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МИНИСТЕРСТВО АГРАРНОЙ ПОЛИТИКИ И ПРОДОВОЛЬСТВИЯ УКРАИНЫ

ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ АГЕНТСТВО РЫБНОГО ХОЗЯЙСТВА УКРАИНЫ


КЕРЧЕНСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ МОРСКОЙ ТЕХНОЛОГИЧЕСКИЙ
УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

Кафедра иностранных языков

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
ПО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОМУ НАПРАВЛЕНИЮ

МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ
к практическим занятиям и по самостоятельной работе
для студентов 4 курса
направления 6.050702 «Электромеханика»
дневной и заочной формы обучения

Керчь, 2013 г

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УДК 811.111’276.6:621.3

Автор: Фролова Светлана Николаевна, преподаватель кафедры иностранных языков


КГМТУ.

Рецензенты: Ефимова З.Е., доцент кафедры иностранных языков КГМТУ.

Методические указания рассмотрены и одобрены на заседании кафедры иностранных


языков КГМТУ,
протокол № 2 от 29.10.2009 г.

Методические указания рассмотрены и рекомендованы к утверждению на заседании


методической комиссии МФ КГМТУ,
протокол № 3 от 16.12.2009 г.

Методические указания утверждены на заседании Методического совета КГМТУ,


протокол № 2 от 25.12.2009 г.

Методические указания рекомендованы к переутверждению на заседании кафедры


иностранных языков КГМТУ,
протокол №10 от 27.06.2013 г.

Методические указания переутверждены на заседании методической комиссии МФ


КГМТУ, протокол №4 от 03.07. 2013 г.

© Керченский государственный морской


технологический университет, 2013 г.

2
Содержание

Unit 1. Watchkeeping duties of electrical engineers стр.


Lesson 1. Duties of electricians.------------------------------------------------------------- 5
Lesson 2. Duties of electrical engineers. --------------------------------------------------- 9
Unit 2. Elements of functional devices of ship automatics.
Lesson 3. Transducers.------------------------------------------------------------------------ 9
Lesson 4. Sensors.----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 13
Lesson 5. Amplifiers.------------------------------------------------------------------------- 16
Lesson 6. Electromagnets ---------------------------------------------------------------------20
Lesson 7-8. Homereading. Measuring devices. ------------------------------------------- 23
Unit 3. Ships electrical power plants.
Lesson 9. Electrical generator..-------------------------------------------------------------- 29
Lesson 10. Ship's power distribution system.--------------------------------------------- 34
Lesson 11. Automatic control system for ships electrical power plants.-------------- 37
Unit 4. Electric drives.
Lesson 1. Main principles of electric drives.---------------------------------------------- 40
Lesson 2. Types of electric drives.--------------------------------------------------------- 43
Lesson 3. Ship's electric drives. (Part 1)---------------------------------------------------- 46
Lesson 4 Ship's electric drives, (part 2.)-------------------------------------------------- 49
Unit 5. Business documentation.
Lesson 5. Structure of a business letter.--------------------------------------------------- 52
Lesson 6. Examples of letters.-------------------------------------------------------------- 61
Lesson 7-8. Technical instructions. (Part 1, 2)----------------------------------------- 66
Lesson 9-10. Homereading. Contract of employment of sailors.-------------------- 69
Lesson 11. Interview questions.------------------------------------------------------------ 78
Grammar reference.----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 80
Grammar exercises------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 87
Vocabularies.------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 111
Literature.---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 121

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Пояснительная записка.
Настоящие методические указания предназначаются для студентов 4 курса направления
6.050702 «Электромеханика» дневной и заочной формы обучения. Пособие
предназначено способствовать самостоятельной работе с профессионально-
ориентированной литературой на английском языке. Пособие составлено в соответствии с
требованиями программы четвертого года обучения. Пособие состоит из 6 юнитов:
Первый – Watchkeeping duties of electrical engineers
Второй – Elements of functional devices of ship automatics.
Третий – Ships electrical power plants.
Четвертый – . Electric drives.
Пятый – Business letters.
Шестой - Microprocessor.
Каждый юнит включает в себя предтекстовые упражнения, целью которых является
снизить сложность понимания последующего теста, тест, послетекстовые лексические
упражнения и грамматические упражнения, составленные в соответствии с программой по
грамматической теме «Сослагательное наклонение. Условные предложения, Функции
глаголов should и would.»
Пособие снабжено грамматическим справочником, включающим изучаемые
грамматические темы, терминологическим словарем для судовых электромехаников и
словарем с терминами деловой переписки на английском языке.

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Unit 1.
Watchkeeping duties of electricians.

Lesson 1.

Text 1.
1. Translate then following word combinations into Russian.
To trace the fault, generating sets, control and monitoring panel, electric couplings and
brakes, control units, automatic circuit-breaker, narrows, a threat of damage, to eliminate the cause,
the emergency measures.

2. Read and translate the text.

Duties of Electricians.
1. Electricians are directly responsible to electrical engineers. Marine electricians are to know
the construction, the principle of operation, characteristics and the use of shipboard electrical
equipment.
2. They are to know in detail the procedure used in diagnosing a troubleshooting and the steps
recommended to trace the fault.
3. They are to list some of the causes, e. g., why the motor may fail to start, detect the trouble
and remedy the fault when found.
4. They must know the consequences which may result from poor and careless operation.
They must be able to operate all sorts of shipboard electrical equipment. Besides, they are to know
the operational and constructional features of all units of the shipboard electrical installation.
5. They are to know how to use fire-fighting devices especially in the engine-room.
They are to take part in maintaining and repairing all shipboard electrical equipment.
6. They are to adhere strictly to all the regulations and instructions concerning maintenance of
electrical equipment and safety rules.
7. They are to keep watches according to the schedule on board ship with electrical
propulsion.
8. The most important items of electrical equipment are subjected to their supervision:
a) generating sets; b) electric motors; c) transformers; d) switchboards; e) control and
monitoring panels; f) electric couplings and brakes; g) starting, protection, control units and
switchgear; h) apparatuses and devices of internal communication; i) automatic circuit-breakers and
contacts; j) relays and protective apparatuses; k) accumulators; 1) cables; m) other equipment and
devices not listed above.
9. While passing through narrows and canals, when leaving or entering a port and when
mooring they are to keep watches in the fixed place.
10. They are subordinated to all instructions of the chief engineer and they are to do all sorts
of work which might not be in their line. But these they are allowed to do only after having been
taught all the regulations including safety rules and not before they have got the certificate.
11. Electricians coming on watch must be in the engine-room at least five minutes before the
hour of taking charge. They must, before relieving the electrician on watch, examine electrical
equipment and devices. They are to get all the information about the state of the equipment and
devices from the relieved electrician. During the watch they are to supervise the operation of the
equipment and devices.
12. They are to fulfil the commands of the electrical engineer or an engineer on watch to
ensure the normal operation of the machine and devices. In case of a trouble they are to report to the
electrical engineer, at the same time take measures to locate the cause of the trouble and try to
eliminate it.
13. If there is a threat of damage, or life of people is in danger they are to report to the
electrical engineer and take necessary and bold measures to eliminate the cause. In case of fire or

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flood they are to report the alarm and take all emergency measures to prevent the fire or flood from
spreading.
14. They are to keep everything in the engine-room clean and in good order.

Vocabulary.
To be responsible to подчиняться, быть ответственным за
To trace обнаруживать
Consequence последствие
Fire-fighting devices противопожарные средства
Item наименование
To be subjected to подвергаться чему-либо
Supervision наблюдение
Generating set генераторный агрегат
Switchboard распределительный щит, коммутационная
панель, коммутатор
Electric propulsion plant электростанция гребной электрической
установки
Emergency battery charging зарядка аварийной аккумуляторной батареи
Navigation lantern ходовой (навигационный) огонь
Control unit блок управления
Switchgear автоматический выключатель
Circuit-breaker выключатель
Fixed place предназначенное место
To take charge принять управление
Not in one’s line не по чьей-либо части
Alarm авария

3. Define the part of speech of the following words.


Responsible, construction, especially, besides, schedule, electrical, electrician, fulfil, the state,
to state, information, in case of, prevent.

4. Point out which of these word combinations are with nouns in plural.
a) Apparatus of internal communication
b) Control units
c) To stand watches
d) To study economics
e) A powerful means of investigating
f) Protective apparatuses
g) A new glass works has been built
h) His new hypothesis
i) There are two brick works
j) Record of data
k) Party nucleus

5. Fill in the missing words.


1. Electricians are directly responsible to____ _____.
2. They must be able to operate all sorts of _____ _____ _____.
3. They are to _____ strictly to all the regulations and instructions concerning _____ of
electrical equipment and safety rules.
4. They are to keep watches according to _____ on board ship.
5. They must, before _____ the electrician on watch, examine electrical equipment and
devices.

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6. In case of fire or flood they are to report the alarm and take all _____ _____ to prevent
the fire or flood from spreading.

6. Point out in English in written form the most important items of electrical equipment
which are subjected to the supervision of electricians.

7. Looking through the text find, read and retell the passage describing the actions the
electricians are to do:
1. When taking charge of a watch
2. In a case of a threat of damage.

8. Answer the questions.


1. Whom is electrician directly responsible to?
2. What are they to know in detail?
3. What must they be able to operate?
4. What are they to adhere to?
5. What most important electrical items are subjected to their supervision?
6. When must they do the work which might not be in their line?
7. What are the duties of an electrician coming on watch?
8. What are they supervise during the watch?
9. What must they do in case of a trouble or if there is a threat of danger?

9. Make up the questions to the underling words.


1. Marine electricians are to know the construction of shipboard electrical equipment.
2. They must know the consequences which may result from poor and careless operation.
3. They are to take part in maintaining and repairing all shipboard electrical equipment.
4. They are to keep watches according to the schedule on board ship with electrical
propulsion.
5.While passing through narrows and canals, when leaving or entering a port and when
mooring they are to keep watches in the fixed place.
6. While passing through narrows and canals, when leaving or entering a port and when
mooring they are to keep watches in the fixed.
7. Electricians coming on watch must be in the engine-room at least five minutes before the
hour of taking charge.
8. In case of fire or flood they are to report the alarm and take all emergency measures to
prevent the fire or flood from spreading.

10. Translate into English.


1. Электрик должен уметь определить причины неисправности электрооборудования.
2. электрик должен принимать участие в эксплуатации и ремонте всего
электрооборудования.
3. Они подчиняются всем инструкциям главного механика.
4. Электрик должен получить всю информацию о состоянии всего
электрооборудования перед тем, как заступить на вахту.
5. Во время вахты электрик производит наблюдение за работой оборудования и
приборами.
6. В случае какой-либо неполадки электрик должен сообщить об этом
элекромеханику и одновременно принять меры по определению и устранению причины
неполадки.

11. Speak about duties of ship’s electrician.

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Text 2.

12. Read and translate the text.


Duties of Electrical Engineers.

1. The electrical engineer is subordinated to the chief engineer and is in command of all the
electrical group.
2. The electrical engineer is responsible for the safety engineering rules, service, maintenance
and supervision of the following items of equipment, systems and devices: a) electrical propulsion
plant; b) main and emergency sources of electrical power; c) transformers and convertors used in
equipment, systems and devices; d) 'distribution gear and monitoring desks or panels; e) electric
drives for steering gear, windlasses, mooring winches, towing winches, starting air compressors,
fire pumps and fire-extinguishing system compressors, pumps, fans in machinery spaces, auxiliaries
of the main engine, watertight doors; f) main and emergency lighting of spaces and location of-
essential machinery and means of escape; g) electric engine-room telegraphs; h) service telephone
communication; i) alarm signalling; j) fire detection signalling systems and warning systems
indicating the release of fire smothering medium; k) watertight door signalling; 1) cabling; m) hull
earthing facilities in tankers; n) electric heaters of fuel and lubricating oil and other machinery and
facilities not listed above.
3. The electrical engineer is responsible for the following consumers to be supplied with
electric power: a) steering gear electric drives; b) windlass electric drives; c) fire pump electric
drives; d) electric drives of compressors; e) gyrocompass; f) switchboard of cargo refrigirating
installations; g) electric drives of main propulsion plant excitation units; h) radio station
switchboard; i) navigational equipment switchboard; k) section switchboards and distribution gear
for supplying other essential services concentrated in accordance with similar functions performed;
1) switchboards of automatic gear of fire detection alarm system; m) electric and electronic
equipment; n) design and power supply of automatic system; o) electric and electronic control
systems.
4. The electrical engineer is to make out spare parts Lists for a forthcoming voyage and hand
them to the chief engineer, along with a List of repairs required.
5. The electrical engineer is to ensure the observance of the safety rules, storage regulations,
instructions on operation features, general directions on replacement of faulty components and
observance of directions and instructions not mentioned above.
6. The electrical engineer is to control the observance of safety measures specified in
instructions, to ensure safety of maintenance and operation.
7. The electrical engineer is to ensure scope and schedule of preventive maintenance. The
plan is to be signed by the chief engineer.
8. The electrical engineer is to distribute the work and count the number of working days and
days off of his subordinates. This is to be co-ordinated with the chief engineer as well.
9. The electrical engineer is to fill up all the technical documents concerning electrical
equipment, to make orders for deliveries and repairs.
10. The electrical engineer is to supervise the adequacy of operating electrical equipment by
shore and ship specialists.
11. The electrical engineer is to supervise the operation of cargo-handling facilities.
12. Before the ship leaves the port the electrical engineer is to check the readiness of the
electrical equipment for the voyage and to report the readiness to the chief engineer 30 minutes
before the departure.
13. The electrical engineer is to direct the operation of the ship power plant personally while
leaving or entering a port and while mooring. He is not to leave the engine room but in case of
emergency approved by the chief engineer.
14. The electrical engineer is to take care that the log book is accurately and neatly kept.
Insulation resistance, charging and discharging cells and batteries, operation of bearings and

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securing of the motor, applied grease, basic parameters, faults and their remedies, and other
incidents of the voyage are to be entered into the log book daily. The log book is to be signed by the
chief engineer.
15. The electrical engineer is to organize study of the ship's electrical equipment by the
members of the crew.
16. The electrical engineer is to eliminate personally or with the help of ship's specialists all
the faults in the operation of the electrical equipment.
17. In case of possible alarm in the electrical equipment the electrical engineer is to report it
to the chief engineer and take bold measures to eliminate its cause.

13. Write down electrical items from the text and translate them into Russian.
14. Tell about items of electrical equipment, systems and devices that the electrical
engineer is responsible for.
15. What technical documents is electrical engineer to fill up.
16. Tell about main duties of electrical engineer on board the ship.

Lesson 2.

1. Read the words. Determine prepositions and conjunctions.


Than, as, before, besides, unless, although, beyond, provided, until, save, except, till,
without, whether, inside, against, within, through, because, beneath.

2. Read the word-combinations and determine those with prepositions.


Instead of, provided that, not until, apart from, as long as, between them, owing to, as
soon as, more than, by means of, with a view to, rather than, not so as, for the sake of, providing
that, prior to, as well, in terms of.
3. Read the sentences and define in each of them the meaning of the word “duty”.
1. Don’t trouble him. He’s on duty now.
2. Do it when you are off duty.
3. You may rely on his doing his duty.
4. I’m sorry, but I’m doing my duty.
5. Duties of electricians are to keep everything in running conditions.

4. Checking of the home task.


a) Reading and translating of the home text.
b) Control of electrical items written from the home text.

5. Make up the dialogues under the text “Duties of Electrical Engineers”.

Unit 2.

Elements of functional devices of ship automatics.

Lesson 3.
1. Read and translate the text.
Transducers.

A transducer is a device, usually electrical, electronic, electro-mechanical, electromagnetic,


photonic, or photovoltaic, that converts one type of energy or physical attribute to another for
various purposes including measurement or information transfer (for example: pressure sensors).
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There are three kinds of transducers. A sensor is used to detect a parameter in one form and
report it in another form of energy (usually an electrical or digital signal), such as a tachometer. An
actuator is used for the transformation of energy or in other words, actuator is the one which gets
actuated or stands responsible for the output action, in that it converts electrical signal into generally
nonelectrical energy. An example of an actuator is a loudspeaker which converts an electrical signal
into a variable magnetic field and, subsequently, into acoustic waves. The third kind of transducer
has both functions -- acting as an actuator to produce ultrasonic waves, and acting as a sensor to
detect ultrasonic waves.
Efficiency is an important consideration in any transducer. Transducer efficiency is defined as
the ratio of the power output in the desired form to the total power input. Mathematically, if P
represents the total power input and Q represents the power output in the desired form, then the
efficiency E, as a ratio between 0 and 1, is given by:

E = Q/P

If E% represents the efficiency as a percentage, then:

E% = 100Q/P

No transducer is 100 percent efficient; some power is always lost in the conversion process.
Usually this loss is manifested in the form of heat. Some antennas approach 100-percent efficiency.
A well-designed antenna supplied with 100 watts of radio frequency (RF) power radiates 80 or 90
watts in the form of an electromagnetic field. A few watts are dissipated as heat in the antenna
conductors, the feed line conductors and dielectric, and in objects near the antenna. Among the
worst transducers, in terms of efficiency, are incandescent lamps. A 100-watt bulb radiates only a
few watts in the form of visible light. Most of the power is dissipated as heat; a small amount is
radiated in the UV (ultraviolet) spectrum.

Types of transducers
Electromagnetic:
Antenna - converts electromagnetic waves into electric current and vice versa.
Cathode ray tube (CRT) - converts electrical signals into visual form
Fluorescent lamp, light bulb - converts electrical power into visible light
Magnetic cartridge - converts motion into electrical form
Photodetector or Photoresistor (LDR) - converts changes in light levels into resistance
changes
Tape head - converts changing magnetic fields into electrical form
Hall effect sensor - converts a magnetic field level into electrical form only.
Electrochemical:
pH probes
Electro-galvanic fuel cell
Electromechanical (electromechanical output devices are generically called actuators):
Electroactive polymers
Galvanometer
MEMS
Rotary motor, linear motor
Vibration powered generator
Potentiometer when used for measuring position
Load cell converts force to mV/V electrical signal using strain gauge
Accelerometer
Strain gauge
String Potentiometer

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Air flow sensor
Electroacoustic:
Loudspeaker, earphone - converts electrical signals into sound (amplified signal → magnetic
field → motion → air pressure)
Microphone - converts sound into an electrical signal (air pressure → motion of
conductor/coil → magnetic field → signal)
Pick up (music technology) - converts motion of metal strings into an electrical signal
(magnetism → electricity (signal))
Tactile transducer - converts solid-state vibrations into electrical signal (vibration → signal)
Piezoelectric crystal - converts solid-state electrical moduluations into an electrical signal
(vibration → signal)
Geophone - convert a ground movement (displacement) into voltage - (vibrations → motion
of conductor/coil → magnetic field → signal)
Gramophone pick-up - (air pressure → motion → magnetic field → signal)
Hydrophone - converts changes in water pressure into an electrical form
Sonar transponder (water pressure → motion of conductor/coil → magnetic field → signal)
Photoelectric:
Laser diode, light-emitting diode - convert electrical power into forms of light
Photodiode, photoresistor, phototransistor, photomultiplier tube - converts changing light
levels into electrical form
Electrostatic:
Electrometer
Thermoelectric:
RTD Resistance Temperature Detector
Thermocouple
Peltier cooler
Thermistor (includes PTC resistor and NTC resistor)
Radioacoustic:
Geiger-Müller tube used for measuring radioactivity.
Receiver (radio)

Vocabulary.
Sensor – датчик
Actuator – исполнительное устройство
Subsequently – впоследствии
Cathode ray tube – электронно-лучевая трубка
Tape head – головка для (магнитной) ленты
Hall effect sensor – датчик на эффекте Холла
pH – водородный показатель (отрицательный логарифм концентрации ионов водорода)
pH probes – pH щупы
load cell – датчик нагрузки, динамометрический датчик
strain gauge – измеритель деформации, тензометр
an pick-up – адаптер (звукосниматель)
Peltier cooler – охладитель Пельтье
MEMS – Microelectromechanical System

2. Define the part of speech of the following word combinations.


Electromagnetic, measurement, transfer, detect, actuator, responsible, generally, nonelectrical,
variable, subsequently, wave, third, produce, efficiency, total, ratio, worst.

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3. Restore the sentences.
1. A transducer is a device that __________ (преобразует) one type of energy to another
for various purposes including __________ (измерение) or __________ (передачу информации).
2. A sensor is used __________ (чтобы определять) a parameter in one form and report it
in __________ (другую форму энергии).
3. An actuator is used for __________ (преобразования электрического сигнала в
неэлектрическую энергию.)
4. Transducer efficiency is defined as __________ (отношение выходной мощности к
общей входной мощности.)
5. Some power is __________ (всегда теряется в процессе преобразования.)
6. Among the most transducers,__________ (с точки зрения эффективности), are
__________ (лампы накаливания).
7. A 100 watt bulb radiates only __________ (немного) watt in the form of __________
(видимого света).

4. Find the conformity of translation in the right and left columns.

1. cathode ray tube a) датчик нагрузки


2. light bulb b) датчик на эффекте Холла
3. Hall effect sensor c) светоизлучающий диод
4. electro-galvanic fuel cell d) измеритель деформации
5. pH probes e) электронно-лучевая трубка
6. MEMS f) термометр сопротивления
7. load cell g) сенсорный измерительный
8. accelerometer преобразователь (тактильный)
9. strain gauge h) электро-гальванический
10. tactile transducer элемент питания
11. geophone i) электролампа
12. light-emitting diode j) охлаждающее устройство на
13. Resistance Temperature Detector(электротермическом) эффекте Пельтье
(RTD) k) микроэлектромеханическая
14. Peltier cooler система
l) сейсмограф
m) датчик ускорений, вибраций
n) щупы водородного
показателя

5. Answer the questions.


1. What is a function of any transducer?
2. What kind of devices are they?
3. What are three kinds of transducers?
4. What kind of transducer transforms electrical signal into generally nonelectrical energy?
5. What kind of transducer detects a parameter in one form and reports it in another form of
energy?
6. What does a transducer do when it acts as an actuator and as a sensor?
7. What is an important consideration of any transducer?
8. How is transducer efficiency defined?
9. Why is no transducer 100% efficient?
10. What transducers are the best and the worst in terms of efficiency?
11. What are the main types of transducers?

12
6. Translate into English.
1. Измери́тельный преобразова́тель — техническое средство с нормативными
метрологическими характеристиками, служащее для преобразования измеряемой величины в
другую величину или измерительный сигнал, удобный для обработки, хранения, дальнейших
преобразований, индикации и передачи, но непосредственно не воспринимаемый
оператором. Он или входит в состав какого-либо измерительного прибора (измерительной
установки, измерительной системы и др.), или применяется вместе с каким-либо средством
измерений.
2. Измерительный трансформатор— электрический трансформатор, в котором при
нормальных условиях применения вторичный ток (вторичное напряжение) практически
пропорционален (пропорционально) первичному току (первичному напряжению),
применяется в качестве измерительного преобразователя при измерениях больших токов,
напряжений. У измерительных трансформаторов переменного тока при правильном
включении разность фазовых углов на первичной и вторичной обмотках близка к нулю.
3. Трансформатор напряжения — трансформатор, предназначенный для
преобразования высокого напряжения в низкое в измерительных цепях. Применение
трансформатора напряжения позволяет изолировать логические цепи защиты и цепи
измерения от цепи высокого напряжения.
4. Трансформа́тор то́ка — трансформатор, предназначенный для преобразования тока
до значения, удобного для измерения. Первичная обмотка трансформатора тока включается
последовательно в цепь с измеряемым переменным током, а во вторичную включаются
измерительные приборы. Ток, протекающий по вторичной обмотке трансформатора тока,
пропорционален току, протекающему в его первичной обмотке.

Lesson 4.

1. Translate the following word-combinations into Russian.


A physical quantity, expansion, contraction, calibrated glass tube, a thermocouple, touch-
sensitive elevator buttons, dim, brighten, MEMS technology, sensitivity, deviation, linear,

2. Read and translate the text.

Sensors.

A sensor is a device that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can
be read by an observer or by an instrument. For example, a mercury thermometer converts the
measured temperature into expansion and contraction of a liquid which can be read on a calibrated
glass tube. A thermocouple converts temperature to an output voltage which can be read by a
voltmeter. For accuracy, all sensors need to be calibrated against known standards.

Use
Sensors are used in everyday objects such as touch-sensitive elevator buttons and lamps
which dim or brighten by touching the base. There are also innumerable applications for sensors of
which most people are never aware. Applications include cars, machines, aerospace, medicine,
manufacturing and robotics.
A sensor's sensitivity indicates how much the sensor's output changes when the measured
quantity changes. For instance, if the mercury in a thermometer moves 1 cm when the temperature
13
changes by 1°C, the sensitivity is 1 cm/°C. Sensors that measure very small changes must have very
high sensitivities. Sensors also have an impact on what they measure; for instance, a room
temperature thermometer inserted into a hot cup of liquid cools the liquid while the liquid heats the
thermometer. Sensors need to be designed to have a small effect on what is measured, making the
sensor smaller often improves this and may introduce other advantages. Technological progress
allows more and more sensors to be manufactured on a microscopic scale as microsensors using
MEMS technology. In most cases, a microsensor reaches a significantly higher speed and
sensitivity compared with macroscopic approaches.

Sensor deviations
If the sensor is not ideal, several types of deviations can be observed:
The sensitivity may in practice differ from the value specified. This is called a sensitivity
error, but the sensor is still linear.
Since the range of the output signal is always limited, the output signal will eventually reach a
minimum or maximum when the measured property exceeds the limits. The full scale range defines
the maximum and minimum values of the measured property.
If the output signal is not zero when the measured property is zero, the sensor has an offset or
bias. This is defined as the output of the sensor at zero input.
If the sensitivity is not constant over the range of the sensor, this is called nonlinearity.
Usually this is defined by the amount the output differs from ideal behavior over the full range of
the sensor, often noted as a percentage of the full range.
If the deviation is caused by a rapid change of the measured property over time, there is a
dynamic error. Often, this behaviour is described with a bode plot showing sensitivity error and
phase shift as function of the frequency of a periodic input signal.
If the output signal slowly changes independent of the measured property, this is defined as
drift.
Long term drift usually indicates a slow degradation of sensor properties over a long period of
time.
Noise is a random deviation of the signal that varies in time.
Hysteresis is an error caused by when the measured property reverses direction, but there is
some finite lag in time for the sensor to respond, creating a different offset error in one direction
than in the other.
If the sensor has a digital output, the output is essentially an approximation of the measured
property. The approximation error is also called digitization error.
If the signal is monitored digitally, limitation of the sampling frequency also can cause a
dynamic error.
The sensor may to some extent be sensitive to properties other than the property being
measured. For example, most sensors are influenced by the temperature of their environment.
All these deviations can be classified as systematic errors or random errors. Systematic errors
can sometimes be compensated for by means of some kind of calibration strategy. Noise is a
random error that can be reduced by signal processing, such as filtering, usually at the expense of
the dynamic behaviour of the sensor.

Types
1 Acoustic, sound, vibration
2 Automotive, transportation
3 Chemical
4 Electric current, electric potential, magnetic, radio
5 Environment, weather
6 Flow
7 Ionising radiation, subatomic particles
8 Navigation instruments

14
9 Position, angle, displacement, distance, speed, acceleration
10 Optical, light, imaging
11 Pressure, force, density, level
12 Thermal, heat, temperature
13 Proximity, presence
14 Sensor technology

Vocabulary.
Sensitivity – восприимчивость
Full scale range – полномасштабный диапазон
Bias – смещение, наклон, уклон
Bihaviour – поведение
A bode plot – график Бодэ
Phase shift – изменение фазы
Drift – смещение
Random – случайный, произвольный, беспорядочный
Lag – задержка, отстование

3. Ask questions to the underlined words.


1. A sensor is a device that measures a physical quantity.
2. A sensor converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an instrument.
3. A thermocouple converts temperature to an output voltage which can be read by a
voltmeter.
4. Sensors are used in everyday objects such as touch-sensitive elevator buttons and lamps
which dim or brighten by touching the base.
5. A sensor's sensitivity indicates how much the sensor's output changes when the measured
quantity changes.
6. Sensors need to be designed to have a small effect on what is measured.
7. Technological progress allows more and more sensors to be manufactured on a
microscopic scale as microsensors using MEMS technology.
8. The sensitivity may in practice differ from the value specified. This is called a sensitivity
error.
9. The full scale range defines the maximum and minimum values of the measured property.
10. If the deviation is caused by a rapid change of the measured property over time, there is a
dynamic error.

4. Restore the sentences.


1. A thermocouple converts temperature to _____which can be read by a voltmeter.
2. In most cases, a microsensor reaches _____and sensitivity compared with macroscopic
approaches.
3. If the output signal is not zero when the measured property is zero, the sensor has _____ .
4. If the sensitivity is not _____over the range of the sensor, this is called_____.
5. If _____slowly changes independent of the measured property, this is defined as_____.
6. If the sensor has_____, the output is essentially an approximation of the measured
property.
7. If the signal is monitored digitally, limitation of _____also can cause _____ .
8. The approximation error is also called_____.
9. _____can sometimes be compensated for by means of some kind of _____strategy.

15
10. Noise is _____that can be reduced by signal processing.

5. Translate into English.


1. Датчик, сенсор — термин систем управления, первичный преобразователь, элемент
измерительного, сигнального, регулирующего или управляющего устройства системы,
преобразующий контролируемую величину в удобный для использования сигнал.
2. В настоящее время различные датчики широко используются при построении
систем автоматизированного управления.
3. Датчики являются элементом технических систем, предназначенных для
измерения, сигнализации, регулирования, управления устройствами или процессами.
4. Датчики преобразуют контролируемую величину (давление, температура, расход,
концентрация, частота, скорость, перемещение, напряжение, электрический ток и т. п.) в
сигнал (электрический, оптический, пневматический), удобный для измерения, передачи,
преобразования, хранения и регистрации информации о состоянии объекта измерений.
5. Обобщающий термин датчик укрепился в связи с развитием автоматических
систем управления, как элемент обобщенной логической концепции датчик — устройство
управления — исполнительное устройство — объект управления.
6. Понятие датчика по практической направленности и деталям технической
реализации близко к понятиям измерительный инструмент и измерительный прибор, но для
этих устройств преобладает аспект их использования человеком, а датчики, как правило,
используются в автоматическом режиме.

Lesson 5.

1. Translate the following word-combinations into Russian.


The input frequency, the transfer function, the gain, the frequency range, individual headings,
low-power applications, to crossover, a higher quiescent current, a subset.

2. Read and translate the text.


Amplifier

Generally, an amplifier or simply amp, is any device that changes, usually increases, the
amplitude of a signal. The relationship of the input to the output of an amplifier—usually expressed
as a function of the input frequency—is called the transfer function of the amplifier, and the
magnitude of the transfer function is termed the gain.
In popular use, the term usually refers to an electronic amplifier where the input "signal" is
usually voltage or current. In audio applications they are used to operate a loudspeaker that is being
used in a PA system to make the human voice louder or play recorded music. Amplifiers may be
classified by the input (source) they are designed to amplify (such as a guitar amplifier to perform
with an electric guitar), or named for the device they are intended to drive (such as a headphone
amplifier), or by the frequency range of the signals (Audio, IF, RF and VHF amplifiers for
example), or grouped by whether they invert the signal (inverting amplifiers and non-inverting
amplifiers), or by the types of device used in the amplification (valve or tube amplifiers, FET
amplifiers, etc.).
A related device that emphasizes conversion of signals of one type to another (for example, a
light signal in photons to a DC signal in amperes) is a transducer, a transformer, or a sensor.
However, none of these amplify power.

16
Power amplifier classes

Angle of flow or conduction angle.

Power amplifier circuits (output stages) are classified as A, B, AB and C for analog designs,
and class D and E for switching designs based upon the conduction angle or angle of flow, Θ, of the
input signal through the (or each) output amplifying device, that is, the portion of the input signal
cycle during which the amplifying device conducts. The image of the conduction angle is derived
from amplifying a sinusoidal signal. (If the device is always on, Θ = 360°.) The angle of flow is
closely related to the amplifier power efficiency. The various classes are introduced below,
followed by more detailed discussion under individual headings later on.
Class A
100% of the input signal is used (conduction angle Θ = 360° or 2π; i.e., the active element
remains conducting works in its "linear" range all of the time). Where efficiency is not a
consideration, most small signal linear amplifiers are designed as Class A. Class A amplifiers are
typically more linear and less complex than other types, but are very inefficient. This type of
amplifier is most commonly used in small-signal stages or for low-power applications (such as
driving headphones).
Class B
50% of the input signal is used (Θ = 180° or π; i.e., the active element works in its linear
range half of the time and is more or less turned off for the other half). In most Class B, there are
two output devices (or sets of output devices), each of which conducts alternately (push–pull) for
exactly 180° (or half cycle) of the input signal; selective RF amplifiers can also be implemented
using a single active element.
These amplifiers are subject to crossover distortion if the transition from one active element to
the other is not perfect, as when two complementary transistors (i.e., one PNP, one NPN) are
connected as two emitter followers with their base and emitter terminals in common, requiring the
base voltage to slew across the region where both devices are turned off.
Class AB
Here the two active elements conduct more than half of the time as a means to reduce the
cross-over distortions of Class B amplifiers. In the example of the complementary emitter followers
a bias network allows for more or less quiescent current thus providing an operating point
somewhere between Class A and Class B. Sometimes a figure is added (e.g., AB1 or AB2) with
higher figures implying a higher quiescent current and therefore more of the properties of Class A.
Class D
These use switching to achieve a very high power efficiency (more than 90% in modern
designs). By allowing each output device to be either fully on or off, losses are minimized. The
analog output is created by pulse-width modulation; i.e., the active element is switched on for
shorter or longer intervals instead of modifying its resistor. There are more complicated switching
schemes like sigma-delta modulation, to improve some performance aspects like lower distortions
or better efficiency.
Other classes
There are several other amplifier classes, although they are mainly variations of the previous
classes. For example, Class G and Class H amplifiers are marked by variation of the supply rails (in
discrete steps or in a continuous fashion, respectively) following the input signal. Wasted heat on
the output devices can be reduced as excess voltage is kept to a minimum. The amplifier that is fed
with these rails itself can be of any class. These kinds of amplifiers are more complex, and are
mainly used for specialized applications, such as very high-power units. Also, Class E and Class F
amplifiers are commonly described in literature for radio frequencies applications where efficiency
of the traditional classes in are important, yet several aspects not covered elsewhere deviate
substantially from their ideal values. These classes use harmonic tuning of their output networks to

17
achieve higher efficiency and can be considered a subset of Class C due to their conduction angle
characteristics.
Vocabulary.
To refer to – относиться к
Headphone – наушники
The frequency range – диапазон частоты
To invert – переворачивать, менять направление в обратную сторону
To emphasize – подчеркивать, придавать особое значение
Crossover distortion – угрожающее искажение, пересекающееся искажение
Emitter – излучатель, генератор излучения
To slew – поворачивать, вращать(ся)
To be fully on (off) – быть полностью включенным (выключенным)
Pulse-width modulation – широтно-импульсная модуляция
The supply rails – питающие шины (шины питания)
To deviate – отклонять, менять направление

3. Define, what part of speech following words concern.


Generally, an amplifier, magnitude, amplify, whether, invert, conversion, several, although,
previous, variation, harmonic, efficiency, high.

4. Fill admissions with necessary prepositions.


1. Power amplifier circuits (output stages) are classified _____ A, B, AB and C _____ analog
designs, and class D _____ E _____ switching designs based _____ the conduction angle _____
angle of flow, Θ, of the input signal _____ the (or each) output amplifying device, that is, the
portion _____ the input signal cycle during which the amplifying device conducts.

2. These amplifiers are subject _____ crossover distortion if the transition _____ one active
element _____ the other is not perfect, as _____ two complementary transistors are connected as
two emitter followers _____ their base and emitter terminals _____ common, requiring the base
voltage to slew across the region _____ both devices are turned off.

3. These use switching to achieve a very high power efficiency. _____ allowing each output
device to be _____ fully on _____ off, losses are minimized. The analog output is created _____
pulse-width modulation; i.e., the active element is switched on _____ shorter or longer intervals
_____ modifying its resistor. There are more complicated switching schemes like sigma-delta
modulation, to improve some performance aspects like lower distortions _____ better efficiency.

4. Also, Class E and Class F amplifiers are commonly described _____ literature _____ radio
frequencies applications _____ efficiency _____ the traditional classes in are important, yet several
aspects not covered elsewhere.

5. Fill admissions by translating the word-combinations from Russian into English.


1. The relationship of the input to the output of an amplifier is called _________
(передаточная функция) of the amplifier, and the magnitude of the transfer function is termed
_________ (коэффициент усиления).
2. Amplifiers may be classified by ________ (источнику) they are designed to amplify or
named for the device___________ (которое они предназначены приводить в действие), or by
__________ (частотный диапазон) of the signals, or grouped by whether __________ (они
инвертируют (обращают) сигнал) (inverting amplifiers and non-inverting amplifiers), or
___________ (по типу приборов, используемых) in the amplification.

18
3. ____________ (Усилители мощности цепей) (output stages) are classified as A, B, AB
and C for_________ (аналоговая конструкция), and class D and E for (конструкция
переключения).
4. Class A amplifiers are typically _________ (более линейные) and ___________ (менее
сложные) than other types, but are very inefficient.
5. These amplifiers are subject to ___________ (угрожающему искажению) if the
transition from one active element to the other is not perfect.
6. By allowing each output device to be either fully on or off, ___________ (потери) are
minimized.
7. Class G and Class H amplifiers are marked by variation of ___________ (питающие
шины) (in discrete steps or in a continuous fashion, respectively) following the input signal.
8. These classes use _______________ (синусоидальную величину) of their output
networks to achieve higher efficiency.

6. Answer the questions.


1. What is the function of an amplifier?
2. What is the relationship of the input o the output of an amplifier called?
3. How may amplifiers be classified by?
4. What are related device which emphasize conversion of signals of one type to another?
5. What do they differ in from an amplifier?
6. How are power amplifier circuits classified?
7. What angle is closely related to the amplifier power efficiency?
8. Explain in some words the power amplifier classes.
9. What are other amplifier classes?
10. What can you tell about the amplifier that is fed with the supply rails.

7. Tell about various classes of amplifiers.

8. Translate into English.


1.Измери́тельный усили́тель — электронный усилитель, применяемый в процессе
измерений и обеспечивающий точную передачу электрического сигнала в заданном
масштабе.
2.Измерительные усилители применяются в качестве предварительных усилителей
слабых сигналов постоянного и переменного токов, а также в качестве выходных усилителей
мощности. Их чувствительность по току достигает значений 10-15 А, а по напряжению —
нескольких микровольт. Усилители, предназначеные для повышения мощности источников
звукового и ультразвукового диапазонов, имеют выходную мощность 4 — 6 Вт.
3.Некоторые усилители имеют встроенные индикаторы уровня, позволяющие
определять значение входного сигнала.
4.Магнитным усилителем называется электромагнитное устройство, с помощью
которого слабый электрический сигнал (например, незначительное изменение э. д. с,
напряжения или тока) может быть преобразован в сигнал значительно большей мощности.
5.класс «A» — аналоговая обработка сигнала, линейный режим работы усилительного
элемента
класс «AB» — аналоговая обработка сигнала, режим работы с большим углом отсечки
(>90°)

19
класс «B» — аналоговая обработка сигнала, режим работы с углом отсечки равным 90°
класс «C» — аналоговая обработка сигнала, режим работы с малым углом отсечки
(<90°)
класс «D» — аналоговая обработка сигнала, усилительный элемент работает в
ключевом режиме, скважность импульсов изменяется в соответствии с текущим значением
входного сигнала линейно, не имея дискретных значений, применяется широтно-импульсная
модуляция, усилительный элемент работает в ключевом режиме.

Lesson 6.

1. Translate into Russian the following word-combinations.


To be wound, side by side, a donut shape, ferromagnetic core, the right-hand rule, a
continuous supply of electrical energy, tiny magnets, flow of positive charge, the wire wrapped
around the iron.

2. Read and translate the text.


Electromagnet.
Electromagnet is a type of magnet in which the magnetic field is produced by the flow of
electric current. The magnetic field disappears when the current ceases.
A wire with an electric current passing through it, generates a magnetic field around it, this
is a simple electromagnet. The strength of magnetic field generated is proportional to the amount of
current.
In order to concentrate the magnetic field generated by a wire, it is commonly wound into
a coil, where many turns of wire sit side by side. The magnetic field of all the turns of wire passes
through the center of the coil. A coil forming the shape of a straight tube, a helix (similar to a
corkscrew) is called a solenoid; a solenoid that is bent into a donut shape so that the ends meet is a
toroid. Much stronger magnetic fields can be produced if a "core" of ferromagnetic material, such as
soft iron, is placed inside the coil. The ferromagnetic core magnifies the magnetic field to thousands
of times the strength of the field of the coil alone, due to the high magnetic permeability μ of the
ferromagnetic material. This is called a ferromagnetic-core or iron-core electromagnet.
The direction of the magnetic field through a coil of wire can be found from a form of the
right-hand rule. If the fingers of the right hand are curled around the coil in the direction of current
flow (conventional current, flow of positive charge) through the windings, the thumb points in the
direction of the field inside the coil. The side of the magnet that the field lines emerge from is
defined to be the north pole.
The main advantage of an electromagnet over a permanent magnet is that the magnetic field
can be rapidly manipulated over a wide range by controlling the amount of electric current.
However, a continuous supply of electrical energy is required to maintain the field.
The material of the core of the magnet (usually iron) is composed of small regions called
magnetic domains that act like tiny magnets (see ferromagnetism). Before the current in the
electromagnet is turned on, the domains in the iron core point in random directions, so their tiny
magnetic fields cancel each other out, and the iron has no large scale magnetic field. When a current
is passed through the wire wrapped around the iron, its magnetic field penetrates the iron, and
causes the domains to turn, aligning parallel to the magnetic field, so their tiny magnetic fields add
to the wire's field, creating a large magnetic field that extends into the space around the magnet. The
larger the current passed through the wire coil, the more the domains align, and the stronger the
magnetic field is. Finally all the domains are aligned and further increases in current only cause
slight increases in the magnetic field: this phenomenon is called saturation.
When the current in the coil is turned off, most of the domains lose alignment and return to a
random state and the field disappears. However in some materials some of the alignment persists,
because the domains have difficulty turning their direction of magnetization, leaving the core a

20
weak permanent magnet. This phenomenon is called hysteresis and the remaining magnetic field is
called remanent magnetism. The residual magnetization of the core can be removed by degaussing.
Vocabulary.
A helix – винтовая линия, спираль
A donut shape – кольцевая форма
A toroid – тороид, тородоидальный сердечник
The crosse – крест, пересечение, крестовина
The dot - точка
Random direction – произвольное направление
To align - выравнивать
To degauss – размагничивать

3. Define the part of speech of the following words.


Flow, magnetic, through, around, proportional, in order to, many, strength, coil, donut,
stronger, permeability, ferromagnetic, advantage, winding, permanent, maintain, act, tiny, domain.

4. Find the right translation of the giving words.


1. the strength of the magnetic field a) выравнивать
2. a coil b) случайное направление
3. a donut shape c) закручивать(ся) в спираль
4. ferromagnetic material d) насыщение
5. iron-core electromagnet e) размагничивание
6. curl f) кольцевая форма
7. magnetic domain g) электромагнит с железным
сердечником
8. random direction h) катушка
9. align i) напряженность магнитного поля
10. saturation j) ферромагнитный материал
11. degaussing k) магнитный домен, область в
ферромагнитном кристалле, в которой существует самопроизвольная намагниченность при
температуре ниже температуры Кюри.

5. Fill in the missing words. Define the prepositions and conjunctions among them.
1. Electromagnet is a type ___ magnet in which the magnetic field is produced ___ the flow
of electric current.
2. A wire ___ an electric current passing ___ it, generates a magnetic field ___ it.
3. ___ concentrate the magnetic field generated by a wire, it is commonly wound ___ a coil,
___ many turns of wire sit side by side.
4. Much stronger magnetic fields can be produced ___ a "core" of ferromagnetic material,
such as soft iron, is placed ___ the coil.
5. The material ___ the core ___ the magnet (usually iron) is composed ___ small regions
called magnetic domains.
6. ___ the current in the electromagnet is turned on, the domains in the iron core point ___
random directions.
7. ___ some materials some of the alignment persists, ___ the domains have difficulty turning
their direction of magnetization, leaving the core a weak permanent magnet.

6. Restore the sentences.


1. The magnetic field __________ (исчезает) when the current __________
(приостанавливается).
2. __________ (напряженность) of magnetic field generated is proportional to __________
(количеству тока).

21
3. The magnetic field of all __________ (обмоток провода) passes through the center of the
coil.
4. __________ (ферромагнитный сердечник) magnifies __________ (магнитное поле) to
thousands of times the strength of the field of the coil alone.
5. The direction of the magnetic field through a coil of wire can be found __________ ( на
основе правила правой руки).
6. The material of the core of the magnet (usually iron) is composed of small regions called
__________ (магнитные домены) that act like tiny magnets (see ferromagnetism).
7. __________ (Чем больше) the current passed through the wire coil, __________ (тем
больше) the domains align, and __________ (тем сильнее) the magnetic field is.
8. __________ (Остаточная намагниченность) of the core can be removed by __________
(размагничиванием).

7. Define the explanation of the following terms.


1. Electromagnet is a type of magnet in which the magnetic field is produced by the flow of
electric current.
2. A wire with an electric current passing through it, generates a magnetic field around it.
3. A coil forming the shape of a straight tube, a helix (similar to a corkscrew).
4. The ferromagnetic core magnifies the magnetic field to thousands of times the strength of
the field of the coil alone, due to the high magnetic permeability μ of the ferromagnetic material.
5. The material of the core of the magnet (usually iron) is composed of small regions that act
like tiny magnets (see ferromagnetism).
6. Finally all the domains are aligned and further increases in current only cause slight
increases in the magnetic field.
7. In some materials some of the alignment persists, because the domains have difficulty
turning their direction of magnetization, leaving the core a weak permanent magnet.
a) A solenoid.
b) Saturation.
c) A simple electromagnet.
d) Hysteresis
e) Electromagnet
f) Magnetic domains
g) A ferromagnetic-core or iron-core electromagnet

8. Answer the questions.


1. What is the main purpose of an electromagnet?
2. When does the magnetic field disappear?
3. Why is the magnetic field generated by a wire commonly wound into a coil?
4. What coil is called a solenoid?
5. When can much stronger magnetic fields be produced?
6. What is the quantity of the magnetic field magnified by the ferromagnetic core?
7. What rule can be applied to find the direction of the magnetic field? Explain this rule.
8. What is the advantage of an electromagnet over a permanent magnet?
9. What is called a magnetic domain?
10. Tell about the domains alignment.
11. When do the domains lose alignment?
12. What phenomenon is called hysteresis?
13. What can the residual magnetization of the core be removed by?

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9. Translate into English.
1. Электромагнит — устройство, создающее магнитное поле при прохождении
электрического тока.
2. Обычно электромагнит состоит из обмотки и ферромагнитного сердечника,
который приобретает свойства магнита при прохождении по обмотке тока.
3. В электромагнитах, предназначенных, прежде всего, для создания механического
усилия также присутствует якорь (подвижная часть магнитопровода), передающий усилие.
4. Обмотки электромагнитов изготовляют из изолированного алюминиевого или
медного провода, хотя есть и сверхпроводящие электромагниты. Магнитопроводы
изготовляют из магнитно-мягких материалов — обычно из электротехнической или
качественной конструкционной стали, литой стали и чугуна, железоникелевых и
железокобальтовых сплавов.
5. Солено́ид (от греч. σωλήνας — трубка, είδος — вид), — катушка провода,
намотанного на цилиндрическую поверхность.
6. Если длина соленоида намного больше его диаметра и не используется магнитный
материал, то при протекании тока по обмотке внутри катушки создаётся магнитное поле,
направленное вдоль оси, которое однородно и для постоянного тока по величине равно
7. В нейтральных электромагнитах постоянного тока сила притяжения зависит только
от величины тока в обмотке и не зависит от направления тока.
8. В электромагнитах переменного тока питание обмотки осуществляется от источника
переменного тока, магнитный поток периодически изменяется по величине и направлению, а
однонаправленная сила притяжения меняется только по величине, в результате чего сила
притяжения пульсирует от нуля до максимального значения с удвоенной частотой по
отношению к частоте питающего тока.

Lesson 7-8.
Homereading.
Measuring devices.
An ammeter is a measuring instrument used to measure the electric current in a circuit.
Electric currents are measured in amperes (A), hence the name. Smaller values of current can be
measured using a milliameter or a microammeter.
The earliest design is the D'Arsonval galvanometer or moving coil ammeter. It uses magnetic
deflection, where current passing through a coil causes the coil to move in a magnetic field. The
voltage drop across the coil is kept to a minimum to minimize resistance across the ammeter in any
circuit into which it is inserted.
Moving iron ammeters use a piece of iron which moves when acted upon by the
electromagnetic force of a fixed coil of wire. This type of meter responds to both direct and
alternating currents (as opposed to the moving coil ammeter, which works on direct current only).
To measure larger currents, a resistor called a shunt is placed in parallel with the meter. Most
of the current flows through the shunt, and only a small fraction flows through the meter. This
allows the meter to measure large currents. Traditionally, the meter used with a shunt has a full-
scale deflection (FSD) of 50 mV, so shunts are typically designed to produce a voltage drop of 50
mV when carrying their full rated current.
Zero-center ammeters are used for applications requiring current to be measured with both
polarities, common in scientific and industrial equipment. Zero-center ammeters are also commonly
placed in series with a battery. In this application, the charging of the battery deflects the needle to
one side of the scale (commonly, the right side) and the discharging of the battery deflects the
needle to the other side.
Digital ammeter designs use an analog to digital converter (ADC) to measure the voltage
across the shunt resistor; the digital display is calibrated to read the current through the shunt.

23
A current sensor is a device that detects electrical current (AC or DC) in a wire, and
generates a signal proportional to it.
The sensed current and the output signal can be:
AC current input, analog output, which duplicates the wave shape of the sensed current
unipolar output, which is proportional to the average or RMS value of the sensed current
DC current input, unipolar, with a unipolar output, which duplicates the wave shape of the
sensed current bipolar output, which duplicates the wave shape of the sensed current
digital output, which switches when the sensed current exceeds a certain threshold

A galvanometer is a type of ammeter: an instrument for detecting and measuring electric


current. It is an analog electromechanical transducer that produces a rotary deflection of some type
of pointer in response to electric current flowing through its coil. The term has expanded to include
uses of the same mechanism in recording, positioning, and servomechanism equipment.

A Hall Probe is a semiconductor-based detector which uses the Hall effect to allow the
strength of a magnetic field to be measured.
The Hall Probe is a device that is used to measure magnetic field. It contains an indium
compound crystal mounted on an aluminium backing plate, and encapsulated in the probe head. The
plane of the crystal is perpendicular to the probe handle. Connecting leads from the crystal are
brought down through the handle to the circuit box.
When the Hall Probe is held so that the magnetic field lines are passing at right angles
through the sensor of the probe, the meter gives a reading of the value of magnetic flux density (B).
A current is passed through the crystal which, when placed in a magnetic field has a “Hall Effect”
voltage developed across it. The Hall Effect is seen when a conductor is passed through a uniform
magnetic field. The natural electron drift of the charge carriers causes the magnetic field to apply a
Lorentz force (the force exerted on a charged particle in an electromagnetic field) to these charge
carriers. The result is what is seen as a charge separation, with a build up of either positive or
negative charges on the bottom or on the top of the plate. The crystal measures 5 mm square. The
probe handle, being made of a non-ferrous material, has no disturbing effect on the field.

An electrometer is an electrical instrument for measuring electric charge or electrical


potential difference. There are many different types, ranging from historical hand-made mechanical
instruments to high-precision electronic devices. Modern electrometers based on vacuum tube or
solid state technology can be used to make voltage and charge measurements with very low leakage
currents, down to 1 femtoampere. A simpler but related instrument, the electroscope, works on
similar principles but only indicates the relative magnitudes of voltages or charges.

A magnetic anomaly detector (MAD) is an instrument used to detect minute variations in


the Earth's magnetic field. The term refers specifically to magnetometers used by military forces to
detect submarines (a mass of ferromagnetic material creates a detectable disturbance in the
magnetic field); the military MAD gear is a descendent of geomagnetic survey instruments used to
search for minerals by the disturbance of the normal earth-field.

A magnetometer is a scientific instrument used to measure the strength and/or direction of


the magnetic field in the vicinity of the instrument. Magnetism varies from place to place and
differences in Earth's magnetic field (the magnetosphere) can be caused by the differing nature of
rocks and the interaction between charged particles from the Sun and the magnetosphere of a planet.
Magnetometers are often a frequent component instrument on spacecraft that explore planets.

Metal detectors use electromagnetic induction to detect metal. Uses include de-mining (the
detection of land mines), the detection of weapons such as knives and guns, especially at airports,
geophysical prospecting, archaeology and treasure hunting. Metal detectors are also used to detect

24
foreign bodies in food, and in the construction industry to detect steel reinforcing bars in concrete
and pipes and wires buried in walls and floors.
The simplest form of a metal detector consists of an oscillator producing an alternating
current that passes through a coil producing an alternating magnetic field. If a piece of electrically
conductive metal is close to the coil, eddy currents will be induced in the metal, and this produces
an alternating magnetic field of its own. If another coil is used to measure the magnetic field (acting
as a magnetometer), the change in the magnetic field due to the metallic object can be detected.

A multimeter or a multitester, also known as a volt/ohm meter or VOM, is an electronic


measuring instrument that combines several measurement functions in one unit. A typical
multimeter may include features such as the ability to measure voltage, current and resistance.
There are two categories of multimeters, analog multimeters (or analogue multimeters in British
English) and digital multimeters (often abbreviated DMM or DVOM.)
A multimeter can be a hand-held device useful for basic fault finding and field service work
or a bench instrument which can measure to a very high degree of accuracy. They can be used to
troubleshoot electrical problems in a wide array of industrial and household devices such as
batteries, motor controls, appliances, power supplies, and wiring systems. A multimeter is a device
that can measure voltage, current and resistance.
Multimeters are available in a wide ranges of features and prices. Cheap multimeters can cost
less than US$10, while the top of the line multimeters can cost more than US$5000.

An ohmmeter is an electrical instrument that measures electrical resistance, the opposition to


an electric current. Micro-ohmmeters (microhmmeter or microohmmeter) make low resistance
measurements. Megohmmeters (aka megaohmmeter or in the case of a trademarked device Megger)
measure large values of resistance. Measured in ohms (Ω).
The original design of an ohmmeter provided a small battery to apply a voltage to a
resistance. It used a galvanometer to measure the electric current through the resistance. The scale
of the galvanometer was marked in ohms, because the fixed voltage from the battery assured that as
resistance decreased, the current through the meter would increase.
A more accurate type of ohmmeter has an electronic circuit that passes a constant current (I)
through the resistance, and another circuit that measures the voltage (V) across the resistance.

A voltmeter is an instrument used for measuring the electrical potential difference between
two points in an electric circuit. Analog voltmeters move a pointer across a scale in proportion to
the voltage of the circuit; digital voltmeters give a numerical display of voltage by use of an analog
to digital converter.

Voltmeters are made in a wide range of styles. Instruments permanently mounted in a panel
are used to monitor generators or other fixed apparatus. Portable instruments, usually equipped to
also measure current and resistance in the form of a multimeter, are standard test instruments used
in electrical and electronics work. Any measurement that can be converted to a voltage can be
displayed on a meter that is suitably calibrated; for example, pressure, temperature, flow or level in
a chemical process plant.

An electric meter or energy meter is a device that measures the amount of electrical energy
supplied to or produced by a residence, business or machine.
The most common type is a kilowatt hour meter. When used in electricity retailing, the
utilities record the values measured by these meters to generate an invoice for the electricity. They
may also record other variables including the time when the electricity was used.

25
Vocabulary.
Magnetic deflection – магнитное отклонение
A shunt – шунт
Full-scale reflection (FSD) – отклонение на полную шкалу
mV – millivolt – милливольт (единица измерения напряжения тока, равная одной
тысячной
вольта)
Zero-center ammeter – двусторонний амперметр, амперметр с нулем в центре шкалы
An analogue to digital converter (ADC) – аналого-цифровой преобразователь
To duplicate – дублировать, копировать, повторять
RMS value (root-mean square value) – среднеквадратическое значение
Threshold – предел, порог, исходная точка
Hall Probe – магнитометр на основе эффекта Холла
To encapsulate – герметизировать, заключить в капсулу
The probe handle – ручка щупа (пробника)
A charge carrier – носитель заряда
Femtoampere – фемтоамперметр (femto- образует названия единиц измерения со
значением 10
Magnetic anomaly detector (MAD) – магнитометр для обнаружения магнитных аномалий
Eddy current – вихревой ток

I. Выберите правильный ответ на следующие вопросы, указав соответствующий


буквенный индекс.
1. What does an ammeter measure?
a) It measures the density of electric flux in a circuit.
b) It measures the electric current in a circuit.
c) It measures the direction of the electric current in a circuit.
2. Why is the voltage drop across the coil kept to a minimum?
a) To minimize resistance across the ammeter in a circuit into which it is inserted.
b) To minimize the voltage across the voltmeter in a circuit into which it is inserted.
c) To increase the resistance across the voltmeter in a circuit into which it is inserted.
3. What type of current does moving iron ammeter respond to?
a) It responds to direct current.
b) It responds to both direct and alternating currents.
c) It responds to alternating current.
4. What does a galvanometer produce?
a) It produces the fixation of a pointer in response to electric current flowing through its coil.
b) It produces a random motion of a pointer in response to electric current flowing through its
coil.
c) It produces a rotary deflection of a pointer in response to electric current flowing through
its coil.
5. What does a Hall Probe measure?
a) It measures the strength of an electric current.
b) It measures the strength of a magnetic field.
c) It measures the strength of a resistance difference in a circuit.
6. When is the Hall Effect seen?
a) When a conductor is passed through an uniform magnetic field.
b) When a conductor is passed through a circuit at a given interval of time.
c) When a conductor is passed through an excite coil.
7. What are modern electrometers used to do?
a) They are used to make resistance measurement with very high leakage currents.
b) They are used to make current measurements with very low leakage voltage.

26
c) They are used to make voltage and charge measurements with very low leakage currents.
8. At what condition will eddy current be induced in the metal?
a) If a piece of electrically conductive metal is close to the coil.]
b) If a piece of electrically conductive metal is close to the metal detector.
c) If a piece of electrically conductive metal is close to the charged particle.
9. What does the fixed voltage from the battery assure?
a) It assures that as resistance decreased, the current through the meter would decrease.
b) It assures that as resistance decreased, the current through the meter would increase.
c) It assures that as resistance decreased, the current through the meter would increase.
10. In what direction is a pointer moved when using analog voltmeter?
a) Analog voltmeter moves a pointer across a scale in proportion to the voltage of the circuit.
b) Analog voltmeter moves a pointer across a scale in proportion to the current of the circuit.
c) Analog voltmeter moves a pointer across a scale in proportion to the resistance of the
circuit.

II. Определите, что измеряет каждый из предложенных измерительных


приборов. Выберите правильный ответ, указав соответствующий буквенный индекс.
1. An ammeter
2. A current sensor
3. A galvanometer
4. A Hall Probe
5. An electrometer
6. A magnetic anomaly detector
7. A magnetometer
8. A multimeter
9. An ohmmeter
10. A voltmeter
11. An electric meter

a) A scientific instrument used to measure the strength and/or direction of the magnetic field
in the vicinity of the instrument.
b) An instrument used for measuring the electrical potential difference between two points
in an electric circuit.
c) A device that is used to measure magnetic field.
d) An instrument used to detect minute variations in the Earth's magnetic field.
e) A device that measures the amount of electrical energy supplied to or produced by a
residence, business or machine.
f) An electrical instrument that measures electrical resistance, the opposition to an electric
current.
g) A measuring instrument used to measure the electric current in a circuit.
h) This device may include features such as the ability to measure voltage, current and
resistance.
i) An electrical instrument for measuring electric charge or electrical potential difference.
j) A device that detects electrical current (AC or DC) in a wire, and generates a signal
proportional to it.
k) A type of ammeter: an instrument for detecting and measuring electric current.

III. Из предложенных предлогов выберите тот, который соответствует


содержанию предложений текста.
1. Digital ammeter designs use an analog to digital converter (ADC) to measure the
voltage ___ the shunt resistor.

27
a) across b) in c) by
2. Galvanometer is an analog electromechanical transducer that produces a rotary
deflection of some type of pointer in response to electric current flowing ___ its coil.
a) at b) between c) through
3. Connecting leads from the crystal are brought down through the handle to the circuit
box.
a) from b) as c) on
4. There are many different types, ranging ___ historical hand-made mechanical
instruments to high-precision electronic devices.
a) by b) from c) in
5. The simplest form of a metal detector consists ___ an oscillator producing an
alternating current that passes through a coil producing an alternating magnetic field.
a) at b) of c) through
6. A multimeter can be a hand-held device useful ___ basic fault finding.
a) at b) by c) for
7. The original design of an ohmmeter provided a small battery to apply a voltage ___ a
resistance.
a) to b) in c) of
8. Any measurement that can be converted to a voltage can be displayed ___ a meter that
is suitably calibrated.
a) at b) on c) by

IV. Выберите из предложенных слов то, которое пропущено в каждом


предложении.
1. To measure larger currents, a resistor called _____ is placed in parallel with the meter.
2. The digital display _____ to read the current through the shunt.
3. The probe handle, being made of _____, has no disturbing effect on the field.
4. Modern electrometers based on _____ can be used to make voltage and charge
measurements with very low leakage currents.
5. The military MAD gear is a descendent of _____ used to search for minerals by the
disturbance of the normal earth-field.
6. Magnetometers are often a frequent component instrument on _____ that explore planets.
7. Multimeters can be used to _____ electrical problems in a wide array of industrial and
household devices.
8. A more accurate type of ohmmeter has an electronic circuit that passes a constant _____
through the resistance.
geomagnetic survey instruments, a non-ferrous material, troubleshoot, a shunt, current,
spacecraft, is calibrated, vacuum tube or solid state technology

V. Переведите на английский язык.

1. Амперме́тр — прибор для измерения силы тока в амперах.


2 В электрическую цепь амперметр включается последовательно с тем участком
электрической цепи, силу тока в котором измеряют; для увеличения предела измерений — с
шунтом или через трансформатор.
3. Электромагнитный гальванометр содержит неподвижную катушку с током и
подвижный магнит (в приборах постоянного тока) или сердечник из магнитомягкого
материала (для приборов, измеряющих и постоянный, и переменный ток), втягиваемый в
катушку или поворачивающийся относительно неё.
4. Вольтметр — измерительный прибор непосредственного отсчёта для определения
напряжения или ЭДС в электрических цепях. Подключается параллельно нагрузке или
источнику электрической энергии.

28
5. Омме́тр — измерительный прибор непосредственного отсчёта для определения
электрических активных (омических) сопротивлений. Обычно измерение производится по
постоянному току, однако, в некоторых электронных омметрах возможно использование
переменного тока.
6. Мультиме́тр — электронный измерительный прибор, объединяющий в себе
несколько функций. В минимальном наборе это вольтметр, амперметр и омметр.
Существуют цифровые и аналоговые мультиметры.
7. Эффе́кт Хо́лла — явление возникновения поперечной разности потенциалов
(называемой также Холловским напряжением) при помещении проводника с постоянным
током в магнитное поле. Открыт Э. Холлом в 1879 году в тонких пластинках золота

Unit 3.
Ships Electrical Power Plants.

Lesson 9.

1. Translate the following word-combinations into Russian.


Reverse conversion, pump, turbine steam engine, internal combustion engine, stationary
structure, steam power plant, combined-cycle gas turbine, to range, island power plant, bus0bar
voltage, engine fuel control, auxiliary power unit.

2. Read and translate the text.


Text 2.

Electrical generator.

In electricity generation, an electrical generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to


electrical energy, generally using electromagnetic induction. The reverse conversion of electrical
energy into mechanical energy is done by a motor; motors and generators have many similarities. A
generator forces electric charges to move through an external electrical circuit, but it does not create
electricity or charge, which is already present in the wire of its windings. It is somewhat analogous
to a water pump, which creates a flow of water but does not create the water inside. The source of
mechanical energy may be a reciprocating or turbine steam engine, water falling through a turbine
or waterwheel, an internal combustion engine, a wind turbine, a hand crank, compressed air or any
other source of mechanical energy.

The Dynamo was the first electrical generator capable of delivering power for industry. The
dynamo uses electromagnetic principles to convert mechanical rotation into a pulsing direct electric
current through the use of a commutator. The first dynamo was built by Hippolyte Pixii in 1832.
Through a series of accidental discoveries, the dynamo became the source of many later
inventions, including the DC electric motor, the AC alternator, the AC synchronous motor, and the
rotary converter.
A dynamo machine consists of a stationary structure, which provides a constant magnetic
field, and a set of rotating windings which turn within that field. On small machines the constant
magnetic field may be provided by one or more permanent magnets; larger machines have the
constant magnetic field provided by one or more electromagnets, which are usually called field
coils.
Large power generation dynamos are now rarely seen due to the now nearly universal use of
alternating current for power distribution and solid state electronic AC to DC power conversion.

29
But before the principles of AC were discovered, very large direct-current dynamos were the only
means of power generation and distribution. Now power generation dynamos are mostly a curiosity.
Without a commutator, the dynamo is an example of an alternator, which is a synchronous
singly-fed generator. With an electromechanical commutator, the dynamo is a classical direct
current (DC) generator. The alternator must always operate at a constant speed that is precisely
synchronized to the electrical frequency of the power grid for non-destructive operation. The DC
generator can operate at any speed within mechanical limits but always outputs a direct current
waveform.
Other rotating electromagnetic generators
Without a commutator, the dynamo is an example of an alternator, which is a synchronous
singly-fed generator. With an electromechanical commutator, the dynamo is a classical direct
current (DC) generator. The alternator must always operate at a constant speed that is precisely
synchronized to the electrical frequency of the power grid for non-destructive operation. The DC
generator can operate at any speed within mechanical limits but always outputs a direct current
waveform.
Other types of generators, such as the asynchronous or induction singly-fed generator, the
doubly-fed generator, or the brushless wound-rotor doubly-fed generator, do not incorporate
permanent magnets or field windings (i.e, electromagnets) that establish a constant magnetic field,
and as a result, are seeing success in variable speed constant frequency applications, such as wind
turbines or other renewable energy technologies.
The full output performance of any generator can be optimized with electronic control but
only the doubly-fed generators or the brushless wound-rotor doubly-fed generator incorporate
electronic control with power ratings that are substantially less than the power output of the
generator under control, which by itself offer cost, reliability and efficiency benefits.
MHD generator
A magnetohydrodynamic generator directly extracts electric power from moving hot gases
through a magnetic field, without the use of rotating electromagnetic machinery. MHD generators
were originally developed because the output of a plasma MHD generator is a flame, well able to
heat the boilers of a steam power plant. The first practical design was the AVCO Mk. 25, developed
in 1965. The U.S. government funded substantial development, culminating in a 25MW
demonstration plant in 1987. In the Soviet Union from 1972 until the late 1980s, the MHD plant U
25 was in regular commercial operation on the Moscow power system with a rating of 25 MW, the
largest MHD plant rating in the world at that time. MHD generators operated as a topping cycle are
currently (2007) less efficient than combined-cycle gas turbines.
A diesel generator is the combination of a diesel engine with an electrical generator (often
called an alternator) to generate electric energy. Diesel generating sets are used in places without
connection to the power grid or as emergency power-supply if the grid fails. Small portable diesel
generators range from about 1 kVA to 10 kVA may be used as power supplies on construction sites,
or as auxiliary power for vehicles such as mobile homes.
Power plants – electrical “Island” mode.
One or more diesel generators operating without a connection to an electrical grid are
operating in “island” mode. Several parallel generators provides the advantages of redundancy and
better efficiency at part loads. An island power plant intended for primary power source of an
isolated community will often have at least three diesel generators, any two of which are rated to
carry the required load. Groups of up to 20 are not uncommon.
Generators can be electrically connected together through the process of synchronization.
Synchronization involves matching voltage, frequency and phase before connecting the generator to
a live bus-bar. Failure to synchronize before connection could cause a high current short-circuit or
wear and tear on the generator and/or its switchgear. The synchronization process can be done
automatically by an auto-synchronizer module. The auto-synchronizer will read the voltage,
frequency and phase parameters from the generator and bus-bar voltages, while regulating the speed

30
through the engine governor or ECU (Engine Control Module). Typical manufacturers are ComAp,
GAC, Woodward and Heinzman who dominate this market
Load can be shared among parallel running generators through load sharing. Like auto-
synchronization, load sharing can be automated by using a load sharing module. The load sharing
module will measure the load and frequency at the generator, while it constantly adjusts the engine
fuel control to shift load to and from the remaining power sources. As the prime mover of a diesel
generator runs at constant speed, it will take more load when the fuel supply to its combustion
system is increased, while load is released if fuel supply is decreased.
A turbo generator is a turbine directly connected to an electric generator for the generation
of electric power. Large Steam powered turbo generators (steam turbine generators) provide the
majority of the world’s electricity and are also used by steam powered, turbo-electric ships.
Smaller turbo-generators with gas turbines are often used as auxiliary power units. For base
loads diesel generators are usually preferred, since they offer much better fuel-efficiency and are
also more reliable, but on the other hand they are much heavier and need more space.
The efficiency of larger gas turbine plants can be enhanced, if the hot exhaust gases are used
to generate steam which drives another turbo generator.
Shaft generators, which are inserted in the shafting between the main propulsion engine and
propeller, are important source of power on ships. Detailed knowledge of electromagnetic
characteristics of shaft generator is necessary for design complex ship’s power system. Such
knowledge is obtainable only by numerical simulations. Another important problem in design of
shaft generator is dimensioning of cooling system because of limited space for the generator.
Vocabulary.
Similarity – сходство, подобие
Reciprocating – возвратно-поступательное движение
Internal combustion engine – двигатель внутреннего сгорания
Singly-fed generator – однофазный двигатель
Matching voltage – согласующее напряжение
A bus-bar – шина
To enhance – улучшать, усиливать
Exhaust gases – выхлопные газы
Main propulsion engine – главный тяговый двигатель
Dimensioning определение размеров, доведение до нужного размера

3. Translate into English the following word-combinations.


Неэлектрические виды энергии, законы электромагнетизма, пульсирующий
постоянный ток, механический коммутатор, роторный преобразователь, набор вращающихся
обмоток, обмотки возбуждения, Быть синхронизированным с другими генераторами,
постоянная частота вращения ротора, сеть распределения электропитания,
высокотемпературные продукты сгорания, парогазовые электростанции.

4. Restore the sentences with the given words.


1. A generator forces to move _____ through an external electrical circuit, but it does not
create _____ or charge.
2. The source of _____ may be a reciprocating or turbine steam engine, water falling through
a turbine or waterwheel, an internal combustion engine, a wind turbine, a hand crank, compressed
air or any other source of mechanical energy.
3. The dynamo uses _____ to convert mechanical rotation into a pulsing direct electric
current through the use of a commutator.
4. A dynamo machine consists of _____ which provides a constant magnetic field, and _____
which turn within that field.
5. Without a commutator, the dynamo is an example of an alternator, which is _____.
31
6. Small portable diesel generators range from about _____ may be used as power supplies
on construction sites.
7. An island power plant is intended for _____ of an isolated community.
8. Synchronization involves matching voltage, frequency and phase before connecting the
generator to _____.
9. Smaller turbo-generators with gas turbines are often used as _____ .
10. Another important problem in design of shaft generator is _____ because of limited space
for the generator.
A set of rotating windings, a synchronous singly-fed generator, dimensioning of cooling
system, electric charges, a stationary structure, electricity, mechanical energy, electromagnetic
principles,1 kVA to 10 kVA, auxiliary power units, primary power source, a live bus-bar.

5. What kind of generators are these fragments about?


1. This kind of generator is the combination of a diesel engine with an electrical generator
(often called an alternator) to generate electric energy. These generating sets are used in places
without connection to the power grid or as emergency power-supply if the grid fails.
2. This kind of generator uses electromagnetic principles to convert mechanical rotation
into a pulsing direct electric current through the use of a commutator. This machine consists of a
stationary structure, which provides a constant magnetic field, and a set of rotating windings which
turn within that field. Without a commutator, it is an example of an alternator, which is a
synchronous singly-fed generator. With an electromechanical commutator, it is a classical direct
current (DC) generator.
3. This kind of generator is a turbine directly connected to an electric generator for the
generation of electric power. The efficiency of larger plants can be enhanced, if the hot exhaust
gases are used to generate steam which drives another generator.
4. This kind of generator directly extracts electric power from moving hot gases through a
magnetic field, without the use of rotating electromagnetic machinery.
5. These generators which are inserted in the shafting between the main propulsion engine
and propeller, are important source of power on ships. Their important problem in design is
dimensioning of cooling system because of limited space for the generator.

6. Answer the questions.


1. What is the function of an electrical generator?
2. Does a generator create electricity or charge? Why?
3. What are the sources of mechanical energy?
4. What principles does the dynamo use?
5. What are the main parts of a dynamo machine?
6. What is the difference between small and larger machines?
7. Why are large power generation dynamos rarely seen now?
8. When is the dynamo an alternator?
9. What speed can the alternator and the d.c.generator operate at?
10. What other rotating electromagnetic generators can you enumerate?
11. Where does MHD generator extract electric power from?
12. What can you tell about the design of a diesel generator?
13. What places are diesel generators sets are in?
14. How can you explain the term “Island” mode?

32
15. What is the process of synchronization?
16. What can you tell about the load sharing in diesel generator?
17. Why are diesel generators usually preferred for base loads?
18. Where are shaft generators inserted in?

7. Read, translate and learn the dialogue by heart.

THE SHORE POWER SUPPLY


Mr. W i 1 s о n: Mr. Petrov, it's important for us to know what machinery will operate in the
engine-room during the repair works.
C h i e f E n g i n e e r: The bilge and fire pumps will be in a continuous use. As to the
ballast and boiler service pumps they will operate only occasionally.
Mr. W i 1 s о n: And how are you going to feed them?
E l e c t r i c a l E n g i n e e r: Well, the ship will be connected to the shore electrical supply.
Mr. W i 1 s о n: Is your shore-supply board in a good condition?
E l e c t r i c a l E n g i n e e r: Yes, it's О. К. But we have some trouble with the feeder
cable.
Mr. M a x: What's the problem?
E l e c t r i c a l E n g i n e e r: The cable is rather short, about 10 metres long only, and some
difficulties may arise as the ship is lying rather far from the shore power supply.
Mr. M a x: All right. We'll provide you with the cable of necessary length.
E l e c t r i c a l E n g i n e e r: Thank you. You are very helpful.

shore power supply питание с бе- feed v питать, подавать энергию


pera connect v соединять
bilge pump осушительный (трюм- shore-supply board щит питания
ный) насос с берега
fire pump пожарный насос feeder cable питательный кабель
ballast pump балластный насос provide v обеспечивать
occasionally adv время от времени

8. Translate into English.


1. Электри́ческий генера́тор — это устройство, в котором неэлектрические
виды энергии (механическая, химическая, тепловая) преобразуются в электрическую
энергию.
2. До того, как была открыта связь между электричеством и магнетизмом,
использовались электростатические генераторы, которые работали на основе принципов
электростатики.
3. Работа динамо-машины основана на законах электромагнетизма для
преобразования механической энергии в пульсирующий постоянный ток
4. Динамо-машина состоит из статора, который создает постоянное магнитное
поле, и набора вращающихся обмоток, вращающихся в этом поле.
5. Большие мощные динамо-машины сейчас можно редко где увидеть, из-за
большей универсальности использования переменного тока на сетях электропитания и
электронных твердотельных преобразователей постоянного тока в переменный.
6. Генератор переменного тока должен всегда иметь постоянную частоту
вращения ротора и быть синхронизирован с другими генераторами в сети распределения
электропитания.

9. Speak about different means of power generations.

33
Lesson 10.

1. Translate the following word-combinations into Russian.


To supply, to utilize, emergency, lighting, switchboard, to feed, in the event, distinct,
associated, distribution panel, protective fuse, gauge.
2. Read and translate the text.

The ship’s power distribution system.

The ship’s power distribution systems are the connecting link between the generators that
supply electric power and the electrical equipment that utilizes this power. The ship's power
distribution systems are the service power distribution system, and the emergency power
distribution system. Most a.c. power distribution systems on merchant ships are 380-volt, three-
phase, 50-cycle, three-wire systems. The lighting distribution systems can be 110- or 220-volt,
three-phase, 50-cycle, three-wire systems supplied from the power circuits through transformer
banks.
The service power distribution system is the electrical system that normally supplies electric
power to the ship's equipment and machinery. The ship's service generators and distribution
switchboards are interconnected by bus ties so that any switchboard can be connected to feed
power from its generator to one or more of the other switchboards. The bus ties also connect two or
more switchboards so that generator sets can be operated in parallel (or the switchboards can be
isolated for split-plant operation).
In small ships, the transformer banks are located near the generator and distribution
switchboards and energize the switchboard buses that supply the lighting circuits.
The emergency power distribution system is provided to supply an immediate and automatic
source of electric power to a limited number of vital loads or consumers in the event of failure56 of
the ship's service power distribution system. The emergency power system, which is separate and
distinct from the service power distribution system, includes one emergency distribution
switchboard supplied by its associated emergency generator. Each switchboard has feeders, which
run to the bus transfer equipment at the distribution panel or consumers for which emergency power
is provided. The emergency generator and switchboard are located in a separate space from that
containing the service generators and distribution switchboards.
A distribution board (or panelboard) is a component of an electricity supply system which
divides an electrical power feed into subsidiary circuits, while providing a protective fuse or circuit
breaker for each circuit, in a common enclosure. Normally, a main switch, and in recent boards, one
or more Residual-current devices (RCD) or Residual Current Breakers with Overcurrent protection
(RCBO), will also be incorporated.

An electric switchboard is a device that directs electricity from one source to another. It is an
assembly of panels, each of which contain switches that allow electricity to be redirected. The
operator is protected from electrocution by safety switches and fuses.
There can also be controls for the supply of electricity to the switchboard, coming from a
generator or bank of electrical generators, especially frequency control of AC power and load
sharing controls, plus gauges showing frequency and perhaps a synchroscope. The amount of power
going into a switchboard must always equal to the power going out to the loads.
Inside the switchboard there is a bank of busbars - generally wide strips of copper to which
the switchgear is connected. These act to allow the flow of large currents through the switchboard,
and are generally bare and supported by insulators. Power to a switchboard should first be isolated
before a switchboard is opened for maintenance, as the bare Busbars represent a severe
electrocution hazard. Working on a live switchboard is rarely necessary, and if it is done then
precautions should be taken, such as standing on a thick rubber mat, the use of gloves etc.

34
Vocabulary.
Interconnection – межсоединение, разводка
Tie – связь, соединение
Split – разделенный
Energize – подавать питание, присоединять к источнику питания
Feeder – питающая линия, линия передачи
Bare – оголенный
Electrocution hazard – опасность поражения электрическим током

3. Underline the suffixes in the following words, state what part of speech they are.
Supply, electrical, distribution, merchant, lighting, normally, immediate, vital, subsidiary,
protective, breaker, electrocution, especially, inside, necessary, precaution.

4. Insert the necessary preposition: by, in the event of, into, inside, between, near,
from, before, on, for.
1. The ship’s power distribution systems are the connecting link _____ the generators that
supply electric power and the electrical equipment that utilizes this power.
2. Most a.c. power distribution systems _____ merchant ships are 380-volt, three-phase, 50-
cycle, three-wire systems.
3. The ship's service generators and distribution switchboards are interconnected _____
bus ties.
4. In small ships, the transformer banks are located _____ the generator and distribution
switchboards.
5. The emergency power distribution system is provided to supply an immediate and
automatic source of electric power to a limited number of vital loads or consumers _____ failure56
of the ship's service power distribution system.
6. Each switchboard has feeders, which run to the bus transfer equipment at the distribution
panel or consumers _____ which emergency power is provided.
7. A distribution board is a component of an electricity supply system which divides an
electrical power feed _____ subsidiary circuits.
8. The operator is protected _____ electrocution by safety switches and fuses.
9. _____ the switchboard there is a bank of busbars - generally wide strips of copper to
which the switchgear is connected.
10. Power to a switchboard should first be isolated _____ a switchboard is opened for
maintenance.

5. Find the answers in the right column to the questions in the left column.
1.Where are emergency generator set and a) These devices are called the
switchboard located? transformer banks.
2.What is the emergency power b) They allow the flow of large currents
distribution system designed for? through the switchboard.
3.What devices must be connected c) It divides an electrical power feed into
between the power distribution system andsubsidiary circuits.
lighting distribution system?
4.Can generator sets be operated in d) The function of this system is to supply
parallel? electric power to the vital consumers in
emergency.
5.By what means are the service e) They are located in a separate place.

35
generators and switchboards interconnected?
6.What voltage can be used in lighting f) They allow electricity to be redirected.
distribution systems?
7.What is the frequency of shipboard a.c. g) On merchant ships it usually is 380 V.
power distribution systems?
8.What is the voltage of most shipboard h) It is 50 hertz.
a.c. power distribution systems?
9.What does a distribution board divide an i) It can be either 110 V or 220 V.
electrical power feed into?
10.Waht is the purpose of switches on j) They are interconnected by bus ties.
panelboard?
11.What is the purpose of busbars? k) Yes, they can.

6. Read, translate and learn this dialogue.


THE MAIN SWITCHBOARD
C h i e f E n g i n e e r: Now, gentlemen, let's pass on to the electrical equipment. You have
already met Mr. Andreyev, our electrical engineer, and he's ready to answer your questions.
Mr. M a x: First of all we'd like to measure the insulation level of all your generators under
working conditions and the total insulation level of your ship's electrical equipment. Can we do it
tomorrow?
C h i e f E n g i n e e r: Why not? All our engines and the main switchboard are in
operation.
Mr. W i 1 s о n: Mr. Petrov, tell me, please, what repairs are planned about the main
switchboard?
C h i e f E n g i n e e r: We've planned the preventive maintenance of the main
switchboard. It includes checking the contacts and fasteners and cleaning the circuit-breakers,
relays and contactors. Only the instrumentation and several automatic devices are to be replaced.
Mr. M a x: In this case I don't think it's wise to fix the exact time of putting the main
switchboard out of service now. Everything depends on the work progress, doesn't it?
E l e c t r i c a l E n g i n e e r: Oh, yes, it does.

insulation level уровень изоляции fasteners (fastening) крепеж


main switchboard главный рас- (крепежные детали)
пределительный щит circuit-breaker л автомат (авто-
preventive maintenance профи- матический выключатель)
лактический ремонт (обслуживание)

7. Translate into English.


1. Щиты распределительные (щиты ЩР) предназначены для приема и распределения
электрической энергии напряжением 380\220В одно- и трехфазного тока частотой 50 Гц для
защиты отходящих линий при перегрузках и коротких замыканиях, а также для нечастых
оперативных включений и отключений электрических цепей.
2. Главные распределительные щиты ГРЩ предназначены для использования в
качестве распределительных устройств основных источников электрической энергии на
судах морского и речного флота, а также на морских буровых платформах.
3. Районный судовой электрораспределительный щит:
Судовой электрораспределительный щит, предназначенный для распределения
электроэнергии в пределах определенного района и обеспечивающий электроэнергией
несколько отсечных щитов
Примечание. Район судна включает два или более отсеков
4. Отсечный судовой электрораспределительный щит:
36
Судовой электрораспределительный щит, предназначенный для распределения
электроэнергии в пределах определенного отсека судна
5. Групповой судовой электрораспределительный щит:
Судовой электрораспределительный щит, предназначенный для распределения
электроэнергии между группой приемников электроэнергии одинакового назначения
6. Судовой распределительный щит электроснабжения с берега:
Судовой электрораспределительный щит, предназначенный для присоединения
судовых приемников электроэнергии к береговой электрической сети или к аналогичному
устройству другого судна
7. Генераторный судовой щит:
Судовое электротехническое устройство в виде щита, служащее для передачи
электроэнергии от генератора к определенному главному распределительному щиту, а также
для местного управления генератором в тех случаях, когда генератор и главный
распределительный щит размещены размещены в разных отсеках или помещениях судна.
Примечание. От генераторного щита могут получать электропитание отдельные
приемники электроэнергии.
8. Соединительный судовой электрический ящик (щит):
Судовое электротехническое устройство в виде ящика (щита), служащее для
соединения электрических цепей.

Lesson 11.

1. Translate the following word-combinations into Russian.


Plant design, automatic control, for controlling turbo- and diesel-driven electric generating
plant, control equipment, onboard ships, power demand, cause damage, fault occurring, excessive
power, main busbars, danger of black-out, unmanned engine room, classification society, alarm
system, alarm conditions, entirely functional conditions, contact functions.
2. Read and translate the text.

Automatic Control System for Ships Electrical Power Plants.

1. The automatic control system is designed for controlling turbo- and diesel-driven electric
generating plant, predominantly onboard ships. The purpose of the automatic control equipment is
to ensure that the power demand of a ship is generated in an economical manner and also to ensure
that any faults occurring will not cause damage to the machinery. During fully automatic operation
the equipment carries out starting, synchronizing and load sharing on one or several diesel
alternators as the power demand increases, as well as disconnecting and stopping the diesel
alternator in the event of excessive power being available. The starting of turbo alternator is usually
done manually although synchronizing and load sharing is performed automatically. In the event of
a fault on one set, a diesel alternator will automatically be started and connected to the main
busbars. In the event of a serious fault, the set will immediately be disconnected and stopped, this
involving the danger of black-out. At black-out a programmed number of sets will be started and
the set which is first to reach frequency will-be connected to the busbars. The other diesels are then
synchronized in the usual manner. A special unit in the automatic is available for program-blocking
of connection of large loads, thus allowing the automatic equipment to ensure that there is always
sufficient power available before the load is connected.
2. The system is designed for unmanned engine rooms (UER). The only manual operations
needed are: starting up the turbos, selection of the sequence of diesel alternators, blocking of a set

37
whenever this may be required, resetting of start blocking caused by an alarm, choice of a program
with a minimum number of units in operation.
3. The automatic control equipment is designed to meet the requirements made by
classification societies on equipment in unmanned engine rooms. This implies that some of the
functions of the automatic control equipments are monitored so that an alarm will be initiated if the
system is not entirely in functional condition.
4. The automatic control equipment can be connected to the general alarm system on board,
provided that this system is designed for breaking contact functions during alarm conditions.

Main Functions of Automatic Control System for Ships Electrical Power Plants.

The system is designed for the following functions:


1. Prelubrication of stationary diesel alternator sets for adjustable periods and at adjustable
intervals.
2. Starting, synchronizing and load distribution among the sets when a starting order is
received, in accordance with a predetermined program.
3. Unloading, tripping of the circuit breaker and shutting down of a set on receipt of a stop
instruction, in accordance with a predetermined program.
4. Maintaining the frequency of the distribution network constant within ±0.1 Hz regardless of
the load.
5. Issuing starting instructions to diesel sets in accordance with a variable sequence, when the
load on the sets which are then in service exceeds the predetermined level for an adjustable period
of time.
6. Issuing shutting-down instructions to diesel sets in accordance with a variable sequence,
when the load on the sets then in service falls below a predetermined level for an adjustable period
of time. The sequence of starting and stepping of sets may be selected by means of a switch in the
control panel.
7. Replacing a set on which a поп-critical alarm is operative, by another unit.
8. Stopping a device set when a critical alarm is initiated.
9. Blocking the starting procedure for a set on which an alarm is operative, until the resetting
push button or the alarm has been depressed.
10. Starting and connecting to the distribution network a predetermined number of diesel
alternator sets in the event of a black-out.
11. Ensuring that sufficient alternator capacity is available before programmed loads are
connected.
12. Transmitting information concerning alarms to the general alarm system.

Vocabulary.
Demand требуемая
Black-out обесточивание
Program-blocking блокировка программы
Unmanned engine room машинное отделение с безвахтенным обслуживанием
Sequence последовательность
To imply предполагать, подразумевать
To monitor управлять
Provided that при условии, что
Tripping выключение, отключение

38
3. Translate following offers into Russian on hearing.
1. There are only five manual operations needed for the UER. 2. The automatic control
system is designed for controlling turbo- and diesel-driven electric generating plant, predominantly
onboard ships. 3. The purpose of this equipment is to ensure that the power demand of a ship is
generated in an economical manner and also to ensure that any faults occurring will not cause
damage to the machinery. 4. The automatic control equipment can be connected to the general
alarm system on board, provided that this system is designed for breaking contact functions during
alarm conditions. 5. At black-out a programmed number of sets will be started and the set which is
first to reach frequency will be connected to the busbars.

4. Translate the following word combinations into English.


Электроэнергетическая установка, контролирующее оборудование, с точки зрения
экономии, полностью автоматизированный процесс, разделение нагрузки, дизельный
генератор переменного тока, чрезмерная энергия, сделано вручную, в случае ошибки,
главная шина, запрограммированное количество, обычным образом, большая нагрузка,
машинное отделение с безвахтенным обслуживанием, запуск блокировки,
классификационное общество, общая сигнальная система.

5. Answer the questions.


1. What functions is the system designed for?
2. What is the purpose of the automatic control equipment?
3. What occurs in the event of a serious fault on one set?
4. What are the manual operations in UER?
5. What are in your opinion advantages of the system?

6. Retell the passages containing information on:


1. The purpose of the automatic control equipment;
2. Operations which this equipment must carry out;
3. The condition under which the automatic control equipment can be connected to the
general alarm system on board.

7. Translate into English.


1. Целью оборудования автоматического контроля является обеспечение того, чтобы
необходимая судну энергия производилась экономным способом, а также гарантировать то,
чтобы любые допущенные ошибки не привели к повреждению машинного оборудования.
2. Полностью автоматизированное оборудование производит пуск, синхронизацию и
разделение нагрузки на один или несколько дизельных генераторов тогда, когда возрастает
необходимость в энергии.
3. Данная система сконструирована для машинного отделения с безвахтенным
обслуживанием.
4. Однако, некоторые функции оборудования системы контроля управляемы, так,
чтобы был подан сигнал тревоги, если система не в рабочем состоянии.

39
Unit 4.
Electric Drives.
Lesson 1.

1. Translate into English the following word-combinations.


Executive mechanisms, the basic consumer, fewer mechanical wear parts, operating costs,
retarding grids, slip control algorithms, high working costs, an explosive environment, a reduction
gear.
2. Find in the text the words similar to Russian which you can understand without
translation.
3. Read and translate the text.
Electric drives.

The electric drive (in abbreviated form — the electric drive) is an electromechanical system
for a starting of executive mechanisms of working cars and management of this movement with a
view of realisation of technological process.
The modern electric drive is a set of set of electromachines, devices and control systems of
them. It is the basic consumer of electric energy (to 60 %) and the main source of mechanical
energy in the industry.
Electric drive is an industrial system which performs the conversion of electrical energy to
mechanical energy or vice versa for running various processes. These include:
production plants, home appliances, transportation of people or goods, pumps, air
compressors, music or image players, computer disc drives, robots, etc.
Components of Electric Drives.
An electrical drive system uses electrical components. These electrical components are made
up of fewer mechanical wear parts, reducing the need to replace these parts, which result in lower
operating costs for the electric drive system. Electric drive systems are very simple. They consist of
an electric storage battery, a speed controller with throttle, and a dc electric motor.
Characteristics of Electric Drives.
An electric drive provides electrical retarding and reduces service brake wear. It also has
many operational advantages. It includes the control of wheel slip and slide thus reducing the tire
wears. The system delivers a smoother ride for the operator. The electric drive system
enhancements include improved retarding grids, slip control algorithms, the latest in diagnostic and
trouble shooting software and silencers.
Kinds of electric drives
Noncontrollable, the elementary, intended for start-up and the stops of the engine working in
an one-high-speed mode.
Adjustable frequencies of rotation supposing change and management of start-up and braking
of the electric motor for the set technological process. The way of regulation depends on engine
type. So, for alternating current cars management of frequency, a current in a rotor is applicable.
For collector cars regulation by pressure is applicable.
Not automated
The automated
Linear - for special cases.
Rotary - the most widespread type. More often linear moving receive mechanical converters
of a rotary motion of the engine.
Electric motor selection
Quality of work of the modern electric drive is in many respects defined by a correct choice of
a used electric motor that in turn provides long reliable work of the electric drive and high
efficiency technological and productions in the industry, on transport, in building and other areas.
At a choice of an electric motor for a drive of the industrial mechanism are guided by
following recommendations:
40
Proceeding from technology requirements, make an electric motor choice on its technical
characteristics (by the nature of a current, nominal to pressure and capacity, frequency of rotation, a
kind of the mechanical characteristic, reloading ability, starting, adjusting and brake properties
other), and also an engine design on a way of installation and fastening.
Proceeding from economic reasons, choose the most simple, economic and reliable engine not
demanding high working costs and having the least dimensions, weight and cost.
Proceeding from environment conditions in which the engine will work, and also from work
safety requirements in an explosive environment, choose an engine design on a way of protection.
The correct choice of type, execution and capacity of an electric motor defines not only
safety, reliability and profitability of work and duration of service life of the engine, but also
technical and economic indicators of all electric drive as a whole.
Applications of Electric Drives.
The electric drive system is especially designed to suit the propeller or rotor research. Both
sting and strut mounts are accommodated. The electric drive system is capable of powering three
phase AC motors as large as 75 horsepower. Electric drives are also used in boats and are capable
of driving the boats at hull speeds comparable with speeds produced by internal combustion
engines. In order to have a boat propeller turn at an efficient slow rotation, a reduction gear is an
integral part of the motor. To be able to reverse the motion there is a switch in the throttle that
controls a forward or reverse relay that alters the rotation of the motor. They are used in vehicles to
give better payload, faster acceleration, improved mobility, and lower fuel consumption.
Vocabulary.
With a fie of – с точки зрения
Throttle – дроссель
Electrical retarding – Электрическое замедление
Service brake wear – износ тормоза
The tire wear – износ шины
A smooth ride – гладкая дорожка
One high speed mode – односкоростной режим
Set technological process – заданный технологический процесс
In many respect – в основном
Proceed from – исходя из
Mount – крепление, держатель

4. Translate the following word-combinations into English.


Основной (главный) источник; преобразование электрической энергии в
механическую; менее изнашивающиеся механические детали; низкие производственные
расходы; аккумуляторная батарея; регулятор скорости с дросселем; рабочие преимущества;
односкоростной режим; допускаемые изменения частоты вращения; качество работы
современного электропривода; конструкция двигателя по способу монтажа, крепления,
защиты; технико-экономические показатели электропривода.

5. Compare ways of formation of the specified words, name parts of speech which
these words concern. Translate them into Russian.
Management, technological, basic, conversion, fewer, operating costs, noncontrollable,
widespread, quality, profitability.

41
6. Define the missing words.
1. An electric drive is the basic consumer of _____ (to 60 %) and the main source of
mechanical energy in the industry.
2. Electric drive is an industrial system which performs _____ of electrical energy to
mechanical energy or vice versa.
3. _____ consist of an electric storage battery, a speed controller with throttle, and a dc
electric motor.
4. An electric drive includes the control of _____ and _____ thus reducing the tire wears.
5. Quality of work of the modern electric drive is in many respects defined by a correct
choice of_____.
6. A choice of an electric motor for a drive of the industrial mechanism is guided by
proceeding from_____.
7. The correct choice of type, _____ and _____ of an electric motor defines safety,
reliability and profitability of work and duration of _____ of the engine, and also technical and
economic _____ of all electric drive as a whole.
8. The electric drive system is capable of powering three phase AC motors as large as_____.
9. To be able to reverse the motion there is _____ in the throttle that controls _____ that
alters the rotation of the motor.

7. Answer the questions.


1. What is the electric drive with a view of an electromechanical and industrial systems?
2. Why are electric drives so important for industry?
3. What are components of an electric drive?
4. Enumerate the characteristics of electric drives?
5. What kinds of electric drives have you read in this text?
6. What are the main principles of electric motor selection?
7. What are the applications of electric drives?

8. Translate into English.


1. Электрический привод (сокращённо — электропривод) — это электромеханическая
система для приведения в движение исполнительных механизмов рабочих машин и
управления этим движением в целях осуществления технологического процесса.
2. Современный электропривод — это совокупность множества электромашин,
аппаратов и систем управления ими. Он является основным потребителем электрической
энергии и главным источником механической энергии в промышленности.
3. Различают следующие виды электроприводо:
- Нерегулируемые, простейшие, предназначенные для пуска и остановки двигателя,
работающие в односкоростном режиме.
- Регулируемые, допускающие изменение частоты вращения и управление пуском и
торможением электродвигателя для заданного технологического процесса. Способ
регулирования зависит от типа двигателя. Так, для машин переменного тока применимо
управление частотой, током в роторе. Для коллекторных машин применимо регулирование
напряжением.
- Неавтоматизированные
- Автоматизированные
- Линейные - для частных случаев.

42
- Вращательные - наиболее распространённый тип. Чаще всего линейное перемещение
получают механическими преобразователями вращательного движения двигателя.

4. Принцип действия исполнительных механизмов не является ключевым фактором


выбора электропривода, ключевыми в данном случае являются характеристики
технологического процесса, которые должен обеспечить механизм. Этому же условию
должен соответствовать и электропривод.
5. Проблема регулирования скорости движения машин и механизмов с целью
экономии электроэнергии решалась в последние десятилетия в основном с помощью
регулируемых электроприводов.
6. Если ещё в 70-80-х годах преобладающими были регулируемые электроприводы
постоянного тока, то в настоящее время они повсеместно вытесняются регулируемыми
электроприводами переменного тока, как правило, с асинхронными электродвигателями с
короткозамкнутым ротором.

Lesson 2.

1. Read and translate the following word-combinations.


Speed control unit, fixed speed motor, slip speed, to dissipate, misapplication, eddy current,
directly, inversely, proportional to, a field coil, torque multiplied by speed.

2. Read and translate the text.

Some types of electric drives.

Electric adjustable speed drive


An adjustable-speed drive (ASD) or variable-speed drive (VSD) is an interconnected
combination of equipment that provides a means of driving and adjusting the operating speed of a
mechanical load. An electrical adjustable-speed drive consists of an electric motor and a speed
controller or power converter plus auxiliary devices and equipment. In common usage, the term
“drive” is often applied to just the controller.
There are three general categories of electric drives: DC motor drives, eddy current drives
and AC motor drives. Each of these general types can be further divided into numerous variations.
Electric drives generally include both an electric motor and a speed control unit or system. The term
drive is often applied to the controller without the motor. In the early days of electric drive
technology, electromechanical control systems were used. Later, electronic controllers were
designed using various types of vacuum tubes. As suitable solid state electronic components
became available, new controller designs incorporated the latest electronic technology.
DC drives
DC drives are DC motor speed control systems. Since the speed of a DC motor is directly
proportional to armature voltage and inversely proportional to field current, either armature voltage
or field current can be used to control speed. The electric motor article also describes electronic
speed controls used with various types of DC motors.
Eddy current drives
An eddy current drive consists of a fixed speed motor and an eddy current clutch. The clutch
contains a fixed speed rotor and an adjustable speed rotor separated by a small air gap. A direct
current in a field coil produces a magnetic field that determines the torque transmitted from the
input rotor to the output rotor. The controller provides closed loop speed regulation by varying
clutch current, only allowing the clutch to transmit enough torque to operate at the desired speed.
Speed feedback is typically provided via an integral AC tachometer.

43
Eddy current drives are a type of slip controlled drive. Slip controlled drives are generally less
efficient than other types of drives. The motor develops the torque required by the load and operates
at full speed. The output shaft transmits the same torque to the load, but turns at a slower speed.
Since power is proportional to torque multiplied by speed, the input power is proportional to motor
speed times operating torque while the output power is output speed times operating torque. The
difference between the motor speed and the output speed is called the slip speed. Power
proportional to the slip speed times operating torque is dissipated as heat in the clutch.

AC drives

The main power components of an AC drive have to be able to supply the required level of
current and voltage in a form the motor can use. The controls have to be able to provide the user
with necessary adjustments such as minimum and maximum speed settings, so that the drive can be
adapted to the user's process. Spare parts have to be available and the repair manual has to be
readable. It's nice if the drive can shut itself down when detecting either an internal or an external
problem. It's also nice if the drive components are all packaged in a single enclosure to aid in
installation but that's about it.
The paradox facing drive manufacturers today is that as they make their drives easier to use,
the amount of training with which they must provide their users increases. This is because as drives
become easier to use they are purchased more and more by people of less and less technical
capability. As less technical people get involved in drive purchases the number of misapplications
goes way up. I call this phenomenon the "dumb trap". (When manufactures discover this
phenomenon they simultaneously discover how dumb they've been. Some have not yet discovered
it.)
Vocabulary.
Сlutch – зажимное устройство
Adjustable – регулируемый
Feedback – обратное питание
Slip controlled drive – привод, контролирующий плавное движение
Dumb trap – глухая ловушка

3. Compare single-root words and allocate in them the common basis. Distribute them
in parts speeches. Translate into Russian.
Drive-driven-driving-driver- ;
Control-controller-controllable-controversy;
Speed-speeder-speedily-speedster- -speedy speed-up;
Adjustable-adjust-adjusted-adjuster-adjusting-adjustment;
Separate-separation-separator-separatist;
Produce-producer-producible-producing;
Load-loaded-loader-loading.

4. Read the sentences and define in each of them the meaning of the word “unit”.
1.The alternator voltage is fed to the AVR unit via fuses and exciter switch. 2. The standard
units are those of current, voltage and resistance. 3. So the unit positive charge has been given
energy in the amount of volts, by chemical action during its passage through the battery. 4. Apart
from general acquaintance with the principle of operation and the design of separate components
and the unit as a whole, it is required to analyze thoroughly the arrangement of separate parts in the
unit.

44
5. Restore the part of the text “AC drives”.

The main power _____ of an AC drive, have to be able _____ the required level of current
and voltage in a form _____ can use. The controls have to be able to provide _____ with necessary
_____ such as minimum and maximum_____, so that the drive can be adapted to the user's process.
_____ have to be available and the repair manual has to be readable. It's nice if the drive can _____
itself _____ when detecting either an internal or an external problem. It's also nice if the drive
components are all _____ in a single enclosure to aid in _____ but that's about it.
The paradox facing drive manufacturers today is that as they make their drives _____ to use,
the amount of training with which they must provide their users_____. This is because as drives
become _____ to use they are purchased _____ by people of less and less_____. As less technical
people get involved in _____ the number of_____ goes way up. One calls this phenomenon the
"_____". (When manufactures discover this phenomenon they simultaneously discover how dumb
they've been. Some have not yet discovered it.)

6. Make up the sentences with given words.


1. Both, electric, include, unit, generally, speed, an electric motor, drives, system, and, a,
control, or.
2. Applied, the term, often, to, without, is, the controller, drive, the motor.
3. Drive, an, eddy, speed, consists, of, a motor, current, clutch, and, an, eddy, fixed, current.
4. A, in, output, a, field, produces, direct, a, field, magnetic, that, determines, the, torque,
current, from, the, input, rotor, to coil, the, transmitted, rotor.
5. To provide, have, the, controls, necessary, to be, with, the user, able, adjustments.
6. To be, spare, have, and, parts, has, the, repair, manual, available, to be, readable.
7. If, it's, the, drive, shut, can, internal, itself, nice, down, detecting, external, either, when,
an, or an problem.
8. As, purchased, technical, drives, easier, less, they, to use, are, more, and, less, by people,
of, and, capability, more, become.

7. Ask questions to each part of the text. And make up the dialogues under the text
contents.

8. Translate into English.


1. Частотно-регулируемый привод (частотно-управляемый привод, ЧУП, Variable
Frequency Drive, VFD) — система управления частотой вращения ротора асинхронного
(синхронного) электродвигателя. Состоит из собственно электродвигателя и частотного
преобразователя.
2. Частотный преобразователь (преобразователь частоты) — это устройство состоящее
из выпрямителя (моста постоянного тока), преобразующего переменный ток промышленной
частоты в постоянный и инвертора (преобразователя) (иногда с ШИМ), преобразующего
постоянный ток в переменный требуемых частоты и амплитуды. Выходные тиристоры
(GTO) или IGBT обеспечивают необходимый ток для питания электродвигателя. Для
улучшения формы выходного напряжения между преобразователем и двигателем иногда
ставят дроссель, а для уменьшения электромагнитных помех — EMC-фильтр.
3. Сервопривод – специальный электродвигатель с электронным блоком, который
позволяет точно управлять параметрами движения. Является разновидностью частотно-
регулируемого электоропривода (ЧРП). Для управления сервоприводами или группами
сервоприводов используются специальные CNC-контроллеры.
4. Во многих установках на регулируемый электропривод возлагаются задачи не только
плавного регулирования момента и скорости вращения электродвигателя, но и задачи
замедления и торможения элементов установки.

45
Lesson 3.

1. Translate the following word-combinations.


Ship’s turning, to keep at a given course, as for the character of operation, important
significance, to be claimed to, refrigerating plant, a prolonged regime, with switching of the poles,
ship lifting mechanisms, separately excited motors, ship’s security, anchor chain, at any sea state,
adjustment of the rotation frequency.

2. Read and translate the text.

Ship’s electric drives. (Part 1)

Automated steering electric drive.


Steering is designed for ship's turning and keeping her at a given course. According to the
type of transmission they are divided into electromechanical and electrohydraulic. As for the
character of operations the electric drive is classified as electric drive of simple, watching and
automated operation. Taking into account the important significance of the steering for the ship's
operation the following requirements are claimed to the electric drive:
- rehability of the operation;
- providing the necessary rotating moment for rudder,
- providing the given speed for rudder,
- automatic keeping of the helm in given position;
- limiting of the motor moment at the stay under voltage;
- a great frequency of switching on;
- supplying using two feeders (as a rule from main and emergency switchboard).
The main requirements for electric drive are determined by the Ship's Register Rules.
Vocabulary.
Steering – рулевое устройство
Watching – следящий
Taking into account – учитывая
Rudder – перекладка руля
Helm – руль
Ship’s Register Rules – Правила Регистра Судоходства

Electric drive of the refrigerating plant compressors.


Refrigerating plants usually operate at a prolonged regime without considerable unloading.
The necessary temperature, refrigerant level and compressor's pressure are provided automatically
with the help of thermoregulator, float regulator of the level and the pressure relay. The electric
motor starting is made through a magnetic station. As an electric motor they use either d.c.
compound motors or asynchronous motors with switching of the poles.
Vocabulary.
Refrigerant level – уровень хладагента
Float regulator – поплавковый регулятор

Electric drive of cranes.


The main feature of maintenance of cargo lifting devices of the fishing ships is a variety of
their work methods and schemes used depending on the cargo operation conditions. The electric
drive must have a reverse operating motor and must have an adjustment of the rotation frequency in
wide range.
According to the adjustment system the ship rifting mechanisms with electric drive are
divided into:
- mechanisms with controller;

46
- mechanisms with relay contactor;
- generator-motor (G-M).
As an actuating motor they use d.c. compound motors, separately excited motors in the
system (G-M), asynchronous multispeed motors.
Vocabulary
Reverse operating motor – реверсивный исполнительный двигатель
Adjustment system – система управления
In wide range – в широких пределах
With relay contactor – с дистанционным управлением (релейно-контракторное
управление)
Actuating motor – исполнительный двигатель

Electric Drives of Anchor-Handling and Mooring Gear.


The electric drives of anchor-handling and mooring gear are used to heave in the anchor and
perform mooring operations.
Accordingly, they are used in windlasses, anchor and anchor-mooring capstans, mooring
capstans, automatic and non-automatic mooring winches. At present most of these machines are
equipped with electric drives having special characteristics which suit the operating conditions of
such machines.
According to the USSR Register the power rating of an electric drive used in the anchor-
handling gear must be such that the anchor chain is heaved in at a minimum speed of 0.17 m/s with
the sprocket pull, in Newtons.
Vocabulary
Anchor-mooring device – якорно-швартовное устройство
Capstan drive – шпилевый электропривод
Windlass drive – брашпильный электропривод
To keep the anchor hold – удерживать якорь на весу
Rated traction reinforcement – номинальное тяговое усилие

3. Find the Russian equivalents in the right-hand column.


1. Ship’s turning a) условия грузовых операций
2. Cargo lifting devices b) безопасность судна
3. Schemes c) надежность
4. Depending on d) номинальное тяговое усилие
5. Cargo operation conditions e) удерживание на весу
6. Adjustment of the rotation frequency f) поворот судна
7. An actuating motor g) холодильная установка
8. The ship’s security h) схемы
9. Anchor chains i) обеспечить
10. Reliability j) грузоподъемные устройства
11. Hauling up k) значительные перегрузки
12. To provide l) регулирование частоты вращения
13. Rated traction reinforcement m) в зависимости от
14. A short closed rotor n) якорные цепи
15. Refrigerating plant o) уровень хладагента
16. Considerable unloading p) коротко замкнутый ротор
17. Refrigerant level q) исполнительный двигатель

47
4. What of types of ship’s drives do following sentences concern?
1. The electric drive must have a reverse operating motor and must have an adjustment of
the rotation frequency in wide range.
2. Accordingly, they are used in windlasses, anchor and anchor-mooring capstans, mooring
capstans, automatic and non-automatic mooring winches.
3. The necessary temperature, refrigerant level and compressor's pressure are provided
automatically with the help of thermoregulator, float regulator of the level and the pressure relay.
4. According to the type of transmission the electric drives are divided into
electromechanical and electrohydraulic.
5. The electric drives of anchor-handling and mooring gear are used to heave in the anchor
and perform mooring operations.
6. The main requirements for electric drive are determined by the Ship's Register Rules.
7. The main feature of maintenance of cargo lifting devices of the fishing ships is a variety
of their work methods and schemes used depending on the cargo operation conditions.

5. Answer the questions.


1. How is the electric drive classified as for the character of operations?
2. What requirements are claimed to the electric drive?
3. What are the necessary temperature, refrigerating level and compressor’s pressure
provided with?
4. What motors are used as an electric motor of the refrigerating plant compressors?
5. What must the electric drive of cranes have?
6. What are the ship lifting mechanisms with electric drives divided into?
7. What types of electric motors do they use as an actuating motor?
8. What does anchor-mooring device consist of?
9. What are capstan and windlass electric drives to provide?

6. Translate into English.


1. По типу передачи рулевые устройства подразделяются на электромеханические и
электрогидравлические.
2. Одними из важнейших требований к электроприводам являются: обеспечение
необходимого вращающего момента для перекладки руля, ограничение момента двигателя
при стоянке под током, питание по двум фидерам.
3. Основные требования к электроприводу регламентируются Правилами Регистра
Судоходства.
4. В качестве электродвигателя используются либо компаундные двигатели
постоянного тока либо асинхронные двигатели с переключением пар полюсов.
5. Электропривод должен иметь реверсивный исполнительный двигатель и
регулирование частоты вращения в широких пределах.
6. В качестве исполнительного двигателя применяют двигатели постоянного тока
смешанного возбуждения, двигатели независимого возбуждения в системе Г-Д, асинхронные
многоскоростные двигатели.
7. Шпилевые и брашпильные электроприводы должны обеспечивать выборку любой
из якорных цепей со скоростью не менее 10 м/мин.

7. Tell about automated steering electric drive.

48
8. Tell about the electric drive of the refrigerating plant compressors.
9. How can you characterize the electric drive of cranes?
10. What do you know about the electric drive of the anchor-mooring mechanism?

Lesson 4.
1. Translate the following word-combinations into Russian.
Unsteady motion, interconnected by, a-c cage motor, tree-speed motor, rated power, rated
pull, supply mains, directly-coupled thyristor converter, a fully fitted-out boat, the ship rolling, the
suspender, heavy overload.

2. Read and translate the text.

Ship’s electric drives. (Part 2)

Electric Drives of Towing Winches.


Flexible-link towing is a physical process involving unsteady motion of inertia masses
interconnected by a flexible element. Reliability of towing depends on selection of an optimum
length of the towline and on minimizing the towline overloads under various conditions. Non-
automatic towing winches with a pull of 120 kN and above may be used with three-speed a-c cage
motors controlled by means of magnetic controllers. Taking account of the optimum speed ratio of
the winches for towlines 37.5 to 48.5 mm in diameter use may be made of three-speed motors with
a speed ratio of 1:2:4, developing a rated power and a rated pull at the medium speed; the motors
are controllers. Winches with a 56 to 65 mm diameter towline may be driven by cage motors with a
speed ratio of 1:3, producing the rated pull at the medium speed. To obtain low rotation speeds in
order to limit the load on the towline these motors must be connected in a dual provide circuit:
The motor must be supplied from the supply mains when running at the rated or high speed
and from a directly-coupled thyristor converter, when running at low speeds. To ensure the required
power two motors may be connected to one shaft. The maximum power rating of such systems is
140 kW, which enables them to be used for the largest winches with a pull of up to 650 kN.
The power rating of the motor to be used in the winches is selected to suit the pull required
to heave in the tow-line at the rated speed with a medium towline diameter.
The design power must be equal to or below the 30-min motor power rating for non-
automatic winches and 60-min power rating for automatic winches operating in the impulse mode.
The above power must be developed by the motor at the rated speed.
Vocabulary.
Towing winches – буксирные лебедки
Flexible-link towing – буксировка на гибкой связи
Towline – буксирный трос
A pull – тяга, тяговое усилие, натяжение
A dual supply circuit – двойное питание от сети
To heave – тянуть, поднимать

Electric Drive of Boat Winches.


Boat winches are intended to handle rescue boats carried by sea-going and river ships.
These do not include the winches used to regularly hoist and lower boats and launches in the
performance of routine work and finishing operations of the ship. Under the International
Convention for Safety of Life at Sea all ships must be equipped with rescue boats. The same
Convention specifies a number of requirements to davit on which the operating conditions of the
electric drive depend to some extent.
The boat-handling gear must provide the means for:

49
—swinging-out of boat booms on davit with a fully fitted-out boat and lowering of the boat
with the full number of people and with the ship rolling by 15° port or starboard;
— lifting of a fully fitted-out boat with the full number of people at a list of up to 8° at such
an antirol at which the boat moves clear of the ship, and the swinging in of the davit with a fully
fitted-out boat and a minimum number of people;
— swinging-out o!" booms or davits without a boat with the ship stopped even-keel.
Boats are lowered without the electric drive at a maximum speed of 0.5 m/s, obtained with
the help of a mechanical brake.
The suspenders can be lowered either by unwinding the cable from the drum manually or
by means of an electric drive.
The principle mode of operation of a boat winch drive consists of lifting the boat, once at a
time, a limited time period not longer than 5 min. The boat lifting speed is 0.1 to 0.15 m/s. The
choice of the motor must be made so as to ensure starting of the motor at the maximum design load.
As the boat lifting time must not exceed 5 min the motors may have to sustain heavy overloads as
compared with the catalogue data which represent 60 min ratings.
The control systems for the motors of the boat winches are quite simple. Starting and
stopping of a-c motors are effected by means of magnetic starters with a local push button control
which may be reversible or non-reversible, depending on the construction of the winches.
Vocabulary.
The hoist – лебедка, подъемник
To hoist – поднимать
The davit – шлюпбалка
Swinging out of boat booms – самовываливание стрел
Stopping even-keel – стоянка судна на ровном киле
Push-button - кнопка (графический управляющий элемент, позволяющий приложению
осуществлять ввод или запуск)
Maximum design load – наиболее расчетная нагрузка
The boat moves clear of the ship – шлюпка не касается борта судна

3. Translate the following word-combinations into English.


Неустановившееся движение, учитывая оптимальные соотношения скоростей, на
средней скорости, тиристорный преобразователь частоты с непосредственной связью,
нормальная скорость выбирания троса, расчетная мощность, импульсное включение.
Обслуживать спасательные шлюпки, регулярные операции по подъему и спуску
шлюпок, текущие судовые и промысловые работы, охрана человеческой жизни на море,
шлюпочное устройство, полностью снабженная шлюпка, при крене судна на 15˚ на любой
борт, крен и антикрен, заваливание шлюпбалки, спуск подвесок, сматывание троса с
барабана вручную, выдерживать значительную нагрузку по отношению к данным каталога.

4. Define ways of word-formation of the specified words, name parts of speech which
these words concern.
Flexible, towing, unsteady, interconnect, selection, towline, overload, non-automatic,
controller, fitted-out, even-keel, suspender, unwinding.

5. Explain the rules of translation of such word-combinations.


Flexible-link towing, three-speed a-c cage motor, optimum speed ratio, low rotation speed, a
dual supply circuit, supply mains, a directly-coupled thyristor converter, 30-min motor power
rating, the boat-handling gear, a fully fitted-out boat, a limited time period, the boat lifting time, a
local push button control.

50
6. Insert the given prepositions into admissions: for, to, than, on, as compared with, or,
without.
1. Reliability of towing depends _____ selection of an optimum length of the towline.
2. To ensure the required power two motors may be connected _____ one shaft.
3. The design power must be equal to _____ below the 30-min motor power rating for non-
automatic winches.
4. Under the International Convention _____ Safety of Life at Sea all ships must be
equipped with rescue boats.
5. Boats are lowered _____ the electric drive at a maximum speed of 0.5 m/s.
6. The principle mode of operation of a boat winch drive consists of lifting the boat, once at
a time, a limited time period not longer _____ 5 min.
7. As the boat lifting time must not exceed 5 min the motors may have to sustain heavy
overloads _____ the catalogue data which represent 60 min ratings.

7. Answer the questions.


1. Explain the term “Flexible-link towing”.
2. What does reliability of towing depend on?
3. What winches may be used with three-speed a-c cage motor?
4. Why are low rotation speeds used?
5. When must the motor be supplied from the supply mains and a directly-coupled thyristor
convertor?
6. What is the principle of selecting the power rating of the motor used in the winches?
7. What is the power rating for automatic and non-automatic winches?
8. What are boat winches intended to?
9. Under what Convention must all ships be equipped with rescue boats?
10. What means must the boat-handling gear provide?
11. How can the suspenders be lowered?
12. Explain the principle mode of operation of a boat winch drive.
13. Explain principle of operation of the control systems for the motors of the boat winches..

8. Translate into English.


1. Надежность буксировки зависит от выбора оптимальной длины буксирного троса и
от уменьшения нагрузки на буксирный трос при различных условиях буксировки.
2. Лебедки с буксирным тросом, диаметр которого составляет от 56 до 65 мм,
приводятся в движение двигателем с короткозамкнутым ротором с соотношением скорости
1:3, вырабатывая расчетную тягу при средней скорости.
3. Двигатель получает питание с питающей электросети при работе на расчетной или
высокой скорости, и с тиристорного преобразователя частоты с непосредственной связью
при работе на низких скоростях.
4. Шлюпки спускают без использования электропривода при максимальной скорости
до 0.5 м/с, при этом используется механический тормоз.
5. Основной режим действия электропривода шлюпочной лебедки состоит в
следующем: одноразовое поднятие шлюпки, или поднятие шлюпки за ограниченное время:
не более 5 мин.
6. Поскольку время подъема шлюпки не должно превышать 5 мин, моторы должны
выдерживать значительную нагрузку по отношению к данным каталога, номинальное
значение которого составляет 60 мин.

9. Tell about electric drive of towing winches.


10. Tell about electric drive of boat winches.

51
UNIT 5.
LESSON 5.

BUSINESS LETTER.
ФОРМА ДЕЛОВОГО ПИСЬМА

В результате многолетней практики выработалась стандартная форма делового письма,


которая, несмотря на некоторые разновидности, в основном, однотипна во всех странах:

Дата письма
Заголовок
Наименование и адрес получателя письма
Вступительное обращение
Текст письма
Заключительная формула вежливости
Подпись
Должность
Приложения

РАСПОЛОЖЕНИЕ ЧАСТЕЙ ДЕЛОВОГО ПИСЬМА


GENERAL LAY-OUT OF THE BUSINESS LETTER

По установившейся традиции структура делового письма выглядит так, как это


представлено на схеме:

Печатный штамп компании


Letterhead

Указание на ссылку Дата


Reference line Date
Наименование получателя внутренний адрес
Name of recipient Inside a
Адрес получателя
Address of recipient
Указание на лицо, которое по желанию
отправителя должно прочесть данное письмо
Attention line
Вступительное обращение
Greeting (Salutation)

Указание на общее содержание письма


Subject line
Содержание письма
Body of the letter

Заключительное приветствие
Complimentary Close

Подпись
Signature

Инициалы диктовавшего письмо и машинистки


52
Identification line
Указание на приложения к письму
Enclosures
Указание на копии, отправленные в другие адреса
С. С. (carbon copy notation)
Постскриптум (приписка)
P. S. (postscript)

ЧАСТИ ДЕЛОВОГО ПИСЬМА


COMPONENTS OF THE BUSINESS LETTER

ПЕЧАТНЫЙ ШТАМП КОМПАНИИ


LETTERHEAD

Штамп компании преимущественно печатается типографским способом. Структура


штампа не имеет жестких стандартов, однако печатный штамп всегда расположен сверху и
содержит следующие сведения:
а) Наименование и адрес компании;
б) Род ее деятельности;
в) Номера телефонов компании;
г) Телеграфный адрес компании;
д) Номер и позывной телекса компании.
Иногда перечисляются филиалы компании в других городах страны и за границей.

Условные сокращения в штампах


Со. - Company - Компания
Tel(s) - Telephone (s) - Телефон(ы)
Ltd. - Limited (liability) - Акционерная компания с ограниченной ответственностью, в
пределах номинальной стоимости акций
Inc. - Incorporated - Акционерная корпорация.
Incorporated употребляется в США вместо Limited.

УКАЗАНИЕ НА ССЫЛКУ
REFERENCE
Указания на ссылку обычно размещаются над наименованием и адресом получателя
письма.
Образцы ссылок:
Your ref. (reference) - Ваша ссылка. Буквы АВ означают, что письмо
AB/JC/C составил и продиктовал Mr. A. Brown. Буквы
JG
означают, что письмо напечатала Miss J. Crown.
Буква С указывает на индекс папки, в которой
подшито письмо
Your letter of 13/7/70 - Ваше письмо от 13/7/70 (в США пишут 7/13/70)
In reply please quote - В Вашем ответе просим сослаться на...
Reference to - Ссылка на...
Our ret. (reference) 15/6/70 - Наша ссылка 15/6770
Qui cable dated 7/2/70 - Наша телеграмма от 7/2/70

53
НАИМЕНОВАНИЕ И АДРЕС ПОЛУЧАТЕЛЯ
NAME AND ADDRESS OF RECIPIENT
Наименование и адрес получателя (внутренний адрес - inside address) обычно пишутся
слева под штампом < Юразцм наименования и адреса получателя: Messrs. March Shipping
Agency, Limited 400, Craig Street, West Montreal, Canada
Если известно лицо, кому предназначено данное письмо, то лучше адресовать письмо
ни посредственно ЭТОМУ лицу С указанием его должности.

Mr. W. G. Irvine Mr. J. Carton


Supervisor Marine Transportation President March Shipping
Limited
Abitibi Paper Sales, Ltd., 400, Craig Street, West
Toronto - Dominion Centre Montreal 1,
Toronto 1, Canada Canada

Mr. С J. West
Canadian Representative
Mediterranean Canada West Bound
Freight Conference
465, St. John Street
Montreal 1, Quebec

На бланках некоторых компаний расположение внутреннего адреса определяется


указаниями, напечатанными типографским спосо6ом.

То - Кому адресовано письмо


Attn (for the attention of) - Вниманию (г-на ...)
Shipper/Importer - Грузоотправитель/импортер
Address - Адрес (отправителя или импортера)
Interviewed - Письмо написано на основании беседы с…
Commodity -Груз
Reference to - Ссылка на...

Если письмо предназначено для передачи другому лицу или компании, то


употребляется сокращение:

с/о (care of) - через, по адресу


Mr. Т. Brown - Господам Уэст и Ко. для передачи г-ну
с/о Messrs. West and Со. Т. Брауну.

Обычно обращение Messrs. (Messieurs) - Господа - ставится перед названием любой


компании, хотя в США оно употребляется только в том случае, когда в названии имеются
фамилии действительных ее владельцев.
Если письмо предназначено для передачи другому лицу или компании, то пишут:
c/o-care of через, по адресу
Mr.T.Brown для передачи господину Брауну
c/o Messers. West & Co. Господам Уэст и Ко.

54
ДАТА ПИСЬМА
THE DATE

Дата письма большей частью располагается в правом углу под штампом письма.
Обратите внимание на правильное чтение дат:
25 (th) July, 1970 - The twenty-fifth of July, nineteen seventy
July 25(th), 1970 - July the twenty-fifth, nineteen seventy

Порядковые числительные пишутся следующим образом: 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, etc.

ОБРАЩЕНИЯ,
ЗАКЛЮЧИТЕЛЬНЫЕ ФОРМУЛЫ ВЕЖЛИВОСТИ

Адресат Вступительное Заключительная


Обращение формула
Messers. Dear Sirs Yours faithfully
(с почтением)
A.Black&Co Gentlemen Yours truly
(искренне Ваш)
Mr.B.White Dear Mr.White Yours sincerely
(Искренне Ваш)

ВСТУПИТЕЛЬНОЕ ОБРАЩЕНИЕ
THE GREETING OR SALUTATION

Вступительное обращение всегда пишется слева под внутренним адресом.


Образцы вступительных обращений:
Строго официально My Dear Sir; Sir Господин

Официально Dear Sir Уважаемый господин


Dear Sirs Уважаемые господа
Gentlemen Господа
(Never "Dear Gentlemen")

Менее официально Dear Mr. Smith; Уважаемый г-н Смит


My dear Mr. Smith

УКАЗАНИЕ НА СОДЕРЖАНИЕ ПИСЬМА


THE SUBJECT LINE

Указание на содержание письма преимущественно помещают между вступительным


обращением и текстом письма. Указание на содержание письма всегда выделяют, чтобы
было легче разбирать почту и направлять письмо нужному лицу.
Образцы указаний на содержание письма;
Re: your claim for the alleged short- Кас. Вашей претензии о якобы
age имевшей место недостаче
Re.: m/v «Khirurg Vishnevsky* - voy. Кас. т/х «Хирург Вишневский» -
1 (1970) B/L 3 Le Havre/Montreal., рейс № 1 -1970 г. К/с№3
Amount claimed: $ 1471.95. Your ref: Гавр/Монреаль; сумма иска
28/84 2398. Our File: u-20-37. 1471.95 дол. Ваша ссылка: 28/84
2398. Наше дело: у-20-37

55
Subject: Claim for shortage m/v «Тегnaf». Содержание: Претензия по недостаче на
т/х «Тернаф»
Sub: Reduction in price Содержание: О снижении цен

ВСТУПИТЕЛЬНАЯ ФРАЗА

Много стандартных, стереотипных выражений употребляются в качестве


вступительных фраз в деловом письме. Они придают письму деловой, официальный
характер. Витиеватый, старомодный стиль вступительных фраз встречается редко. Такие
выражения, как We beg to inform you... сейчас не употребляют.

Образцы вступительных фраз:

You may be interested to know... Вас может заинтересовать...


The attached report will provide you Прилагаемые сведения предоставят
with more complete details of... Baм более полные подробности
Please be advised … Ставим Вас в известность
Please note... Просим заметить...
We wish to approach you on the following... Мы хотим обратиться к Вам со сле-
дующим...
With reference to your inquiry... Ссылаясь на Ваш запрос...

СОДЕРЖАНИЕ ПИСЬМА
BODY OF THE LETTER

Содержание делового письма должно отличаться четкостью, ясностью, краткостью.


Каждый новый вопрос следует писать с красной строки. Необходимо избегать ненужных
повторений, путаных и расплывчатых аргументов. Стиль письма - простой, официально-
деловой.

ЗАКЛЮЧИТЕЛЬНОЕ ПРИВЕТСТВИЕ
COMPLIMENTARY CLOSE
Обычное заключительное приветствие делового письма:

Yours faithfully (Faithfully yours) - С совершенным почтением


Yours truly (Truly yours) Преданный Вам
Yours very truly r "
Если письмо не носит официальный характер:
Yours sincerely Искренне Ваш
Yours very sincerely
Если отправитель письма желает, чтобы оно было прочитано определенным лицом, -
Attention: Mr. Smith пишется в левом нижнем углу. Приписка «лично» - personal -
помещается там же.

EXAMPLES OF USABLE PHRASES


ПРИМЕРЫ ИСПОЛЬЗУЕМЫХ ФРАЗ

Opening phrases - Фразы для начала письма

Dear Sirs, Уважаемые господа (брит, англ.)


Dear Sirs, Уважаемые господа (амер. англ.)

56
We have received your letter of... Мы получили ваше письмо от...
In reply to your letter of... В ответ на ваше письмо от...
I acknowledge the receipt Я подтверждаю получение
of your letter of... вашего письма от...
This is to acknowledge Настоящим подтверждается
the receipt of your letter... получение вашего письма от,..
This is to inform you that... Довожу до вашего сведения, что...
I regret to inform you, that... С сожалением довожу до вашего
сведения, что;..
Pleased be advised that... Довожу до вашего сведения, что...
We enclose a copy of your letter of... Мы прилагаем копию вашего письма
от …
Please find enclosed a copy of your letter of... Мы прилагаем копию вашего письма
от …
We offer apologies for the delay in answering your letter... Мы приносим извинения за за-
держку в ответе на Ваше письмо
Please accept apologies for... Пожалуйста, примите извинения за...
You may be interested to know… Вас может заинтересовать
The attached report will provide you with Прилагаемые сведения предоставят
Вам
More complete details of… более полные подробности
We wish to approach you on the following Мы хотим обратиться к Вам со
следующим

Binding phrases - Фразы для середины письма


We find it necessary to note that... Мы находим необходимым отметить', что...
We are taking the opportunity to remind you that... Мы пользуемся возможностью, чтобы
напомнить вам, что..,
Further to the above... В дополнение к вышесказанному...
Taking into account the above... Принимая к сведению вышеизложенное...
The matter is... Дело в том, что...
Nevertheless,... Тем не менее...
In fact,... По сути дела...

Closing phrases - Фразы для завершения письма


Your early reply will be appreciated Я (мы) буд(-ем) благодарен за
ваш быстрый ответ
We are looking forward to hearing from you Мы с нетерпением ожидаем от
нас ответа
We expect your early reply Мы ожидаем, что вы быстро
ответите
I hereby request you to... (that,..) Настоящим прошу вас,
Please advise me of your decision Прошу сообщить мне о вашем
решении
I would appreciate an early reply to this letter Я буду благодарен за ваш
быстрый ответ на это письмо
Yours truly,... Искренне ваш
Yours faithfully,... Искренне ваш
Yours sincerely,... Искренне ваш

57
ИНИЦИАЛЫ ДИКТОВАВШЕГО ПИСЬМО
Identification line
Identification line помещается слева двумя строками ниже подписи.
Model: HMW: sr (senior) инициалы диктовавшего письмо
OWR: HMW; jr (junior) если письмо написано подчиненным, а
подписы-
вается начальником.

УКАЗАНИЯ НА ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ К ПИСЬМУ


Enclosures
Enclosures & carbon copy notation помещаются под инициалами составителя письма и
машинистки.
Models:
3 Encls.
c.c – V/O Ukrakht, Genoa
- Black Sea Shipping Co., Odessa

КОНВЕРТ
Envelope
Адрес на конверте печатается прописными буквами через две строки, если он состоит
из трех строк, и через строку, если он занимает более трех строк. Указания на способ
отправки печатается над адресом несколькими строками выше.
Special/express delivery срочная доставка
Registered заказное
Airmail авиа

СТАНДАРТНЫЕ ФРАЗЫ В ДЕЛОВОЙ ПЕРЕПИСКЕ


STANDARD PHRASES IN BUSINESS CORRESPONDENCE
Для того, чтобы научиться понимать деловые письма, телексы, телеграммы и
грамотно на них отвечать, очень полезно усвой п. сл ерш минные, стандартные выражения,
фразы, клише, характерные для официально-канцелярского стиля деловой переписки.
Ниже приводятся стандартные фразы, выражения, сгруппированные по темам с
близкими по значению русскими эквивалентами.

Сообщения, извещения

We intend... Мы намереваемся...
We would inform you about accident Мы хотим информировать Вас об
with main engine that was... аварии главного двигателя, которая
была …
This is inform you that... Настоящим сообщаю, что...
As you know the failure with main engine was... как Вам известно, авария с глав-
ным
Двигателям была…
We agree to your proposal to start Мы согласны на Ваше предложение
начать
docking on 27.11,02. Начать наше докование 27.11.02
We wish to draw up your attention Обращаем Ваше внимание на то, что...
to the fact at...
I am looking forward to receiving Я рассчитываю получить Ваши
your proposal for changing date of repair предложения по изменению срока
ремонта

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Please send us... Просим выслать нам...
We ask you for some additional information... Просим у Вас дополнительную ин-
формацию
Unfortunately... К сожалению,
I am afraid that... Боюсь, что...
I regret to inform you that... К сожалению, вынужден сообщить Вам,
что
I have not yet managed to organize Я не смог пока что организовать
the cleaning of lubricating oil tanks очистку масляных цистерн
I am sorry that I did not send Прошу извинить за то, что не выслал
отчет
the fuel consumption report о расходе топлива
I simply cannot understand Я просто не могу понять, почему Вы не
why you did not tell us предупредили нас о смене срока ремонта
about changing the time of repair
I would greatly appreciate an early reply Я буду очень благодарен за скорый ответ
2. Answer the questions.
1. What are the components of a business letter?
2. In what opening paragraphs can one begin a business letter?
3. In what complimentary closes do you complete a business letter?
4. What was the difference in writing an address in English and Russian?

3. Decipher following reductions.


Co., m/v, sgn., c.c., P.S., ref., jr., c/o, sr.

4. Specify those word-combinations which structure includes an adverb.


a) yours faithfully, b) awaiting your instructions, c) yours truly, d) for & on behalf of, e_ head
engineering department, f) yours very sincerely, g) special delivery, h) the attached report, i) cable
dated, j) varying widely.

5. Identify to each sentence from the left column Russian equivalent from the right
column.
1. Dear sirs. 1. С уважением.
2. Please, note that as a rule clearing of your 2. Чтобы облегчить и ускорить
ship is always delayed in our port. выполнение формальностей, я просил бы Вас
3. We have had a number of complaintsзаблаговременно подготовить нужные
from customs authorities regarding the matter. документы.
4. To facilitate and speed up the formalities, 3. Надеюсь, что эти небольшие проблемы
I would ask you to prepare the necessary. будут решены к нашему обоюдному
5. The required particulars must be correctудовлетворению.
and complete. 4. Уважаемые господа.
6. Also, please get the crew acquainted with 5. Оборудование оценивается в…
the local customs rules. 6. Требуемые данные должны быть
7. I hope that these minor problems will beправильными и полными.
settled to our mutual satisfaction. 7. По этому поводу были жалобы
8. Yours faithfully. таможенных властей.
9. I’d like to thank you for the excellent job 8. Пожалуйста, подтвердите получение
you did at… нашего заказа с обратной почтой.
10. We apologize for the delay. 9. Срок платежа наступает 9-го сего
11. In spite of all our efforts we have beenмесяца.
unable … 10. Прошу также ознакомить экипаж с
12. Kindly acknowledge/confirm our orderместными таможенными правилами.

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by return of post. 11. Я хотел бы поблагодарить Вас за
13. Please book the following order. отличную работу, которую Вы проделали в
14. The equipment is worth … 12. Мы отклоняем Ваше предложение.
th
15. The payment falls due on the 9 inst. 13. Мы принимаем Ваше предложение.
16. We shall be obliged for sending us the 14. Я с удовольствием принимаем Ваше
calculation … предложение.
17. We accept your order. 15. Мы не можем воспользоваться
18. We reject/decline/refuse your order. Вашим предложением.
19. We can not make use of your offer. 16. Мы будем признательны, если Вы
20. It is a pleasure to accept your invitation. пришлете нам расчет.
17. Прошу заметить, что оформление
Вашего судна в нашем порту, как правило,
задерживается.
18. Несмотря на все наши усилия, мы не
смогли …
19. Мы извиняемся за задержку.
20. Пожалуйста, примите следующий
заказ.

6. Translate into English.


Мы отклоняем Ваше предложение. 2. Мы извиняемся за задержку. 3. Пожалуйста,
уделите нашей просьбе максимум внимания. 4. Оборудование оценивается в… 5. Заранее
благодарим. 6. Чтобы облегчить и ускорить выполнение формальностей, я попросил бы Вас
заблаговременно подготовить нужные документы и в нужном количестве. 7. Я рассчитываю
получить Ваши предложения по изменению срока ремонта. 8. Я просто не могу понять,
почему Вы не предупредили нас о смене срока ремонта. 9. Пожалуйста, подтвердите
получение нашего заказа с обратной почтой. 10. Надеюсь, что эти небольшие проблемы
будут решены к нашему обоюдному удовлетворению.11. Я надеюсь, что Вы предоставите
нам …12. Мы вынуждены просить Вас расторгнуть наш контракт. 13. Пожалуйста, примите
наши извинения за задержку и беспокойство, причиненные Вам.
14. Просим снова рассмотреть нашу претензию. 15. Господа .. говорили, что Вас могли
бы заинтересовать подробности.

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Lesson 6.

1. Translate into Russian.


Embassy, Export Services Branch, Board of Trade, to study on the spot, itinerary, Sales
Manager, to bring the fire under control, the eventual loss, Insurance Policy, to avoid delaying
departure, to pay greater attention, stowage of cargo, heavy pitching shipping seas at the bow and
stern, severe straining, for convenience’s sake, flood-light, witness, allegation, groundless, settling a
dispute, different readings, to be bound for, I hereby request, consignment, within three months,
terms of payment, with reference to your kind letter, previous commitments, technical staff.

2. Read and translate the following letters.


British Embassy,
Avenue 30th March,
Djemsa, ABRACA. 8th July, 1999.

Dear Sir,
Miss Crawshay of the Export Services Branch, Board of Trade, asked me to write to you
direct.
My company specialises in making better quality electric equipment. I propose to visit
Djemsa for about ten days in early November to study on the spot ways of introducing our products
to the Abracan market. I understand there is no import duty. A check with the customs has shown
that little British equipment of this kind has ever been sold to Abraca and I understand French and
Dutch firms have been the main suppliers.
Six copies of our catalogue are enclosed. If you can help me in planning an itinerary and
introduce me to possible buyers and agents during my visit I should be most grateful.
Yours faithfully,

The Manager,
Date Palm Hotel,
Djemsa, ABRACA. 15th July, 1999.

Dear Sir,
Our Sales Manager, Mr. John Martin, will be in Djemsa on business for ten days. We would
like to reserve for him a single room, with bath, from 30th October to 9th November inclusive.
We should be glad if you would confirm this booking as soon as possible.

Yours faithfully,
Sally Langley
Secretary to John Martin

Dear sirs,
This is to inform you that a small fire broke out on the ship as a result of a short circuit in the
electric wiring. We managed to bring the fire under control almost immediately. However, some
cargo was damaged by the fire. We calculated that our loss amounts to $ 1,500 as per enclosed list.

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As the eventual loss by fire has been included in the Insurance Policy please arrange for insurers to
visit our ship as soon as possible to avoid delaying departure of the vessel.
Yours faithfully, Master.
Dear Sirs,
Please pay greater attention to the correct stowage of cargo. So, for instance, during the last
voyage due to the fact that heavy weights were stowed at the ends of the vessel she suffered heavy
pitching shipping seas at the bow and stern. The ship was also subjected to severe straining in a
seaway. Too much weight stowed fore and aft had a lateral effect in making the vessel slower in
answering the helm. In future, for convenience’s sake, place bales on their flats, with mark and
number uppermost, wing bales on their edges, mark and number inboard.
Yours faithfully, ___________
Dear Sirs,
In this dark period of the day all that part of the vessel where loading was being carried out
was perfectly lit. The lighting consisted of four flood-lights & two portable 6-bulb clusters.
According to the evidence given by numerous witnesses all the aforesaid lights were on both
before & during the accident.
The injured man’s allegation that he got injury because of poor lighting is a absolutely
groundless.
Yours faithfully, Captain.

Dear Sirs.
We shall be much obliged if you will kindly arrange the following repairs at your earliest
convenience:
1.________________
2.________________
3.________________
Your cooperation would be appreciated very much.
Yours faithfully
C.E. of m/v_____

Settling a dispute
Transworld Marine Agency Company
Rotterdam
Holland
Dear Sirs,
I hereby request your kind cooperation in settling a dispute that arose between my m/t
Esturion and the m/t Poseidon, owned by the Nafta Company, London, on November 20,1996 in a
Position 20 degree N, 17 degree Win the Atlantic Ocean.
The point in dispute is as follows. After transferring a cargo of fuel oil from my vessel to the
above tanker our respective meters showed different readings: according to my vessel's meters we
had transferred 5.350 tons, while according to the meters of the m/v Poseidon the amount of fuel oil
transferred was only 5.250 tons.
The tanker Poseidon is bound for your port to deliver her cargo of fuel oil and is due to arrive
here this November 27.
I hereby request that you check the readings of her meters before and after discharging and
inform me of your findings by a cable addressed to my vessel. My callings are UJMT.
Yours most sincerely

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Supply of the machinery
Dear Sirs,
We shall appreciate being informed at once if you are in a position to fill an order for the
supply and installation of the following electrical machinery...
Consignment and installation of this machinery must be completed within three months of the
date of order.
We shall also appreciate, receiving from you complete information concerning the price of
these machines and terms of payment.
We hope that we shall receive a prompt reply.
Yours faithfully ...

Dear Sirs,
With reference to your kind letter of the 9th inst. received yesterday, it is with pleasure that
we can inform you that we are in a position to supply you with the machinery you require.
However, due to previous commitments, we are unable to guarantee installation in less than four
months' time; but within that date you may rest assured that the machinery will be installed and
fully tested by our technical staff. .
Finally, we are taking this opportunity in order to forward to you herewith enclosed some
recent testimonials from firms which have been supplied with our equipment and machinery.
Yours faithfully...

3. Translate into English.


Коммерческий директор, возможные потери, укладка груза, изучить на месте, Отдел по
экспорту, прожектор, посольство, сильная килевая качка судна на носу и корме, держать
огонь под контролем, Министерство Торговли, урегулирование спорного вопроса, свидетель,
настоящим прошу Вас, необоснованный, Страховой полис, в течении трех месяцев, избежать
задержку отправления, направляться в, предыдущие нарушения, Сильное натяжение
(деформация), уделять большее внимание, сроки оплаты, разные показания, удобства ради, с
ссылкой на Ваше любезное письмо, обоснование, отправка, технический персонал.

4. Insert the missing prepositions.


1. My company specialises _____ making better quality electric equipment.
2. Six copies _____ our catalogue are enclosed.
3. We should be glad if you would confirm this booking _____ possible.
4. This is to inform you that a small fire broke out on the ship _____ a result of a short
circuit in the electric wiring.
5. Some cargo was damaged _____ the fire.
6. The ship was also subjected _____ severe straining in a seaway.
7. _____ the evidence given by numerous witnesses all the aforesaid lights were on both
before & during the accident.
8. I hereby request your kind cooperation _____ settling a dispute.
9. Consignment and installation of this machinery must be completed _____ three months
of the date of order.
10. _____ previous commitments, we are unable to guarantee installation in less _____ four
months' time.

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5. Translate the following letters into English.

Выполнение дополнительных работ.


Август, 17, 1997
Лас Пальмас
Уважаемые господа,
Довожу до Вашего сведения, что докование моего судна продлено до 25 августа в связи
с необходимостью выполнения дополнительных работ, а именно:
1.
2.
3.
Настоящим прошу вас рассмотреть возможность сокращения сроков ремонта, a также
сообщить цены на указанные работы. Прошу уведомить меня о предполагаемом времени
окончания ремонтных работ.
С уважением
Капитан т/х «Атлас»

Закупка запасных частей.


Июль, 12, 1997
Бостон
Господа.
Настоящим сообщаю, что мое судно прибыло на внешний рейд сегодня, 12 июля для
закупки запасных частей в соответствии с договоренностью о поставке запасных частей для
оборудования, произведенного вашей компанией
Мне требуются следующие запасные части:
1. Серебряно-цинковые аккумуляторы – 2 шт.
2. Переключатели - 5шт.
3. Жидкость для очистки контактов – 6 л.
4. Удлинитель – 10 м.
5. Взрывобезопасные лампу – 25 шт.
Прошу известить меня о времени доставки, а также о размере и весе груза. Если какая-
либо позиция из вышеуказанного списка не имеется в наличии, прошу указать ее и сообщить
мне заблаговременно.
С уважением
(роспись)
Капитан

Письмо с просьбой вернуть тару


при первом удобном случае
Генуя, 27 августа 19...
Господам Торонто и Ко ЛТД
Морским агентам
17 Пиаза Корветто,
Генуя, Италия
Уважаемые господа,
В соответствии с Очередным Отчетом № 7652 мы оставили в вашем порту на ваше
хранение 11220 единиц тары и 2940 единиц тары, которые должны быть возвращены или
обменяны на нашем судне.

64
Так как мы покидаем ваш порт завтра мы просим вас вернуть эти контейнеры при
первом же удобном случае, используя любое судно нашей Судоходной Компании, которое
будет в вашем порту в ближайшее время.
Пожалуйста, подтвердите получение этого письма подписанием приложенного
дубликата.
Искренне ваш,
Н.Н.Николаев
Капитан теплохода «Иван Москаленко»

Поставка машинного оборудования


Господа,
Мы будем вам очень признательны, если вы сразу проинформируете нас, способны ли
вы выполнить заказ на поставку и установку следующего машинного оборудования...
Отправка и установка этого оборудования должна быть закончена в течение трех
месяцев от даты заказа.
Мы также будем признательны вам за получение полной информации относительно
стоимости этих машин и сроков оплаты.
Мы надеемся на ваш быстрый ответ.
Искренне ваши, ...

Господа,
С ссылкой на ваше любезное письмо от 9-го, полученное вчера, нам приятно, что мы
можем информировать вас о том, что в состоянии поставить вам требуемое машинное
оборудование. Тем не менее, учитывая предыдущие нарушения, мы не можем гарантировать
установку менее чем за 4-месячный срок. Но в течение этого срока вы можете быть уверены,
что машинное оборудование будет установлено и полностью проверено нашим техническим
персоналом.
В заключение, мы рассматриваем возможность для того, чтобы отправить вам
некоторые недавние свидетельства от фирм, которые были поставлены вместе с нашим
оборудованием и машинами.
Искренне ваши, ...
Vocabulary.
Докование – docking permission
Быть продленным – to be extended
В связи с – in view of
А именно – viz
Рассмотреть – consider
Сокращать – to short
Сообщить цены – to quote prices
Окончание ремонтных работ – completing the repairs
быть в наличии – to be available
Внешний рейд – outer roadsted
сообщать – notify, inform, advise, let .. know
время доставки – time of delivery
размеры и вес – dimensions and weight
позиция - item
закупать – to purchase
Очередной отчет – Outturn Report
На ваше хранение – in your custody
При первом удобном случае – at your earliest convenience

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Приложенный – attached
Мы будем вам очень признательны, - we shall appreciate being informed
если вы проинформируете нас
выполнить заказ – to fill am order
отправка – consignment
сроки оплаты – terms of payment
быстрый ответ – prompt reply
с сcылкой на выше любезное письмо – with reference to your kind letter
быть в состоянии – to be in position
предыдущие нарушения – previous commitments
вы можете быть уверены – you may rest assured
мы рассматриваем возможность – we are taking this opportunity
свидетельства - testimonials

6. Make up the dialogues under the following situations.


1. Поговорите о заказе оборудования и запчастей к нему.
2. Поговорите о срочном ремонте судового электрооборудования.

Lesson 7-8.

1. Translate the following word-combinations into Russian.


Insulation, to provide with, air-to-water heat exchanger, the uncleanness, cooling capacity, to
prevent, harmful, core, to remove, to penetrate, to lubricate, the cooling pipes, to be unused for long
periods of time, the insulation resistance between the windings, to be dried in a suitable way.

2. Read and translate the text.

Instructions.
Technical Documentation of Electrical Equipment
Prior to the commencement of supervising the manufacture of the electrical equipment the
following documentation is to be submitted for consideration:
1) description of the principle of operation & main characteristics;
2) material specification /list of products/ which is to contain elements, instruments &
materials used & their technical characteristics;
3) assembly drawing with sections;
4) circuit diagram;
5) test programme;
6) mechanical rotor shaft calculations as well as drawing of fastening of poles, magnetic
circuit stackings, commutator etc. & detailed drawings of elements welded to the shaft;
7) for distribution switchboards – calculation of thermal & electro-dynamic strength of
busbars under short-circuit conditions where current rating of a generator or generators running in
parallel exceeds 1000 A.

Arrangement of Machinery & Equipment


They are to be so arranged as to provide free access to them for attendance & overhaul.
If auxiliary boilers are installed in one common space with the internal combustion engines
precautions must be taken to protect against the effect of flame from the furnace.
Fuel tanks, as a rule, not to be installed above the ladders, main engines, steam boilers,
electric equipment & the main engine control station.

66
The machinery driving the cargo pumps & ventilators in pump rooms of tankers is not to be
installed in cargo pump rooms, but spaces adjacent to the pump room.
Drive shafts are to be fitted with glands efficiently lubricated from outside the pump room.
Those parts of the glands, which due to the bad centricity of the drive shaft or damage of the
bearings might contact, shall be made of material that will not initiate sparks.

Instructions for Erection, Operation & Maintenance of Induction Machines


Reception
1. Upon receipt of the machine, please inspect it to see that the machine has not been damaged
during transport.
2. Unless otherwise agreed, the machine will comply with the recommendations & they will
be rated for continuous duty.
3. If the machine is started often or if due to a great moment of inertia or to a load torque of
the driven machine /or both together/ the starting time is long, we presume that all necessary data
have been supplied already with order. Thus the machine has been manufactured & rated to meet
the requirements of the drive in question. If the operating conditions are not given us before the
manufacture or the machine is later transferred to a heavier drive, kindly check with us its appliance
for the task.
4. The connection diagram together with the eventual connection diagrams of the control
equipment & anti-condense heaters, the mounting instructions for the terminal box & dimension
print of the brushes in the slip-ring motor will be furnished with these instructions.
5. Note!
When ordering spares & in all correspondence, please quote the type designation & serial
number of the machine./If the rating plate is missing, state the number stamped on the shaft and.

Instructions (Part 2.)

General Instructions for Maintenance


1. For effective cooling & insulation, the machine must be kept clean & dry.
2. The cooling surface of the rib-cooled machines must be kept clean.
3. In the machines provided with air-to-water heat exchanger, the pipes of the heat exchanger
must be kept clean by brushing them through with brush delivered with the machine.
4. In the machines provided with air-to water heat exchanger, the uncleanness in the water
may form a gradually increasing layer of dirt on the inner surface of the heat exchanger pipes. This
reduces the cooling capacity. Therefore the pipes must, be cleaned from time to time with the brush
delivered with the best exchanger.
5. To prevent corrosion, the water flow in the cooling pipes should be kept close to the value
instructed by the manufacturer. Too high or too low flow is harmful.
6. When the water flow decreases too much, it is indicated by the water flow alarm device &
by temperature rise in the circulating air, iron core & windings.
7. The condition of the water flow alarm device can be checked by means of closing off the
water circulation for a short while.
8. The instructions for maintenance of the air-to-water heat exchanger are usually delivered
with the machine.
9. Open-type machines must occasionally be cleaned also inside, uncleanness on the winding
surfaces, especially the moisture & oil absorbed in the dust layer, cause easily damages in the
windings.
10. The cooling ribs of the stator can be cleaned without cleaning tools delivered with the
motor. Special care must be taken not to damage coil ends with the cleaning tools.
11. When the motor is started after cleaning, the detached uncleanness remaining in the ribs is
taken by the motor ventilating air to places where it is easily removed.

67
12. The machines which have been unused for long periods of time, e.g. stand-by machines,
must be kept in a dry place, especially if they have no anti-condense heaters. This prevents the
moisture from penetrating to the bearings & windings. The machines must be rotated manually a
few rounds now and then.
13. If, however, it is suspected that moisture has got into the machine, prior to starting up:
1) lubricate the bearings or, preferably, remove the bearing cover for inspection and
lubrication;
2) measure the insulation resistance between the windings and the body. In measuring, use
the insulation resistance meter 0.5kV or 1 kV for low voltage & 1 …2.5kV for high voltage circuits.
14. Insulation resistance is the insulation resistance between the windings the temperature of
the winding & it is halved with each temperature rise of I0…15°C.
15. If the insulation resistance is less than the above limit value, the windings of the machine
must be dried in a suitable way.
Vocabulary.
Cooling surface of the rib-cooled machines – охлаждаемая поверхность машин с ребрис-
тым корпусом
alarm device – устройство аварийной сигнализации
to close off for a short while – отключить на короткое (некоторое) время
detached uncleanness remaining in ribs – грязь, оставшаяся в ребрах
stand-by – резервный
every now and then – время от времени

3. What of the following word-combinations consist of group of nouns.


Effective cooling, kept clean, cooling surface, air-to-water heat exchanger, gradually
increasing, water flow, value instructed, water flow alarm device, temperature rise, circulating air,
iron core.

4. Answer the questions.


1. Why must the machine be kept clean and dry?
2. By what way must the pipes of the heat exchanger be kept clean?
3. What reduces the cooling capacity?
4. Why too high and too low water flow is harmful for the cooling pipes?
5. What device indicates the increasing or decreasing of the water flow?
6. How can it be checked?
7. What causes easily damages in the windings?
8. Why can the cooling ribs of the stator be cleaning without cleaning tools delivered with the
motor?
9. What is the care of machines which have been unused for long period of time?
10. What are your actions, if you suspect that moisture has got into the machine, prior to
starting up?

5. Listen to the sentences and mark the numbers of these from the topic “Moisture in the
machine”.
1.It is suspected that the moisture has got into the machine. 2. The uncleanness on the
winding surface causes easily damages in windings. 3. Remove the bearing cover for inspection &
lubrication. 4. Lubricate the bearings. 5. The water flow decreases too much. 6. The stand-by
machines must be kept in a dry place. 7. This prevents the moisture from penetrating to the bearings
& windings. 8. The cooling surface of the rib-cooled machines must be clean.

6. In what paragraphs of the text it is a question that:


a) Ребристая поверхность охлаждаемых машин должна содержаться в чистоте;
b) Загрязнение машин уменьшает эффективность охлаждения;

68
c) Для того, чтобы предотвратить коррозию, следует поддерживать такую величину
скорости потока воды, какая указана в инструкции;
d) Грязь на поверхности обмотки вызывает повреждение последней.

7. Translate into English.


1. В машинах, снабженных воздушно-водяным теплообменником, трубы
теплообменника должны чиститься щетками, поставленными с машиной.
2. Для предотвращения коррозии, скорость потока воды в охлаждающих трубах
должна соответствовать значению, указанному производителем.
3. Охлаждаемые ребра могут быть прочищены без использования чистящих
инструментов, т.к. эти инструменты могут повредить концы ребер.
4. Состояние сигнального устройства состояния потока воды может быть проверен
отключением циркуляции воды на некоторое время.
5. Если сопротивление изоляции меньше значения, указанного производителем, то
обмотки машины должны просушиваться.

Lesson 9-10.
Homereading.
CONTRACT OF EMPLOYMENT
This contract is entered into voluntarily by and between:
Name of seaman:
Address:
Date of Birth:
Rank:
Seaman's Book/Passport No.:
herein referred to as the Seaman
and
Registered Owner. TOUGH TRADER MARITIME
Ship Manager MARACHART SHIPPING CO LTD I
Name of Vessel: TOUGH TRADER
IMO Number: 7614771
FIag: SINGAPORE
Gross Registered Tonnage (CRT): 9020
Dead Weight: 15200
Year Built: 1980
herein referred to as the Owners

In accordance with the following terms and conditions:


1. AGREEMENT
1.1. This Agreement is entered into between the Owners and the Seaman for engagement on
board the vessels owned by the Company or on board vessels managed by the Company.
1.2. All the terms of the present Agreement form the individual contract of the seaman and in
testimony thereof the Owners and the Seaman put their signatures at the end of this Agreement.
1.3. This Agreement shall supersede all other previous agreements either oral or written or
otherwise and this will be the only Agreement which regulates their rights of the parties hereto.
2. SHIPBOARD EMPLOYMENT PERIOD (Service Period)
A. The period of service on board for each crew member is six (6) consequent months and the
Owners have the option to prolong or reduce this period for 1 month, in accordance with the
embarkation / disembarkation possibilities at the Owners' convenience.

69
B. Probation period is two (2) months and the Owners have the right to sign off the Seaman
without any compensation and the Seaman will cover his repatriation expenses and expenses of his
substitute in case the Seaman is not suitable to perform his duties.
3. TRAVELING EXPENSES
Ai r traveling expenses (air tickets, hotels, meals, etc.) including baggage of up to 30 kilos,
from the place of engagement will be paid by the Owners, except in cases where the crew member
is repatriated at his request prior to the expiration of the employment period or is signed off by his
default (see article 4), in which case the expenses for his repatriation will be paid by the crew
member, himself. It is clarified that the place of engagement is Kiev.
4. PREMATURE TERMINATION OF THE SERVICE PERIOD
The Owners may sign off and repatriate the Seaman at any time prior to expiration of the
service period (three months) without notice provided that the Seaman will be compensated with
one month basic salary and the repatriation expenses will be done by the Owners. The Owners have
the right to sign off the Seaman without any compensation and the Seaman will cover his
repatriation expenses and expenses of his substitute if any of the following offenses is committed by
him.
a. Refusal of any work ordered by his superiors,
b. Contraband / Smuggling.
c. Assisting stowaways.
d. Breach of drug and alcohol policy of Marachart Shipping Co.Ltd.
e. Not reporting for duty in time, especially after shore leave.
f. Fulfill loss and/or damage to the vessel or cargo.
g. Misbehavior / fighting / gambling.
h. Fulfill non-compliance with the local regulations of the country and/or the port of call.
i. Non-compliance with the company's rules and policy, provided same were set up and made
in a seaman like manner,
j. If the Master, Chief Officer, Second Officer, Radio Officer, Chief Engineer, Second
Engineer do not speak / understand standard English.
The Seaman has the right to resign and be repatriated at any time prior to the expiration of the
service period specified in this contract, provided he gives the Master at least a 30 days notice in
writing. In such case the repatriation expenses will be paid by the Seaman.
The Seaman has the right to refuse to sail from a port if such sailing has been prohibited by
order of the relevant Classification Society or Port Authorities on account of unseaworthiness of the
vessel. He is however obliged in such a case to continue performing his duties and work in
accordance with this contract for the purpose of rectifying the unseaworthiness and sail with the
vessel when the restraining order imposed by the Classification Society of Port Authorities has been
lifted.
5. CREW TRANSFER TO OTHER VESSELS
If the ship is wrecked, sold, laid up or for any reason is not to continue her voyage(s), the
Owners have the right to transfer the Seaman to other ship under the same management for the
remainder of the service period. In such case the Owners will inform the crewing office the new
ship's name and data. If the Owners cannot arrange to transfer the seaman to another vessel, the
seaman will be returned to the place of engagement (as per article 3) and each repatriated Seaman
will be entitled to one month's basic salary as compensation for the unfinished part of service
period of the contract of employment.
The Owners have and maintain however the right at all times to transfer the Seaman to
another vessel under the same ownership or management under the same terms and conditions of
this contract for the remainder of the service period.
6. HOURS OF DUTY/OVERTIME
The composition and duration of watch keeping at sea and in port will be at the absolute
authority and discretion of the Master. The ordinary hours of duty crew will be (8) hours per day
from Monday to Friday inclusive. Any hours worked in excess of eight (8) on any of these days will

70
be considered overtime. All hours worked on Saturday, Sundays and Public Holidays will also be
consider overtime. It is clarified that overtime of 120 hours for officers and 120 hours for low
ratings per month is included in salary. Extra overtime is to be paid additionally. The seaman shall
work overtime at any time, as ordered by the Master, taking into consideration the Chapter VIII of
STCW 78/ 95 Convention. Furthermore with the overtime paid it is expected that each officer and
crew will carry out the maintenance and repair of machinery and equipment for the good
performance of the vessel.
Master is obliged to keep daily the Navigational watch 08:00-12:00 and 20:00-24:00.
7. PUBLIC HOLIDAYS
All holidays will be observed as per vessel's flag. The following Ukrainian holidays may be
observed by the Ukrainian crew in lieu of the other holidays: 1" January, 7th January, 8th March,
Easter days, 1,2,9th May, 24th August, 7,8th November.

8. PAYMENT OF WAGES
The Seaman's wages, which are shown in Appendix (1) and clause 21, will be accounted by
the Master every month. The wages are counted from the date when the Seaman departs from
Ukraine until the day of his leaving from the vessel.
9. CASH ADVANCES
The Seaman shall receive from the Master cash advances not exceeding 90% of his wages
after deduction of the standard allotments. USD 700 will be retained by the Master as security to
cover the Seaman's repatriation expenses as per Article 4. This amount will be gradually retained by
the Master at the end of the contract. The wages will be paid in US Dollars every two (2) months at
the first convenient port where USD payments are normally available as per local regulations such
as Europe, USA, Canada, Saudi Arabia. UAE etc. (not through the black market). Bank charges for
Crew Member's account.
10.FOOD / PROVISIONS, ACCOMODATION, BEDDING, ETC.
The Owners will provide and pay for sufficient provision of good quality for the crew in
accordance with the international standards (not less 8.00 USD per person per day). Owners have
option to pay victuals in cash US$ 8.00 per person and Master / Officers / crew to arrange victuals /
provisions at their care.
Owner will also provide the vessel with the following:
a. Quarters of appropriate size and standard.
b. One mattress and at least one pillow and two blankets;
c. Two sheets, pillowcases for each pillow and two towels;
d. Required dishes and crockery:
e. Washing equipment, washing detergents for clothes and other items in sufficient quantity;
f. All items and equipment which are needed for normal preparation of meals;
g. Three times a day meal: breakfast, lunch and dinner plus two tea breaks and cold cuts or
sandwiches for the night watch
All items enumerated in this paragraph must be of good quality.
11. WORKING CLOTHES
The Owners, for the purpose of safe working on board, will provide the Seaman with working
gloves, goggles, sea boots, hard-hats, overalls and jackets (if weather is cold). These items will
replaced due to fair wear and tear with new ones on the basis of a return of the old ones. In any
case, the Owners guarantee supply of all necessary facilities of personal safety and working clothes
in compliance with ILO standards.
12. LOSS OF PERSONAL BELONGINGS DUE TO WRECKAGE
If the ship is wrecked and due to this the Seaman suffer loss of his personal belongings, each
Seaman is entitled to a compensation of USD 2,000.00 (two thousand) or as per P&I rules in order
to replace these belongings.

71
13. SICKNESS / INJURY / LOSS OF LIFE
13.1 In case of illness or injury of the Seaman which has occurred during the period of
employment and was not consciously caused by him or was not a result of use of alcohol or drugs
he will be entitled to all the necessary medical care including hospitalization and medication and for
as long as he stays on board he is entitled to his basic wages. Pre-existing illness is not covered by
this section or by the P&I Club.
13.2 Should following a doctor's advice the Seaman hospitalization is necessary his contract
of employment is terminated and he is entitled to his basic salary for a period of up to three (3)
months maximum but he is not entitled to any other remuneration or compensation for the
termination of his contract of employment. However, the Company will pay for his repatriation
expenses. Proof of his continued entitlement to sick pay shall be by submission of satisfactory
medical certificates in English and subject to the approval of Company's P&I Club.
13.3 All dental care expenses will be borne by the Employee with the exception of tooth
extractions when in the nature of first aid.
13.4 In case the Seaman suffers an accident, not through his own fault, during his service on
board the vessel or while he is travelling to the vessel to assume his duties and his capacity to work
is reduced as a direct result of such accident he is entitled to compensation.
Also in case of death due to an accident on board or while travelling to meet the ship the legal
representatives of estate of the deceased are entitled to compensation which is calculated as follows:
a. Death Resulting from injury
Age of deceased Amount of compensation
Under 40.............................................................. 84 months basic wages
40 to under 56………………………………….. 60 months basic wages
56 or above ......................................................... 36 months basic wages

In all cases subject to a maximum of USD 36,000 and a minimum of USD 16,500
b. Total Permanent Incapacity Resulting from injury
Age of seaman compensation Amount of
Under 40................................................................. 96 months basic wages
40 to under 56…………………………………… 72 months basic wages
56 or above............................................................ 48 months basic wages

In all cases to a maximum of USD 42,000 and a minimum of USD 25,000


c. Partial Permanent Incapacity Resulting from injury.

The amount of compensation is percentage of the compensation which is payable for


permanent total incapacity proportionate to the percentage of disability, assessed by the attending
doctor(s).
The above mentioned amounts represent full and final settlement of every claim that the
seaman's property administration and/or the seaman's family members may have.
14. SEAMEN’S PAPERS REQUIRED BY FOREIGN FLAG VESSELS
In the event if the seaman is required by government to have National certificates of
competency and Seaman's books (i.e. Pan-American etc.) corresponding to those of Ukraine origin,
any expenses arising due to this conversation, including flag fees charges, will be borne by the
Owners.
15. LAWFUL TRADE
The Owners undertake that they will not engage the ship to an unlawful Trade or will operate
her in contravention of the Legislation of the flag she flies.
16. WAR ZONE (FOR ALL WAR RISKS ZONES AS DEFINED ACCORDING TO
THE LLOYDS STANDARDS).
In the event that the ship is about to proceed to a war zone, the Owners are to Inform the crew
on the ship itinerary. The Seaman has the right to refuse to perform this voyage at which time he is

72
repatriated. The Owners will pay the repatriation expenses to such Seaman(s) but will not pay any
compensation for the unfinished part of the contract of employment. Seaman accepting to perform
the voyage will be paid a bonus equal to the basic wages for the duration of the ship's stay or
navigating through such area(s). The existence and limits of a war zone is to be defined as specified
by Lloyd's Bulletins.
17. It is clarified that the Seaman is not allowed to buy a car from abroad and place it on
board the vessel.
18. LITIGATION
Wages shown in Appendix 1 to this Contract, are accepted by respective Union and
Company, The Seaman having any and whatever dispute with the Company is to approach only his
Union and Crewing company who is its turn will settle dispute directly with Company.
Should the seaman approach any other organization the Owners have the right to terminate
employment. All repatriation and other expenses arising from such act to be for Seamen's' account
and Seaman not entitled to any compensation at all.
19. On leaving the ship at the end of Contract the Seaman will be provided with a "Final
settlement and receipt of salary" with full details of payments and deduction for the period on
board.
20. URISDICTION / ARBITRATION
This agreement shall be governed by and construed in accordance with Ukrainian Law. Any
and all disputes, controversies or differences which may arise out of or in connection with this
Agreement, which cannot be settled by the parties in a friendly manner, shall be referred to the
exclusive jurisdiction of the competent COURT OF UKRAINE at Odessa. The award of this court
shall be final and binding upon both parties. Both parties hereby agree to voluntarily submit
themselves to the above jurisdiction.
21. Mr. IIVANOV PAVEL Extra 0/T per hour
Passport No.: (for over 120 hours) 3,50 USD
Date of birth:
Position:
Monthly salary basic 1400 USD
Fixes overtime 400 USD
Monthly leave pay 200 USD

Total 2000 USD

Sign. ______________ Sign.__________________


On behalf of the Shipowner The Seaman
Sign.

Sign.____________ Date ______________


Headway Ltd.
As witness only

Vocabulary.
In testimony – вызвать в качестве свидетеля
To supersede - отменять
At the Owners’convenience – если это подходит собственнику
Probation period – испытательный период
Expenses - затраты
To be clarified – быть выясненным, объясненным
Premature – преждевременный, опрометчивый
To be committed – быть связанным с чем-л., придерживаться чего-л.
Smuggling - контрабанда

73
Stowaway – безбилетный пассажир, тайно проникший на судно
To breach - нарушать
Gambling – спекуляция, азартная игра на деньги
To resign – отказываться, подчиняться
To rectify – исправлять, вносить исправление
Restraining order – судебный запрет
STCW – International Convention on Standards of Training Certification and Watchkeeping
for
Seafarers. ПДМНВ – Международная конвенция по подготовке и дипломирова

нии моряков и несении вахты.
In lieu of - вместо
Cash advance – кредит в наличной денежной форме
Deduction – удержание, снижение, сокращение, налоговое изъятие
Allotment – выделение, выделенная доля, часть
Victuals - продовольствие
Detergent – моющее или чистящее средство
ILO – International Labour Organization – Международная организация труда
Litigation – тяжба, судебный процесс

Exercises.

1. Выберите правильный ответ на следующие вопросы, указав соответствующий


буквенный индекс.
1. For what aim is this Agreement concluded?
a) For the aim of disembarkation o the Seaman.
b) For the aim of buying a car from abroad and placing it on board the vessel.
c) For the aim of engagement on board the vessel.
2. How many months does the period of service last?
a) 3 months.
b) 6 months
c) 2 months.
3. Whom will travelling expenses be paid by?
a) By the Owner.
b) By the Master.
c) By the Crewing Company.
4. When have the Owners the right to sign off the Seaman without any compensation?
a) If any offenses are committed by the Seaman.
b) If any offenses are committed by the Owner.
c) If the Seaman doesn’t perform his duty rather well.
5. Whose duty is to determine the composition and duration of watch keeping?
a) It’s a duty of the Owner.
b) It’s a duty of the Master.
c) It’s the duty of the First Mate.
6. What is the time period of wages’ counting?
a) From the date of Seaman’s departure from Ukraine until the day of his leaving from the
vessel.
b) From the date of Seaman’s signing this Agreement until the day of his leaving from the
vessel.
c) From the date of Seaman’s arriving on board the ship until the day of his arriving in
Ukraine.
7. In what case is the Seaman entitled to all the necessary medical care?

74
a) If his illness is a result of use of alcohol or drugs.
b) If his illness has occurred during the period of employment.
c) If his illness is pre-existing.
8. When has the Seaman right to refuse to perform this voyage with repatriation expenses
reser –
vation?
a) In the event that the ship proceeds her schedule voyage.
b) In the event of his unwillingness to continue his employment.
c) In the event that the ship is about to proceed to a war zone.
9. What organization is the Seaman having any dispute with the Company to approach?
a) He is to approach the Ukrainian’s arbitrage.
b) He is to approach his Union and Crewing Company.
c) He is to approach the arbitrage to the country under which flag he is flying.
10. What Law shall this Agreement be governed by?
a) By Ukrainian Law.
b) By American Law.
c) By English Law.

2. Определите, в каком из фрагментов речь идет об одном из указанных


пунктах Договора. Выберите правильный ответ, указав соответствующий
буквенный индекс.

a) Shipboard Employment Period.


b) Premature Termination of the Service Period.
c) Hours of Duty / Overtime
d) Payment of Wages.
e) Sickness / Injury / Loss of Life
f) Litigation
g) Jurisdiction / Arbitration.

1. It is about the Seaman’s treatment; when he is entitled to all necessary medical care;
when he isn’t entitled to any remuneration or compensation for the termination of his contract of
employment; what compensation shall be paid in case the Seaman suffers an accident, of total or
permanent incapacity resulting from injury, of his death.

2. It is about duration of watch keeping at sea and in port; about he ordinary hours of crew’s
duty; about any hours worked in excess which considered as overtime; about the payment of
overtime.

3. It is about the Seaman's salary, which will be accounted by the Master every month. It is
counted from the date when the Seaman departs from Ukraine until the day of his leaving from the
vessel.

4. It is about the period of service on board and about the probation period during which the
Owners have the right to sign off the Seaman without any compensation and the Seaman will cover
his repatriation expenses and expenses of his substitute in case the Seaman is not suitable to
perform his duties.

5. It is about that this agreement shall be governed by and construed in accordance with
Ukrainian Law. Any and all disputes, controversies or differences which may arise out of or in
connection with this Agreement, which cannot be settled by the parties in a friendly manner, shall
be referred to the exclusive jurisdiction of the competent COURT OF UKRAINE at Odessa.

75
6. It is about that the Owners have the right to sign off the Seaman with or without any
compensation; about the reasons when the Seaman has the right to resign and be repatriated at any
time prior to the expiration of the service period and the reason when the Seaman has the right to
refuse to sail from a port.

7. It is about that wages are accepted by respective Union and Company, The Seaman
having any and whatever dispute with the Company is to approach only his Union and Crewing
company who is its turn will settle dispute directly with Company.
Should the seaman approach any other organization the Owners have the right to
terminate employment.

3. Из предложенных предлогов выберите тот, который соответствует


содержанию предложений текста.
1. All the terms of the present Agreement form the individual contract of the seaman and in
testimony thereof the Owners and the Seaman put their signatures ___ the end of this Agreement.
a) in b) at c) of
2. The Owners have the option to prolong or reduce this period for 1 month, the
embarkation / disembarkation possibilities at the Owners' convenience.
a) in accordance with b) prior to c) depending on
3. If the Owners cannot arrange to transfer the seaman to another vessel, the seaman will be
returned ___ the place ___ engagement (as per article 3) and each repatriated Seaman will be
entitled to one month's basic salary as compensation for the unfinished part of service period of the
contract of employment.
a) at, by b) on, under c) to, of
4. It is clarified that overtime of 120 hours ___ officers and 120 hours for low ratings per
month is included in salary.
a) for b) of c) by
5. The Owners will provide and pay for sufficient provision of good quality for the crew
___ the international standards (not less 8.00 USD per person per day).
a) in the course of b) in order to c) in accordance with
6. If the ship is wrecked and due to this the Seaman suffer loss of his personal belongings,
each Seaman is entitled to a compensation.
a) as regards b) due to c) instead of
7. All dental care expenses will be borne by the Employee ___ tooth extractions when in the
nature of first aid.
a) with the exception of b) because of c) but for
8. The existence and limits of a war zone is to be defined as specified ___ Lloyd's Bulletins.
a) with b) by c) at
9. ___ leaving the ship at the end of Contract the Seaman will be provided with a "Final
settlement and receipt of salary" with full details of payments and deduction for the period on
board.
a) in b) at c) on
10. Agreement, which cannot be settled ___ the parties ___ a friendly manner, shall be
referred to the exclusive jurisdiction of the competent COURT OF UKRAINE at Odessa.
a) by, in b) after, before c) with, by

76
4. Выберите из предложенных слов то, которое пропущено в каждом
предложении.
1. This _____ shall supersede all other previous agreements.
2. Ai r traveling expenses (air tickets, hotels, meals, etc.) including baggage of up to 30
kilos, from _____ will be paid by the Owners.
3. If the ship is not to continue her voyage(s), the Owners have the right to transfer the
Seaman _____.
4. All holidays will be observed as per _____.
5. The Seaman shall receive from the Master _____ not exceeding 90% of his wages after
deduction of the standard allotments.
6. _____, for the purpose of safe working on board, will provide the Seaman with working
clothes.
7. Should following _____ the Seaman hospitalization is necessary his contract of
employment is terminated and he is entitled to his basic salary for a period of up to three (3) months
maximum.
8. The Owners will not engage the ship to _____.
9. That _____ is not allowed to buy a car from abroad and place it on board the vessel.
10. The award of _____ shall be final and binding upon both parties.
Vessel's flag, Agreement, the Owners, the place of engagement, an unlawful Trade,
a doctor's advice, cash advances, the Seaman, COURT OF UKRAINE, to other ship

5. Переведите на английский язык.


1. Налоги - платить или не платить? Вот в чем вопрос?
Если моряк находился за границей более 183 дней в календарном году, то налоги
платить не нужно. В случае возникновения любых осложнений с налоговой полицией, не
спешите заполнять декларацию о доходах и, тем более, платить деньги. Имейте в виду, что
вернуть уже уплаченные деньги очень трудно.
2. Поскольку оплату труда моряков производит работодатель, то круинговые агентства
не располагают никакими финансовыми документами подтверждающими факт получения
моряком денег оговоренных в контракте.
3. Рабочее время, сверхурочные часы
Проверь, точно ли определено нормальное рабочее время и ставка, которая должна
выплачиваться за работу вне этого времени. Если контракт предусматривает выплату
постоянной месячной суммы, охватывающей оплату сверхурочных часов, проверь, сколько
часов предусматривает эта сумма и будут ли часы, превышающие это число, оплачиваться по
ставкам для сверхурочных часов. Ты должен позаботиться, чтобы все это было ясно сказано
в контракте или трудовом договоре, а также в договоре о найме.
4. Рабочее время моряка
Обычное рабочее время для всех моряков составляет 8 (восемь) часов в день,
ежедневно, с понедельника по пятницу включительно, в соответствии с расписанием,
составленным капитаном судна. Моряки должны работать сверхурочно по указанию
капитана судна, в течение гарантированного минимума - 100 часов сверхурочной работы
ежемесячно, состоящих из 40 часов работы в выходные дни и 60 часов в рабочие дни.
5. По желанию моряка эти рабочие часы могут быть компенсированы предоставлением
времени отдыха вместо оплаты. В таком случае 3,8 часа сверхурочной работы соответствуют
ставке заработной платы одного дня плюс пособие на питание в размере 18 USD/ сут.
6. Не разрешается обязывать или принуждать экипажи судов выполнять работы по
погрузке и разгрузке, или другие работы, которые традиционно и исторически выполняются
докерами без предварительного согласования с соответствующим профсоюзом докеров,
состоящим в МФТ.

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7. Несение вахты в море и, когда это необходимо, в порту, организуется на
трехсменной основе. Распределение вахт и назначение на бригадную работу (если оно имеет
место) относятся на усмотрение капитана судна. капитан и старший механик не обязаны
нести вахту.

Lesson 11.
Answer the questions of interview.

1. What is your name /surname? - Ваше имя /фамилия?


2. Where were you born? /What is the place of your birth? -Где вы родились9
3. What country were you born in? /Where are you from? / Where do you come from? - Откуда
вы (из какой страны)?
4. When were you born? / What year were you born in? / What is the date of your birth? - Когда
вы родились?
5. Where do you live? / What city do you live in? / What is your address? -Где вы живете?
Адрес?
6. What is your nationality ( citizenship ) ? / What country are you a citizen of ? - Ваша
национальность? ( гражданство)?
7. How old are you? - Сколько вам лет?
8. Do you have your parents living? Do your parents live together with you? What do they do? -Живы
ли ваши родители? Живут ли они вместе с вами? Кто они по профессии?
9. Who is your next of kin? - Кто ваш ближайший родственник?
10. What are your main strengths? What are your weaknesses? - Ваши сильные (хорошие)
качества. Ваши слабые стороны.
11. Do you get on well with other people? - Вы хорошо ладите с людьми?
12. Do you speak foreign languages? What foreign languages do you speak? – Вы говорите на
иностранных языках? На каких иностранных языках вы говорите?
13. Do you have problems with your health? Do you suffer for seasickness? - Есть проблемы со
здоровьем? Вы страдаете от морской болезни?
14. Do you have any references? - Есть ли у вас рекомендации?
15. Can you operate a computer? - Можете ли вы работать на компьютере?
16. Do you have a fire-fighting certificate? - Есть ли у вас противопожарный сертификат?
17. What is your education? - Ваше образование?
18. Do you have any specialized marine education? – Есть ли у вас специальное морское
образование?
19. What college school /Academy a re y ou s t udy i ng a t ?
20. When did you enter the college? What year did you enter the college? -Когда вы поступили в
училище?
21. How long / How many years do you study in t he college? - Сколько лет выучитесь? На каком
курсе вы учитесь?
22. What is your major in the college? - Ваша основная специальность в училище?
23. What is the subject(s) of your specialization? What were your specializing in?- На каких
предметах вы специализировались?
24. What profession do you obtain in the college? - Какую профессию вы приобретаете?
25. What is your profession? What are you? What is your occupation? - Ваша профессия?
26. What was the first position you occupied? - Какая была ваша первая должность?
27. When did you occupy your first po sit io n? When were you appointed to the position of … ? -
Когда вы были назначены на свою первую должность?
28. What was your first ship? What was the s hi p you started working on? - Ваше первое судно?
29. When did you begin working on ships? - Когда вы начали работать на судах?

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30. How long have you been in your profession? How long have you been working as a...? -
Сколько вы уже занимаете должность...?
31. What is your qualification? / What qualification do you have? - Какова ваша квалификация?
32. Do you have any other qualifications? - Есть ли у вас другие квалификации?
33. What types of ships do you know? - Какие типы судов вы знаете?
34. What types of ships did you work on? What were your last ship's particulars? - На каких судах
вы работали? Каковы параметры вашего последнего судна?
35. What is your dry cargo (container, bulk-carrier, lighter, tanker,...experience? - Ваш опыт на
сухогрузе (контейнеровозе, балкере, лихтере, танкере,...)?
36. What is your total sea experience? - Ваш общий морской стаж?
37. What occupation (position) are you applying for now? - На какую должность вы подаете
заявление?
38. What salary do you expect? - Какую зарплату вы ожидаете?
39. Why did you come to " DAN"* company? How did you learn about “DAV” company? - Почему
вы пришли в компанию? Как вы узнали о компании?
40. Have you worked on foreign ships? / Do you have any foreign crew experience? / Have you
worked in a foreign crew? - Работали ли вы на иностранных судах?

41. How- many contracts did you complete? How many contracts have you completed" - Сколько у
вас было контрактов?
42. How long did you contract in the company . . . last?/ What was the duration of your contract in
the company…? - Сколько длился ваш контракт в компании...?
43. What nationalities did you work with in foreign crews? - Какие национальности были в
экипаже?
44. What was your ship trading area? / Where was your ship operating? - В каких районах работало
ваше судно?
45. Are you familiar well w it h your duties?/ Are you familiar well with the work you have to do? -
Хорошо ли вы знакомы со своими обязанностями?
46. What were you responsible for?/ What were your duties? - За что вы отвечали? Ваши
обязанности?
47. What equipment, tools will you work with? - С каким оборудованием, инструментами вы
будете работать?
48. When can you be available to jo in the vessel...? - Когда вы сможете прибыть на судно?
49. Do you know who will meet y o u when you arrive at the airport/at the ra i lw a y stat ion and
show you to the ship you are going to sa il on? - Знаете ли вы. кто вас будет встречать в
аэропорту, на вокзале и проведет на судно, на котором вы отплываете?
50. Do you know safety rules while working with electrical equipment? – Вы знаете правила
безопасности во время работы с электрооборудованием?
51. Why do you want to work at sea? – Почему вы хотите работать в море?

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Grammar reference.

1. Subjunctive Mood.
Сослагательное наклонение.

Сослагательное наклонение указывает на то, что действие или состояние


рассматривается не как реальное, а как предполагаемое, желательное, возможное и т.д.
В русском языке сослагательное наклонение чаще всего выражается сочетанием глагола в
прошедшем времени с частицей бы и эта форма может выражать нереальное действие,
относящееся к настоящему, прошедшему и будущему времени:
Если бы я знал об этом, я бы пришел к вам.
В английском языке имеется несколько форм сослагательного наклонения: простые и
аналитические, неперфектные и перфектные, формы действительного и страдательного
залогов.

§ 1. Синтетические (простые) неперфектные формы сослагательного наклонения


совпадают с формами либо инфинитива без частицы to либо с формами прошедшего
неопределенного времени:

It is necessary that you do this exercise in written form.


Необходимо, чтобы вы сделали это упражнение в письменной форме.

If only I knew him!

Если бы я только знала его!


Синтетической неперфектной формой глагола to be в сослагательном наклонении
являются формы be и were для всех лиц единственного и множественного числа:

I wish she were here now.


Я хочу, чтобы она сейчас была здесь. (Как жаль, что ее нет здесь.)

§ 2. Аналитические неперфектные формы сослагательного наклонения представляют


собой сочетание
глаголов should (для 1-го лица единственного и множественного числа) или would (для 2-
го и 3-го лица
единственного и множественного числа) с простым инфинитивом без частицы to:

If he informed us of his arrival, we should meet him.


Если бы он известил нас о своем приезде, мы бы встретили его.

§ 3. Синтетические перфектные формы сослагательного наклонения совпадают с


формами прошедшего
совершенного времени:

If I had found that book anywhere!


Если бы я где-нибудь нашел эту книгу!

§ 4. Аналитические перфектные формы сослагательного наклонения представляют


собой сочетание глаголов should (для 1-го лица единственного и множественного числа)
или would (для 2-го и 3-го лица единственного и множественного числа) с перфектным
инфинитивом без частицы to:

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If he had met us, he would have gone to the country with us.
Если бы он встретил нас, он бы поехал с нами за город.

§ 5. Неперфектные (синтетические и аналитические) формы сослагательного


наклонения употребляются для выражения желательности, предположения, возможности,
т.е. нереального действия, относящегося к настоящему или будущему времени:

If I had time, I should buy a ticket for this film.


Если бы у меня было время, я бы купил билет на этот фильм.

Перфектные (синтетические и аналитические) формы сослагательного наклонения


употребляются для выражения нереального действия, относящегося к прошлому, то есть
для выражения действия, осуществление которого практически невозможно:

I should have read this book if I had got it a week ago.


Я бы прочитал эту книгу, если бы я достал ее неделю назад.

Употребление форм сослагательного наклонения

§ 6. Синтетические формы (неперфектные и перфектные) сослагательного наклонения, т.


е. формы, совпадающие с формами прошедшего неопределенного или прошедшего
совершенного времени, употребляются, главным образом, в следующих случаях:

1. В простом (часто восклицательном) предложении:

If only I knew her address!


Если бы я только знал ее адрес!

If he had got some spare time!


Если бы у него было свободное время (тогда)!

2. В различных придаточных предложениях:

а) в придаточном условном предложении «нереального условия»:

If they knew so much about him, they would know about Jesse as well.
Если бы они так много знали о нем, они бы знали также и о Джесс.

б) в придаточном предложении образа действия, вводимом союзами as if или as though


как будто бы:

She looked at me as if she didn't know me.


Она посмотрела на меня так, как будто бы не знала меня.

в) в придаточном дополнительном предложении после глагола wish (для выражения


сожаления):

I wished they hadn't showed up at all.


Мне бы хотелось, чтобы они совсем не появлялись. (Как жаль, что они появились).

§ 7. Аналитические формы (неперфектные и перфектные) сослагательного наклонения, т.


е. формы, выраженные сочетанием глаголов should или would с простым или перфектным

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инфинитивом, употребляются, главным образом, в следующих случаях:

1. В простом предложении:

It would be a great pleasure to help her.


Было бы большим удовольствием помогать ей.

2. В главном предложении сложноподчиненных предложений с различными


придаточными:

а) с придаточным «нереального условия»:

Students would have no need to "walk the hospitals" if they had me.
Студентам не нужно было бы проходить практику в больницах, если бы у них был я.

б) с придаточным уступительным, вводимым союзом even if или even though даже если:

If he even talked to the others, he would be misunderstood.


Даже если бы он заговорил с другими, его бы поняли неправильно.

3. В придаточном дополнительном предложении после глаголов, выражающих чувство


(таких, как to fear, to think, to believe, to wish и др.)

He wished they wouldn't follow him like a lot of sheep.


Ему не хотелось, чтобы они шли за ним как стадо баранов.

§ 8. Аналитические формы сослагательного наклонения, выраженные сочетанием глагола


should для всех лиц единственного и множественного числа с простым или перфектным
инфинитивом, а также простые формы сослагательного наклонения, выраженные простым
инфинитивом без частицы to, употребляются, главным образом, в следующих случаях:

1. В придаточном дополнительном предложении, вводимом союзом that чтобы, после


безличных оборотов типа: it is essential важно, it is important важно, it is necessary
необходимо, it is desirable желательно и т.д., а также после глаголов и словосочетаний,
выражающих необходимость, рекомендацию, решение, приказание и т.д.:

It is necessary that this instruction should be typed.


It is necessary that this , instruction be typed.
Необходимо, чтобы эта инструкция была отпечатана (на машинке)

The teacher insists that everybody should be present at the lecture.


The teacher insists that everybody be present at the lecture.
Преподаватель настаивает на том, чтобы все присутствовали на лекции.

§ 9. Аналитические формы сослагательного наклонения употребляются также в


вопросительных и восклицательных предложениях, начинающихся с why, how, who:

How should he know about it?


Как бы он узнал об этом? (Откуда бы ему знать об этом?)

"And what would my daughter say to this?" the Professor exclaimed after a pause of
astonishment.

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"А что бы на это сказала моя дочь?" - воскликнул профессор после паузы крайнего
удивления.

§ 10. Синтетическая форма сослагательного наклонения, совпадающая с простым


инфинитивом без частицы to, употребляется в восклицательных предложениях для
выражения призыва, пожелания и т.п.:

Success attend you!


Пусть вам сопутствует успех!

God bless you!


Да благословит вас Бог!

Be it as it may!
Будь, что будет!

§ 11. Сослагательное наклонение может быть выражено также при помощи модальных
глаголов can, may в сочетании с простым или перфектным инфинитивом смыслового
глагола. В сослагательном наклонении чаще употребляются формы could, might.
Модальные глаголы в сослагательном наклонении сохраняют свое лексическое значение и
переводятся на русский язык словами мог бы, смог бы, а смысловой глагол переводится на
русский язык неопределенной формой:

I mean something like that could kill you.


Я думаю, что что-либо подобное могло бы вас убить.

Модальные глаголы could, might в сослагательном наклонении + перфектный инфинитив


выражают действие, которое могло бы произойти, но не произошло:

But at least you could have told me we had lost an engine.


Но, по крайней мере, вы могли бы сказать мне, что мы потеряли машину.

Модальные глаголы в сослагательном наклонении употребляются как в простых, так и в


придаточных условных предложениях для выражения сожаления о несовершившемся
действии, в восклицательных предложениях, выражающих пожелание, а также в
вопросительных предложениях для выражения вежливой просьбы:

If you could have seen that you would have thought a lot of more of them.
Если бы вы смогли это увидеть, вы побольше бы думали о них.

In fact, we might not really want to use such a device.


В самом деле у нас не могло бы даже возникнуть желание использовать такое
приспособление.

If only he could make others feel that vision.


Если бы он только мог заставить других прочувствовать увиденное.

May success attend you!


Пусть вам сопутствует успех!

Could you do it for me?


He могли бы вы сделать это для меня?

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Некоторые частные случаи употребления форм сослагательного наклонения

§ 12. Формы сослагательного наклонения употребляются также в следующих случаях,


характерных для разговорной речи:

1. В выражении I should like (I'd like) мне бы хотелось:

I should like to meet that man. I should like to know the particulars of his childhood.
Мне бы хотелось встретиться с тем человеком. Мне бы хотелось знать обстоятельства, в
которых проходило его детство (подробности его детства).

2. В выражениях would rather ('d rather) предпочел бы и had better ('d better) лучше бы:

I had rather be hissed for a good verse than be applauded for a bad one.
Я предпочел бы быть освистанным за хорошие стихи, чем получить аплодисменты за
плохие.

3. Для выражения вежливой просьбы в конструкциях would + инфинитив:

Would you help me?


Вы не поможете мне? Пожалуйста, помогите мне!

4. В конструкции would + инфинитив + герундий:

Would you mind my smoking here?


Вы не возражаете, если я закурю здесь?

2. Conditional Sentences - Условные предложения

Условные предложения состоят из:


1. условной части, начинающейся со слов if или unless (условие)
2. основной части (следствие)
Порядок этих частей в предложении неважен.
Всего существует 3 типа условных предложений, относящихся к будущему,
настоящему или прошлому.
Первый тип, так называемый Conditional I, или как его ещё называют “реальное”
условие. Такое предложение описывает ситуацию в будущем, когда существует реальная
возможность того, что условие будет выполнено.
Например:
If she drinks this, she will feel better. Если она это выпьет, она почувствует себя
лучше.
If / Unless + подлежащее + Present Simple Подлежащее + will (can, may/ might) + V
условная часть основная часть
Обратите внимание на то, что, хотя всё предложение относится к будущему, только
основная часть (результат) содержит форму будущего времени, в то время как в условной
части глагол всегда стоит в форме настоящего времени (Present Simple). Другими словами, в
условной части грамматическое время на шаг “отстает” во времени. Еще проще: говоря о
будущем НЕ используйте will после слова if /unless в условной части предложения. Слово
unless “если не” имеет отрицательное значение, поэтому после него глагол стоит в
утвердительной форме.
Например:.

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Unless he comes, we will go without him. = If he doesn’t come, we will go without him.
Если он не придет, мы пойдем без него.
В основной части вместо will может также использоваться модальный глагол can,
may/might или повелительная форма глагола.
Например:
You may /can tell him everything if he calls. Можешь ему все рассказать, если он
позвонит.
If you are tired, go to bed! Если ты устал, иди спать.

Второй тип. Conditional II

Условные предложения так называемого “нереального” (Unreal) или “невероятного”


(Improbable) условия.

Этот тип употребляется для


1. описания нереальной ситуации в настоящем.
2. описания гипотетической ситуации, которая невероятна или маловероятна.
3. выражения совета.
4. выражения будущих надежд.

Например: If I had more time, I would come.


Если бы у меня было больше времени, я бы пришел. (нереальное условие – у меня нет
времени).
If you didn’t listen to music, you would study better.
Если бы ты не слушал музыку, ты бы учился лучше.
Судя по форме глагола, Вы можете увидеть, что реальное время (TIME) и
грамматическое время (TENSE) не совпадают: условная часть относится к настоящему
времени, но глагол стоит в форме прошедшего времени. Впрочем, в русском языке
происходит то же самое, просто мы никогда на это не обращали внимание. Помните
поговорку “Если бы, да кабы...”? А ведь это и есть нереальное условие. И в русских
предложениях, в которых присутствует слово “бы”, глагол всегда стоит в прошедшем
времени.

Таким образом, формула условного предложения, относящегося к настоящему,


следующая:
If + подлежащее + Past Simple, подлежащее + would (could, might) + V (основная форма
глагола)
условная часть результат
Подобно первому типу условных предложений после if НЕ может стоять would. Когда
в условной части употребляется глагол to be, его обычная форма – were независимо от лица и
числа подлежащего.

Например: If I were you, I would (=I’d) visit a doctor. На твоем месте я бы посетил врача.

Третий тип. Conditional III

К этому типу относятся предложения так называемого "невозможного" условия для


описании ситуации или события, которое не произошло. "Невозможность" условия
заключается в том, что мы не можем изменить прошлое. Поэтому зачастую такое
предложение выражает сожаление.
If I had known it was your birthday, I would have baked you a cake. Если бы я знала, что
у тебя был день рождения, я бы испекла торт. (но я не знала, и поэтому не испекла торт)

85
We might have won the game if the referee hadn't been so unfair. Наша команда могла
бы выиграть игру, если бы арбитр не был таким несправедливым. (но арбитр судил
предвзято, поэтому игра закончилась не в нашу пользу)
Отсюда можно вывести формулу образования условного предложения, относящегося к
прошлому:
If + подлежащее + Past Perfect подлежащее + would/could/might have + V3
условная часть результат

3. Функции глаголов should, would.


Глаголы Should, would выполняют в английском предложении несколько функций, а
именно:
1. Вспомогательный глагол для образования сослагательного наклонения.
It is desired that the final result of an experiment should be as accurate as possible.
Желательно, чтобы конечный результат эксперимента был как можно точнее.
2. Вспомогательный глагол для образования формы Future in the Past с 1-м лицом ед.
и мн. Числа
I said that I should be glad to see them again.
Я сказал, что буду рад видеть их снова.
3. Как глагол с самостоятельным модальным значением для выражения морального
долга или совета.
You should help her. Вам следует помочь ей.
Кроме этих основных функция эти глаголы выполняют следующие функции:
4. Would
a) Для выражения упорного нежелания совершения действия в прошлом.
I asked him several times to examine this generator. But he wouldn’t listen to me.
Я просил его несколько раз проверить этот генератор, но он не слушал меня.
b) Для выражения просьбы.
Wouldn’t you help me to replace these worn brushes?
Не поможете ли Вы мне заменить эти изношенные щетки?
c) Для выражения действия неоднократно повторяющемся в прошлом.
Last summer I would get up early and go for a long walks.
Прошлым летом я ,бывало, вставал рано утром и совершал длительные прогулки.
5. Should
a) Для выражения порицания.
You should have asked permission before you took this book.
Вам следовало бы попросить разрешение перед тем, как взять эту книгу.
b) Для выражения сильного недоумения.
Why should you dislike him so much?
Почему (же) он вам так не нравится?

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Grammar exercises.

1. Обратите внимание на случаи использования сослагательного наклонения.


Переведите предложения на русский язык.
I. В простых предложениях, выражающих предположение или пожелание.
1 Without radio electronics there would be no cybernetics, cosmonautics and nuclear
physics. 2. Such kinds of wood could be used even in manning building.
3. It’s a pity you can't come tomorrow I should help you with pleasure,
4. Why don't you turn to comrade Petrov for advice?
5. He would tell you what to do, besides, he would help you make the necessary
arrangements.
II. В придаточных предложениях подлежащих после оборота типа: It is necessary.
1 It is important that the state should produce more good materials.
2. It is desirable that he take measure immediately.
3. It is desirable that the engine should combine high efficiency and lightness.
4. It is necessary that certain factors be taken into account for the best glazing of fish.
5. It is important that this substance should remain liquid at me lowest temperature.
6. It is required that many new alloys having great resistance to various loading conditions
should be developed.
7. It is necessary that highly sensitive reception devices be made for the radio-telescope to
achieve better in observation.
III. В дополнительных придаточных предложениях после глаголов, выражающих
приказание, пожелание, предложение.
1 Wish our dreams would become reality.
2. KKTsiolkovsky suggested that heat from radioactive materials be used as rocket fuel.
3. A group of scientists proposed that special synthetic substances be added to wood so
that it become stronger.
4. They suggested that the question applying a new method in their research should be
discussed at once.
5. The engineer demanded that the materials which are to be used in the construction be
carefully tested.
6. We wish that you would tell us what this substance consist of.
7. They proposed that the management should have a tax increase as one of the solutions
of all the economic problems of that country.
8. He ordered that the goods be sent by ship.
IV. В обстоятельственных придаточных предложениях пели после союзов: SO THAT,
LEST, AS IF, AS THOUGH.
1. One should operate this machine carefully lest it go out of order.
2. The electrons move round nucleus as if they were the planets of the solar system moving
round the sun.
3. Astronomers conduct further study of the stars so that the physicists could better
understand the processes going on inside atoms.
4. Don't raise the temperature lest the speed of the reaction should be too high.

2.Определите глагол, стоящий в сослагательном наклонении, определите форму


сослагательного наклонения: аналитическая или синтетическая. Переведите
предложения на русский язык.
1.He ordered that we go there. 2. I wish I were with you now. 3. It was necessary that he took
measures at once. 4. She asks that we should read this book quicker. 5. Speak louder so that
everybody should hear. 6. It is necessary that an engineer should know the properties of engineering
materials. 7. It is required that many new alloys having great resistance to various loading
conditions be developed 8. It is important that the designer utilize the services of a materials
87
engineer. 9. It is necessary that the number of machines at our plant should be increased. 10. The
engineer demanded that the materials which are to be used in the construction should be tested. 11.
The designer proposed that a new corrosion resistant alloy be utilized in the structure. He wished
that a thorough test of this alloy would be made. 12. We propose that the designer use new
substitute materials in the construction of the new machine. 13. It is necessary that the number of
machines at our plant should be increased. 14. The engineer demanded that the materials which are
to be used in the construction should be tested. 15. It would be important to use the new alloy in the
construction of this machine. 16. It is necessary that the type of the reaction be
determined. 17. It is suggested that only logarithmic plots for each point be made. 18. It is
essential that the substance be chemically pure. 19. We dilute the acid lest it be too strong.
20. If there were no air the stone and the piece of paper would fall together. 21. I should give
you a lot of examples without any difficulty. 22. It is unlikely that the reaction should occur.
23. It is desirable that this method should be recommended. 24. This would result in hydrogen
abstraction reaction taking place.

3. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в сослагательное наклонение.


1. I (to visit) that new building tomorrow. 2. The experimental city which will be built under
glass dome (to have) special communication system which would allow people to speak and work
without leaving home.3. I wish I (to be) present at the tomorrow's lecture.
4. It is desirable that you (to be) present at this conference as a special in this branch of
industry.
5. It is important that designer (to utilize) the services of a materials engineer.6. We propose
that the designer (to use) new substitute materials in the construction of the new machine.7. It (to
be) interesting to develop some new substitute materials.
4. Переведите следующие предложения и определите, чем в них выражено
сослагательное наклонение:
1.The absolute zero is the temperature at which an ideal gas would have zero
volume at any finite pressure. 2. Suppose, just for the sake of an argument that the large
ball should come to rest after the impact. 3. The world itself behaves as if it were an
enormous but weak magnet. 4. It is necessary that atomic energy should be used for industrial
purposes. 5. It would be out of place here to give more than a summary of the work that has
been done. 6. Don't expose hydrogen peroxide to the air, lest it should decompose. 7. The
geometric properties of crystal are the same whether a crystal be large or small. 8.
Electrons at less than a million volts would reach practically a constant speed, almost that
of light. 9. Magnetism is very often treated as if it were a subject as fundamental as electricity.
10. It is natural that aluminium should receive a great amount of attention from research workers
with a view to improving the mechanical properties of the metal.

5. Объясните случаи использования сослагательного наклонения в предложениях.


Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. It is highly desirable that more radio-electronic devices should be applied for astronomical
observation and measurements. 2 The substance should be purified so that it might be used for this
purpose. 3. It would be impossible to measure the temperature of Venus without a radio-telescope.
4. Petrov suggests that we should return to the matter again. 5. I’d like you to make friends with
Nick. It would only do you good. 6. It is necessary that he take these books immediately. 7. The
workers demand their wages should be increased. 8. The teacher ordered that the student should
translate this article without a dictionary. 9. It is essential that the temperature should be raised. 10.
It is doubtful that this method of work be applied in that case. 11. It is demanded that these devices
be tested at once. 12. The engineer insisted that the new system should be introduced as soon as
possible. 13. You had to tell this engineer to translate the article: she would have translated it much
better as she knows English very well.

88
6. Поставьте глаголы в сослагательное наклонение, изменив предложение по
модели. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

Модель:
Some antenna devices (parabolic antenna, horn antenna) just adapt the free space to another
type of antenna.
It is necessary that some antenna devices (parabolic antenna, horn antenna) should adapt the
free space to another type of antenna.
1. Color CRTs have three separate electron guns (shadow mask) or electron guns that share
some electrodes for all three beams.
2. Display technologies such as flat plasma screens, liquid crystal displays, DLP, OLED
displays replace CRTs in many applications.
3. Fluorescent lamps require a ballast to regulate the flow of power through the lamp.
4. Due to the construction method of the head gap, tape wear will tend to widen the gap,
reducing the head's performance over time.
5. The sensor operates as an analogue transducer, directly returning a voltage.
6. A chemical reaction occurs in the fuel cell when the potassium hydroxide in the cell
comes into contact with oxygen.
7. A cell used for diving applications will function correctly for 3 years if stored in a sealed
bag of air but only for four months if stored in pure oxygen.

7. Переведите предложения, в которых сказуемое выражено глаголом в


сослагательном наклонении в форме Indefinite.
1. Our method could be generalized. 2. These steps might be arbitrary. 3. I should (would)
like to have the book. 4. They might be invited to take part in the discussion. 5. We could answer all
the questions. 6. They would do the work much better. 7. I would choose the latter variant. 8. She
might support his idea. 9.1 could agree with his point of view. 10. We could not agree with such a
proposition. 11. Some day it would be necessary to create programs that could better represent the
system's knowledge to itself.
8. Определите форму сослагательного наклонения.
1. Ann insisted that he should send his father an express telegram 2. She suggests that we
should take Ann to the skating rink. 3. I insisted that you should see the doctor.
4. We suggest that the firm should get an import licence within a week. 5. We suggested
that the firm should effect payment through Narodny Bank in London.
6. The director insists that we should look through all the points again. 7. Why don't you
turn to comrade Petrov for advice? He would tell you what to do; besides, he would help you to
make the necessary arrangements. 8. I'd like you to make friends with Nick. It would only do you
good. 9. Ann is an excellent story-teller. It would be wonderful to have her in our theatrical group.

9. Переведите предложения на русский язык, объясняя использование Перфектных


и Не-перфектных форм сослагательного наклонения.

1. Why didn't you come round to our place yesterday? You would have enjoyed Peter telling
us about his trip.
2. I am surprised that he should have done it.
3. She asks that we should read this book quicker. Speak louder so that everybody should
hear.
4. It is necessary that an engineer should know the properties of engineering materials.

89
5. It was very clever of you to leave a message for the man. It would have been unreasonable
to wait for him.
6. It is necessary that the number of machines at our plant should be increased.
7. The engineer demanded that the materials which are to be used in the construction should
be tested.
8. He wouldn’t have helped you then.
9. It would be important to use the new alloy in the construction of this machine.
10. It should be remembered that wind direction and wind velocity vary greatly with elevation
the surface.
11. He suggested that we should put off this work till Monday.
12. It is strange that he should have asked me that question.
13. It is important that space observatories orbiting the earth should function.
14. Further flights by unmanned spaceships to Venus and to Mars will be tried in order that
these planets should be thoroughly studied.
15. “I would have told you everything frankly, but you were away on business then", the boy
said to his uncle.
16. Come round to see me in the afternoon. The weather is lovely, and we can go for a walk.
You would enjoy walking about in the forest, I'm sure.
17. Peter is a good speaker. He would have kept to the subject, but at that time he was
interrupted very often and made his speech too long as a result.
18. The boy has taken an active part in the work. It would be only fair to praise him for the
results.
19."Can you wait for a while yet?" Jack asked the manager. "I know my friend would be
interested in getting the job".
20. In your position, I shouldn't hesitate about it.
21. We would do it in no time.
22. He wouldn't have helped you then.
23. In your place I'd have phoned him long ago.
24. It wouldn't do you any harm if you did this exercise a second time.
25. You would never say he is ill natured if you knew him better.
26. If this book were more interesting, it would be in greater demand.
27. If my friend were in Moscow now, he could show me round the city.
28. If I had known that you would be hurt, I would never have told you about it.
29. If my grandfather had had a chance to study, he would have been a great man, I am sure.
30. I had to walk from the station. If I had had more money on me, I could have a taxi.
31. If you had come a minute later, you would have missed the train.
32. He would feel very much hurt if you failed to come to his birthday party.
33. I could have tried to cheer her up if I had known that she was in trouble.
34. If by chance the weather were fine tomorrow, I would wear this suit.
35. If I came across plain blue dress while shopping I shouldn't hesitate to buy it.
36. If you had studied properly last year, you wouldn't have made those mistakes.

10. Переведите предложения, в которых сказуемое выражено глаголом в


сослагательном наклонении в форме Perfect. Подкрепите лексически нереальность
действия.
1. Our method could have been generalized. 2. In this case our assumption would have been
correct. 3. Without his assistance such an experiment would have been impossible. 4. We agreed
with his proposition, otherwise it would have been necessary to change the whole plan. 5. Such a
privilege would necessarily have led to competition with the merchants (торговцы, купцы). 6. The
problem could have been solved long ago. 7. The work might not have been completed. 8. We

90
might have compared the conditions to the present condition. 9. The event might not have taken
place.

11.Замените сослагательное наклонение в форме Indefinite на перфектную форму.


Переведите предложения на русский язык.
Образец: The question might be asked – The question might have been asked. Этот вопрос
могли бы задать (но не задали).
1. The agreement might be signed. 2. It would be impossible to do this work. 3. Such an
action could lead to disagreement. 4. We might solve the problem properly. 5. They would agree
with our proposition. 6. The process would not take place. 7. He might not be invited to the
conference. 8. It would take much time to make such calculations.

12. Переведите предложения, выделяя сослагательное наклонение (в форме


Indefinite и Perfect).
1. It is urgent that we debate the importance of such gatherings. 2. But for the good weather
we should not have gone for a walk. 3. It seemed as if the fact were recognized. 4. In many cases it
is essential that cell growth start simultaneously in all infected bacteria. 5. Make haste lest you be
late. 6. This would be truer in some types of operations than in others. 7. He asked that they should
be permitted to return to their homes. 8. They lived as if it was an imaginary world. 9. But for the
data presented by the professor, the work might not have been completed. 10. The system is as
though this transformation had never happened. 11. They have changed the sequence of the actions
so that it fit to the situation. 12. Revise the rules lest you forget them. 13. She must have forgotten
all about it otherwise she would have used it. 14. This would have given rise to economic problems.
15. It is necessary that the model adequately represent the problem situation.

13. Переведите предложения, в которых использовано сослагательное


наклонение в форме Indefinite и Perfect. Следует помнить, что если в предложении есть
два или несколько однородных сказуемых в сослагательном наклонении, то только
первое из них дается в полной форме, а остальные выражены только смысловой частью
(The letter might have been written and sent – Письмо могло бы быть написано и
отправлено).
1. For all sad words of tongue or pen, the saddest are these: «It might have been» (J.
Whittier). 2. We could never have loved the earth so well, if we had no childhood in it (G. Eliot). 3.
The book might not have been written or published. 4. A different set could have been selected and
easily justified. 5. If the formal axioms did not agree more or less with the properties of physical
objects, the geometry would be of little interest. 6. The facts do not always answer our questions as
unmistakably as might be desirable. 7. Make exact calculations lest you should fail with your
experiment. 8. It would be indeed strange if this were not the case, because the situation is clear. 9.
A myriad subsystems could not have been understood without mathematical analysis. 10. This fact
could have been taken as a starting point to develop a complete algorithm, but there are computa-
tional problems. 11. But for the lack of a reliable instrument the problem could have been solved
long ago. 12. It is natural to require that final choices (альтернативы) should not be multivalued.
13. Reviewers are usually people who would have been poets, historians, biographers, etc., if they
could; they have tried their talents at one or at the other, and have failed; therefore they turn critics
(S. Coleridge).

14. Выберите правильный вариант.


1.1 would (have brought/bring) the book, but you did not tell me you needed it. 2. It would
(be/have been) wise of you to consult a dentist twice a year. 3.1 think nobody would (object/have
objected) to having a party tomorrow. 4.1 did not know that it was so important for you. I would
(do/have done) it long ago. 5. In your place I wouldn't (argue/have argued) with her yesterday. She
91
is your boss. 6. Last year he wouldn't (say/have said) so of John. 1,1 wouldn't (worry/have worried)
about it now. Everything will clear up soon. 8. We would (stay/have stayed) for an hour, but it is
rather late. 9. We did not know that we would come to the lake. We would (take/ have taken) our
rods. 10.1 would (go/have gone) to sea, but my father wanted me to be a lawyer.

15. Откройте скобки и поставьте глаголы в сослагательном наклонении.


Example: Why didn't you tell me? I (close) the window long ago. — I would have closed the
window long ago.
1. In your place I (arrange) everything yesterday. 2. At that time he (take) the necessary steps.
3. Why did you wash up? I (do) it myself. 4. She (buy) the dress, but she had no money. 5. He
(advise) them what to do, but he couldn't get in touch with them. 6. We (go) to the country rain or
shine, but he was busy last weekend. 7.1 (come) to see him last week, but I got ill and had to stay in
bed. 8. It (be) important then but not now. 9. They (take) a taxi, but there was none. 10. Why didn't
you ask them to discuss your problem then? They (not postpone) it.

Ways of Expressing Wish


Table 1
Wish referring to the present or future

1. I wish I had a home and a family.


2. I wish I could go to London with you next summer.

Wish referring to the past

1. I wish/wished I had bought that dictionary yesterday.


2. I wish/wished I had asked him about it when we met at Alex’s.

16. Переведите на русский язык. Обращайте внимание на перевод глаголов в


сослагательном наклонении после глагола to wish.

1. He wished now that when the director of his firm spoke to him he had answered differently.
2. I wish I knew how you reached your results. 3. I only wish that you could come with me,
Watson, but I fear that it won’t do. 4. She wished that it had been possible not to cause those two
people such fearful distress. 5. “I wish you hadn’t got such sharp eyes,” she said. 6. I wished I
hadn’t wasted so much money when I got there. 7. I wish I deserved your compliment but I don’t. 8.
He had nothing against skiing – he wished he had had time to take it up when he was a young man.
9. He wished he felt more conviction on the point. 10. Oh, I wish I hadn’t sent him that letter telling
him to take care of himself. 11. I know this none of my business. But I wish I knew what it’s all
about. 12. I wonder if we ought to have played that trick on Miss Reid. I almost wish we’d left her
alone. 13. I wish you could stay and then we could talk over my picture. 14. I only wish it had
lasted twice as long. 15. I always remember everything. Some people wish I didn’t. 16. I wish you
didn’t have to go. Why must you?

17. Поставьте глагол в скобках в нужную форму Сослагательного наклонения.


1. Oh, I wish I (not to send) him that letter. I'd give anything to take it back. 2. I wish I (to be) as sure
as you. 3. But he wished that there (to be) some way in which he could help the young lawyer. 4. "I wish I
(not to cry) so much," said Alice trying to find her way out. 5. And here I wish I (can) tell you half of the
things Alice used to say. 6. I rather wished Poirot (to be) there. 7. I wish I (to know) it was your friend. 8. He
wished he (to come) by air. 9. I wish I (to know) what to do now. 10.I wish that poor Strickland (to be) still
alive. 11. I wish I (to know) it was your birthday, Lady Windermere, I would have covered the whole street
in front of your house with flowers. 12. I wish they (to be) back. 13.1 wished I (to have) enough confidence
so that I could transfer some to her. But I didn't. 14. I wish I never (to hear) of it. 15. I wish to we (to have)
92
bicycles. 16. I wish I (to know) where we are going. 17. I wish that I (to be) with the British. It would have
been much simpler.

18. Выберите правильный вариант и переведите предложения на русский язык.


1. She wished at that moment she (had not sent/did not send) for him. 2. "I wish I (had
been/were) there with you," he said with deep regret. 3. She says she wishes I (had been/were) a
thousand miles away. 4.1 wish she (had not looked/did not look) so sad. 5. The professor wishes I
(had studied/studied) harder. 6. We wished he (had not come/did not come) so late yesterday. 7.1
wish you (had seen/saw) the play. It was a great success. 8.1 wish they (had introduced/introduced)
their friends to me at the party. 9. She wishes her father (hadn't known/ didn't know) it. 10. He
wished they (hadn't noticed/didn't notice) his embarrassment.

19. Измените следующие предложения, используя сослагательное наклонение


после глагола to wish .
Example: It's a pity you are so busy these days. — I wish you were not so busy these days.
1. It's a pity we won't be able to reach the village before sunset. 2. My friend regrets not
having told you all at once. 3. It's a pity that you did not send your son for one of us last night. 4.
What a pity you are leaving so soon. 5. Unfortunately, he did not receive the answer before
Christmas. 6.1 am sorry I made you upset by bringing such depressing news. 7. The patient was
sorry that he had not fulfilled all the doctor's instructions. 8. She was sorry she had no money to buy
a toy for her son. 9. They were disappointed that they had not persuaded her. 10. It's a pity we are
not so young as you are. 11. He was sorry he couldn't join us. 12. It's a pity you were absent
yesterday. 13. I'd like him to be more polite. 14. They are sorry they didn't invite her. 15. He was
disappointed that he would not be able to see the film. 16. I regret now not having told her all the
truth then. 17. What a pity you can't swim. 18. I'm awfully sorry I kept you waiting so long. 19. It's
a pity I couldn't go to the theatre with you. 20. I'm very sorry that I have disturbed you. 21. It's a
pity you are leaving so soon. 22. I'd like to see the film again. 23. It was a pity we could not see the
stage well. 24. They were sorry they hadn't taken a taxi and had missed their train.

20. Выразите пожелание к одному из этих утверждений. Переведите


предложения на русский язык.
Model: 1) How dark it is here! - Oh, if it were not so dark.
2) And of course I was wearing my very best shoes. – If only I had not been
wearing my very beet shoes!
3) He may not be in time. – Oh, if he were in time!

1. I was simply too tired to understand what it was all about. 2. It may rain before
evening. 3. She doesn’t know his address. 4. There was no one to show him the
way. 5. She did not realise the full significance of this action. 6. The child is not eating
very well. 7. She will not take his advice. 8. They don’t understand each other.
9. They took a short-cut through the birch-grove. 10. He made several spelling mistakes
and that spoiled his mark.

21. Переведите на английский язык.


1. Как жаль, что он пришел так поздно. Мы не успели поговорить о наших проблемах,
2. Как жаль, что он не разработал этот проект. 3. Как жаль, что нам придется так скоро
уехать. 4. Обидно, что вы не дождались его прихода. 5. Я теперь жалею, что не послушался
его совета. 6. Обидно, что вас не поняли. 7. Жаль, что вы упустили такой шанс. 8. Обидно,
что ей придется отказаться от такого предложения. 9. Как жаль, что он работает допоздна.
10. Он пожалел, что пришел и привел с собой друга. 11. Я бы очень хотела быть сейчас в
Лондоне. 12. Как бы мне хотелось говорить по-английски так же хорошо, как он. 13. Как
жаль, что вы были так неосторожны. Этого бы не случилось, если бы вы послушали совета

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наших друзей. 14. Как жаль, что это произошло в ваше отсутствие. 15. Жаль, что вы не
интересуетесь искусством. 16. Я теперь жалею, что не захватила с собой таблетки от
головной боли. 17. Ты пожалеешь, что не пошел со мной. 18. Жаль, что вы не сохранили
письмо. 19. Хоть бы ей кто-нибудь сказал, что это невежливо. 20. Ей очень хотелось, чтобы
кто-нибудь заметил ее и спросил, что она тут делает. 21. Хорошо, если бы вы всегда
приходили вовремя. 22. Жаль, что вы не смогли посмотреть этот матч. 23. Досадно, что
преподаватель обращает мало внимания на ваше произношение. 24. Хотелось бы мне, чтобы
вы были осторожнее в следующий раз. 25. Как жаль, что я не могу как следует описать вам
сцену, которая затем последовала. 26. Как жаль, что доктор ушел. Я не спросила его, когда
принимать лекарство. 27. Обидно, что мы не знаем его адреса. Мы могли бы сходить к нему
сегодня же. 28. Жаль, что в детстве меня не учили никакому иностранному языку. 29. Она
жалела, что ей не было слышно, о чем говорили внизу. 30. Я бы хотела, чтобы ты содержал
все свои вещи в порядке. 31. Напрасно он не посвятил свою жизнь математике. Это его
любимый предмет с детства.

22. Прочтите и переведите следующие предложения.

The past subjunctive can be used similarly after as if / as though to indicate unreality or
improbability or doubt in the present (there is no difference between as if and as though)
1. He behaves as if he owned the place ( But he doesn’t own it or probably doesn’t own it or
we don’t know whether he owns it or not)
2. He talks as though he knew where she was (but he doesn’t know or he probably doesn’t
know or we don’t know whether he knows or not)
3. He orders me about as if I were his wife (But I am not).

The verb preceding as if as though can be put into a past tense without changing the tense of
the subjunctive:
He talks / talked as though he knew where she was.

After as if / as though we use Past Perfect when refering to a real or imaginary action in the
past:
He talks about Rome as though he had been there himself. (but he hasn’t or probably he
hasn’t or we don’t know whether he has or not)

Again, the verb preceding as if / as though can be put into a Past Tense without changing the
tense of the subjunctive :
1. He looks / looked as though he hadn’t had a decent meal for a month
2. I remember stepping off the boat in New York as if it were yesterday
3. Despite losing the election, she continuous to act as though she were prime minister.
1. For a moment or two she remained by the desk, one hand touching the telephone, as if a
thread of contact still remained. 2. He was not so well-dressed as Robert, who always looked as
though he had stepped out of a shop-window, but he wore his old clothes as though it didn't much
matter what one wore. 3. He had been feeling more comfortable every day, in fact he was beginning
to feel as if he'd never been away. 4. He found Brenner standing on the sidewalk in his dirty
raincoat and shaking as though he were suffering from a malarial attack. 5. He looked at me as
though he wanted to ask me something. 6. "I'm glad you could come, gentlemen." Curtis O'Keefe
informed them, as if this meeting had not been planned weeks ahead. 7. She looked fresh and clean
as though nothing had happened to her that night. 8. She looked at me as though that were the end
of the interview and she expected me to get up and take myself off. 9. She looked as though she had
been crying. 10. Hurstwood gazed at it a moment as if something were scratching him. 11. It was
Sunday, and there was a feeling of quietness, a silence as though nature were at rest. 12. A
convulsion racked him as though he had been touched by a high-tension wire. 13. His heart

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laboured as though it were pumping sand, not blood, not liquid, he thought. 14.1 sat in the garden
feeling as though I were home again. 15. It was as if someone he had never known had written the
story. 16. There was a pause, with heavy breathing, as if a moment of emotion were being
controlled. 17. It was as if Marthy had received a physical blow and were rocking on her feet. 18.
When he finally broke the silence his voice was as hoarse as though he had been shouting inside
himself.

23. Поставьте глагол в скобках в нужную форму Сослагательного наклонения.


1. Whenever I saw them it looked as though they (to be) on very good terms with one another.
2. The knife shone as though it just (to come) out of the workshop. 3. As I opened my door I
seemed to hear a changing sound as if a mass of metal (to fall). 4. Suddenly the voice was clear and
strong as if Constance (to be) in another room of the hotel. 5. Fred wasn't shy, and he talked to
Gracie's parents as though he (to know) them all his life. 6. His tanned, smooth skin looked as
though a razor never (to touch) it. 7. You behave as if you (to be married) to her already. 8. You
look as though you (not to have) much sleep the last night or two. 9. She noticed a shade of thought
pass over his face as if he (to begin) to realize that things were changed. 10. He felt as if he (to
catch) cold. 11. He leaned against the desk, and upon my word he was shaking as though he (to get)
fever. 12. He looked аs if he (to step) from the pages of "Pickwick Papers". 13. She always smelled
as though she just (to come) from a long walk in a forest. 14. She clutched the letter to her heart as
though she (to think) I would take it from her. 15. He looked as if he (not to have) a meal for a
week, and I hadn't the heart to refuse him. 16. Sharon frowned as if she (to be puzzled). 17. He
looked as if he (not to sleep) much lately.

24. Вставьте as if, as though, even if, even though по смыслу. Переведите
предложения на русский язык.
1. I had not seen him for a year or more, but he looked at me ______ I’d been in yesterday. 2.
She neither looked no spoke to Flornce now, but went on______ she were alone. 3. He looked
______ he hadn’t had a decent meal for a month. 4. When she woke up early on Sunday morning
the world sparkled ______ it had been newly born. 5. ______ he were here he would not help us. 6.
All this he said ______ he were answering Edith, not Florence. 7. ______ I hadn’t seen this
magnificent canvas I should have known you as an artist. 8. Janet came running up the stairs
______ the house were in flames. 9. ______ it had been raining, I should have gone to the country
yesterday. 10. But ______ you were right I wouldn’t forgive you. 11. They passed her in silence
with their heads up, ______ she didn’t exist. 12. ______ Bart should be held up at the last moment,
she wouldn’t let it upset her. 13. She sounded breathless on the phone ______ she had been running.
14. ______ I had been a stranger, he would have talked about his problems. 15. The child looked
quickly from one nurse to the other, ______ she understood and felt what was said. 16. Her eyes
were red and swollen ______ she had been crying.

25. Переведите на английский язык.


1. Вы так загорели, словно все лето провели на юге. 2. Она смотрела на меня, как будто
не узнавая. 3. Вы так много курите, как будто вы чем-то взволнованы. 4. Я уверена, он
сделает вид, будто слышит об этом впервые. 5. Что с вами? У вас такой вид, будто вам
нехорошо. 6. Она ведет себя так, будто она ребенок. 7. Минуту, другую он стоял посреди
комнаты, как будто не зная, что делать. 8. Почему вы смотрите на меня так, словно я говорю
неправду? 9. Она говорила и смеялась, словно играла на сцене. 10. Я люблю тебя так, как
любил бы собственную сестру. 11. У меня было такое чувство, будто мы говорим с ним на
разных языках. 12. Я уверена, он будет держаться так, будто не чувствует никакой боли. 13.
Она дышала так тяжело, как будто бежала всю дорогу. 14. Он говорит так, как будто
повторяет чьи-то слова. 15. У вас такой вид, словно вы не знаете, куда идти. 16. Он говорил о
вас так, будто хорошо вас знает. 17. Я помню все так четко, словно это произошло вчера. 18.
Почему у тебя такой вид, будто ты мне не веришь? 19. Похоже, что все уже ушли. 20. У меня

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такое чувство, будто меня обманули. 21. Он говорит так, как будто ему не семнадцать лет, а
семьдесят.

26. Определите формы сослагательного наклонения. Переведите предложения на


русский язык.
1. It is necessary that an engineer should know the properties , of engineering materials. 2. It
is required that many new alloys having great resistance to various loading conditions be developed
3. It is important that the designer utilize the services of a materials engineer. 4. It is necessary that
the number of machines at our plant should be increased. 5. The engineer demanded that the
materials which are to be used in the construction should be tested. 6. The designer proposed that a
new corrosion resistant alloy be utilized in the structure. He wished that a thorough test of this alloy
would be made. 7. We propose that the designer use new substitute materials in the construction of
the new machine. 8. Engineers must know how the selected material will resist loading conditions
lest any accidents should happen. 9. Lest the structure should fail the engineer should have a
complete knowledge of the properties of engineering materials. 10 The new alloy must be
thoroughly tested that we may use it in. our design.

27. Переведите предложения на русский язык. Объясните использование


сослагательного наклонения.
1. Moreover, I would have taught you how to use this device. 2. At any rate, you could have
changed the valves. There were some spare ones in the drawer. By the way, I think you should have
done it. 3. I’d like to check on your results. 4. I wish you could use the decimal system. 5. I would
like to know dynamics as well as you do. 6. That would not be a bad idea. 7. That would be
marvelous. 8. Would five minutes be long enough for you?

28. Поставьте глагол в скобках в подходящую форму сослагательного наклонения.


1. It is highly desirable that more radio-electronic devices (to be applied) for astronomical
observation and measurements. 2. Without radio electronics there (to be) no cybernetics,
cosmonautics and nuclear physics. 3. We wish our dreams ( to become) reality. 4. The electrons
move round the nucleus as if they (to be) the planets of the solar system moving round the Sun. 5.
K. E. Tsiolkovsky suggested that heat from radioactive materials (to be used) as rocket fuel. 7.
Don't raise the temperature lest the speed of the reaction (to be) too high. 8. A group of scientists
proposed that special synthetic substances (to be) added to wood so that it become stronger. 10. It
(to be) impossible to measure the temperature of Venus without a radio-telescope. 11. It is
necessary that highly sensitive reception devices (to be made) for the radio-telescope to achieve
better results in observation.

29. Переведите на русский язык предложения с модальными глаголами в


сослагательном наклонении.
This substance might be an insulator or conductor. 2. In order that the compound might be
used it had to be purified. 3. However that might be, the repair was ordered to be executed. 4. If my
friend were in Moscow now, he could show me round the city. 5. I had to walk from the station. If I
had had more money on me, I could have a taxi. 6. I could have tried to cheer her up if I had known
that she was in trouble. 7. It is desirable that you could be present at this conference as a special in
this branch of industry. 8. Many scientific and technical problems might be solved with the help of
mathematical formulas. 9. This could be done only with the help of computers. 10. By itself a
computer could neither solve, nor translate. 11. If computers had not been worked out, many
important problems might not have been solved. 12. The boy was not stupid. He had a certain

96
amount of intellect and talent. He could have done well if he had wished to do well, and had taken
the trouble.

30. Переведите предложения на английский язык.


1. «Желательно, чтобы вы повторили (revise) все слова перед контрольной работой», -
сказал преподаватель. 2. Он настаивал на том, чтобы ему передали всю дополнительную
информацию. 3. Я требую, чтобы он ушел. 4. Комиссия предложила включить его в список.
5. Мы предлагаем им сделать перерыв. 6. Детям необходимо спать на открытом воздухе. 7.
Вы должны наконец настоять, чтобы он возвращался домой вовремя. 8. Комитету
рекомендовано разработать новую программу. 9. Председатель (chairman) предложил
отложить вопрос. 10. Профессор требует от нас сдавать работы в напечатанном виде. 11.
Предлагаю сделать это упражнение сейчас. 12. Погода хорошая, и я рекомендую всем
прогуляться до станции пешком.

31. Найдите ошибку, если таковая имеется.


1. I cannot give him such a job. I wish he were light-minded. 2. It was desirable that all
participants came on time. 3. If he would go there, I did not come. 4. He insisted that everybody
would sign the paper. 5. He looks upon the cottage as if it is his property. 6. If he had come a bit
earlier, he would have time to say goodbye to you. 7. She wished she had never mentioned his
name. 8. Was it so important that he be present? 9. Should he could do it, he would do it. 10. I
demand that he is taken to hospital immediately.

32. Замените форму инфинитива соответствующей формой сослагательного


наклонения.

1. But for the toothache I (to enjoy) the concert. 2. But for him we still (to sit) here waiting for
the car. 3. But for my smile he (to believe) me. 4. The children (to sleep) in the open air but for the
rain. 5. Nobody (to recognize) him but for the scar on his left cheek. 6. But for his severe look the
child (not to begin) crying. 7. But for the accent with which he speaks nobody (to say) he is not
Russian. 8. One (may take) him for a Russian but for the accent with which he speaks. 9. But for the
late hour I (to stay) here longer. 10. But for the darkness they (not to lose) their way. 11. But for the
fog we (to continue) our way. 12. But for the heavy bag she (to go) there also on foot. 13. I (to read)
the book sooner but for the small print. 14. But for his assistance it (to be) impossible to do the
work in time. 15. But for the hot climate he (to go) there together with us. 16. But for Fieta Lanny
(to see) by Gert in his own house, and something terrible (may happen). 17. Lanny probably (to
learn) never that he was the son of old Gert Villier but for Mako and Isaac.

33. Выполните следующие задания.


a) Дополните предложения.
1. But for the rain the tourists … . 2. But for the late hour we … . 3. I … but for you. 4. The
plane … but for the sudden change of weather. 5. But for the fact that we did not know the language
… . 6. But for your being so careless … . 7. The Gadfly … from prison but for the fit of sickness. 8.
But for his mother’s unhappy marriage to Mr. Murdstone David’s life … .
b) Переведите на английский язык.
1. Если бы не важность этого дела, я бы остался дома. 2. Если бы не гроза, мы бы уже
подходили к вершине. 3. Я бы присоединился к вашей компании, если бы не неожиданный
приезд моего знакомого. 4. Если бы не этот веселый и интересный человек, мы бы
чувствовали себя неловко среди незнакомых людей. 5. Мы бы так и не узнали, что он за
человек, если бы не этот случай. 6. Мы бы все время работали точно по плану, если бы не эта
маленькая задержка.

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Условные предложения I типа.

34. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на времена


глаголов главного и придаточного предложений.
1.If the model fits well, the observed data will be correct. 2. One will easily calculate the
volume, if he knows the dimensions of the body. 3. A column of warm air will weigh less than a
column of cold air if both are the same height and cross section. 4. Provided we use the necessary
instruments, the measurement will always be correct. 5. Provided we are given due time, we shall
be able to continue our investigations. 6. The glass will break if it falls down. 7. If you learn all the
wards of the lesson you'll write your dictation well. 8. He will not be able to finish his work in time
unless she helps him. 9. Time will be saved if one uses a computer. 10. If you try very hard you can
master any language 11. Unless it rains, we shall go on foot.

35. Из двух предложений составьте одно условное 1 типа.


1. Kate will ring me up. Ask her to leave a message. 2. You may get lost in the city. Ask a
passer-by for help. 3. You may not know some words. Look them up in your dictionary. 4. Fred
may drop in today. Tell him I'll be back by 3 o'clock. 5. Ann may have a high temperature. Send for
the doctor. 6. You may feel hungry. Go to a cafeteria. 7. She may get angry with you. Beg her
pardon. 8. The child may cough. Give him some tablets. 9. It may rain in the evening. Stay at home.
10. The weather may be fine tomorrow. Go skating.

36. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в времена, соответствующие условному


предложению I типа.
1. If he (be) late we'll go without him. 2. She will be absolutely furious if she (hear) about
this. 3. If you put on the kettle I (make) the tea. 4.If you give my dog a bone he (bury) it at once. 5.
If we leave the car here it (not be) in anybody's way. 6. He'll be late for the train if he (not start) at
once. 7. It you come late they (not let) you in. 8. If he (go) on telling lies nobody will believe a
word he says. 9. Unless he (sell) more he won't get much commission. 10. If I lend you $20 when
you (repay) me? 11. We'll have to move upstairs if the river (rise) any higher. 12. If he (work) hard
today can he have a holiday tomorrow? 13. Ice (turn) into water if you heal it. 14. If the house
(burn) down we can claim compensation. 15. If you (not like) this one I'll bring you another. 16.
Unless you are more careful you (have) an accident. 17. Tell him to ring me up if you (see) him. 18.
If I tell you a secret, you (promise) not to tell it to anyone else? 19. If you (not believe) what I say,
ask your mother. 20. If he (like) the house will he buy it? 21. Unless 1 have a quiet room I (not be
able) to do any work. 22. She won't open the door unless she (know) who it is. 23. I'll look for your
notebook and if I (find) it I (give) you a ring. 24. The lift wasn't working when I was here last. If it
still (not work) we (have) to use the stairs. 25. He's only sixteen but he wants to leave school at the
end of the term. — If he (leave) now he (be sorry) afterwards.

37.Вставьте нужную форму глагола:

1 If David _____ too much chocolate, he will put on weight.


Если Давид будет есть слишком много шоколада, он поправится.

2 Unless someone helps Ronit, she _____ able to manage.


Если кто-то не поможет Ронит, она не сможет справиться.

3 People _____ out of work if the government doesn’t create new jobs.
Люди будут без работы, если правительство не создаст новые рабочие места.

4 What will you do if you _____ Pete?


Что ты будешь делать, если увидишь Пита?

98
5 _____ argue with a policeman if he tells you to move the car.
Не спорь с полицейским, если он скажет тебе подвинуть машину.

6 Unless you _____ smoking here, they will ask you to leave.
Если ты не перестанешь здесь курить, они попросят тебя уйти.

7 If the weather_____ clear, we’ll go on a trip.


Если погода будет хорошей, мы пойдем в поход.

8 If these trousers_____ fit, they can be changed.


Если эти брюки не подойдут, их можно поменять.

9 I _____ forgive you unless you apologize.


Я тебя не прощу, если ты не извинишься.

10. We must hurry if we_____ want to be late.


Мы должны поторопиться, если не хотим опоздать.

Условные предложения II типа.

38. Переведите предложения на русский язык.


1. I should put off the appointment if I were you. 2. He would do the job if he had time.
3. What would you do if your child had a high temperature? 4. They would not miss the train
if they started for the station right now. 5. If we had time we could go sightseeing tomorrow
morning. 6. If I were you I should grant their request. 7. If a dream could come true, I should go to
Britain and spend my holidays there. 8. If I were in London I should go to the Trafalgar.
9. If he had enough time he would go to the cinema every other night. 10. That play would be
better if it were shorter. 11. If I were in your place I should go to the South every summer. 12. If I
saw him tomorrow I should, speak to him. 13.I should come and see you off if I didn't live so far
away. 11. If I had the money with me I should buy that overcoat. 15. If I knew his address I should
write him that you were ready to help him. 16. Were he at the conference hall now he would take
part in the discussion.

39. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в времена, соответствующие условному


предложению II типа.
1. If I had a typewriter I (type) it myself. 2. If I (know) his address I'd give it to you. 3. He
(look) a lot better if he shaved more often. 4. If he worked more slowly he (not make) so many
mistakes. 5. I shouldn't drink that wine if I (be) you. 6. More tourists would come to this country if
it (have) a better climate. 7. If 1 were sent to prison you (visit) me? 8. If someone (give) you a
helicopter what would you do with it? 9. Г (buy) shares in that company if I had some money. 10. If
you drove your car into the river you (be able) to get out? 11. If I (win) a big prize in a lottery I'd
give up my job. 12. What you (do) if you found a burglar in your house? 13.1 could tell you what
this means if I (know) Greek. 14. If everybody (give) £1 we would have enough. 15. He might get
fat if he (stop) smoking. 16. If he knew that it was dangerous he (not come). 17. If you (see)
someone drowning what would you do? 18. I could get a job easily if I (have) a degree. 19. If she
(do) her hair differently-she might look quite nice. 20. If we had more rain our crops (grow) faster.
21.1 (keep) a horse ill could afford it. 22. I'd go and see him more often if he (live) on a bus route.
23.1 (offer) to help if I thought I'd be any use. 24. What would you do if the lift (get) stuck between
two floor?

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40. Из двух предложений составьте одно условное 2 типа.
Модель:
The day is not cold. The children will not play indoors.
If the day were cold the children would play indoors.

1. It isn’t windy today. We shan't wear our scarves. 2. The shop is not open. We cannot buy
anything. 3. We are not acquainted. He won't invite us. 4. She isn't an interpreter. She can't translate
what he said. 5. Fred doesn't sing well. He won4 take part in the concert. 6. We have no vegetables
at home. We cannot prepare any salad. 8. You don’t get up early. You can’t see the sunrise. 9. Pete
doesn't work with tape recorders. His speech habits won't become better. 10 I don’t know your
cousin. I shall not meet her at the station.

41. Преобразуйте условное предложение I типа в условное предложение II типа.


1. If you take this medicine it will do you good. 2. If she takes bus 27 she will jet there in a
quarter of an hour. 3. If you get to know them well you will grow fond of them. 4 If he goes out
without his coat on he will catch a cold. 5. If you get down to business at once you will finish the
job today. 6. If the cast is good I'll go to see the play. 7. If it keeps fine we shall stay in the country
for a week.

42. Выберите правильный вариант ответа.


1 I would be more careful if I _____ you.
На вашем месте я был бы более осторожен.

2 If I _____ have a dog, I would be afraid to stay alone in the house.


Если бы у меня не было собаки, я бы боялся оставаться один в доме.

3 If you thought before opening your mouth, you_____ into less trouble.
Если бы ты думал прежде чем открывать рот, у тебя было бы меньше проблем.

4 Her Hebrew would improve if they _____ more Hebrew with her.
Её иврит бы улучшился, если бы они больше говорили с ней на иврите.

5 What would you do if you _____ a lot of money?


Что бы ты делала, если бы выиграла много денег?

6 If people_____ drive so fast, there would be fewer accidents.


Если бы люди не ездили так быстро, было бы меньше аварий.

7 He would have a higher position in his company if he _____ so lazy.


У него был бы выше пост на фирме, если бы он не был так ленив.

8 _____ you be angry if I didn’t take you home?


Ты бы обиделся, если бы я не отвез тебя домой?

9 We _____ be actors if we were talented.


Мы могли бы быть актерами, если бы были талантливы.

10. If you_____ , it would be wonderful.


Если бы ты улыбалась, было бы замечательно.

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Условные предложения III типа.

43. Переведите условные предложения III типа на русский язык, обращая внимание
на времена глаголов.
1. Unless computer techniques had been developed, space research would have never made
such great progress. 2. If the life had come to the so-called equilibrium, it would never have
progressed beyond the amoeba. 3. A valuable contribution would have been made, if considerable
efforts had been devoted to the theoretic examination. 4. If I had known that you were in hospital I
should have visited you 5. I had no map; that’s why I got lost. If I had had a map I would have been
all right. 6. Why didn’t you say that you were short of money? If I had known I should lent you
some. 7. The job is much worse than I expected. If I had realised how awful it was going to be I
shouldn’t have accepted it. 8. You would have saved me a lot of trouble if you have told me where
you were going. 9. You made a lot of unnecessary mistakes in your composition. If you had used a
dictionary to check your spelling, you would have received a better grade. 10. Many people were
not satisfied with the leader after he took office. If they had known more about his planned
economic ptograms, they wouldn’t have voted for him.

44. Поставьте глаголы в скобках во времена, соответствующие условному


предложению III типа

1. If I had known that you were in hospital I (visit) you. 2. If you (arrive) ten minutes earlier
you would have got a seat. 3. You would have seen my garden at its best if you (be) here last week.
4.I shouldn't have believed it if I (not see) it with my own eyes. 5. If he had slipped he (fall) 500
metres. 6. If he had asked you, you (accept)? 7. If I (have) a map I would have been all right. 8. If I
(know) that you were coming I'd have baked a cake. 9.1 (offer) to help him if I had realized that he
was ill. 10. If you had told me that he never paid his debts I (not lend) him the money. 11. If you
(put) some mustard in the sandwiches they would have tasted better. 12. If he had known that the
river was dangerous he (not try) to swim across it. 13. If you (speak) more slowly he might have
understood you. 14. If he had known the whole story he (not be) so angry. 15. If I (try) again I think
that I would have succeeded. 16. You (not get) into trouble if you had obeyed my instructions. 17. If
you hadn't been in such a hurry you (not put) sugar into the sauce instead of salt. 18. If I (be) ready
when he called he would have taken me with him. 19. If she had listened to my directions she (not
turn) down the wrong street. 20. If you (look) at the engine for a moment you would have seen what
was missing. 21. He would have been arrested if he (try) to leave the country. 22.1 (take) a taxi if I
had realized that it was such a long way. 23. You (save) me a lot of trouble if you had told me
where you were going. 24. She was sent to prison only because she refused to pay the fine; if she
(pay) the fine she (not be) sent to prison.

45. Преобразуйте условное предложение II типа в условное предложение III типа.


1. Ann: George is fourteen. Tom: He must be older than that. He's in full-time job. If he were
only fourteen he still would be at school. 2. He is staying at the Savoy in London. — Is he very
rich? — I suppose he is. If he were a poor man he would not stay at the Savoy. 3. A university
degree is a useful thing. If I had a university degree I should now sit in a comfortable office instead
of standing at a street corner selling newspapers. 4. I am not an astronaut. If I were an astronaut, I
should take my camera with me on the rocket ship next month. 5. If there were no oxygen on earth,
life as we know it wouldn’t exist. 6. If I were a bird, I shouldn’t want to live in a cage. 7. Sea water
is salty. If the ocean consisted of fresh water, there would be plenty of water to irrigate all of the
deserts in the world to provide an abundant food supply for the entire population of the earth. 8. It is
expensive to call across the ocean. However, if transoceanic telephone calls were cheap, I should
call my family every day and talk for hours. 44. Jim doesn't study hard. If he studied harder, he
would get better grades.

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46. Выберите правильный ответ.
1 If they (studied / had studied), they would have passed.
Если бы они учили, они бы сдали экзамен.
2 I (wouldn't have worried / had worried) if you had called.
Я бы не беспокоилась, если бы ты позвонила.
3 We would have gone if we (would have had / had had) the money.
Мы бы поехали, если бы у нас были деньги.
4 They (wouldn't have missed / wouldn't miss) the bus if they had hurried.
Они бы не опоздали на автобус, если бы поспешили.
5 If he (had known / would have known) the answer, he would have raised his hand.
Если бы он знал ответ, он бы поднял руку.
6 If you (had written / wrote / would have written), your family would have been happy.
Если бы ты написал, твоя семья была бы счастлива.
7 He would have been president if you (voted / had voted / would have voted).
Он бы стал президентом, если бы вы за него проголосовали.
8 They (would have gone / had gone / went) to the beach if it hadn't rained.
Они пошли бы на пляж, если бы не шел дождь.
9 If you (listened / would have listened / had listened), you would have succeeded.
Если бы ты слушал, ты бы преуспел.
10 I (had been / would have been / have been) ready if the phone hadn't rung.
Я был бы готов, если бы не позвонил телефон.
11 He (would have got / had got / has got) the job if he had come on time.
Он бы получил эту работу, если бы пришел вовремя.

47. Вставьте пропущенные слова (одно слово в каждом пропуске).


1 Why didn't you tell me you were coming? If you had told me, I ___ have met you.
Почему ты мне не сказал, что собираешься приехать? Если бы ты сказал, я бы тебя встретил.

2 Why didn't you ask me to repair your car? I would have ___ it for free if you had brought
it to me.
Почему ты не попросил меня починить машину? Я починил бы бесплатно, если бы ты
привез её ко мне.
3 We ___ have driven faster if the traffic had been lighter. But the traffic was terrible.
Мы бы ехали быстрее, если бы движение было менее интенсивным. Но движение было
ужасным.
4 His letter was impossible to read. If he had written more clearly, I would ___ understood
it. Невозможно было читать его письмо. Если бы он писал более четко, мы бы понял
5 Mike wasn't good enough for our team. If he ___ been a faster runner, we would have
accepted him. Майк не подходил нашей команде. Если бы он был более быстрым бегуном,
мы бы его приняли.

Бессоюзное сочетание в условных предложениях.


В бессоюзных условных придаточных предложениях порядок слов обратный:
сказуемое или часть сказуемого выраженные глаголами were, had, should стоят перед
подлежащим. Перевод таких предложений следует начинать с союза если (бы) или слов будь,
имей.
Запомните следующие словосочетания:
But for, if it were not for, were it not for, if it had not been for, had it not been for - все они
переводятся: если бы не.

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48. Переведите следующие бессоюзные условные придаточные предложения.
1. Were one electron removed, a net positive charge would be left. 2. Had the degree of
evaporation been high, the salinity of water would have been raised. 3. But for radioastronomy, we
should have never made the remarkable discoveries in the Universe. 4. There would be no increase
in current at all, were it not for a small effect of voltage. 5. Had he used new materials, the device
would have been more reliable. 6. Were electric motors used, cars would not pollute the air, would
be practically noiseless and very easy to control. 7. Had they applied the new method, the result
would have been much better. 8. Were the design of cars improved, the fuel consumption would be
greatly reduced. 9. Had a less explosive gas been used in dirigible at the beginning of the century,
they would have been in operation since that time. 10. Were it possible to learn how birds find their
way, people would use the principle to develop a navigation system for aviation.

49. Измените предложения согласно образцам.


If I were free, I should help you. – Were I free, I should help you.
If I had known about the lecture, I should have come. – Had I known about the lecture? I
should have come.

1. If it were possible, we should begin this work at once. 2. If he had had all the necessary
books, he would made this report in t9ime. 3. If the books had been available in our library, we
could have done this work much earlier. 4. If there were no computers, space flights would be
impossible. 5. If drivers were more attentive while driving, there would be less accidents on the
roads. 1, If I had known who was invited, I would have never come, 2. You would hardly recognize
her if you met her. 3, If a passer-by hadn't helped us, we would not have found the way. 4. Mother
would have had a short rest if the sick boy had gone to sleep. 5. We wouldn't have made friends
with them if we hadn't stayed at the same hotel. 6. It wouldn't have been so cold in the morning if
the wind had stopped blowing. 7. Peter would accept your invitation if he were in London. 8. They
wouldn't have quarreled if they both bad not been so nervous. 9. If they didn't like each other, they
wouldn't spend so much time together. 10. If it snowed, the weather would get warmer.

Повторение трех типов условных предложений.

50. Переведите предложения на русский язык. Определите тип условия.


Определите номера предложений с бессоюзным сочетанием.

1. Should it be desirable to divide the powder of two substances, several ways are possible.
2. It would be worth while investigating the substance mentioned, provided we could get it in
sufficient quantity. 3. Should your work meet: these conditions, it will be of great service to our
industry. 4. Unless the cathode С is water cooled, it will overheat and emit gases. 5. Had it not been
for a large size of this body, we should have already weighed it on our pan.
6. If a compass needle were sensitive enough, it would swing back and forth as the waves
went on. 7. But for space meteorological stations we would not be able to observe the formation of
hurricanes. 8. Provided one knows the rate of the emission, one can determine the range of the
particles. 9. If the results of their molecular weight determination had been accredited, the concept
of giant molecular structures might have been established long before the 1930 s.
10. On Venus were it not for the horrid humid climate, we should probably feel quite at home.
11. If atomic nuclei contain electrons, their charges should be always whole multiples of the
electronic charge, 12. Had this warning been heeded, the reaction might have taken quite a different
turn, 13. Providing that a profound change were to occur, slip ought to take place along the
direction of maximum stress. 14. When an object is dropped it seems to go faster at least if it be
large and massive. 15. If the neutron and proton had the same mass, and if the Coulomb energy

103
were completely negligible, there should be a definite correlation between the energy levels of
isobars. 16. The increase in mass is so small that the whole phenomenon might be regarded as
trivial were it not for the attention that had been directed to the very large amounts of energy that
could be made available if mass were converted into energy on any appreciable scale. 17. If two
hydrogen atoms were to collide each should seek an additional electron.

51. Следующие предложения включают все три типа условных предложений.


Вставьте пропущенные слова (одно слово в каждом пропуске).
1 If you go to Sweden, you ___ really enjoy the scenery.
Если ты поедешь в Швецию, тебе действительно понравится ландшафт.
2 Of course I ___ speak to Mary if she called. I am not angry with her.
Конечно, я бы поговорил с Мэри, если бы она позвонила. Я не сержусь на неё.
3 If I had less work, I would ___ for lunch. I just can't get out.
Если бы у меня было меньше работы, я бы пошла пообедать. Я просто не могу выйти.
4 Unless we leave this minute, we ___ miss the train.
Если мы сейчас же не выйдем, мы опоздаем на поезд.
5 If she ___ passed her driving test, her father would have bought her a car.
Если бы она сдала экзамен на вождение, папа бы ей купил машину.
6 If my boss ___ pay me today, I'll be in trouble.
Если мой начальник не заплатит сегодня, у меня будут неприятности.
7 We could have concentrated if she ___ made so much noise.
Мы могли бы сосредоточиться, если бы она так не шумела.
8 If he sends you an invitation, ___ you come?
Если он пришлет тебе приглашение, ты придешь?
9 If I ___ you, I wouldn't do it.
На твоем месте я бы этого не делал.
10 He ___ have made this mistake if someone with more experience had been
with him. Он бы не сделал эту ошибку, если бы кто-то более опытный был с ним.

52.Откройте скобки в условных предложениях, сделав необходимые изменения.


A Example: If he (come) tomorrow, he will help us. — If he comes tomorrow, he will help us.

1. If you (put) salt on ice, it will melt. 2. If he (leave) now, he will miss the rush hour. 3.
Provided that she (service) the car, we'll be able to drive to the country. 4. Unless he (do) his
homework, he'll stay at home. 5. Providing that we (get up) early, we'll reach the place of
destination in time. 6. They will let us know if they (see) him.
В Example: If he (come) tomorrow, he would help us. — If he came tomorrow, he would help
us.
1. If you met the president, what you (do)? 2. If he (live) nearer, we would see each other
more often. 3.1 might go for a walk if the weather (be) nice. 4.1 would call him up if he (come)
tomorrow. 5. If I were as young as you are, I (sail) in a boat round the world. 6.1 would go skiing if
there (be) more snow. 7, She would play tennis if it (be) not so hot. 8. If I (be) in his shoes, I
wouldn't invite the Browns. 9. If we (not have) to study, we would go out tonight. 10. Where you
(go) if you were on leave?
C Example: If he (come) yesterday, he would have helped us. — If he had come yesterday, he
would have helped us.
1. She (notice) this mistake if she had been more attentive. 2,1 might have gone on an
excursion with you if I (know) about it beforehand. 3. If we (know) that you were there, we would
have called on you. 4. If I had known of his arrival, I (meet) him. 5. Nobody told me about your
trouble. I would have helped you if I (know) about it. 6. If you had tried your best, you (get) the job.

104
7. If he (not work) late, he would have caught his bus. 8. If Mary had agreed to sit in for us, we (go)
to the movie yesterday. 9. He (pass) his exams well if he had studied hard. 10 Л would have
prepared everything yesterday if I (receive) your message on Monday.

53. Откройте скобки и поставьте глагол ы в нужном времени.


1. If he (book) tickets yesterday, he (lie) on the beach now. 2. She (not forgive) him if she (not
be) his mother. 3. If you (drink) less last night, you (not feel) so bad today. 4. If he (be) cleverer, he
(not behaved) so foolishly yesterday. 5. If I (know) English well, I (translate) the article long ago.
6.1 (take) part in the last competition if I (be) younger. 7. If he (do) work yesterday, he (be) free
today. 8. If you (take) into account his behavior then, you (not have) so much trouble now. 9. You
(may be) a star now if you (be offered) the part in the film then. 10. If she (not decide) to change a
job last year, she (go) to China next month. 11. He (not go) to sleep over that book if it (not be) so
dull. 12. If he (be) a good musician, he (take part) in yesterday's concert.

54. Переведите предложения.


1. Ты бы расстроился (be upset), если бы я не пришел? 2. Будь он осторожнее, он бы не
упал. 3. Если бы он не приехал на машине встретить нас, нам бы самим пришлось нести свои
вещи. 4. Ты бы пошла куда-нибудь вечером, если бы он тебя пригласил? 5. Мы бы поехали
сегодня в бассейн, если бы вы позвонили вчера вечером, 6. Если бы он мог дать
положительный (positive) ответ, он бы давно это сделал. 7. Я бы на твоем месте не стал бы
поднимать такой шум (raise a clamor), 8- Если бы ты принял его предложение, ты бы давно
работал в хорошей фирме. 9. Будь я на вашем месте, я бы пошел пораньше, чтобы застать
его. 10. Если бы он вел машину осторожнее, никакой бы аварии не произошло, 11 Не сломай
он ногу, он бы выиграл турнир (tournament) . 12. Никто бы не обвинил (blame), тебя, если бы
ты вел себя по-другому.

55. Найдите условные придаточные предложения. Предложения переведите.


Сделайте, где возможно, бессоюзное сочетание.
1. If a scientist research is closely linked with practice, the results are always good. 2. If you
looked at the equipment of 1946, you would notice the difference with that available at present. 3. If
there is a pressure change in the tires, a transmitter signals adjust the pressure. 4. If we were to
make a journey in a plane to the nearest star, we should have to travel for several thousand
centuries. 5. Were traffic controlled by computers, cars could travel with safety and speed. 6. Had
submersibles been developed since the time of Alexander the Great, mankind would have used
natural resources from the ocean floor and cultivated plants and fish there. 7. Had all submersibles
had autonomous principle of operation, they would have become much more useful. 8. If fire-arms
had not been invented, the secret of Damascus steel would not have been lost. 9. If we could make a
non-stop flight around the sun in an airplane at a speed about 300 km per hour, it would require565
days to encircle it at the equator. 10. If the satellite speed is less than necessary, it will go down the
orbit and enter the atmosphere.

56. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на различные значения слов


provide, if (whether).
1. Specialists reported that a miniature video camera provided the latest submersible with
vision. 2. The speed of a satellite would be less provided it moved at a greater distance from the
Earth. 3. Drivers don’t know yet whether radars will be mounted on the next car models. 4. If the
weather is too bad for flying, passenger airplanes don’t leave airports. 5. It was very important to
find out if electricity could be used for long distance communication. 6. During the entire flight the
pilot is provided with all the necessary information about weather conditions. 7. Modern
submersibles can remain at the depth of 20,000 feet for eight hours, or, if needed, as long as two or
three days. 8. A new system for motor car can be provided with infrared sensors that can detect a

105
human figure at night. 9. If underwater tourism continues to develop at the present rate, the number
of passengers could grow up to millions in only a few days.

57. Переведите предложения с союзом unless и запомните особенности его


перевода.
1. Isaac Newton stated that a body would continue moving unless some force was applied to
stop it. 2. Space flights would be impossible unless special materials for space vehicles were
produced. 3. We should have no radio, telephone, television or computer unless there were
electricity. 4. The earth temperature would increase indefinitely unless heat were radiated. 5. Unless
the temperature rises, the speed of the molecules will not increase. 6. It would have been impossible
to send satellites into orbit unless Newton’s laws of motion had been studied. 7. With heat
generated by friction of the air on aircraft surface, the temperature inside the cabin would increase
to almost 1,000˚C unless it were cooled by mechanical means.

Conditional sentences: Type 2 and Type 3 mixed

58. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct forms.


1. It was the drug, not the disease, that killed him. He still (be) alive today if he (not take) that
drug. 2. This room's freezing because the fire has only just been lit. — If it (be lit) this morning, as I
suggested, the room (be) warm enough to sit in now. 3. I overslept; that's why I'm half an hour late;
and if my phone (not ring) at nine o'clock I might still be in bed. 4. Why are you in such a bad
temper? — Because I've been waiting for 40 minutes in an icy wind. If you (wait) 40 minutes in an
icy wind you (be) bad-tempered, too. 5. When the weather got bad the climbing party turned back,
all except Tom and his brothers, who decided to go on. If only they (turn) back with the others they
(be) alive today. 6. You are not practical. If you (be) practical you (not buy) such a useless thing. 7.
She is not careful. If she (be) careful she (not get) into trouble. 8. She looks tired. If she (not work)
all the time she (not look) so tired now.

59. Change the following statements into conditional sentences.


eg I'm hungry now because I didn't eat dinner. But if I'd eaten dinner, I wouldn't be hungry
now.
1. The room is full of flies because you left the door open. 2. You are tired this morning
because you didn't go to bed at a reasonable hour last night. 3.1 didn't finish my report yesterday, so
I can't begin a new project today. 4. Helen is sick because she didn't follow the doctor's orders. 5.
I'm not you, so I didn't tell him the truth. 6.1 don't know anything about plumbing, so I didn't fix the
leak in the sink myself. 7.1 received a good job offer from the oil company, so I won't seriously
consider taking the job with the electronics firm. 8. I'm careless, that's why I made so many
mistakes. 9. She doesn't know English well enough, so she didn't help him to translate the article.

Туре 2 and type 3 conditionals mixed

60. Translate into English.


1. Если бы он занимался регулярно весь семестр, он бы сейчас не боялся экзаменов. 2.
Если бы мы знали его адрес, мы бы сообщили ему о результатах экзаменов вчера. 3. Он бы
не делал столько ошибок сейчас, если бы не пропустил столько занятий. 4. Ты бы себя
хорошо сегодня чувствовал, если бы принял вчера лекарство. 5. Вы бы лучше знали язык,
если бы прочитали летом несколько английских книг. 6. Если бы мы работали вчера больше,
наша работа была бы сейчас готова. 7. Не будь он таким рассеянным, он бы не забыл свой
чемодан в поезде. Он без конца теряет вещи. 8. Если бы мы послали письмо вчера, они бы

106
получили его завтра утром. 9. Если бы мы не шли так быстро, мы не были бы такими усталы-
ми сейчас и могли бы продолжить наш путь. 10. Если бы я принес словарь с собой, я мог бы
перевести этот документ сейчас. 11. Если бы я не пошел к ним вчера, мы бы ничего не знали
об этом даже теперь. 12. Будь у него чувство юмора, он бы не обиделся. 13. Если бы поезд
вышел вовремя, он прибыл бы в конечный пункт завтра рано утром. 14. Если бы вы
выполнили все предписания врача, вы давно бы выздоровели и работали сейчас вместе с
нами. 15. Если бы они любили друг друга, они бы давно поженились. 16. Если бы мы
работали вчера больше, наша работа была бы сейчас готова. 17. Если бы мы послали письмо
вчера, они бы получили его завтра утром. 18. Я провела свой отпуск в Ялте. Я бы провела его
в Сухуми, если бы там не было так жарко летом. 19. Если бы мы не шли там быстро, мы не
были бы такими усталыми сейчас и могли бы продолжать наш путь. 20. Если бы я принес
словарь с собой, я мог бы перевести этот документ сейчас. 21. Если бы я не пошел к ним
вчера, мы бы ничего не знали об этом даже теперь.

Функции глагола should.

Употребление и перевод глагола should.


1. Should употребляется для образования глагольного времени Future in the Past (с 1-м
лицом):
We decided that we should meet in February. Мы решили, что встретился в феврале.
2. В условных предложениях (с 1-м ЛИЦОМ): If it were my book, I should give it to you.
Если бы это была моя книга, я бы дала ее вам.
I should have done this work, in case I had been informed before.
Я бы выполнила эту работу, если бы я узнала об этом заранее.
3. В придаточных предложениях после безличных предложений типа it is necessary.
It is important that you should do the work yourself. Важно, чтобы вы сделали эту работу
сами.
4. В придаточных предложениях цели после союзов that— чтобы и lest— чтобы., не.
otherwise — иначе бы...:
Не helped me greatly otherwise I should not be able to carry out tny work.
Он очень помог мне, иначе я бы не смог выполнить эту работу.
5. В бессоюзных условных предложениях:
Should the letter be brought in the morning, put it on my desk please.
Если письмо принесут утром, пожалуйста, положите его мне на стол.
6. Should в качестве модального глагола со значением долженствования.
One should be careful when crossing the street.
Надо быть очень внимательным при переходе улицы.

61. Переведите следующие предложения:


1. The substance under investigation should be examined both by chemical and physical
means.
2. Why should metals, even in the solid state, be excellent conductors of electricity, whereas
salts ordinarily need to be melted before they conduct?
3. One should keep in mind that the accuracy of Ohm's law fails for certain solutions when
alternating currents of very high frequency are employed.
4. Should the uniform change in volume continue during the cooling of a gas to very low
temperatures, the gas sample would have no volume at — 273°.
5. "If the beam of ray in the cathode ray tube is influenced by a magnet, why should it not be
influenced also by an electrostatic field?" — thought Thomson.
6. In order that this relation should be valid two conditions must be observed.
7. It was already indicated that we should stop further discussion of the physical character of
atoms and turn for the moment to another angle of the question of atomic structure.

107
8. In order that the number of ions in the stream should not fall off as the pressure is reduced,
the ions were generated by the action of ultraviolet light on a metal plate.
9. It is of interest to inquire whether a radioactive charge should be classed as chemical in
character or not.
10. Should the anode grow too hot you must decrease
the power of the transmitter.
11. The same mechanism should be invoked to interpret the data of Fig. 1 as well.
12. To obtain high current densities in a spot, the spot should be at high potential.
13. It should be said that the importance of Mars studies is acknowledged by all.
14. Reliability of every vehicle should be paid great attention to during the production
process.
15. It is required that an airplane should be well balanced dynamically.
16. Should there be even a small deviation in the velocity, the space vehicle would pass the
planet.
17. K.E. Tsiolkovsky suggested that man-made rockets for the future space flights should use
liquid-propellant engines.
18. We were told that we should take part in the discussion.
19. One should not forget that electricity is the most important source of energy at present.

Функции глагола would.

Употребление и перевод глагола would.


1. Would употребляется для образования глагольного времени Future in the Past (с 2-м и
3-м лицами).
He said he would help us.
Он сказал, что поможет нам.
2.В условных предложениях (с 2-м и 3-м лицами):
Не would have helped me last week, if he had been in the town.
Он бы помог мне на прошлой неделе, если бы он был в городе.
3. Would со всеми лицами употребляется для выражения повторного действия в
прошлом. При переводе при этом добавляются слова обычно, часто, бывало:
She would sit at the window for hours. Она бывало часами сидела у окна
4. Would со всеми лицами выражает желание (или нежелание) совершить действие:
The doctor insisted that he give up smoking but he would not.
Врач настаивал на том, чтобы он бросил курить, но он не хотел.
5. Would употребляется при вежливом обращении: Would you kindly help me.
Будьте любезны, помогите, пожалуйста.

62. Переведите следующие предложения:


1. The question is whether a similarly high ion density would have existed an the axis when
the pencil beam is switched off.
2. The value of the surface energy would therefore be expected to depend on crack velocity.
3. If the entire Earth were covered by ocean, high and low tides would follow one another at
regular intervals in response to the rotation of the Earth and the revolution of the Moon.
4. The kinetic theory and the corresponding molecular theory of liquids and gases have been
of great service in helping to form mental pictures of many processes which would be otherwise too
difficult to understand.
5. The average depth of the ocean is approximately 13000 feet. This figure seems large, but if
we were to build a scale model with the Earth as a ball 100 feet in diameter, this ocean would be
less than half an inch deep.

108
6. For example, if the magnitude and phase of the negative resistance generator input
impedance were largely dependent on transistor transconductance, the conversion of low-frequency
noise variation in transconductance to signal amplitude and phase modulation in the Q — multiplied
resonator would result in unacceptable performance.

Повторение употребления глаголов should и would.

63. Переведите следующие предложения, объясняя употребление и значение


глаголов should и would:
1. It is essential you should know that this solution fumes slightly in air.
2. It should be emphasized that amorphous sulphur does not crystallize at all.
3. One should always dilute sulphuric acid by pouring it into a large excess of water.
4. The preparation of highly purified tellurium requires that more time and labour should be
spent than is the case with sulphur and selenium.
5. From the requirements of the theory of Bohr it is to be anticipated that the theory would be
more accurate the higher the speed of the particle.
6. If the entire Earth were covered by ocean, high and low tides would follow one another at
regular intervals in response to the rotation of the Earth and the revolution of the Moon.
7. Formerly weather forecasts would base almost exclusively on data secured from the air
close to the Earth.
8. In the absence of dust the air would become supersaturated with water and clouds and rain
would be unlikely to form.
9. It is natural that aluminium should receive a great amount of attention from research
workers with a view to improving the mechanical properties of the metal.
10. The kinetic theory and the corresponding molecular theory of liquids and gases have been
of great service in helping to form mental pictures of many processes which would be otherwise too
difficult to understand.

Functions of the verbs Should, Would.


64. Определите функции глаголов should, would. Переведите предложения на
русский язык.
1. The engineer of our laboratory said that we should take part in this research work.
2. We hopped we should succeed in our experimental work
3. They said that the ship would arrive in a few hours.
4. I asked the master whether the ship should sail tomorrow.
5. The professors told him that he would analyze the results of the test himself.
6. I said that I should retrain in an hour.
7. He said that she should get the book in a few days.
8. He said that he would; come next week.
9. I said that I should be very glad to see them.
10. I thought that the meeting would be put off.
11. We were suggested that we should carefully study the properties of this solid under high
temperature.
12. Without the force of gravitation there would be no pressure in liquids.
13. It would be desirable' to carry out this work as soon as possible.
14. The solution of the problem would require further studies on part of scientists and
engineers.
15. It is desirable that the crab-fishing factory should be ready to sail not later than in a week
since today.
16. It would be wrong to think that scientific and technological knowledge goes only one
way-from USA to the developing countries.
17. It would be difficult to analyze the results of the test without the teacher's help.
109
18. The engineer proposes that the new automatic line should begin operating at once.
19. It is necessary that you should read it once more.
20. 1 should be very glad if he succeeded.
21. It is strange that he should have asked me that question.
22. Should he come, tell him to wait a little.
23. It is a. pity that they should have left us.
24. They agreed that the negotiations should take place in November.
25. It is necessary that they should be informed in time.
26. They requested that the goods should be shipped at the end of the month.
27.1 gave him an umbrella so that it he should not get wet.
28. Every people should be free to choose its own way of life.
29. Before beginning an experiment one should carefully read all the instructions.
30. The fish should analyze the result of the test ourselves.
31. There are problems which should be solved in cooperation with other countries.
32. You shouldn't smoke in the classroom.
33. You shouldn't go to bed so late.
34. When the goods are ready for shipment they should be dispatched without delay.
35. He would have been here' in the morning if the steamer had not been late,
36. 1 would go with you if I were not so busy.
37. Would you mind turning -on the light?
38. Would you mind wiping your feet before coming in?
39. Would you mind my closing the window?
40. Would you mind passing me the salt?
41. Would you tell me the: time please?
42. Wouldn't you help me to do it?
43. The mother asked her son not to go swimming alone, but he would not listen to her.
44. 1 asked him to do it. But he would not listen to me.
45. The doctors told her not go out, but she wouldn't listen to him.
46. In the evenings captain Brown would come to their place and they would play a game or
two of chess.
47. She would sit before the open window watching with interest the busy life of the street.
48. In the evenings she would sit down at the piano and sing to us.
49. Last summer I would get up early and go for long walks.
50. On hot summer days we would take a boat and go up the river.
51. Why should he do it?
52. You should have asked permission before you took the book.
53. It is very cold here. You shouldn't have opened the window.
54.1 said that I should be glad to see him.
55. 1 said that we should have a meeting on Monday.
56. 1 should go there if I had time.
57. We should have caught the train if had walked taster.
58. It is desirable that you should send oft the documents today.
59. Why should you dislike him so much?
60. Why should you have behaved so?
61. He should help them.
62. You should call on him; tomorrow.
63. You shouldn't go there.
64. He said that he would come soon
65.1 told him that you would leave Moscow on Monday.
66. He would go there if he had time.
67. You would have caught the train if you had walked faster,
68. He tried to persuade me, but I wouldn't listen to him.

110
69. 1 asked him several times to give up smoking but he wouldn't.
70. Would you mind passing me the salt7
71. Would you tell me the time, please?
72. Wouldn't you help me to do it?
73. He would sit for hours on the shore and would look at the sea

Vocabularies.
Electrical equipment.
А
Автомат защиты цепи circuit breaker
Аккумулятор accumulator, storage battery, cell
- никель-кадмиевый nickel-cadmium
- серебряно-цинковый silver-zink
- сухозаряженный dry-charged
- сухой dry cell
- щелочной alkiline
- кипит the battery is gassing
Ареометр hydrometer
АТС ATX (automatic telephone exchange)
(автоматическая телефонная станция)
Б
Батарейка (элемент) cell, battery
Бросок тока current inrush
В
Вилка plug
Включить switch on
(в цепь) insert
Возбуждение excitation
Вход input
Вывод lead, terminal
- на трансформаторе tap
Выключатель switch
- конечный limit
- настенный rocker
Выпрямитель rectifier circuit
Г
Генератор generator
- безщеточный brushless
- шеточный brushed
- переменного тока alternator
- постоянного тока generator
Геркон (sealed-contact) reed relay
Герметик sealant, sealing compound
Графит graphite, black-lead
Д
Диэлектрик dielectric
Диэлектричекие insulating, nonconducting
- галоши overshoes
- перчатки gloves
Дуга электрическая arc
Дугогашение arc control, arc blow-out

111
Е
Емкость capacitance
Ж
Жидкость для очистки контактов electrocleaner

З
Зажим
- аккумулятора battery terminal
- типа «крокодил» alligator clip
Заземление earthing (англ.), grounding
(амер.)
Зазор между различными деталями clearance
- между электродами, контактами (air)gap
Замыкание (включение) closure
- короткое short circuit
- межвитковое turn-to-turn short circuit
Заряд charge
Защита protection
Звонок bell
«Земля» (утечка) erath (leakage)
И
Изолента insulating tape
Изолятор insulator
Изоляция insulation
Индикатор indicator
Индуктивность inductance
Искра spark
Искатель шаговый one-motion switch
К
Кабелепровод cable duct
Кабель cable
- бронированный - armoured
- высокого напряжения - high-voltage
- высокочастотный - high-frequency
- двужильный - double-core
- многожильный - multicore
- силовой - power
- телефонный - phone
- трехжильный - three-core
Канифоль rosin, colophony
Кислота травленая killed acid
Клемма, зажим terminal
Кнопка (push) button
Коврик изолирующий insulating mat
Колба лампы bulb
Коллектор commutator
Конденсатор capacitor
- электролитический - electrolytic
Контактор contactor

112
Контроллер controller, master switch
Коробка клемная lead box
Л
Лак varnish
- электроизоляционный - insulating, for electric wire
Лампа lamp
- взрывобезопасная - explosion proof
- галогенная - halogen
- контрольная - pilot
- накаливания - incandescent, glow
- люминисцентная - fluorescent, luminescent
- переносная - hand, portable
- ртутная - mercury
М
Микровыключатель microswitch
Микросхема integrated circuit
Мост диодный diode bridge
Микрофарад microfarad
Н
Напряжение voltage
О
Обесточивание de-energize
(непроизвольное) black out
Обмотка winding
- возбуждения - drive, exciting
- вторичная - secondary
- первичная - primary
- пусковая - starting
Обрезчик изоляции insulating cutter
Обрыв цепи open circuit
Оголять skin, strip
Оплетка спиральная conduit
Освещение illumination
П
Патрон lampholder
Паяльник soldering iron, solderer
Перегрузка overload
Переключатель change over switch
Питание power supply
Пластина биметаллическая bimetal plate
Печатная плата printed circuit board
Плафон ceiling lamp
Поле field
Полярность polarity
Потенциометр potentiometer
Потребитель consumer
- второстепенный - unessential
Потребление тока power consumption
Предохранитель safety device
(плавкая ставка) fuse
Преобразователь converter
Припой solder

113
Пробой break down, break through
Провод wire
- многожильный - multiwire, multicore
Проводник conductor
Проводка wiring
Прожектор searchlight
Прозвонка continuity test
Противофаза antiphase, opposite phase
Пускатель магнитный magnetic starter, actuating
magnet
Р
Работа параллельная parrarel operation, run in
parallel
Разводка кабелей cable tree
Размыкать open, break
(разрывать) interrupt
Разряд discharge
Реле relay
- тепловое thermal, overload
Реостат reostat
Розетка socket
Рубильник knife switch
С
Сальник кабеля cable gland
Светодиод light-emitting diode (LED)
Свеча зажигания ignition plug
Сердечник core
Сеть circuit
(источник питания) mains (англ.), supply
line(ам)
Синхронизатор sinchronizer
Синхронизировать по фазе phase-lock
Соединение connection
- последование - series
- параллельное - parallel
- звезда-треугольник - star-delta
Сопротивление resistance, resistor
- изоляции - insulation resistance
Срабатывание реле pick up
Стабилитрон stabilizer diode
Стрелка прибора pointer
Счетчик часов работы hour meter
Т
Табличка предупредительная warning placard
Таймтактор time switch, time-
sequence,
Contactor, time-limit reley
Термопара termocouple
Трансформатор transformer
- повышающий - step-up
- понижающий - step-down
Тумблер snap switch

114
У
Удлинитель extension cord
Устройство зарядное charging unit, battery
Ф charger
Фаза phase
Фонарик flash-light
Фонарь lantern

Ц
Цепь (сеть) circuit
Цоколь лампы cap, base
Ч
Частота тока current frequency
Ш
Шина busbar
Штекер plug
Щ
Щеткодержатель brush holder, brush joke
Щит ring
- распределительный - switchboard
- аварийный - emergency
- главный - main
ЭДС (электродвижущая сила) e.m.f. (electric motive
force)

СЛОВАРЬ ТЕРМИНОВ И СЛОВОСОЧЕТАНИЙ В ДЕЛОВОЙ ПЕРЕПИСКЕ


A
Аварийный акт accident report
Авария accident, emergency, failure
Агрегат set, unit
Адресовать письмо direct a letter
Акт испытания test report
Акт осмотра inspection certificate
Акт передачи deed of conveyance
Акт приемки acceptance certificate
Амортизационные отчисления depreciation charges
Анкета form, questionnaire
Аннулировать cancel
Арендовать rent
Аттестовать certify
Б
Без дефектов defectless
Безаварийная работа trouble-free operation
Безупречная работа faultless operation
Безусловно certainly
Бесплатно free of charge
Беспошлинно duty-free
Бланк form
В
В должное время in due course
В заключение in conclusion
В кратчайший срок at the earliest possible date

115
В настоящее время at present
В отношении in respect of
В результате as result of
В ремонте under repair
Вводить в эксплуатацию put into operation
Взыскание убытков от повреждения recovery of damage
Вина blame
Виновная сторона party of fault
Вкратце briefly
Возврат денег refund
Возвращать return
Возмещение compensation
Возможность opportunity, possibility
Возможные убытки eventual losses
Вопрос question
Восстанавливать restore, recover
Выгода gain, profit
Выдерживать график maintain a schedule
Выдерживать испытание pass a test
Вызвать экспертов call in the experts
Выйти за пределы fall outside the limits
Вынуждать compel
Выписка extract
Выполнять обязательства meet commitments
Выполнять указание follow the directions
Выполнять execute
Вычеркнуть delete, cross out
Г
Гарантийный срок guarantee (warrant) period
Готовый к эксплуатации ready for operation
График (расписание) schedule
Д
Дата истечения срока expiration date
Дата поставки delivery date
Дата приемки date of acceptance
Действительная стоимость actual value
Держать в курсе keep informed
Дефицит deficit, shortage
Дешевый cheap, inexpensive
Диапазон range
Длительный durable
Довод argument, reason
Доказательство evident, proof
Документ paper
Д°лг debt
Долгосрочный long-term
Доставка delivery
Достигать achieve
3
Заботиться take care
Забраковать reject
Завершать complete

116
Завершить работу по графику meet a schedule
Заводская инструкция manufacturers' Instruction
Заводская сборка factory assembly
Задача task
Задержка delay
Заказ order
Заключение conclusion
Заменить change, replace
Заполнить бланк fill in the form
Запрещать prohibit
Запрос request
Заставлять compel
Заявка application, request
Значительный considerable
И
Игнорировать ignore, neglect
Идентичный identical
Избежать avoid
Избыток excess
Извещать notify
Извещение notice, advice
Иметь в запасе have in store
Иметь в наличии have available
Иск claim
Исправлять correct
К
Квалификация qualification
Квитанция receipt
Комиссия commission
Конечный срок deadline
Конкурировать compete
Консервация preservation
Конструкция design
Консультант adviser, consultant
Контракт contract, agreement
Контроль checking
Конфликт conflict
Краткосрочный short-term
Кроме except for, besides
М
Мастерская workshop
Местное (судовое) время local (ship) time
Местные власти local authorities
Мнение opinion
Моральный износ obsolescence
Н
Наблюдать observe, watch
Наводить справки enquire about
Надеяться hope
Надзор inspection, supervision
Назначать цену charge
Назначить встречу make an appointment

117
Наименование name, title
Накладная invoice
Накопление accumulation
Налагать ограничения impose a restriction
Наладка adjusting, setting up
Налог tax
Наложить штраф fine
Нанести повреждение damage
Нанимать employ
Например for example
Нарушать договор brеak a contract
Нарушать инструкции violate the Instructions
Нарушение закона violation of the law
Начальные затраты initial cost
Не пройти испытания fail the test
Небрежность negligence
Невиновная сторона party not in fault
Невыгодный unprofitable
Недоверие mistrust
Недоделка fault in workmanship
Недоразумение misunderstanding
Недосмотр oversight
Незнание ignorance
Неисправность fault
Немедленный instant
Ненадежный unreliable
Необоснованный unfounded
Необходимый necessary
Неожиданно unexpectedly
Неопределенный uncertain
Неопытный inexperienced
Несовместимый incompatible
Несогласие disagreement
Несчастный случай accident
Неуплата non-payment
Нехватка lack, shortage
О
Обвинение charge, accuse
Обеспечить provide
Обмен exchange
Обнаружить detect
Обслуживание service
Обстоятельство circumstance
Обсуждение discussions
Обширный extensive
Общее количество gross amount
Общий common
Обычный usual, ordinary
Обязанности duties
Обязательство obligation
Ограничение restriction
Одновременно simultaneously

118
Одобрить approve, confirm
Ожидать expect
Окончание (срока) termination
Описание description
Оплата payment
Оплатить счет settle an account
Определять determine
Определить возможные причины determine probable causes
Опыт experience
Осмотреть на месте inspect on the spot
Осторожный careful
Ответственность responsibility
Отклонить предложение decline an offer
Отменить postpone
Отношения relations
Отправить send (sent, sent)
Отрицать deny
Оценивать evaluate, estimate
Очевидный obvious
Очередной next
Ошибка mistake, error
П
Переговоры negotiations
Переоборудование re-equipment
Пересматривать revise
Перечень list
Плановая работа scheduled work
По доверенности by power of attorney
По истечении срока after termination of
По требованию on demand
Поддержка support
Подлинный genuine
Подробно in detail
Подтвердить confirm
Подходящий suitable
Покрыть расходы cover expenses
Покупка purchase
Полный износ wear-out
Полный рабочий день full time
Помощь help
Потеря loss
Потребление, расход consumption
Правила rules
Правильный correct
Превышение excess
Предварительный preliminary
Предвидеть anticipate
Предел limit
Предложение proposal
Предосторожность precaution
Предполагаемые расходы estimated expenditure
Предпочтительный preferable

119
Представитель representative
Представлять introduce
Предстоящий forthcoming
Предупреждение warning
Преимущество advantage
Претензия claim
Приблизительно about, approximately
Пригодный useful
Приготовить prepare
Приемка acceptance
Прийти к соглашению come to an agreement
Приложение enclosure
Принуждать force
Приостанавливать hold up
Причина неисправности cause of trouble
Причина cause
Проверить работоспособность verify operational problems
Прогноз prediction
Просрочить overdue
Противоположный opposite
Путь route, way
Р
Равный equal
Развитие development
Разрешение permission
Расходы expenses
Редкий rare
С
Свидетель witness
Своевременно in due time
Сделать официальное заявление make an official statement
С другой стороны on the other hand
Секретно confidential
Следовательно consequently
Следовать инструкции follow the Instructions
Собрать информацию gather information
Событие event
Совершенный perfect
Совершить ошибку make a mistake
Согласно according to
Согласовать coordinate
Соглашаться agree
Содействие assistance
Содержание contents
Создавать запас lay in stock
Сокращать расходы cut down expenses
Сообщение message
Соответствующий спецификации conforming to the
specification
Составить договор draw up contract
Составные части component parts
Состояние condition

120
Списать write off
Спор dispute
Способ manner
Способность ability
Срок службы service life
Срочно urgently
Ссылаться refer to
Стаж length of service
Т
Текущие расходы running expenses
Тенденции tendency, trend
Технические данные technical data
Технические условия specifications
Точный exact
Тратить expend
Требование уплаты application for payment
Трудоемкость working hours
У
Убеждать convince
Убедиться в том, что make sure that
Уведомление notice
Уверять assure
Удалять remove
Уделять внимание pay attention
Удобный convenient
Удовлетворительный satisfactory
Употребление application, usage
Управление management
Ускорять speed up
Условия договора terms
Усложнять complicate
Устанавливать предел для set a limit for
Устаревший out of date
Устойчивый steady, firm
Устранимый eliminate
Ф
Форсировать speed up
Ц
Цель purpose
Цифра digit
Э
Экземпляр copy
Эксперим. данные experimental data
Эксплуатация service (operating) data
Экспл.расходы maintenance charges (cost)
Экспл.свойства service properties
Экстремальные меры emergency measures
Эталон standard
Этап step
Я
Явный obvious, evident

121
Literature.

1. Адрианова Л.Н. Курс английского языка для вечерних и заочных технических вузов./
Л.Н.Адрианова, Н.Ю.Багрова, Э.В.Ершова. – Москва: Высшая школа, 2007. – 463 с.
2. Качалова К.Н. Практическая грамматика английского языка/ К.Н.Качалов,
Е.Е.Израилевич. - Киев: методика, 2003 – 2 тома.
3. Михельсон Т.Н. Практический курс грамматики английского языка./ Т.Н. Михельсон,
Н.В. Успенская, Eclectic Publishing East Europe LLC, 1995 – 167 с.
4. Никулина Е.Л. English for marine electrical engineers./ Е.Л.Никулина - Одесса: ЛАТСТАР,
2000. – 151 с.
5. Tруханова Н.Л. English of marine electrical and power engineering for seamen./
Н.Л.Tруханова, Н.А.Кравченко. – Одесса: ЛАТСТАР, 2000. – 170 с.
6. Technical notes of interest to Marine Engineers, Ship's electrical system described, Authored by:
DC Marine, January, 2000 – 125 с.
7. Шахова Н.И.Learn to read science. Курс английского языка для аспирантов и научных
работников./ Н.И.Шахова, В.Г.Рейнгольд, В.И.Салистра. – Москва: ”Наука”, 1993 –283с.
8. Introduction to Radio Equipment, NAVPERS 10172, 1946 - Copyright © 1997-2007, Historic
Naval Ships Association. Legal Notices and Privacy Policy, Version 3.00 – 364 с.

Светлана Николаевна Фролова

МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ
к практическим занятиям и по самостоятельной работе
для студентов 4 курса
направления 6.050702 «Электромеханика»
дневной и заочной формы обучения

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