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Н. В.

Подгорная

Практическая грамматика:
Сослагательное н а к л о н е н и е

English Grammar Practice:


CONDITIONALS, WISHES
Учебное пособие для студентов с п е ц и а л ь н о с т и
«Современные иностранные языки»
учреждений, обеспечивающ их получение высшего сбсазования

Минск
Лексис
2013
УДК 811.1 1Г3 6 7 (0 7 5 .8 )
ББК 81.2Англ-923
П44

Подгорная, Н. В.
П44 Практическая грамматика: Сослагательное наклонение = English Gram m ar Practice: Conditionals,
W ishes : Уч. пособие / H. В. Подгорная. — Минск : Лексис, 2013. — 80 с.
IS B N 978-985-6932-36-9.

Данное пособие состоит из вводной части и девяти разделов. Каждый раздел включает практическую часть, пред­
ставляющую собой систему упражнений, направленную на систематизацию знаний о категории наклонения английского
глагола, типах и структуре некоторых сложных и простых предложений.
Практикум сопровождается разделом Miscelaneous Practice, промежуточным и финальным тестами.
Пособие предназначено для студентов второго курса лингвистических университетов и факультетов иностранных
языков, а также для лиц, изучающих английский язык на курсах или самостоятельно.
УДК 8 1 1 .1 1 1 '3 6 7 (0 7 5 .8 )
ББК 81.2АНГЛ-923

ISBN 978-985-6932-36-9 © Подгорная Н. В., 2013


© Оформление. ООО «Лексис», 2013
General Information 3

GENERAL INFORMATION
A conditional sentence is a complex sentence which consists of a main (principle) clause and
a subordinate (conditional) clause most typically introduced by a subordinating conjunction if.
Complex sentences with subordinate clauses of condition may be divided into 2 groups:
a) Those which express real condition referring to some actual state of things;
b) Those which express unreal condition and represent an imaginary event or state of things,
contradicting reality.
Unreal conditional sentences are subdivided into Type 1, Type 2, Type 3 and Mixed Type according
to the time reference of unreal actions in the main clause and the subordinate clause.

Types of Conditionals

Real Conditionals Unreal


(Type 1) Conditionals

Present/future time Past time reference Different time refer­


reference in both the in both the clauses ence in the clauses
clauses (Type 2) (Type 3) (Mixed type)

Real and unreal actions are expressed by mood forms of the verb. Mood is the form of the verb which
shows the relation between the action expressed by the predicate verb and reality established by the
speaker. There are three moods in English:
• the Indicative Mood,
• the Imperative Mood
• the Subjunctive Mood

The Indicative Mood represents actions as real facts, which occur at any time and always have the
same result or possible future events and situations with their results. In the Indicative Mood the verb
has the categories of tense, aspect, voice, correlation, person and number.
Martin speaks two foreign languages.
The children are eating now.
She has given up her job.
Was he promoted last year?
4 English Grammar Practice

The Imperative Mood expresses a command or a request to perform an action addressed to somebody.
As it doesn't denote an action as a real act, it has no tense category. The verb in the Imperative Mood
has only one form which coincides with the stem of the verb:
Ask him to send me some books.
Don't speak to me in such a tone!
The verb let is used, as a rule, with imperative first and third person expressions:
Let us go by car.
Let him stay with us.
The Subjunctive Mood of a verb indicates an imaginary action or state of things contradicting reality:
If only I had a well-paid job! (But I don't have it) - Если бы только у меня была
высокооплачиваемая работа! (но у меня ее нет)
If ту brother hadn't lent те the money, I wouldn't have bought a car. - Если
бы мой брат не одолжил мне денег, я бы не купил машину, (но он мне их
одолжил)
ReaI Conditionals (Type 1) 5

REAL CONDITIONALS (TYPE 1)


For Study

In complex sentences with subordinate clauses of real condition the Indicative Mood is used. Such
sentences describe things which will possibly happen and consider their real consequences for the future.
If you don't hurry, you will miss your train. / Если ты не поспешишь, ты
опоздаешь на поезд.
If this time is convenient to you, I will be waiting for you at the entrance to the
University. / Если время тебя устраивает, я буду ждать тебя у входа в
университет.

The basic sentence pattern of Type 1 Conditionals is:

If-clause Main clause


if+Present Indefinite Future Indefinite (will + infinitive)
If she works hard she will pass her exams

A wide variety of other patterns occur with real conditionals, depending on what the speaker
intends to say:

a) Any present tense can be used in the if-clause, besides Present indefinite:
If he is standing in the rain, he will catch a cold./ Если он стоит под дождем, то
заболеет.
If she has arrived at the station, she will be here soon. / Если она приехала на
станцию, то скоро должна быть здесь.
If he has been travelling all night, he will need a rest. / Если он путешествовал
всю ночь, то ему нужен отдых.

b) Present tenses are used both in the if-clause and in the main clause to talk about general truths
and facts. In such sentences present tense forms refer their actions to no particular time:
If you press this button, the machine stops working./Если нажать на эту кнопку,
то машина перестает работать.
If she is travelling abroad on business, she always gives me a call every evening. /
Если она едет в командировку за границу, то всегда звонит мне по вечерам.

c) Past tenses can be used both in the if-clause and in the main clause to talk about real past events.
Past tense forms are often used to denote repeated actions in the past:
If I criticised her unfairly, I always apologised. / Если я ее несправедливо
критиковал, то всегда извинялся.
If they were going anywhere, they took the dog with them. / Если они куда-нибудь
шли, то всегда брали собаку с собой.
6 English Grammar Practice

d) The main clause may contain a modal verb or a modal expression (can/could, may/might, must,
should/ought to, had better etc.)
If you behave yourself, you can come. / Если ты будешь себя хорошо вести, то
можешь придти.
If you are going to the shop, you had better take some money. / Если ты собираешься
в магазин, тебе лучше взять с собой деньги.

e) The main clause may be interrogative or imperative:


If you want to speak to him, why don't you give him a ring?/Если ты хочешь
поговорить с ним, почему бы ему не позвонить?
If you need anything, ask me. / Если тебе что-нибудь понадобится, обращайся
ко мне.

PRACTICE ACTIVITIES

Translate into Russian and comment on the forms used both in the main and in the


1.
subordinate clauses.

Travelling by car is convenient if you have somewhere to park.


2. We will have to leave without him unless he arrives in the next ten minutes.
3. If you continue to threaten me, I will have to seek legal advice.
4. If you have been telling the truth, we need to act quickly.
5. If you don't understand, why don't you ask me?
6. If you mix blue and red, you get purple.
7. You can have a pet if you promise to look after it properly.
8. If he has read that report, he will know what all the fuss is about.
9. If there is a fire, leave the building by the nearest emergency exit.
10. Unless governments act now, the environment is really going to suffer.
11. If he comes into the room, don't mention the party this evening.
12. The train will have left if we don't get there soon.
13. If you were in the area, why didn't you come and visit?
14. If you see him, tell him to come immediately.
15. If you have taken the books, you can start working on your essay.
16. They always took their kids with them if they were going anywhere.
Real Conditionals (Type 1) 7

Match the two halves of the following sentences and explain the use of verb forms
in them.

1. If you stay with us for three days... a) unless it's urgent.


2. She will know the way... b) give us a call and we'll come to pick you up.
3. If you decide not to vote in the election... c) we'll have enough time to see a few sights.
4. Please don't telephone... d) if he is studying hard for it.
5. If you forget to take your passport... e) you can't really complain about the government.
6. If the hire car isn't there when you arrive... f) if she has come here before.
7. If you were at the meeting... g) she will be landing any moment now.
8. If MPs wish to resign... h) I'm pretty sure they won't let you check in.
9. He will pass the exam... i) why didn't you raise the issue of recycling?
10. If she caught her flight... j) they have to go through a complicated procedure.

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense form.

1. The police (to arrest) him if they catch him.


2. Unless he (to sell) more, he won't get much commission.
3. If you (not to know) the meaning of this word, why you (not to use) a dictionary?
4. You can take my car if you (not to smash) it up.
5. If a driver brakes suddenly on a wet road, he (to skid).
6. If we (to quarrel), we always made friends.
7. Unless you (to work) harder, you won't pass the exam.
8. If you gossip about other people, they (to gossip) about you.
9. Most things expand if you (to heat) them.
10. Unless you put on some sun cream, you (to get) sunburnt.
11. You can't go into a club unless you (to be) a member.
12. If you have bought these shoes, why you (not to put them on)?
13. If the boss (to feel) relaxed, we all felt the same way.
14. If you like, I (to get) you a job in this company.
15. If Jack (to refuse) to help us we'll have to manage without him.

Ex. 4 Use the correct tense form of the Indicative Mood instead of the infinitives in brackets.

1. The flowers (not to grow) well if you (not to look) after them properly.
2. Unless you (to request) next-day delivery, we (to send) the goods by normal first-class post.
3. My father (to buy) a new house, if the bank manager (to lend) him the money.
4. If it (not to fit), madam, (to bring) it back and we (to change) it.
5. If you (to give) me your phone number, sir, we (to let) you know when it (to arrive).
6. Unless you (to be) more careful, you (to have) an accident.
7. If you (to receive) a threatening letter, you (to find out) who has sent it?
8. If you (not to see) what you (to want), sir, just (to ask) one of the assistants.
8 English Grammar Practice

9. Unless Peter (to change) his attitude, he's going to find himself in trouble.
10. If you (to write this article already), why you (not to go to the conference)?
11. You can't travel on this train unless you (to have) a reservation.
12. If they (to offer) him a job, he (to take) it?
13. Things (to go on) getting worse unless there (to be) a change of government.
14. If you (to soak) it in cold water, the stain (to come out).
15. We (to have) the meeting this afternoon, if nobody (to object).

Complete each sentence giving computer advice using an if-clause of real condition,
so that it has the same meaning as the first sentence.

1. Don't press that button on the keyboard, or you'll lose what you've written.
If vou press that button on the keyboard, you'll lose what you've written.
2. Make a back-up copy of your work or you'll lose it.
You won't________________________________________________________
3. You need virus protection to avoid having problems with your computer.
If you don't______
4. Sitting too long at the computer will make your back and arms ache.
Your____________________________________________________________ _
5. Don't turn off the computer before closing all programs, or you will have problems.
You______________________________________________________________
6. You'll lose your work unless you save it before closing the word-processing program.
If_______________________________________________________ _
7. You can save a lot of time by learning the keyboard short cuts.
If________________________________________________________________
8. Running too many programs at the same time will probably make the computer crash.
The computer w ill_________________________________________________ _

Paraphrase the following sentences using if-clauses of real condition.

Model: Perhaps Steve won't go to university. Then he'll start work in a bank.
If Steve doesn't go to university, he'll start work in a bank.
1. James' mother wants to make him study law. Then he'll be unhappy.
2. Caroline has changed her job. Now she'll earn more money.
3. He wants to go to university. Then he'll study history or languages.
4. We hope your plans don't change. We will see you on Saturday evening then.
5. Rachel might fail her driving test. Then she will take it again.
6. Emma has missed the train. But she can get the next one.
7. The office may be closed. In that case Mark won't be able to get in.
8. Nick arrived a bit early sometimes. Then he could help Tom to get things ready.
9. The party might go on all night. Then no one wanted to do any work the next day.
10. Is Matthew going to enter the race? He'll probably win it.
Real Conditionals (Type 1) 9

Ex. 7 Correct the mistakes in the sentences below where necessary.

1. If you will fall, I won't be able to catch you.


2. I'll take some aspirin with me if the sun gives me a headache.
3. Come tonight unless I don't phone.
4. If you want to go out with her, why won't you give her a ring?
5. If you don't help me, I won't pass the exam.
б. We are going to have a picnic unless it will rain.
7. We'd better get ready if he's coming round soon.
8. If Paul had been running long way, he will be out of breath.
9. You can't open the door unless you don't know the code.
10 If you've been to London, you will be able to tell us what it's like.

Ex. 8 Translate the parts in brackets using if-clauses of real condition.


1. If you (увидите) him, (попросите) him to ring me up.
2. If you (взяли) the books, you (можете начать) working on your article.
3. If Rita (откроет) a boutique in the High Street, she (заработает) lots of money.
4. If Bill (летает самолетом), he (всегда заказывает) a special meal.
5. We won't give them longer holidays, (если они не пообещают) to be more productive.
6. If I (хотел) to speak English very well, I (практиковал) it every day.
7. If the film (будет скучным), we (можем уйти) before the end.
8. We can sit here in the corner, (если только Вы не хотите) to sit over there by the window.
9. If you (не веришь) me, (почему бы тебе не спросить) him about it?
10. If I (сдавал экзамены) with flying colours, my parents (давали) me their car for my holiday.

Ex. 9 Translate the sentences using if-clauses of real condition.

1. Мы поедем отдыхать, если ты устроишься на работу.


2. Ты опоздаешь на собеседование, если не поторопишься.
3. Если ты работала всю эту неделю, почему я не вижу результат?
4. Он не получит эту работу, если не представит рекомендации.
5. Если я путешествую на большое расстояние, я всегда летаю самолетом.
6. Отмени встречу, если не будешь успевать.
7. Если я закончу все дела на этой неделе, я уеду в заграничное путешествие.
8. Если начальник сердился, это был плохой признак.
9. Мы продлим твой рабочий контракт, если ты не будешь больше опаздывать.
10. Если ты сказал правду, мы должны спасти его.
11 . Если ты не объяснишь свое поведение, я не буду с тобой разговаривать.
12. Мы возьмем Вас на работу, если у Вас будет достаточно опыта.
13. Я куплю тебе компьютер, если только ты будешь хорошо учиться.
14. Если тебе не понравился фильм, почему ты не ушла?
10 English Grammar Practice

UNREAL CONDITIONALS REFERRING TO THE PRESENT OR FUTURE


(TYPE 2)
For Study

In complex sentences with subordinate clauses of unreal condition non-perfect forms of Subjunctive II
are used in the if-clause (subordinate) and non-perfect forms of the Conditional Mood are used in the
main (principle) clause when we talk about present or future situations.
The basic sentence pattern of Type 2 Conditionals is:
If-clause Main clause
if + non-perfect Subjunctive II would + non-perfect infinitive
If she knew his name she would tell you

Non-perfect Subjunctive II forms coincide with those of the Past Indefinite in the Indicative Mood (I did,
he did...) and are used to express an unreal condition. The only exception is the verb to be. The non­
perfect Subjunctive II form of the verb to be is were for all the persons (I were, he were, they were...)-.
If I were there now, I would help them. /Если бы я был там сейчас, я бы помог им.
I would call on him today, if he were in town. /Я бы зашел к нему, если бы он был в городе.
The Conditional Mood represents an action as an unreal consequence depending on the unreal
condition in an if-clause. The non-perfect Conditional Mood forms are built up analytically, by means
of the auxiliary verb would and the non-perfect infinitive (I would do it...; you would do it...). The time
reference is expressed by the form of the infinitive.
If I were with you now, I would encourage you. / Если бы я был сейчас с тобой, я
бы поддержал тебя.
You wouldn't recognize him, if you saw him now. / Ты бы его не узнала, если бы
увидела его сейчас.

NOTE: The expressions If I were you / in your position are often used to describe actions we would
follow in someone else's position:
If I were you / in your position, I would accept their offer. / На твоем месте я бы
приняла их предложение.
If I were Jim / in Jim's position, I would give up this job. / На месте Джима я бы
бросила эту работу.
Non-perfect Subjunctive II and the non-perfect Conditional Mood may have continuous and passive
forms if the lexical meaning of the verb admits of that and when it is required by the sense:
If I were studying harder now, I would pass my exam tomorrow. / Если бы я сейчас
много занимался, я бы сдал экзамен завтра.
If I had a lot of money, I would be travelling now. /Если бы у меня было много
денег, я бы сейчас путешествовал.
If you were asked this question, would you answer it?/ Если бы тебе задали этот
вопрос, ты бы на него ответила?
Unreal Conditionals Referring to the Present or Future (Type 2) 11
The modal verbs could and might can be used either in the main or subordinate clause. They fully
retain their own modal meaning and are used in Subjunctive II, followed by non-perfect infinitives
{common or continuous). The combination of the modal verb and the infinitive makes a compound
verbal modal predicate. The time reference is expressed by the form of the infinitive.
Compare:
If I had time, I would go there, (we have the Conditional Mood of the verb to go) /
Если бы у меня было время, я бы поехал туда.
If I had time, I could / might go there, (we have Subjunctive II of the modal verb
itself) / Если бы у меня было время, я бы смог поехать туда.
If he could/m ight get the tickets, we would see the most brilliant performance, (we
have Subjunctive II of the modal verb itself) / Если бы он смог достать билеты,
мы бы увидели самое замечательное представление.

PRACTICE ACTIVITIES

Explain the use of mood forms in conditional sentences and translate them into Russian.

1. The kitchen would look better if we had red curtains.


2. I'd be sorry if we didn't see her again.
3. It would be a pity, if Andy didn't get the job.
4. What would you do if you won the lottery?
5. It would be quicker if you used a computer.
6. If you were not so busy, I'd show you how to play.
7. I'm sure Mary would help you if you asked her.
8. If I had children like hers, I would send them to boarding school.
9. If all of us came, would you have room in your car?
10. It would be nice if you spent some time with the children.

2 Щ Say what you think you would do if these things happened to you.

Model: If you found a big hairy spider in your bed


a. scream b. squash it c. keep it as a pet
If I found a bia hairv soider in mv bed. I would scream.

1. If you saw a famous actor in the street


a. go up and say hello b. be too shy to speak c. follow him or her
2. If you saw a strange object in the sky
a. photograph it b. tell your friends c. call the police
3. If you found a bag full of money under a tree
a. spend it b. tell the police c. share it with your friends
12 English Grammar Practice

4. If you heard a loud noise in the night


a. hide under the bed b. get up and look c. go to sleep again
5. If you saw an elephant walking down the street
a. phone the zoo b. run the other way c. do nothing

Say what you think you wouldn't do if these things happened to you.

Model: If you found a big hairy spider in your bed


a. scream b. squash it c. keep it as a oet
If I found a bia hairv spider in mv bed. I wouldn't keep it as a oet.

1. If you were alone on a desert island


a. cry b. explore it c. look out for a ship
2. If you found a snake in your cupboard
a. run away b. pick it up c. shut the door
3. If you suddenly saw yourself on television
a. laugh b. record it c. turn the television off
4. If the phone rang in the middle of the night
a. get out of bed and b. put the pillow over your c. tell someone to answer it
answer it head
5. If the police arrested you by mistake
a. fight with them b. ask for a lawyer c.‘ start crying

Match the following parts to make conditional sentences and explain the use of
mood forms in them.

1. If 1had their address... a) it would cost $650.


2. If you saw her now... b) you might earn a bit more money.
3. If you took more exercise... c) we could go for a swim.
4. If you got a new job... d) 1could probably stay with Magomet.
5. If you asked Julia... e) you could try calling her another time.
6. If 1travelled first class... f) she would probably give you a lift.
7. If it were a little warmer... g) he would give you a certificate.
8. If she didn't answer the phone... h) you might lose a bit of weight.
9. If 1stopped off in Ankara... i) 1could write and ask them.
10. If you went to the doctor... j) you would hardly recognize her.

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct mood form using Type 2 Conditionals.


Model:
Make unreal situations real.

If he got up earlier, he would aet (to get) to work in time.


But he doesn't get up early, so he doesn't get to work in time.
1. If h e _______ (to take out) a loan, he would be able to buy a car.
Unreal Conditionals Referring to the Present or Future (Type 2) 13
2. If you________ (not to talk) now, you would be able to concentrate on your work.
3. I _________ (to speak) to her if she apologized for her appalling behaviour.
4. If you________ (to stop) complaining, we would be able to get some work done.
5. W e________ (to have) some fresh air if you opened the window.
6. If the baby________ (to sleep) now, I would be reading a book.
7. If the police________ (not to fine) people, very few people would obey the law.
8. If you_________(to decide) to leave the company, we would be happy to give you a good
reference.
9. If you didn't wear such thin clothes, you________ (not to feel) cold I
10. If you________ (to listen) to common sense, there would be no point my talking to you.
11. If you (to change) your job, would it affect your pension?
12. The whole machine would fall to pieces if you________ (to remove) that screw.
13. If we reduced taxes, people________ (to have) more money.
14. If you were listening to me, you (not to ask) so many questions now.
15. If you slept under a mosquito net, yo u________ (not to be) bitten so often.
16. If th ey________ (to ban) the sale of alcohol at football matches, there would be less
violence.

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct mood form using Type 2 Conditionals and
comment on them.

1. If you________(to sell) more products now, you________ (to earn) more money.
2. If you________(to drive) more carefully, you________ (not to have) so many accidents.
3. W hat______ (we/to do) now, if w e _______ (not/to lie) on this beach?
4. W here_______ (you/to like) to live if you________ (not to live) in Paris?
5. W hat________(you/to do) if you suddenly__________ (to lose) your passport?
6. I'm sure Sue_______ (to understand) everything ifyou______ (to explain) the situation
to her.
7. If you________(to take) more exercise, you (probably/to feel) healthier.
8. If I _______ (not to travel) by air now, I _______ (to be very disappointed).
9. If we a ll_______ (to work) together now, w e (to finish) our work sooner.
10. W e_______ (happily/to buy) this house if it _______ (not to be) so small.
11. If you_______(not to panic) now, you (to find) the solution to your problem.
12. If you_______ (to complain) to the manager, I think h e_______ (to help) you.
13. If Tom_______ (to be good at) maths, he (to become) an accountant.
14. If your father________(to be alive), h e (to be shocked) to see what you're
doing.
15. If I (not to go) to work, I _______ (not to have) such a big house.
14 English Grammar Practice

Complete these sentences using could or might. Comment on the way time
reference is expressed in combinations modal verb + infinitive.

1. 1 (lend) vou mv car, if vou wanted.


2. He (change) his mind, if we talked to him.
3. If it wasn't raining, we (play) tennis.
4. If she asked me oolitelv, 1 (feel) like helping her.
5. If he wasn't so bad-tempered. 1 (go) out with him.
6. If 1had more monev, 1 (get) a small flat.
7. If vou sooke more slowlv. 1 (understand) you better.
8. If vou cooked it in butter, it (taste) better.

Supply the correct forms of the missing verbs. Use the modal verbs could or might in
the main clause and comment on their form and meaning.

Model: If she were/was (be) here now, she could / miaht give (give) us some advice.

1. If h e (fail) in his present job, he (think) about another career.


2. If you (can play) a musical instrument, you (help) with the school
orchestra.
3. If they___ _ (have) the right qualifications, they (apply) for better jobs.
4. If she____ _ (can have) some lessons, she______ (improve) her performance.
5. If w e ____ (run) our own business, w e___ (be) more independent.
6. If John___ _ (go) to his home town, h e___ . (visit) his mother.
7. If Frank__ (want) advice, h e _______ (ask) his bank manager.
8. If w e ____ (be able to) pay better wages, w e _______ (take on) more staff.
9. If Susan _ (feel) like seeing the sights, she_______ (take) a bus tour.

The following things might happen. Say what you would do if they happened to you.
Use your own ideas or the prompts in brackets.

Model: If I found a gold ring in the street, I would give it to my sister.


1. If 1lost mv voice. ( to take in medicine).
2. If 1forgot mv best friend's birthdav. (to aDologise).
3. If 1saw someone hurt in an accident. ( to call an ambulance).
4. If 1spilled orange juice on mv passport. (to change it).
5. If the television broke down in the middle of my favorite programme.
(to be disappointed).
6. If 1moved to the USA, (to start my business there).
7. If all the lights suddenly went out. (to become too dark).
8. If today were the last dav of mv life. (to devote it to mvself).
Unreal Conditionals Referring to the Present or Future (Type 2) 15
9. If I could have any job I wanted,. (to take up teaching).
10. If I were an English teacher,____ (to set high standards).
11. If I lived on a tropical island, (to build a shelter there).
12. If I lost my memory,_______ (to ask somebody for help).

Ex. 9 Paraphrase the following sentences to express similar ideas by using Type 2 Conditionals.

Model: I don't have a spare ticket, I can't take you to the concert.
If I had a spare ticket, I could/would take you to the concert.

1. She drinks too much coffee so she doesn't feel calm.


2. He can't type because he isn't able to operate a computer.
3. He won't buy you a palace because he's not a millionaire.
4. He isn't fit because he sits around too much.
5. People don't understand him because he doesn't speak clearly.
6. I'm not going to buy that book because it's too expensive.
7. She can't walk without help so she doesn't go out very often.
8. We can't have lunch in the garden because it's raining.
9. Scientists are worried because the climate is undergoing such radical changes.
10. You don't use a sun block so you will get red in the sun.

Ex. 10 Comment on the following situations. Use Type 2 Conditionals to complete the
sentences.

Model: Andrew is such a boring person because he works all the time.
You know, if Andrew didn't work all the time, he wouldn't be such a boring person.
1. You can't look the word up because you haven't got a dictionary.
I'm sorrv.
2. You don't write to your friends because you're so busy.
I've got so much to do.
3. You can't play tennis because your back is aching.
It's a nuisance.
4. Claire won't marry Henry because she doesn't love him.
Of course.
5. Nick can't find the way because he hasn't got a map.
Nick's lost, but
6. David has so many accidents because he's so clumsy.
You know.
7. You can't take a photo because you haven't got your camera.
How annoving,
8. We can't work this out a lot quicker because we don't have a calculator.
I'm sure,
16 English Grammar Practice.

9. It's so quiet here because Rachel isn't playing her stereo.


Believe m e,_____________________________________________________
10. You don't know what to do because you don't ask a lawyer for some advice.
I guess,________________________________________________________

Write questions which might produce the following answers. Use Type 2 Conditionals.

1. What would vou do if someone aave 1. / would probably give it to my mother.


vou a diamond necklace?
2. ? 2. I'd share it with my friends.
3. ? 3. I'd call the police.
4. ? 4. We'd get as fast as we could.
5. ? 5. He'd be extremely angry.
6. ? 6. She'd probably fall over.
7. ? 7. We'd sail around the world.
8. ? 8. They'd never make any money.
9. ? 9. There'd be no more wars.
10. ? 10. He'd be sacked.

Ex. 12 Make up questions using Type 2 Conditionals to match these situations. Answer
these questions in your own way.

Model: Perhaps one day somebody will give you a lot of money.
What would you do if somebody gave you a lot of money?
If somebody gave me a lot of money I would buy a house.

1. Perhaps one day a millionaire will ask you to marry him/her.


2. Perhaps one day you will lose your passport in a foreign country.
3. Perhaps one day somebody will throw an egg at you.
4. Perhaps one day your car will be stolen.
5. Perhaps one day somebody will park his car on your foot.
6. Perhaps one day you will see someone robbing a bank.
7. Perhaps one day you will win a plane ticket for anywhere in the world.
8. Perhaps one day you will find someone's wallet in the street.
9. Perhaps one day you will lose your house key.
10. Perhaps one day you will meet a famous pop star.
11. Perhaps one day you will become a film star.
12. Perhaps one day you will find a dog with a broken leg.
Unreal Conditionals Referring to the Present or Future (Type 2) 17

Say what you would do in the following situations.

Model: Suppose someone stole your mobile phone.


If someone stole my mobile phone I would report it to the police immediately.

1. Suppose you left a restaurant with the wrong umbrella.


2. Suppose a waiter in a restaurant overcharged you.
3. Suppose you missed the last bus home.
4. Suppose you missed your station on the train.
5. Suppose you got lost in a big city.
6. Suppose someone stole your wallet.
7. Suppose you lost your passport.
8. Suppose a stranger asked you for a lift at night.
9. Suppose someone offered you a briefcase full of money.
10. Suppose you got stuck in a lift.

Read the following questions and answer them in your own way, using Type 2
Conditionals.

1. What would you do differently in your future life if you spoke English fluently?
2. What talent would you most like to have which you haven't got?
3. If you could change anything about your personality, what would you change and why?
4. Obviously, you are ecstatically happy being you, but supposing you could be anyone else
in the world, who would you choose to be and why?
5. If you could change anything in your life, what would you change and why?
6. If you could change anything in the world, what would you change and why?
7. If you could change anything in this English course, what would you change? Why?
8. If you could change anything about your looks, what would you change and why?
9. If you wanted to convince foreigners that yours was an absolutely wonderful country,
what feature of the country would you talk about first?
10. If you could speak any language other than those you already speak, which one would
you choose to be able to speak and why?

Some of these sentences contain errors. Find and correct them.

1. The company would be more successful if it spent more money on advertising.


2. We might sell our business if it would make another loss this year.
3. If you didn't spend so much money on clothes, you can buy a car.
4. What would you do if your house will be burgled?
5. If I were not traveling now, I wouldn't be enjoying myself.
6. If we are not getting ready for our exams we would go skiip^,
7. If I have to fly, I would get very nervous, so I usually drive.
8. If I were you, I would think very carefully about my future.
18 English Grammar Practice

9. If the employees of the company were happy, they work harder.


10. If we could get the facts, we might know what to do.

Ex. 16 Read the following broadcasting and find all the sentences with if. Define the mood
forms expressing unreality and comment on their use.

Good evening. This is London Radio. Welcome to 'Man in the Street'. Our programme tonight is
about North Sea oil. Oil was first discovered beneath the North Sea in the late 1960s. Since then more and
more oil has been found off the coasts of Britain, and is being brought ashore. We aren't going to become
very rich, but we must decide how to spend the oil revenues. Our interviewer went into the streets to ask
people their opinion. He asked: 'If you were the Prime Minister, what would you do with the money?'
'Well, of course I'm not the Prime Minister, but if I were, I'd spend the money on more hospitals
and schools. We need more doctors, nurses, and teachers. Classes are too big. If classes were smaller,
children would learn more. And there aren't enough nurses either, because salaries are too low. If the
salaries were higher, more people would become nurses. Money which is spent now on education
and health is an investment for the future.'
'I think the answer is quite simple. Taxes are much too high in this country,aren'tthey? I
would reduce them if I could. If we reduced taxes, people would have more money. Ifthey hadmore
money, they'd spend more. If industry produced more, it would need more workers. If it needed more
workers, there would be more jobs. If there were more jobs, we would be richer.'
'I'm very worried about inflation. If I were the Prime Minister, I'd reduce the price of gas, coal,
and electricity. If we did that, everybody would benefit, wouldn't they?
'There's too much crime and violence nowadays. There aren't enough policemen on the streets.
If we had more policemen, we'd all feel safer. If I were the Prime Minister, I'd increase the size of the
police force and their salaries. I'd also increase old age pensions if I could. I've worked hard all my life,
and I should have a reasonable standard of living.'

Use Your English


Write a short paragraph describing what you would do if you were the Prime Minister.

Ex. 17 Make two teams. Each student in Team A says what he/she would or wouldn't do if
he/she won the lottery. Students in Team В must try to remember what each student
in Team A said. Score one point for each correctly remembered sentence. Then play
the game again with Team B's sentences.

Model: If Tom won the lottery, he would buy a yacht.


If Diana won the lottery, she would go to Hollywood.
If Brian won the lottery, he wouldn't buy a motor bike. They are too dangerous.
Unreal Conditionals Referring to the Presenter Future (Type 2) 19

If you could spend a day with a famous person, who would you choose? What would
you do? Where would you go? What would you talk about?

Model: If I could spend a day with a famous person, I would choose Julia Roberts.
I would go to Hollywood with h er...

Translate the parts in brackets using if-clauses of unreal condition referring to the
present or future.
1. If you (попросил бы) him nicely, he (позволил бы) you have a day off.
2. (На твоем месте) I would think about my career properly.
3. If you (был) a bit more considerate, you (предложил бы) me a seat.
4. (Что бы ты сделал) if there were an earthquake in your area?
5. If he (принял бы участие) in this competition, he (смог бы выиграть) a mountain bike.
6. (Ты бы смог присмотреть) after my kids, if (меня попросили бы) to help them with the
concert?
7. We (смогли бы сделать) something useful, if you (не играл бы) computer games now.
8. If you (не бездельничал бы) now, we (работали бы) at our business plan.

Translate into English using if-clauses of unreal condition referring to the present or future.

1. Профессия учителя была бы более уважаемой, если бы она лучше оплачивалась.


2. Если бы эта должность давала какие-нибудь перспективы, я бы сейчас не подавала
заявление об увольнении.
3. Если бы ты устроился на работу со свободным распорядком дня, ты бы смог уделять
больше времени своей семье.
4. Ты бы смирился со своей монотонной, неинтересной работой, если бы она лучше
оплачивалась?
5. На вашем месте, я бы не принимал столь скоропалительное и необдуманное ре­
шение.
6. Если бы твой брат разместил объявление о поиске работы в Интернете, я думаю,
он бы смог найти подходящую работу.
7. На твоем месте я бы обратился к адвокату и не дожидался бы ответа твоего на­
чальника.
8. Если бы Вы были более инициативны, Вас бы порекомендовали на повышение.
9. Мы были бы благодарны, если бы Вы приняли участие в обсуждении проекта.
10. Если бы ты не был так занят, мы могли бы пойти куда-нибудь пообедать.
11. Если бы он интересовался английским, то использовал бы любую возможность
поговорить на языке.
12. Мы бы с удовольствием присоединились к вам, если бы не было так поздно.
13. На вашем месте я бы с ними не спорила. То, что они говорят, правда.
14. Куда бы Вы поехали отдыхать, если бы у Вас был сейчас отпуск?
15. Вы бы приняли приглашение, если бы Вам предложили работать за рубежом?
20 English Grammar Practice

CONDITIONALS TYPE 1 AND TYPE 2 COMPARED

Choose the correct verb forms.

1. If she (comes, came) late again, she'll lose her job.


2. I'll let you know if I (find, found) out what's happening.
3. If we (live, lived) in a town, life would be easier.
4. I'm sure, he wouldn't mind if we (arrive, arrived) early.
5. (We'll, We'd) phone you if we have time.
6. It (will, would) be a pity if she married Fred.
7. If I am free on Saturday, I (will, would) go to the mountains.
8. She (will, would) have a nervous break down if she goes on like this.
9. I know I'll feel better if I (stop, stopped) smoking.

Choose the most suitable verb form.

1. If I (live/lived) to be 70...
2. If I (live/lived) to be 150...
3. If I (am/were) better looking...
4. If I (wake/woke) up early tomorrow...
5. If everybody (gives/gave) ten precent of their income to charity...
6. If everybody (thinks/thought) like me...
7. If there (is/was) nothing good on TV tonight...
8. If my English (is/was) better next year...
9. If the government (bans/banned) cars from the city centres next year...
10. If I (have/had) bad dreams tonight...

Complete the sentences about the possible future for our world, using a suitable form
of the verb in brackets, depending on whether you think the situation is real or unreal.

1. If the Earth (stop) stopped spinning, one side (always be) in darkness.
2. If the polar ice-caps (melt) ____________ completely, sea-levels worldwide (rise)
_____________by about 60 metres.
3. If we (recycle)__________ more household waste, there (be) less damage
to the environment.
4. If an astronaut (fall) ___________ into a black hole in space, what (happen)
?
5. If people (not stop)____________ using cars so much, the country's roads (eventually
grind) to a standstill.
6. What (happen) if the world's supplies of oil (runout)______________ ?
7. If human beings (finally start) living on the Moon, they (need)
Unreal Conditionals Referring to the Present or Future (Type 2) 21
____________to produce water artificially.
8. If there (not b e )_____________any money (the world b e )________________ a better
place?
9. If we (not stop)_______________over-fishing the world's oceans, many species (become)
______________extinct.
10. If everyone in the world (jum p)______________up and down at the same time, there
(be)___________ no measurable effect (apart from 6.5 billion footprints).

Ex. 4 Study the situations and decide whether they are real or imaginary. Complete the

■ statement after each one.

Model: You park your car outside someone's driveway so they cannot move their car.
An angry person comes from the house and says:
If vou don't move your car, I will call the police.

1. You are trying to climb in through the second floor of your house after forgetting your
keys. A neighbour watching you says:
If I had a...

2. You have no money left this week. You phone a friend and say:
If you...

3. You are about to go out for a walk. It looks as if it might rain. Someone offers you an
umbrella and says:
If you don't...

4. You are always late for work. Your boss calls you into his office and says:
You wouldn't...

5. You never have any breakfast. Every morning you feel hungry by 10.30. A friend says:
You wouldn't...

6. Your train leaves at 6.00. You arrive at the station at 5.58. You start running and say to
your friend:
//we...

Ex. 5 Study each sentence and decide whether it is Type 1 or Type 2 Conditionals.

1. If a famous pop star talked to me I wouldn't know what to say.


Am I at a party with a lot of famous pop stars in the room?
2. If I knew the answer to the question. I'd tell you.
Do you know the answer?
3. If you get into difficulties, I'll come and give you a hand.
Am I offering to help you?
22 English Grammar Practice

4. If you fell in the water, I would rescue you.


Do I think you are going to fall in?
5. If I had a thousand pounds, I wouldn't give you a penny!
Am I expecting to get a lot of money from somewhere?

Give some advice to the people with the problems described below, using Type 1

■ and Type 2 Conditionals.

Model: I feel tired all the time, and never go out and do anything interesting.
I am eighteen years old.

If I were you, I'd take more exercise and make some friends. If you did more you wouldn't
feel so tired. I think you should take up a hobby or something like that. If you take up a
hobby you will keep yourself interested.

1. I never have any money. I don't know why. And I'm always in debt.
2. I'd like to go abroad for a holiday, but I'm scared. I can't speak any foreignlanguages,
and I don't really know where to go.
3. I have a lot of problems with my neighbours. They are very noisy, and their garden is
full of rubbish. I want to remain friends but...
4. I have a problem with my dog. When people come to the house, it barks a lot, and
frightens them.
5. I have just won €100.000 on the football pools. The problem is thatI'm not sure what
to do with it. I don't want to waste it on silly things.
6. I feel tired all the time, and seem to catch a lot of colds, and generally get ill. What
would you advise?
7. I just can't seem to be able to write anything when I have to write a composition in
English. Do you have any advice?
8. l a m a very popular singer (I'm not going to tell you my name!). My problem is that
people follow me everywhere, and I keep getting offers of marriage. Help me please!
Unreal Conditionals Referring to the Past (Type 3) 23

UNREAL CONDITIONALS REFERRING TO THE PAST


(TYPE3)
For Study

When we talk about past situations, perfect forms of Subjunctive II are used in the if-clause
(subordinate) and perfect forms of the Conditional Mood are used in the main (principle) clause.
The basic sentence pattern of Type 3 Conditionals is:

If-clause Main clause


i f + perfect Subjunctive II would + perfect infinitive
If she had known his name she would have told you

Perfect Subjunctive II forms coincide with those of the Past Perfect in the Indicative Mood (I had been,
he had done...) and are used to express an unreal condition.
You would have answered these questions, if you had read this article yesterday. / Ты
бы ответила на вопросы, если бы прочитала эту статью вчера.
If he hadn't got this job, he wouldn't have made a career. / Если бы он не получил
эту работу, он бы не сделал карьеру.

The Conditional Mood represents an action as an unreal consequence depending on the unreal
condition in an if-clause. The perfect Conditional Mood forms are built up analytically, by means of
the auxiliary verb would and the perfect infinitive (I would have done it...; you would have done it...).
The time reference is expressed by the form of the infinitive.
I would have answered your letters, if I had got them in time. / Я бы ответила на
твои письма, если бы получила их вовремя.
If you hadn't passed your exams last year you wouldn't have become a student. /
Если бы ты не сдал экзамены в прошлом году, ты бы не стал студентом.

NOTE: The expressions If I had been you / in your position are often used to describe actions we
would have followed in someone else's position:
If I had been you / in your position, I would have never missed that opportunity. /
На твоем месте я бы никогда не упустила такую возможность.

Perfect Subjunctive II and the perfect Conditional Mood may have continuous and passive forms if the
lexical meaning of the verb admits of that and when it is required by the sense:
If he hadn't been driving so fast, the police wouldn't have stopped him for
speeding. / Если бы он не ехал так быстро, полиция бы не остановила его за
превышение скорости.
If she hadn't sold her house, she wouldn't have been staying with her relatives
for so long. / Если бы она не продала свой дом, она бы не жила у своих
родственников так долго.
24__________________________________________________________________________ English Grammar Practice
If she had been invited to the conference last year, she would have gone there. / Если
бы ее пригласили на конференцию в прошлом году, она бы поехала.

When the main or subordinate clause contains a compound verbal modal predicate with the modal
verbs could and might, they are followed by the perfect infinitive. The verbs could and might present
their own modal meaning and are used in Subjunctive II. The time reference is expressed by the form
of the infinitive.
We could/ might have got into an accident if we hadn't stopped in time. / Мы бы
могли попасть в аварию, если бы не остановились вовремя.
If he could / might have bought the tickets yesterday, we would have seen the most
brilliant performance. /Если бы он смог купить билеты вчера, мы бы увидели
самое замечательное представление.

PRACTICE ACTIVITIES

Ex. 1 Explain the use of mood forms in conditional sentences and translate them into
Russian.

1. Tom got to the station in time. If he had missed the train, he would have been late for
his interview.
2. If I hadn't been standing outside the supermarket, we might never have met.
3. George would not have stayed at this hotel if he couldn't have paid for it.
4. If we hadn't been running all this way, we wouldn't have become so tired.
5. Would you have helped him if you had known he wasn't guilty?
6. In those days you would have been breaking the law if you hadn't been carrying your
ID card at all times.
7. He would have been arrested if he had tried to leave the country.
8. If you hadn't been talking during the essay, you would have finished it in time.
9. I could have taken a taxi if I had realized that it was such a long way.
10. I might have repaired your car if you had asked me.

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct mood form using Type 3 Conditionals.

■ Make unreal situations real.

Model: If you had looked (to look) at the engine for a moment you would have seen what
was missing.
But you didn't look at the engine, so you didn't see what was missing.

1. If she ____________ (to read) the newspaper, she would have known about the
earthquake.
2. If the food hadn't been so good, w e_____________(not to eat) so much.
Unreal Conditionals Referring to the Past (Type 3) 25
3. If he_____________(not to drive) fast all this time, he wouldn't have been fined.
4. If you hadn't given us a lift, we_____________ (never to get) there on time.
5. If you _____________ (to cancel) within the time limit, we would have given you
a full refund.
6. If she had realized how late it was, she___________(not to sit) here all this time.
7. If you hadn't helped me, I (not to quit) gambling.
8. If Dan had liked the picture, h e __________ (to buy) it, I'm sure.
9. They_(not to miss) their plane if they hadn't woken up late.
10. If yo u (not to play) music so loud all this time, your neighbors wouldn't
have argued with you.

Ex. 3 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct mood forms using Type 3 Conditionals and
comment on them.

Model: If you (to come) to the theatre yesterday, you (to enioy) the plav.
If you had come to the theatre with me yesterday, you would have enjoyed the play.
1. If 1 (to visit) Athens last vear, 1 (to phone) you.
2. If 1 (to know) vou alreadv had tickets. 1 (not to stand) in
a queue for so long.
3. If vou (to start) coming to the course earlier, vou (to pass)
the exam.
4. If 1 (not to be) so shy at the partv last Saturday. 1 (to make)
more friends.
5. If you ___ (not to spend) so much monev for the last vear, we
(to buy) a car.
6. She (to get) promotion last vear if she (not to argue) with
the boss.
7. He (not to get) the iob. if he (not to be) successful at the
interview.
8. If he (not to see) the other car, there (to be) a serious
accident.
9. If 1 (not to become) a teacher, 1 (not to work) at school for
ten years.
10. If we ___ (not to take) a taxi, we (not to come) here so quickly.

Supply the correct mood forms of Type 3 Conditionals. Use the modal verbs could or
might in the main clause.

Model: If I had managed (to manage) to repair my car earlier, I could / might have driven
(to drive) you to London.
1. If I ___________(to know) last week that she was ill, I - (to visit) her.
2. If you____________(to ask) politely yesterday,_I ___________(to help) you.
26 English Grammar Practice

3. We (to be) at the airport for hours if we (not to know) that


the flight was delayed.
4. 1 (to make) a bad mistake, if 1 (not to read) the instructions.
5. We (to have) an accident if our car (not to be) prooerlv
serviced.
6. If he (to fasten) his seatbelt, he (not to be) hurt.
7. She (not to hear) the news if she (not to turn on) the
radio this morning.
8. They (to play) better at the competitions if thev (to
have) more training.
9. If vou (to tell) me vou needed monev, 1 (to lend) vou
some.
10. 1 (to save) some food for you. if 1 (to know) vou were going to be late.

■ Complete the following sentences, using your own ideas or the prompts in brackets.

1. We would have flown to California if _ (our passports/to be stolen).


2. The flight wouldn't have been delaved if (the engine/to break).
3. He would have signed the contract if __(he/to agree on their terms).
4. We wouldn't have spent all our monev if _(we/to buy so much clothes).
5. If 1had seen an accident. (I/to become a witness).
6. If 1had read more. _ (I/to become more literate).
7. We would have staved in Paris longer if (we/to spend all our money).
8. If vou hadn't overfed the cat. (he/to fall ill).
9. The argument wouldn't have started if _ (you/to break your promise).
10. You wouldn't have had so much trouble if _ (you/to listen to my advice).
11. If 1had known everything (I/to come earlier).
12. If vou had managed to escape (you/to be caught in any case).

Look at these newspaper headlines about people who have done heroic acts.

■ Write sentences about them with the words provided and if as shown in the model.

Model: Joe Smith saved family from fire


not hear their cries not find them
If he hadn't heard their cries, he wouldn't have found them.

1. Constable Pierce pulled woman from exploding car


arrive one minute later be too late

2. Christie Combe saved cat from tree


not find a ladder not be able to save it
Unreal Conditionals Referring to the Past (Type 3) 27
3. Ken Spudgen warned police of hold-up
Walkman not stop workingnot hear the thieves' plan

4. Susan Adams found lost child


not go jogging not find the child

5. Jimmy Bond warned motorists of collapsed bridge


not walk along river not see the bridge

6. Karen Wright saved man from drowning


not taken a first aid course not know what to do

Ex. 7 Paraphrase the following sentences to express similar ideas by using Type 3

■ Conditionals.

Model: The accident happened because the driver in front stopped so suddenly.
If the driver in front hadn't stopped so suddenly, the accident wouldn't have happened.
1. We came home from our holiday early because we ran out of money.
2. The house didn't burn down because the fire brigade came immediately.
3. The men were wearing protective clothing, so they were all quite safe.
4. My father didn't earn much money, so life wasn't easy for us.
5. I didn't enjoy school, so I didn't do very well.
6. I didn't wake Linda because I didn't know she wanted to get up early.
7. I was able to buy the car because Jim lent me the money.
8. She didn't have enough money so she didn't take a taxi.
9. We arrived late because we took the wrong turning.
10. Romeo thought that Juliet was dead so he committed suicide.
11. The building fell down because it had weak foundation.
12. I didn't go downstairs because I was afraid of the dark.
13. You didn't run fast so you didn't come first.
14. I didn't know she was the examiner, so I made a silly joke.
15. I didn't go to the cinema because I wasn't interested in the film.
28__________________________________________________________________________ English Grammar Practice

Comment on the following situations using Type 3 Conditionals. Use the modal
verbs could or might if necessary.

Model: In a bookshop yesterday Daniel saw a book he really wanted. The only problem
was that he didn't have any money.
Daniel would have bought the book if he had had any money.
1. On Sunday the guests had to have their lunch inside. Unfortunately it wasn't warm
enough to have it outside.

2. There was a bomb scare last Tuesday. Sarah wanted to fly to Rome, but she wasn't able
to. The airport was closed.

3. Laura has only met Nick once, and it's possible she wouldn't recognize him. He passed
her yesterday, but he had a crash-helmet on.

4. Sarah has been quite busy, and she hasn't watered her plants for some time. As a
result, they've died.

5. Nick likes ice hockey, but he didn't have a ticket to the game last week, so
unfortunately he wasn't able to get in.

6. Rita often goes to concerts at the town hall, although not to every one. There was one
on Saturday but she didn't know about it.

Ex. 9 Say what you would have done if these things had happened to you.

Model: Claire saw a man steal something in a shop. She told a shop assistant what she
had seen.
If I had seen someone steal something, I would have done the same thing. OR
If I had seen someone steal something, I would not have said anything.

1. Jim saw a car accident. He didn't help immediately, but he ran into a shop to telephone
an ambulance.
2. Mike heard a friend tell a lie. He didn't say anything. Later he asked the friend why he
had lied.
3. Susan found a purse in the street. There was only a little money in it and no important
papers or cards. There was no one in the street. She kept the money.
4. A stranger asked Pat for some money in the street. The stranger said he had to go
somewhere urgently by taxi and had forgotten his wallet. Pat gave him the money and
her telephone number.
Unreal Conditionals Referring to the Past (Type 3) 29
5. A TV reporter was asking passers-by their opinion about TV programmes. David wanted
to be on television, so he combed his hair and went up to the reporter.
6. A man found a wallet with 1000 dollars in it in the back of a taxi. He put it all on a horse
and lost.
7. A mother found drugs in her son's pockets. She told the police, who arrested the son.
The son was sent to prison.
8. Jack got into a car accident yesterday. He was talking over his cell phone and didn't give
way to a lorry coming from the main road. Luckily, he wasn't injured but the car was
seriously damaged.
9. Many flights were delayed because of the snowstorm. People were extremely angry
because they had to spend several days at the airport and the authorities didn't provide
either hot food or accommodation.
10. When I went up to the cash register to pay for the Coke, the lady behind the counter was
talking to a friend of hers on the phone. I waited and waited until I finally had to demand
that she help me.

Ex. 10 Some of these sentences contain errors. Find and correct them.

1. If you weren't in such a hurry you wouldn't have put sugar into the sauce instead of salt.
2. If you had been in my shoes, what would you had done?
3. He couldn't have paid a rent if he hadn't sold his car.
4. If you hadn't been working so hard, you wouldn't got a promotion.
5. If he haven't invited me to go to the National Gallery, we wouldn't have seen the most
incredible paintings.
6. If my brother didn't come, we would have been having a good time at the party yesterday.
7. Would you have been working so long for this company if you had known it would go
bankrupt?
8. If we hadn't misinformed about the bus times, we wouldn't have been late.
9. If you hadn't had a lot of luck, you could lose all your money.
10. If there hadn't been any postal strike, the cheque would arrive long ago.

Ex. 11 Use Your English

Are you influenced by advertising? Think of the commercials you have seen and the things you have
bought recently. Think of something you bought because you had seen a commercial on TV or an
advertisement in a magazine. If you hadn't seen the products advertised, would you have bought
them anyway? Write a short paragraph.
30 English Grammar Practice

Work in pairs or small groups. Read the following situations and say what you would
have done in each of them.

Last week we invited readers to write and tell us about things that happened to them, or things that
they had heard about. We wanted stories where people just didn't know what to do next! Here are
the stories that interested us most!

1. In deep water
I was on a touring holiday in France. It was a very hot day and I stopped at a small deserted
beach. I hadn't got my swimming-costume with me, but it was early in the morning and there were no
people or houses in sight. So I took off all my clothes and swam out to sea. I'm a very strong swimmer.
I lay on my back, closed my eyes, and relaxed in the water. When I looked back at the beach, a coach
had arrived and there were thirty or forty people sitting on the sand having a picnic! What would you
have done?
Mr. T. Horniman, Ipswich.

2. Strangers in the night


My story isn't at all funny. It was a very frightening experience. You see, one night I woke up
suddenly. I heard the tinkle of broken glass from downstairs, and I heard the window opening. Then I
heard two voices! My wife had woken up, too. She told me to do something. A couple of days before
there had been a report about a burglary in the local paper. The burglars had been interrupted and
they had beaten up the householder. They'd nearly killed him. I was trembling with fear. I just didn't
know what to do. In the end I didn't go down and they stole the silver tea-service I'd inherited from
my mother. Was I right? What would you have done?
Mr D Boswell, Edinburgh.

3. A saucy thief
I had parked my car in a multistory car park and I was taking a short cut through the side door
of the restaurant in a large store. Half-way across the restaurant I spotted my father eating pie, chips
and peas - he often eats there. I crept up behind him, put my hand over his shoulder, took a chip off
the plate, dipped it in the tomato sauce and ate it. Then I realized that the man was not my father! I
was so embarrassed! I couldn't say a word! What would you have done?
Miss H.P.Branston, Cardiff.

4. Unless!!!
I'd just parked my car in the street near a football stadium in Liverpool. It was ten minutes
before the start of the match and I was in a hurry. Two little boys came up to me and said 'Give us
50p and we'll look after your car while you're at the match.' I told them to clear off, and one of them
looked at me with big, round, innocent eyes and said 'Unless you give us the money, something might
happen to your car while you're away. You know, a scratch or a flat tyre. Something like that.' I was
furious! What would you have done?
Mr. D.Revie, Birkenhead.
Unreal Conditionals Referring to the Past (Type 3) 31

Translate the parts in brackets using if-clauses of unreal condition referring to the past.

1. If you (позвонили бы) me yesterday, I (не смог бы придти).


2. If you (писала бы) me more often, I (не беспокоилась бы) about you all this time.
3. If he (смог бы заказать) the tickets in advance, we (не ждали бы) for so long till
somebody cancelled the order.
4. If she (имела бы) driving license last year, we (поехали бы) to the South by car.
5. If she (принимала бы) the medicine for a month, she (поправилась бы) sooner.
6. (Ты бы приняла) his invitation, if you (знала бы) that he was serious?
7. (Что бы ты сделал), if you had failed your exams last year?
8. If you (не стоял бы) in the rain for so long, you (не простудился бы).

Translate into English.

1. Я бы не уволился, если бы они повысили тогда зарплату.


2. Я бы не провалил экзамен, если бы готовился к нему целый год.
3. Наше предприятие не закрыли бы, если бы оно выплатило все долги.
4. Мы бы не пошли в ресторан, если бы знали цены.
5. Вы бы купили тот дом, если бы они смогли предложить его Вам по выгодной цене?
6. Вы бы смогли поговорить с ним на эту тему, если бы видели его вчера?
7. Если бы их самолет взлетел вовремя, они бы уже летели два часа.
8. Я бы, возможно, не получил эту высокооплачиваемую работу, если бы не проявил
свои лучшие качества на собеседовании.
9. Вы бы подписали контракт с этой компанией в прошлом году, если бы знали, что
она надёжная?
10. Мы бы связались с тобой, если бы ты не отключила свой телефон.
11. Если бы Вы отнесли документы в посольство месяц назад, Вы бы уже получили
визу.
12. Кем бы ты согласился стать, если бы не выбрал профессию учителя?
13. Если бы ты сказала об этом раньше, я бы смогла что-нибудь сделать.
14. Если бы ты посещал занятия целый год, ты бы получил зачет без проблем.
15. Вы смогли бы поговорить с ним на эту тему, если бы он был тогда на работе.
К сожалению, он был в командировке.
32 English Grammar Practice

SELF-CHECK TEST 1

Щ Put the correct mood form of the verb in each space in the sentences below.

1. If you (to see) John, pass him my message.


2. If I _______ (to cheat) at the Entry Test yesterday, I would have been asked to leave the
room.
3. We won't get tickets for the match unless w e (to buy) them now.
4. I (to phone) you if there is any problem with the arrangements.
5. If you (to press) this button, the machine stops working.
6. If I _______(to sell) my grandfather's watch, I would get a lot of money for it.
7. If the leading dancer hadn't been brilliant, I (not to enjoy) the concert.
8. If I eat chocolate, I always (to put) on weight.
9. Unless you (to find) a job first, you won't have enough money to travel.
10. If I woke up very early, I (to be) too sleepy to work well.

Put the verbs in brackets into the appropriate mood form, depending on whether

■ the situation is real or unreal.

1. We wanted to go out yesterday but the weather was terrible. If i t ________(to be) a nice
day, w e_______ (to go) for a picnic.
2. Why don't you explain everything to him? If you_______ (not to tell) him the truth, I'm
sure you_______ (to regret) it one day.
3. Jennifer was here not long ago. If you_______ (to come round) earlier, you_______ (to
see) her.
4. Apparently, the ferry company are planning to close the port in this town. If that_______
(to happen), the town_______ (to lose) a great deal of money.
5. I _______ (to help) you with it if I _(to have) more time but I'm afraid I haven't
got any spare time at all at the moment.
6. The government is expecting to win the next election, but if i t ________ (to lose), the
Prime Minister_______ (to resign) from politics.
7. I am so glad that you took me to your friend’s party. If w e _______ (not to go) there,
I _______ (never to meet) Adrian.
8. It's ridiculous that trains are so expensive. If fares_______ (to be) cheaper, I'm sure
more people_______ (to use) the train and leave their cars at home.
9. If sh e (to get that job) she's applied for, sh e ________(to be) delighted. And I
think she's got a good chance of getting it.
10. Fortunately the explosion took place at night when the streets were empty. It _______
(to be) a disaster if it (to happen) in the middle of the day.
11. The talks between the two leaders keep breaking down. If they (to breakdown)
again, it is possible that there_______ (to be) a war between the two countries.
Self-Check Test 1 33
12. If Alison________(to know) anything about car mechanics, I'm sure sh e ________(to
help) us fix the car, but I think she knows even less than we do.
13. They've been married for twenty years now but I don't think she_______ (to marry) him
if she_______ (to know) what a selfish man he was.
14. Children spend too much time watching television and playing computer games. I'm
sure they_______ (to be) happier if they_______ (to spend) more time playing outside.
15. James has everything he wants but he's always moaning. I'm sure that if I ________(to
have) so much money, I _______ (not to moan) all the time.

Ex. 3 Look at the verb tenses carefully and write a suitable conditional sentence.

1. The hikers were rescued quickly from the storm on the mountain because one of them
had her mobile phone with her.
If_______________
2. The boy who fell into the sea from the boat was wearing a life jacket, so he survived.
If ________
3. Mr Anderson woke up because he heard the smoke alarm, and the family managed to
escape the fire.
If______________________________________________________________
4. I have a computer, so I can send e-mail messages to my friends.
If_______ ,__________________________________________ ,___________
5. I never watch the news, so I don't know what is going on in the world.
If ______________________________________________________________
6. Rescue workers didn't search the car properly and didn't notice the injured man.
If _______________________________________________________________
7. Luckily most of the stuff had left the room to attend a meeting, so only one person was
injured by flying glass from the broken window.
If________________________________________________________________
8. John has no brothers and sisters, so he feels lonely sometimes.
If________________________________________________________________
9. United didn't win because the goalkeeper made a mistake in the last minute of the
match.
If________________________________________________________________
10. A police officer stopped Pratt for drink-driving, and took a DNA sample, which led to his
being charged with the previously unsolved murder of Mrs Jones.
If________________________________________________________________

Ex. 4 Make unreal situations real.

1. If they were more tolerant towards each other, they would quarrel less.
2. If you had been looking after the car, we would have been able to sell it sooner.
3. I might have been able to help you if you had explained the problem to me.
34 English Grammar Practice

4. If I could live wherever I wanted to, I think I would choose to live on a Scottish island.
5. If they had been listening more carefully, they might have understood what I was saying.
6. If you weren't walking so fast, we wouldn't be so tired.

Correct the mistakes in the following sentences if necessary.

1. If I'll see Peter, I will tell him to phone you.


2. If I could travel round the world, I'll go to Hawaii.
3. If you would come from my country, you would understand what I'm saying.
4. You won't pass the driving test unless you don't have more practice.
5. If we hadn't been working together for many years, we wouldn't have become friends.
6. You can stay here tonight if you didn't have anywhere else to stay.
7. If I could have phoned you, I would tell you what was happening.
8. If she has been working all day, she will be very tired when she gets in.
9. Phone the police if you will see anything strange.
10. If the fire hadn't started, the building wouldn't burnt down.

Translate into English the parts in brackets.

1. I (не приняла бы его на работу) if I (знала бы) he is such a criticizer.


2. You will never get a good job (если только у Вас нет) some qualifications.
3. If you (увидела бы) his clothes you (никогда бы не поверила) he is so rich.
4. If (у нас не было бы ключа), what would you have done?
5. If my neighbour hadn't come in time, we (не смогли бы открыть) the door.
6. If the food (была бы) better here they (смогли бы привлечь) more customers.
7. If you (следовал бы) the rules all the time, you (не попал бы) into trouble.
8. My sister will take out a mortgage if she (сможет получить) a better paid job.
9. If they (уволили бы) him, the factory would go on strike.
10. If we offered him more money, (он бы остался работать здесь)?
Mixed Conditionals 35

MIXED CONDITIONALS
For Study

There is also a Mixed Type of complex sentences with subordinate clauses of unreal condition which
includes the verb forms from two different conditional patterns:
a) the condition (the if-clause) refers to the past and the consequence (the main clause) refers to the
present or future:

Pattern 1

If-clause (Туре 3) Main clause (Type 2)


if + perfect Subjunctive II would + non-perfect infinitive
If you had followed my advice you would be much happier now

b) the condition (the if-clause) refers to the present or to no particular time and the consequence
(the main clause) refers to the past:

Pattern 2

If-clause (Type 2) Main clause (Type 3)


if + non-perfect Subjunctive II would + perfect infinitive
If he were a good worker he would have been promoted long ago

Compare:
If you had read the book, you would know the answer to the question now. / Если
бы ты прочитал книгу, ты бы знал ответ на вопрос сейчас.
If he were not so absent-minded, he wouldn't have lost the key. / Если бы он не
был таким рассеянным, он бы не потерял ключ.
36 English Grammar Practice

PRACTICE ACTIVITIES

Match the clauses together to make mixed conditional sentences.

1. If you had listened to the instructions a) I wouldn't be in a dangerous situation now.


2. If you were a more sensitive person b) you wouldn't be so hungry now.
3. If he hadn't died so young c) his wife would never have left him.
4. If you had told me about this problem yesterday d) you wouldn't have said that to her.
5. If he didn't work so hard all the time e) I would have had them by now.
6. If the train hadn't been delayed f) you would know what to do now.
7. If you had eaten a proper breakfast g) you wouldn't have lost your job.
8. If you didn't want to be unemployed h) you wouldn't be so busy this month.
9. If 1really wanted to have children i) we would be there by now.
10. If you had worked harder last month j) I'm sure he'd be a famous musician.

Ex. 2 Use mixed conditionals in the following sentences and comment on them. Make
unreal situations real.

Model: If you had listened (to listen) more carefully to his directions, you wouldn't be lost
(to lose) now.
But you didn't listen more carefully to his directions, so you are lost now.

1. H e_________________________(to feel) very tired today if h e _____ (to play) rugby yesterday.
2. If the snake bite_________ (to be) poisonous,you__________ (to feel) very ill now.
3. If they_________ (to know) the language, they__________ (to understand) the directions
given by the stranger.
4. If w e _________ (not to take) a wrong turning back there, w e __________ (not to be) in
this mess now.
5. If you_________ (to work) last weekend when the boss asked you, then you_________
(not to work) this weekend.
6. Tom Cruise______________ (not to be) the star he is today if h e _____(not to make) a
good impression in his early films.
7. It _______ (to be) hard enough to pass the exam tomorrow if you (not to
go) to all the lectures this year.
8. If you__________(not to take) the money, you_________ (not to be) in prison now.
9. If the island________(to be) still a tourist attraction, last week's earthquake________
(to cause) far more deaths.
10. Y o u _________ (not to be) in so much trouble now if y o u ___________(not to start)
gambling.
Mixed Conditionals 37

Fill in the blanks with the correct mood form of the verb in brackets, using mixed
conditionals.

Yesterday the famous bank robber, Fingers Smith, robbed another bank in the centre of town.
As usual, he only stole $10. If he (1) had left (leave) any clues, he (2 )____________ (be) in prison
now, but he's much too clever. He disconnected the security cameras; if he (3 )_____________(not/
do) that, the police (4 )____________ (have) him on film now. The strange thing is, Fingers doesn't
seem to be interested in the money; if he (5 )_____________ (be), he (6 )_____________ (can/steal)
thousands of pounds by now. The police are determined to catch him and the Chief is confident that
they will. He says that if he (7 )_____________(think) they weren't going to arrest Fingers eventually,
he (8 )_____________(leave) the police force long ago.

Ex. 4 Paraphrase the following sentences using mixed conditionals.

Model: They walked 40 kilometers, so they're exhausted now.


If they hadn't walked 40 kilometers, they wouldn't be exhausted now.

1. He's not a good worker, so he wasn't promoted.


2. You didn't make an appointment, so we can't see you tomorrow.
3. She didn't take the medication and now she's ill again.
4. The flight left on time, so they are in Moscow now.
5. They were working in the rain all day, so they're soaking wet now.
6. She didn't study at all so she'll do badly in the test.
7. He's so gullible that he believed everything you said.
8. She was talking all day, so her throat is sore now.
9. He doesn't listen to anyone's advice, so he didn't do what you suggested.
10. Jake was cleaning all morning so his room must be very tidy now.
11. I don't want to work there so I didn't apply for the job.
12. He didn't take his job seriously so he's unemployed now.
13. I didn't book seats so we can't go to the concert tonight.
14. I don't know him very well so I didn't give him any advice.

Ex. 5 Read the following questions and answer them in your own way, using mixed
conditionals.

1. How would your life be different now if you hadn't been admitted to this university?
2. How would your life be different now if you had been born a boy/girl?
3. If you were an actor/actress, what famous movie would you have taken part in?
4. If you had been born in another country, where would you be living now?
5. If you had been able to choose your name yourself, what should we call you now?
6. If you had won a green card in the USA, what state would you be living in now?
38 English Grammar Practice

7. If you had been able to choose the subjects when you were admitted to this university,
what would you be studying now?
8. If you had missed the previous grammar class, what would you tell your teacher now?
9. If you hadn't slept the previous night, would you be able to write a test on conditionals
now?
10. If you had been expelled from the university last year, what would you be doing now?

Some of these sentences contain errors. Find and correct them.

1. You wouldn't feel out of breath if you haven't been running.


2. If I hadn't worked so hard at school, I wouldn't be studying at University now.
3. If I would have entered politics earlier, I could be Prime Minister now.
4. If you hadn't worked overtime last month, you wouldn't have been feeling run down
now.
5. I wouldn't be going to London, if you hadn't told me about the exhibition.
6. The computer wouldn't caught a virus if you hadn't been using the Internet all the time.
7. If you had gone to football training last week, you take part in the football match next
Saturday.

Translate the following sentences using mixed conditionals.

1. Если бы ты положила книгу на место, она бы сейчас была здесь.


2. Если бы вы были внимательнее на прошлом занятии, вы бы сейчас лучше знали
материал.
3. Если бы он не был таким рассеянным, он не принял бы вас за мою сестру.
4. Если бы вы приняли лекарство, вы были бы сейчас здоровы.
5. Если бы мы не были знакомы, он бы не пригласил нас на вечер.
6. Если бы ты была более тактичным человеком, ты бы не сказала ей это.
7. Если бы Сьюзен работала усерднее в прошлом месяце, она не была бы так занята
сейчас.
8. Она бы никогда не согласилась работать сверхурочно, если бы ей так срочно не
нужны были деньги.
9. Они бы не жили сейчас на одну зарплату, если бы ее не сократили.
10. Если бы я вовремя не освоила компьютер и не выучила еще один язык, я не
работала бы сейчас в престижной иностранной компании.
11. Если бы я не был постоянно уставшим, я бы не допустил такую элементарную
ошибку.
12. Ты бы поехала с нами на отдых этим летом, если бы не попала в больницу?
13. Я бы не была сейчас расстроена, если бы ты не разбил мой фотоаппарат.
Inverted Conditionals 39

INVERTED CONDITIONALS
For Study

Clauses of unreal condition are often introduced without any conjunction. In these cases we find
inversion. If сan be omitted and an auxiliary verb comes before the subject. It's only possible with
such verb forms as were (conditionals type 2) and had (conditionals type 3):
Were I younger, I would accept his offer. / Будь я моложе, я бы принял
предложение о работе.
Had I told her about it, she would have got upset. /Расскажи я ей об этом, она бы
расстроилась.

The negative particle not is placed after the subject. Negative forms are not contracted.
Were I not optimistic, I wouldn't have so many friends. / He будь я оптимистом, у
меня бы не было так много друзей.
Had I not been late for work so many times, I wouldn't have been fired. /H e
опаздывай я так много раз на работу, меня бы не уволили.

PRACTICE ACTIVITIES

Ex. 1 Rephrase the following sentences omitting if where possible.

Model: If 1were you, 1 wouldn't apply for the post of firefighter.


Were 1you, 1 wouldn't apply for the post of firefighter.

1. If you went to the post office, you could buy me some stamps.
2. If you hadn't turned off the oven sooner, the pizza would have burnt.
3. If 1were younger, I'd accept his offer.
4. If 1had seen her, 1would have spoken to her.
5. If you drank less coffee, you would be able to sleep.
6. If he had given me clearer instructions, 1wouldn't have made so many mistakes.
7. If 1had more time, 1would take up a hobby.
8. If 1had known she was in trouble, 1would have tried to help her.
9. 1would speak to him again if he apologised.
10. If 1hadn't taken English, my life wouldn't be so interesting now.
11. If you were more attentive at the lectures, you would remember more important things

Complete the following sentences, using your own ideas or the prompts in brackets.

1. Had you taken a course in computer programming, _ (to be able to


operate a computer).
2. Had he not worked hard. _ (not to be well-off now).
40 English Grammar Practice

3. Were you a good driver, (to reach the airport long ago).
4. Had we laid off 50 employees,______________________ (not to have any specialists left).
5. Had we not been late for the plane, (to be on the way to
Dublin).
6. Were he not experienced in this line, (not to get this job).
7. Had you reminded me about the interview,__________________ (not to be out of work
now).
8. Had he not married,_________________________________ (to be a real high-flier now).
9. Were you more energetic,____________________________________ (to finish your
project).
10. Had I listened to the weather forecast, (not to be
freezing).

Find and correct the errors in the following sentences if necessary.

1. Hadn't I seen the signal, I wouldn't have stopped.


2. Were I in your shoes, I would have never accepted this job offer.
3. Wanted he to change his job, he would have already put his CV on the Internet.
4. Had I believed her for one moment, I wouldn't have refused to help.
5. Had the train arrived late, I would catch it.
6. Had his parents not helped him, he wouldn't have opened a restaurant.
7. If had he agreed to my request, we would have shared the money.

Щ Translate the following sentences using inverted conditionals.

1. Успей он тогда на самолет, он бы никогда не встретил своего давнего друга.


2. Знай я тогда, что ты мне позвонишь, я бы осталась дома.
3. Согласись она участвовать в соревнованиях в прошлом году, у нее бы были все
шансы победить.
4. Будь я твоим начальником, я бы давно уволил тебя с работы.
5. Умей я пользоваться компьютером в то время, я бы давно получил престижную и
высокооплачиваемую работу.
6. Учись я усерднее в университете, я бы имел все шансы стать успешным
бизнесменом.
7. Будь я более смелым, я бы отправился в кругосветное путешествие.
8. Прочитай я свое резюме несколько раз, я бы заметил в нем грубые ошибки.
9. Не приди я на работу вовремя, у меня бы было сейчас много проблем с
начальником.
10. Будь я опытным в этой сфере, я бы давно сделал какое-нибудь открытие.
11. Не скажи я ему всю правду, он бы так и не узнал о проблеме.
12. Не сделай я ему выговор, он бы так и продолжал опаздывать.
Other Ways of Expressing Unreal Condition 41

OTHER WAYS OF EXPRESSING UNREAL CONDITION


For Study
Unreal condition may also be expressed in the following ways:
1. If it were not for... / If it had not been for...
If it were not for... (present time reference ) / If it had not been for... (past time reference)
are followed by a noun (a noun phrase or a pronoun). These expressions are used in complex
sentences and are rendered into Russian by Если бы не...
If it weren't for his wife's money, he wouldn't be a director now. (= without his wife's
money) / Если бы не деньги его жены, он бы не был сейчас директором.
If it hadn't been for the police, I think those burglars would have got away with even
more. (=ifthe police had not arrived) / Если бы не полиция, я думаю, грабители
бы унесли гораздо больше.
2. But for
But for is a fixed phrase replacing the expressions If it were not for... / If it hadn't been for. It
is followed by a noun (a noun phrase or a pronoun). But for is used in a simple sentence with a
Conditional Mood form. It is rendered into Russian by Если бы не...
But for his wife's money he wouldn't be a director now. = If it were not for his wife's
money, he wouldn't be a director now. /Если бы не деньги его жены, он бы не был
сейчас директором.
But for the police, I think those burglars would have got away with even more. = If
it hadn't been for the police, I think those burglars would have got away with even
more. /Если бы не полиция, я думаю, грабители бы унесли гораздо больше.

PRACTICE ACTIVITIES

I
Read the sentences, comment on their structure and the mood forms. Translate
them into Russian.

1. But for the toothache I would have enjoyed the concert.


2. But for him we would still be sitting here waiting for the car.
3. If it hadn't been for my smile, he wouldn't have believed me.
4. If it were not for the accent with which he speaks, nobody would say he is not Russian.
5. I would have read the book sooner but for the small print.
6. If it hadn't been for the sleeping tablets, I wouldn't have been sleeping for eight hours.
7. But for his advice we wouldn't have coped with the task.

Ц Replace the infinitives by the correct mood form of the verbs in brackets.

1. Nobody (to recognise) him but for the scar on his left cheek.
2. But for the late hour I (to stay) here longer.
42 English Grammar Practice

3. Thank you! But for your call I (to forget) about the conference and my boss (to be) very angry.
4. But for the snow storm the tourists (not to lose) their way. They (to be) here already.
5. But for the policeman we (never to find) this street. We still (to wander) around the city.
6. But for the job she (to spend) more time with her children. Then she (not to have) so
many problems with her son now.
7. But for the terrible scorcher I (to enjoy) my tour of Egypt. The heat was unbearable. I
(not to go) there if I (to know) it is so hot there at that time of the year.

Complete the following sentences, using your own ideas or the prompts in brackets.

1. But for the rain the tourists (to reach the camp before the sunset).
2. But for the late hour we (to stav up for tea now).
3. 1 (to fail mv exam) but for you.
4. The Diane (not to make an emergency landing) but for the sudden change of
weather.
5. But for the fact that we didn't know the language we (to understand the local
people).
6. But for your being so careless you _ (not to be
reprimanded).
7. Butforhis illness, he (to take part in the conference).
8. But for mv Darents. 1 (to lose mv job).
9. But for the seatbelt, she (to be injured).
10. But for his fast driving, thev (notto getintoan accident).

1
1.
Complete the second sentence so that it is as similar in meaning as possible to the
first sentence, using the words given and the appropriate mood form.

We didn't spend the whole day out in the country as the weather was so bad.
But for bad weather we would have soent the whole dav in the country.
2. They had their bad luck that day, that's why they ran into an accident.
If it hadn't been for their bad luck that dav thev wouldn't have run into an accident.
3. You helped me, so 1passed my exam with flying colours.
But for
4. 1can't go to the disco with you because my mother says 'no'.
If it
5. Tim found the treasure because he had the map.
But for
6. He got an urgent message, so he had to leave his office early.
But for
7. 1learnt to swim because you encouraged me.
If it
8. She got embarrassed so she couldn't say anything.
But for
Other Ways of Expressing Unreal Condition 43
9. Kate won't move to London because she works in Paris.
If it
10. 1didn't finish my assignment because 1came down with a terrible cold.
But for
11. She doesn't have many friends because she has a lot of bad habits.
If it
12. He couldn't give his arguments to the police because he got confused.
But for
13. We didn't have our birthday party out as it was raining all day long.
If it
14. He offered her his assistance, so she was very obliged to him.
But for
15. This house isn't very comfortable to live in as there is a constant noise coming from the airfield.
If it

Ex. 5 Some of these sentences contain errors. Find and correct them.

1. But for bad weather, we would spend more time on the beach yesterday.
2. But for the high unemployment rate, more people would be able to find jobs.
3. If it weren't my work, I would move to another country.
4. The company closed down, but for its competitive prices.
5. But for his reliability, I would never lent him the money.
6. If it weren't for my experience, I wouldn't have been selected for this job.
7. But for few prospects of promotion, I wouldn't thinking of changing my job.
8. It would had been a boring film, but for the action scenes, which were excellent.

Translate the following sentences using the correct mood forms.

1. Если бы не ее начальник, ее бы уволили с работы.


2. Если бы не сильный ветер, мы бы отправились кататься на лодке.
3. Он бы никогда не узнал о ней всей правды, если бы не ее письмо.
4. Если бы не головная боль, я бы присоединилась к вашей компании.
5. Я бы этого никогда не сделал без вашей помощи.
6. Он поехал бы с нами, если бы не его внезапная болезнь.
7. Он бы не поправился так быстро после болезни, если бы не хороший уход в больнице.
8. Он не сделал бы блестящую карьеру адвоката, если бы не его жена.
9. Без вашей поддержки я бы никогда не справился с этой ответственной работой.
10. Я уже давно подал бы заявление на увольнение, если бы не хороший коллектив.
11. Если бы не ее желание последовать по стопам отца, она бы никогда не выбрала
эту профессию.
12. Если бы не больная нога, она пришла бы на работу пешком.
13. Без твоей удачи ты бы не поступила в университет.
14. Если бы не твоя невнимательность, мы бы смогли получить этот приз.
44 English Grammar Practice

CONJUNCTIONS OTHER THAN IF


For Study
The conjunction if is not the only way of beginning conditional clauses. There are other alternatives
to if. Most of them can be used in real and unreal conditionals. They include:
unless
providing / provided that
so/ as long as
on condition (that)
what if
suppose /supposing
otherwise
in case of
1. Unless
- replaces if not:
Unless you change your mind, I won't be able to help you. (=lfyou don't change your
mind...) / Если ты не передумаешь, я не смогу тебе помочь.
- means 'except that' and is not interchangeable with if not:
Come round at 5 in the afternoon unless my secretary phones. (Except that my secretary
phones...)/Приходи в пять, если только мой секретарь позвонит тебе.
2. Provided/providing (that), as/so long as, on condition (that) are used to emphasise that the
condition is necessary to the result. They all mean only if. These conjunctions can refer only to
present or future conditions.
You can drive this car provided/providing you have a driving license. (=only if you
have...) / Ты можешь водить эту машину при условии, что у тебя есть права.
So/As long as you promise to keep silent, you can go with us. (=only if you promise...)
/ Только если ты обещаешь молчать, ты можешь идти с нами.
Не agreed to work on Saturdays on condition that he was paid overtime. (=only if he
was paid...)/О н согласился работать по воскресеньям при условии, что ему
будут платить сверхурочно.
3. What if, suppose/supposing, assuming can be used with all types of conditionals but they are more
common in sentences of unreal condition.
Suppose / Supposing you were fired. What would you do? (= If you were fired...) /
Предположим Вас бы уволили. Что бы Вы делали?
What if the plan doesn't work?/ А что если план не сработает?
4. Even if is used to express a condition that is unexpected in the circumstances.
Even if he is your best friend he can't come with us./Даж е если он твой лучший
друг, он не может пойти с нами.
I wouldn't put on these shoes even if you made me do it./ Я бы не надела эти
туфли, даже если бы ты заставила меня.
Conjunctions Other than IF 45
5. In case is used in conditional sentences to talk about precautions - things we do to be ready for
what might happen:
I am taking my umbrella with me in case it rains. / Я беру с собой зонтик в случае,
если пойдет дождь.
I will open the umbrella if it rains (and if it doesn't rain I won't open it)./ Я открою
зонтик, если пойдет дождь.

6. Otherwise can be used to express an outcome which is likely if the condition is not met:
I won't tell her about your plan, otherwise she'll get furious. / Я не расскажу ей о
твоем плане, иначе она придет в ярость.
I will give you a call or you will oversleep otherwise (= you'll oversleep if I don't give
you a call). / Я тебе позвоню, а иначе ты проспишь.

PRACTICE ACTIVITIES

Ex. 1 Translate the following sentences. Define the type of the sentence and the time
reference expressed by the verb forms.

1. You can drive this car provided that you are fully insured.
2. Supposing you were given ten million euros, what would you spend it on?
3. I think I will accept it assuming the offer is still there.
4. Suppose you had been working there for forty years, what kind of pension would you
have got?
5. You can come in on condition that you don't stay long.
6. As long as you promise not to break our secret, we'll work together.
7. What if you were walking down the street and you suddenly found a wallet, would you
hand it in?
8. V\)e have a burglar alarm in case somebody tries to break in.
9. We'll make a profit within a year so long as our calculations are correct
10. Children are allowed to use the swimming pool providing they are with an adult.
11. You should have your air conditioner serviced, otherwise you'll waste a lot of energy.
12. In case of fire, leave the building by the nearest emergency exit.
13. Applications for membership are accepted on condition that applicants are over 18.
14. Even if she were really wealthy, I wouldn't date with her.
15. I wouldn't accept the job unless I was absolutely sure what the salary was.
46 English Grammar Practice

Complete the following sentences by choosing a suitable conjunction or conjunctive


phrase from the box below.

provided that, supposing, unless, in case, as long as, so long as

1. We'll pay them more money________________they work harder.


2. We won't shorten their lunch-break________________they agree to start earlier.
3. We'll have to improve safety standards someone has an accident.
4. We'll consider providing better working conditions________________ we have enough
money.
5. we introduce a shorter working week, how will we make a profit?
6. We'll include worker representatives in the Board of Directors________________they're
trained to manage.
7. We'll let some of full-time workers stay with u s ________________ they agree to be
lower-paid.
8. We won't give them a pay rise they work overtime.

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.

1. I don't mind if y o u ___________(come) in late as long as y o u ___________ (come) in


quietly.
2. I __________ (take) the mobile phone in case I ___________ (want) to phone you.
3. I __________ (write) to you every week so long as yo u___________(promise) to reply.
4. I ___________(ploy) tennis tomorrow providing it ___________ (not/rain).
5. Y o u __________ (not/come) with me unless you __________ (promise) to behave
yourself.
6. I ___________(pack) some juice for the picnic in case w e ___________ (be) thirsty later.
7. You can go out provided yo u (tell) us where you are going.
8. Assuming that I __________ (pass) my driving test, I'll be able to get a car soon.
9. Write your name and address on your bag in case you (lose) it.
10. Please sign the contract on condition that you___________(agree) with its contents.

Use the correct verb form instead of the infinitive in brackets.

1. Supposing y o u ___________ (have) the chance to spend a year in space, would you
take it?
2. What if w e (decide) to run away right now and never come back?
3. Suppose all your friends__________ (say) bad things about you behind your back and
you found out. What would you do?
4. I wouldn't pay so much for this cruise unless I (know) what it involved.
5. Supposing you___________(fail) your exams, what would you have done?
Modal Expressions HAD BETTER / WOULD RATHER / WOULD SOONER 47
6. What //everyone in the world___________(speak) the same language?
7. Suppose w e ___________(just/tell) that a huge meteor was on its way to Earth. What
would be the best thing to do?
8. Supposing you__________ (wake) up one morning and_________ (find) you'd gone back
in time, how would you feel?
9. What if they___________(not/turn up) to meet you, what would you have done?
10. I wouldn't apologise unless sh e___________(admit) her mistake first.

Some of these sentences contain errors. Find and correct them.

1. ' Patrick won't have much chance to pass the summer session unless he doesn't burn the
midnight oil.
2. We hope to go camping next week, provided that it won't be raining.
3. Supposing we are lost, what would we do?
4. I will lend you some money to repair your motorbike so long as you give it back soon.
5. You can borrow my car as long as you won't crash it.
6. It is a good idea to send it registered post, just in case it is lost.
7. Supposing the sun would stop shining right now, how long would it take us to realize?
8. I will tell you the whole truth as long you promise to keep it a secret.
9. What if you were driving in the middle of night and you suddenly saw a ghost?
10. Suppose you could travel back in time, where did you go?

Translate the fragments in brackets into English.

1. I am going to look for another job (если только) the company offers me more money.
2. He wrote down the name of the book (в случае, если он забудет) it.
3. (Предположим, что было бы доказано) that aliens existed and were living among us,
would you believe it?
4. I will sign this document (при условии, что вы будете платить) taxes regularly.
5. I will go shopping (если только ты пойдешь) with me.
6. (Допустим) the Internet hadn't been invented, (тебе бы было легко) to be kept
updated?
7. He will help you to move into a new house (при условии, что) his boss (даст) him some
time off work.
8. I wouldn't buy a car (если бы только я не был уверен) that it was a reliable one.
9. (А что если бы) you were traveling to Russia, (ты бы обменял) roubles before you left
or when you arrived?
10. (Если предположить) that I (сдам экзамен на отлично), I will be able to get free
education.
48 English Grammar Practice

MODAL EXPRESSIONS
HAD BETTER / WOULD RATHER / WOULD SOONER
For Study

These expressions have modal force denoting that the action of the infinitive which follows them is
regarded as desirable or advisable. Sentences with had better are used to express advice, warning,
those with would rather/sooner are used to express preference, choice.

Simple sentence:
The structures had better + infinitive and would rather/sooner + infinitive form a compound verbal
modal predicate in sentences with one and the same doer of the action (the same subject). The
forms had better, would rather/sooner are Subjunctive II forms. The non-perfect infinitive refers the
personal advice and preference to the present.

NOTE: Remember the absence of the marker to in sentences with had better, would rather/sooner.
I would rather/sooner stay here than travel anywhere tonight. / Я бы предпочел
остаться здесь, чем ехать куда-либо сегодня вечером.
I would rather/sooner (not) go there now. / Я бы, пожалуй,(не) поехала туда сейчас.
Не had better (not) go by plane. / Ему бы лучше (не) лететь туда на самолете.
You had better (not) tell her about it. / Тебе лучше рассказать (не рассказывать)
ей об этом.

Past time reference expressed by the perfect infinitive is only possible with the expression would
rather/sooner:
I would rather/sooner have gone by plane but I couldn't afford to do it. / Я бы
предпочла полететь на самолете, но не смогла себе позволить.

Complex Sentence:
When the speaker expresses preferences about other person's actions, would rather/sooner is
followed by a clause containing a different subject. In this case would rather/sooner is followed by
an object clause with the predicate verb in its Subjunctive II form: non-perfect Subjunctive II - if the
action refers to the present or future, perfect Subjunctive I I - if the action refers to the past.
I would rather/sooner you were here with me. / Я бы предпочла, чтобы ты была
здесь со мной.
I would rather/sooner she wrote to me more often. / Я бы предпочла, чтобы она
писала мне чаще.
Не would rather/sooner she didn't work late. / Он бы предпочел, чтобы она не
работала поздно.
She would rather/sooner he had passed his driving test yesterday. / Она бы
предпочла, чтобы он сдал вождение вчера.
I would rather/sooner he hadn't told me about that. / Я бы предпочла, чтобы он
мне не рассказывал об этом.
Modal Expressions HAD BETTER / WOULD RATHER / WOULD SOONER 49

PRACTICE ACTIVITIES

Read and translate the following sentences. Comment on the use of Subjunctive II
forms and their functions.

1. You'd better drive carefully to avoid having an accident.


2. I would rather give you the information tomorrow if you don't mind.
3. He had better not tell her about it or I'll be furious!
4. I'd rather he didn't leave his things all over the room.
5. I would sooner not wake her up because she hasn't slept for two days.
6. We'd rather you earned a reasonable salary.
7. She would rather have taken some dollars with her when she went abroad.
8. We would rather you had said you didn't want to come!
9. Pat would rather not have talked during the examination test.
10. They would rather their boss hadn't promised them a pay rise.

Paraphrase the following sentences using had better or had better not.

1. I think you should come back tomorrow.You had better come back tomorrow.
2. He’s busy. I don't think you should disturb him. You had better not disturb him.
3. I think she ought to ask her father first.
4. I think we should be going home now.
5. I hope they won't make any trouble.
6. You ought to get a return ticket.
7. Don't go out alone at night.
8. You're not looking well. You ought to go to bed.
9. You look starving. We should get something to eat.
10. It's getting late. We shouldn't waste any more time.

Read each situation and write a sentence with had better. Use the words in brackets.

1. You're going out for a walk with Tom. It might rain. You say to Tom:
(an umbrella) We'd better take an umbrella._______
2. Jack has just cut himself. It's quite a bad cut. You say to him:
(a plaster)______________________________________
3. You and Ann plan to go to a restaurant this evening. It's a very popular restaurant.
You say to Ann:
(reserve)_______________________________________
4. Jill doesn't look very well — not well enough to go to work. You say to her:
(work)_________________________________________
50 English Grammar Practice

5. Liz received her phone bill four weeks ago but she hasn't paid it yet. If she doesn't pay
very soon, she could be in trouble. You say to Liz:
(pay)________________________________
6. Your friend wants to go out but he is expecting an important phone call. You say your
friend:
(go out)________________________________________
7. You and Fiona are going to the theatre. You've missed the bus and you don't want to be
late. You say to Fiona:
(a taxi)_________________________________________
8. Jennifer wants to play the piano late at night. You know that she'll wake up the people
next door. You say to Jennifer:
(watch TV)______________________________________
9. You are by a river. Your friend suggests going for a swim. You think that the river looks
dirty. You say to your friend:
(swim)_________________________________________
10. Your sister has quarrelled with her boyfriend. She wants to leave him. You think he is
a good fellow. You say to your sister:
(break up)_______________________________________

Ex. 4 Answer the following questions using I'd rather/sooner and the phrases given in
brackets.

Model: Would you like to have another drink?


No, thanks, I'd rather / sooner get home early.

1. Would you like to go with me? (go alone)


2. Would you like to start now? (wait for a few minutes)
3. Would you like to go shopping this morning? (go this afternoon)
4. Would you like to pay in cash? (pay by credit card)
5. Would you like to write a letter home? (phone you)
6. Would you like to buy a hat? (buy a new coat)
7. Would you like to go to the cinema? (watch films on television)
8. Would you like to talk to me? (keep silent)
9. Would you like to go by car? (walk)
10. Would you like to go to a restaurant? (eat at home)

Ex. 5 Щ Supply the correct forms of the verbs in brackets.

1. Which would you sooner___________ ? A pilot or a passenger? (be)


2. My career is nearly over, but I'd much rather____________in the navy than in the
army, (serve)
3. If I had lived in the past, I'd sooner____________a peasant than a king, (be)
M odal Expressions HAD B ET TE R / WOULD RATHER/W O U LD SOONER 51
4. I'd rather________ in the eighteenth century than in the nineteenth century, (live)
5. I like my job. I'd rather________my living as a teacher than anything else, (make)
6. It's a pity my job isn't secure. I'd sooner___________about it. (not worry)
7. Jim had to break the bad news to her. I know he'd rather it. (not do)
8. We would rather our rubbish than____________the bin for everything.
(recycle, use)
9. I'd rather____________by plane but I couldn't afford the air fare, (go)
10. After a lot of thought, we've decided that we'd sooner___________ in Portugal rather
than in England, (get married)

Supply negative answers with I'd rather/Td sooner to these questions.

1. Are you coming with us? No, I'd rather/1'd sooner not come with you.
2. Would you rather have been invited to the party?
3. Do you want to catch the next train?
4. Would you rather have lived in the past than the present?
5. Would you like to drive?
6. Would you rather have seen the manager?
7. Are you going to give Sam a call?
8. Do you want to deal with these complaints?
9. Would you rather have arranged it all by yourself?
10. Would you like to choose?

Supply the correct mood forms of the verbs in brackets in a complex sentence.

1. You may be late for the meeting. I'd rather you________ an earlier train, (catch)
2. I won't be home till very late. I'd sooner you___________ for me. (not wait)
3. He took a risk investing money with them. I'd rather he___________ it. (not do)
4. I don't mind your borrowing my bike, but I'd sooner you________ me first, (ask)
5. I know our daughter is enjoying herself, but I'd rather she____________here than
abroad. (be)
6. I'd rather you present when we signed the agreement, (be)
7. I'd sooner you my red dress to the dance tonight, (not wear)
8. I'd rather you____________ that you didn't want to come! (say)
9. I'd sooner h e____________ such bad language at the party! So many people got upset.
(not use)
10. I would rather w e____________dinner instead of eating in that restaurant, (cook)
52 English Grammar Practice

Supply negative short responses or continuations to these sentences.

Model: Joan wants to become self-employed.


I'd rather/sooner she didn't.
1. I've told everyone about it.____________________________________
2. Susan has moved her account to another bank.___________________
3. Bill takes sleeping pills.________________________________________
4. I often drive fast._____________________________________________
5. Frank went to live in Australia last year.__________________________
6. Our neighbours keep a large dog.________________________________
7. My grandparents have cut down all trees at the back of their garden. _
8. I know you've already booked our holiday, but____________________
9. Jane cycles to work every day, but______________________________
10. Alan retired early last year, but_________________________________

Complete the sentences using the words in bold.


1. If I were you, I would cut down on sugar.
better You_______________________________________ on sugar.
2. I regret taking the bus, but I had no choice.
have I _________________________________ , but I had no choice.
3. I suggest they should install a burglar alarm.
would I a burglar alarm.
4. I recommend him to stay in tonight.
had H e__________________________________________ tonight.
5. It would be better if he didn't tell her our secret.
not H e_______________________________________ her our secret.
6. I prefer cooking myself to eating out.
than I _____________________________________________________ .
7. I prefer skiing to skating.
ski I _________________________________ .
8. I wouldn't like you to buy her a very expensive ring as a gift for her birthday,
didn't I _______________________ a very expensive ring as gift for her birthday.
9. It's a pity that I didn't apply for this job.
applied I ______________________________________________________for this job.
10. I like to go shopping instead of staying at home.
rather I _____________________________________________________at home.
Modal Expressions HAD BETTER / WOULD RATHER / WOULD SOONER 53

Ex. 10 Write a word or short phrase in each gap so that each second sentence has a similar
meaning to the first sentence.

1. We'd prefer the successful candidate to have previous experience in the field.
We'd rather the successful candidate_______________ previous experience in the field.
2. Would you prefer me to come back later?
Would you rather______________ later?
3. To be honest, I'd prefer you not to tell anyone about this.
To be honest, I'd rather_______________anyone about this.
4. I'd prefer us to get a new kitchen rather than go on an expensive holiday.
I'd sooner______________a new kitchen than_______________ on an expensive
holiday.
5. Dad said he'd prefer Brian to be living nearer home and I agree with him.
Dad said he'd rather Brian________ nearer home and I agree with him.
6. I would prefer her to be sent on a training course rather than sacked.
I would rather______________ on a training course than sacked.
7. I'd prefer us not to talk about this right now, if you don't mind.
I'd sooner_____________ about this right now, if you don't mind.
8. Ofcourse I would have preferred you to tell me the truth!
Of course I would rather______________ me the truth!
9. I think Jane would definitely prefer them to have a traditional wedding.
I think Jane would definitely rather a traditional wedding.
10. We would have preferred them not to have stayed so long, that's true.
We would sooner______________________ so long, that's true.

Ex. 11 Read the following situations, then make sentences using would rather or had better.

Model: You want to play tennis not squash.


I would rather play tennis than play squash.

1. You don't want her to invite him to the party.


2. You want to be left alone to read and don't want to go to the cinema.
3. It would be more sensible for you to go and rest for an hour.
4. I would prefer to spend more time in Spain and not go home.
5. Mary always wears horrible orange lipstick. You wish she wouldn't.
6. Your friend turns up late and you are angry with him.

Ex. 12 Some of these sentences contain errors. Find and correct them.

1. Pauline would rather not to be given a main part in the school play.
2. Apparently, Lewis would rather we wouldn't organize anything special for his 18th birthday
next month.
54 English Grammar Practice

3. Jan would rather have bought a house last year.


4. She would better not borrow any money from you.
5. I would rather had bought a lottery ticket this morning.
6. Would you sooner I am begging in the streets?
7. Dave would rather they didn't go out in the evening tonight.
8. You had better didn't smoke. It's a disgusting habit.
9. I would rather go to their wedding than to stay at home alone.
10. You had better find work at home than go abroad.

Translate the fragments in brackets into English.


1. You (лучше поискать) for a better position with another company.
2. John (предпочел бы остаться) at home than go on such an expensive trip.
3. I would rather he (рассказал) the police about what has happened.
4. Mark (предпочел бы сменить) his job last year because of his boss's constant accusations.
5. I would rather my wife (бросила) her career for our family life long ago.
6. The manager (скорее наймет) extra staff than (позволит) the company go out of business.
7. I (предпочла бы не ходить) to the job interview yesterday, as it wasn't very successful.
8. (Ты бы предпочла поехать) on holiday by train or by car?
9. I would rather he (не хвастался) of his achievements all the time.
10. She had better (поработать) overtime a bit if she wants to be promoted.

Translate the following sentences.

1. Я, пожалуй, поищу работу со свободным распорядком дня.


2. Тебе лучше немедленно все рассказать своему начальнику.
3. Вчера мы ходили в кино, но фильм оказался скучным. Я бы предпочла остаться дома.
4. Я бы предпочла, чтобы Вы дали мне рекомендательное письмо.
5. Почему ты купила такой дорогой подарок? Я бы предпочла, чтобы ты выбрала что-
то подешевле.
6. Тебе лучше поехать домой на такси, так как ты долго будешь ждать автобус.
7. Мой брат предпочитает смотреть целыми днями телевизор вместо того, чтобы
готовиться к занятиям.
8. Ему лучше не идти на собеседование. Его не станут слушать.
9. Мне бы очень хотелось, чтобы ты не оставил меня вчера одну среди незнакомых
мне людей.
10. Ты бы предпочла вчера пойти с нами или остаться с детьми?
11. Я бы предпочла сдать экзамен вчера, чем переносить его на осень.
12. Ему лучше не увольняться с работы сейчас, а подождать пока найдет что-то получше.
13. Он бы предпочел остаться в этой гостинице еще на пару дней или уехать пораньше?
14. Я, пожалуй, не буду настаивать на Вашем сотрудничестве с нами. Вы сами примите
разумное решение.
Object Clauses Introduced by Wish IF ONLY 55

OBJECT CLAUSES INTRODUCED BY WISH


IF ONLY
For Study
A wish-clause is an object clause subordinated to the principal clause with the verb wish as the predicate.
If the action expressed in the object clause is simultaneous with that of the principal clause non-perfect
Subjunctive II is used to represent a personal wish or regret about a present or future situation:
I wish I were rich. /Жаль, что я не богат.
She wished she weren't busy and could follow them. / Она мсалела, что была
занята и не могла последовать за ними.
I wish she felt as I do./М не бы хотелось, чтобы она чувствовала то же, что и я.
Не wished he didn't have so much work to do. / Он сожалел, что у него было
много работы.
If the action expressed in the object clause is prior to that of the principal clause perfect Subjunctive II
is used to represent a personal regret about a past situation:
/ wish(ed) you had listened to me. / Мне (было) жаль, что ты меня не послушал.
They wish(ed) they hadn't done it. /И м (было) жаль, что они это сделали.
Such sentences are often translated by means of как жаль, мне жаль, я бы хотел, мне бы хотелось.
The analytical subjunctive with the modal verb would is also used in object clauses after the verb
wish. This form is used only in sentences referring to the present or future and forms a compound
verbal modal predicate. It is possible only if the subject of the principal clause is not the same as the
subject of the object clause. It is chiefly used in sentences expressing polite request or annoyance.
I wish he would stop lying. / Мне бы хотелось, чтобы он перестал врать.
I wish you wouldn't throw litter on the floor. / Мне бы хотелось, чтобы ты
перестал бросать мусор на пол.
If the subject of the subordinate clause and the subject of the main clause are the same, the modal
verb could is used instead. Any form of the infinitive can be used:
I wish I could be more energetic. /Жаль, что я не могу быть более энергичным.
I wish I could have finished my work yesterday. /Жаль, что я не смог закончить
работу вчера.
If only means the same as I wish but is more emphatic. It is followed by a non-perfect Subjunctive II
form to express a wish / regret about a present or future situation:
If only I knew more people! / Если бы только я знала больше людей!
If only Brenda was / were here! / Ax, если бы Бренда была здесь!
If only it wasn't / weren't raining, we could go out! /Если бы только не шел
дождь, мы бы смогли пойти погулять!
If only I knew the answer to your question./Ах, если бы я знала ответ на твой вопрос!
A regret about something that happened ordid not happen in the past is expressed by if only followed
by perfect Subjunctive II:
If only she had phoned me yesterday. I'd stop worrying! / Если бы только она
позвонила мне вчера, я бы перестала волноваться!
56 English Grammar Practice

If only I had been here yesterday! / Если бы только я был вчера здесь!
If only / hadn't agreed to help them!/А х, если бы я не согласился помочь им!
If only she hadn't told the police everything. / Если бы только она не рассказала
все полиции!
Modal verbs are also possible in the sentence pattern with if only with any form of the infinitive:
If only I could play the piano like that!/Ах, если бы я так могла играть на пианино!
If only I could have helped you yesterday! /Ах, если бы я могла помочь тебе вчера!
The modal verb would in its Subjunctive II form is used to express polite request or annoyance. The
non-perfect infinitive refers the action to the future.
If only you would try to keep the place tidy!/Если бы только ты попытался
держать свое место в чистоте!

PRACTICE ACTIVITIES


Comment on the use of the Subjunctive Mood in clauses after wish and if only.
Translate the sentences into Russian.

1. I wish I deserved your compliments which I don't.


2. If only I had more free time.
3. I wish I had lived in a big house as a child.
4. She wished she hadn't wasted so much money on clothes.
5. If only Richard had gone to America when he had the chance.
6. If only I could have been present at your wedding, but I was in New York.
7. I wish I could give you a definite answer.
8. I wish something exciting would happen.
9. If only my brother would stop playing computer games all days long.
10. He wished he could have started his own business when he was young.

Match the comments with the answers.

1 .1feel so old a) I wish it would rain


2. The plants in the garden are dying b) I wish you had told me
3. We never hear from Angela c) I wish we lived nearer the office
4 . 1didn't know you were ill d) I wish you could come more often
5 . 1can't afford to go out e) I wish I hadn't told anyone
6. It takes hours to get to work f) I wish I were younger
7. She looked absolutely lovely g) I wish she would write more often
8. We don't see you very often h) I wish I had more money
9. Now everyone knows the secret i) I wish I could have taken a photograph
Object Clauses Introduced by Wish IF ONLY 57

What is the fact behind the following wishes?

Model: I wish the streets weren't so dirty.


The streets are very dirty.
1. David wished he weren't out of work.
2. I wish I were earning a reasonable salary.
3. Sue wishes her child wouldn't eat so much chocolate.
4. If only I .could lose some weight!
5. I wish I had bought a lottery ticket this morning.
6. Carla wished she had been keeping a much closer eye on her investments.
7. If only she had gone to university!
8. I wish my girlfriend had rung me last night.
9. I wish she would study harder instead of watching TV all the time.
10. If only I hadn't eaten so much at the restaurant last night!

Make up sentences with I wish, expressing:

A. Regrets referring to the present/future (the action is simultaneous/posterior to the


predicate in the main clause):
Model: It's raining very hard.
I wish it weren't raining so hard.
1. He can't give up smoking.
2. I am sitting in a stuffy room.
3. I don't know many people in this town.
4. We have to work tomorrow.
5. She doesn't know anything about cars.
6. I am not lying on a beautiful sunny beach.
7. He doesn't speak many foreign languages.
8. I never have enough money.
9. I am moving to another town next month.
10. She doesn't want to go shopping with me.
B. Regrets referring to the past (the action is prior to the predicate in the main clause):
Model: Frank failed his driving test.
I wish Frank hadn't failed his driving test.
1. John hasn't passed the exam.
2. Mary didn't come to the airport.
3. I didn't see the match last week.
4. We have been driving so fast on the motorway.
5. They didn't book the tickets in advance.
6. We haven't been running this company.
7. They booked their tour with an unreliable agency.
8. We have borrowed a big sum of money to start the business.
58 English Grammar Practice

9. The children haven't been playing in the yard.


10. Mark told his neighbours they were wrong.
C. Polite request or annoyance (the action is posterior to the predicate in the main clause):
Model: Sheila isn't very polite to her grandparents.
1 wish Sheila would be more polite to her grandparents.
1. John never comes home before twelve o'clock.
2. Susan isn't working very hard for her exams.
3. Peter doesn't give up smoking.
4. Don is playing football all the time.
5. Paul takes too many days off work.
6. Richard doesn't wear a tie very often.
7. Molly doesn't help her mother with the housework.
8. Jane is arguing with her parents all the time.
9. David misses English classes regularly.
10. Margaret wears dirty clothes to University.

Ex. 5 Complain about the present situation and express your wish about some future
actions. Begin your sentences with 1 wish or If only.
Model: You don't expect your headache to go away.
1wish my headache would go (went) away. / If only my headache would go (went) away.
1. You don't expect the weather to clear up.
2. You don't expect the Rescue Services to arrive soon.
3. Some economists don't expect tight monetary and fiscal policies to keep inflation
under control.
4. You don't expect this company despite of its small financial backing to be the first to crack.
5. You don't expect your wife to be promoted soon.
6. You don't expect your boss to think of this possibility for you.
7. You don't expect Steve to be more careful.
8. You don't expect your husband to help you to do the housework.
9. You don't expect your mother to stop criticizing you.
10. You don't expect your teachers to realize you are doing your best.

Ex. 6 Respond to each problem using 1 wish or If only and the word in brackets.

Model: The weather is awful, (improve)


1wish the weather would improve. / I f only the weather would improve.
1. People leave the tap running all the time. (turn off)
2. Your brother is very angry, (co/m down)
3. The postman hasn't arrived and I'm waiting for an important letter. (arrive)
4. People hunt animals for sport, (stop)
5. The people next door have their TV on very loud, (turn down)
6. Your friend keeps complaining about everything all the time, (stop)
Object Clauses Introduced by Wish IF ONLY 59
7. It doesn't rain enough, (more)
8. Your favourite football team has lost every match so far. (win)
9. I can't wait for Christmas, (come)
10. Too much rubbish is thrown away, (recycle)

Щ What might you say in the following situations? Begin your sentences with I wish/if only.

Model: It's raining. You want to go out, but not in the rain. So you want it to stop raining.
What do you say?
I wish / If only it would stop raining.
1.You're waiting for Tom. He's late and you’re getting impatient. You want him to come.
What do you say?
2. A baby is crying and you're trying to sleep. You want the baby to stop crying. What do
you say?
3. You're looking for a job — so far without success. You want somebody to give you a job.
What do you say?
4. Brian has been wearing the same old clothes for years. You think he needs some new
clothes and you want him to buy some. What do you say to him?
5. Tom drives very fast. You don't like this. What do you say to him?
6. A lot of people drop litter in the street. You don't like this. What do you say?
7. Jack always leaves the door open. You don't like this. What do you say to him?
8. Your colleague always makes rude remarks about you. You don't like this. What do you
say to him?
9. Your fellow traveller blows cigarette smoke in your face. It irritates you. What do you say?
10. Your close friend never answers your emails. It worries you. What do you say?

Ц Fill in the gaps with the appropriate auxiliary verb.

1. She had her hair permed and now she wishes she hadn't.
2. Her husband spends a lot of money and she wishes h e ___________________________
3. I suspect they'll be late again but I wish they___________________________________
4. She always forgets people's names but she wishes sh e ___________________________
5. He invited 20 people for dinner and then he wished he___________________________
6. She doesn't know how to use a computer but she wishes s h e __________________
7. They never ring before coming round but I wish th e y___________________________
8. You're always interfering in my affairs and I wish yo u ____________________________
9. We didn't invite the Smiths but I wished w e_____________________________________
10. You told them I could do the job but I wish yo u ________________________________
11. They didn't buy the antique vase but they wished th e y_________________________
12. He probably won't listen but I wish h e _________________________________________
13. I didn't see the programme but I wished I ______________________________________
14. She's not qualified enough for the job but she wishes she_________________________
60 English Grammar Practice

15. He can't afford to buy her a diamond ring but he wishes h e_______________________
16. She hasn't got a fax machine but she wishes she________________________________

Choose the appropriate form.

1. Parents who also work often wish they have/ had more time to spend with their children.
2. No doubt the prime minister now wishes he listened/ had listened to what other people
were saying before he made his decision.
3. Local councillors say they wish more people could let / had let them know what they
think about the new anti-smoking laws.
4. Many people wish that fast-food companies would stop/had stopped targeting children
with advertising.
5. Local residents generally wish that tourists didn't leave / hadn't left so much litter
behind in the town.
6. I have had nothing but trouble with this computer, and now I wish that I didn't buy /
had not bought it.
7. When we grew older, with hindsight we all wish that we spent/had spent our time at
school more profitably.
8. We wish we knew /w ould know how to solve the problem of vandalism, but so far we
haven't come up with a perfect solution.
9. Doctors say they wish that more people paid/hadpaid attention to the amount of salt
they consume.
10. I do wish the taxi driver didn't go/weren't going so slowly. We're never going to get here I
11. I do wish the bus had come / would come. I'm going to be late.
12. Do you ever wish that you would sing/could sing really well?
13. I wish I could go/have gone to university but of course, in those days, it just wasn't possible.
14. If only you were / had been watching Thomas instead of checking your e-mail. He
wouldn't have fallen off the slide then.

Complete these sentences with the correct form of the verb in brackets. Some
sentences require a negative.

1. Bruce wishes he__ (have) more monev so he could buv a new comDuter.
2. 1wish it _ (snow) now that it's Christmas.
3. If onlv 1 _ (be) taller so that 1could be in the basketball team.
4. 1wish vou __ (stop) watching television while 1am talking to you.
5. 1wish vou __ (do) that. It annoys me.
6. If only the holidays (come) so we could eo off to the seaside.
7. She wished she___ (write) an application letter to that awful companv.
8. Of course Tom wished he (come) with us to Paris, as he had missed the best
holiday of his life.
9. 1wish we _(go) to the match on Saturday but we're visiting my uncle instead.
10. 1wish vou __ (keep) your mouth shut yesterday. Now Mary knows everything.
Object Clauses Introduced by Wish IF ONLY 61
11. If only I ___________(lose) all my money. Now I'm broke.
12. Peter is always late. If only h e __________ (turn up) on time for a change!
13. If only the sun__________ (come out) so we could get on with the filming.
14. I wished yo u__________ (know) how much trouble you had caused.
15. I wish you___________(look) at me like that. It's terribly distracting.

Ex. 11 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.

1.
A miner's life is a hard one. I wish it 1 ) __________ (not/be) so dirty and unhealthy. I also
wish we 2 ) ___________(work) shorter hours and 3 ) ___________(have) better working conditions.
If only I 4 ) ___________ (not leave) school so early. I wish I 5 ) ___________ (do) something else,
but the only thing I know is mining. I wish I 6 ) ___________ (have) a job in the open air. There is
nothing I'd rather 7 ) __________ (do) than work on a farm, for example - all that fresh air
and open space! I wish the owners 8 ) __________ (make) my job a little safer. If only someone
9) (invent) a machine to go underground, then I wouldn't have to do it. And I wish people
10) ___________ (stop) complaining about how much money we earn because we deserve every
penny we get. I wish 111)_________ (be) a young boy again and 1 2 )___________ (have) the chance
to choose something else. My father was a miner, but I wish 11 3 )___________(not/decide) to follow
in his footsteps. My son had better 14)__________ (study) hard if he doesn't want to follow in mine!
.2
Winning the lottery was the worst thing that ever happened to me. I wish 11) (not win)
it. I gave my husband five million dollars and he ran away with my best friend. I wish 12 ) (not
give) him any money. The police can't find them. If only they 3 ) (can catch) them. My children
have changed. They are always asking me for money, and won't do their school work. I wish they
4)______ (do). I left my job at the factory which was a bad mistake. If only I 5) (not leave) my
job, I wouldn't have lost all my friends. I bought a big, new house in an expensive part of town but I
can't find any friends here and I'm so lonely. I wish I 6 ) (can make) some really good friends.
My life is miserable. My only friend is my psychiatrist. I have to see him every day and he charges 100
dollars an hour! I wish I 7 ) (can go back) to my old life.

Ex. 12 Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.

Model: It's a pity I can't go to the cinema today, but I have to baby-sit.
could I wish I could go to the cinema today, but I have to baby-sit.
1. It's a shame we didn't go out for dinner.
gone I w ish__________________________________________ for dinner.
2. I don't have many friends here.
had If only____________________________________________ here.
3. It's a pity I can't go out tonight but I have to work late.
could I w ish_______________________________ but I have to work late.
4. It's a shame we didn't go home for Christmas.
gone If only_______________________________________ for Christmas.
62 English Grammar Practice

5. If it weren't raining, we could go for a walk,


stop I wish______________________ j we could go for a walk.
6. It's a pity that I wasn't given the position,
been If only____________________ __________ the position.
7. I've been offered a job in Spain, but I can't speak Spanish.
speak I wish__________________ because I've been offered a job in Spain.
8. If it weren't snowing, we could go for a drive,
stop If only___________________________ j we could go for a drive.
9. It's a shame we missed the beginning of the film.
missed wish the beginning of the film.
10. I regret the fact that we didn't see the band play,
could If only___________________________ the band play.
11. It's a pity that you didn't tell us you were leaving,
had I w ish___________________________ you were leaving.
12. Her constant criticism of me really gets on my nerves,
stop If only_______________________________ me.
13. I regret not going to university when I was younger,
gone I wish_____________________________ when I was younger.
14. Unfortunately, I'm not as agile as I used to be.
were If only________________________ as I used to be.

Ex. 13 Express wishes and regrets in these situations as in the model.


Model: You didn't watch the news so you didn't know there was a train strike.
I wish I had watched the news. If I had watched the news, I would have known
there was a train strike.
1. You work long hours and you can't spend much time with your family.
2. You wanted to travel abroad but you forgot to renew your passport.
3. You can't drive a car so you can't get around easily.
4. You want to climb the mountain but you're afraid of heights.
5. You didn't set your video correctly so you didn't record the film.
6. You want to go out tonight but you haven't got enough money.
7. You want to cook an Italian meal but you have no pasta left.
8. You spent all your savings on new stereo equipment and are now unable to go on holiday.
9. You drank too much last night and today you feel sick.
10. You want to visit Australia but you are frightened of flying.
11. You went on holiday; your camera was stolen.
12. You wanted to ring Kelly but you lost her phone number.
13. You want to make coffee but you've run out of it.

Ex. 14 There is one mistake in each of these sentences. Find the mistake and correct it.
1. My house was robbed last year. The money wasn't so important, but I wish the burglar
didn't take my grandmother's ring.
Object Clauses Introduced by Wish IF ONLY 63
2. I wish you told me this yesterday.
3. This is a beautiful place. If only we don't have to leave so soon.
4. I wish my garden had been bigger, then I could have a garden party.
5. I wish I would have seen the end of the film.
6. If only we know where he is getting the information from.
7. I wish I would be a child again.
8. If only we haven't spent all our money at the sale.

Ex. 15 Five wishes


Imagine that you have five wishes which could immediately come true. What wishes
would you make? Write them down and compare them with those of your partners.
Then write on the board the three wishes that have got most votes.

1. ______________________________________________________________

2.
3. ____________________________________________________________
4. ____________________________________________________________
5. ____________________________________________________________

Ex. 16 Oral activity

1. Think of what you did or didn't do last week. Are there things you wish you had done or hadn't done?
Model: I wish I had called my mother last Saturday.
I wish I hadn't torn my best shirt.
2. Think about all the things you wanted to do last year but didn't do. Make a list of ten sentences
expressing your regrets.
Model: I wish I had passed my history exam.
I wish I hadn't forgotten my friend's birthday.
3. Think about the things you would like to have or the kind of person you would
like to be. Make a list of ten sentences using If only.
Model: If only I had more pocket money, I could buy some new clothes.
If only I were a famous actor, I could live in a house with a big swimming pool.

Ex. 17 Translate the fragments in brackets into English.

1. They wish you (читали) more than you are.


2. They wished you (читали) more than you were.
3. They wish you (читали) more than you have.
4. They wished you (читали) more in future.
5. She wishes we (смогли понять) the reason for her quitting the job.
6. I wish (меня поняли) at the conference next week.
66 English Grammar Practice

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.

1.
Norma isn't happy with her life. If she 1 ) _________ (listen) to her mother's advice, she
2) (go) to university. She 3 )_________ (can/find) a good job if she had got a degree. Norma
hates the job she is doing now. She thinks she 4) (go) crazy if she 5 )_________ (stay) there
much longer. If she 6 )_________ (be) offered another job, she would take it immediately. In fact, she
7)_________ (leave) if sheS/__________(can)afford to, butshecan't. Life9/_________ (be)easierifshe
10 ) (not/ have) two children to support.

2.
"If you don't work harder at school, you 1 ) _________ (never/get) a good job." I remember
my parents saying these words to me when I was at school. If I had listened to them then, I 2)
_________ (not/become) what I am now. I 3 ) __________ (be) so much more if I had tried harder.
I haven't always been a tramp actually; when I left school I had a job as a milkman and if the
hours had been easier, I 4)__________(do) it for much longer, but I hated getting up so early in the
morning. When I lost my job, I 5 ) __________ (cannot/pay) the rent, so my landlord said that if I
6) (not/get) another job, I would be on the streets; and before I knew it, I was. I could have
got another job if I 7 ) (want) to, but at first I quite enjoyed the freedom of the outdoor
life. If you sleep out in summer, it 8) (not/be) too bad, but in winter it's awful. If 19 )_________
(can/change) anything about my life now, I would get in touch with my family again, even though I
know they would only say, "If you'd worked harder at school, you 10)_________ (not/get) yourself in
this situation."

3.
The young reporter walked up to the table where Dora Spangle was sitting and introduced
himself. "Miss Spangle, I'm Dan Quaid from 'Star International'." The actress smiled up at him
charmingly. "If I 1) (know) you were coming, I'd have reserved a bigger table," she
said. "You're too kind," laughed Dan. "You 2 ) ________(not/say) that if you knew what a huge
appetite I have!" "Probably not," agreed Dora. "Now, I have to go in ten minutes. So, if I were you,
I3) (start) asking your questions." "Very well. Do you have any regrets about retiring from
acting?" asked Dan. "Not about retiring," she replied. "But I do wish I 4 ) ________ (play) the role of
Cleopatra just once in my career." "If someone 5 )________ (offer) you the part now, would you take
it?" "No, it's too late now. I've decided to retire and that's final." "What 6 ) (you/do) if you get
bored?" "Oh, there's no chance of that,' she assured him. "I might get bored if 17)_________(not/have) all
my animals to look after, though." "Do you ever wish you 8 )_________(marry)?" Dan asked. "Not really,"
she replied. "Although I probably 9 )_________ (marry) John Rogers if he had asked me." She added sadly.
"What if ..." "I'm sorry," Dora interrupted. "I really must go now. It's time to feed my dogs and they get very
upset if 110)_________(be) late.

4.
Dear Sarah,
I'm having an absolutely fabulous time here in Geneva! I wish you 1 ) _____ (decide) to
come with me. It 2) _________ (be) even better if you were here. I wish I 3) (try)
Miscellaneous Practice 67
harder to persuade you to come with me. If only you 4)_________ (change) your mind! I'm sure you
could get time off work if you 5 ) _________ (ask). If you can't come to Geneva, 6 ) __________ (you/
consider) meeting in Rome at the beginning of next month? Of course if you 7 )__________(come)
with me in the first place, we 8 )_________ (have) a great time right now. Anyway, if you 9 )_________
(give) me a ring, 11 0 )_________ (tell) you exactly what my plans are and then you can decide what
you want to do.
Love,
Julia
5.
Einstein is reported to have said, "If I 1) _______ (know) the destruction I would
cause, I 2) _______ (become) a watch-maker." If we 3) ________ (continue) to
use nuclear energy as a means of defence, we 4 ) (make) our planet uninhabitable. If the
public 5) (be) more aware of the dangers, they 6)________ (demand) the right to live in a safer
society. If the Cold War had developed into World War III, the human race 7 )________ (be/wiped
out) forever. Unless we 8 ) _______ (discover) a way to prevent nuclear war, by the 21st century we
9 )________ (face) major disaster. Some scientists claim that if we 10)________ (tap into) the natural
energy in the universe, we 11)________(provide) ourselves with a never-ending, pollution-free source
of power. Only if we 12)________ (put) more money into research and less into defence 13)________
(we/be able to) discover other forms of energy. As long as we 1 4 )_________(continue) to abuse
knowledge and power, the earth 15) (remain) an insecure planet to inhabit.

Ex. 4 Complete the text using one word in each gap.

Neighbours and Noise


Do you ever wish that your neighbours 1 ) _________ turn down their music? Perhaps you're
trying to sleep and you wish that the people next door 2 )__________ not holding an all-night barbecue
party in their garden. Or would you 3) move to an uninhabited island? Don't worry - you
are just another victim of noise pollution. Of course, most people would rather cars 4 )__________no
noise at all, neighbours 5 )_________ as quiet as mice, and nobody 6 )_________ about the streets in
cars with open windows and high-powered sound systems. You may even wish you 7 )_________ stop
children from playing in the street, or planes from passing overhead. But in the end, if I 8 ) _________
you I 9 )_________ just get used to it. Close the windows, buy some earplugs, laugh and turn up your
stereo. Just act as if the noise 10 )_________ simply not there! Who knows, perhaps it will go away!

Ex. 5 Fill each of the blanks with a suitable word or phrase.

1. If___________________ for the postal strike, the cheque would have arrived today.
2. If you had been in my shoes,___________________ done?
3. Had w e________________misinformed about the bus times, we wouldn't have been late.
4. If Jane had stayed longer at the party, she___________________ a good time.
5. In those days you would have been breaking the law, if y o u ___________________ ID
card on you at all times.
68 English Grammar Practice

6. Had the government acted sooner, the general public worrying so


much about the current situation.
7. I would have asked the person for ID before I let him in, if I ___________________ you.
8. If it hadn't________________children, I'm sure she would have left Tom a long time ago.
9. I would have lost the game,___________________ not been for some quick thinking.
10 . ___________________ for the kindness of a complete stranger, I would never have found
the hotel.

Ex. 6 Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it is as similar as possible in
meaning to the sentence printed before it.

Model: The young man wasn't looking where he was going and tripped over that wire.
If the young man had been looking where he was going, he would not have
tripped over the wire.

1. The only thing that made the show worth watching was the visual effects.
If it________________________________________________________________
2. I would never have got so far if my parents hadn't encouraged me.
Had it _______________________________________________________________
3. You're lying in this hospital bed because you forgot the most basic rule of Safety First.
If you______________________________________________________________
4. Taking that job would have meant her working from 8 till 8 every day.
She_________________________________________________________________
5. If the goalkeeper hadn't been so brilliant, we could have lost by many more.
But fo r______________________________________________________________
6. The only reason that the child hasn't been prosecuted is the fact that he's only twelve.
Were it ______________________________________________________________
7. The police showed great restraint and avoided a potentially very ugly incident.
There could___________________________________________________________
8. Without this new diet, Henry would never have lost so much weight.
Had__________________________________________________________________
9. I didn't know about your problem so I didn't offer to help you.
If I ___________________________________________________________________
10. Ten years ago, people would have complained at seeing this film.
Had___________________________________________________________________


Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence
using the word given. Do not change the word given.

1. Tom got lost because we didn't give him clear directions.


have Tom wouldn't have aot lost if we had given him clear directions.
2. If you don't tell him what he is doing wrong, he'll never improve.
unless He'll never improve what he is doing wrong.
Miscellaneous Practice 69
3. He forgot about the invitation so he didn't go to the dinner.
not Had_______________________________________to the dinner.
4. She didn't make any friends on holidays because she is shy.
were If she some friends on holidays.
5. As long as you give it back by Friday, you can borrow my book,
provided You can borrow my book________________________ by Friday.
6. I think Bill should look for a better job.
better Bill________________________________________for a better job.
7. We didn't get to meet the Minister and that was a great shame,
only If____________________________________ the Minister!
8. Please don't let the dog sit in front of the car.
rather I ______________________________________ in front of the car.
9. I only knew about the meeting because Cynthia rang me.
if I ____________________________________________________ me.
10. It would have been better if you had arrived on time.
wish I __________________________________________________ on time.
11. He shouldn't have used my mug.
sooner I _________________________________________________my mug.
12. Most parents want their children to study a useful subject leading to a good job.
rather Most parents_______________ a useful subject leading to a good job.
13. Why don't they stop making so much noise downstairs?
wish I __________________________________making so much noise!
14. Jack couldn't have found the treasure without the map.
for But___________________________________ the treasure.
15. He is efficient in his new job because he studied English hard when he was at college,
be If h e ___________________________________efficient in his new job.
16. What a shame I didn't see his face when you told him the news.
could I w ish_____________________________ when you told him the news.

For each of the following sentences, say whether a or b, or both, can complete the sentence.

Model: If President Kennedy hadn't been assassinated in 1963


aI the Cold War miaht have ended sooner.
b) America will be very different.

1. If it hadn't been for the awful weather, a) we'd have spent more time sailing.
b) we would go there again.
2. If I'd realised you weren't coming, a) 1wouldn't be so angry.
b) 1can do something.
3. If he had told you the truth, a) you shouldn't have got angry with him.
b) you wouldn't be in this predicament.
4. If you liked Greece, a) you should have come with us to Naxos.
b) why didn't you come with us to Naxos?
70 English Grammar Practice

5. Had they explained their reasons a) they're stupid.


b) you'd understand.
6. But for the fire alarm a) the building would have gone up in flames.
b) we wouldn't know about the fire in the building.

Ex. 9 Correct the following sentences if necessary.

1. Take my business card in case you will want to contact me.


2. If only I hadn't lost my traveller's cheques.
3. If had he known it was her birthday, he would have bought her a present.
4. I'd rather to write a project than sit an exam.
5. If you pay attention, maybe you would learn something.
6. Unless you pass your driving test, you can't drive.
7. But for the police officers there had been a big mess in the streets.
8. If he weren't so stubborn, they would reach an agreement at their previous talks.
9. I would rather you wouldn't take the car; it's just been cleaned.
10. He would better pay off his debts before he buys a car.

Ex. 10 Translate into English.

1. Мы успели бы на последний автобус, если бы ушли из театра на пять минут раньше.


2. Как бы я хотел, чтобы этот семестр уже закончился!
3. Если бы я когда-нибудь встретила его снова, я бы знала что делать.
4. Если бы не его улыбка, я ничего бы не заподозрила.
5. Жаль, что ты не успел подать заявление на эту вакансию. Хорошо было бы быть
коллегами!
6. Я буду у тебя дома весь вечер на случай, если ты передумаешь.
7. Я предпочла бы, чтобы все соблюдали дресс-код на работе.
8. Если бы не Вы, я бы никогда не написал эту статью.
9. При условии, что ты будешь больше заниматься языком, ты добьешься больших успехов.
10. Будь я тогда с Вами, я бы смог Вас поддержать.
11. Если бы мой DVD не сломался, я бы записал сейчас этот фильм, и мы бы смогли
посмотреть его позже.
12. Ты не сможешь устроиться на хорошую работу, если ты не пройдешь собеседование.
13. Мой начальник предпочитает, чтобы его не беспокоили по пустякам.
14. Ах, если бы она только знала, что ее компания обанкротится.
15. Хотелось бы, чтобы люди были более дружелюбными.
16. Он знал, что если бы он отказался от этого предложения, отец рассердился бы на него.
17. Если бы не его работа в библиотеке Британского музея, он никогда не нашел бы
этой книги.
18. Будь осторожен с ключом. Если ты вдруг потеряешь его, мы никогда не откроем сейф.
19. Он бы не ушел из школы, если бы преподавание действительно было его призванием.
20. Я подготовлю резюме на случай, если мне придется искать другую работу.
Self-Check Test 2 71

SELF-CHECK TEST 2

Replace the infinitive in brackets by the correct form of the conditional mood
and Subjunctive II.

1. If he (not to be) a film star, he (not to become) so popular.


2. If he (no to spend) so much on his holiday, he (to have) enough to pay for the house repairs.
3. The burglars (not to get) if you (to remember) to lock the door.
4. I'd sooner you (to do) something with your time rather than sit around all day.
5. Tim's mother would rather (to work) closer to home than she does.
6. I wish Jim (not to move) to London last year as I hardly see him now.
7. If it (not to be) for the announcement on the radio she (to buy) that tour.
8. What (to happen) if you (not to do) so well yesterday?
9. If she (not to discover) that her opponent disliked losing she (to enjoy) the game.
10. If only the telephone (not to keep) ringing.

Look at the verb tenses carefully and write a suitable conditional sentence.

1. He didn't take his job seriously. He's unemployed now.


2. The meal wasn't lovely. You put the oven on too high.
3. Alice overslept yesterday. Her alarm-clock was slow.
4. Mum worried about you. You didn't phone her as soon as you arrived at the hotel.
5. The government did nothing about unemployment, andnow they are in danger of
losing the election.
6. You didn't warn me. Now I'm in a difficult situation.
7. Jim doesn't have a bike. He won't ride with us.
8. He spends his money on gambling. He is a rich man.
9. I don't know him very well. I didn't give him any advice.
10. Tim is so busy at work. He spends little time with his children.

Make unreal situations real.

1. Tim and Jenny wouldn't have bought this house if they had known there lives a ghost.
2. They wouldn't laugh at him if he weren't in the habit of telling silly stories.
3. My grandfather wouldn't have collected so many books if he didn't like reading.
4. You wouldn't have had a nightmare if you hadn't watched that horrible thriller before
going to sleep.
5. But for the sleeping tablets I wouldn't have fallen asleep.
6. I wish you had been more patient yesterday.
7. If only I were rich, I would have a swimming pool.
8. Had I not forgotten my brother's birthday, he wouldn't have got upset.
72 English Grammar Practice

Correct these sentences if necessary.

1. It's a shame you missed the party; I would rather you go there.
2. We had better take some money for a taxi in case we miss the last bus home.
3. If only I would be a famous person.
4. Bought I him a computer he would play games all day long.
5. She would have married him if he had proposed to her.
6. I wish I invited more people to my fancy dress party last week.
7. Would you rather live in the past than the present?
8. I wish things were different in the past.

Translate into English the fragments given in brackets.

1. She (было жаль, что она не могла слышать) what they were saying downstairs.
2. I would rather you (не ходила) to that awful store. You have just wasted your time.
3. If we (заказали бы) a table in the restaurant earlier, we (давно бы уже поели).
4. I (никогда бы не подумал) it possible, if I (не увидел бы) it with my own eyes.
5. I wish you (поменьше курил).
6. (Если бы не) his smile, I (не заподозрила бы) anything. But he was smiling all the time.
7. The mouse has run away! If your cat (не был бы) so lazy, he (не упустил бы) it.
8. I (пожалуй, приготовлю) my own food today (чем буду кушать) in a restaurant.
9. You (лучше поговорить) directly to the manager instead of dealing with his rude
secretary.
10. I wish my job (была безопасной). Я (предпочел бы не беспокоиться) about it.
Appendix 1 73

APPENDIX 1

CONDITIONALS, WISHES

Form Use Example


Conditionals Typel Events that occur at any If she is travelling abroad on business, she
time; actions that always always phones me every evening.
have the same result; If you don't look after tomato plants, they die
possible future events very quickly.
or situations and their If 1missed the last train, 1just stayed over
results. with my friends.
The beach party will go ahead if the weather
is fine tomorrow.
Conditionals Type2 Imaginary present/future If the result of the test were positive, we
events or situations and would call you within two days.
their results. You wouldn't recognize him, if you saw him
now.
If 1were you, 1would take her out of that
school.
Conditionals ТуреЗ Imaginary past events You would have answered these questions, if
or situations and their you had read this book yesterday.
results. If you had been driving more slowly, you
1
could have stopped in time. j
I
Mixed Conditionals Imaginary present events If he were a good worker, he would have
or situations and their been promoted.
results in the past. If he hadn't taken the money, he wouldn't be
Imaginary past events in prison now.
or situations and their t
results in the present.
Inverted Imaginary present/ Were 1younger, 1would accept his offer.
Conditionals future/past events or Had 1not been late for work so many times, 1
situations and their wouldn't have been fired.
results.
If it were not for... Imaginary present/ If it weren't for his wife's money, he wouldn't
/ If it had not been future/past events or be a director now.
for.../But for situations and their If it hadn't been for their bad luck that day,
results. they wouldn't have run into an accident.
But for his advice we wouldn't have coped
with the task.
74 English Grammar Practice

Had better To express advice, You had better travel by air.


warning. She had better not go by car today.
Would rather/ To express preference, 1would rather/sooner stay at home.
would sooner choice 1would rather/sooner have gone to the
cinema last night.
1would rather/sooner you didn't smoke in
here.
1would rather/ sooner you had given me a
refund last year.
Wish/If only To represent a personal 1wish 1had more free time.
+ non-perfect wish or regret about If only 1were young again.
Subjunctive II a present or future
situation.
Wish/If only To represent a personal 1wish you had told me about this before 1
+ perfect regret about a past booked the tickets.
Subjunctive II situation. If only you hadn't been driving so fast!
Wish/If only To represent polite 1wish you would stop shouting.
+ would request or annoyance If only he would stop smoking.
(desire for someone to
change their deliberate
behavior in the present
and future, often used to
criticize or complain).
Wish/If only + To represent a personal 1wish 1could dance but 1am afraid 1have got
could (have) desire which we know two left feet.
is impossible to achieve If only we could see the situation through his
(including impossible eyes.
desires about ourselves). If only they could have come to my wedding
last year!
Appendix 2 75

APPENDIX 2

Commentary on Conditionals and W ishes


1. If I had the right qualifications, I would apply for a better job.
It is a complex sentence with a subordinate clause of unreal condition. Had is a non-perfect
Subjunctive II form used to denote an unreal condition referring to the present (future). Would
apply is a non-perfect Conditional Mood form representing the action as an unreal consequence
referring to the present (future).
2. If she were more tactful, she would be getting on with her boss.
It is a complex sentence with a subordinate clause of unreal condition. Were is a non-perfect
Subjunctive II form used to denote an unreal condition referring to the present. Would be getting
on is a non-perfect Conditional Mood form representing the action as an unreal consequence
referring to the present.
3. If you pulled your socks up, you could (might) be appointed a manager.
It is a complex sentence with a subordinate clause of unreal condition. Pulled up is a non-perfect
Subjunctive II form used to denote an unreal condition referring to the present (future). Could (might)
be appointed is a compound verbal modal predicate which consists of the modal verb could (might) in
its Subjunctive II form expressing unreal possibility and the non-perfect infinitive be appointed referring
the action to the present (future).
4. If he had taken his job seriously, he would have become a real high-flier.
It is a complex sentence with a subordinate clause of unreal condition. Had taken is a perfect
Subjunctive II form used to denote an unreal condition referring to the past. Would have become is a
perfect Conditional Mood form representing the action as an unreal consequence referring to the past.
5. If they had been working properly, they wouldn't have been made redundant.
It is a complex sentence with a subordinate clause of unreal condition. Had been working is a perfect
Subjunctive II form used to denote an unreal condition referring to the past. Wouldn't have been
made is a perfect Conditional Mood form representing the action as an unreal consequence referring
to the past.
6. If you had applied for one of these jobs, you could (might) have been short-listed.
It is a complex sentence with a subordinate clause of unreal condition. Had applied is a perfect
Subjunctive II form used to denote an unreal condition referring to the past. Could (might) have been
short-listed is a compound verbal modal predicate which consists of the modal verb could (might) in
its Subjunctive II form expressing unreal possibility and the perfect infinitive have been short-listed
referring the action to the past.
7. If he were a competent employee, he would have been promoted long ago.
It is a mixed type of the complex sentence with a subordinate clause of unreal condition. Were
is a non-perfect Subjunctive II form used to denote an unreal condition referring to the present.
Would have been promoted is a perfect Conditional Mood form representing the action as an unreal
consequence referring to the past.
76 English Gram m ar Practice

8. If I hadn't been laid off, I wouldn't be on the dole now.


It is a mixed type of the complex sentence with a subordinate clause of unreal condition. Hadn't
been laid off is a perfect Subjunctive II form used to denote an unreal condition referring to the
past. Wouldn't be is a non-perfect Conditional Mood form representing the action as an unreal
consequence referring to the present.
9. Were I satisfied with my work, I wouldn't be handing in my notice.
It is a complex sentence with an inverted subordinate clause of unreal condition. Were is a non­
perfect Subjunctive II form used to denote an unreal condition referring to the present. Wouldn't be
handing in is a non-perfect Conditional Mood form representing the action as an unreal consequence
referring to the present.
10. Had you reminded me about the interview, I would have got that job.
It is a complex sentence with an inverted subordinate clause of unreal condition. Had reminded is
a perfect Subjunctive II form used to denote an unreal condition referring to the past. Would have
got is a perfect Conditional Mood form representing the action as an unreal consequence referring
to the past.
11. But for the job she would spend more time with her children.
It is a simple sentence introduced by the but for phrase replacing the //-clause. Would spend is a
non-perfect Conditional Mood form representing an unreal consequence referring to the present.
12. But for bad working conditions she wouldn't have resigned.
It is a simple sentence introduced by the but for phrase replacing the //-clause. Would spend is a
perfect Conditional Mood form representing an unreal consequence referring to the past.
13. You had better apply for several jobs in similar companies.
It is a simple sentence. Had better apply is a compound verbal modal predicate which consists of
the modal expression had better in its Subjunctive II form expressing advice and the non-perfect
infinitive apply for referring the action to the future.
1 4 .1would rather have flexible hours than regular day work.
It is a simple sentence. Would rather have is a compound verbal modal predicate which consists
of the modal expression would rather in its Subjunctive II form expressing a personal preference
and the non-perfect infinitive have referring the action to the present.
1 5 .1would rather have made a career in sport.
It is a simple sentence. Would rather have made is a compound verbal modal predicate which
consists of the modal expression would rather in its Subjunctive II form expressing a personal
preference and the perfect infinitive have made referring the action to the past.
1 6 .1would rather he gave up work in order to study.
It is a complex sentence with a subordinate clause introduced by the modal expression would rather in
its Subjunctive II form expressing a personal preference. Gave up is a non-perfect Subjunctive II form
referring the action to the present.
1 7 .1would rather she had found a permanent job when she graduated.
It is a complex sentence with a subordinate clause introduced by the modal expression would rather
in its Subjunctive II form expressing a personal preference. Had found is a perfect Subjunctive II
form referring the action to the past.
Appendix 2 77
1 8 .1wish I earned just enough to get by.
It is a complex sentence with an object subordinate clause introduced by the verb wish. Earned is a
non-perfect Subjunctive II form used to represent a personal wish or regret about a present /future
situation.
1 9 .1wish I had accepted early retirement from my old job.
It is a complex sentence with an object subordinate clause introduced by the verb wish. Had
accepted is a perfect Subjunctive II form used to represent a personal regret about a past situation.
2 0 .1wish you would be more punctual.
It is a complex sentence with an object subordinate clause introduced by the verb wish. Would be
is a compound verbal modal predicate which consists of the modal verb would in its Subjunctive
II form expressing annoyance and the non-perfect infinitive be referring the action to the future.
2 1 .1wish my boss would stop reprimanding me for failing to do my duties.
It is a complex sentence with an object subordinate clause introduced by the verb wish. Would stop
is a compound verbal modal predicate which consists of the modal verb would in its Subjunctive II
form expressing polite request and the non-perfect infinitive stop referring the action to the future.
2 2 .1wish I could have made my way in the world.
It is a complex sentence with an object subordinate clause introduced by the verb wish. Could have
made is a compound verbal modal predicate which consists of the modal verb could in its Subjunctive
II form expressing impossibility and the perfect infinitive have made referring the action to the past.
23. If only I found employment in the business line.
It is a simple sentence introduced by If only. Found is a non-perfect Subjunctive II form used to
represent a strong wish or regret about a present/future situation.
24. If only I could get the position for which I have applied.
It is a simple sentence introduced by If only. Could get is a compound verbal modal predicate
which consists of the modal verb could in its Subjunctive II form expressing impossibility and the
non-perfect infinitive get referring the action to the present (future).
25. If only his company hadn't closed down.
It is a simple sentence introduced by If only. Hadn't closed down is a perfect Subjunctive II form
used to represent a personal regret about a past situation.
26. If only she would stop working overtime.
It is a simple sentence introduced by If only. Would stop is a compound verba! modal predicate
which consists of the modal verb would in its Subjunctive II form expressing polite request /
annoyance and the non-perfect infinitive stop referring the action to the future.
78 English Grammar Practice

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DICTIONARIES
1. Cam bridge International Dictionary of English. - Cam bridge University Press,1995
2. Longm an Dictionary of Contem porary English. - Pearson Education Lim ited, 2003
3. W ebster's Desk Dictionary of the English Language. - Portland House, 1990.
Contents 79

CONTENTS

GENERAL INFORMATION.......................................................................................................................... 3
REAL CONDITIONALS (TYPE 1)................................................................................................................. 5
UNREAL CONDITIONALS REFERRING TO THE PRESENT OR FUTURE (TYPE 2) .................................. 10
CONDITIONALS TYPE 1 AND TYPE 2 COMPARED................................................................................. 20
UNREAL CONDITIONALS REFERRING TO THE PAST (TYPE3).................................................................. 23
SELF-CHECK TEST 1.................................................................................................................................... 32
MIXED CONDITIONALS............................................................................................................................. 35
INVERTED CONDITIONALS................................................................ 39
OTHER WAYSOF EXPRESSING UNREALCONDITION.............................................................................. 41
CONJUNCTIONS OTHER THAN IF ............................................................................................................. 44
MODAL EXPRESSIONS HAD BETTER/WOULD RATHER/WOULD SOONER ......................................... 48
OBJECT CLAUSES INTRODUCED BY WISH. IF ONLY............................................................................... 57
MISCELLANEOUS PRACTICE.................................................................................................................... 65
SELF-CHECK TEST 2 .................................................................................................................... ,............. 71
APPENDIX 1................................................................................................................................................ 73
APPENDIX 2........................................................................................................... „ .................................. 75
REFERENCES............................................................................................... ,............................................. 78

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