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VERBAL FORMS

The verb when used in the language may have a number of forms to express different realities.

Finite verbal forms:


1. the indicative mood – I read books.
2. the subjunctive mood – I wish I read books.
3. the conditional mood – I will read books if I have the time.
4. the imperative mood – Read these books!

Non-finite verbal forms:


1. the infinitive – to go
2. the gerund - going
3. the participle - gone

TENSES

THE PRESENT
Present Tense Simple

I read a book everyday. (adverbs: every day, usually, today)

Present Tense Continuous

I am reading a book now. (adverbs: now, this year, this month, this evening)

Present Perfect Tense

I have read these books for two weeks (since September 10). (adverbs: for, since, always, lately, never,
ever, just, already, recently, yet)

Present Perfect Continuous

I have been reading these books since 2 o’clock (for two hours). (adverbs: for, since, always, lately, never,
ever, just, already, recently, yet)

THE PAST
Past Tense Simple

I read the books yesterday. (adverbs: yesterday, last week, last month, the day before yesterday, two years
ago, in 1993, a long time ago, once upon a time, some time ago)

Past Tense Continuous

I was reading the books yesterday when you came.

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Past Perfect Simple

I left after I had read the books. (adverbs: for, since, always, lately, never, ever, just, already, recently,
yet)

Past Perfect Continuous

When he came, I had been reading the book since 2 o’clock (for two hours). (adverbs: for, since, always,
lately, never, ever, just, already, recently, yet)

THE FUTURE
Future Tense Simple

I will/shall read the books next month. (adverbs: tomorrow, next month, next week, soon)

Future Tense Continuous

I will be reading the books tomorrow by 2 o’clock.

Future Perfect Simple

By tomorrow I will have read the books. (adverbs: by this time next month, by five o’clock this afternoon,
by next year)

Future Perfect Continuous

By tomorrow I will have bee reading the books for two weeks. (adverbs: by this time next month, by five
o’clock this afternoon, by next year)

EXERCISES

Put the verbs in brackets into the present simple or continuous:


1. He (live) in London at present but he (hope) to move to Edinburgh next year.
2. Mike and Jack (spend) a fortnight at the seaside; they (come) back next week.
3. The teacher (say) that you usually (make) a lot of mistakes.
4. Anybody who (look) at his passenger while he (drive) is a danger on the roads.
5. Mary (sleep) in the sitting room this week because her bedroom (be) redecorated.
6. My son (work) very hard. He (study) for an examination now.
7. Daddy (leave) always lighted cigarettes all over the house. We’ll burn down one day.
8. My husband usually (leave) his office at 3.00 p.m., but this month he (work) later.
9. Jack often (go) to the theatre but his wife (not go) very often. He (like) all sorts of plays. She
(prefer) comedies.
10. Professor Brown (be) the perfect linguist. He already (speak) seven foreign languages. Now he
(learn) an eighth.
11. My dog always (bark) at the postman. But look at that! For once, he (be) friendly to the poor man.
12. He (walk) very slowly because the bottle he (carry) (hold) nitro-glycerin and nitro-glycerin
(explode) if it (be) shaken.
13. Dear Jane, sorry to hear about our problem at work. I (think) you (do) the right thing, but I (doubt)
whether your boss really (know) his job from what you (tell) me.
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14. The house is a mess because we’ve got the workmen in. The Plumber (put) in a new bath. The
electricians (rewire) the system and the carpenter (build) us some new bookshelves.

Supply for or since in the following sentences:


1. We haven’t seen Mary……(the accident/three months).
2. I haven’t spoken Italian…..(1985/three years).
3. We have had two breakdowns…..(we bought the car/last week).
4. John hasn’t paid any bill……..(he moved here/eighteen months).
5. I’ve asked the same question………(a week/the beginning of the year).
6. Dr. Brown has been here twice……..(you went out/lunch-time).
7. We haven’t had such a lot of snow here……..(the war/ten years).
8. The Jamesons have not been away from Crew……(they were married/longer than they can
remember).
9. They have known each other…..(their childhood/twenty years).
10. It hasn’t rained………..(a month/March).

Put the verbs in brackets in the simple or continuous past tense according to the meaning:
1. I (go) to ask you to help me, but you (sleep) so peacefully when I (look) into your room that I
(decide) to do it alone.
2. He (not keep) his appointment with you last Tuesday morning because at the time of the
appointment he (be seen) by the Personnel Manager about a new job.
3. When the dog (bite) Mary again, mother (prepare) dinner and we (listen) to the radio. Mary (shout)
blue murder and (have) hysterics again.
4. We (have) to go round the back door because Grandfather (have) his front door painted.
5. I (walk) down the street some minutes ago when I (see) a curiously dressed man. He (wear) a
sports-coat with black trousers, and one of his shoes (be) black and the other (be) brown.
6. She (wear) green and it (suit) her very well. Her face (be) mildly pretty but, because she (cry) and
mascara (run) down her cheeks, she (not seem) as attractive as I (expected).
7. The person who (drive) the car on the day of the accident (no be) insured.
8. He (come) into the room, (light) a cigarette, (open) the window and (lean) out.

Use Present Continuous or shall/will with the verb in brackets:


1. We have invited a lot of friends to join us next holidays as we (rent) a summer cottage in the
country. We (take) our dog with us, so you (not have to) feed him this time.
2. Ann has just phoned to say that she (catch) the seven-thirty plane and (be) in Cambridge by nine
o’clock.
3. Sarah (sit) for an exam next week. Do you think she (pass)? I don’t know. If she doesn’t, she (take)
it again at the end of next term.
4. Where you (meet) your husband? We (meet) at the Opera House. He (take) me to see ‘The Magic
Flute’.
5. When Jack (arrive)? Some time this evening. And how he (get) here? He (come) by car if the roads
are not snowed up.
6. Look! I’ve broken the teapot. What your mother (say)? She (not mind). She never liked that one.