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Assessment of

Livelihood Triad Strategy of BASIX

Executive Summary

June 2010

Commissioned by

By

Vrutti, Livelihood Resource Centre


st st
19, 1 Main, 1 Cross, Aswath Nagar, RMV II Stage, Bangalore – 560 094, India

Email: raghu@cms-india.org, Web: http://www.vrutti.org

Vrutti, Livelihood Resource Centre 1


1. Introduction – Livelihood Triad and the Study:

BASIX works with a Mission to promote a large number of sustainable livelihoods, including for the
rural poor and women, through a provision of financial and technical assistance in an integrated
manner. A reflection of its work in the first five years of operation (1996 to 2001) provided a key
learning that credit alone is has rather limited impact on the productivity and livelihoods; also in a
few cases, credit led to higher inputs usage with lesser profits. To address this critical gap, a new
strategy called “The Livelihood Triad” was conceptualized, with the key components of Financial
Inclusion Services, Agricultural BDS Services and Institutional Development Services at the grass
root level, combined with supporting NGOs and policy engagement (in 2004). Given that there is
sufficient time and efforts put in this strategy, BASIX wishes to understand the impact, the level of
implementation and its effectiveness after adopting this approach. Vrutti Livelihood Resource
Centre was commissioned to undertake an assessment to answer the following questions:

 Whether the Triad strategy has helped BASIX to contribute to its Mission?
 Whether Triad as a strategy reached a matured phase within the BASIX Group?
 How do we build on the experiences and learning to maximise impact?

Given the time and resources available, the focus of the study was mainly at the grass-root level (in
terms of looking at benefits and impacts), along with an assessment of the overall business model
of delivering the Triad services to its customers. The focus of the study is clearly ‘inward looking’,
i.e. looking critically how this strategy has helped BASIX to achieve its Mission, and also provide
useful pointers for improving the strategy to maximize benefits and sustaining the work.

Deriving from the questions, the study objectives were:


1. To understand and assess the impact of services offered by BSFL in line with the Livelihood
Triad Strategy in achieving the Mission of BASIX – areas of impact, the pathway and
attributability (given the methodology)
2. To assess the effectiveness of implementation of the Livelihood Triad Strategy, and to
identify good practices from the implementation of the Livelihood Triad.
3. To understand the profile, service accessibility and perceptions of the non-customers
4. Provide suggestions for improving the coverage and effectiveness of LH Triad

To understand the overall program/ intervention framework, Vrutti developed a theory of change
framework for LH Triad, which was used for framing the issues for research and the sources of
information. The universe of the study was the Borrowers of BSFL who have availed at least one
additional service other than Credit, and have completed at least one round of credit rotation as
on 31 Dec 2009. This means, the Universe will include all the AgBIDS customers till 30 Sep 2008.
To address the attributability of change to BASIX, with the customers, the scenario – before and
after – are captured, with change over time (three years before and now; using recall method),
and the intensity of exposure to BASIX (using the credit, insurance and BDS services); and through
Comparisons between ‘BASIX’s Customers’ and ‘Non-Customers’ (who were matched during the
study). Apart from the Customers and Non-Customers, the study covered key informants from the
villages (such as the local panchayat leader, SHG President, Anganwadi Workers), focus group
discussions and BASIX LH Triad team (LSA, LSP and the Unit Managers).

Vrutti, Livelihood Resource Centre 2


A total of 1,073 customers and 536 non-customers are covered. A multi-stage segmented random
sampling is used for arriving at the samples. To address the heterogeneity of the universe, the
samples were distributed among 12 Units in four states of India (Andhra Pradesh, Madhya
Pradesh, Maharashtra and Orissa).

The study used a mixed-method approach, capturing both qualitative and quantitative data. The
study was undertaken during April to May 2010.

Vrutti, Livelihood Resource Centre 3


Study covered the following units in each of the states (along with number of customers covered):

- Andhra Pradesh – Adilabad (90), Bhainsa (90), Khammam (90)


- Madhya Pradesh – Jabalpur (88), Maheshwar (88), Seoni (90)
- Maharashtra – Bhandara (90), Lathur (90), Narsi Naigaon (92)
- Orissa – Aska (88), Berhampur (87), Nayagarh (90)

2. Headlines

The headlines from the study by Vrutti is given under the following Six ‘I’s – Initiative, Integration,
Impact, Institutional maturity, Image and Improvements. These are derived out of the findings
emerging and synthesizing various parts of the study. The intention is to provide macro and
strategic view of the study outcomes for decision making. Key messages emerging out of the
findings in each section is detailed below. However, the main report and corresponding output
tables (which will be submitted by Vrutti) will provide detailed analysis of each of the issues
studied).

(a) Initiative: ‘Livelihood Triad’ is a highly appropriate initiative in the context of rural livelihoods.
The model addresses the three key gaps in livelihood promotion (credit and risk management
appropriate to the livelihoods, business couseling and development services and the support
for livelihood focussed insitutional development), and in an integrated manner. The context is
well analysed (looking at issues beyond credit that affect promotion of livelihoods), and the
model is appropriately developed. This is probably the first model to walk the talk on “Credit
Plus”, using a business model approach, and potential to operate at a scale (reached to about
575,000 credit customers of which above 45% accessing BDS services as on 31 March 2009; the
proportion is more in the recent years). There have been many attempts by various
development organisations (such as NGOs, donor agencies, etc.), which have been partly
successful, but largely grant oriented and isolated and never able to reach scale and
sustainability. Given this context, it is a challenging initiative taken up by the BASIX Group and
in the last few years of implementation, it has shown good progress. This deserves
appreciation.

In terms of livelihood financial services,


the average size of credit from BASIX to
the customer is increasing, however, the
percentage of increase (year or year) is at
a reducing rate. There are reported cases
where customers ask for loans just below
the limit to ensure no cash securities or
where they don’t have to get the amount
by cheque. This could possibly lead to
stagnation and may well work against the
concept of deepening/ intensification of
credit among the existing customers and
the existing areas.

Vrutti, Livelihood Resource Centre 4


In terms of the average loan size
for various purposes taken by
customers and non-customers
(refer adjacent table), the
quantum of BASIX loan for all
the purposes (for customers) is
either equal or less than other
service providers. For example,
in the case of loans to
agriculure, the average loan size for customers (which is largely provided by BASIX) is Rs.
17,679, whereas the same for non-customers (where it comes from Bank) is about Rs. 26,903.
Same is the case for the small businesses too. There may be possibiltiy of increasing this
amount within the customers, which itself can provide more business within the same area
(intensification).

As far the share of BASIX (in terms of


percentage of households who avail
services from BASIX), in about 75% of the
villages studied, the proportion is less than
30% (i.e. less than 30% of the total
households access BASIX). In only about 6%
of the villages, the proportion is more than
50%. Therefore, there is a huge scope for
intensification of the work in the existing
areas and existing customers; keeping in
mind the perceptions of the customers and that of BASIX in the operating areas (covered
under the section ‘Image’ later in the document).
Profile of Clients
The key segments of BASIX clientele is given
Main Occupation

Others
Small Business
in the adjacent graph. As can be seen, in
Agri terms of the occupation, about 60% are in
Labour agriculture or small business. As per the
Medium+Large
categorisation done for PPI (Progress out of
Holding
Land

Marginal + Small
Landless Poverty Index), it shows that about 30% are
Pucca
Poor or Moderately Poor. However, one
Housing

Semi Pucca
Kutcha
needs to keep in mind that even the ‘non-
PU and Above poor’ category has largely less than $2 per
Education

HP + Secondary
day, which is can be categorised as
Primary
Illiterate vulnerable poor.
Poverty (PPI) Social Status

SC, ST, Minority


Backward Caste
Forward Caste
The key barriers for BASIX to deepen its
Non-Poor credit that respondents reported were –
Moderately Poor cash security, quantum of loans, processing
Poor
fee (sometimes even BDS considered under
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80%
this), and long-drawn procedure.

Vrutti, Livelihood Resource Centre 5


The key likes and dislikes of BASIX livelihood financial services, as reported by respondents:

In terms of BDS Services, about 50% of the customers report availing of the BDS services.
Others have taken either insurance or not aware of the BDS provided by BASIX (however the
data for sampling is on the AgBDS customers, which means they have paid for these services).
The proportion of customers reporting awareness and availing of BDS services is lower in
Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, compared to AP and MP. During the study, there are cases where
the client did not know about the
payment done for BDS; some say that
this service is provided free of charge.
The study team tried to get this
information both from the interview
and also verifying the visit record and
the BDS service form at the household
level. However, there is an issue of
messaging of these services. The
satisfaction with respect to BDS
services have been average, as less than
10% only report highly satisfied with
the services on all parameters. The key likes and dislikes related to BDS are:

Vrutti, Livelihood Resource Centre 6


Flowing from the above, the study team’s assessment of these services is given below:

In terms of livelihood financial services, the terms and conditions for operations which are
followed by BASIX seem to be not in tune with the market maturity. For example cash
securities are asked for; the top up amounts that customers expect are not provided; cheque
payments are made beyond certain amounts; etc. One of the customers’ group commented –
“we value BASIX and take loan from them; but BASIX does not seem to be trusting us. Even
with over five years with them, they still ask for security and do not provide higher amounts of
credit”. As the micro-finance markets in rural areas have matured (such as better financial
discipline, more players, etc.), BASIX may think of relaxing some of the terms and conditions
that have been followed for some time. Cash securities are certainly a big barrier; if cash
securities taken out, BDS possibly be valued more.

In term of BDS Services, based on the understanding obtained from the study, the team tried
to analyse the status of each of the BDS service areas and how BASIX has performed in these,
and what factors affect these. The following diagram captures all these. (in the diagram –
H/M/L – provides how the particular factor is in the market; i.e. L in availability of services refers to low
availability and the green/ yellow/ red – refer to what extent this situation is favourable to BASIX, with
green being very good)

The BASIX performance has been very good in the area of Dairy Services, as the perceived
need is high, acceptance of ‘service provider’ (usually called ‘doctor’) is high, the availability of
services is low and therefore favourable to BASIX, customised solutions can be provided to
some extent (if not fully), adequate numbers being there in one location to deliver services
and the risk of not achieving the results are low. BASIX has done well to get trained and
networked persons for dairy services and is able to deliver this service better than the other
areas and to the satisfaction of the customers. However, this is not the case for crop and Non-
farm. Therefore, there needs to be a re-look at how these can be delivered effectively given
these factors.

Vrutti, Livelihood Resource Centre 7


Moving forward with these services (pursuing this model further), there could be some key
limitations, which BASIX need to be conscious of and plan for, so that its progress is further
accelerated:

a. Market competition and Customers Perceptions – there has been a major increase in
competition in the recent years, and most of the service providers (MFIs) see micro
finance as an end in itself and undertake measures that are short-sighted and many
customers are attracted by it. Therefore, the additional services that are provided by
BASIX are many times considered as ‘add-on costs to credit’, and also other MFIs use
these as points against BASIX.
b. Internal pressures of financial targets for credit and insurance, vs long-term goals of
livelihood promotion from field level to management to shareholders may have
implications on the quality of delivery of the Triad services and focus. The focus is on
driving targets (as this is important for the business, at the same time the livelihood
promotion needs customised and long-term solutions to each client through a process
of engaging with them and convincing them of the inputs).
c. At this point of time, it is immensely necessary that Basix should take a clear
examination of whether the BDS services have become a major revenue stream for
BASIX with targets and proportion of overall incomes. Few areas of concern are even
before 'proof of concept at a scale' is done. There are issues related to over work for
LSPs, some BDS areas not well structured and delivered (e.g. non-farm, and to some
extent crops), customers’ understanding of these services and the overall
communication/ messaging of this model.
d. At the market/ sector level, the challenge is also to differentiate the type of services,
the intention and proving the value for money of LH Triad (both at village and sectoral
levels)

(b) Impact: There is a clear movement towards Mission of BASIX through implementation of the
LH Triad model at a scale. The focus is clearly on livelihood, with key strategies appropriately
addressing it (credit, risk management, business development and institutional development).
Ensuring sustainability through Triad services is evident and clear pointers emerging. The
mechanism adopted is based on a business model and has high potential for scale up to reach
out to large number of livelihoods. However, there is a need to review the strategies to reach
out to the poorest people and poorest areas, as the current model has limitations to cover the
poorest in the operational areas; there Proportion of Respondents reporting
is an intense competition through attributabiltiy to changes (main)
others MFIs who provide group-based Areas of Change
Client Non-Client
quicker credit to this segment.
Basix Others Self Others
Income Increased 58% 42% 75% 25%
In terms of the impacts in the last three
Purchase - Productive Assets 40% 60% 68% 32%
years, the graph provides details of the
Purchase - Consumer Durables 16% 84% 85% 15%
kind of changes that respondents Insurance/ Risk Mgt. 58% 42% 86% 14%
reported (both customers and non- Expanded/Improved Business 64% 36% 73% 27%
customers) and to who contributed New skills and competencies 23% 77% 29% 71%
largely to these changes. New Occupation 53% 47% 67% 33%
Govt. to Private School 17% 83% 91% 9%

Vrutti, Livelihood Resource Centre 8


Changes Reported in Last 3 Years As can be seen, the proportion of
customers reporting changes in the areas
Govt. to Private School
of increasing incomes, productive assets,
New Occupation
risk management and expanding business
New skills and competencies
are significantly higher than the
Expanded/Improved Business

Insurance/ Risk Mgt.


proportion of non-customers. However,
Purchase - Consumer Durables
in the areas of starting up new business
Purchase - Productive Assets
the trend is reverse. Looking at the
Income Increased
contribution of various sources to these
changes, in the areas of change in
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
incomes, close to 60% report the change is
Non-Clients Clients
largely due to BASIX. Similarly in the
insurance and also in the area of
expanding business, higher proportion of customers report BASIX contributing to these
changes. However, in the area of acquiring new skills (related to new or existing business),
only a fourth reported BASIX contribution in these changes. Interestingly, among the non-
customers, about 70% of the respondents who reported new skills report acquiring these from
sources such as private companies, government departments, etc. (a possibility for BASIX to
link and provide services that are beyond credit). Impacts beyond economic benefits are
evident and reported in some cases, but yet to become significant and impactful. These are
largely related to dairy in terms savings of lives of animals, better productivity. Interestingly,
due to BASIX, there is a thinking among the communities BDS and more importantly BDS as a
paid service, and demand quality for it. At the village level, key changes credited to BASIX are
provision of credit for non-farm sector (businesses), variety of insurance products, and being
the first player in many places which has built credibility for customers. BASIX focus on
customers in this segment in rural areas is well appreciated (“the only provider who works
with men – small businesses holders, farmers!”). However, reaching out to poorest in terms of
products, terms, delivery model and competition is an area that BASIX needs to reflect on, as
the SHG model has limited potential. Across various units and sampled locations, BASIX LSA is
more looked as friend interested in the family improvement due to focus on livelihoods and its
approach of relationship building and being flexible.

(c) Integration: Integrating all three services as a package is highly appropriate. There is also a
danger of this now becoming too heavy to operate. Dove-tailing on Credit line is a good entry
point, but one needs to be careful as this may pull down the demand for credit too. There are
perceptions that the ‘charges for credit’ is high as many customers see charges for BDS
services too as the interest/ processing fee. Apart from this, the purposes for loans taken and
the need for BDS services in some cases are different (as the family would have taken a loan
for non-farm, but needs BDS services for dairy animals). However, the BDS is largely linked to
the purpose of loan. Therefore, while the BDS is built on the credit line, BASIX could look at
family as an enterprise and look at the demand for BDS for the family’s entire enterprises (is it
rather becoming inevitable, as in few cases it is actually being practiced and why not this can
be by design). As far the integration of all these services at household and village level is yet to
take place; and the efforts are very much on from BASIX.

Vrutti, Livelihood Resource Centre 9


(d) Institutional Percolation of the Model: The level of percolation of the LH Triad concept to
field is average, and more importantly the business targets drive this. Awareness among staff
on the model is reasonable; except for LSPs (who are critical to provide this services
effectively). Coordination and Delivery at the Unit level and FE level needs improvement.
Integration at household or village level is yet to emerge. Given targets and business needs,
the possibility of getting this integration at these levels needs to be thought over.

Based on the findings emerging from different tools, the study team tried to synthesize these
and come out with a analysis model of BDS services. A "Concept to Impact Ladder of BDS
Services" is developed, trying to capture how each of these services have been conceptualised,
how they are delivered, where are issues and does it lead to impact as envisaged, etc. Please
refer to the diagram below:

All four services are taken here – Crop, Dairy, Non-farm and IDS. Legends of 1,2,3,4 refer to
these. The colour codes are – Green – good; Yellow – medium; Red – poor. For a particular
service, let us say for 1 (i.e. crop), if the colour is green in concept level and red in tools and
processes, then it means that the concept level it was good, however while converting the
concept to protocols there are areas of improvement.

Vrutti, Livelihood Resource Centre 10


As can be seen above, in case of dairy (icon 2), the movement from Concept to Impact is
reasonable and these are clearly shown in the satisfaction levels of customers and also their
sharing that they have gained better productivity, lives being saved, etc. However, in the area
on Non-Farm, there are issues of competency and also the tools are not very clear. Same is
the case with IDS once it moves from competency to actual delivery. Therefore, there is a
clear gap between the potential of this model vs actual delivery. This ladder needs to be
looked at for each of these areas and appropriate actions to be taken. The study provides
some pointers towards this.

(e) Image: BASIX - preferred for its repayment, no-meetings, friendliness, and rotation of funds.
BASIX - not preferred due to its deposit, interest rate, fee, no door-step delivery, quantum of
credit and no top up credit. Triad services are neither an USP nor a major barrier now. "Push"
more than "consumer pull" is moving it. There is a possibility to make Triad as an USP and
stand different from others.

Please refer to the diagram below. On the Y-axis, the key attributes each customer looks for
while selecting a source of finance (in terms of priority - with top being most preferred) is
plotted and the X-axis gives the ranking, i.e. if a source is ranked high, then it is to the right, if
low, on the left. Three of the key sources are plotted against each of these attributes – BASIX,
BANK and MFIs).

Vrutti, Livelihood Resource Centre 11


Perception Map – Attributes vs Ranking of Each Service
Providers

The
attributes
that
customer
considers
while
selecting
a source

Attributes
at the top
– most
preferred

Ranking of each of the service provider on each attribute – Right


– high ranking, on the left – lower ranking

Legend: Red- BASIX; Green – Bank; Pink - MFI

As can be seen from the above, in the areas of most preferred attributes – interest rate, security,
door-step delivery, top-up loans and quantum of credit – BASIX scores lower than the others.
Whereas, on repayment period, no-need for group meetings, and group guarantee, etc. – BASIX
scores better than others. These can be the areas where BASIX need to focus on in its efforts
towards intensification of services in the areas.

(f) Improvements: On the ways forward, the study suggests the following – one at sectoral level
and the other for BASIX.

Sector – It is clear that business development services are a need to improve the livelihood
outcomes in the sector. These services are not readily available in the market, also not at a
scale. The question is “can BASIX help in flooding the market through its advocacy and other

Vrutti, Livelihood Resource Centre 12


efforts?” There is a need to create market competition, develop BDS providers (possibly a
training school), and undertake sectoral level advocacy, and with all these create a better
market for BDS focusing on micro enterprises. With BASIX being the first mover and an
experienced organisation, this is a big advantage for BASIX to leverage its expertise and base.
In the MFI market too, this will create a level-playing field, rather than some players delivering
only credit and treating this serivce an end in itself. BASIX is best positioned to take this
agenda of LH promotion through BDS, given its posititoning and genuine interest in the issues
which is well acknowledged by customers. This will require efforts from BASIX side beyond
just delivering these services to buidling cadre of BDS providers and also advocating for these
services at sectoral level.

LH Triad Model related improvements, the suggestions are given in the following ‘6P’
headings, i.e. what kind of changes could be done to improve the reach and business further:

 Product – The changes in the services provided by BASIX are:


o In terms of the livelihood financial services the key changes that BASIX can
think of are:
 reducing/ repositioning cash security or providing higher slabs for cash
security
 increasing the quantum of credit
 providing options for top-up loans (i.e. provding second loans based
on the history of repayment of existing loans – if they pay back 60%,
then think of second loan)
 terms and conditions based on the “market maturity” (i.e. if the new
markets and new customers, then BASIX can think of terms such as
cash security, etc.; but for a matured markets where competition is
also high, BASIX can think of other options)
 relook at processing fee (not sure whether this is feasible; but an area
to look at)
 simplifying the proceedure of appraisal through introducing – pre-
approved loans, building credit-index of the customers and linking
them with credit abosorption, etc
 key stratety is to have the product features based on the customers’
credit scoring, village market maturity scoring and the competition
profile.

In Business Deveopment Services, the key changes that BASIX can think of:
 possibility of providing emergency services for the dairy
 clarifying the services to be provided for non-farm and crop; for
example in crop what could be done beyond soil testing, or what kind
of business counseling could be done for non-farm, etc.
 generate a list of customised services and general services for each
sector and can the general services be given in a tangible way (camps,
etc.)

Vrutti, Livelihood Resource Centre 13


 in terms of insurance, focus on building awareness of the claim
procedures and ensuring that customers know their responsibilities to
get the claims as promised.

 Positioning - BASIX's USP is livelihood promotion and the brand is strongly build on it,
i.e. providing all that you need to improve livelihoods. Therefore, can BASIX position
the BDS services as an add-on free service through a embedded model (incorporate
the cost in interest) and ensure deliver high quality. This will create pressure on others
to provide this service too for their survival (e.g. other MFIs, who work only on credit).
The costing and other details need to be worked out for this model. However, this
positioning will help BASIX to be differentiated from others, and not to be compared
with regular MFIs.

 Pricing – In terms of pricing of the BDS services, BASIX can think of a combination of
“post paid” and “pre-paid”, rather than whole amount being pre-paid. This will ensure
that the LSPs deliver quality services, as they need to collect balance amount from the
customers.

 Place/ Delivery – There is a need to relook at delivery strategies in terms of the work
load of the LSPs and LSAs. For BDS, BASIX need to think of group-based services rather
than individual customised services. BASIX can also think of linking up services with
other service providers (government, retired staff of government, market players, etc.)
so that the delivery can happen locally. BASIX can also think of oursourcing services
and also create village/ panchayat/ local market based service providers so that the
localised and any-time service can be provided.

 People – In terms of the people who can deliver quality services, there is a need to
orient all the LSP, and provide them periodical refresher training. There is also a need
to provide hand-holding support (on-the-job), and define the process protocols and
service standards well.

 Performance – To ensure better performance, BASIX can think of BDS services being
delivered by independent entity within BASIX or outsourced model by other servie
providers/ NGOs, or linked services with the government or other market players.
Credit-channel can still provide the introduction and base; but the delivery and
assurance of quality can be done through an independent entity.

Apart from the above 6Ps of marketing, another ‘P’ is important – Patience – for the staff,
shareholders, sectoral players, and customers, as livelihood promotion is a long-term
process and is a challenging task. The model is maturing and there is a need to fine-tune
this based on experiences from the field. Given the agenda of livelihood promotion
(rather than just credit), the progress in terms of coverage, absorption of services and
outcome is likely to be ‘slower’ than the standard for the industry. However, this model
has a potential to ensure sustainability in livelihoods at a large scale for the most
important constituency - the poor, while ensuring key business financial bottomlines.

Vrutti, Livelihood Resource Centre 14


Note on the Methodology:

(a) Objectives and Scope of Study

1. To understand and assess the impact of various products and services offered by
BSFL in line with the Livelihood Triad Strategy in achieving the Mission of BASIX:
 Areas and Extent of Impact, the Impact Pathway and Attributability of Impact
(limiting to the study method)
2. To assess the effectiveness of implementation and sustainability of the Livelihood
Triad Strategy (institutional framework and delivery mechanisms), and to identify
good practices from the implementation of the Livelihood Triad in the past seven
years.
3. To understand the profile, service accessibility and perceptions of the non-
consumers of BASIX
4. Provide suggestions for improving the coverage and effectiveness of BASIX
livelihood services

(b) Guiding Principles of the Study

Given the scope and expectations from the study, the key guiding principles that are inbuilt
in the design and methodology of this study are given here.

 The study will place greater emphasis on learning and knowledge generation
 The study will emphasise on both qualitative and quantitative measures of progress
and achievements. These will be integrated in the overall analysis
 The study will be taken more of an institutional assessment of the strategy, with
various sources of information feeding into it to provide overall understanding of the
outcomes and the impact.
 The study design and implementation will be done participatively with the BASIX
team. A Core team comprising of BASIX and Study Team members will be
established for necessary steering of the study processes.
 The study team will analyse the process of evolution of the Triad Strategy, existing
systems and procedures in detail to gather understanding and facilitate reflection
processes with the project teams. The study process and tools will have this flexibility
to identify these and understand and assess the same.
With these principles the methodology is developed. Six key processes are proposed to
undertake this study:

1. Secondary Data Analysis at the BASIX level, and of the Livelihood Sector in the
country
2. Household Level Interviews
3. Village/ Area level interviews
4. BASIX Unit Level Interactions

Vrutti, Livelihood Resource Centre 15


(c) Tools and Techniques:

 Household level – Semi-Structured Questionnaire, using a facilitation guide,


exploring areas of impact as per the theory of change framework
 Village level – Village profile and Key informants interview at the villages (about 3
persons per village). This village profile is intended towards developing an
understanding of the context, capture the trends in the livelihood scenario, and see
contributions of BASIX.
Focus Group Discussion with the Customers and Non-Customers at the village level –
to understand the village micro credit and BDS market, key players, perceptions,
selection of sources, satisfaction levels, etc.
 Other relevant persons in the district level (Banks, FI and other MFI, CSO in livelihood
area; about five persons per district)

 At the BASIX Unit level – interviews with the LSP, LSA and the Unit Manager

(d) Team Size:

Sl.No Particulars No of
members
1 Advisor for the study (N. Raghunathan, Vijay 2
Kulkarni)
2 Team leader (Chhayakant Mishra) and Co 2
team leader (Balakrishnan)
3 Coordinators and Asst State coordinators 6
4 Supervisor and field investigator 24
5 Data Entry Operators 12
6 Data Management Team (Statistician and 2
Data Analyst)
Total 48

Vrutti, Livelihood Resource Centre 16