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ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing 61 (2007) 281 – 297


ERS-2 SAR and IRS-1C LISS III data fusion: A PCA approach to
improve remote sensing based geological interpretation
S.K. Pal a , T.J. Majumdar b,⁎, Amit K. Bhattacharya a
Department of Geology and Geophysics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur-721 302, India
Earth Sciences and Hydrology Division, Marine and Water Resources Group, Remote Sensing Applications and Image Processing Area,
Space Applications Centre (ISRO), Ahmedabad-380 015, India
Received 12 August 2005; received in revised form 14 August 2006; accepted 9 October 2006
Available online 20 November 2006


Fusion of optical and synthetic aperture radar data has been attempted in the present study for mapping of various lithologic units
over a part of the Singhbhum Shear Zone (SSZ) and its surroundings. ERS-2 SAR data over the study area has been enhanced using
Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) based filtering approach, and also using Frost filtering technique. Both the enhanced SAR imagery
have been then separately fused with histogram equalized IRS-1C LISS III image using Principal Component Analysis (PCA)
technique. Later, Feature-oriented Principal Components Selection (FPCS) technique has been applied to generate False Color
Composite (FCC) images, from which corresponding geological maps have been prepared. Finally, GIS techniques have been
successfully used for change detection analysis in the lithological interpretation between the published geological map and the fusion
based geological maps. In general, there is good agreement between these maps over a large portion of the study area. Based on the
change detection studies, few areas could be identified which need attention for further detailed ground-based geological studies.
© 2006 International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Inc. (ISPRS). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

Keywords: ERS-2 SAR; IRS-1C LISS III; Image fusion; Feature-oriented principal components selection; Lithological discrimination; Change

1. Introduction resolution imagery with finer spatial resolution imagery.

Image fusion techniques deal with integration of
The demarcation of different lithological units and complementary and redundant information from multi-
their interpretation from the combination of satellite ple images to create a composite image that contains a
radar and optical data for geological exploration and better description of the scene (Saraf, 1999; Wen and
tectonic studies by image fusion techniques is an Chen, 2004). The resulting merged image is a product
important area of research. Image fusion is a novel that synergistically integrates the information provided
method for combining spectral information of coarse by various sensors or by the same sensor (Simone et al.,
2002), which may be found useful for human visual
⁎ Corresponding author. Tel.: +91 79 2691 4304; fax: +91 79 2691 perception, provides faster interpretation and can help in
5825. extracting more features (Wen and Chen, 2004). Data
E-mail address: tjmajumdar@sac.isro.gov.in (T.J. Majumdar). fusion can reduce the uncertainty associated with the

0924-2716/$ - see front matter © 2006 International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Inc. (ISPRS). Published by Elsevier B.V.
All rights reserved.
282 S.K. Pal et al. / ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing 61 (2007) 281–297

Fig. 1. Geological map of the study area (after Geological Survey of India, 1998).
S.K. Pal et al. / ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing 61 (2007) 281–297 283

Table 1 the Preterozoic mobile belt (Singhbhum Mobile Belt) in

Details of satellite data used in the present study the north. It runs in a northward dipping direction along a
Satellite IRS-1C ERS-2 northwardly convex arcuate belt for a length of more than
Path/row 106/56 0842/0198 160 km from Bhaharagora in the east to Chakradharpur in
Date of 11.04.2002 30.09.2002 the west. The Singhbhum Shear Zone (SSZ) occurs as a
data acquisition curvilinear belt with an E–W trending Singhbhum rocks,
Spatial resolution 23.5 m 25 m range;
like those of other Precambrian terrains, having under-
15 m azimuth
Pixel size 23.5 m 12.5 m × 12.5 m gone many phases of deformations and metamorphisms
Band Band1 0.52–0.59 μm 56 mm, C band, VV (Saha, 1994; Sarkar and Chakraborty, 1982). Rocks to the
Band2 0.62–0.68 μm (Vertical Vertical) south of the Singhbhum Shear Zone are relatively less
Band3 0.77–0.86 μm Polarization metamorphosed compared to those to the north. Rocks of
Band4 1.55–1.70 μm
Older Metamorphic Group form the basement rocks.
Effective no. of – 3
looks They are exposed in the central part of the basin. Older
Metamorphic Group mainly consists of schist. The Iron
Ore Group rocks overlie the basement rocks and are
data acquired by different sensors or by same sensor exposed over vast areas in the western part and over some
with temporal variation. Further, the fusion techniques areas in the east. The Iron Ore Group succession is
may improve interpretation capabilities with respect to believed to have formed a broad NNE plunging
subsequent tasks by using complementary information synclinorium with overturned western limb. The succes-
sources (Wen and Chen, 2004). sion has a symmetric lithology with the Banded Iron
The fusion of two data sets can be done in order to Formation (BIF) lying in the middle of the succession
obtain one single data set with the qualities of both bounded on the upper and lower sides by phyllite and
(Saraf, 1999). For example, the low-resolution multi- basaltic lava respectively. Massive batholiths of granite to
spectral satellite imagery can be combined with the granodiorite composition are occupying vast areas in the
higher resolution radar imagery by fusion technique to central part to the south of SSZ. This granitic mass was
improve the interpretability of the fused/merged image. emplaced after the deformation of the Iron Ore group.
The resultant data product has the advantages of high Rocks of Dhanjori Group are exposed in the eastern part
spatial resolution, structural information (from radar
image), and spectral resolution (from optical and
infrared bands). Thus, with the help of all the cumulative
information, the analyst can explore most of the linear
and anomalous features as well as lithologies. Various
image fusion techniques are available in published
literature (Carper et al., 1990; Chavez and Kwarteng,
1989; Chavez et al., 1991; Edwards and Davis, 1994; Li
et al., 2002; Tu et al., 2001). The present study has been
carried out using Principal Component Analysis (PCA)
which has been successfully used earlier for fusion of
remote sensing data for geological assessment and land
cover mapping (Chavez and Kwarteng, 1989; Chavez
et al., 1991; Li et al., 2002).

2. Geological setup of the area

The study area, covering the Singhbhum Shear Zone

(SSZ) and its surroundings in Jharkhand, India, and lying
between latitudes 22°N and 23°N, and longitudes 86°E
and 87°E (Fig. 1) has been extensively surveyed using
ground-based geological techniques (Dunn, 1929; Naha,
1965; Saha, 1994; Sarkar and Chakraborty, 1982). It has a
major tectonic element that separates the Cratonic block
(Singhbhum–Orissa Iron Ore Craton) in the south from Fig. 2. Block diagram for FFT based filtering.
284 S.K. Pal et al. / ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing 61 (2007) 281–297

Fig. 3. Schematic flow diagram for image fusion using PCA technique (ERDAS Imagine 8.5, 2001). N1–IRS: Input of multispectral low resolution
IRS data (IRS-1C imagery bands); N2-op: output of calculated covariance of IRS data; N3-op: Eigenmatrix of calculated covariance of IRS data;
N4-op: transposed matrix of “N3-op”; N5-temp: temporary memory for calculated PCA using linear combination of IRS data and transposed matrix
of “N3-op”; n1-SAR: input for high resolution radar data (ERS-2 SAR); n6-op: calculated global minimum of ERS-2 SAR data ; n7-op: calculated
global maximum of ERS-2 SAR data; n8-op: calculated global maximum of 1st principal component; n9-op: calculated global minimum of 1st
principal component; n10-memory: temporary memory of (n5_SAR–n6_op) × (n8_op–n9_op) / (n7_op–n6_op) + n6_op; n11-memory: temporary
memory of stacked layers of N5-temp and n10-memory; n12-memory: temporary memory for calculated Inverse PCA using linear combination of
the matrix inverse of N4-op and n11-memory; n13-op: rescaled final fusion output.
S.K. Pal et al. / ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing 61 (2007) 281–297 285

Table 2
Change detection analysis between published geological map and geological map based on fused image of FFT filtered ERS-2 SAR with histogram
equalized IRS 1C (FFT1C) using PAT in Arc GIS
SL geology_GSI geology_FFT1C Lithology = Final Detailed
no geology_GSI + change change
(ID no) Lithological (ID no) Lithological
geology_FFT1C detection detection
unit unit
(ID no) analysis map
1 1 Kasai formation 3 Sijua formation 13 Change Change from
1 to 3
2 10 Sodagranite 10 Sodagranite 1010 No No change
3 3 Sijua formation 3 Sijua formation 33 No No change
4 24 Mica schist 4 Lalgarh 244 Change Change from
occasionally formation 24 to 4
garnetiferous: SG
5 31 Talc-chlorite 21 Mica schist with 3121 Change Change from
schist: hornblende schist : SG 31 to 21
Group, DG
6 10 Sodagranite 24 Mica schist 1024 Change Change from
occasionally 10 to 24
garnetiferous: SG
7 10 Sodagranite 10 Sodagranite 1010 No No change
8 51 Singhbhum 41 Granophyre 5141 Change Change from
Granite 51 to 41
9 4 Lalgarh 24 Mica schist 424 Change Change from
formation occasionally 4 to 24
garnetiferous: SG
10 52 Diorite 3 Sijua formation 523 Change Change from
52 to 3

of Singhbhum region which consists of conglomerate, oriented and system corrected product, being the basic
quartzite and lava flows. The equivalent of the bottom part product used for a variety of remote sensing applica-
of this succession is identified as Singhbhum Group, to tions. The Precision Image product has lesser speckles,
the north of Singhbhum Shear Zone. The equivalent of as it has been generated by resultant image from
lava flows in the north is called Dalma Lava. Dolerite multiple look (3 looks) SLC. Scene size is 100 km in
dykes have intruded in the Singhbhum Granite and occur range direction and at least 102.5 km in azimuth
mostly in southern parts of Singhbhum and Keonjhar direction. Spatial resolution is 25 m in range direction
districts. Kolhan Group occurs to the SSW of the and 15 m in azimuth direction. Besides ERS-2 SAR
Singhbhum Shear Zone (SSZ). It consists of gently image, IRS-1C LISS-III (path: 106, row: 56) image
dipping purple sandstones, conglomerates, limestones covering the same study area has been used in this study
and slates. Fig. 1 shows the geological map of the study as a low spatial resolution but higher spectral resolution
area (GSI, 1998). data source (optical and infrared). Table 1 shows the
details of satellite data used in the study.
3. Data used
4. Methodology
ERS-2 SAR Path Radiance Image (PRI)/Precision
Image (Path: 0842, Row: 0198) of 30th September, 4.1. Enhancement of SAR data using Fourier transform
2002 over the Singhbhum Shear Zone and surrounding
areas in Jharkhand, India, between latitudes 22°N and ERS-2 SAR data has been enhanced using the Fast
23°N, and longitudes 86°E and 87°E, has been used in Fourier Transform (FFT). The basic approach to
this study as a higher spatial resolution data source (C enhance a digital image f(x, y) using frequency domain
band, VV polarization). The Precision Image is a path technique is (i) to compute Fourier transform F(u, v) of
286 S.K. Pal et al. / ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing 61 (2007) 281–297

Fig. 4. Flow diagram and methodology of the present study.

f(x, y), (ii) to multiply the obtained F(u, v) with a Filter Frost filter has been used. The Frost filter is a local
function H(u, v), and finally (iii) to take the inverse statistic filter. It attempts to model the SAR imaging
Fourier transform of G(u, v), i.e., product of F(u, v) and process. The Frost filter parameters are adjusted
H(u, v).The filter function H(u, v) is generated by according to local (quite small) area statistics about
editing the Fourier transformed image F(u, v) of f(x, y) the target pixel. When uniform regions are filtered the
(Gonzalez and Wintz, 1977; Gonzalez and Woods, Frost filter acts as a mean filter. When high contrast
1992). The operations can be achieved properly by regions are filtered, the filter acts as a high-pass filter
different window functions, viz., Ideal, Bartlett (Trian- with rapid decay of elements away from the filter centre.
gular), Butterworth, Gaussian, Hanning and Hamming. Thus, large uniform areas will tend to be smoothed out
Fig. 2 shows the block diagram for FFT based filtering. and speckle removed, whilst high contrast edges and
other objects will retain their signal values and not be
4.2. Enhancement of data by other methods smoothed (Huovinen, 2006). On the other hand,
enhancement of IRS-1C LISS III data has been done
The radiometric enhancement of these satellite data is by histogram equalization.
required before fusion of low resolution multispectral
satellite imagery with high resolution radar imagery. 4.3. Fusion of SAR and IRS data using PCA technique
The enhancement of ERS-2 SAR data has been done by
suppressing speckle using different filters such as, Frost, Enhanced ERS-2 SAR data (both FFT and Frost
Lee, Gamma-MAP, and Lee-Sigma. In the present study, filtered) and IRS-1C LISS III data (histogram equalized)
S.K. Pal et al. / ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing 61 (2007) 281–297 287

Table 3a Table 4a
Description of the loadings that each input band of the fused FFT1C Description of the loadings that each input band of the fused FF1C
image provides to the principal component image provides to the principal component
Band 1 0.557 0.443 −0.669 0.215 Band 1 0.391 −0.552 − 0.331 0.658
Band 2 0.249 0.661 0.693 0.144 Band 2 0.287 −0.286 − 0.583 − 0.704
Band 3 0.740 − 0.596 0.271 0.153 Band 3 0.366 −0.498 0.741 − 0.263
Band 4 − 0.283 − 0.104 0.002 0.953 Band 4 0.794 0.605 0.032 0.052

have been finally fused using Principal Component C. Hence, to maximize Var (Z), the largest eigenvalue of C
Analysis (PCA). It reduces the dimensionality but has to be selected and its associated eigenvector taken as
preserves maximum possible information of the data the weights in vector M. Similarly, the second principal
sources. PCA is a statistical technique which transforms component may be defined as a linear combination of the
a vector of multivariate data (bands of low resolution Xs having the second largest variance (Hall, 1979;
multispectral satellite imagery) with correlated variables Harrison and Jupp, 1990). A model has been prepared
(bands) into one (component) with uncorrelated vari- using ERDAS Imagine 8.5 for fusion of different satellite
ables (weights of linear combination), where the new data and the schematic flow diagram for image fusion has
variables are obtained as linear combinations of the been shown in Fig. 3 (ERDAS Imagine 8.5, 2001).
original variables (bands). During image fusion, it is
performed on the image with all its spectral bands 4.4. Feature-oriented principal component selection
(bands of low resolution multispectral satellite imagery). technique
Then, the calculated first principal component is
replaced with the high-resolution enhanced ERS-2 Feature-oriented Principal Components Selection
SAR image (band of high resolution radar imagery) (FPCS) technique (Paganelli et al., 2003) has been
information, and the fused image is obtained by applied to analyze the information content of the fused
inverting back to the original color space (Chavez and images constructed in the present study. The objective
Kwarteng, 1989; Li et al., 2002). was to examine the PCA eigenvector loadings, based on
Let Z be the new variable which is a linear combina- the correlation matrix, to select the most suitable
tion of the source images, X1, X2,… Xp. Thus (Colorado principal component that highlights the most significant
website): information regarding the backscattering signatures and
variability of specific surface targets. The sign of
Z ¼ m1 X1 m2 X2 þ N mp Xp ð1Þ eigenvector loadings indicates whether a surface feature
is characterized by a dark or a bright pixel; and also how
where m1, m2,…mp are weights assigned to the original well the latter affects the topographic perception in
p images. For preserving possible maximum variability, relation to the radar backscattering response as well as
the variance of Z should be as large as possible. This optical reflectance and infrared radiance. The original
can be done for PCA by selecting the values of m's in eigenvector values have been recalculated as percen-
such a way that Σmp2 = 1. Once the weights are tages of loadings from the input bands. This calculation
calculated, the variable Z is called the first principal permits a more straightforward understanding of the
component or first PC. original bands' contributions to the principal compo-
Finally, it becomes λ = Var (Z), where λ is the nents of fused images. Main purpose of this technique is
Langrangian multiplier. In other words, the variance of a to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative information
principal component is actually an eigenvalue of the matrix

Table 3b Table 4b
The recalculated percentage of loading from the input bands of the Recalculated percentage of loading from the input bands of fused
fused FFT1C image as shown in Table 3a FF1C image as shown in Table 3a
Band 1 30.45 24.56 −40.92 14.68 Band 1 21.27 −28.43 − 19.62 39.24
Band 2 13.61 36.64 42.39 9.83 Band 2 15.61 −14.73 − 34.56 − 41.98
Band 3 40.46 − 33.03 16.57 10.44 Band 3 19.91 −25.66 43.92 − 15.68
Band 4 − 15.47 −5.76 0.12 65.05 Band 4 43.20 31.17 1.9 3.16
288 S.K. Pal et al. / ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing 61 (2007) 281–297

Fig. 5. FCC of the fused FFT1C image: PC1, PC2 and PC3 are chosen as blue, green and red band respectively.(For interpretation of the references to
colour in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)

present in the fused image for lithological mapping An attempt has been made to identify and delineate the
(Grunsky, 2002; Loughlin, 1991; Paganelli et al., 2003; areas where changes in litho-units occur between the
Price, 1999). geological maps.
Arc coverages have been interpreted and digitized for
4.5. Change detection study lithological mapping from the fusion of FFT enhanced
ERS-2 SAR image with histogram equalized IRS-1C
Change detection analysis has been carried out with image (FFT1C) and the fusion of Frost filtered ERS-2
the help of Geographic Information System (GIS) using SAR image with histogram equalized IRS-1C image
the geological map (as base map) from Geological Survey (FF1C) respectively. In addition, an Arc coverage has
of India (GSI, 1998) and the inferred geological map as also been digitized from a lithological map of GSI (1998)
obtained from the present study, in order to evaluate the for generation of a lithological base map. Basic
efficiency of this study as a tool for lithological mapping. processing methodologies (digitization, editing like
S.K. Pal et al. / ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing 61 (2007) 281–297 289

Fig. 6. FCC of the fused FF1C image: PC1, PC3 and PC4 are chosen as blue, green and red band respectively.(For interpretation of the references to
colour in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)

split, unsplit, move; error correction like undershooting provided using Arc GIS 8.3 software. The arc coverages
and overshooting, attribute editing by table manager and (vector topologies) thus obtained from published map
table editor, cleaning and building polygon topology and the two fusion based maps have been intersected by
etc.) have been generated for change detection analysis. overlay analysis, and the resultant new arc coverages
The vector attributes viz. “geology_GSI”, “geolo- have been generated. The results are presented in Tables
gy_FFT1C” and “geology_FF1C” have been created in 3(a), 3(b) for comparison between published map and
the polygon attribute table (PAT) of respective vector FFT1C fused map. As shown in Tables 3(a), 3(b), the
map (arc coverage). These attributes represent litholog- attribute column ‘geology_GSI’ as well as ‘geolo-
ical information (lithological attribute) to the respective gy_FFT1C’ lists the ID numbers with corresponding
arc coverages. Coding of polygons corresponding to the lithological units. The third column, ‘Lithology’ is
different lithological blocks of arc coverages have been obtained by combining the two IDs; that is, ID of
290 S.K. Pal et al. / ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing 61 (2007) 281–297

Fig. 7. Interpreted geological topology overlaid on the FCC of FFT1C image.

‘geology_GSI’ followed by ID of ‘geology_FFT1C’. For 5. Results and discussion

example, in the first row of Tables 3(a), 3(b), ID No. 1 of
‘geology_GSI’ combined with the ID No. 3 observed over By band-pass filtering the Fourier transformed
the same area in ‘geology_FFT1C’ gives the value 13, image, the low frequency component of radius 3500
which is then recorded under column ‘Lithology’. The has been suppressed with the help of a Butterworth
change in the two (Figs. 1 and 3) indicates ‘change’. On window function (low frequency gain (LFG) = 1.5, high
the other hand, wherever same lithology ID (e.g., ID No. frequency gain (HFG) = 0); and the high frequency
10/sodagranite, as shown in second row of Table 2) exists component of radius 100 has been suppressed with the
for both ‘geology_GSI’ and ‘geology_FFT1C’, change help of an ideal window function (LFG = 0, HFG = 1.5)
detection analysis map represents ‘No Change’. The same (Pal et al., 2006). On the other hand, speckle suppres-
procedure is repeated between the published map of GSI sion of ERS-2 SAR data using Frost filter and luminance
and FF1C derived map. The main steps and methodology modification have also been conducted to enhance SAR
of the present study has been shown in Fig. 4. data. For the enhancement of IRS-1C data, histogram
S.K. Pal et al. / ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing 61 (2007) 281–297 291

Fig. 8. Interpreted geological topology overlaid on the FCC of FF1C image.

equalization and standard deviation related stretching the information needed may have been disturbed by the
have been performed. presence of strong adverse factors (Yuan et al., 1998).
The FFT filtered ERS-2 SAR image is then fused with The principal components viz., PC1, PC2, PC3 and PC4
the histogram equalized IRS-1C LISS III data using of the fused images of i) FFT filtered ERS-2 SAR image
principle component method with nearest neighbor with histogram equalized IRS-1C image (FFT1C), and
resampling technique. It is widely known that the first ii) that of Frost filtered ERS-2 SAR image with his-
PC has the largest variance, the second PC has the second togram equalized IRS-1C image (FF1C) have been
largest variance, and so forth whereas the last few PCs obtained to generate False Color Composites (FCC).
have very small variations in their data set. The principal Table 3(a) defines the contributions that each input band
components with small variance are conventionally of the fused FFT1C image provides to the principal
ignored for data reduction purposes. However, for component. The recalculated percentages of loadings
geological reasons, PCs with larger variance may not from the input bands have been shown in Table 3(b).
necessarily have the geological information needed, or Similarly, Table 4(a) describes the contributions that
292 S.K. Pal et al. / ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing 61 (2007) 281–297

Fig. 9. Interpreted geological map as obtained from Figs. 1 and 7 after change detection study.

each input band of the fused FF1C image provides to the input bands. On the basis of input loading study, PCs
principal components. Table 4(b) shows the corres- have been selected to generate FCC where an attempt has
ponding recalculated percentages of loadings from the been made to gather more information by considering
S.K. Pal et al. / ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing 61 (2007) 281–297 293

Fig. 10. Interpreted geological map as obtained from Figs. 1 and 8 after change detection study.

tonal variations, textural variations and brightness (Fig. 5) of the fused FFT1C image. On the other hand, to
contrasts. The final FCCs, thus generated, are visually generate FCC of the fused FF1C image, PC1, PC3 and
interpreted to delineate different geological litho-units. PC4 are chosen as blue, green and red band, respectively
Keeping this in view, PC1, PC2 and PC3 are chosen as (Fig. 6). The image tone, contrast, and texture variation
blue, green and red band, respectively, to generate FCC have been used as keys to demarcate the geological litho-
294 S.K. Pal et al. / ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing 61 (2007) 281–297

Table 5
Details of geological interpretation and results of change detection study between published geology (GSI, 1998) and geology interpreted from fused
FFT1C and FF1C images
Geology Geology of GSI GSI map and FFT1C image GSI map and FF1C image Geology from fusion of
(Area in sq km) (Area in sq km) (Area in sq km) FFT1C and FF1C images
Kasai formation 63.32 22.05 19.02 63.02
Daintikri formation 19.00 11.15 9.15 60.7
Sijua formation 550.20 438.54 434.62 696.28
Lalgarh formation 316.62 262.33 241.11 286.2
Laterite 31.40 8.82 7.28 21.52
Tertiary gravel beds of Dhalbhum 637.35 539.80 534.48 562.12
Kulipal granite: Younger 65.62 65.06 60.07 73.02
Sodagranite 46.22 – – –
Epidiorite, hornblende schist: 166.59 93.44 89.45 200.04
Dalma volcanic
Tuff, volcanic agglomerate: 46.22 – – –
Dalma volcanic
Talc-chlorite schist1: Dalma 18.75 – – –
Talc-chlorite schist2: Dalma 43.50 36.60 34.34 37.92
Carbon phylite, quartzite: Dalma 342.33 200.81 189.25 393.48
Younger ultrabasics: Singhbhum 4.37 – – –
Group, SG
Hornblende schist and epidiorite: 91.92 11.39 5.39 21.52
Mica schist with hornblende schist: 65.17 24.54 – 26.65
Mica schist and phylite: SG 1030.38 995.55 984.82 1059.26
Quartzite: SG 46.44 18.34 6.39 35.48
Mica schist occasionally 1690.85 1129.76 1031.50 1351.47
garnetiferous: SG
Calc-gneiss and granulite: SG 4.94 – – –
Garnet-staurolite schist with 6.25 – – –
kyanite: SG
Garnetiferous phyllite: SG 281.78 155.28 170.05 173.95
Romapahari granite: SG 41.31 15.94 14.52 24.52
Talc-chlorite schist: Dhanjori 14.27 – – –
Group, DG
Epidiorite, hornblende schist: DG 202.09 151.93 149.98 201.41
Coarse tuff: DG 13.99 9.49 9.72 25.53
Phyllite and mica schist: DG 46.37 4.25 8.01 11.88
Quartzite: DG 182.29 149.99 150.42 205.07
Newer dolerite 23.96 8.11 7.86 20.36
Gabbro anorthosite 91.83 4.00 1.4 8.87
Granophyre 295.68 209.53 207.31 282.43
Ultrabasic rock: Gurumahisani 30.02 13.46 13.46 40.74
Group: GG
Epidiorite, hornblende schist: GG 180.42 140.87 135.87 203.42
Quartzite: GG 45.15 – – –
Mica schist and phyllite: GG 117.04 53.01 52.86 107.02
Andalusite bearing mica schist: GG 2.80 – – –
Arkose and conglomerate: GG 11.56 – – –
Chhotanagpur Granite gneissic 77.35 13.87 – 19.97
complex, CGC
Hornblende schist within CGC 11.01 6.88 5.45 8.24
Singhbhum granite 1680.53 1553.70 1492.77 1705.82
Diorite 36.62 10.23 9.7 16.91
S.K. Pal et al. / ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing 61 (2007) 281–297 295

Table 5 (continued)
Geology Geology of GSI GSI map and FFT1C image GSI map and FF1C image Geology from fusion of
(Area in sq km) (Area in sq km) (Area in sq km) FFT1C and FF1C images
Unknown1 49.28
Unknown2/Mica schist 28.68
occasionally garnetiferous: SG
Unknown3 608.56
Unknown4 42.17
Total area 8673.51 8673.51
Total area of interpreted lithologic 6358.72 6076.25
units correctly
Total area of change in geological 2314.79 2597.26

units, and the final maps have been compared with the regions of higher color contrasts and tonal/textural
published geological map (GSI, 1998). The vector variations have also been demarcated as different or
topologies for the various demarcated litho-units as new unknown litho-units. Furthermore, another promi-
observed in the FCC imageries have been created to nent color contrast has been observed within the mica
generate closed polygons for all litho-units and have schist/phyllite of the Singhbhum Group in the region
been overlaid on the corresponding FCC imageries of between SSZ and Dalma Volcanics which is due to the
PCs of the fused imageries (Figs. 7 and 8). The presence of the Jamshedpur urban region. A total of
interpreted geological maps as obtained after change forty-one litho-units are observed in the geological map
detection analysis between the geological map of GSI of GSI (1998); while only thirty-two litho-units are
(1998) (Fig. 1) and the inferred geological maps (Figs. 7 identified from FCC's in the present study; the remaining
and 8) obtained from both the FCCs viz., FFT1C and nine litho-units could not be delineated due to absence of
FF1C, are shown in Figs. 9 and 10. color contrasts/tonal and textural variations. These are
The details of the results of the change detection study tuff volcanic agglomerate and talc-chlorite schist of
and their geological interpretation are presented in Dalma volcanic; younger ultrabasics of Singhbhum
Table 5. The total area of the present study is around Group; mica schist with hornblende schist of Singhbhum
8673.51 sq km. It is found that there is a good match, Group; calc-gneiss and granulite of Singhbhum Group;
between the published geological map and that prepared garnet-staurolite schist with kyanite of Singhbhum
by FFT1C image in the present study, over an area of Group; talc-chlorite schist of Dhanjori Group; andalusite
about 6334.18 sq km; whereas a total area of 6076.25 sq bearing mica schist of Gurumahisani Group; and arkose
km has been found to match between published map and and conglomerate of Gurumahisani Group, as identified
that prepared by FF1C image. These results indicate that in published geological map (Fig. 1) (GSI, 1998). The
the present study (Figs. 9 and 10) correlates with the geological map as interpreted from the fused FFT1C and
published geological map (GSI, 1998) over a large FF1C images has been shown in Fig. 11. One major part
extent, whereas, the FFT1C image provides better in the mica schist (occasionally garnetiferous) of the
geological information. However, a few prominent Singhbhum Group has been delineated separately with
areas in the fusion based maps have been demarcated area about 608.56 sq km due to prominent color contrast,
as different and/or new unknown lithologic units. This is tonal variation and textural variation from Singhbhum
due to enhanced color contrast, tonal and textural Group of rocks (in the north of Dalma Volcanics).
variations from the surroundings, which do not correlate Similarly, some other patches of different color contrast
with published geological map. All such newly identified and tonal variations have also been demarcated as
areas, with probable changes, are shown in black color in new unknown litho-units (mica schist occasionally
the final interpreted geological maps (Figs. 9 and 10). For garnetiferous).
example, one major part of the Singhbhum Group (mica
schist occasionally garnetiferous) has been delineated as 6. Conclusions
a separate litho-unit (unknown 3) of about 608.56 sq km,
possibly due to prominent color contrast, and tonal and Fusion based geological maps could be used for
textural variations of this part from the Singhbhum Group identifying and demarcating various litho-units in the
to the north of Dalma Volcanics. Similarly, some other study area surrounding Singhbhum Shear Zone (SSZ) in
296 S.K. Pal et al. / ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing 61 (2007) 281–297

Fig. 11. Interpreted geological map as obtained from the FCC images from the fused FFT1C and FF1C images.

Jharkhand, India. In the present study, it is observed that (FFT1C), and with ii) Frost filtered ERS-2 SAR image
the fused images of histogram equalized IRS-1C LISS (FF1C), using PCA technique, provides better under-
III image with i) FFT filtered ERS-2 SAR image standing of the geological setting of the study area.
S.K. Pal et al. / ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing 61 (2007) 281–297 297

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