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Министерство образования Республики Беларусь



И.А. Болдак, О.Л. Малышева



Учебное пособие для студентов

специальности П0207 –
Английский язык

Гродно 1999

УДК 801(075.8)
ББК 81.432.1
Б 79

Рецензенты: зав.кафедрой иностранных языков ГСИ, кандидат

филологических наук Н.И. Веренич;
зав. романо-германским отделением ГрГУ, кандидат
филологических наук, доцент Л.М. Середа.

Рекомендовано советом филологического факультета.

Болдак И.А., Малышева О.Л.


АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА): Уч. пособие. - Гродно: ГрГУ, 1999. - 76 с.

ISBN 985-417-155-8
Пособие содержит основные разделы английской грамматики, представляющие со-
бой наибольшую трудность: видо-временные формы глагола, косвенная речь и др. Посо-
бие может быть использовано не только студентами филологического факультета, но и
теми, кто углубленно изучает английский язык. Оно также будет полезным при подготовке
к сдаче экзаменов TOEFL и First Certificate.

УДК 801(075.8)
ББК 81.432.1

ISBN 985-417-155-8 © И.А. Болдак, О.Л.Малышева, 1999


Настоящее учебное пособие содержит разделы граммати-

ки, представляющие собой наибольшую трудность: видо-времен-
ные формы глагола, косвенная речь, сослагательное наклонение.
Вс е упражнения как для аудирования, так и для внеау-
диторной работы, подобраны из новейших учебников и учеб-
ных пособий. Основным критерием отбора упражнений яв-
ляется коммуникативный принцип обучения грамматике.
После каждого раздела граммати ки даются тренировоч-
ные упражнения, направленные на выработку навыков, несколь-
ко проблемных заданий, направленных на развитие коммуника-
тивных навыков у студентов, а также умений и навыков спон-
танного оформления высказывания.
Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов I-III кур-
сов факультетов иностранных языков, а также для лиц, углуб-
ленно занимающихся английским языком, поскольку содержит
грамматический материал, представляющий определенные
трудности в усвоении.



• The Simple Present talks about habits: things you do again and again.
(a) I ask questions when I don’t understand.
• The Simple Present also talks about everyday routines: things you do
(b) My sister gets up at 6:00.
• Use verbs in the Present Continuous to talk about actions and situations
that are in progress or in the middle of happening at the time of
(a) Right now, I am sitting on the couch and my brothers are cooking
(b) It is raining at the moment and Oscar is waiting for the bus.
• You may also use the Present Continuous to talk about actions and
situations that are going on around the time of speaking, although they
may not be in progress exactly at the time of speaking. The actions or
situations are often temporary, and we expect them to end in the future:
(c) This semester, I am taking three math classes.
• Some common time expressions associated with Present Continuous:
right now this year
at the moment this semester
today this week
at present these days
• Use the Simple Present Tense to talk about events or actions that happen
regularly and repeatedly. Thus, the Simple Present refers to permanent or
habitual situations.
(a) Philippe smokes 20 cigarettes a day.
• Use the Present Continuous to talk about events or actions that are already
going on at the time of speaking or around the time of speaking. Thus, the
Present Continuous refers to temporary situations:
(b) Philippe is smoking a cigarette right now.
(c) Philippe is smoking more cigarettes that usual these days because he is
nervous about his final exams.

Practice Section

Comment on the use. Translate into Russian.

1. Does he wear a hat in winter? — Yes, he does.

2. What is she wearing today? — She’s wearing a pink dress.
3. Do you often watch television? — Yes, I often do.
4. What are you watching now? — I’m watching a thriller.
5. Do you often eat lobster? — No, I don’t. It’s too expensive.
6. What are they eating? — They’re eating sandwiches.
7. How often does she play the piano? — She plays the piano every day.
8. What is she playing now? — She is playing Mozart.
9. What do you see? — I see a car coming.
10. What are you looking at? — I’m looking at my watch.
11. Did you hear what he said? — No, I didn’t. I don’t hear very well.
12. Hey! You there! — There’s no need to shout, I’m listening.
13. Do you like squash? — Yes, I do. It’s a very interesting game.
14. Why don’t you go to football matches? — Because I dislike crowds.
15. What do you think of his suggestion? —1 think it’s stupid.
16. What did he say? —I don’t remember.
17. How about going for a swim? —1 can’t. I’m working for my exam.
18. Is he very busy these days? — Yes, he is. He’s writing an article about
19. How does your grandmother spend the time? — She’s knitting a pullover
for me.
20. Did he ask a question? — Of course he did. He’s always asking


Exercise 1. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple or the Present
1. Our cat (not eat) fish.
2. Practice (make) perfection.
3. Why (you - wear) gloves?
4. (You - like) jazz?
5. She (go) on a cruise every year.
6. I (think) I (understand).
7. How (you - like) your new job?
8. What (you - do)? - I (try) to open this box.
9. He (speak) English well.
10. A man’s heart (beat) 92,160 times a day.
11. What (you - listen) to? - I (listen) to the news.
12. It (take) two to make marriage a success and only one to make it a failure.
13. I can’t see her. Where (she - sit)? — She (sit) next to
her mother.
14. Everybody (have) a right to be stupid, but some people (abuse) the
15. He (be) in excellent physical shape. He (do) 100 push-ups every morning.

Exercise 2. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple or the Present
1. Why (you - drink) tea? - I (always - drink) tea in the morning.
2. Who (he - talk) to? — He (talk) to his French teacher.
3. On the Continent people (have) good food, in England people (have) good
4. What (not destroy) me, (make) me stronger.
5. What (you - do) these days? — I (redecorate) my house.
6. Normally I (go) to bed at around 11.30 every night.
7. I (go) to bed now. Goodnight.
8. The river Thames (flow) through London.
9. There is something wrong with Lynne’s car at the moment so she (go) to
work by bus this week.
10. He usually (speak) so quickly that I (not understand) him.
11. Ann (make) a dress for herself at the moment. She (make) all her own
12. You always (write) with your left hand?
13. Why you (put) on your coat? — I (go) for a walk. You (come) with me?
14. You (dream) at night? — Yes, I always (dream) and if I (eat) too much
supper I (have) nightmares.
15. The milk (smell) sour. You (keep) milk a long time?
16. These workmen are never satisfied; they always (complain).
17. We (use) this room today because the window in the other room is
18. You (know) why an apple (fall) down and not up?
19. I (wear) my sunglasses today because the sun is very strong.
20. This car (make) a very strange noise.- You (think) it is all right? — Oh,
that noise (not matter). It always (make) a noise like that.

Communicative Activities

Activity 1. The purpose of this activity is to prove or disprove the following

statements about your classmates. Survey your classmates
by asking questions to see if the following statements are
true or false.

1. Most people in this class do not eat breakfast.
2. Women drink more coffee than men.
3. Three people come to school by bike.
4. The people in this room sleep an average of seven hours a night.
5. 50 percent of the people here watch TV every night.
6. At last half of the people in this room smoke.
7. At least three people wear contact lenses.
8. The people in this room have an average of three brothers and sisters.
9. Most people in this room do not like opera.
10. At least half of the people here read a newspaper in English every day.

Activity 2. Complete the following with information that is true about

yourself. Write complete sentences.



1. Memorize these four sentences about yourself.

2. Walk around the room. When your teacher tells you to stop, find the nearest
person. Tell her or him your four sentences. When she or he tells you her
or his sentences, memorize them.
3. Walk around the room. When your teacher tells you to stop, find a different
person. Tell him or her about the habits of the last person you spoke to.
Do not talk about your own. Memorize what he or she tells you.
4. Find someone different. Tell him or her the information the last person
told you. Memorize what he or she tells you.
5. Now find someone new. Continue the process for as long as possible.
Remember, you always pass along the information the last person
tells you. Try to speak to as many different people as possible.
6. At the end, tell the rest of the class the information you heard from the last
Is all the information true?

Activity 3. Write a letter to a friend or family member describing what
usually happens in your English classes or what you usually
do on weekends here.
Activity 4. Work with a partner or a small group and develop a short story
including a sequence of actions and emotions. Act out your story
without using words. Your classmates must try to guess what is
happening in your story by providing a commentary of everything
your group does, as they watch it happen.
Activity 5. In this activity, you will be creating a chain story about your
teacher’s next vacation. Your teacher will start by telling
you where he or she is going for his or her next vacation
and one thing he or she is going to do:
Teacher: I’m going to Hawaii for my vacation, and I am going to climb a
The next person repeats the first part and adds another statement about
the teacher’s vacation until everyone in the room has added to the

Student 1: (Teacher’s name) is going to Hawaii; he or she is going to climb a

mountain and he or she is going to swim in the ocean too.


• To talk about the Future, you can use be going to and
(a) It will rain some time next week.
(b) It is going to rain in a few minutes.
• Both be going and will are used to make predictions. However, you use
be going to for actions or events that you believe will occur very soon:
(a) We’re going to leave. (very soon)
(b) We’ll leave some time next week.
• Will is more formal than be going to; therefore, the choice of be going to
over will also depends on the situation and the relationship between the
(c) Mother to child: Daddy is going to be angry about this.
(d) School principal to student: Your father will be angry about this.
• Be going to also talks about future plans and intentions:

(a) We are going to spend the month of August in Italy. We bought the tickets
last week, and we are going to leave on August 3.
• Be going to is preferred to will here because it refers to plans that have
already been made.
• Will is also used to show willingness to do something, often at the moment
that the speaker decides to do it:
(a) A: I think there’s someone at the front door.
B: I’ll go and check.
Will is preferred to be going to here because it shows that the speaker has
just decided to do something or is willing to do something right away. The
contracted ‘ll form is usually used in this case.
• Will is also used to make promises:
(b) I will always love you.
(c) I’ll give you my homework tomorrow, I promise!

Practice Section

Comment on the use.

Translate into Russian.
1. When will you get a rise? — I shall get a rise next year.
2. When will you be in Boston? — We shall be in Boston on the 4-th July.
3. This box is very heavy. - I’ll carry it for you.
4. I’ve forgotten my bag. - I’ll get it for you.
5. Please, post these letters for me. - All right, I’ll do it, but don’t ask me
6. Do you think you’ll be able to come? — Of course, I will be there.
7. I think John will help you. - No, he won’t.
8. She’s left. - Shall I ever see her again?
9. Let’s go for a walk. - Shall we be back in time?
10. When will you write it? — I’ll write it as soon as I have time.
11. When will you visit her? — I’ll visit her the moment I arrive in London.
12. Why do you need the typewriter? — Because I’m going to type a letter.
13. Why does he want a spade? — Because he’s going to dig the garden.
14. Is he very ill? — Yes, I’m afraid he’s going to die.
15. Are they dissatisfied? — Yes, there’s going to be a strike soon.
16. At 12.30 tomorrow I’ll be having lunch as usual.


Exercise 1. Put the verbs in brackets into the most suitable tense with a
future meaning.
1. You bought a Spanish grammar! (You learn) Spanish?
2. I wonder if the plane (take off) in time.
3. Do you think it (rain)?
4. (You give) me a hand tomorrow?
5. Don’t drop that cup! It (break).
6. What (you do) at this time tomorrow?
7. If we don’t telephone, she (worry).
8. She (be) seventeen on Saturday.
9. I have heard you (buy) a new car.
10. I (see ever) you again?
11. (You close) the window, please?
12. It’s no use insisting, I (not do) it.
13. I (do) it! I promise!
14. They (warn) the police by this time.
15. Next year I (work) in this firm for 30 years.

Exercise 2. Put the verbs in brackets into the most suitable tense with a
future meaning.
1. By the end of this month he (be) in prison for 2 years.
2. Are you ready? The concert (start) any minute.
3. I (lend) you that book whenever you want it.
4. By the end of next year they (pay off) all their debts.
5. By this time next month I (lie) on a sunny beach in Spain.
6. We (be) back by noon.
7. Talk to him, please. - All right, I (talk) to him.
8. Excuse me, sir, when (you have) lunch?
9. By the end of the year they (live) in that house for ten years.
10. I (not say) anything unless he forces me to.
11. At 3.15 tomorrow I (play) football.
12. I (buy) her a present as soon as I arrive.
13. She (write) the script by the end of the month.
14. By 6 o’clock he (practice) for ten hours.
15. In five minutes’ time I (wait) for her for an hour. Fancy that!


• When we talk about actions or events that started and finished in the
past, we use the Past Simple:
(a) Ramon left the party at 9:00 last night.
• When we talk about an action that was in progress at a specific time in
the past, we use the Past Continuous:
(b) Ramon was leaving the party at 9:00 last night.
• We often use the Past Continuous with the Past Simple to describe two
actions in the past:
(c) Ramon was leaving the party when I arrived.
• The Past Continuous refers to an action that was in progress when some-
thing else happened. It started before this time and possibly continued after
• While, when, and as soon as are time adverbials. While is associated with
an action in progress. It means “during that time”:
(a) While I was reading the newspaper, Donald called.
• When is associated with a completed action. It means “at that time”:
(b) When Donald called, I was reading the newspaper.
However, when and while are often used in the same way. When is more
common, and we often use it in place of while, especially in informal
• As soon as is also associated with a completed action. It means
“immediately after”:
(c) As soon as we heard the good news, we started to celebrate.
• Time clauses answer the question “When?” by giving information about
the time an action or event happened. They contain a subject and a verb
and are introduced by time terms like when, while, and as soon as:
(a) While Renata was crossing the street, she ran into her ex-
(b) We left as soon as we got your phone call.
(c) When Phyllis arrived home, everyone rushed out to greet her.
• A time clause is a dependent clause; this means that it is not complete by
itself. For example, in order to fully understand, When Phyllis arrived
home, we need more information. A time clause therefore depends on the
rest of the sentence (the independent or main clause) to complete its
Dependent Time Clause Main (Independent) Clause

(d) When Phyllis arrived home, everybody rushed out to greet her.
• A time clause can come at the beginning of a sentence:
(e) While my father was cooking the dinner, our guests arrived.
• A time clause can also come at the end:
(f) Our guests arrived while my father was cooking the dinner.
• If the time clause comes at the beginning of the sentence, use a comma
between the time clause and the main clause:
When ______________, _______________ .
(time clause) (comma) (main clause)
While ______________, _______________ .
(time clause) (comma) (main clause)
As soon as ______________, _______________ .
(time clause) (comma) (main clause)
• If the main clause comes at the beginning of the sentence and the time
clause last, do not use a comma between the two clauses:
____________ when ___________ .
(main clause) (time clause)
____________ while ___________ .
(main clause) (time clause)
____________ as soon as ___________ .
(main clause) (time clause)

Practice Section

Comment on the use. Translate into Russian.

1. When did you get his answer? — I got his answer yesterday.
2. Were you working at 6 a.m. yesterday? — No, I wasn’t. I was still
3. Why was she worried? — Because the baby was crying all the time.
4. When did they have breakfast? — They had breakfast at 8 o’clock.
5. Were they still having breakfast at 8 o’clock? — Yes, they were.
6. Did you make a phone call at 2 p.m? — Yes, I did.
7. Was she still talking on the phone at 2 p.m.? - Yes, she was.
8. When did she have dinner? — She had dinner when her husband got home.
9. What was she doing when her husband got home? — She was having dinner.
10. What did you do when the bell rang? — I opened the door.
11. What were you doing when the bell rang? —I was having breakfast.
12. What were you doing while she was reading? — I was writing a letter.
13. What were they doing at 10 p.m.? — They were watching television.
14. What was he doing while she was playing the piano? - He was reading a book.


Exercise 1. A) Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple.

B) Make questions and answer.
C) Make negative.
1. He (paint) the bathroom last year.
2. I (see) his sister yesterday.
3. Mary (be) very ill last week.
4. Peter (know) the answer.
5. Kathie (break) her arm last Wednesday.
6. They (stop) to have a rest.
7. They (be) at home yesterday night.
8. He (lie) down after lunch.
9. You (study) very hard at school last year.
10. We (leave) the restaurant without paying the bill.

Exercise 2. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple or the Past
1. Yesterday the sun (shine) when I (cycle) to school.
2. When I (come) home it (get) dark.
3. (He carry) a briefcase when you (see) him?
4. Tom (still read) when the phone (ring).
5. When I (look) for my needle-work the lights (go) out.
6. I (not know) he (prefer) tea to coffee.
7. He (practise) the violin, so he (not hear) me come in.
8. We (have) dinner when John (arrive).
9. Mary (know) that her husband (love) fishing.
10. She (still live) at the seaside when her parents (die).
11. Lucy (dance), but when she (see) me she (stop).
12. The phone (ring) just as I (dress).
13. As a child I (always go) to the seaside in July.
14. The bridge (wear) a white dress (carry) a bouquet of lilies.
15. I (see) the teacher while I (go) to school.
16. The bridegroom (tremble) and (look) pale.
17. The First World War (begin) in 1914.
18. (It - still - rain) when you (come) in?
19. Where (you - buy) this) book? - I (buy) it in London.
20. She (be) so angry that she (not say) a word all day.

21. She (fall) and (break) her leg while skating.
22. I (wake) at seven, (get) out of bed, (wash), (shave), (dress), (go) downstairs,
(put) my overcoat on, (hurry) to the bus stop and (catch) the bus to the
23. The sun (just - set) when we (reach) home.
24. He (walk) into the bar and (order) a gin and tonic.
25. Lucy (clean) the windows while Nancy (do) the washing up.

Communicative Activities

Activity 1.
An alibi is a story that proves a person did not commit a crime because
she or he was at a different place at the time of the crime.
A crime was committed around 10:00 p.m. last night. The purpose of this
team game is to create an alibi for your team and to “break” the alibis of the
other teams in the game.
Divide into teams of three or four people. You have five minutes to get
together with your team to create an alibi for what you were all doing together
between 9:00 p.m. and midnight last night. Try to agree on as many details as
possible. For example, what were you doing? Where were you doing it? What
were you wearing?
When everyone is ready, the first team goes out of the room. The rest of
the class are now police detectives, and your job is to question the team one by
one to see if they can keep to the same alibi. Call one person back into the room
and ask questions about what she or he was doing. Keep notes of the answers.
Next, call the second person into the room and ask the same questions. If she
or he gives a different answer to any of the questions, his or her team must drop
out of the game. (The rest of the team can now come back into the room and
become police detectives.) The winning team is the team that keeps to the same
story. Good luck.
Activity 2. Take a large sheet of paper and make a time line for your own
life like the one in Activity 1. Bring your time line to class and
describe the story of your life to your classmates.
Activity 3. In this activity, you will be finding information about your
classmates’ lives by asking about what they were doing at the
times below. In the last box, add a time of your own choice.
Do not write information about yourself; go around the room
and get as much information from as many different people as

possible. Write the information in the boxes on the right. Be
ready to share the most interesting or surprising information
you find with the rest of the class.


at 8:30 p.m. last Saturday

in May 1989

five hours ago

ten years ago today


• The Present Perfect and the Present Perfect Continuous can both
describe actions or situations starting in the past and continuing up to and
including now. In this case, it is necessary to add a time adverbial to show
how long the activity has been in progress:
(a) Jim has worked here for ten years.
(b) Jim has been working here for ten years.
In both sentences, we understand that Jim still works here.
• The following verbs are commonly used with both Present Perfect and
Present Perfect Continuous to describe an unfinished action:
live work teach study
• You can also use the Present Perfect Continuous to emphasize an activity
that started in the past and that continues without interruption to the
(c) We have been working on this for a long time.
• You can express the same meaning with the Present Perfect:
(d) We have worked on this for a long time.
• The Present Perfect Continuous emphasizes the fact that the activity has
continued without stopping.
• The Present Perfect without a time adverbial shows that an activity
finished sometime before now in the past, but we are not sure when:

(e) They have painted their house.
• As you saw, the Present Perfect Continuous without a time adverbial is
often used to talk about an activity that finished very recently before now:
(f) They have been painting their house.
• You can also use the Present Perfect Continuous to talk about a regular
habit or activity that someone started recently and which she or he
continues to do. In this situation, you can add a time adverbial to emphasize
that the action started recently:
(a) They’ve been eating out a lot recently.
(b) He’s been working a lot lately.
(c) I’ve been walking to work recently.
(d) I’ve walked to work.
• In (c), we undestand that “walking to work” is a recent habit. I started to
do this a short time ago and will continue in the future.
• In (d), we understand that I did this at some time in the past, but I do not
do it at the moment. In this situation, you do not usually add a time

Practice Section

Comment on the use.

Translate into Russian.
1. How many letters have you written? - I’ve written three letters.
2. What have you been doing? — I’ve been writing letters.
3. How many whiskies have you drunk? — I’ve drunk four whiskies.
4. What’s the matter with him? — He’s been drinking.
5. Have you read the article about the fire? - Of course I have. I’ve read the
paper from cover to cover.
6. How have you spent the time? — I’ve been reading.
7. Has she accepted your proposal? — No, she hasn’t. I’ve talked to her
three times this month and she still hasn’t said yes.
8. Will they accept his proposal? — I don’t know. They’ve been negotiating
for three hours but they haven’t reached an agreement yet.
9. Have you copied all the letters? - Yes, I have. I copied some of them
yesterday and I’ve just copied the last one.
10. Have you copied all the letters? — Not yet. I’ve been working on it since
9 o’clock and I won’t have finished till 11 o’clock.


Exercise 1. Open the brackets using the Present Perfect or the

Present Perfect Continuous.
1. Why are your hands dirty? — Because I (work) in the garden.
2. His breath smells. He (drink) again.
3. (you drink) anything? - Yes, I... I (drink) two brandies.
4. I (knock) at his door three times today, he can’t be at home.
5. For God’s sake, open the door, I (stand) here for a quarter of an hour.
6. I (try) to phone him five times.
7. I (try) to phone him for the last half hour.
8. My feet are killing me! I (walk) five miles.
9. I (walk) all afternoon.
10. (you - finally - clean) the cars? — No, I...not, although I (work) all day.
11. She (not - feel) too well lately, ... she?
12. What are those people looking at? What (happen)?
13. First there was a lot of laughter, then shouting and now singing. What
14. I (wait) here for an hour? What (you - do)?
15. Someone (eat) my chocolates. There are only six left.
16. Someone (eat) all my chocolates. The box is empty.
17. (You - finish) the newspaper yet? You (read) it for over an hour.
18. (You - decide) where to go? We (think) about it for the past week.
19. I’m afraid Mr Simpson (just leave) the office.
20. How annoying! I (try) to contact him all afternoon.

Exercise 2. Choose the Simple Present Tense or the Single Present

Perfect Tense.
1. He (be) blind ever since he had an accident.
2. How long (she - know) the truth?
3. There (be) 9,000 cells in a square foot of honeycomb.
4. Forgiveness (be) the fragrance a rose (leave) on the boot that (crush) it.
5.The average weight of a man’s brain (be) 3 1/2 lbs, the average weight of a
women’s brain (be) slightly more than 2 lbs.
6. Since when (he-be) the director?
7.You can’t judge a woman by her clothes these days. They (be) not enough evidence.

8. (you - be) scared of spiders?
9. Let him who (desire) peace prepare for war.
10. He (work) quickly,... n’t he? -Yes, he... . He (already - finish) and I (still -
have) to begin.
11.There (be)three kinds of lies; lies, damned lies and statistics.

Communicative Activities

Activity 1.
You have just received a letter from the editor of your University newspaper.
She wants to include information about former students in the next edition of
the paper. Write a letter to the editor, telling her what you have been doing
recently. (Do not feel you have to use present perfect progressive in every
sentence! To make this a natural letter, think about all the other tenses you can
use as well.)

Activity 2.
The purpose of this game is to guess recent activities from their current
Work in teams. Each team should try to think of four different results of recent
results of recent activities. An example of one of these could be

Recent Activity Present Result

You have been exercising and now you are exhausted.

When everyone is ready, each team takes turns to pantomime the results of the
activities they have chosen. For example. Team A has chosen “being exhausted”.
Everybody in Team A gets up and pantomimes being exhausted. The rest of the
class tries to guess what Team A has been doing. The first person to guess
correctly, “You have been exercising and now you are exhausted”, scores a
point for his or her team.

Activity 3.
This is another team game. Each team presents a series of clues, and the rest of
the class try to guess- what situation these clues refer to. For example. Team A
chooses this situation: A woman has been reading a sad love story. The team
tries to think of as many clues as possible that will help the other students guess
the situation. When everyone is ready, team A presents the first clue:

Team A: Her eyes are red.
The other teams make guesses based on this first clue:
Team B: She has been chopping onions.
Team A: No. She feels very sad.
Team C: She’s been crying
Team A: No. She’s very romantic.
Team D: She’s been fighting with her boyfriend.
Team A: No. She was alone while she was doing this.
Team C: She’s been reading a sad love story.
You can choose one of the situations below or you can choose one of your own.
1. She or he has been crying.
2. She or he has been watching old movies.
3. She or he has been coughing a lot.
4. She or he’s been training for the Olympics.
5. She or he has been chopping onions.
6. She or he has been feeling sick.
7. She or he has been losing weight.
The person who guesses the correct situation scores a point for his or her team.

Activity 4.
Describe some things that you have been doing since you entered the University
that you had never done before. Share your experiences with your classmates.
Make a poster depicting everybody’s experiences.

Activity 5.
Listen to a news broadcast. What events have been happening in the world?
What are some important events that have happened in the last five years?


• To talk about a completed action, experience, or situation at a specific
time in the past, you can use Past Simple to show that you are thinking
about the past, not the present:
(a) Last year, she graduated from high school.
(b) He lived in this house from 1980 to 1988.
• To talk about a completed action, experience, or situation in the past when
you do not refer to when it happened, use Present Perfect:
(c) He has been to Mexico.

(d) They have run a marathon.
• Here we show that something happened in the past, but we do not show
when it happened. We show only that it happened at some time before
now; we are thinking about the past in relation to the present:
(e) I drank champagne last night. (Past Simple because I want to show
when it happened)
(f) I have drunk champagne. (Present Perfect because I want to
show that the experience is more
important than when I did it)
• We often use the Present Perfect to introduce the general used and then
continue with the Past Simple to give specific details about it:
(g) I’ve been to Thailand. I went there about ten years ago and travelled
all over the country. I had a great time, and enjoyed meeting the
friendly Thai people.

Practice Section

Comment on the use.

Translate into Russian.
1. Have you written her a letter? - I certainly have. I wrote her a letter last
2. Have you ever been to New York? -Yes, I have. I’ve been there twice. I
went to New York for the first time in 1980 and I returned in 1982.
3. When did you meet her? - I don’t know. I’ve met her several times.
4. Have you talked to her? — Yes, I’ve talked to her this morning.
5. What did you do this afternoon? - I went for a walk.
6. Have you seen any good films this month? - Yes, I have. I’ve seen
“Secret Agent” and “A Spy in Love”.
7. When did you see them? — I saw “Secret Agent” at the beginning of the
month and “A Spy in Love” two or three days ago.
8. How much longer will you have to work? — I’ve just finished.
9. What a boring film! It’s the most boring film I’ve ever seen.
10. Please dust the furniture. But I’ve just dusted it.
11. When did she dust the furniture? - It was the first thing she did when she
started work.
12. How long have you been here ? — I’ve been here for half a year.
13. How long did he stay in Paris? — He stayed in Paris for two months.
14. How long did you live in the USA? — I lived there from 1989 till 1991.
15. How long have you lived in the USA? - I’ve lived here for a year.
16. How long have you had fever? - I’ve had it since last week.

17. When did you get ill? - I got ill last week. :
18. Tom has lost his passport again. It’s the second time he has lost it.
19. Ann has written ten letters today.


Exercise 1. Turn the following sentences into

a) Present Perfect
b) Simple Past
1. She sweeps out of the room.
2.You spoil everything.
3. I hang up.
4. She feels terribly sick.
5. He soon falls asleep.
6.They take a taxi to their flat.
7. Susan lays the table.
8. He tears up the letter in anger.
9. She teaches up mathematics.
10.They ride horses.

Exercise 2. Put the verbs in brackets into the Simple Past, the
Present Perfect or the Present Perfect Continuous.
1. Mr Johnson (teach) in our school for 25 years now.
2. He (be) in prison since last October.
3. I (never - see) her so angry.
4. I (meet) him only yesterday.
5. They (go) out five minutes ago.
6.Tom (write) letters the whole morning.
7. Mother (lose) her white gloves. (You - see) them anywhere?
8. Who (write) Hamlet?
9. (You - hear) anything of him lately?
10. She (write) me two letters this week.

Exercise 3. Choose the Present Perfect Tense or the Past Simple Tense.
1. (You - ever - have) an accident? — Yes, I (break) my leg two years ago.
2. Is he still unemployed? — Yes, he (be) out of work for several months now.
3. How long (you - stay) in France? — I (stay) there till last January.
4. He (just - return) from abroad.
5. (He - ever - be) late for work?

6. (You - ever - be) up in an airplane?
7. When (you - hear) the news? — Your son (tell) me yesterday.
8. I (finally - finish) my work.
9. She (be) lame since, she (have) an accident three years ago.
10. (You - phone) her yet? - Yes, I ... I (phone) her an hour ago.
11. A terrible thing (happen) to me yesterday. I (not - hear) the
alarmclock, so I (get) up at 8.15 instead of 7.15. I (be) one hour late, so I
(hurry) down, but I (slip) and (fall) down the stairs. I (sprain) my ankle and
(hurt)my head.
12. (You -ever - meet) Brian? - Yes, Sarah (introduce) me to him last week.
13. How (you - spend) the day? - I (go) shopping this morning, (work) in
the garden this afternoon this afternoon and I (just - finish) cooking supper.
14. When exactly (the accident - happen)?
15. (You - see) the newspaper today? - Manchester United (sack) their manager.

Exercise 4. Choose the Present Perfect Tense or the Past Simple Tense.
1. When Tom (come) back from America we (drive) to the airport to meet him.
2. Oh! Look what you (just - do)! You (break) my record.
3. I (not - smoke) any cigarettes yesterday. I (not - smoke) a cigarette for
three weeks now.
4. I (not - see) any good films recently, except for me I (see) about a
month ago.
5. I (fly) over Loch Ness last week. - (You see) the Loch Ness monster?
6. We (miss) the bus. Now we’ll have to walk.
7. How long that horrible monument (be) there? - It (be) there six months.
Lots of people (write) to the Town Council asking them to take it away but so far
nothing (be) done.
8. Hannibal (bring) elephants across the Alps. — Why (he do) that? - He
(want) to use them in battle.
9. This is Mr Minus, who teaches me mathematics, but he (not - have) time
to teach me much. I only (be) in his class for a week.
10. I (not - know) that you (be) here. You (be) here long? — Yes, I (be)
here two months. - (You - be) to the cathedral? - Yes, I (go) there last Sunday.
11. I (not see) your aunt recently. — No. She (not be) out of her house
since she (buy) her colour TV.
12. That house (be) empty for a year. But they just (take) down the “For
Sale” sign, so-I suppose someone (buy) it.
13. You (see) today’s paper? — No, anything interesting (happen)? - Yes,
two convicted murderers (escape) from the prison down the road.
14. Mary (feed) the cat? — Yes she (feed) him before lunch. - What she
(give) him? — She (give) him some fish.
15. How long you (be) out of work? — I’m not out of work now. I just (start)
a new job. - How you (find) the job? - I (answer) an advertisement in the paper.

Communicative Activities

Activity 1.
Work in pairs or groups of three. Complete the following with information
about your partner (s). You will need to decide on appropriate questions to ask
before you start. For example:
How long have you studied English? How long have you lived in this town?
1. ________________ for _________hours.
2. _______________ since __________.
3. ________________ for ____________.
4. _________________ for _________ years.
5. ________________ since ___________.

Activity 2.
Work with a partner. Read the statements below and try to match each
statement to people in your class. Write the name in the column, marked Guesses.
Next, verify your guesses by asking people if your guess is right or wrong.


_________________Has studied English the longest time? __________

_________________Has been married the longest time? __________
Has owned his or her watch the
_________________ongest time? __________
Has known how to drive the longest
_________________time? __________
Has known how to drive the short
_________________time? __________
Has had the shoes she or he is
_________________wearing today the longest time? __________
_________________Has worn glasses the longest time? __________
_________________Has smoked the longest time? __________
_________________Has had the same hairstyle longest time? __________

Activity 3.
Political Power
In this activity, you will be finding out how different countries are governed.
First use the chart to think about your own country or a country you are familiar
with. When you have all had enough time to think, begin sharing your information.
Use the chart to take notes on what your classmates tell you. In the first part of
the chart, check (*) the appropriate box or write in the box marked other. In the
second part of the chart, write notes. Be ready to share this information with the
rest of the class.

Country Type of Leadership

President Monarch1 Prime Other

Great * *

1. king, queen, emperor, etc.

Country How Current Leader Came into Power

Election Succession Coup Other
Great * (Prime * (Queen)
Britain minister)

Activity 4.
In this activity, you will be finding out some of the things that your classmates
have done. Look at the list below. Move around the class and ask questions to
see if you can find anyone who has ever done any of these things.
First you need to find who has had the experience (name); then you need
to get specific details about the experience (when) (where) (how/why). Take
notes below; it is not necessary to write full sentences at this point. In the box
marked ***, you can add a question of your own if you want to.
Be ready to share your findings with the rest of the class. Finally, you will
use-this information to make a written report.


Experience Name When Where How/Why

met a famous
climbed a mountain
seen a shark
felt really
flown in a hot-air

Now use the information you collected to complete this report on you findings.

A few days ago I interviewed some of my classmates about things they

have done before now, and I learned some interesting things about their
past experiences. For example,...

Activity 5.

The purpose of this activity is to confuse your classmates. You will tell the
class about three things you have done in your life. Two of these things are
true, but one is false. Your. classmates will try to guess which one is false.
For example:
I have ridden a bicycle from Grodno to Minsk.
I have travelled by boat up the Nieman.
I have broken my leg twice.

Which statement is false?

In order to decide which one is false, your classmates can ask you questions
about the specific details of each experience. For example, “When did you ride
your bike to Minsk?” “How long did it take?” “Which leg did you break?”
and so on. After they have listened to your answers, the class will vote on which
experience is false.
Take turns talking about your true and false experience until everyone has
taken part.


• When two action or events both happened in the past, the Past Perfect
describes the action or event which happened first; the Past Simple de-
scribes the action or event which happened second:
When I got there, he had eaten all the cookies. = First, he ate the cookies;
then, I got there. (I didn’t see him eat the cookies!)
• The Past Perfect contrasts two actions or events in the past.
She was tired yesterday because she had taken a long bike ride.

Practice Section

Comment on the use. Translate into Russian.

1. How many letters had he translated? - He had translated three
2. What had he been doing? - He’d been translating letters.
3. How much had be drunk by the end of the party? — He’d drunk three
4. Why did he behave the way he did? — Because he had been drinking.
5. Had you read the book before you saw the film? — Yes, I only saw the
film yesterday, but I had read the book a long time before.
6. Why was he tired? — Because he had been running.
7. Did they reach an agreement? — I don’t know. They had already talked
things over four times before.
8. How long had they been negotiating when they made peace? - They’d
been negotiating for three weeks before they made peace.
9. Was it the first time he complained? — Not at all. He had been
complaining for a long time.
10. How often did you phone him? — By ten o’clock I had phoned him three

11. How long had you been waiting when she arrived? — By ten o’clock I
had been waiting for twenty minutes.


Exercise 1. Choose the Past Simple Tense, the Past Perfect

Tense or the Past Perfect Continuous Tense.
1. After I (get) your message I (leave) as soon as I (can).
2. The roads (be) still wet because it (rain) all morning.
3. After I (be) on the road for about half an hour I (see) a warning sign.
4. By the time I (reach) Oxford it (start) raining again and the roads (be) very
slippery. I can tell you I (be - not) very glad to drive in that weather.
5. When I (recover) from the shock I (see) what (really - happen).
6. He (say) he (often - see) something similar.
7. Last night I (have) dinner in a Greek restaurant. It (be) delicious. I (never -
be) to a Greek restaurant before.
8. They (live) in the country for ten years when they (have to) move to London.
9. It (be - not) the first time he (apply) for a job. As a matter of fact he (apply)
for a job for more than a year.
10. She (not - sign) the contract till she (meet) the Managing Director himself.

Exercise 2. Choose the Past Simple Tense, the Past Perfect Tense or the
Past Perfect Continuous Tense.
A. 1. I (arrive) in England in the middle of July. 2. I (be told) that England (be)
shrouded in fog all year round, so I (be) quite surprised to find that it was
merely raining. 3. I (ask) another passenger, an Englishman, about the fog
and he (say) that there (not be) any since the previous February. 4. If I
(want) fog, he said, I (come) at quite the wrong time. 5. However, he (tell)
me that I could buy tinned fog at a shop in Shaftesbury Avenue. 6. He
(admit) that he never (buy) fog there himself but (assure) me that they
(sell) good quality fog and that it (not be) expensive. I suppose he was
B. 1. When the old lady (return) to her flat she (see) at once that burglars
(break) in during her absence, because the front door (be) open and everything
in the flat (be) upside down. 2.The burglars themselves (be) no longer there,
but they probably only just (leave) because a cigarette was still burning on an

ornamental table. 3. Probably they (hear) the lift coming up and (run) down
the fire escape. 4.They (help) themselves to her whisky too but there (be) a
little left, so she (pour) herself out a drink. 5. She (wonder) if they (find) her
jewellery and rather (hope) that they had. 6.The jewellery (be) given her by
her husband, who (die) some years before. 7. Since his death she (not have)
the heart to wear it yet she (not like) to sell it.
C. 1. I (look) out before I (go) to bed and (see) a man standing on the opposite
pavement watching the house. 2.When I (get up) the following morning he
(be) still there, and I (wonder) whether he (stay) there all night or if he (go)
away and (come) back.

Communicative Activities

Activity 1. The purpose of this activity is to compare different events and

achievements at different times in our lives. You will need to get
information from five of your classmates to complete this.
The left-hand column in the chart below shows different ages; your job is
to find three interesting or surprising things your classmates had done
by the time they reached this age. If you don’t want to talk about your
life, feel free to invent things that you had done at those ages. Be ready
to report on your findings.

(Name) | (Name) | (Name) |

By the time, she or
he was 5 years old ...
By the time she or
he was 10 years
By the time she or
he was 15 years
By the time she or
he was 18 years
By the time *
By the tune *
*you choose an age

Now choose the three most surprising pieces of information you found
for each age (for example: The age 15 is very interesting! By the time Victor
and Nina were 15, they had done quite different things. Victor had worked in his
father’s office and had visited ten different countries, and Nina had won several
prizes for swimming ...) Present this information as an oral or written report. Be
sure to announce your purpose in an introductory sentence and to end with a
concluding comment.
If you prefer, you can turn your information into a poster presentation.
Take a large poster-sized sheet of paper or card and use this to make a poster
that communicates the information you found. You can use graphics, pictures,
and diagrams to make your poster interesting and eye-catching. Display your
poster so that your classmates can enjoy it and be ready to answer any questions
they might have about it .

Activity 2 Work in teams. With your team, choose three famous people
who are now dead. Make sure you choose famous people everyone has
heard of. For each person, write three statements about what she/he had
done before they died. Most people should be able to guess the identity of
your person after they hear all three statements.
Team A presents the first statement about their first person. The other
teams have to try to guess the identity of the dead person from the statements.
Each team can ask two yes/no questions after each statement. (The “trick”
is to make your statements difficult, but not impossible!)

Activity 3 The purpose of this activity is to compare and contrast

important historical events in the development of different countries.
Use the chart below to record THREE events that you think were important
in the history of your country (or of a country that you know about). Don’t worry
if you don’t know the exact date. Just mark on the chart more or less when you
think it happened.
1300s 1400s 1500s 1600s 1700s 1800s 1900s
Now go around the class comparing your chart with your classmates’
charts. Add to your chart significant dates from at least three other students.
Where possible, try to get information from students who come from different
countries. Can you add any important events from North American history too?
Use the information on your chart to compare and contrast what had
happened in one country (or countries) when something else happened in another
country. In addition, try to find different events that occurred at the same time at
different countries. Present your. findings as a written or oral report; don’t forget
to include an introduction and a conclusion. If you choose to make a written

report, read the report carefully when you finish writing and check that you have
chosen the most appropriate tenses. If you choose to make an oral report, record
your presentation and afterward listen to yourself, checking specifically on your
use of tenses. If you prefer, you can share your findings as a poster presentation
(see Activity 1).


Practice Section

Comment on the use.

Translate into Russian.
1. I’ve lost my spectacles. — Again? You’re always losing your spectacles.
2. Does your husband do most of the cooking?
3. The next train leaves at two fifteen in the morning.
4. She’s living in a flat at present.
5. We often saw his dog sitting outside his house.
6. I had heard it was a good film so we decided to go and see it.
7. It was getting late. I had been waiting there since two o’clock..
8. He was watching television when the door bell rang.
9. The children are growing up quickly.
10. It was 6 o’clock. The train was nearing London.
11. I’ve been working hard all day.
12. Her daughter was going to do the cooking.
13. I’m sure you will enjoy your visit to the ZOO.
l4. By 1998, he will have worked for twelve years.


Exercise 1. Insert the correct from of either “be used” or

“used” in these sentences.
1. I ___ to go church when I was younger but I don’t now.
2. She ___ to going to bed very late at night.
3. I _______ to driving very fast because I’ve been a fireman for ten years.
4. They _____ to going on holiday with their parents, but I prefer going on
my own.
5. We ____ to go to the swimming pool every day but it’s closed down

6. He ____ to sleep for ten hours every night but now he only sleeps for six.
7. We ___ to ice and snow in our country but in England they aren’t.
8. I __ to go to school with Ben Kingley, the famous actor.
9. We _____ to having electricity and gas in our houses but a hundred years
ago people didn’t have either.
10. She ___ to hard work, she’s a nurse.

Communicative Activities
Activity 1.
If possible, find an old photograph of yourself (as a baby, a child, or one taken
several years ago). If you cannot find a photograph, draw a picture. Stick the
photo or picture to large piece of paper and write several statements about
yourself, showing things you used to do and don’t do now; things you didn’t use
to do and things you still do. Do not write your name on the paper. Your teacher
will display all the pictures and descriptions. Work with a partner and try to guess
the identity of each person. Who has changed the most in the class and who has
changed the least?

Activity 2. Think of a place you know well - the place where you were
born or where you grew up. Write about the ways it has
changed and the ways it has not changed.
Activity 3. The women’s movement has helped change the lives of many
women in different parts of the world. However, some people
argue that things have not really changed and many things
are still the same for most women. Think about women’s lives
and roles in your mother’s generation and the lives of women
today. Report on what has changed and what has stayed the
Activity 4. Create a new identity.
This activity gives you the opportunity to “become” a different person.
Choose a new identity for yourself:
What is this person’s name, age, sex, profession, habits, occupation, personality,
and appearance? How does this new person differ from the “real” you?
Create a full description of this person and introduce the “new” you to the
class, comparing him/her with the person you used to be. If you want to, make a
mask or drawing to represent the “new” you.

EXAMPLE: I want to introduce the new me. I used to be a mother and a
housewife, but now I am a secret agent. I never used
to leave home, but now I often travel to distant and
exotic places. I used to wear practical clothes that I
always bought on sale. Now I usually wear black leather
jumpsuits, dark glasses and big hats, but sometimes I
wear elegant evening dresses and expensive jewelry...
Activity 5. It is job to write a profile of one of your classmates. Interview
someone and find out something that your classmate:
1. never does
2. seldom does
3. sometimes does
4. often does
5. usually does
6. always does
When you have found this information, write a report on your findings,
without using your classmate’s name. Begin with an introduction; for example,
“I am going to tell you some things about one of our classmates”. End your
report with a question: “Can you guess who this is?”
Display your report, along with all the other reports your classmates write.
Can you identify the people described?
Practice Section
Comment on the use of the Passive Voice. Translate into Russian.
1. They were offered a new flat.
2. Two new stores were opened this year.
3. It was being done without his knowledge.
4. The books will be sent to you.
5. He was brought up by an aunt.
6. He was killed with a knife.
7. She was being gazed at.
8. The teacher was laughed at.
9. David is listened to by his children.
10. Your grandmother will be looked after very well.
11. The truth has been concealed from us.
12. The roof is being repaired now.
13. The road had been built before I came here.
14. Coffee will be served in the dining-room.
15. Mr Johnson has been spoken to.


Drill 1. Make sentences passive.

e.g. He buys cars.
* Cars are bought

1. He bought cars.
2. He has bought cars.
3. He will buy cars.
4. He is buying cars.
5. She writes poems.
6. She wrote poems.
7. She has written poems.
8. She will write poems.
9. She is writing poems.
10. They sell books.
11. They sold books.
12.They have sold books.
13. They will sell books.
14. They are selling books.
15. I eat cheese.
16. I ate cheese.
17. I have eaten cheese.
18. I’ll eat cheese.
19. I’m eating cheese.

Drill 2. Make sentences passive.

1. They play tennis.
2. They have put the book there.
3. He will close the office.
4. They are beating the child.
5. He has forgotten the names.
6. They will not open the door.
7. He broke the glass.
8. She writes down the address.
9. He had sold the meat.

10. She teaches languages.
1l. He was building the house.
12. She read the story.

Drill 3. Put the following sentences into the Passive Voice as in the
example. Sometimes only one version is usual. E.g. They say he
is in prison. *It is said he is in prison. *He is said to be in
1. They say she has no money.
2. They say they are very poor.
3. They say he is innocent.
4. They say I have killed her.
5. They say she has been ill.
6. They say he is as cruel as his father.
7. They say she has done it.
8. They say he has gone to France.
9. They think he has friends living there.
10. They know he speaks French like a Frenchman.
11. People acknowledge that it will be very difficult to find out where he is.
12. They now understand that he was in the Paris area last week.
13. They think that he will probably be staying in a house near the Seine.
14. Someone reported that they saw him on the river yesterday afternoon.


Exercise 1. Choose the correct form: active or passive.

1. A valuable painting stole / was stolen. from the Central Art Gallery late
last night.
2. The thieves entered / were entered the gallery through a small
upstairs window.
3. Walt Disney created / was created the cartoon character Mickey Mouse.
4. This problem discussed / was discussed at the last meeting.
5. In 1964 Martin Luther King won / was won the Nobel Peace Prize. In
1968 he assassinated / was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee.
6. The factory produces / is produced millions of cars every year and most
of them export / are exported.
7. Teachers have given / have been given a new pay rise by the government.
The news announced / was announced earlier today.

Exercise 2. Make correct sentences in the Passive

1. to do / all the work / yet?

2. last year/to build/a new road.
3. to send / it / to the wrong address? (past perfect)
4. must/the text / to adapt.
5. never / since / to hear / she / of.
6. just/the murderer/to catch.
7. in four years’ time / again / to hold / the Olympic Games.
8. that problem / should/to deal with.
9. the tree / at this moment / to cut down.
10.an interesting job / to offer /John /just?
11. I the broken clock / to mend / now?
12. to take care of/the new car / must.
13. yesterday evening / to fol1ow / we.
14. next week / to replay / the match.
15. this food / to poison / (prosperity).
16. by the end of next month / your money / to pay back.
17. the body / to sponge / must / with lukewarm water.
18. not / the play / to begin / yet.
19. now / to change / the positions.
20. should / constricting clothing / to remove.

Exercise 3. Put these sentences in order.

1. the dress / had / she/ three years ago / made.
2. made / herself / the birthday cake / she.
3. I’m / a dress / for the party/ having / make.
4. having / my photograph/I/taken / hate.
5. John / tested / to the optician / went / his eyes / to get.
6. Susan / did / her car / repaired / get?
7. While / on holiday / he / stolen / was /all his money had / he .
8. have / newspapers / every morning / delivered / They / their.
9. did / your hair / Where /cut / you / have?
10. I / had / the tree / to get / really / cut down?

Exercise 4. Complete the sentences.

A. Use the Present Simple Passive of the verbs in brackets.

1. Football____(play) all over the world.

2. Millions of cars ___ (export) from Japan every month.
3. A compass____(use) for showing direction.
4. How many languages ____ (speak) in Switzerland?
5. Bread___(make) from wheat.
6. President John F. Kennedy ____ (assassinate) m Dallas in 1963.
7. The Tower of London ______ (build) at the beginning of the eleventh
8. The 1986 World Cup for soccer ___ (play) in Mexico.
9. When___(television/invent)?
10. The first pyramids of Egypt ___ (build) around 3 000 BC.

B. Use the Past Continuous Passive or the Past Perfect Passive of the verbs.

1. I couldn’t wear my suit last Saturday. It ____ (clean).

2. When I got back to the car park, my car wasn’t there. It ___ (steal).
3. We couldn’t use the photocopier yesterday morning. It__(repair).
4. By the time I arrived at the concert hall, there were no tickets left. They
5. We didn’t go to the party on Saturday, because we ______ (not /invite).

Exercise 5. Put the following sentences in the Passive Voice.

1. Venezuela exports oil.

2. They will laugh at me.
3. Mum is reading to Mary.
4. Dad had told me where to find a parking place.
5. They are going to book the tickets for us.
6. You must mix the powder with water.
7. We saw Sheila coming out of the shop.
8. The butler was showing me into the lounge when the telephone rang.
9. The judge may have sentenced him to death.
10. We shall look after the children.
11. They think she’s gone to live in New York.
12. They asked him a lot of questions about his life in the States.
13. People believe he’ll become the new president.

14. They’re following us.
15 .We know they got there last week.
16. They don’t allow smoking in cinemas.
17. They are demolishing the old school.
18. We can’t do anything without the permission of the authorities.
19.We considered him to be a good husband.
20.The President should have appointed the Prime Minister.

Exercise 6. A) Make appropriate questions for these answers

B) Add tag questions to these sentence
1. Ted’s letters are never answered.
2. At the station we will be met by Mr Gregg.
3. We weren’t told anything about the party.
4. The lesson was interrupted by some noise outside.
5. Mr Christie wasn’t served cereal for breakfast.
6. The athlete is being cheered by his fans.
7. Oliver was frightened at the sight of the big dog.
8. The announcement will be made in few minutes.
9. The Browns weren’t invited to the party.
10. Leslie hasn’t taken his final examination yet.
11. The match has been cancelled because of the rain.
12. Charles’ views on married life are always laughted at.

Exercise 7. Change the following sentences into the Passive Voice using
the underlined words as the grammatical subject. Use a by-
phrase where indicated.

1. Mary used this typewriter only a few times (by).

2. They will give us an answer tomorrow.
3. The secretary always brings Mr.Palmer a cup of coffee (by).
4. She has sent you a telegram.
5. John is repairing the tape-recorder (by).
6. We won’t give him a watch as a present (by).
7. Somebody always calls for her after class (by).
8. They have continued the work today.

9. Will he paint the house in the summer?
10.They didn’t offer him any job.
11. They hadn’t opened the museum by August.
12. We are expecting him any minute.
13.These people will take care of everything (by).
14 They named the boy David after his grandfather.
15. They were building a house near the river.
16. Everyone considered her clever (by).
17. We had finished the work by noon.
18. When Frank 1eft, they were still showing the film.

Exercise 8. Change the following sentences into the passive wherever

the change is permissible.
1. Has anybody sent for Dr. Smith?
2. She likes her hair long.
3. Walter didn’t give us any explanation of his strange conduct.
4. They gave us no choice.
5. Nobody promised me anything.
6. Ray always expresses himself clearly.
7. Dr. Ross is performing an operation.
8. Many people attended the concert.
9. Miss Robinson dictated the words to us.
10. The nurse told her nothing.
11. Anne has her father’s eyes.
12. The doctor visited her for a few minutes.
13. Jane wiped her eyes.
14. Nobody commented on the statement.
15. He became a pilot.
16. Everybody disapproved of her conduct.
17. I want a sweater - size 14.
18. Nobody tells us anything.
19. Margaret never loses courage.

Exercise 9. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English.

1. Нам ничего не говорили.
2. Поведение Тома не одобряли все.

3. Посмотрите! Как быстро строят этот дом.
4. Во время войны все документы были утеряны.
5. Джона оштрафовали за то, что он перешел здесь улицу.
6. Работа была закончена к вечеру.
7. Не беспокойтесь, над вами не будут смеяться.
8. За доктором уже послали.
9. Письмо еще не отправили.
10. Обо всем позаботилась мисс Пальмир.
11. Питеру еще не объяснили.
12. Эту книгу обещала мне Маргарет.
13. В детстве Билла не обучали музыке.
14. День ему дала миссис Хиггинс.
15. Этим учебником пользуются все студенты.
16. Выставку уже открыли?
17. Мебель купили до того, как она приехала из Франции.
18. Что вам подарили на день рождения?

Exercise 10. Rewrite these short passages using the passive form whenever
e.g. After discovering a hideout for terrorists yesterday the police carried
out a raid and arrested five of them. The police said they expected to arrest
several more terrorists in the next few days. * After a hideout for terrorists
had been discovered yesterday a raid was carried out by the police and
five terrorists were arrested. The police said several more terrorists were
expected to be arrested in the next few days.
1. Columbus discovered America in 1492. Later the Europeans explored and
colonised the new continent. The colonial powers eventually destroyed the native
civilisations and transformed America into an outpost of European civilisation: in
fact, nowadays, people use English, Spanish, Portuguese and French as official
2. The river Douglas overflowed its banks yesterday and caused serious flooding
in the small village of Redbury. Our reporter went there last night to find out
how much damage the village had suffered. One of the people our reporter
interviewed reckoned the flood had killed no more than two people but injured
more than fifty. He also said the flood had caused considerable damage to
property and that many people will have to build themselves new houses.

Communicative Activities

Activity 1. Speak in the following situations. Use the Passive Voice. The
expressions in brackets may provide cues for your speech.
1. You are going to the party.
(to be invited to a party, to be accompanied, to be picked up at 7 o’clock, to be
introduced to, to be offered a cup of coffee, sandwiches, etc., to be asked to
sing, to be invited to dance)
2. Bob is late for classes.
(to be left alone in the house, not to be awakened, to be given a lift by a neighbour,
to be reprimanded by a teacher, not to be given a chance to explain why he is
(was) late, to be interrupted, to be offended, to be laughted at).
3. John fails the examination.
(to be examined by Professor Smith, not to be prepaired well enough, to be
asked difficult questions, not to be given enough time to think them over, to be
asked to come again in a week).

Activity 2. Make a presentation (oral or written) on your country or on a

place that you know well. Describe the resources and products,
any changes over time, and any predictions for the future.
Activity 3.
It has been suggested that young people today do not have enough “general
knowledge” and that they know less about the world than older people, do. The
purpose of this activity is to make a survey of your local community to find out if
this is true. You will be interviewing people of different ages and finding out
about their levels of knowledge on a number of general topics.
The categories of the survey are as follows:
Discoveries Inventions Works of art

First, form specific project groups. One group will survey knowledge of discoveries,
another, knowledge of inventions, and another, knowledge of works of art. In
your group, decide on ten questions on your topic. For example, under the topic
of discoveries, you could include:
Who was Brazil discovered by?
Who was radium discovered by?

Activity 4.
Walk around your neighborhood or city. What is being done to make it
a better place to live in?
Report on your findings to your classmates: While I was walking in the
neighborhood, I noticed that...
In what ways do you think your neighborhood/city will be a better place
in the future?

Activity 5.
In this activity, you will make a chain story about somebody’s bad day - a day
when everything went wrong. One student will start the story and will
continue until she or he uses a get-passive. When she or he uses a get-
passive, the next person will continue.
Student l: Andy had a really bad day. First, he overslept. When he got
dressed, he forgot to put his pants on.
Student 2:He ran out of the house, but he got embarrassed when he realized
he had forgotten his pants.
Student 3: etc., etc.

Activity 6. Have you ever had a really bad day? A day when everything
went wrong, though no fault of your own? Describe the day, using get-
passive where possible.





Drill 1. E.g. “I don”t speak

German”, she said.
* She said she didn’t speak German.
1. “She”11 go tomorrow”, he said.
2. “Johnny can play the guitar”, I said.
3. “He may be at home”, she said.
4. “I have finished my work”, the boy said.
5. “It is not difficult to find”, father said.
6. “They have lived here for ten years”, he said.

7. “It will be a hot day”, my sister said.
8. “I am not going to do it”, he said.
9. “They are not hurry”, I said.

Drill 2. E.g. “There has been a plane crash” (on the radio)
It said on the radio that there had been a plane crash..
1. “The house has eight bedrooms” (in the advertisement)
2. “Liverpool have won the match” (in the newspaper)
3. “The hotel is on the sea-front” (in the brochure)
4. “The police are still looking for the bank robbers” (on television)
5.“The government has not agreed to the pay-increase” (on the

Drill 3. E.g “Why are we having dinner so late? ”, Roger asked.

*Roger asked why we were having dinner so late.

1. “Is Mr Lane busy?”

2. “What has John told you?”
3. “When does the manager receive visitors?”
4. Why has Bob left so early?”
5. “Who took the magazine yesterday?”
6. “Have you repaired the car?”
7. “Who is playing the piano?”
8. “How well do you know George?”

Drill 4. E.g. “Don “t disturb me”. - What did the boss tell his secretary?
* The boss told his secretary not to disturb him.
1. “Don”t make noise”. - What did the teacher order the class?
2. “Please don”t kill me”. - What did the prisoner beg the soldier?
3. “Don”t leave the house”. - What did the policeman tell the suspect?
4. “Please don”t tell my father”. - What did the boy beg his teacher?
5. “Don”t buy the red car”. - What did the salesman advise him?
6. “Don”t wear your best trousers in the garden”. - What did Mr Williams tell Jaimie?
7. “Please don”t keep ordering me about”. - What did Jamie ask his father?

Drill 5. “What did they say?”
1. She said “I’m tired”.
2. He said “We”ve only just started talking!”
3. She said “It’s getting late”.
4. He said “It’s still early”.
5. She said “I’ve got to get up early in the morning”.
6. He said “Tomorrow is another day”.
7. She said “Tomorrow is another very busy day”.
8. He said “You”ll feel much better after another drink”.
9. She said “I”ll just have one more before I go”.
10. He said “What are you going to have?”
11. She said “What is there?”
12. He said “Which do you prefer - white wine, red wine or beer?”
13. She said “What else is there?”
14. He said “How do you feel about a small whisky?”
15. She said “Can you just get me some water?”
16. He said “Can I get you a gin and tonic?”
17. She said “Do you know where my coat is?”
18. He said “Do you really want to go?”
19. She said “Are you as stupid as you look?”
20. He said “Have 1 said something to annoy you?”
21. She said “How can you possibly think that?”
22. He said “0h, do stay”.
23. She said “Go and jump in the river”.


Exercise 1. Put into direct speech.

1. The Prime Minister said that education was very
2. The police said they did not know all the answers.
3. Steve said that he was living in Oxford.
4. Jenny said that she had been to Mexico.
5. The old lady said she wasn’t feeling very well.
6. Steve said he had done Biology at university.
7. The man said that the boy had never stolen anything before.

8. Zed said that one of the passengers had complained.
9. Anita asked why the English were so bad at foreign languages.
10. The teacher asked if anyone had read the book.
11. Jenny asked when the scholarship started.
12. Tom asked what had happened at the meeting.
13. Fred asked Liz how much money she was spending.
14. Mr Hide asked Jenny if she had enjoyed at art college.

Exercise 2. Look at the direct speech and insert the correct verb in the
report speech. Use the verbs “admit, warn, explain, think,
ask, advise” (introductory verbs).
1. “If I were you, I wouldn”t swim in that river”.
— She ____ me not to swim in me river.
2. “Would you mind getting me a bottle of milk from the supermarket?”
— He ____ me to get him a bottle of milk from the supermarket.
3. “Yes, you are right. I stole the car”.
— He _____ that he had stolen the car.
4. “You should take an umbrella with you. It”s going to rain”.
— She ____ me that it was going to rain.
5. “I’m sorry I’m late, but I had a puncture on my way here”.
— He ____ that he was late because he had had a puncture.
6. “They may arrive at two o”clock, but I’m not sure”.
— She ______they were arriving at two o’clock.
Exercise 3. Write the direct speech for these sentences. What did they say?
1. The man later admitted that he had robbed the bank, but he claimed that he
had not hit the policeman who arrested him.
2. I warned him not to cross the river there because the water was too deep.
3. She explained to him that he would have to come back the next day
because the manager was too busy to see him.
4. They asked me to buy them some cakes while I was in town.
5. She advised them not to visit London the following Christmas because there
would be too many tourists.
6. I thought he would get to Edinburgh at about three o’clock.
7. She told him to get off at the bus stop nearest the station.
8. He said that he hadn’t been able to come to the match the previous
Saturday, as he had too much homework to do.

Exercise 4. Read the dialogue conversation in
reported speech.
Mary met her friend Susan in the street.
Mary: Did you see Tom yesterday?
Susan: Yes, he’s leaving for Madrid tomorrow.
Mary: Oh, really! Is he going there on holiday?
Susan: No. He’s got to work there.
Mary: I thought he worked in a bank.
Susan: He does, but they want him to see somebody in
Mary: Luck him! When will he be back?
Susan: On Saturday morning.
Mary: Good. I’m having a party next Saturday. Can you and Tom come?
Susan: That sounds nice. Yes, I can certainly come. Tom will come too, I
think... if his plane is on time!

Exercise 5. Read the passage. Imagine the conversation Susan had with
Tom. Write it down.
Susan spoke to Tom on the phone. She asked him what he had been doing that
day. He said he’d got up at about eight and had worked until seven in the evening
except for a half an hour’s break for a sandwich. He said he liked Madrid but it
was difficult for him to go around on his own because he couldn’t speak Spanish.
He said people had been very helpful however and took him wherever he wanted
to go. He thought he’d start going to evening classes the following winter. He
also said that he wasn’t sure he’d be back in time for the start of Mary’s party
but would get there as soon as he could.

Exercise 6. Read the dialogue. Write the conversation in

reported speech.
Jane was sitting outside a cafe when a police officer approached her. This is
the conversation they had.
Policeman: Hello. I’m a police officer. Can I ask you a few questions, please?
Jane: Yes, all right. What do you want to know?
Policeman: Just some personal details first. Your name, please?
Jane: Jane Simmonds.
Policeman: And your address Miss Simmonds?

Jane: 34, Granville Avenue.
Policeman: Were you here yesterday at about eight o’clock Miss Simmonds?
Jane: Yes, I was. Why do you want to know that?
Policeman: Did you notice a man in his late twenties?
Jane: Not that I remember, no.
Policeman: Perhaps you saw a little girl playing with a toy car?
Jane: Yes, that’s right I remember now. The car fell in the river over
Policeman: What happened then?
Jane: The little girl started crying.
Policeman: What did the man do?
Jane: He shouted at the little girl and told her to be quiet.
Policeman: What happened after that?
Jane: The little girl ran away.
Policeman: Which way did she go?
Jane: Towards the river. Why? Is anything wrong?
Policeman: Yes, the little girl hasn’t been seen then. Now is there anything else
which might help us?
Jane wrote and told her friend what had happened. She began like this: “I was
sitting outside the cafe when a policeman came up to me and asked me...”
Continue the description of what happened.

Communicative Activities

Activity 1.
In teams, imagine that you are members of a group of “world citizens” who
have been asked by a panel of international policy-makers to think about
ways to solve one of the world’s problems.
First, you will need to choose a world problem and discuss some of the
steps that must be taken in order to begin solving this problem. Then you will
need to make formal suggestions to the panel. Use the following sentence
beginnings to guide you in making your report:
We recommend that...
We suggest that...
We propose that...

Activity 2.
In order to support your choices in Activity 1, you will need to make
predictions about what might happen if your plan is not implemented/listen
to. Use adjectives from the following list to make. Predictions about what
could happen. (It is certain that ... = strong predictions; It is unlikely that... =
weak prediction.)
likely unlikely
possible certain
p r o b a b l e

Activity 3.
To follow up your work in previous activities, write a short report that summarizes
what you learned about one of the world’s problems. In this report: 1)describe the
problem; 2) report the results of the syrvey; 3) give your group’s recommendations,
and 4) predict the outcome if these recommendations are not followed.



1. Form
The verb in the if-clause is in the present tense and the verb in the main
clause is in the future simple:
e.g. If I see Tom tomorrow, I’II give him your message.
2. Use
We use type 1 conditional sentences when we think the action or
situation in the if clause is possible or probable.
Type 1 conditionals often refer to the future (If I see him tomorrow...) but can
refer to the present.
e.g. If you feel cold (now), I’ll shut the window.
3. Variations of the basic form
a) In the if-clause, instead of the present simple, we can use the
present continuous:
e.g. If you’re looking for Tom, you’ll find him upstairs.
Or the present perfect:

e.g. If you’ve finished your homework, we’ll watch TV.
b) In the main clause, instead of “will”, we can use “may/can” for
permission, “may/might/could” for possibility, “can/could” for ability, etc.
e.g. If you eat all your dinner, you can have a chocolate.
If it’s foggy tonight, the plane may be late.
c) We can also use two present simple tenses to express automatic or
habitual results:
e.g. If you press this button, the light goes on (automatic result).
If you argue with him, he gets angry (habitual result).

Practice Section

Comment on the form and meaning of the verbs in the following complex sentences.
1.We will go to the art gallery, if it is open today.
2.If the weather is good, they can go sightseeing.
3.If you want to drive a car, you must have a driver’s license.
4.Mary won’t be slim, unless she stops eating so much.
5.He usually watches TV in the evening, unless he has to work.
6.If you’re tired, sit down.
7. If you need the money, I’ll lend it to you.
8. If you aren’t too busy, would you help me with this.
9. If we leave at 1.30, we’ll arrive at 2.30.
10. If the ice is thick, we can walk across.
11. We’ll go out later on, if it stops raining.
12. If you want information about the engine, you’d better ask my brother.
13. If she has time, she’ll phone me this evening.
14. If you decide to buy it, could you give me a ring on Sunday night?


Drill 1. Combine each pair of sentences into one. Begin “if”; omit
“perhaps” and “then”.
e.g .Perhaps my firm will move to London. Then I’ll have to find a new
place to live.
*If my firm moves to London, I’ll have to find a new place to live.
1. Perhaps I’ll get a house in the suburbs. Then I’ll have a garden. — *If I get …
2. Perhaps I’ll rent a flat in the center. Then I’ll be able to walk to work.
3. Perhaps I’ll be able to walk to work. Then I’ll save money.

4. Perhaps she will have time. Then she will phone me this evening.
5. Perhaps the weather will be line. Then we’ll have a picnic tomorrow.
6. Perhaps you’ll want to watch the TV. Then I’ll switch it on for you.
7. Perhaps I’ll have a big lunch. Then it’ll make me sleepy.

Drill 2. E.g. Malcolm hopes to pass his exams. Then he’ll go to

*If Malcolm passes his exams, he’ll go to university.
e.g. Perhaps he won’t go to university. Then he’ll start work in a bank.
*If he doesn’t go to university, he’ll start work in a bank.
1.Malcolm hopes to pass his exams. Then he’ll go to university.
2.Perhaps he won’t go to university. Then he’ll start work in a bank.
3.He wants to go to university. Then he’ll study history or languages.
4.James wants to become a tennis player. Then he’ll make a lot of money.
5.Perhaps he won’t improve his game. Then he’ll give up tennis.
6.His mother wants to make him study law. Then he’ll be unhappy.
7. Perhaps she won’t say anything. Then they’ll decide themselves.
7.Perhaps they’ll both be successful. Then everyone’ll be happy.

Drill 3. Complete the sentences. What happens if?

e.g. If you don’t get enough sleep ___.
*If you don’t get enough sleep, you always feel tired. ___you get
*If you sit in the hot sun for too long, you get sunburnt.
1. If you stand in the cold for a long time, ___
2. If you run uphill, ___
3. If you drink too much alcohol, ___
4. If you get caught in the rain without an umbrella, ___
5. If you don’t have a job, ___
6. __ , you put on weight.
7. ___ , you lose weight.
8. ___ , you eyes get tired.
9. ___, you get a smoker’s cough.
10.___, you get tooth decay.


Exercises 1. Combine each pair of basic sentences into one complex

sentences with if-clause
e.g. Anne may have free time. She will go to the folk concert then. *If
Anne has free time, she will go to the folk concert.
1. The film may be boring. We’ll go home then.
2. Jane may have to wait for her husband. She will try to solve the crossword
3. John may fly to New York on Saturday. We will postpone the party then.
4. Oscar may book a room in that hotel. He won’t trouble you then.
5. The hotel may be full. We’ll have to go to another hotel then.
6. Mrs Cramer may need money. She’ll go to the bank then.
7. We may not hear from him today. We’ll send him a telegram then.
8. It may stop raining. We’ll go through the part then.
9. Helen may be out. Her mother will take your message then.
10. It may rain. The children won’t go to the park then.
11. Constance may meet some friends tomorrow evening. She won’t come to
our party then.

Exercise 2. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses.

1. If I find your passport I (telephone)
you at once.
2. Someone (steal) your car if you
leave it unlocked.
3. What will happen if my parachute
(not open)?
4. The police (arrest) him if they catch
5. If she (need) a radio she can borrow mine.
6. If you (not go) away I’ll send for the police.
7. If he (be) late we’ll go without him.
8. She will be absolutely furious if she (hear) about this.
9. If you put on the kettle I (make) the tea.
10. If you give my dog a bone he (bury) it at once.
11. If you leave the car here it (not be) in anybody’s way.

12. Unless he (sell) more he won’t get much commision.
13. If I lend you $10 when you (replay) me?
14. Ice (turn) to water if you heat it.
15. Tell him to ring me up if you (see) him.
16. If he (go) on telling lies nobody will believe a word he says.


1. Form
The verb in the if-clause is in the past simple tense and the verb in the main
clause is “would” + infinitive: e.g. If he had a garden, he would grow roses.
Type 2 conditional sentences refer to the present or future. The past tense
in the if-clause doesn’t indicate past time It is an “unreal past” and indicates
unreality or doubt.

2. Use
We use type 2 conditional sentences as follows.
a) When the statement in the if-clause is contrary to known fact. “If he had a
garden,…” means that he doesn’t have a garden. The if-clause here refers to
the present.
b) When the action in the if-clause is improbable. If someone says, “If I won
50,000 pounds, ...” we know that he doesn’t expect to win much. The if-clause
here refers to the future.
c) Sometimes when we are considering possible actions:
e.g. I’ll go by bus. - If you went by train, you’d get
there sooner.

3.The use of “were”

Instead of “if + was”, we can
use “if + were”
e.g. If I was/were rich, I’d build a house.

4. Variations of the basic form

a) In the if-clause, we can use the past continuous
e.g. I’m going by bus. If I were going by car, I “d offer you a lift.
b) In the main clause we can use “might” or “could” to express a possible
result or ability:

e.g. If you wrote to him, he might answer.
c) We can also use two past tenses for automatic or habitual results in the past:
e.g. If anyone tried to break in, the alarm went off.

Practice Section

Comment on the form and meaning of the verbs in the following

complex sentences.
1. If you took this medicine, you would feel a lot better.
2. If I had to go to Manchester, I’d ask Mabel to go with me.
3. If I were you, I would give Mr Chapman a box of cigars.
4. If Monica were in town, she would join you.
5. What would you do if you were the President of the USA?
6. Would you buy a new car if you could afford one?
7. If I won the football pools, I’d take you to Paris.
8. If you agreed. we’d buy a new house.
9. If he studied more, he would succeed.
10. If I lived near my office. I’d be in time for work.
11. If I were you I’d plant some trees round the house.
12. If I dyed my hair blue, everyone would laugh at me.

The following passage tells a story about Gregory’s fantasies. In each

sentence there is a situation that is not real or not likely.
First, tell us what is not true about each sentence and the reason it is not
true. Then, fill in the blanks in each sentence, and be sure to use the
appropriate verb tense.
e.g. Gregory ___ go to the movies every week if he ___ (have) enough
*First step – what is not true about this sentence: Gregory does not go to
the movies every week because he doesn’t have enough money.
*Second step – fill in the blanks: Gregory would go to the movies every
week if he had enough money.
1. If he ___ (be) rich, he ___ never cook at home, and he ___ always go
out to eat.
2. He ___ buy anything he wanted if he ____ (be) rich.
3. If he ____(have) a girlfriend, he ________ also buy her whatever she wanted.

4. If he ________ (buy) his girlfriend whatever she wanted, she ________
want to buy more and more.
5. If she _______ (buy) more and more, she _________ eventually run out
of things to buy.
6.She ________ fall out of love with Sandra if she ________ (run out) of
things to buy.
7.If she ___ (fall) out of love with him, he ______ be miserable.
8. If he _______ (be) miserable, he ________ go to the movies every week to
forget about his troubles.


Drill 1. “Which Service would you call? The Fire Brigade, the
Ambulance or the Police?”
1. An old man falls in the street. He can’t get up. He is seriously hurt. - I
would call ...
2. A lorry drives into a shop window. Nobody is hurt.
3. A little boy has been playing with matches. The whole house is on fire.
4. There has been a robbery in the bank. The robbers are just driving away.
5. There has been an accident outside the school. Two pupils are lying in
the street.
6. The bank is burning. Everybody is running out into the street.
7. You came home late at night. You see somebody smashing a window at
the back of your house.
8. You wake up in the middle of the night. You think you hear somebody in
the house. You are afraid.
9. You come into the house. It is dark. You can smell smoke. The rest of
the family is sleeping.
10. Smoke is coming from the motor of your car. You stop at a garage.
When you come out of the garage your car isn’t there. Perhaps it is stolen!

Drill 2. Your friend can’t decide where to go on holiday. Make some

suggestions about where he/she could go and he/she could do.
(He/she could visit famous buildings; practise languages; eat
national dishes; do/watch certain sports.)
e.g. Spain *If you went to Spain, you could eat paella, lie in the sun, watch
a bull-fight and speak Spanish.
1. London (see Buckingham palace/practise your English).

2. Scotland (visit Edinburgh/see Lock Ness).
3. New York (see the Statue of Liberty/ practise speaking English).
4. Paris (go up the Eiffel Tower/practise French).
5. Kenya (see the animals in the game reserves/go on safari).
6. India (visit the Taj Mahal).
7. Mexico (see Acapulco and practise Spanish).
8. Egypt (visit the pyramids at Gizeh).
9. Switzerland (go skiing/enjoy the good cheese and chocolate).
10. Italy (visit Rome and Florence/ see some beautiful works of art).

Drill 3. What would you do or buy if you won the/allowing amounts of

money in your own currency?
1.10 dollars 4. 10,000 dollars
2. 100 dollars 5. 100,000 dollars
3.1,000 dollars 6.1,000,000 dollars

Drill 4. “What would they be doing if...?”

e.g. Harry is doing his homework (to play football).
* Harry wasn’t doing his homework, he’d be playing football.
1. Mr Smith is teaching (to walk in the mountains).
2. Mr Robbins is having a hard day at the office, (to play golf).
3. Miss Brown is working late (to watch a film on television).
4. Alex is mending his car (to play tennis).
5. Mrs Parker is doing the housework (to lie in the sun).
6. Arthur is practising the piano (to row on the lake with his girlfriend).

Drill 5. “What would you do if... ?”

1. Suppose you left a restaurant with the wrong umbrella ... (to take it
back immediately)
2. Suppose a waiter in a restaurant overcharged you ... (to call him and ask to
check the bill)
3. Suppose you missed the last bus home... (to try to get a taxi)
4. Suppose you missed your station on the train ... (to get off at the next
station and wait)
5. Suppose you got lost in a big city... (to ask the way or to buy a street map)
6. Suppose someone stole your wallet... (to report it to the police)

7. Suppose you lost your passport... (to inform the passport office)
8. Suppose a stranger asked you for a lift at night... (to refuse or to ask him
a lot of questions)
9. Suppose someone offered you a briefcase full of money ... (to tell him to
take it to the police or to take it and say “Thank you!”)
10. Suppose you got stuck in a lift... (to
push the alarm button)


Exercise 1. Combine each pair of basic sentences into one complex as

shown in the example.
e.g. Sam has a cold. He won’t come to class tomorrow. *
If Sam didn’t have a cold, he would come to class
1. Margaret is busy. She won’t be able to visit her friends.
2. Barbara likes sweets too much. She won’t get slim.
3. James feels exhausted. He won’t be able to sit up late.
4. Paul doesn’t feel hungry. He won’t go to the cafeteria.
5. Stan is reading for his examinations. He won’t go boating.
6. Mrs Pierce doesn’t like pop music. She won’t go to the concert.
7. Tom is getting married next month. He won’t go to the mountains.
8. I don’t like horror stories. I won’t buy this book.
9. We want to catch an early train. We won’t watch this program tonight.
10. Mrs Smith feels hurt. She won’t do this for us.

Exercise 2. Report these statements using indirect speech. Make the necessary
changes as shown in the example.
e.g. “I’ll take a nap, if I feel tired”. Aunt Agatha said _____

* Aunt Agatha said that she would take a nap, if she felt tired.
1. “We”ll have a picnic, if it doesn’t rain”. Pamela said ____
2. “If our car breaks down, we”ll miss the train?” Mrs Palmer said ___
3. “I’ll go to the movies, if I don”t have to study”. John told us ____
4. “I’ll visit the Nelsons if they invite me”. Janet said ____
5. “Stephen will be on time; if he takes a taxi”. Magde told them ___

6. “I’ll go to New York, if it doesn”t cost too much”. Sarah said __
7. “I won”t like the film, if it’s a detective story”. Helen told Joe ___
8. “He won”t answer the phone, if he’s busy”. Anne told me____
9. “Harry will lend you his camera, if he doesn”t need it on Saturday”. Bill
told us ___
10. “Barbara won”t be happy, if you don’t come”. Jane told me ___
11. “I’ll miss my bus, if I stay longer”. Sheila said ____
12. “The secretary will call him up, if he doesn”t come to the office”. Mr
Jones told us__

Exercise 3. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses.

1. If he worked more slowly he (not make) so

many mistakes.
2. I shouldn’t drink that wine if I (be) you.
3. More tourists would come to this country if it (have) a better climate.
4. I (buy) shares in that company if I had some money.
5. If you drove your car into the river you (be able) to get out?
6. What you (do) if you found a burglar in your house?
7. If he knew that it was dangerous he (not come).
8. I (be) ruined if I bought her everything she asked for.
9. If you slept under a mosquito net you (not be) bitten so often.
10. I could get a job easily if I (have) a degree.
11. If she (do) her hair differently she might look quite nice.
12. If we had more rain our crops (grow) faster.
13. I (keep) a horse if I could afford it.
14. I’d go and see him more often if he (live) on a bus route.
15. I (offer) to help if I thought I’d be any use.
16. If you (change) your job would it affect your pension?


The verb in the if-clause is in the Past Perfect tense (had + Past
Participle) and the verb in the main clause is “would” + Perfect

Infinitive. e.g. If he had been in his office, I would have seen him.
2. Use
We use type 3 conditional sentences when we refer to the past and to
an action
or situation that did not happen.

3. Variations of the basic form

a) In the if-clause we can use the perfect continuous.
e.g. You were driving too fast. If you had been going more slowly,
you’d have been able to stop.
b) We can put “had” first and omit the “if”. But this is a very formal
e.g. Had the Minister known all the facts, he would, have acted
c) In the main clause we can use “might” or “could”.
e.g. If you’d asked him, he might have helped you (possibility).

Practice Section

Comment on the form and meaning of the verbs

in the following complex sentences.

1. If the weather had been nice yesterday, I would have gone to the beach.
2. If you hadn’t missed your bus, you wouldn’t have been late for school.
3. If I hadn’t helped you, what would you have done?
4. If you had taken the exam, you might have passed it.
5. I could have repaired the car, if I’d had the right tools.
6. If I had known that you were coming I would have met you at the airport.
7. If he had tried to leave the country he would have been stopped at the frontier.
8. If we had found him earlier we could have saved his life.
9. If our documents had been in order we could have left at once.
10. I was wearing a seat belt. If I hadn’t been wearing one I’d have been
seriously injured.
11. Had you obeyed orders this disaster would not have happened.
12. I would have gone out if I hadn’t been so tired.
13. If I had seen you, I would have said hello.
14. If he had been looking where he was going, he wouldn’t have walked into the wall.


Drill 1. You have a friend who is careless with his/her things. Say what
would/wouldn’t have happened if he/she had/hadn’t done the
e.g. He left his suitcase unattended at an airport. It got stolen.
*If he hadn’t left his suitcase unattended, it wouldn’t have got stolen.
1. She forgot to lock the car. Her camera got stolen.
If she hadn’t forgotten to lock the car, the camera wouldn’t have got stolen.
2. He left his wallet in a restaurant. It disappeared.
3. She left her watch lying about. It got broken.
4. He didn’t lock the door of his flat. Thieves broke in.
5. She knocked her glasses off the table. They broke.
6. She didn’t put her name on her suitcase. Someone took it by mistake.
7. He parked his car without lights. Another car ran into it.
8. He didn’t look after his bicycle. It went rusty.
9. She left her parcels on a bus. Someone took them.
10. He didn’t keep his passport in a safe place. It got lost.

Drill 2. E.g. I didn’t have enough money, so 1 didn’t go to Spain last summer.
*If I’d had enough money. I’d have gone to Spain last summer.
1. I didn’t have enough money, so I didn’t go to Spain
last summer.
2. I had my flat done up, so I was hard up.
3. We went to Ireland, so we saw Jill again.
4. She didn’t have a spare room, so we stayed in a hotel.
5. She lent us her car, so we did some sightseeing.
6. The weather wasn’t bad so we enjoyed our stay.
7. We got a cheap ticket, so we came home by boat.
8. The boat arrived late, so we missed the train home.


Exercise 1. Change the following sentences as shown in the example.

e.g. The boy didn’t play tennis because it was windy.

* If it hadn’t windy, the boy would have played tennis.
1. Helen didn’t stay on after dinner because she was tired.
2. Mrs Barton didn’t make an apple pie because Henry didn’t ask her to.
3. The children didn’t watch television because mother didn’t allow them to.
4. The girl was unhappy because her parents were displeased with her.
5. Mr Alien didn’t cash the check because the bank was closed.
6. Ralph introduced his friends to Kate because she didn’t know them.
7. Bob was angry because his friends didn’t agree with him.
8. Mr Lane didn’t work in the garden because the weather was cold.
9. Monica stayed at home because she had a sore throat.
10. Mr Kelly took his umbrella because it was raining.
11. He had difficulty with his English because English was not his mother tongue.
12. He learned French because he wanted to read French poetry in me original.

Exercise 2. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses.

1. If I (know) that you were coming I’d have baked a cake.
2. I (offer) to help him it I had realized that he was ill.
3. If I had realized that the traffic lights were red I (stop).
4. If you had told me that he never paid his debts I (not lend) him the money.
5. If you (put) some mustard in the sandwiches they would have tasted better.
6. The hens (not get) into the house if you had shut the door.
7. If he had known that the river was dangerous he (not try) to swim across it.
8. If you (speak) more slowly he might have understood you.
9. If he had known the whole story he (not be) so angry.
10. If you hadn’t been in such a hurry you (not put) sugar into the sauce instead
of salt.
11. If I had known that you were in hospital I (visit) you.
12. I (take) a taxi if I had realized that it was such a long way.
13. You would have seen my garden at its best if you (be) here last week.
14. If I (have) a map I would have been all right.
15. If I (realize) what a bad driver you were I wouldn’t have come with you.
16. If I (try) again I think that I would have succeeded.
17. You (not get) into trouble if you had obeyed my instructions.
18. You (save) me a lot of trouble if you had told me where you were going.

Exercise 3. Rewrite these sentences using an inverted subject +
e.g. If I had understood Spanish, I would have known what to do.
*Had I understood Spanish, I would have known what to do.
1. I’d have rung if I’d known the plane was late.
2. If father hadn’t heard me come in he wouldn’t have said anything.
3. If I had heard the phone ring I would have answered it.
4. If you went to the States you would speak English.
5. If I were in his position I would do something about the situation.
6. If they hadn’t tried Chinese food they couldn’t have said they didn’t like it.
7. If it weren’t for Tim I’d be in Holland now.
8. If she had spoken to me that night I would have forgiven her.

Exercise 4. Finish these situations that didn’t happen.

1. If Hitler hadn’t invaded Poland in 1939... (World War II/to break out)
2. If Columbus had stayed in Italy ... (to discover/America)
3. If Sir Walter Raleigh hadn’t brought tobacco back to Britain (cigarettes/to
be invented)
4. It wouldn’t have been possible for mass tourism to develop, if ... (the
airplane/to be developed)
5. If nobody had invented the wheel ... (there/to be/cars)
6. If Shakespeare hadn’t been born ... (“Macbeth”/to be written)

Exercise 5. Complete these sentences.

1. If I had been born in England...
2. If I had been a genius ...
3. If I had studied harder when I was younger...
4. If I had been to me States last summer...
5. If my parents had been richer ...
6. If I had got married last year ...
7. If I had started using computers when I was eight years old.. .
8. If I had studied Chinese at school...
9. If you had phoned me yesterday...
10. If Christopher Columbus had not discovered America...


Activity 1. “What if...?”

What if... you had been born in 1600?
you had been born a member of the opposite sex?
you had left university at the end of last term?
you had started to learn English when you were much younger?
you had been born black in South Africa?
you had tried to sail around the world?
In groups choose one of these situations. Talk about what would have
happened. Discuss as many possibilities and probabilities as you can
think of.
Activity 2. Which of the “What if...?” interested you most? Write a
paragraph about your life in that situation. Refer to other students’
comments as well as your own. Build up as complete a picture as


1. We can use “if” + “won”t” + infinitive instead of “if” + “refuse/refuses” +

e.g. If they won’t take cheques, we’ll have to pay cash. (If they refuse to
take cheques, we’ll have to pay cash.)
2. “If” + “would like/care” can replace “if” + “want”.
e.g. If you’d like to go to the concert, I’ll get you a ticket. (If you want to
go to the concert, I’ll get you a ticket.)


1. “Unless” + affirmative verb is similar to “if” + negative verb.

e.g. Unless I hurry, I “II miss my bus. (If I don”t hurry, I’ll miss my bus.)
2. “0therwise” means “if we don”t do this/if he didn’t do this/if I hadn’t done
this” etc.
e.g. He must take the pills. Otherwise he won’t get well.
3. “Provided (that)” means “on condition that” and emphasizes a restriction.
e.g. You can park here, provided you leave before six.

Practice Section

Comment on the form and meaning of the verbs in the

following complex sentences.
1. Unless you start at once you’ll be late.
2. Her father pays her fees; otherwise she wouldn’t be here.
3. I used my calculator; otherwise I’d have taken longer.
4. You can camp here provided you leave no mess.
5. Unless he puts money in the meter, he may get a parking ticket.
6. Unless he pays his telephone bill, they’ll cut him off.
7. Unless you speak French, they won’t employ you.
8. Unless you need help, don’t ask for it.
9. Unless you book at once, you won’t get a seat.
10. I won’t go to the party, unless you go too.


Drill 1. E.g. Ted and Bill will be on time, if Bill eats quickly.
* Ted and Bill would be on time, if Bill ate quickly.
1. Ted and Bill will be on time, if Bill eats quickly.
2. They’ll miss the kick-off unless they hurry.
3. If they arrive late, they won’t get a good seat.
4. Their team won’t win, unless there’s miracle.
5. Ford will never score a goal, unless he runs faster.
6. If they win today, Ted will be happy.
7. The team will improve, if they buy new players.
8. If they get a new manager, he’ll
buy new players.

Drill 2. Perephrase the sentences

using “unless”.
e.g. If we don’t leave now, we’ll
miss the start of the film.
*Unless we leave now, we’ll miss
the start of the film.

1. If you don’t wear you coat, you’ll be cold.
2. We’ll play tennis tomorrow if it doesn’t rain.
3. He won’t receive the letter tomorrow if you don’t post it before 1 o’clock
4. If I don’t get a pay rise at work, I’ll start looking for another job.
5. I won’t lend you the car if you don’t promise to drive carefully.
6. Your cough won’t get better if you don’t stop smoking.


Exercise 1. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses.

1. Unless they turn that radio off I (go) mad.
2. I’ll probably get lost unless he (come) with me.
3. Unless they leave a lamp beside that hole in the road somebody (fall) into it.
4. You (not be) any use to me unless you learn to type.


Practice Section

Comment on the form and meaning of the verbs in the following complex
1. If you eat all those cakes, you would make yourself sick.
2. I’d go to the cinema more often if it wasn’t so expensive.
3. I wouldn’t have left my last job if the wages had been better.
4. What would you do if you saw someone drowning in the sea?
5. I’ll speak to my boss about my holidays today if I get the chance.
6. I would have told you if I had known.
7. If I knew more people, I wouldn’t feel so lonely.
8. You wouldn’t have had the accident if you’d been more careful.
9. They might be angry if! didn’t visit them.
10. If it stopped raining we could go out.


Exercise 1. Supple the correct tense of the verbs in brackets.

1. If I ever (marry) I wouldn’t want to live my life in a big city.
2. If I’d known I (change) our date.
3. I’ll telephone you in a few days if all (be) well.
4. We (not mind) what the weather was like if we lived in the country.
5. I wouldn’t be surprised if they (not give) you a reward.
6. You (turn out me) if I had been late?
7. Unless we (do) something dramatic about our environment, there is just no
hope that civilization will survive.
8. If you had left me know, he (get) in touch with you.
9. The workers (threaten) to occupy the factory, unless their demands for
higher pay are met.
10. Everyone (enjoy) themselves more, if they had known each other better.

Exercise 2. Rewrite the following sentences using a conditional clause

with “if”.
1. I didn’t see him, so I didn’t pay him the money I owed him.
2. She doesn’t spend much time with her children, so she doesn’t know their
3. They didn’t lock the windows; a burglar climbed in and took their jewelry.
4. The woman wasn’t able to find an ambulance, so her husband died on the
5. He doesn’t have anyone to help him, so he won’t finish the job on time.

Exercise 3. Supply the correct tense of the verbs in brackets.

1. He (succeed) if he works hard.
2. I (buy) it if it were cheaper.
3. If it hadn’t rained, we (not lose) the game.
4. I’ll work in the garden if it (not rain).
5. If you (be) a bird, you could fly.
6. If they (start) earlier, they would have arrived on time.
7. If you see him, (tell) him to phone me.
8. Should anything happen, (let) me know immediately.

9. If you had told her before she (not be) unhappy now.
10. If you (happen) to go into town, please (buy) me some vegetables.
11. If his illness gets any worse he (have) to go into hospital.
12. People (like) Robert more if he didn’t always talk about himself.
13. I (speak) to my boss about my holidays today if I get the chance.
14. If he (make) a promise, he always keeps it.
15. I’d go to the cinema more often if it (not be) so expensive.
16. I (not leave) my last job if the wages had been better.
17. He always (get) angry if you talk to him about politics.
18. If you eat ail those cakes, you (make) yourself sick.
19. If you (ask) me, I would have helped you. What (you do) if you saw
someone drowning in the sea?

Exercise 4. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses.

1. If you (find) a skeleton in the cellar don’t mention it to anyone.
2. If you pass your examination we (have) a celebration.
3. What (happen) if I press this button?
4. I should have voted for her if I (have) a vote then.
5. If you go to Paris where you (stay)?
6. If someone offered to buy you one of those rings, which you (choose)?
7. The flight may be cancelled if the fog (get) thick.
8. If me milkman (come) tell him to leave two pints.
9. Someone (sit) on your glasses if you leave them there.
10. You would play better bridge if you (not talk) so much.
11. What I (do) if I hear the burglar alarm?
12. If you (read) the instructions carefully you wouldn’t have answered the
wrong question.
13. I could repair the roof myself if
I (have) a long ladder.
14. Unless they turn that radio off I (go) mad.
15. If you were made redundant what you (do)?
1 6. We’ll have a long way to walk if we (run) out of petrol here.
17. If you shake that bottle of port it (not be) fit to drink.
18. I’ll probably get lost unless he (come) with me.
19. You (not have) so many accidents if you drove more slowly.

20. If you (wear) a false beard nobody would have recognized you.
21.f she (leave) the fish there the cat will get it.
22. Unless they leave a lamp beside that hole in the road somebody (fall) into it.
23. You’ll get pneumonia if you (not change) your wet clothes.
24. If I had known that you couldn’t eat octopus I (not buy) it.
25. If they (hang) that picture lower people would be able to see it.
26. She (be able) to walk faster if her shoes hadn’t such high heels.
27. I (bring) you some beer if I had known that you were thirsty.
28. If you had touched that electric cable you (be) electrocuted.
29. If the story hadn’t been true the newspaper (not print) it .
30. Dial 999 if you (want) Police, Ambulance or Fire Brigade.

Exercise 5. Complete the sentences putting the verbs m the correct form.
1. If you (come) to my party next Saturday I (be able) to introduce you to our
new neighbours.
2. It was a pity you (not come) on Saturday. If you (come) I (introduce) you
to our new neighbours.
3. If your hair (be) a bit longer I think it (look) much nicer.
4. I (tell) Mary you (call) if I (see) her this afternoon.
5. I (be) really excited if I (have) the chance to go to the States.
6. Why are you so miserable? If I (be) you I (go) away for a holiday.
7. If you (listen) to me you (not make) such a big mistake.
8. Your radio is very old. I’m sure you (get) better reception if you (buy) a
new one.
9. If you (not look after) your teeth when you (be) young you (have) trouble
when you (get) older.
10. Mary didn’t work hard enough for her exams. If she (work) harder she
(pass) them


1.“Wish” and “if only” are used with a simple past to express regret
about a present situation.
e.g. I wish I knew Sue’s telephone number. (I don’t know it).
2. “Wish” and “if only” are used with a past perfect tense to express
regret about a past situation.
e.g. I feel sick. I wish I hadn’t eaten so much. (I ate too much).
3. “Wish” and “if only” are used with “would” to express
dissatisfaction with the present and wish for shange in the future.
e.g. The music next door is very loud. I wish they would turn it down.

Practice Section

Comment on the form and meaning of the verbs in the following

1. I wish I had a car.
2. If only we knew Maria’s address.
3. She wished she could play the guitar.
4. I wish he weren’t so horrible to me.
5. If only I were better looking.
6. Oh, I’m tired I wish I had gone to bed earlier last night.
7. If only you had explained the situation to me.
8. I wish you would be quiet. I’m trying to do my homework.
9. If only you would stop complaining!
10. I wish he wouldn’t leave his clothes lying all over the bathroom floor.


Drill 1. Choose the right tense after “wish” and “if only”.
e.g. It’s a pity he doesn’t speak English
• Yes, I wish he spoke English.
• Yes, if only he spoke English.
1. It’s a pity she’s in hospital.
2. It’s a pity he wasn’t elected.
3. It’s a pity she doesn’t like you.
4. It’s a pity he didn’t recognize you.
5. It’s a pity they didn’t come.
6. It’s a pity she can’t play any more.
7. It’s a pity they left so soon.
8. It’s a pity she’s unhappy.
9. It’s a pity she’s deaf.
10. It’s a pity they weren’t at home.
Drill 2. Answer the following questions according to the model.

e.g. Are you a teacher?
* I wish I were.
1. Are you a third-year student?
2. Are you a millionaire?
3. Are you Claudia Schifier (Arnold Schwartzeneiger)?
4. Are you a ballet dancer?
5. Can you speak Japanese?
6. Can you sing like Placido Domingo?
7. Do you spend every summer in Spain?


Exercise 1. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct forms.

1. If only we (have) a phone! I’m tired of queuing outside the public phone box.
2. I wish I (know) what is wrong with the car.
3. I wish I (ask) the fishmonger to clean these fish. (I’m sorry I didn’t ask him.)
4. If only he (know) then the disease was curable!
5. I wish you (not give) him my phone number. (I’m sorry you gave it to him)
6. I wish transistor radios never (be) invented.
7. If only I (be) insured! (But I wasn’t insured.)
8. If only I (keep) my mouth shut! (I said something which made matters
much worse.)
9. But I told you what to do. – I know you did. If only I (take) your advice!

Exercise 2. Rewrite the following, using a “wish” construction (phrases

in brackets should be omitted).
1. I’m sorry I haven’t got a washing machine.
2. I’m sorry I don’t live near my work.
3. I’m sorry our garden doesn’t get any sun.
4. I’m sorry I called him a liar.
5. I’m sorry I don’t know Finnish.
6. I’m sorry I didn’t book a seat.
7. I’m sorry I haven’t got a car.
8. I’m sorry I can’t drive.
9. I’d like Tom to drive more slowly (but I haven’t any great hopes of this.)
10. I’d like you to keep quiet. (You are making so much noise that I can’t think.)

11. I’m sorry we accepted the invitation.
12. I’m sorry that theatre tickets cost so much.
13. It’s a pity that shops here shut on Saturday afternoon.
14. It’s a pity he didn’t work harder during the term.
15. I’m sorry you didn’t see it.
16. It’s a pity you are going tonight.
17. It’s a pity I haven’t got a work permit.
18. I would like it to stop raining (but I’m not very hopeful).
19. I’d like you to wait for me (even though you are ready to start now.)
20. I’m sorry I didn’t bring a map.
21. I’m sorry I ever came to this country.
22. I’m sorry I left my last job.
23. I’m sorry I didn’t stay in by last job.
24. I’d like him to cut his hair (but I don’t suppose he will.)
25. I’d like him to stop smoking in bed (but I haven’t any great hopes).

Exercise 3. Fill in the right tenses.

It is Angela’s first day as an assistant in a record shop. She is nervous andnot
looking forward to it. Luckily, Judy, a much more experienced girl, it there to
guide her.
A.: What (I-do) if I (get) into difficulties?
J.: Don’t worry. I (be) here if you (need) me. But if you (keep) calm,
everything (be) all right. If a customer (not-remember) the name of a record
or an artist, (look) it up in the catalogue; if you (not-know) where a record is
kept, (ask) me; if we (not-have got) a record in stock, (try) to interest him in a
different one.
A.: If I (know) as much about music as you do, I (be) much more confident.
J.: You ate talking to me as if I (be) an expert.
A.: You sound like an expert to me.
J. : I know more about selling records that I do about music. But if you (work)
here for three years, like me, you (learn) where everything is. Look out! Here
comes a customer.
A.: Good morning madam. What can I do for you?
C.: I’m looking for a record for my husband.
A.: Do you have any particular record in mind?
C.: Yes. He was listening to some music on the radio last night, which he liked

very much.
A.: Do you remember the title?
C.: No, now I wish I (write) it down. If I (have), I (not-forget) it.
A.: Well, what sort of music does your husband like best?
C.: He likes all kinds. If he (be) here, he (be) able to tell you. But I want the
record to be a surprise, you see.
A.: Oh dear! I wish I (know) what to recommend. If I (know), I (suggest)
something, but...
J.: Did you say this music was on the
radio last night, madam?
C.: Yes. About half past nine.
J.: Half past nine? Then it must have been Beathoven’s Eroica symphony.
C.: I expect that was it. I (take) it if you (have) it in stock.
J.: Certainly, madam. I think you’ll find this is the best recording. If your
husband (not be) satisfied we (be) pleased to exchange it for any record in the
same price range.
A.: I was looking to you for help. But how did you know that that was the
record her husband heard last night?
J.: I didn’t. It (be) miracle if I (guess) it. But if I (not say) anything, she (go)
away and we (not sell) a record! You’ll soon learn. But in this business, if you
(not take) a chance, you (never sell) anything.

Activity 1.

1. Work in groups of four.

2. First, answer the following questions for yourself. Then do the same
thing for each person in your group. Write down what you think each
person would be. Don’t show the members of your group your paper.
a. if you were an animal, what would you be?
b. if you were a colour, what would you be?
c. if you were food, what would you be?

Example: If I were an animal, I would be a cat. If Terri were an animal,

she would be a deer. I also think that Rachel would be a mouse, and
Peter would be a flamingo.
3. When you have all finished, share your ideas and compare what you
think your group members be with what they think they would be.

You Name Name Name

In a paragraph or two, describe the most interesting results about yourself from
the last activity. First tell why you described yourself the way you did. Then tell
why you think your group members described you the way they did. For example,
if you said “If I were a colour, I would be purple”, but everyone else said
you would be yellow, give us die possible reasons for these opinions.

Activity 3.
Write an imaginary situation or predicament on a piece of paper. For example:
What would happen if... everyone in the world were 100 feet taller? What
would you do if... you found somebody’s purse with $200 in it and no
identification? What would happen if... there were suddenly a huge
earthquake? After you write down one predicament, work with a team to do
some “creative brainstorming” to solve the problem or describe the results.
Then your team will tell some of your solutions to the other teams. They will try
to guess the situation and tell what the if clause is. The team that guess the
situation most often wins.


1. Collins Cobuild. English Grammar Exercises. – Harper Collins Publishers

Ltd., 1991.
2. Collins Cobuild. Student’s Grammar. – Harper Collins Publishers Ltd.,
3. Graver B.D. Advanced English Practice. – Oxford University Press, 1986.
4. Hashemi L., Murphy R. English Grammar in Use. Supplementary Exercises. –
Cambridge University Press, 1995.
5. Murphy R. English Grammar in Use. A self-study reference and practice
book for intermediate students. – Cambridge University Press, 1988.
6. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. – Oxford University Press, 1995.
7. Riggenbach H., Samuda V. Grammar Dimensions. Form, Meaning, and
Use. – Heinle & Heinle Publishers, 1993.
8. Swan m., Walker C. How English Works. A Grammar Practice Book. –
Oxford University Press, 1997.
9. Thomson A.S., Martinet A.V. A Practical English Grammar. – Oxford
University Press, 1986.
10. Thomson A.S., Martinet A.V. A Practical English Grammar. Exercises 1,2. –
Oxford University Press, 1986.



I. Tenses and Forms (Revision)...............................................................4

1. Present Continuous or Present Simple...............................................4

Practice Section........................................................................................4
Communicative Activities.....................................................................6

2. Tenses Expressing Future Time.........................................................8

Practice Section...........................................................................................9

3. Past Simple and Past Continuous........................................................11

Practice Section...................................................................................12
Communicative Activities....................................................................14

4. Present Perfect and Present Perfect Continuous .............................15

Practice Section..................................................................................16
Communicative Activities....................................................................18

5. Present Perfect and Past Simple.........................................................19

Practice Section..................................................................................20
Communicative Activities....................................................................23

6. Past Perfect and Past Perfect Continuous..........................................26

Practice Section..................................................................................26
Communicative Activities....................................................................28

7. Tense Forms: Mixed..........................................................................30

Practice Section.................................................................................30

Communicative Activities.....................................................................31

II. Passive Voice (Revision)....................................................................32

8. Passive: Forms and Use.....................................................................32

Practice Section.................................................................................32
Communicative Activities....................................................................40

III. Reported Speech (Revision)............................................................41

9. Reported Speech in Statements, Questions and Commands...........41

Communicative Activities...................................................................46

IV. Conditionals.......................................................................................47

1. Conditional Sentences. Type 1............................................................47

Practice Section.................................................................................48

2. Conditional Sentences. Type 2...........................................................51

Practice Section.................................................................................52

3. Conditional Sentences. Type 3...........................................................56

Practice Section..................................................................................57

4. Special Uses of “won’t” and “wouldn’t” in If-clauses.......................61

5. Other Conditional Expressions...........................................................62

Practice Section..................................................................................62

6. Conditional Sentences: mixed Types.................................................63

Practice Section.................................................................................63

7. “Wish” Sentences...............................................................................66
Practice Section.................................................................................67

List of literature used..............................................................................72

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