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PRACTICE PAGE
Chapter 4 Newton’s Second Law of Motion
Mass and Weight
Leaming physics is learning the connections among concepts in nature, and
also leaming to distinguish between closely-related concepts. Velocity and
acceleration, previously treated, are often confused. Similarly in this chapter,
we find that mass and weight are often confused. They aren't the same!
Please review the distinction between mass and weight in your textbook.
To reinforce your understanding of this distinction, circle the correct answers below,
‘Comparing the concepts of mass and weight, one is basic—fundamental—depending only on the
internal makeup of an object and the number and kind of atoms that compose it. The concept that
is fundamental is [mass] [weight].
‘The concept that additionally depends on location in a gravitational field is [mass] [weight].
[Mass] [Weight] is a measure of the amount of matter in an object and only depends on the
number and kind of atoms that compose it.
It can correctly be said that [mass] [weight] is a measure of “laziness” of an object.
[Mass] [Weight] is related to the gravitational force acting on the object.
[Mass] [Weight] depends on an object's location, whereas [mass] [weight] does not.
In other words, a stone would have the same [mass] [weight] whether it is on the surface of
Earth or on the surface of the Moon. However, its [mass] [weight] depends on its location.
‘On the Moon's surface, where gravity is only about 1/6" Earth gravity [mass] [weight]
[both the mass and the weight] of the stone would be the same as on Earth.
While mass and weight are not the same, they are [directly proportional) _ [inversely proportional]
to each other. In the same location, twice the mass has [twice] [half] the weight.
The Standard Intemational (SI) unit of mass is the [kilogram] [newton], and the SI unit of force
isthe [kilogram] [newton].
In the United States, it is common to-measure the mass of something by measuring its gravitational
pull to Earth, its weight. The common unit of weight in the U.S. is the [pound] [kilogram] [newton].
When I step ona weighing scale, two forces act on it: a downward
pull of gravity, and an upward support force. These equal and
Pull of | opposite forces effectively compress a spring inside the scale that’
gravity \ is calibrated to show weight. When in equilibrium, my weight = mg.
Support
Force
thanx to Daniela Taylor
11CONCEPTUAL PRACTICE PAGE
Chapter 4 Newton’s Second Law of Motion
Converting Mass to Weight
Objects with mass also have weight (although they can be weightless under special conditions). If
you know the mass of something in kilograms and want its weight in newtons, at Earth's surface,
you can take advantage of the formula that relates weight and mass.
Weight = mass x acceleration due to gravity
W=mg
This is in accord with Newton's 2° law, written as F= ma. When the force of gravity is the only
force, the acceleration of any object of mass m will be g, the acceleration of free fall. Importantly,
g acts as a proportionality constant, 9.8 N/kg, which is equivalent to 9.8 m/s?.
Sample Question: From F = ma, we see that the unit of
How much does a 1-kg bag of nails weigh on Earth? | force equals the units [kg x m/s*]. Can
W= mg = (1 kg)(9.8 m/s’) = 9.8 mis* = 9.8N. you see the units (m/s"] = [N/Kg}?
or simply, W= mg = (1 kg)(9.8 Nikg) = 9.8 N. CH
Answer the following questions:
Felicia the ballet dancer has a mass of 45.0 kg.
1. What is Felicia's weight in newtons at Earth's surface?
2. Given that 1 kilogram of mass corresponds to 2.2 pounds at Earth's surface,
what is Felicia's weight in pounds on Earth?
3. What would be Felicia’s mass on the surface of Jupiter?
4, What would be Felicia’s weight on Jupiter's surface,
where the acceleration due to gravity is 25.0 m/s*?
Different masses are hung on a spring scale calibrated in newtons.
The force exerted by gravity on 1 kg =9.8N.
5, The force exerted by gravity on 5 kg = N.
6. The force exerted by gravity on kg = 98N.
Make up your own mass and show the corresponding weight:
The force exerted by gravity on kg = N
By whatever means (spring scales,
measuring balances, etc.), find the LO! BET MASS WEIGHT
mass of your physics book. Then ‘MELON 1 kg
complete the table. C—O or rT Sd
APPLE 4N
BOOK
A FRIEND 60 kg
12Jame Date
CONCEPTUAL. Physic. PRACTICE PAGE
Chapter 4 Newton’s Second Law of Motion
A Day at the Races with a = F/m
In each situation below, Cart A has a mass of 1 kg. Circle the correct answer (A, B, or Same for both).
1. Cart A is pulled with a force of 1.N.
Cart B also has a mass of 1 kg and is
pulled with a force of 2.N.
Which undergoes the greater acceleration?
[A] [B] [Same for both]
3. Cart A is pulled with a force of 1 N.
Cart B has a mass of 2 kg and is pulled
with a force of 2.N.
Which undergoes the greater acceleration?
[A] [B] [Same for both]
5. This time Cart A is pulled with a force of 4 N.
Cart B has a mass of 4 kg and is pulled with
a force of 4.N.
Which undergoes the greater acceleration?
[A] [B] [Same for both]
* thanx to Dean Baind at
uit!
2. Cart A is pulled with a force of 1 N.
Cart B has a mass of 2 kg and is also
pulled with a force of 1 N.
Which undergoes the greater acceleration?
[A] [B] [Same for both]
4, Cart A is pulled with a force of 1 N.
Cart B has a mass of 3 kg and is pulled
with a force of 3 N.
Which undergoes the greater acceleration?
TA] [8] [Same for both]
6. Cart A is pulled with a force of 2 N.
Cart B has a mass of 4 kg and is pulled
with a force of 3 N.
Which undergoes the greater acceleration?
[A] [B] [Same for both]
IoPRACTICE PAGE
Chapter 4 Newton’s Second Law of Motion
Dropping Masses and Accelerating Cart
1. Consider a 1-kg cart being pulled by a 10-N applied force.
According to Newton's 2™ law, acceleration of the cart is
This is the same as the acceleration of free fall, g—because a
force equal to the cart’s weight accelerates it. 8
2. Consider the acceleration of the cart when the applied force
is due to a 10-N iron weight attached to a string draped over (_, The pulley changes only
a pulley. Will the cart accelerate as before, at 10 mis”? the direction of the force,
‘The answer is no, because the mass being accelerated is
the mass of the cart plus the mass of the piece of iron that
pulls it. Both masses accelerate. The mass of the 10-N
iron weight is 1 kg—so the total mass being accelerated
(cart + iron) is 2 kg. Then,
Don't forget; the total mass of a system
includes the mass of the hanging iron.
Note this is half the acceleration due to gravity alone, 9. So
the acceleration of 2 kg produced by the weight of 1kg is 9/2.
a. Find the acceleration of the 1-kg cart when two
identical 10-N weights are attached to the string.
_ applied force _
Here we simplify and say
g=10 m/s’.CONCEPTUAL PRACTICE PAGE
Chapter 4 Newton’s Second Law of Motion
Dropping Masses and Accelerating Cart—continued
. Find the acceleration of the 1-kg cart when the
three identical 10-N weights are attach to the
a= £ = appliedforce _
=m ~ “totalmass
Find the acceleration of the 1-kg cart when four identical 10-N weights (not shown)
are attached to the string.
ac E = Sielied force
=f.
total mass
d. This time 1 kg of iron is added to the cart, and
only one iron piece dangles from the pulley.
Find the acceleration of the cart.
applied force
a-f£e
“m ~ total mass
The force due to gravity on a mass mis mg.
we So gravitational force on 1 kg is (1 kg)(10 Says) =10N.
¢. Find the acceleration of the cart when it carries
two pieces of iron and only one iron piece dangles
from the pulley.
applied force _
a- f=
m total massCONCEPTUAL
Chapter 4 Newton’s Second Law of Motion
Dropping Masses and Accelerating Cart—continued
PRACTICE PAGE
{. Find the acceleration of the cart when it carries
'8 pieces of iron and only one iron piece dangles
from the pulley.
applied force _
tolalmass. SOS
F
asoes
m
g. Find the acceleration of the cart when it carries
3 pieces of iron and 4 pieces of iron dangle from
the pulley,
applied force _
total mass ee
‘Mass of cart is 1 kg, Mass of 10-N Iron is also 1 ke
th. Draw your own combination of masses and
find the acceleration.lame Date
CONCEPTUAL PRACTICE PAGE
Chapter 4 Newton’s Second Law of Motion
Force and Acceleration
1. Skelly the skater, total mass 25 kg, is propelled by rocket power.
a. Complete Table | (neglect resistance).
TABLE |
[Force ACCELERATION
{00 N
200N
[oe
b. Complete Table Il for a constant 50-N resistance.
TABLE It
FORCE | ACCELERATION
ey
SON O m/s?
100 N
200N
2. Block A on a horizontal friction-free table is accelerated by a force from a string attached
to Block B of the same mass. Block B falls vertically and drags Block A horizontally.
(Neglect the string’s mass). AK
Circle the correct answers:
a. The mass of the system (A+B)is [m] [2 1m.
b. The force that accelerates (A + B) is the weight of [A]
(8) (A+B).
¢. The weight of Bis [mg/2] [mg] [2 mg].
d. Acceleration of (A+B) is {less than g] {g] {more than g].
@.Use a= £ to show the acceleration of (A + B) as a fraction of g.
it would only be acting on its own
moss — not twice the mass!
To better understand this,
congider 3 and 4 on the
‘other side!CONCEPTUAL PRACTICE PAGE
Chapter 4 Newton’s Second Law of Motion
Force and Acceleration—continued
3. Suppose Block A is still a 1-kg block, but B is a low-mass feather (or a coin)
a. Compared to the acceleration of the system of 2 equal-mass blocks
the acceleration of (A +B) here is [less] [more]
and is [close to zero] [close to g].
. In this case, the acceleration of Bis
[practically that of free fall] [nearly zero].
4, Suppose A is the feather or coin, and Block B has a mass of 1 kg.
a. The acceleration of (A +B) here is [close to zero] [close to g].
b. In this case, the acceleration of Block Bis
[practically that of free fall] [nearly zero}.
5, Summarizing we see that when the weight of one object causes the acceleration
of two objects, the range of possible accelerations is between
[zero and g} [zero and infinity] [g and infinity].
6. For a change of pace, consider a ball that rolls down a uniform-slope ramp.
a. Speed of the ball is [decreasing] [constant] [increasing]
b. Acceleration is [decreasing] [constant] [increasing].
c. If the ramp were steeper, acceleration would be [more] [the same] [less].
d. When the ball reaches the bottom and rolls along the smooth level surface, it
[continues to accelerate] [does not accelerate]lame Date
2
CONCEPTUAL Physi PRACTICE PAGE
Chapter 4 Newton’s Second Law of Motion
Friction
N 1. A crate filled with delicious junk food rests on a horizontal floor.
—, Only gravity and the support force of the floor act on it, as shown
‘v by the vectors for weight W and normal force N.
[greater than zero].
a. The net force on the crate is [zero]
b. Evidence for this is
2. A slight pull P is exerted on the crate, not enough to move it.
A force of friction f now acts,
a. whichis [less than] [equal to] [greater than] P.
b. Net force on the crate is [zero] [greater than zero].
3. Pull P is increased until the crate begins to move. It is pulled so
that it moves with constant velocity across the floor.
ion fis [less than] [equal to] [greater than] P.
[more than zero].
a. Fri
b. Constant velocity means acceleration is [zero]
c. Net force on the crate is [less than] [equal to] [more than] zero.
4. Pull P is further increased and is now greater than friction f
a. Net force on the crate is [less than] [equal to] . {greater than}
zero.
b. The net force acts toward the right, so acceleration acts
toward the [left] fright)
5. If the pulling force P is 150 N and the crate doesn't move,
what is the magnitude of f?
6. If the pulling force P is 200 N and the crate doesn't move, what is the magnitude of f ?
7. I the force of sliding friction is 250 N, what force is necessary to keep the crate sliding
at constant velocity?
8. If the mass of the crate is 50 kg and sliding friction is 250 N, what is the acceleration of the crate
when the pulling force is 250 N? 300N? 500 N?
——
19ume Date
CONCEPTUAL Physi PRACTICE PAGE
Chapter 5 Newton’s Third Law of Motion
Action and Reaction Pairs
1. Inthe example below, the action-reaction pair is shown by the arrows (vectors), and the action-
reaction described in words. In a through g, draw the other arrow (vector) and state the reaction
to the given action. Then make up your own example inh.
aM
Fist hits wall Windshield hits bug.
Wall hits fist b.
SS
Hand pulls flower.
4 e.
Athlete pushes bar upward. Compressed air pushes
balloon surface outward.
t 9. h
2. Draw arrows to show the chain of at least six parts of action-reaction forces below.CONCEPTUAL PRACTICE PAGE
Chapter 5 Newton’s Third Law of Motion
Interactions
4. Nellie Newton holds an apple weighing 1 newton at rest on the palm of her hand. The force
vectors shown are the forces that act on the apple. N
a. To say the weight of the apple is 1 N is to say that a
downward gravitational force of 1 N is exerted on the
apple by [Earth] {her hand}.
b. Nellie's hand supports the apple with normal force N,
which acts in a direction opposite to W. We can say N
[equals W] [has the same magnitude as W].
¢. Since the apple is at rest, the net force on the apple is [zero] [nonzero].
. Since NN is equal and opposite to W, we [can] [cannot] say that Nand W
comprise an action-reaction pair. The reason is because action and reaction always
[act on the same object] [act on different objects], and here we see Nand W
[both acting on the apple] _ [acting on different objects}.
e. In accord with the rule, “If ACTION is A acting on B, then REACTION is B acting on A,”
if we say action is Earth pulling down on the apple, then reaction is
[the apple pulling up on Earth] _[N, Nellie’s hand pushing up on the apple}.
{. To repeat for emphasis, we see that N and W are equal and opposite to each other
[and comprise an action-reaction pair] [but do not comprise an action-reaction pair].
“To identity a pair of action-reaction forces in ary situation, fist identify
the pair of interacting cbjects involved, Something is interacting with
sorrething elge. In this case the whole Earth is inleracting (gravitationally)
with the opple. So Earth pulls downward on the opple (cll it action).
while the apple pulls upword on Earth (reaction)
——eerr » Sgr pom le (ony
‘epple pulls on Earth (réaction).
Geter pul gpl ed Earn pull on each other
vith qua ond oppitefores that corprise 0
siagle interoction
g. Another pair of forces is N as shown, and the downward force of the apple against che
Nellie's hand, not shown. This force pair [is] [isn't] an action-reaction pair.
fh. Suppose Nellie now pushes upward on the apple with a force of 2N. The apple
[is stil in equilibrium] [accelerates upward], and compared to W, the magnitude of Nis
[the same] [twice] {not the same, and not twice].
i. Once the apple leaves Nellie's hand, Nis [zero] [stil twice the magnitude of W], and
the net force on the apple is [zero] [only W] [still W- N, a negative force].
—
22CONCEPTUAL PRACTICE PAGE
Chapter 5 Newton’s Third Law of Motion
More on Vectors
1, Each of the vertically-suspended blocks has the same weight W. The two
forces acting on Block C (W and rope tension 7) are shown. Draw vectors
to a reasonable scale for rope tensions acting on Blocks A and B
2. The cart is pulled with force Fat angle
as shown. F, and F, are components of F.
a. How will the magnitude of F, change if
the angle @is increased by a few degrees?
[more] [less] [no change]
b. How will the magnitude of F, change if i‘ .
the angle @is increased by a few degrees? TF youie into tg,
nae lt
[more] [less] [no change] sin @ = ; 350 Fy= Fsin 8.
©. What will be the value of F; if angle @is 90°? c+ Esso Fee Foxe,
[more than F] [zero] [no change]
8. Force F pulls three blocks of equal mass across a friction-free table. By
Draw vectors of appropriate lengths for the rope tensions on each block.
4. Consider the boom supported by hinge A and by a cable B. Vectors
are shown for the weight W of the boom at its center, and Wi2 for
vertical component of upward force supplied by the hinge.
a. Draw a vector representing the cable tension Tat B. Why is it
correct to draw its length so that the vertical component of
T= wr?
A errr 8B
'b. Draw component T, at B. Then draw the horizontal component of
the force at A. How do these horizontal components compare,
and why?
w
5. The block rests on the inclined plane. The vector for its weight
Wis shown. How many other forces act on the block, including
static friction? Draw them to a reasonable scale. j
a. How does the component of W parallel to the plane compare
with the force of friction?
b. How does the component of W perpendicular to the plane compare with the normal force?
cit