, after which the braces shall be twisted to any deformation or bulging of the completed gabions.
provide tension. Care must be taken to ensure that
consecutive layers of cages are filled evenly to a The bid rates shall include full compensation for
level surface ready to receive the next course. supplying all the materials, including rock fill, wire–mesh
cages, tying and connecting wires, loading transporting
(ii) Mattresses used in revetments and aprons and off-loading, the assembling and filling of the cages,
The 0.2 m, 0.3 m and 0.5 m gabions forming aprons and any other work necessary for constructing the
and revetments shall be filled by random stones gabions.
being packed in the first layer and selected stones
being used for the top layer so as to resemble
normal stone pitching. ITEM UNIT
26.04 FILTER FABRIC (TYPE AND SQUARE
2
GRADE INDICATED) METRE (m )
2605 MEASUREMENT AND PAVEMENT
ITEM UNIT The unit of measurement shall be the square metre of
area covered with filter fabric placed in position.
26.01 FOUNDATION TRENCH
EXCAVATION AND BACKFILLING:
The bid rate shall include full compensation for
(a) IN SOLID ROCK AS DEFINED IN CUBIC METRE supplying the filter fabric, cutting, waste, placing,
3
CLAUSE 3603 (m ) joining, overlapping and securing the material in
(b) IN ALL OTHER MATERIAL THAN ROCK CUBIC METRE position.
3
AS DEFINED IN CLAUSE 3603 (m )

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 2000 - 32


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 3000 - EARTHWORKS AND PAVEMENT LAYERS OF GRAVEL OR CRUSHED STONE

SERIES 3000
EARTHWORKS AND PAVEMENT
LAYERS OF GRAVEL OR CRUSHED
STONE

SECTION PAGE
3100 CLEARING, GRUBBING AND REMOVAL
OF TOPSOIL 3000-2
3200 REMOVAL OF EXISTING STRUCTURES 3000-4
3300 BREAKING UP EXISTING PAVEMENT
LAYERS 3000-6
3400 BORROW PIT AND QUARRY
ACQUISITION AND EXPLOITATION 3000-10
3500 SELECTING AND UTILISING
MATERIALS FROM BORROW PITS AND
CUTTINGS 3000-13
3600 EARTHWORKS 3000-16
3700 PAVEMENT LAYERS OF NATURAL
GRAVEL MATERIAL 3000-23
3800 STABILISATION 3000-29
3900 CRUSHED AGGREGATE BASE
COURSE 3000-33

CONTENTS OF THE STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD WORKS 2000:


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
CROSSECTION TERMINOLOGY
SERIES 1000 GENERAL
SERIES 2000 DRAINAGE
SERIES 3000 EARTHWORKS AND PAVEMENT LAYERS OF GRAVEL OR CRUSHED STONE
SERIES 4000 BITUMINOUS LAYERS AND SEALS
SERIES 5000 ANCILLARY ROADWORKS
SERIES 6000 STRUCTURES
SERIES 7000 TOLERANCES, TESTING AND QUALITY CONTROL
APPENDICES

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 3000 - 1


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 3000 - EARTHWORKS AND PAVEMENT LAYERS OF GRAVEL OR CRUSHED STONE

SERIES 3000: EARTHWORKS AND PAVEMENT include Baobab trees. Clearing shall also include the
3
removal of all rocks and boulders of up to 0.15 m in
LAYERS OF GRAVEL OR CRUSHED STONE
size which are exposed or lying on the surface.

SECTION 3100: CLEARING, Clearing shall include complete removal and disposal of
structures that obtrude, encroach upon or otherwise
GRUBBING AND REMOVAL OF obstruct the work, including existing bridge structures
and removal of foundations to a depth of one metre
TOPSOIL below the bed level shown on the Drawings.

CONTENTS: Structures which cannot be cleared by reasonable


means in the opinion of the Engineer shall be broken
CLAUSE PAGE down in accordance with the requirements of the
3101 SCOPE 3000-2 Special Specifications.
3102 DESCRIPTION OF W ORKS 3000-2
3103 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 3000-3 Clearing shall include removal of mounds and nests
from moulds, termites, ants or other insects or
burrowing animals. Such removal shall be carried out
by excavation to the required depth as directed by the
Engineer, and subsequent poisoning with approved
3101 SCOPE pesticides in the case of ants and termites. No
This Section covers the clearing of the site and the additional payment will be made for removal of such
grubbing necessary for construction of the Works nests, but backfilling and compaction with approved fill
covered by the Contract, in accordance with these
materials will be paid as ordinary earthworks fill under
Specifications the relevant pay item. Poisoning with approved
pesticides will be paid for separately.
3102 DESCRIPTION OF WORKS In the roadway all stumps and roots exceeding 50 mm
in diameter shall be removed at least to the depth which
(a) General is the larger of the following:
No clearing and grubbing shall be done unless − 600 mm below the finished road level
approved by the Engineer. The Contractor shall note − 100 mm below the ground level after removal of
that, in order to avoid re-clearing, the clearing and topsoil
grubbing may have to be done at the last practicable − 300 mm below the top of improved subgrade or
stage of construction. formation level.
The Contractor shall take all necessary precautions to All stumps and roots, including matted roots, shall be
prevent damage to structures and other private or removed to a depth of at least 300 mm below the
public property. formation level (top of improved subgrade).
Any unauthorised damage to or interference with The cavities resulting from the grubbing shall be
private property or public including trees shall be made backfilled with approved material and compacted to
good to the satisfaction of the Engineer and the owner comply with the Specifications for the relevant layer.
at the Contractor’s sole expense.
(d) Removal of topsoil
(b) Area to be cleared, grubbed and removed of Topsoil shall be removed to a depth as instructed by the
topsoil Engineer and conserved as instructed by the Engineer.
The area to be cleared, grubbed and removed of topsoil The entire roadway shall be stripped of topsoil as
shall generally extend to 3 metres beyond the top of the directed by the Engineer. The rate paid for clearing,
slope in cuts and 3 metres beyond the toe of the slope grubbing and removal of topsoil shall include all cost for
of embankments in accordance with the Drawings or as the removal of topsoil to the depth instructed by the
directed by the Engineer. The Engineer shall designate Engineer. Payment for removal of any material below
the areas to be cleared, which shall not necessarily be this level will be paid for as Common Excavation to
limited to those mentioned above. Spoil in accordance with SECTION 3600 in case the
material is spoiled. No additional payment will be made
The shoulders on each side of existing carriageways for conservation measures, stockpiling or re-handling of
are included in the clearing and grubbing, but not the topsoil, whether paid for as Common Excavation to
existing carriageway itself. Spoil, or included in the rate for pay ITEM 31.01.
No trees which fall between the extent of works and the (e) Conservation of topsoil
limits of clearing and grubbing shall be removed or If not used immediately, the topsoil shall be transported
damaged without the written authorisation of the and deposited in stockpiles or spoil banks provided by
Engineer. Individual trees designated by the Engineer the Contractor at his own expense and at locations
shall be left standing and uninjured. approved by the Engineer. No additional payment will
be made for stockpiling or re-handling topsoil. The cost
Within built up areas clearing and grubbing shall be of stripping and disposal of topsoil shall be included in
strictly limited to the extent of cut or fill as shown in the the price bid for clearing, grubbing and removal of
Drawings or as directed by the Engineer. No private topsoil.
property e.g. buildings, crops, signs, fences etc shall be
removed, relocated or altered without the authorisation (f) Conservation of vegetation and cutting of trees
of the Engineer. Where provided for in the Special Specifications, certain
designated plants encountered in the road reserve shall
(c) Clearing and grubbing be carefully protected by the Contractor. He shall
Clearing shall consist of the removal of all trees, bush, include in his bid rates for clearing and grubbing full
shrubs and other vegetation, rubbish, fences and all compensation for omitting or the careful removal and
other objectionable material, including the disposal of all planting of the plants in a protected and fenced-off area,
material resulting from the clearing and grubbing. The and, on completion of the road, the replanting of the
clearance of trees within the extent of the Works shall plants in suitable positions in the road reserve in

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 3000 - 2


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 3000 - EARTHWORKS AND PAVEMENT LAYERS OF GRAVEL OR CRUSHED STONE

accordance with the Engineer’s instructions. The Engineer. The unit of measurement for SUBITEM
Contractor’s attention is specifically drawn to SECTION 31.01(b), removal of topsoil as specified or instructed by
1700: Environmental Protection and Waste Disposal, the Engineer, shall be the cubic metre measured in
which requirements he shall fulfil in all parts of his place at the depth and width specified.
operations.
The bid rate shall included full compensation for all
In the cases where cutting of trees has been approved work necessary for the clearing of the surface, removal
by the Engineer they shall be cut in sections from the of topsoil to the depth as specified or as instructed by
top downwards. The branches of trees to be left the Engineer after removal of the vegetation cover, the
standing shall be trimmed so as leave a 7 m clearance removal and grubbing of trees and tree stumps (except
above the carriageway. large trees and stumps as defined below), cutting of
branches, backfilling of cavities, demolishing and
Where clearing and grubbing would involve the cutting disposal of structures except where otherwise provided
down of indigenous forest containing a significant in the Special Specifications, and the removal,
number of trees with a trunk diameter exceeding 200 transporting and disposal or conservation of material all
mm, the Contractor shall inform the officials of the as specified in this Section. The Contractor’s attention
responsible Government Department at bidding stage is drawn to SUBCLAUSE 3102(d) for further explanation
before commencing with clearing and grubbing of such of the work included under this pay item.
areas so as to enable that Government Department to
salvage any usable timber and to identify the trees
before they are removed. ITEM UNIT
31.02 REMOVAL AND GRUBBING OF
(g) Disposal of material LARGE TREES AND TREE STUMPS:
Material obtained from clearing, grubbing and removal
of topsoil, shall be disposed of as indicated by the (a) GIRTH EXCEEDING 1.0 m UP TO UP NUMBER
Engineer, in stockpiles for later use in the case of INCLUDING 2.0 m (no)
topsoil, borrow pits or other suitable places and covered (b) GIRTH EXCEEDING 2.0 m UP TO UP NUMBER
up with soil or gravel in the case of other debris. The INCLUDING 3.0 m (no)
burning of material will only be permitted on the prior (c) GIRTH EXCEEDING 3.0 m IN STEPS NUMBER
written approval of the Engineer. All statutory provisions OF 1.0M OF GIRTH (no)
with regards to air pollution shall be carefully observed.

All tree trunks and branches in excess of 150 mm in The girth of trees or stumps shall be measured at the
diameter shall be cleared of secondary branches, sawn narrowest point of the tree or stumps in the first meter
into suitable lengths and stacked at sites indicated by of its height above ground level. Trees and stumps with
the Engineer. Such timber shall not be used by the a girth exceeding 1.0 m shall be measured individually
Contractor and shall remain the property of the and classified according to the size in increments of 1.0
Employer unless otherwise agreed on with the m as indicated above.
Engineer.
The bid rates shall include full compensation for all work
(h) Re-clearing of vegetation necessary for the clearing and grubbing of trees and
When portions of the road reserve or other areas have stumps of all sizes, the backfilling of holes and the
been cleared in accordance with the Specifications, but removal and disposal of material, all as described in this
vegetation grows again in the course of time during Section.
construction, the Engineer may, if he considers it
necessary, order that the area be re-cleared. No Where construction is carried out through plantations or
additional payment will be made for such re-clearing. where the number of trees with a girth exceeding 1.0 m
renders individual measurement impractical, the Special
Such re-clearing of areas previously cleared includes Specifications may provide that the clearing and
the removal and disposal of grass, shrubs and other grubbing of trees in such areas be measured in
vegetation in the same manner as for the first clearing hectares. If this method of measurement is used, the
operation. areas where it applies will be shown on the Drawings,
stated in the Special Specifications, included to bids
during site inspection, or as instructed by the Engineer.
3103 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT Where the Special Specifications provide payment for
No payment will be made for the moving of soil or the cleaning and grubbing of large trees per hectare in
gravel material which may be inherent in or unavoidable such specific cases, the bid price shall include full
during the process of clearing. compensation for all work as described in connection
with individual trees above.
Clearing, grubbing and removal of topsoil required for
quarries, borrow areas, material sources, for haul roads
and all temporary construction will not be measured for ITEM UNIT
payment.
31.03 APPLYING APPROVED PESTICIDES LITRES (l)
TO ANT AND TERMITE NESTS
ITEM UNIT
31.01 CLEARING, GRUBBING AND The unit of measurement for applying approved
REMOVAL OF TOPSOIL: pesticides to ant and termite nests shall be the litres as
instructed by the Engineer applied in accordance with
(a) CLEARING AND GRUBBING HECTARE
these Specifications.
(ha)
(b) REMOVAL OF TOPSOIL CUBIC
The bid rate shall included full compensation for all
3
METRE (m )
work necessary for applying approved pesticides to ant
and termite nests.
The unit of measurement for SUBITEM 31.01(a), clearing
and grubbing, shall be the hectare (to the nearest 0.1
ha) designated by the Engineer and cleared of the
vegetation cover and grubbed and in accordance with
these Specifications, all to the satisfaction of the

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 3000 - 3


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 3000 - EARTHWORKS AND PAVEMENT LAYERS OF GRAVEL OR CRUSHED STONE

SERIES 3000: EARTHWORKS AND PAVEMENT and if required the salvaged stones shall be stockpiled
where directed by the Engineer.
LAYERS OF GRAVEL OR CRUSHED STONE
3204 REMOVAL OF BRIDGES, CULVERTS
SECTION 3200: REMOVAL OF AND OTHER DRAINAGE STRUCTURES
Bridges, culverts, and other drainage structures shall
EXISTING STRUCTURES not be removed until satisfactory arrangements have
been made to accommodate traffic and the flow of
CONTENTS: water.
CLAUSE PAGE Unless otherwise indicated, the existing substructures
3201 SCOPE 3000-4 shall be removed down to the natural stream bottom
3202 GENERAL 3000-4 and those parts outside the stream shall be removed
3203 REMOVAL OF GROUTED STONE SIDE 300 mm below natural ground surface. Portions of
DITCHES 3000-4 existing structures within the limits of a new structure
3204 REMOVAL OF BRIDGES, CULVERTS AND shall be removed to accommodate the construction of
OTHER DRAINAGE STRUCTURES 3000-4 the proposed structure.
3205 REMOVAL OF PIPE CULVERT 3000-4
3206 REMOVAL OF CONCRETE ENTRANCES, Bridges designated as salvaged material shall be
KERBS, ETC 3000-4 dismantled without damage and match marked.
3207 REMOVAL OF UTILITIES 3000-4 Structures designated to become the property of the
3208 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 3000-4 Contractor shall be removed from the Site.

Blasting or other operations necessary to remove


existing structures or obstruction, which may damage
3201 SCOPE new construction, shall be completed prior to placing
This Section covers the requirements for removing the the new work.
existing kerb and gutter, grouted stone side ditch,
buildings, concrete entrance slabs and other 3205 REMOVAL OF PIPE CULVERTS
obstructions that are not designated to remain. Sections of pipe lost from storage or damaged by
negligence shall be replaced at the Contractor’s
3202 GENERAL expense. Pipe shown on the plans to be plugged shall
The Contractor shall remove and dispose of all be left in place and the ends plugged.
buildings, foundations, bridges, drainage structures and
other obstructions within the limits of the Works, except 3206 REMOVAL OF CONCRETE ENTRANCES,
items designated to remain and utilities and KERBS, ETC
obstructions to be removed under other provisions of All concrete pavement, kerbs, channels, buildings,
this Contract. Refer also to SECTION 3100: CLEARING, foundations, slabs, etc designated for removal shall be
GRUBBING AND REMOVAL OF TOPSOIL. disposed of by the Contractor at any distance as
ordered by the Engineer, unless otherwise specified.
All designated salvage material shall be removed,
without damage, in sections or pieces that may be Concrete designated for use as riprap shall be broken
readily transported, and shall be stored by the into pieces not exceeding 80 kg and stockpiled at
Contractor at Employers depots as directed. Unusable designated locations for use on the project.
perishable material shall be destroyed. Non-perishable
material, waste concrete and masonry shall as far as 3207 REMOVAL OF UTILITIES
practicable be placed in slopes of embankments. Any
The removal of existing utilities required to permit
broken concrete or masonry which cannot be used in orderly progress of work will be accomplished by local
construction, and all other materials not considered agencies, unless otherwise shown on the Drawings.
suitable for use elsewhere, shall be disposed of by the
Whenever a telephone or telegraph pole, pipeline,
Contractor. In no case shall any discarded materials be conduit, sewer, or other utility is encountered and must
left in windrows or piles adjacent to or within the Site. be removed or relocated the Contractor shall advise the
The manner and location of disposal of materials shall
proper local authority or owner and arrange for its
be subject to the approval of the Engineer and shall not removal.
create an unpleasant or objectionable view. When the
Contractor is required to locate a disposal area outside
the Site at his own expense, he shall obtain and file with
the Engineer, permission in writing from the property 3208 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT
occupier for the use of his property for this purpose.
ITEM UNIT
Basements or cavities left by structure removal shall be 32.01 REMOVAL OF EXISTING
filled to the level of the surrounding ground and, if they STRUCTURES:
are within the roadbed, the backfill shall be compacted (a) REMOVAL OF EXISTING PIPE NUMBER (no)
in accordance with the relevant requirements in this CULVERT INCLUDING
Specification. HEADWALLS, WINGWALL AND
APRON
Existing utilities through at or near existing structures
shall be protected and/or relocated as directed by the (b) REMOVAL OF BOX CULVERTS AND NUMBER (no)
Engineer. SLABS INCLUDING HEADWALLS,
WINGWALL AND APRON

3203 REMOVAL OF GROUTED STONE SIDE (c) REMOVAL OF BRIDGE INCLUDING NUMBER (no)
ABUTMENT, WINGWALL AND
DITCHES
APRON
Existing grouted stone side ditches shall be preserved
as far as feasible, in accordance with the instructions of (d) REMOVAL OF KERB AND CHANNEL LINEAR METRE
the Engineer. However, where necessary, they shall be (lm)
totally or partially removed, as directed by the Engineer, (e) REMOVAL OF EXISTING GROUTED SQUARE
2
METRE (m )

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 3000 - 4


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 3000 - EARTHWORKS AND PAVEMENT LAYERS OF GRAVEL OR CRUSHED STONE

STONE PITCHING

Measurement of removal of kerb and channel shall be


according to the number of linear metres of kerb and
channel acceptably removed, as directed by the
Engineer.

Measurement of removal of grouted stone side ditch


shall be according to the number of square metres of
surface of grouted stone side ditch acceptably removed,
as directed by the Engineer.

Measurement of the removal of existing culverts and


slabs shall be the number of upstream openings of the
structure(s), irrespective of length, material type or
whether precast or cast-in-situ. Slabs shall include all
structures up to 6 m clear span.

The quantities, determined as provided above for kerb,


channel and grouted stone side ditch shall be paid at
the rate per unit of measurement, respectively, for each
of the particular pay items listed below, included in the
Bills of Quantities which price and payment shall be full
compensation for all materials, labour, equipment, tools
and incidentals necessary to complete the work of
demolishing, removing, disposing or stockpiling, as
applicable, including supply and compaction of material
for backfilling.

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 3000 - 5


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 3000 - EARTHWORKS AND PAVEMENT LAYERS OF GRAVEL OR CRUSHED STONE

SERIES 3000: EARTHWORKS AND PAVEMENT (e) Milled material


Milled material shall be bituminous material or
LAYERS OF GRAVEL OR CRUSHED STONE
cemented material excavated with an approved milling
machine. Milled material will be classified as such only
SECTION 3300: BREAKING UP when milling is specified or ordered by the Engineer.
Payment will distinguish between milling of asphalt,
EXISTING PAVEMENT LAYERS concrete and of cemented material where so specified
in the Bill of Quantities.
CONTENTS:
CLAUSE PAGE 3304 PLANT AND EQUIPMENT
3301 SCOPE 6
3302 SELECTING THE MATERIAL 6 (a) Milling equipment
3303 CLASSIFYING THE MATERIAL 6 Only approved milling equipment may be used. The
3304 PLANT AND EQUIPMENT 6 equipment shall be capable of milling asphalt and/or
3305 CONSTRUCTION 6 cemented material to the prescribed depth in one
3306 STORING RECOVERED PAVEMENT operation over the width specified in the Special
MATERIAL 8 Specifications. The milling depth shall be controlled
3307 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 8 electronically.

The direction and speed of the milling machine and the


speed of rotation of the milling drum shall be adjustable
so as to obtain the required grading of the milled
3301 SCOPE material. The machine shall be capable of making a
This Section covers the breaking up and excavation of neat vertical cut at the outer edges when milling the
existing pavement layers by conventional means or by layer and to leave the floor of the cut level and with a
milling, selecting the material, and the removal thereof
uniform texture.
to spoil dumps or to stockpiles for later reprocessing or
recycling. Unless otherwise specified in the Special
Specifications, the milling machine shall be equipped
3302 SELECTING THE MATERIAL with a self-loading conveyor belt, which can be easily
Where directed by the Engineer, the Contractor shall removed and installed and adjusted for slope and
remove the layers of the existing pavement, taking care direction.
not to damage the existing kerbs and/or gutters, if any.
In case of damage to the existing kerbs or gutters, they (b) General
shall be replaced to the satisfaction of the Engineer at The equipment to be used for the conventional
the Contractor’s expense. breaking-up and excavation of existing pavement layers
will be determined by the size and depth of the
Material from existing pavements may only be used for pavement section to be processed or excavated, taking
purposes approved by the Engineer. The material shall consideration of the fact that work may have to be
be so excavated that material from the various carried out in restricted areas. Only approved cutting or
pavement layers, or materials of different types, will not sawing equipment may be used for cutting or sawing
be mixed unless so permitted by the Engineer. the pavement layers. The equipment shall be capable
of cutting the pavement layers to the specified depth in
3303 CLASSIFYING THE MATERIAL one operation without fragmenting the material, and in
Material from existing pavements shall be classified as straight lines within the required tolerances.
follows for excavation and processing purposes:

(a) Existing bituminous material 3305 CONSTRUCTION


Existing bituminous material shall be asphalt or other
bituminous seal or base course material removed (a) General
separately from the pavement on the instruction of the Where all or a part of the existing surfacing material is
Engineer. Where underlying material is broken down or to be reprocessed together with the underlying layer,
excavated together with bituminous materials, the the surfacing shall be properly broken down and mixed
mixture will not be classified as bituminous material. through the full depth of the existing base material to
the satisfaction of the Engineer. Fragments of
(b) Non-cemented material bituminous material shall be broken down to sizes not
Non-cemented material shall be existing pavement exceeding 40 mm.
material which in the opinion of the Engineer can be
ripped with the teeth of a bulldozer, such as Caterpillar Where specified in the Special Specifications or ordered
D6 or equivalent, and which can be made usable for by the Engineer, the existing bituminous material shall
pavement material by breaking with the tracks of the first be removed before the underlying layers are
bulldozer by reasonable efforts in the opinion of the broken up.
Engineer.
Bituminous material may be milled out or otherwise
(c) Cemented material broken up and removed to approved stockpile sites for
Cemented material is classified as existing pavement recycling or to spoil sites, whichever is required. The
materials made from gravel or crushed stone, which, in exposed surface shall be cleaned to the satisfaction of
the opinion of the Engineer, cannot be ripped and made the Engineer after removal of the bituminous material.
usable for pavement material by the method described Not more than 5% of the surface may be covered with
in SUBCLAUSE 3303(b). Unless specified as such in the bituminous material.
Special Specifications, cemented material will not be
classified as concrete. The existing pavement material shall be broken down to
the specified depth and removed, or reprocessed in
(d) Concrete place, whichever may be required. The underlying
Concrete is classified reinforced or un-reinforced layers may not be damaged, and material from one
Portland cement concrete when specified as such in the layer may not be mixed with that of another layer.
Special Specifications or as decided by the Engineer.
THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 3000 - 6
STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 3000 - EARTHWORKS AND PAVEMENT LAYERS OF GRAVEL OR CRUSHED STONE

Where such mixing occurs or where the material is loading, the floor of the excavation or the underlying
contaminated in any other way by the actions of the material shall not be damaged.
Contractor, he shall remove such material and replace it
with other approved material, all at his own cost. The milled material shall be inspected and
classified in accordance with the various types of
Where a layer or layers require to be broken down over asphalt and its suitability for recycling. Different
part of the pavement width only, the limit of the work stockpiles shall be used for the different types of
shall be clearly demarcated, which limit shall not be material as ordered by the Engineer. Contamination
exceeded by the Contractor by more than 100 mm. of the asphalt with underlying material will not be
Pavement layers broken down outside the specified permitted, and the Contractor shall adjust the
limits shall be repaired by the Contractor at his own depths of milling in accordance with the thickness of
cost, to the satisfaction of the Engineer. the layer.

Where so ordered by the Engineer, asphalt and (iv) Cemented material


cemented layers shall be cut or sawn through to the Unless otherwise specified milled cemented
specified depth along the measured limit with approved material to be reprocessed on the road shall first be
equipment. Payment will be made for sawing only windrowed with a view to inspecting the underlying
where specified on the Drawings or ordered, in writing, surface for any patches of poor or unsuitable
by the Engineer. material. Where unsuitable material is encountered
in the floor of the excavation, such material shall
Payment will not be made for sawing or cutting work first be removed by further milling (where the
where the existing layer requires removal by milling. underlying layer also consists of the cemented
material), or by other approved methods, all to the
Where existing roads have to be widened, the existing satisfaction of the Engineer. The unsuitable material
pavement layers shall be cut back to a firm, well shall be replaced with approved material of the
compacted or cemented material. Material so broken required type, which shall be placed in accordance
up, if acceptable, may be used together with imported with the specifications for the relevant underlying
material in the widening process provided the mixture layer.
consistently meets all requirements for the material type
specified for the layer in question. Where in the opinion of the Engineer, it may be
necessary, he may instruct the Contractor to taper
Where pavement layers are broken down over a section the ends or edges of a milled excavation. No
of the road width or where pavement layers are additional payment will be made for tapering the
widened, the Engineer may order, that the various ends or edges of a milled excavation.
pavement layers be excavated in benches in
accordance with his instructions. No additional payment (v) Coring of cemented material
will be made for excavating benches. Where existing cemented layers are to remain as a
structural layer in the new pavement the Engineer
Where underlying layers are still structurally sound and may instruct the Contractor to drill cores from the
are included as structural layers in the new design layer and have them tested for compressive
drawings, care must be taken not to break them up strength in accordance with the provisions of SABS
during removal of the surfacing or underlying layers. Method 865 or equivalent. The number of cores to
be drilled out and the drilling locations will be
determined on site by the Engineer.
(b) Milling
(vi) General
(i) Preparing the pavement surface The floor of the milled excavation shall have an
Before milling may be commenced, the pavement even texture and any loose patches or patches of
surface shall be clean and free from soil or other unsuitable material shall be remedied in
deleterious material. Where only part of the accordance with the instructions of the Engineer.
pavement is to be milled out, the milling area shall Payment for removing and replacing unsuitable
be properly demarcated. Milling may not exceed the material and remedying loose patches shall be as
required width by more than 50 mm. Payment will specified elsewhere.
not be made for milling beyond the required width,
which shall be backfilled with approved material in The floor of an excavation shall comply with the
accordance with the provisions for the specified requirements of the surface level, grade and
pavement material at the cost of the Contractor. regularity for the layer which it will form in the new
pavement.
(ii) Trial milling
Where ordered by the Engineer, the Contractor Payment for milling will not distinguish between
shall execute trial milling on the various materials to various types of milled material and between
be milled. During the trial work, the Contractor will various milling depths unless such distinction is
be expected to vary the direction and speed of the given in the Bill of Quantities.
milling machine, the speed of rotation of the milling
drum, and also the milling depth, in order to obtain (c) Sawing or cutting
milled material of the required grade. No payment Where required in the opinion of the Engineer, diamond
will be made for trial milling. blade sawing or cutting shall be employed if necessary
to achieve the required edge finish of milled layers. No
(iii) Asphalt additional payment will be made for sawing or cutting
Where the asphalt and/or the cemented base must unless deemed necessary and approved by the
be reused, the asphalt shall be removed separately. Engineer.
Where the asphalt consists of layers of various
mixes or grades, the Engineer may instruct the (d) Treatment of pavement excavation floor
separate removal of the layers to different The floor of any pavement excavation, whether or not
stockpiles. Where the milled material is not excavated by milling, shall be treated and paid for as
conveyed directly by conveyor belt and then loaded, specified in the relevant sections of the Specifications.
and the Engineer so approves, the material shall
first be cut to windrow and then loaded. During

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 3000 - 7


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 3000 - EARTHWORKS AND PAVEMENT LAYERS OF GRAVEL OR CRUSHED STONE

3306 STORING RECOVERED PAVEMENT (ii) Material from an existing pavement which is not
MATERIAL reprocessed
Existing gravel pavement material, or existing
Excavated pavement material intended for reprocessing
bituminous material not intended for reprocessing,
but which cannot be reprocessed in place or, in the
may be spoiled or be used in other layers or items
opinion of the Engineer, cannot be windrowed next to
of work where approved by the Engineer. Payment
the excavation, nor placed in position directly at any
for the excavation of pavement material to be
other place, and material intended for recycling or
spoiled will be made directly under ITEM 3601(a).
reprocessing in a plant, shall be transported to
Dumping shall only occur on approval of the
approved stockpiles with the written permission of the
Engineer in an approved waste site.
Engineer.
Where used for other purposes full compensation
Stockpile sites for material intended for recycling or
for excavating shall be included in the rates bid for
reprocessing in a plant shall be set out at the
the various pavement layers and items or work in
corresponding mixing or crushing plant or at such other
which the material is used.
locations as approved by the Engineer.
(iii) Measurement for excavating existing pavement
The stockpile site shall be cleaned, and all loose
material and underlying fill
stones, vegetation and other materials which may
Where payment is made separately for the
cause contamination shall be removed. The site shall
excavation of existing pavement material and
be graded smooth with an adequate slope to ensure
underlying fill, the quantity will be calculated in
proper drainage. Where so instructed by the Engineer,
accordance with the authorised horizontal
the surface shall be watered and compacted to a depth
dimensions of the excavated layer and the average
of at least 150 mm to a density of 90% of BS Heavy
depth of excavation. The average depth of
density.
excavation will be determined in accordance with
the test holes made or cores drilled at intervals not
The compacted surface shall be firm without any loose
exceeding 10 m, and which are so distributed over
patches. Where asphalt is recovered for recycling, the
the surface that a realistic estimate of the depth can
Engineer may order the surface to be chemically
be obtained.
stabilised to a depth of 150 mm. Upon completion, this
surface shall be swept clean.
ITEM UNIT
Stockpile sites shall be sufficiently large to allow the
placing of stockpiles of different types of material or 33.01 EXCAVATING MATERIAL
types of recovered asphalt without the stockpiles FROM AN EXISTING PAVEMENTS:
3
overlapping or the limits of the prepared site being (a) GRANULAR MATERIAL CUBIC METRE (m )
exceeded. The enlargement of the stockpile site after 3
(b) BITUMINOUS MATERIAL CUBIC METRE (m )
the stockpiles have already been placed will not be 3
permitted without the approval of the Engineer. (c) CEMENTED MATERIAL CUBIC METRE (m )
3
(d) PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE CUBIC METRE (m )
Stockpiles of milled material shall be made in a manner (INDICATE WHETHER
which prevents segregation and undesirable REINFORCED OR UN-
consolidation or changes in moisture content. Adequate REINFORCED)
approved covers shall be provided as required in the
opinion of the Engineer to prevent them from
The unit of measurement shall be the cubic metre of
undesirable wetting or drying, or being contaminated by
material excavated or milled from the existing pavement
dust.
using approved equipment and methodology.
Upon completion of the work, the stockpile sites shall
The bid rate shall include full compensation for
be broken up in accordance with the instructions of the
excavating or milling the material from the existing
Engineer.
pavement irrespective of layer thickness, for loading,
transporting, off-loading, and placing the material in
The stockpiling of excavated material will not be paid for
approved spoil dumps or stockpiles as directed by the
directly, but full compensation therefore shall be
Engineer.
included in the rates for the various items of work in
which the stockpiled material will be used. Separate
payment will not be made for the preparation of storage ITEM UNIT
sites.
33.02 SAWING OR CUTTING
CONCRETE, ASPHALT OR
CEMENTED PAVEMENT LAYERS:
3307 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT
(a) BITUMINOUS MATERIAL LINEAR METRE (m)
(a) General (b) CEMENTED MATERIAL LINEAR METRE (m)
(c) PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE LINEAR METRE (m)
(i) Material to be reprocessed
(INDICATE WHETHER
Direct payment will be made for breaking up and
REINFORCED OR UN-
excavating existing pavement material that is to be
REINFORCED)
reprocessed and reused, when:
(1) The material is milled out in accordance with
the provisions of the Special Specifications or The unit of measurement shall be the linear metre of
upon the written instruction of the Engineer. sawcut area calculated in accordance with the
(2) Bituminous surfacing or other bituminous authorised length of sawcut.
pavement layers are removed separately from
the underlying material in accordance with the The bid rate shall include full compensation for all
Special Specifications or the written instructions material and sawing or cutting costs and for all
of the Engineer. incidentals for cutting or sawing the pavement in
accordance with the instructions of the Engineer.

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 3000 - 8


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 3000 - EARTHWORKS AND PAVEMENT LAYERS OF GRAVEL OR CRUSHED STONE

ITEM UNIT
33.03 DRILLING AND TESTING
CORES FROM CONCRETE, ASPHALT
OR CEMENTED PAVEMENT LAYERS:
(a) BITUMINOUS MATERIAL NUMBER (no)
(b) CEMENTED MATERIAL NUMBER (no)
(c) PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE NUMBER (no)
(INDICATE WHETHER REINFORCED
OR UN-REINFORCED)

The unit of measurement shall be the number of cores


drilled on the instructions of the Engineer.

The bid rate shall include full compensation for setting


out the core locations, for drilling the cores and testing
their strength in the laboratory as specified.

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 3000 - 9


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 3000 - EARTHWORKS AND PAVEMENT LAYERS OF GRAVEL OR CRUSHED STONE

SERIES 3000: EARTHWORKS AND PAVEMENT The attention of the Contractor is drawn to the
provisions of CLAUSE 1214 as regards his activities on
LAYERS OF GRAVEL OR CRUSHED STONE
private land.

SECTION 3400: BORROW PIT The Contractor shall observe all the legal provisions
and the provisions of the Special Specifications in
AND QUARRY ACQUISITION AND respect of his activities at borrow pits and when
finishing off the borrow pits and quarry areas.
EXPLOITATION
3403 ACCESS TO BORROW PITS AND
CONTENTS: QUARRIES
CLAUSE PAGE The Contractor shall satisfy himself that all necessary
negotiations have been made with the Owner or Legal
3401 SCOPE 3000-10 Occupants of the land on which any borrow pit or quarry
3402 NEGOTIATIONS W ITH LANDOWNERS, is situated, prior to the entry upon such area.
AUTHORITIES AND LEGAL OCCUPANTS OF
LAND 3000-10 The Contractor shall notify the affected Owners or Legal
3403 ACCESS TO BORROW PITS AND Occupants of land both verbally and writing at least
QUARRIES 3000-10 seven days before prospecting for materials.
3404 OBTAINING BORROW OR QUARRIED
MATERIALS 3000-10 The Contractor shall give the Engineer at least thirty
3405 OPENING AND WORKING BORROW PITS 3000-11 days notice of his intention to enter a borrow area or
3406 REINSTATING BORROW AND QUARRY quarry and shall not enter thereon until compensation to
AREAS AND HAUL ROADS 3000-11 owners or legal occupants is effected and the approval
3407 DISPOSAL OF BORROW OR QUARRY of the Engineer has been given.
MATERIAL 3000-12
3408 OWNERSHIP OF BORROW PITS AND
QUARRIES 3000-12 3404 OBTAINING BORROW OR QUARRIED
3409 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 3000-12
MATERIALS
(a) General
Borrow materials shall be obtained from approved
3401 SCOPE sources of supply listed and described on the borrow-pit
This Section covers the work involved in obtaining
plans, or from such other sources as may from time to
borrow materials for work under this contract, including time be tested and approved by the Engineer. Borrow-
negotiations with Owners or Legal Occupants of the pit material complying with the requirements of the
land on which borrow areas and quarry sites are
Specifications for the use for which the material is
situated. Legal Occupants of Land are holders of legal intended, shall be selected from these approved
documentation giving them permission to occupy the sources.
land according to law.
(b) Borrow-pit and quarry plans
Borrow-pit and quarry plans are not included in the
3402 NEGOTIATIONS WITH LANDOWNERS, contract documents unless so specified in the Special
AUTHORITIES AND LEGAL OCCUPANTS Specifications. The information shown on the plans
OF LAND reflects the results of site investigations and laboratory
tests conducted by or for the Employer and is supplied
(a) Land compensation and royalties in good faith as to the sufficiency in quantity and quality
Land that may be required by the Contractor for of the material for the due and proper completion of the
opening of borrow pits and for the construction of Works. The provision of these plans shall not in any
temporary works will be provided by the Employer, but way be construed as limiting the obtaining of borrow or
the approval of the Engineer must be sought before quarry material to the indicated areas nor to the depth
entry upon the land. The same applies to quarry sites of working specified pits shown on the plans or as
for use in the Works. necessarily limiting the use of the material to that
described on the plans.
In all cases, the Contractor shall be required to make all
necessary arrangements with local authorities and If, at any time during construction, it appears that the
owners or legal occupants of the land and to pay the quality or quantity of material available in a borrow pit or
cost of compensation on behalf of the Employer. For quarry is inadequate or insufficient, the Contractor shall
this purpose, the Contractor will liaise with the Regional locate and make use of other borrow or quarry areas
Administration or the appropriate authority and advise approved by the Engineer, irrespective of whether or
of the intention to commence work of any kind. not such other areas are shown on the plans for borrow
pits or quarries.
The Employer will refund to the Contractor such
payments, as provided in the Bill of Quantities, and all (c) Use of borrow or quarry materials
lands so purchased shall be the property of the Payment will not be made for moving the Contractor's
Employer. plant from one location to another at any of the
individual sources.
A Provisional Sum for this purchase has been included
in ITEM 12.01 of the Bill of Quantities. Subject to the Should the Contractor elect to obtain material from
agreement of the Engineer in advance, and upon sources other than those shown on the plans, he shall
production of receipts, the Contractor will be reimbursed excavate the necessary trial holes, take such samples
the net cost of such purchasing, plus the percentage and conduct or have conducted such tests as are
inserted by the Contractor in the Bill of Quantities for deemed to be necessary by the Engineer. The
overheads and, profit. Contractor shall submit the results and sufficient details
to the Engineer to satisfy him that the quality and
quantity of the material available in the proposed area

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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 3000 - EARTHWORKS AND PAVEMENT LAYERS OF GRAVEL OR CRUSHED STONE

are acceptable for the intended use, all at the regards to his obligations to fulfil all requirements of the
Contractor's own expense. Specifications in respect of the quality of materials for
earthworks or pavement layers.
The Contractor shall plan his exploitation of the borrow
pits or quarries in such a manner that the various types c) Protecting borrow pits and quarries
of materials extracted can be selected and utilised Borrow pits and quarries shall be continuously
without contamination or admixture of unsuitable protected against the ingress of surface water, and the
material. Contractor shall construct such temporary banks as
may be required for diverting surface water, and, in so
(d) Borrow materials obtainable in the road prism far as is possible, his operations shall be planned ins
or within the road reserve boundaries such a way that the borrow pit and quarry will be self
Where suitable sources of materials are available in draining. Where this is not possible, borrow pits and
existing cuttings and side drains, such materials may be quarries shall be dewatered by pumping. The
used for the Works if approved by the Engineer. Contractor shall be solely responsible for keeping
borrow areas and quarry sites dry and ensuring that
borrow material is sufficiently dry when required for use.
3405 OPENING AND WORKING BORROW PITS
d) Access roads
a) Excavating borrow material The Contractor shall obtain the Engineer's prior
All opening and working of borrow pits shall be approval to the siting of junctions of access roads with
undertaken in a manner which prevents contamination existing roads and shall comply with he Engineer's
or undesirable mixing of materials. conditions of access particularly regarding clearance of
obstructions to provide adequate sight lines, temporary
Where any borrow pit contains different types of drainage or culverts and the provision of signs and
materials which require mixing to produce a suitable traffic control.
product, the materials shall be excavated and handled
by use of methods approved by the Engineer. The provision of access roads shall not be measured
for payment.
The Contractor shall take all precautionary measures so
as to avoid contamination of the suitable material by the e) Private access roads
inclusion of clayey or otherwise unsuitable material from Where private roads are to be used as access roads,
the floor of the borrow pit, the overburden, any the Contractor shall after consultation with the Owner or
unsuitable layers, or areas beyond the approved limits Authority having control of such road, carry out any
of the borrow area. During loading, any hard oversize repairs, alterations or additions to such roads as may
material which will not break down during processing on be required to bring them to an acceptable condition
the road shall be excluded as far as is practicable. suitable for traffic. Where materials from a borrow pit or
quarry are hauled on private access roads, such roads
During borrow operations, and especially when shall be maintained properly to the satisfaction of the
excavating material near the floor and outer boundaries Engineer during borrow and quarry operations. No
of the borrow areas, the Contractor shall plan his additional payment will be made for this work, and full
operations so as to reduce, in so far as is possible, the compensation for maintaining private access roads
amount of earth moving work that will be necessary for used as haul roads will be regarded as being included
finishing-off the borrow pits. Indiscriminate excavation in the bid rates and paid for in the various items of work
without due regard being had to the desired final shape where the materials are used.
of the borrow pit will not be permitted.

The material in borrow pits shall be blasted or ripped 3406 REINSTATING BORROW AND QUARRY
and excavated in a manner that will ensure the effective AREAS AND HAUL ROADS
breaking-down of the material in the borrow pit before it
is loaded. Rippable material which tends to break into a) Borrow and quarry areas
large blocks shall be cross-ripped. On completion of his operations in a borrow and quarry
area, the Contractor shall reinstate the entire area so as
b) Control at borrow pit to blend it with the surrounding area and to permit the
The Contractor shall be responsible for controlling his re-establishment of vegetation. For this purpose the
operations at every borrow pit where material is being borrow area shall be shaped to even contours without
excavated to ensure compliance with all the any slopes being steeper than 1:3, except where the
requirements of the Specifications. Engineer so permits in specified cases. All material in
and around the borrow areas, where spoil from clearing
The Contractor shall carry out sufficient tests on the and grubbing operations or excess overburden, shall be
material being excavated from the borrow pit to satisfy used or disposed of as directed by the Engineer. Solid
himself that the quality of the material will comply with waste and rubbish may not be dumped into the borrow
the specific requirements for the particular layers for area. Material incapable of supporting vegetation shall
which it will be used. If required for the proper control of be buried and used for shaping the borrow area and
quality, in the opinion of the Engineer, the materials shall subsequently be covered with soft material. All
shall be stockpiled prior to loading and tests of the available soft material shall be spread evenly to the
stockpiles carried out as required. prescribed thickness, and where sufficient material is
not available for so covering the entire area, the
If there is any doubt concerning the quality of the remaining portions shall be scarified along contours so
borrow material being excavated at any time, the as to avoid undue erosion.
Contractor shall notify the Engineer immediately, and in
any case before such material is brought onto the road. The shaping and reinstatement of the borrow pit shall
The results of all tests carried out by the Contractor be done in such a manner that the borrow pit will be
shall be submitted to the Engineer on request. The properly drained wherever practicable, and, where
Engineer may, after further testing or inspection if required, the Contractor shall place earth banks to
necessary, approve the use of the material in the divert surface water from the borrow area. If so
borrow area, or he may order the borrow pit to be directed, the borrow and quarry area shall be fenced off
finished off and abandoned. Any such approval by the and provided with gates as specified in SECTION 5300,
Engineer does not indemnify the Contractor with
THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 3000 - 11
STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 3000 - EARTHWORKS AND PAVEMENT LAYERS OF GRAVEL OR CRUSHED STONE

and topsoiled and/or hydro-seeded as specified in


SECTION 5700.

The reinstatement of the borrow and quarry areas shall


be to the entire satisfaction of the Engineer and the
Contractor shall submit to the Engineer a signed
certificate from the Landowner, or Legal Occupants of
land or relevant Government Agency stating that the
finishing-off complies with all necessary legal
provisions. The Contractor's attention is drawn to the
provisions of CLAUSE 1214 in this respect.

(b) Haul roads


Unless otherwise specified or instructed by the
Engineer all haul roads shall be obliterated and their
surfaces scarified, earth banks shall be constructed to
prevent erosion, and all damaged fences and other
structures shall be reinstated.

Where materials from a borrow pit or quarry are hauled


on private access roads, such roads shall be restored to
their original condition to the satisfaction of the
Engineer when operations at the borrow pit and quarry
are completed, unless otherwise specified.

No additional payment will be made for obliteration, or


restoration respectively, of haul roads or access roads
to borrow pits or quarries. Full compensation for this
work is regarded as being included in the bid rates and
paid for elsewhere

3407 DISPOSAL OF BORROW OR QUARRY


MATERIAL
The Contractor shall not have the right to use material
obtained from borrow pits or quarries for any purpose
other than for the execution of this Contract. He shall
not dispose of any such material whether processed or
not either by sale or donation to any person without the
authorisation of the Employer.

3408 OWNERSHIP OF BORROW PITS AND


QUARRIES
Upon completion of the Contract all borrow pits and
quarries acquired for the Works shall revert to the
Employer regardless of licensee to operate the same.

3409 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT


No separate measurement and payment will be made
for procuring and providing borrow or quarry material,
but it will be regarded as an obligation on the part of the
Contractor to be covered by the contract prices paid for
the various items of work for which the material is used
as prescribed in these Specifications.

Such bid rates related to procuring and providing


borrow or quarry material shall also include full
compensation for all obligations, costs, activities and
work as prescribed in SECTION 1200, as well as for all
supervision, labour, plant, tools and incidentals
required, including all costs as may be necessary for
conducting control tests on all materials, draining and
protecting all borrow or quarry areas, and concluding all
negotiations with Owners or Legal Occupants of land
(except negotiations that are conducted by the
Employer himself) as specified, also for finally shaping
and finishing the borrow pits and quarries.

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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 3000 - EARTHWORKS AND PAVEMENT LAYERS OF GRAVEL OR CRUSHED STONE

SERIES 3000: EARTHWORKS AND PAVEMENT any stockpiling of material may be done, the site shall
be cleaned, and all material which may cause pollution
LAYERS OF GRAVEL OR CRUSHED STONE
shall be removed. During use, the lower 100 mm of
stockpiled material shall not be utilised for construction.
SECTION 3500: SELECTING AND After the stockpiled material has been removed, the site
shall be reinstated as closely as possible to its original
UTILISING MATERIAL FROM condition, and the surface shall be lightly scarified to
promote vegetation growth.
BORROW PITS AND CUTTINGS
No separate payment will be made in regard to
CONTENTS: stockpiling of materials.

CLAUSE PAGE
3501 SCOPE 3000-13 3503 BREAKING DOWN OVERSIZE
3502 SELECTING AND STOCKPILING MATERIALS
MATERIALS 3000-13
3503 BREAKING DOWN OVERSIZE MATERIALS 3000-13 (a) Material from cuts or borrow pits
3504 CONTROLLING THE MOISTURE The material from cuttings and borrow pits shall be
CONTENT OF MATERIALS 3000-14 broken down in the cuttings or borrow pits, alternatively
3505 LAYER THICKNESSES AND SPREADING in the road, to the maximum size specified for the
OF MATERIALS 3000-14 respective layer where it will be used.
3506 COMPACTION OF MATERIALS 3000-15
3507 DRAINAGE AND PROTECTION 3000-15 Spoil material need be broken down only sufficiently for
3508 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 3000-15 convenient loading and transporting, but the Engineer
may require sufficient material to be broken down to a
maximum size of 500 mm with a view to effectively
trimming the spoil areas.
3501 SCOPE
This Section describes the selection of materials from Material intended for crushing need only be broken
borrow pits and cuttings for the various purposes for down sufficiently to permit acceptance by the crusher.
which they are required in the Works, stockpiling the
materials excavated but which can not be dumped In order that the material can be broken down to the
directly where required, breaking down the material appropriate sizes, the Contractor shall adjust and
during the excavation process when it is processed on control his blasting, ripping, excavating and other
the road, or when special processing for breaking-down operations so that the desired result can be achieved as
by crusher is required, controlling the moisture content, effectively as possible.
placing and compacting the soil and gravel layers and
constructing the rock fills. Care shall be taken not to load oversize material and to
bring it onto the road. The Contractor shall, at his own
In addition, this Section describes the treatment of cost remove such oversize material from the road or
material recovered from existing pavements, and break it down further to the required size on the road.
construction in restricted areas during rehabilitation
work. If, in the opinion of the Engineer, the working methods
of the Contractor are such that unnecessarily large
Unless inconsistent with the context, the provisions of quantities of oversize material are produced, the
SECTION 3500 relating to borrow pits or the material Contractor shall change his methods in order to
obtained from borrow pits shall apply with changes as produce less oversize material, and the material shall
required to such places where material is recovered be broken down to the sizes as specified for each layer
from an existing road, and to the material recovered by using equipment suited to this purpose. The
from an existing road respectively. Contractor shall be at liberty to employ any methods
and equipment he may prefer, but where any difference
3502 SELECTING AND STOCKPILING of opinion may arise in regard to the practicability of the
breaking-down process or the suitability of the methods
MATERIALS and equipment employed by the Contractor, the
The Contractor shall use materials strictly in Engineer may require use of grid-rollers, pad-foot rollers
accordance with the purpose for which they have been or other equipment giving similar effect as a grid roller
approved. During his activities in borrow pits or cuttings,
to be used on the road. The results so obtained will
he shall ensure that approved materials are not polluted then serve as the norm of the degree to which the
with unsuitable material or that approved materials are breaking-down shall be attained by any alternative
not unnecessarily wasted.
methods. No separate payment will be made for
breaking down material to the required size.
Unless otherwise directed by the Engineer, the
Contractor shall so plan his activities that materials
Where surplus oversize material is available and the
excavated from borrow pits and cuttings, in so far as is Engineer so agrees, the Contractor, instead of breaking
possible, can be transported direct to and placed at the down any oversize materials may spoil it. The Engineer
point where it is to be used. However, where utilisation
may also require oversize materials to be used for other
of materials in this manner is impracticable, or if so purposes, such as for rock fills or rip-rap.
instructed by the Engineer, materials shall be
temporarily stockpiled for later loading and
Any oversize material still remaining after processing in
transportation to where it will be used. If, in the opinion accordance with any of the processes described above
of the Engineer, materials need to be stockpiled for the shall be removed from the road.
purpose of quality control or for mixing to become
sufficiently homogenous, the Contractor shall carry out The Contractor’s attention is drawn to the risk of
stockpiling as required to ensure proper quality control causing excessive breaking down of the finer fraction of
and to meet the Specifications consistently.
the materials and thereby altering the properties of the
material by inappropriate working methods or
Stockpiling areas and maximum height and extent of equipment. Any material which does not meet the
stockpiles shall be approved by the Engineer. Before

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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 3000 - EARTHWORKS AND PAVEMENT LAYERS OF GRAVEL OR CRUSHED STONE

requirements of these Specifications after compaction for addition of stabiliser for the purpose of using wet
shall be replaced or made good on the Contractor’s material. The Contractor himself shall decide and
expense. submit his proposed method of work for the approval of
the Engineer.
(b) Existing cemented layers
Existing cemented layers to be broken down and
reprocessed may be reprocessed either on the road, or 3505 LAYER THICKNESSES AND SPREADING
it may be hauled to a crusher for processing, whichever OF MATERIALS
is specified or required by the Engineer.
(a) General
(c) Crushing and screening
All material shall be placed in the correct quantity, and
Where the material intended for use in pavement layers
to the required grade, line and thickness, in a manner
cannot be suitably broken down by the methods set out
which prevents segregation and contamination of any
herein, the Contractor shall use alternative sources or
kind.
apply crushing or screening, or both, as required to
meet the Specifications. The crushing plant, shall be
The thickness of layers compacted in one operation
capable of breaking down oversize material to the
shall not exceed the maximum that the equipment and
maximum size specified for the layer concerned.
method of operation can process to meet the
requirements of the Specifications in terms of
No separate payment will be made for crushing or
tolerances and density to the full depth of the layer.
screening material to the required size unless
specifically allowed for in the Special Specifications and
The thickness of layers compacted in one operation
the Bill of Quantities.
shall not be less than the minimum that the equipment
and method of operation can process without lamination
(d) Disposing of oversize materials
unless special precautions are taken on the approval of
All oversize materials removed from the road and all
the Engineer.
excess material removed from the road shall be
disposed of at the Contractor's cost or may be used in
(b) Fill and improved subgrade layers (G15, G7, G3,
the Works for other suitable purposes on the approval
DR)
of the Engineer.
The maximum layer thickness for fill or improved
subgrade layers made of soils or gravel (G15, G7, G3),
The bid rates for constructing all pavement layers shall
compacted in one operation, shall be 250 mm
include full compensation for the removal of oversize
(compacted thickness).
material without any additional payment being made to
the Contractor.
For rock fill (DR) the maximum compacted layer
thickness shall be 1 metre except in areas where
3504 CONTROLLING THE MOISTURE compaction plant is not accessible or is impracticable to
CONTENT OF MATERIALS use in the opinion of the Engineer.
The Contractor shall take all necessary precautions to
prevent material in borrow pits, excavations, stockpiles The maximum particle size for all fill and improved
and on the road from becoming excessively wet as a subgrade layers shall not exceed two thirds of the
result of rain or groundwater or stormwater. Therefore, compacted layer thickness. In order to prevent the layer
the excavation of borrow pits and cuttings shall be so thicknesses from being determined by the presence of
planned and executed as to prevent the damming-up of isolated large fragments, the Contractor shall remove
water in the borrow pits or cuttings, and the Contractor such isolated fragments as directed by the Engineer.
shall also provide the necessary temporary drainage for
this purpose. Where a new layer is constructed on an existing or
already constructed fill or improved subgrade layer and
Material that is too dry shall be mixed thoroughly with the new layer will be less than 100 mm in compacted
water until the required moisture content for compaction thickness, the existing layer shall be scarified to such a
is achieved. depth as will give a layer thickness after compaction of
not less than 100 mm of the new plus the scarified
During the rainy season the Contractor shall take all material together. No additional payment will be made
necessary precautions to prevent material from for this operation.
becoming excessively wet. The methods may include,
but are not restricted to, the following: spreading on the (c) Pavement layers
road with a proper cross slope and temporarily rolling The layer thickness shall comply with the requirements
with flat-wheeled roller in order to improve water run off, as indicated on the Drawings and in the Special
covering of stockpiles with tarpaulins, applying special Specifications or as directed by the Engineer.
measures to prevent water to dam up against material
heaps or windrows. Spreading material in restricted areas shall be done in a
manner approved by the Engineer to comply with the
The Contractor shall so plan his construction required levels, grade, line and density to the full depth
programme that material with a high natural moisture of the layer.
content will be used in the dry season and not in the
wet. Where material is too wet, for whatever reason, to Where the thickness of any existing pavement layer
comply with the requirements in regard to moisture requires to be supplemented and the thickness of the
content during compaction, the Contractor shall correct added material after compaction will be less than 100
the moisture content of the material until it is adequately mm, the existing layer shall be scarified to a depth that
dry for compaction, by drying out the material, will give a layer thickness of at least 100 mm after
alternatively mixing with approved dry material, spoiling compacting together the loosened existing and added
and replacing with drier approved material, or applying material. In the case of gravel or crushed aggregate
treatment with lime or cement. base course, the Engineer may direct the existing layer
to be broken down to its full depth.
No separate payment will be made in regard to
measures for keeping material dry, nor for any
measures for correcting the moisture content, neither

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 3000 - 14


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 3000 - EARTHWORKS AND PAVEMENT LAYERS OF GRAVEL OR CRUSHED STONE

3506 COMPACTION OF MATERIALS


(a) General requirements
Compaction shall be carried out in a series of
continuous operations covering the full width of the
layer concerned according to the Drawings. The
Contractor shall reduce the length or width of any layer
compacted in any single operation if the proper
compaction or finish of such layer is not being achieved
in the opinion of the Engineer.

The method of work, type of compaction equipment to


be used and the amount of rolling to be done, shall be
such as to ensure that specified density and finish is
obtained without damage being done to adjacent or
lower layers or structures. During compaction the layer
shall be maintained to the required shape and cross-
section, and all holes, ruts and laminations shall be
removed or repaired to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

Suitable equipment and methods acceptable to the


Engineer shall be used in restricted areas so that the
required densities will be obtained throughout the
thickness of the layer. If necessary, the layers shall be
placed in thicknesses which are less than the specified
layer thickness.

Rock fill material shall be compacted with vibratory


rollers to achieve a good mechanical interlock of the
rock and the maximum compaction of the finer material
in the spaces between the rock. The type of vibratory
roller used, the operating speed, the number of passes
and the layer thicknesses shall be determined after field
trials and the proposed method shall be to the
satisfaction of the Engineer.

(c) In place reworking of pavement layers


Where so specified or instructed by the Engineer, and
the material in any existing layer complies with the
requirements for the new layer, the Contractor shall
scarify the layer to the specified depth, add extra
approved material if necessary, and reprocess the layer
in place. Reprocessing includes watering, mixing, and
compacting the layer to the level, grade line, finish and
density specified for the layer concerned. Payment will
be made as determined for the respective pavement
layers.

3507 DRAINAGE AND PROTECTION


The compacted layers shall be adequately drained and
shaped to prevent water from standing on or along or
causing damage to the completed work. Windrows shall
be removed to facilitate the drainage of water from the
surface.

No material for a subsequent layer may be placed if the


underlying layer has been softened by excessive
moisture and requires repair in the opinion of the
Engineer.

3508 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT


No separate measurement and payment will be made
for procuring and providing borrow material, selection,
stockpiling and breaking down material from borrow pits
and cuttings, nor for placing materials, adding water,
drying, mixing and compacting the layers. It will be
regarded as an obligation on the part of the Contractor
to be covered by the contract prices paid for the various
items of work for which the material is used as
prescribed in these Specifications.

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 3000 - 15


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 3000 - EARTHWORKS AND PAVEMENT LAYERS OF GRAVEL OR CRUSHED STONE

SERIES 3000: EARTHWORKS AND PAVEMENT 3602 MATERIALS


LAYERS OF GRAVEL OR CRUSHED STONE
(a) General
Any test results provided in design documents such as
SECTION 3600: EARTHWORKS the Materials Report, read in conjunction with these
Specifications, may give a preliminary indication as to
the purpose for which the cut material may be used as
CONTENTS: well as the treatment, if any, which the roadbed shall
CLAUSE PAGE receive. Any test results or recommendations of method
of work in the Material Report are solely for information.
3601 SCOPE 3000-16 The Contractor shall undertake his own assessment
3602 MATERIALS 3000-16
and any tests required and submit his proposed
3603 EXCAVATIONS 3000-17 methods of work and test results of all material he
3604 PREPARATION OF THE ROADBED 3000-18 intends to use for the approval of the Engineer.
3605 EMBANKMENTS 3000-18
3606 COMPACTION OF EARTHWORKS 3000-20 The material types (G15, G7, G3, DR) given in the
3607 PROTECTING THE EARTHWORKS AND Drawings denote the minimum quality for a particular
STRUCTURES 3000-20
use in the Works, either specified in the Drawings or as
3608 FINISHING THE SLOPES 3000-21 instructed by the Engineer. In the cases where a
3609 CONSTRUCTION TOLERANCES AND minimum quality of earthworks material is not specified,
TESTING 3000-21
the following guidelines shall apply and the Engineer’s
3610 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 3000-21 instruction shall be the standard to which materials
quality control is applied:

Material type Typical use


3601 SCOPE G15 Upper improved subgrade layers and fill
This Section covers work in connection with the
construction of cuts and fills, the removal to spoil of G7 Lower improved subgrade layers and fill
material unsuitable for use, the construction and G3 Fill only
compaction of fills and improved subgrade layers with DR Improved subgrade layers and fill
cut material from the road prism or borrow material from
approved borrow pits, the compaction of the roadbed Irrespective of the minimum required quality specified or
and finishing of cuts and fills, up to the stage where fills the above guidelines the highest quality of approved
are ready for the placing of the pavement layers. earthworks material available at economical haul
distances, complying with the requirements of the
This Section covers the requirements for the following Specifications and Drawings, shall be selected for fill or
types of material: improved subgrade layers. Rock fill materials (DR)
− G15 natural gravel/soils with nominal CBR value complying with the requirements of the Specifications
of minimum 15 shall be the preferred material type unless otherwise
− G7 natural gravel/soils with nominal CBR value specified or directed by the Engineer.
of minimum 7
− G3 natural gravel/soils with nominal CBR value (b) Material requirements for fill and improved
of minimum 3 subgrade layers
− DR Dump Rock, un-graded waste rock Materials for earthworks shall be non-expansive soils or
dump rock meeting the requirements given in TABLES
3602/1 and 3602/2.

TABLE 3602/1
REQUIREMENTS FOR FILL AND IMPROVED SUBGRADE LAYERS. CML TEST METHODS.

Material properties Material class


CML Tests G15 G7 G3
CBR (%), wet or moderate Minimum 15 after 4 days 7 after 4 days soaking 2) 3 after 4 days soaking,
climatic zones CML1.11 1) soaking 2) measured at 90% of MDD
CBR (%), dry climatic zones Minimum 15 at OMC and Minimum 7 at OMC and of BS-Heavy compaction
CML1.11 1) also minimum 7 after 4 also minimum 3 after 4 days
days soaking 2) soaking 2)
CBR-swell (%) CML1.11 Maximum 1.5 Maximum 2 Maximum 2
Plasticity index (%) CML1.3 Maximum 25 Maximum 30 (no requirement)
Max. particle size CML1.7 2/3 of compacted layer thickness
Maximum layer thickness 250 mm compacted thickness placed in one operation
1. The climatic zones for the project, or respective parts of the project, shall be in accordance with the Drawings or
Special Specifications or as directed by the Engineer.
2. CBR values are measured at the specified field density for the respective layer.

TABLE 3602/2
REQUIREMENTS FOR DUMP ROCK (DR) IN FILL AND IMPROVED SUBGRADE LAYERS

Material properties Material class: DR (dump rock)


Maximum particle size: Two thirds of compacted layer thickness.
Maximum layer thickness: 1 m placed in one operation.
The content of fines shall be sufficiently low so that the larger particles rest against each other when placed in earthworks
layers. The Engineer’s decision shall be the final in cases where doubt or disagreement exists whether the material can be
classified as DR.

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STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 3000 - EARTHWORKS AND PAVEMENT LAYERS OF GRAVEL OR CRUSHED STONE

3603 EXCAVATIONS and size are such that, in the opinion of the
Engineer, they cannot be removed without recourse
(a) Classification to one of the methods described under rock
excavation in TABLE 3603/1. Where a portion of
(i) General excavation contains 50% or more by volume of
This SUBCLAUSE 3603(a) sets out the criteria and boulders of this order, such portion shall be
assessment methods to classify all excavations for considered as rock excavation throughout.
measurement and payment. The classification is
valid for excavations of cuts, for structures, drains, (b) Dimensions of cuts
services and for removal of unsuitable materials or The dimensions of cuts shall be in accordance with the
any other excavations measured not paid for details of the Drawings and may further be defined or
separately. amended during the course of construction by
instructions from the Engineer. The Contractor shall
(ii) Classification criteria obtain instructions beforehand from the Engineer
The excavation of material shall be classified in regarding the slope of the sides of cuttings and the
accordance with TABLE 3603/1 for purposes of depth to which cuttings are to be taken, including the
measurement and payment. dimensions of any in situ treatment of cuts that may be
required below the formation level. Cuts in soils shall be
trimmed to a smooth finish to prevent initiation of slope
TABLE 3603/1 erosion.
CLASSIFICATION OF MATERIALS FROM CUT EXCAVATIONS
In rock cuts, the rock shall be removed to the level that
Classification Description will permit the construction of the subbase layer, unless
otherwise instructed.
Rock Rock excavation shall be
excavation excavation in material which The Contractor shall take proper care when excavating
requires drilling and blasting or cuts not to loosen any material outside the specified cut
the use of hydraulic or pneumatic line, whether by ripping, blasting or by other means.
jackhammers to be loosened and Care shall also be taken not to undercut any slopes,
to be loaded for transportation. and proper control shall at all times be exercised by
Common Common excavation shall be regular survey checking and by using batter poles at
excavation excavation in all material other close intervals.
than rock as defined above,
whether the material is suitable All cuts made outside the specified cut line or below the
for use in the Works, or to be specified level without the approval of the Engineer
spoiled and paid for as Common shall be backfilled with approved material, compacted to
Excavation to Spoil. The the satisfaction of the Engineer and re-trimmed, all at
classification includes excavation the Contractor's own expense and in accordance with
in earthworks or any pavement SECTION 7400.
layers of an existing pavement
not covered by a separate item in The Engineer may, when he considers it necessary,
the Bill of Quantities regardless of instruct the Contractor to widen existing, completed or
the nature of the material partly completed cuttings either uniformly or by altering
excavated, other than rock the slope of the sides of the cutting, or by cutting
excavation. benches, or in any other way.

(iii) Classification assessment (c) Utilisation of excavated material


The Engineer shall decide under which one of the
above classes any excavation shall be classified for (i) General
purposes of payment. In the event of a As far as practical in the opinion of the Engineer,
disagreement between the Contractor and the the material resulting from cuts, widening of cuts or
Engineer, the Contractor shall, at his own cost, other excavations in the road reserve shall be
make available such mechanical plant as required utilised for construction of earthworks or pavement
by the Engineer in order to determine whether or layers depending on their quality. The Engineer’s
not the material can reasonably be removed. The approval to use any material does not indemnify the
decision of the Engineer as to the classification Contractor with regards to his obligations to fulfil all
shall be final and binding. requirements of the Specifications in respect of the
quality of materials for earthworks or pavement
The Contractor shall be at liberty to use any layers.
approved method he wishes to use for excavating
any class of material, but his chosen method of The Contractor shall plan his operations in such a
excavating the material shall not dictate the manner that all cut material may be used to the best
classification of the excavation. advantage of the Employer. This would mean that
no material shall be unnecessarily spoiled,
The Contractor shall immediately inform the borrowed or hauled. The Contractor shall neither
Engineer if and when the nature of the material borrow nor spoil any material without the Engineer's
being excavated changes to the extent that a new approval and without satisfying the Engineer that
classification for further excavation is warranted. this is necessary and the most economical method
Failure on the part of the Contractor to advise the of constructing the Works.
Engineer thereof in good time shall entitle the
Engineer to classify, at his discretion, such Material which will not be used in the pavement or
excavation as may have been executed in material earthworks due to quality or other reasons may be
of a different nature. stockpiled for future use as topsoil or side fill as
required by the Engineer.
(iv) Boulders
Individual boulders greater than one cubic metre in
volume shall be classified as rock when their nature

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 3000 - 17


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 3000 - EARTHWORKS AND PAVEMENT LAYERS OF GRAVEL OR CRUSHED STONE

(ii) Conservation of topsoil achieve a uniform standard of compaction and


Topsoil encountered in excavations shall be strength, or to prevent water-logging and improve
conserved as described in SECTION 3100 where drainage.
directed by the Engineer. No additional payment will
be made for conservation of topsoil. (c) Draining and protecting the roadbed
The Contractor shall take all necessary precautions to
ensure that the roadbed is kept drained. In the cases
3604 PREPARATION OF THE ROADBED where the roadbed needs to be kept moist due to the
presence of expansive soils he shall carry out watering
(a) Removing unsuitable material and timely dumping and spreading of following layers
as required to the satisfaction of the Engineer. No
(i) Poor material quality separate payment will be made for any such operations
Any roadbed material which the Engineer considers or adjustments of schedules to fulfil such requirements.
to be of a quality that would be detrimental to the
performance of the completed road shall be Waterlogged roadbed, such as saturated material
removed to such widths and depths as he may overlying less pervious strata, shall first be drained by
instruct, and shall be disposed of as prescribed. the installation of all permanent surface or subsoil
The excavated spaces shall then be backfilled with drainage shown on the Drawings, or as directed by the
approved material and compacted according to the Engineer, before any other construction may be started
Specifications. on these sections. Such drains shall be constructed,
measured and paid for in accordance with the
(ii) Wet material requirements of SECTION 2100.
The Engineer may order that roadbed material
which is too wet to provide a stable platform for the
construction of the embankment be removed to 3605 EMBANKMENTS
such widths and depths as he may instruct and be
replaced with approved dry material and compacted (a) General
according to the Specifications. Payment for this Embankments shall be constructed to comply with all
work will only be made if the Engineer is satisfied requirements in the Specifications and Drawings or as
that the high moisture content is not a result of further instructed or amended by the Engineer in
inappropriate or insufficient measures by the respect of dimensions of embankments, installation of
Contractor to protect the roadbed from getting wet subsoil drainage or other structures, work method, such
and that drying of the material could not be done as benching or roadbed preparation. Before the start of
with reasonable efforts and within a reasonable construction the Contractor shall submit plans showing
time, all in the opinion of the Engineer. his proposed method of work, the selection of materials,
the method of compaction, and any other matter that
may affect the construction of the embankment or
(b) Preparing and compacting the roadbed sequence of operations.

(i) Compaction All material used for the construction of embankments


Unless otherwise instructed by the Engineer the shall meet the requirements of CLAUSE 3602 and shall
roadbed shall be scarified, watered and compacted be selected so that the minimum required quality of
to a density and depth according to the Drawings material is used in the respective positions of the
and the Specifications or as directed by the embankment according to the Drawings and the
Engineer. If necessary, roadbed material may have Specifications. The density of embankment layers shall
to be temporarily bladed off to windrow in order to comply with the requirements of CLAUSE 3606.
achieve the necessary depth of compaction. The
Engineer may instruct that expansive soils are Embankment shall be placed in successive layers
given different treatment such as watering to parallel to the final road surface, and the construction of
maintain natural moisture content and timely wedge-shaped layers shall be restricted to the bottom
dumping and spreading of following layers. No layers of embankment where this may be unavoidable
separate payment will be made for any such on account of cross fall, the tapering out of
operations or alternative techniques to achieve the embankments, or the superelevation of the final road
specified depth and degree of compaction. The surface.
Contractor shall carry out field trials as required by
the Engineer to show that his proposed method and (b) Materials for earthworks layers
equipment for processing and compacting the Materials for earthworks layers shall meet the
roadbed gives the desired result in accordance with requirements as set out in CLAUSE 3602 in respect of
the Specifications and to the satisfaction of the the specified respective material types given in the
Engineer. Drawings or as directed by the Engineer. The better soil
qualities shall be selected where alternative fill
(ii) Adjustment of levels materials all meet the minimum material requirements.
Where any additional material has to be imported to In the situation where material quantities are limited, the
obtain the required level and layer thickness, and better quality materials shall be used in the upper
where the thickness of the layer of imported layers. Dump Rock shall in the cases where instructed
material would be less than the specified layer by the Engineer be the preferred type of material for
thickness after compaction, then the roadbed earthworks. Under special conditions, such as where a
material shall be scarified, the necessary imported near impermeable material is desirable, the Engineer
material placed, and this combined material mixed may instruct that Dump Rock is not to be used in the
and compacted to the full specified depth of the earthworks.
layer. No separate payment will be made for such
operations. (c) Benching
Where the natural cross fall of the roadbed or existing
(iii) Rock or hard material or already constructed embankments exceeds 1:6, the
Wherever shown on the Drawings or as may be fills shall be bonded to the roadbed by means of
directed by the Engineer, the roadbed shall be benches excavated in the roadbed or existing
treated in situ by undesirable formations of hard or embankment. Where the existing fill is loose on the
rocky materials being broken down in order to outside and shows inadequate compaction, benches
THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 3000 - 18
STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 3000 - EARTHWORKS AND PAVEMENT LAYERS OF GRAVEL OR CRUSHED STONE

shall be cut back further than may be necessary to


accommodate construction equipment until adequately Separate payment for construction of sand filter
compacted material is found. blankets or specially selected gravel to be placed in
conjunction with the construction of sand filter blankets
Benches in rock shall be jagged to give sufficient will only apply as an extra over rate to the layer in
resistance to slippage. question on the approval of the Engineer.

The height of the benches shall be maximum 0.75


metres or as directed by the Engineer. The benches TABLE 3605/1
shall be wide enough to accommodate sufficiently REQUIREMENTS FOR GEOTEXTILES
effective compaction equipment.
Aggregate placed Geotextile, weight
No additional payments will be made for benching. All adjacent to the per area of the
measurement and payment will be made under the geotextile geotextile material
normal payment items for fills. (g/m2)
Aggregate Maximum Placed on Placed
(d) Constructing pioneer layers on unstable ground type particle firm, dry on soft,
Where fill is to be constructed across waterlogged or size, dmax subsoil 1) wet
soft ground exhibiting excessive movement under subsoil
normal compaction equipment and haulage trucks, and 2)
such conditions preclude the effective compaction of Gravel, sand
the bottom fill layers, the Engineer may direct that a Mini-
or graded, Maximum Minimum
pioneer layer be constructed on the unstable ground. mum
crushed 50 mm 140
This layer shall be constructed by placing suitable 200
material:
coarse material in a uniform layer with a thickness Sorted Mini-
sufficient to provide a stable working platform for Maximum Minimum
crushed mum
constructing the further fill layers which are to be 200 mm 200
rock: 320
compacted to a controlled density.
Special
A sand filter blanket of approved materials, alternatively reinforc
Dump rock
approved geotextile filters shall be placed at the bottom Minimum ement
(DR), -
of the pioneer layer if so directed by the Engineer. 320 shall be
unsorted:
Geotextile shall meet the requirements given in TABLE consi-
3605/1. dered
1) Dry subsoil refers to moisture contents below
Light hauling equipment shall be used, and where OMC of BS-Light CML test 1.9.
necessary end tipping undertaken for placing the 2) Soft, wet subsoil is silty or clayey materials in
material. The layer shall be compacted by light waterlogged areas or as defined by the
compaction equipment which will give the most effective Engineer.
compaction without the roadbed being over-stressed.
Pioneer layers will not require compaction to a (f) Placing of rock fill (DR)
controlled density unless so directed by the Engineer. Rock material containing particles larger than two thirds
No additional payment will be made for placing pioneer of the compacted layer thickness shall not be used in
layers except for the provision of geotextile filters where the fill unless otherwise authorised by the Engineer.
this is required.
The Contractor shall, by the judicious planning of the
(e) Sand filter blankets and geotextiles operation by selecting the smaller sized material for
At the bottom of fills, and sometimes at intermediate placing in the thinner fill layers, avoid unnecessary
levels, the construction of sand filter blankets may be spoiling of the larger sized rock material and shall
required to facilitate the drainage of fills and to separate ensure its fullest practicable utilisation in fills.
layers of materials where there is a risk of undesirable
infiltration of fine material into the coarse material. Sand (g) Construction of high fills
filter blankets shall be constructed in accordance with The Contractor shall make allowance for all required
the details on the Drawings and shall consist of a layer measures, special techniques and scheduling of work to
of selected sand with suitable grading to provide prevent the development of excessive pore pressure
effective drainage and to prevent the infiltration of fill or and to ensure the stability of high fills during and after
roadbed material into the sand filter blanket. construction where such measures are required in
accordance with the Special Specifications or as
The sand filter material shall meet the requirements directed by the Engineer. No separate payment will be
given in SUBCLAUSE 2104(a)(ii), however the made for any special measures taken in conjunction
requirements with reference to the slot size of drainage with the construction of high fills.
pipes shall only apply where drainage pipes are to be
constructed adjacent to the sand filter material. (h) Constructing rock protection at the toes of fills
Where required, the toes of fills shall be protected
The surface on which the sand filter blankets is to be against erosion by special rock protection, which shall
constructed, shall be smooth and even and the sand be installed as shown on the Drawings and as further
shall be spread evenly to the required thickness and be directed by the Engineer, by the outer part of the toes of
given a light compaction with suitable rollers. The final fills being constructed from assorted boulders and/or
surface of the sand filter blanket shall be finished off blasted rock, as described below.
true to line and level. The Engineer may require the
layers immediately below and above the filter blanket to The rock protection shall be constructed simultaneously
be constructed from selected soil or gravel. with the rest of the fill and shall consist of selected
durable rock material varying in size between 150 mm
Geotextiles, where specified, shall meet the and 750 mm. If required, a layer of approved geotextile
requirements given in TABLE 3605/1. The fabric shall filter shall be installed at the interface between the
not be exposed to direct sunlight for prolonged periods normal fills and the rock protection.
and shall be protected from mechanical damage during
installation and construction.

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 3000 - 19


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 3000 - EARTHWORKS AND PAVEMENT LAYERS OF GRAVEL OR CRUSHED STONE

The outer part of the rock protection shall consist of The moisture content of earthwork at the time of
larger boulders properly bedded by means of smaller compaction shall not be higher than the optimum
fragments so as to form a stable interlocking rip-rap moisture content (OMC) measured at BS-Light
surface. The rock protection shall otherwise be compaction for roadbed, and BS-Heavy compaction
constructed and compacted as rock fill as described in respectively for earthworks layers. The
the SPECIFICATIONS. corresponding lowest allowed moisture content
shall be 75% of OMC. SUBCLAUSE 3605(d) shall
(i) Widening of fills apply if the natural moisture content of the roadbed
Where required in accordance with the Special is too high and drying it back could not be done with
Specifications, or as instructed by the Engineer, special reasonable efforts and within a reasonable time, all
measures shall be taken to prevent differential in the opinion of the Engineer.
settlements where high fills are being widened. Such
measures may include the use of material from the Dry compaction techniques shall not be employed
existing fill in the construction of the widened part of the unless prescribed in the Special Specifications or
new fill or alternative measures as directed by the directed by the Engineer.
Engineer. Unless otherwise stated in the Special
Specifications and the Bill of Quantities, no additional The Engineer may instruct that expansive soils are
payments will be made for employing such techniques given treatment such as watering to maintain
in the widening of fills, and payment will be made under natural moisture content and timely dumping and
the normal payment items for fills. spreading of following layers. He may also instruct
compaction to be omitted on such soils as he finds
it appropriate.
3606 COMPACTION OF EARTHWORKS
(ii) Density
(a) General requirements The minimum required compacted density of
earthworks shall be as given in TABLE 3606/1.
(i) Moisture content

TABLE 3606/1
COMPACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR EARTHWORKS

Layer and typical material type specified Minimum dry density, nominal value. CML test 1.9
Upper improved subgrade layer, nominally G15 material or
95% of BS-Heavy
better, for layers less than 150 mm below the formation level
Lower improved subgrade layer, nominally G7 material or
better, for layers from 150 mm to 300 mm below the 93% of BS-Heavy
formation level
Fill, nominally G3 material or better, for layers more than 300
90% of BS-Heavy
mm below the formation level
Fill or improved subgrade layers using rock fill (DR) Compaction method specification shall apply
Roadbed compaction to 150 mm depth after clearing,
grubbing and removal of topsoil or other unsuitable material,
where the roadbed level is:
− less than 150 mm below the formation level 97% of BS-Heavy
− 150 mm to 300 mm below the formation level 95% of BS-Heavy
− 300 mm to 600 mm below the formation level 93% of BS-Heavy
− more than 600 mm below the formation level 100% of BS-Light

(b) Compaction method specification (d) Side fill and spoil dumps
The Engineer may at his own discretion allow Spoil material for side fill shall be spread in successive
compaction to be carried out in accordance with a layers of maximum 300 mm loose thickness, shaped
method specification instead of density control in cases and given a smooth surface and compacted by
where material characteristics or site conditions in his bulldozers or other heavy plant to the satisfaction of the
opinion makes compaction density control Engineer. Where required by the Engineer the same
inappropriate. Trials shall be undertaken to the full procedure shall be followed in the case of spoil dumps.
satisfaction of the Engineer in order to establish the
required type of equipment, processing method and 3607 PROTECTING THE EARTHWORKS AND
number of roller passes. The outcome of the trials shall STRUCTURES
be satisfactory to the Engineer for a method
During construction all earthworks shall be kept well
specification to be employed. All costs for undertaking
drained and protected at all times as specified in
such trials shall be carried by the Contractor.
SECTION 1200. All windrows shall be cut away after
construction to prevent the concentrated flow of water
The use of a compaction method specification may at
on completed earthworks layers, but, where necessary,
the Engineer’s discretion be discontinued any time he
flat berms shall be constructed to prevent the undue
finds it necessary for whatever reason.
erosion of fill slopes. All permanent drains shall be
constructed as soon as possible, together with sufficient
(c) Proof rolling
additional temporary drains as may be necessary to
Proof rolling of any earthworks layer or roadbed using
protect the road prism, and shall be maintained in a
loaded trucks or suitable rollers shall be carried out as
good working order. Ruts, potholes, soft spots or any
required by the Engineer. The equipment and method
other damage developing in the earthworks after
of operation shall be as directed by the Engineer and
completion shall be repaired, and the damaged portions
the Contractor shall make all required equipment
shall be reshaped and re-compacted to the satisfaction
available for proof rolling at any time as required by the
of the Engineer at the Contractor’s own cost.
Engineer.

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 3000 - 20


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 3000 - EARTHWORKS AND PAVEMENT LAYERS OF GRAVEL OR CRUSHED STONE

All erosion and flood damage to slopes shall be 3609 CONSTRUCTION TOLERANCES AND
promptly repaired as specified in SECTION 1200. TESTING
Construction tolerances and testing shall be in
Side drains discharging water from cuts and all other
accordance with SERIES 7000.
drains shall be constructed in such a way that damage
to the earthworks by erosion is avoided.
Proper precautions and temporary measures shall be 3610 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT
taken in all cases to ensure that the method or The Engineer's decision regarding the crossections to
procedure by which the fills are constructed will not be used for measurement and payment shall be final
impose loads on structures, especially on uncompleted and binding on the Contractor in the cases where the
structures, which may damage or overstress such Contractor proceeds with earthworks before the
structures. Engineer has approved the crossection measurements.

ITEM UNIT
3608 FINISHING THE SLOPES
36.01 EXCAVATIONS:
(a) General (a) COMMON EXCAVATION TO SPOIL CUBIC METRE (m
3
)
Except in solid rock, the tops and bottoms of all slopes 3
(b) ROCK EXCAVATION CUBIC METRE (m )
including the slopes of drainage ditches shall be
rounded as indicted on the Drawings or as ordered by
the Engineer. Slopes at the junctions of cuts and fills The unit of measurement shall be the cubic metre of
shall be adjusted and warped to flow into one another material removed as specified to be spoiled on the
or into the natural ground surfaces without any instruction of the Engineer, measured in its original
noticeable break. position and computed by the method of average end
areas from levelled cross-sections taken prior to
When so directed by the Engineer, adjustment to the excavating the cut, measured along the ground line.
slopes shall be made in order to avoid damage being Measurements of common excavation to spoil shall
done to standing trees and to harmonise with existing exclude materials already paid for as removal of topsoil
landscape features. The transition to such adjusted under ITEM 31.01 and shall also exclude materials paid
slopes shall be gradual. for as crossfill under SUBITEM 36.02(e).

Cut and fill slopes shall be finished to a uniform Rock excavation shall be measured for payment
appearance without any noticeable break which can be irrespective of the use of the material.
readily discerned from the road. The degree of finish
required for all fill slopes and for cut slopes flatter than No excavation in excess of that indicated on the
1:4 shall be that normally obtainable by motor grader or Drawings or as directed by the Engineer shall be paid
hand-shovel operations. for, notwithstanding any tolerances in workmanship
allowed.
The slopes of cuts and fills which are designated for
grassing shall, after finishing, be prepared for grass The bid rates for excavation shall include full
planting and/or for topsoil for grass planting as specified compensation for excavation as classified, loading, off
in SECTION 5700. loading and disposing of the material as specified. No
overhaul will be paid for transporting away the
All trimming of cut slopes shall be completed before any excavated material.
work on the subbase is commenced inside such
cuttings. In case the material is used in pavement layers or
earthworks, overhaul may be paid for as prescribed in
SECTION 1600 when, and only when, payment of
(b) Cut slopes overhaul is prescribed in the Special Specifications. In
such case the material measured for payment of
(i) Cuts in soils overhaul shall be the compacted material in the
The slopes of cuttings shall be trimmed to neat lines respective pavement or earthworks layer for which
and to a standard that is generally attainable with overhaul is paid.
proper care and workmanship in the type of
material concerned. All loose rocks, stones and
nests of loose material shall be removed, especially ITEM UNIT
in solid-rock cuts, which must be completely free 36.02 FILL AND IMPROVED
from such material. The final surface of batters SUBGRADE LAYERS:
must be absolutely smooth to prevent initiation of
(a) IMPROVED SUBGRADE LAYER AS CUBIC METRE
slope erosion unless alternative methods for 3
SPECIFIED IN THE DRAWINGS TO (m )
grassing or the establishment of natural vegetation
REQUIRE MINIMUM G15 QUALITY
is instructed by the Engineer.
MATERIAL

(ii) Cuts in rock (b) IMPROVED SUBGRADE LAYER AS CUBIC METRE


3
Cuts in rock shall be cleared of all loose stones to SPECIFIED IN THE DRAWINGS TO (m )
the satisfaction of the Engineer. REQUIRE MINIMUM G7 QUALITY
MATERIAL
(c) Fill slopes (c) FILL AS SPECIFIED IN THE CUBIC METRE
3
Fill slopes shall be finished to neat lines with all loose DRAWINGS TO REQUIRE MINIMUM (m )
rocks and un-compacted material removed. The degree G3 QUALITY MATERIAL
of finish required shall depend on the nature of the
(d) FILL OR IMPROVED SUBGRADE CUBIC METRE
material used for the fill slope but shall be as smooth as 3
LAYER USING ROCK FILL (m )
is consistent with the material involved and good
workmanship to the satisfaction of the Engineer. (e) CROSSFILL CUBIC METRE
3
(m )
(f) SIDE FILL COMPACTED BY DOZERS CUBIC METRE
3
OR AS SPECIFIED (m )

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 3000 - 21


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 3000 - EARTHWORKS AND PAVEMENT LAYERS OF GRAVEL OR CRUSHED STONE

(g) EXTRA OVER SUBITEM 36.02(a) CUBIC METRE


3
TO (e) RESPECTIVELY, FOR (m )
CONSTRUCTION OF SAND
BLANKETS AS SPECIFIED

The unit of measurement shall be the cubic metre of


material measured in the compacted fill according to the
Drawings or as directed by the Engineer. The quantity
measured shall be computed by the method of average
end areas from levelled cross-sections. The levelled
crossections shall be prepared from the ground line
prior to the construction of the fill after clearing and
grubbing and after corrections for the instructed depth
of the removal of topsoil and the instructed depth of any
excavation and preparatory roadbed treatment specified
or ordered by the Engineer. Filling to compensate for
excessive depth of removal of topsoil, or excessive
depth of spoil excavation, compared to that specified,
ordered or approved by the Engineer, will not be paid
for.

Where the road bed has been lowered due to


subsidence under fills, or the roadbed levels are
lowered due to the roadbed preparation, the quantities
shall be adjusted to make allowance for such lowering,
at the sole discretion of the Engineer. The Contractor
shall lodge such request without delay, and he shall
submit the required supporting evidence to the
Engineer. Where the Engineer is satisfied that
significant lowering is occurring, he shall decide to what
extent, if any, the lowering will be compensated for in
the measurement of earthworks fill. Such adjustment of
quantities shall only be considered where a total
lowering due to subsidence and processing of the
roadbed is in excess of 100 mm. The Contractor shall
allow in his rates for such lowering of up to 100 mm.

That part of the fill placed in excess of the cross


sections shown on the Drawings or as directed by the
Engineer, will not be paid for irrespective of the
tolerances in workmanship allowed under the Contract.

Measurement and payment of fill shall not distinguish


between alternative methods of processing and
compacting the materials.

The bid rates shall include full compensation for


procuring, excavating, loading furnishing, placing,
preparing, processing, shaping, watering, mixing, and
compacting the materials to the densities according to
the Specifications.

When payment for overhaul is specified in the Special


Specifications, the rate shall include a free haulage
distance as defined in SECTION 1600.

When payment for overhaul is not specified in the


Special Specifications, the rate shall include for all
transportation of the material.

Earthworks layers, except rock fill, shall be paid for as


crossfill where the material on the instruction or
approval of the Engineer is taken from cuts in the road
reserve and placed in embankments at a distance of 50
m or less from its original position, measured along the
centreline of the road. The unit of measurement for
crossfill shall be the cubic metre of material measured
in the compacted embankment according to the
Drawings or as directed by the Engineer. No distinction
shall be made for the earthworks layer in which crossfill
is used, i.e. whether in improved subgrade layers or
common fill.

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 3000 - 22


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 3000 - EARTHWORKS AND PAVEMENT LAYERS OF GRAVEL OR CRUSHED STONE

SERIES 3000: EARTHWORKS AND PAVEMENT G80 Base course


G60 Base course, low traffic roads
LAYERS OF GRAVEL OR CRUSHED STONE
G45 Subbase
G25 Subbase, low traffic roads
SECTION 3700: PAVEMENT Irrespective of the minimum required quality specified or
LAYERS OF NATURAL GRAVEL the above guidelines, the highest quality of approved
gravel for pavement layers available at economical haul
MATERIALS distances, complying with the requirements of the
Specifications and Drawings, shall be selected for fill,
CONTENTS: improved subgrade and the individual pavement layers.

CLAUSE PAGE (c) Soluble salts


3701 SCOPE 3000-23 The Contractor shall discard the material or fulfil all
3702 MATERIALS 3000-23 requirements for appropriate construction techniques
3703 CONSTRUCTION 3000-26 and timing of operations to the satisfaction of the
3704 COMPACTION REQUIREMENTS 3000-26 Engineer if assessments of soluble salt contents in
3705 MAINTENANCE OF EXISTING GRAVEL base course or subbase materials show deleterious
ROADS 3000-27 values. Such assessments are only required where the
3706 PROTECTION AND MAINTENANCE 3000-27 pavement is going to receive a bituminous seal as the
3707 CONSTRUCTION TOLERANCES 3000-27 only surfacing. No additional payment will be made for
3708 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT 3000-27 any measures taken, nor for any alterations of the
material utilisation, due to presence of soluble salts in
materials or construction water.

(d) Grading modulus(GM) and shrinkage


3701 SCOPE product(SP)
This Section covers the construction of subbase, base Wherever grading modulus (GM) is referred to the value
course, shoulders and gravel wearing course from
shall be calculated as follows: 

 %pass 2mm + % pass0 .425 mm + %pass 0 .075 mm 
GM = 3 − 
 100 


natural gravel or partially crushed gravel.

This Section covers the requirements for the following


Wherever Shrinkage Product (SP) is referred to the
types of material: value shall be calculated as follows:
− GW Gravel wearing course
− G80 natural gravel with nominal CBR value of
minimum 80
SP = (LS )(% p a s s 0 425 m m )

− G60 natural gravel with nominal CBR value of Where LS = Linear Shrinkage tested in accordance
minimum 60 with CML test 1.4.
− G45 natural gravel with nominal CBR value of
minimum 45 (e) Gravel wearing course (GW) and unpaved
− G25 (natural gravel with nominal CBR value of shoulders
minimum 25 Materials for unpaved shoulders and gravel wearing
course layers of GW materials as specified on the
Drawings shall meet the requirements given in TABLE
3702 MATERIALS 3702/1.

(a) General (f) Material requirements for natural gravel base


Gravel material shall be obtained from approved course (G80)
sources. Any test results provided in design documents Materials for base course layers of G80 materials as
such as the Materials Report, read in conjunction with specified on the Drawings shall meet the requirements
these Specifications, may give a preliminary indication given in TABLE 3702/2.
as to the purpose for which cut or borrow material may
be used as well as the treatment, if any, which the (g) Material requirements for natural gravel base
roadbed shall receive. Any test results or course (G60) for low traffic roads
recommendations of method of work in the Material Materials for base course layers of G60 materials as
Report are solely for information. The Contractor shall specified on the Drawings shall meet the requirements
undertake his own assessment and any tests required given in TABLE 3702/3.
and submit his proposed methods of work and test
results of all material he intends to use for the approval (h) Material requirements for natural gravel
of the Engineer. subbase (G45)
Materials for subbase layers of G45 materials as
The material type (G80, G60, G45, G25, GW) given in specified on the Drawings shall meet the requirements
the Drawings denotes the minimum quality for a given in TABLE 3702/4.
particular use in the Works, either specified in the
Drawings or as instructed by the Engineer. In the cases (i) Material requirements for natural gravel
where a minimum quality of earthworks material is not subbase (G25) for low traffic roads
specified, the following guidelines shall apply and the Materials for subbase layers of G25 materials as
Engineer’s instruction shall be the applied standard to specified on the Drawings shall meet the requirements
which materials quality control is applied: given in TABLE 3702/5.

(b) Material type and typical use


GW Gravel wearing course and gravel shoulders

TABLE 3702/1
REQUIREMENTS FOR LAYERS OF GRAVEL WEARING COURSE GW MATERIALS. CML TEST METHODS.

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 3000 - 23


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 3000 - EARTHWORKS AND PAVEMENT LAYERS OF GRAVEL OR CRUSHED STONE

Material properties CML Tests Material class GW

CBR: CML1.11
CBR (%), wet or moderate climatic
Minimum 25 after 4 days soaking 2)
zones 1)
CBR (%), dry climatic zones 1) Minimum 25 at OMC 2)
Grading and Atterberg limits 3)
% passing the 37.5 mm sieve Minimum 95
Shrinkage product, SP Minimum 120, maximum 400 4)
Grading coefficient, GC Minimum 16, maximum 34
1) The climatic zones for the project, or respective parts of the project, shall be in accordance with the Drawings or
Special Specifications or as directed by the Engineer.
2) CBR values shall be measured at 95% of MDD for BS-Heavy compaction. For minor gravel roads the required CBR
value may be reduced to 15 on the approved of the Engineer.
3) It is emphasised that the Atterberg limits shall be measured according to the CML test methods 1.2 1.3 and 1.4. These
methods follow British Standard (BS) procedures and utilise BS equipment. Other laboratory test procedures and
equipment do not give comparable results and shall not be used unless proper correlation to CML/BS has been carried
out to the satisfaction of the Engineer. All grading parameters must be normalise for 100% passing 37.5 mm.
4) In built up areas the maximum SP value shall be 270 or as directed by the Engineer in order to minimise dust problems.

TABLE 3702/2
REQUIREMENTS FOR BASE COURSE LAYERS OF G80 MATERIALS. CML TEST METHODS.

Material class G80


Material properties CML Tests General requirements Coral rock, calcrete or other
pedogenic materials
CBR: CML1.11
CBR (%), wet or moderate climatic
Minimum 80 after 4 days soaking 2)
zones 1)
CBR (%), dry climatic zones 1) Minimum 80 at OMC and also minimum 60 after 4 days soaking 2)
CBR-swell (%) Maximum 0.5 measured at BS-Heavy compaction
Atterberg limits: 3)
Climatic zone: 1) Wet or moderate Dry Wet Dry or moderate
Max Liquid limit CML1.2 30 40 35 45
Max Plasticity Index CML1.3 8 14 10 16
Max Linear Shrinkage CML1.4 4 7 5 8
Grading: CML1.7
Sieve size Grading limits
(mm) (% passing sieve)
63 100 − The largest particles dmax shall be
37.5 80 – 100 maximum 2/3 of compacted layer
20 60 – 95 thickness.
5 30 – 65 − Grading modulus, GM shall be
2 20 – 50 minimum 2.0
0.425 10 – 30
0.075 5 – 15
Particle strength: CML2.7

Minimum TFV dry 80kN


Ratio dry to soaked value of
TFV TFVsoaked shall be minimum 60% of the corresponding TFVdry value

1) The climatic zones for the project, or respective parts of the project, shall be in accordance with the Drawings or
Special Specifications or as directed by the Engineer.
2) CBR values shall be measured at the specified field density for the layer.
3) It is emphasised that the Atterberg limits shall be measured according to the CML test methods 1.2 1.3 and 1.4. These
methods follow British Standard (BS) procedures and utilise BS equipment. Other laboratory test procedures and
equipment do not give comparable results and shall not be used unless proper correlation to CML/BS has been carried
out to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

TABLE 3702/3
REQUIREMENTS FOR BASE COURSE LAYERS OF G60 MATERIALS. CML TEST METHODS.

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 3000 - 24


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 3000 - EARTHWORKS AND PAVEMENT LAYERS OF GRAVEL OR CRUSHED STONE

Material class G60


Material properties CML Tests General requirements Coral rock, calcrete or other
pedogenic materials
CBR: CML1.11
CBR (%), wet or moderate climatic
Minimum 60 after 4 days soaking 2)
zones 1)
CBR (%), dry climatic zones 1) Minimum 60 at OMC and also minimum 45 after 4 days soaking 2)
CBR-swell (%) Maximum 1.0 measured at BS-Heavy compaction
Atterberg limits: 3)
Climatic zone: 1) Wet Dry or moderate Wet Dry or moderate
Max Liquid limit CML1.2 35 45 40 45
Max Plasticity Index CML1.3 10 16 12 18
Max Linear Shrinkage CML1.4 5 8 6 9
Grading: CML1.7
Requirements: − The largest particles dmax shall be maximum 2/3 of compacted layer
thickness.
− Grading modulus, GM shall be minimum 2.0
Particle strength: CML2.7
Minimum TFV dry 50kN
Ratio dry to soaked value of
TFV TFVsoaked shall be minimum 60% of the corresponding TFVdry value

1) The climatic zones for the project, or respective parts of the project, shall be in accordance with the Drawings or
Special Specifications or as directed by the Engineer.
2) CBR values shall be measured at the specified field density for the layer.
3) It is emphasised that the Atterberg limits shall be measured according to the CML test methods 1.2 1.3 and 1.4. These
methods follow British Standard (BS) procedures and utilise BS equipment. Other laboratory test procedures and
equipment do not give comparable results and shall not be used unless proper correlation to CML/BS has been carried
out to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

TABLE 3702/4
REQUIREMENTS FOR SUBBASE LAYERS OF G45 MATERIALS. CML TEST METHODS.

Material class G45


Material properties CML Tests General requirements Coral rock, calcrete or other
pedogenic materials
CBR: CML1.11
CBR (%), wet or moderate climatic
Minimum 45 after 4 days soaking 2)
zones 1)
CBR (%), dry climatic zones 1) Minimum 45 at OMC and also minimum 25 after 4 days soaking 2)
CBR-swell (%) Maximum 0.5 measured at BS-Heavy compaction
Atterberg limits: 3)
Climatic zone: 1) Wet or moderate Dry Wet Dry or moderate
Max Liquid limit CML1.2 40 45 45 50
Max Plasticity Index CML1.3 14 18 16 20
Max Linear Shrinkage CML1.4 7 9 8 10
Grading: CML1.7
Requirements: Grading modulus, GM shall be minimum 1.5
1) The climatic zones for the project, or respective parts of the project, shall be in accordance with the Drawings or
Special Specifications or as directed by the Engineer.
2) CBR values shall be measured at the specified field density for the layer.
3) It is emphasised that the Atterberg limits shall be measured according to the CML test methods 1.2 1.3 and 1.4. These
methods follow British Standard (BS) procedures and utilise BS equipment. Other laboratory test procedures and
equipment do not give comparable results and shall not be used unless proper correlation to CML/BS has been carried
out to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA, MINISTRY OF W ORKS PAGE 3000 - 25


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD W ORKS-2000 SERIES 3000 - EARTHWORKS AND PAVEMENT LAYERS OF GRAVEL OR CRUSHED STONE

TABLE 3702/5
REQUIREMENTS FOR SUBBASE LAYERS OF G25 MATERIALS. CML TEST METHODS.

Material class G25


Material properties CML Tests General requirements Coral rock, calcrete or other
pedogenic materials
CBR: CML1.11
CBR (%), wet or moderate climatic
Minimum 25 after 4 days soaking 2)
zones 1)
CBR (%), dry climatic zones 1) Minimum 25 at OMC and also minimum 15 after 4 days soaking 2)
CBR-swell (%) Maximum 1.0 measured at BS-Heavy compaction
Atterberg limits: 3)
Climatic zone: 1) Wet or moderate Dry Wet Dry or moderate
Max Liquid limit CML1.2 45 50 45 55
Max Plasticity Index CML1.3 16 20 18 24
Max Linear Shrinkage CML1.4 8 10 9 12
Grading: CML1.7
Requirements: Grading modulus, GM shall be minimum 1.2
1) The climatic zones for the project, or respective parts of the project, shall be in accordance with the Drawings or
Special Specifications or as directed by the Engineer.
2) CBR values shall be measured at the specified field density for the layer.
3) It is emphasised that the Atterberg limits shall be measured according to the CML test methods 1.2 1.3 and 1.4. These
methods follow British Standard (BS) procedures and utilise BS equipment. Other laboratory test procedures and
equipment do not give comparable results and shall not be used unless proper correlation to CML/BS has been carried
out to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

3703 CONSTRUCTION density of not less than that specified in TABLE 3704/1
or as directed by the Engineer.
(a) Requirements applying prior to placing of the
layer (d) Subbase and base course materials
No pavement layer shall be placed until approval is Subbase or base course materials respectively shall be
obtained from the Engineer and the underlying layer is spread, broken down as required, watered, mixed and
placed, compacted and finished in accordance with the compacted in accordance with the Specifications, and
Specifications and is tested and found acceptable to the shall be compacted to a density of not less than that
full satisfaction of the Engineer. Before placing any specified in TABLE 3704/1 or as directed by the
pavement layer the underlying layer shall be inspected Engineer.
and proof rolled as required by the Engineer in order to
establish whether there is any damage, wet spots or
other defects. Any such defect shall be rectified to the 3704 COMPACTION REQUIREMENTS
satisfaction of the Engineer before the next layer is
placed. (a) General requirements
The minimum required compacted density for pavement
(b) Processing to improve quality layers made of natural gravel shall be as given in TABLE
The Contractor may elect to crush, screen or mix 3704/1.
materials from different sources or undertake other
processing of materials to meet the specified material
requirements. No additional payment will be made for TABLE 3704/1
any such processing unless stated in the Special COMPACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR PAVEMENT LAYERS
Specifications and the Bill of Quantities. MADE OF NATURAL GRAVEL

(c) Shoulders Layer and typical material type Minimum dry


Where the shoulders and the base course are to be specified density,
constructed from the same material, they shall be nominal value.
constructed simultaneously. CML test 1.9
Base course layers, G80 or G60 98% of BS-
Where the base course is to be constructed from a material or better Heavy
different material than the shoulders, the shoulders Subbase course layers, G45 or
shall first be constructed and then neatly cut to the G25 material or better 95% of BS-
required line to provide lateral support for the base Gravel wearing course or Heavy
course. Care shall be taken not to contaminate the base unpaved shoulders GW material
course material with the shoulder material. Where the