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Г.Н. Бабич

LEXICOLOGY: A CURRENT GUIDE

ЛЕКСИКОЛОГИЯ АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА

Учебное пособие

5-е издание

Допущено Министерством образования и науки


Российской Федерации в качестве учебного пособия
для студентов высших учебных заведений,
обучающихся по специальности «Иностранный язык»

Москва
Издательство «Флинта»
Издательство «Наука»
2010

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УДК 811.111(075.8)
ББК 81.2Англ.3
Б12

Р е ц е н з е н т ы:
др филол. наук, проф. О.М. Карпова
(Ивановский государственный университет);
др филол. наук, проф. О.А. Леонтович
(Волгоградский государственный педагогический университет)

Бабич Г.Н.
Б12 Lexicology: A Current Guide. Лексикология английского языка : учеб.
пособие / Г.Н. Бабич. — 5е изд. — М. : Флинта : Наука, 2010. —
200 с.
ISBN 9785976502499 (Флинта)
ISBN 9785020347342 (Наука)
В пособии освещены основные проблемы лексикологии в соответствии
с действующими государственными стандартами и программой по данному
курсу для студентов гуманитарных вузов. Теоретический материал тесно связан
с упражнениями и заданиями, цель которых помочь студентам в практическом
овладении основами лексикологии. В каждой главе даны ключевые вопросы
для контроля знаний. Заключительная часть пособия содержит вопросы для
самоконтроля, аутентичные отрывки для комплексного лексикологического
анализа, которые могут быть использованы на учебных занятиях и для само-
стоятельной работы при совершенствовании навыков владения современным
английским языком, опре­делении основных понятий и терминов курса.
Для студентов факультетов иностранных языков, филологических факуль-
тетов, отделений лингвистики университетов, аспирантов и интересующихся
проблемами слова.
УДК 811.111(075.8)
ББК 81.2Англ.3

ISBN 9785976502499 (Флинта)


ISBN 9785020347342 (Наука) © Издательство «Флинта», 2008

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СONTENTS

Preface ..................................................................................................... 7
Introduction ............................................................................................. 8

Chapter 1
Language and Lexicology .......................................................................... 9
1.1. The Object of Lexicology ............................................................. 9
1.2. Branches of Lexicology .............................................................. 10
1.3. Lexicology and Sociolinguistics ................................................. 13
1.4. The Definition of the Word ........................................................ 16
Key Terms ............................................................................................... 18
Topics for Discussion and Exercises .......................................................... 18

Chapter 2
The Origins of English Words .................................................................. 20
2.1. Native Words ............................................................................. 22
2.2. Borrowings ................................................................................. 24
2.3. Etymological Doublets .............................................................. 30
2.4. International Words ................................................................... 31
Key Terms ............................................................................................... 32
Topics for Discussion and Exercises .......................................................... 32

Chapter 3
Word Structure and Word Formation ....................................................... 36
3.1. Morpheme. Allomorph .............................................................. 37
3.2. Word Structure ........................................................................... 39
3.3. Immediate Constituents Analysis ............................................... 41
3.4. Affixation ................................................................................... 42
3.5. Conversion ................................................................................. 46
3.6. Word-Composition .................................................................... 48
3.7. Other Types of Word Formation ................................................. 51
Key Terms ............................................................................................... 53
Topics for Discussion and Exercises .......................................................... 54

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Chapter 4
Semantics ............................................................................................... 57
4.1. Semasiology or Semantics? ........................................................ 57
4.2. Denotation and Connotation ..................................................... 59
4.3. Polysemy .................................................................................... 61
4.4. Componential Analysis .............................................................. 62
4.5. Semantic Change ....................................................................... 65
4.6. Secondary Ways of Semantic Change ........................................ 69
Key Terms ............................................................................................... 70
Topics for Discussion and Exercises .......................................................... 70

Chapter 5
The Vocabulary of a Language as a System .............................................. 74
5.1. Homonyms ................................................................................ 74
5.2. Synonyms .................................................................................. 77
5.2.1. The Nature of Synonymy ................................................ 77
5.2.2. The Definition of Synonyms ........................................... 79
5.2.3. Classification of Synonyms ............................................. 81
5.2.4. Euphemism ..................................................................... 82
5.3. Antonyms .................................................................................. 82
5.4. Hyponymy and Paronymy ......................................................... 84
Key Terms ............................................................................................... 85
Topics for Discussion and Exercises .......................................................... 86

Chapter 6
Combinability. Word Groups .................................................................... 90
Key Terms ............................................................................................... 95
Topics for Discussion and Exercises .......................................................... 95

Chapter 7
Phraseology ............................................................................................ 98
7.1. Semantic Classification of Phraseological Units ....................... 100
7.2. Structural Classification of Phraseological Units ...................... 101

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7.3. Functional Classification of Phraseological Units .................... 102


7.4. Contextual Classification of Phraseological Units .................... 103
7.5. Prof. Kunin’s Classification of Phraseological Units ................ 103
7.6. Proverbs, Sayings, Quotations ................................................... 105
Key Terms .............................................................................................. 107
Topics for Discussion and Exercises ......................................................... 107

Chapter 8
Levels of Usage ...................................................................................... 111
8.1. Stylistic Differentiation of the English Vocabulary .................... 112
8.2. The Varieties of English ............................................................ 117
8.3. Levels of Language .................................................................... 121
8.4. Registers ................................................................................... 125
Key Terms .............................................................................................. 128
Topics for Discussion and Exercises ......................................................... 128

Chapter 9
Lexicography ......................................................................................... 133
9.1. The History of Dictionary Making ............................................. 133
9.2. Classification of Dictionaries .................................................... 136
Key Terms .............................................................................................. 140
Topics for Discussion and Exercises ......................................................... 140

Chapter 10
American English ................................................................................... 145
10.1. Spelling ..................................................................................... 146
10.2. Pronunciation ........................................................................... 148
10.3. Punctuation .............................................................................. 148
10.4. Numbers ................................................................................... 149
10.5. Grammar .................................................................................. 150
10.5.1. Use of the Present Perfect ............................................ 150
10.5.2. Possession .................................................................... 150
10.5.3. The Verb Get ................................................................. 151

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10.5.4. Past Simple/Past Participles ......................................... 151


10.5.5. Other Differences ......................................................... 152
10.5.6. Prepositions ................................................................. 153
10.6. Vocabulary ................................................................................ 153
10.7. African American Vernacular English (AAVE) .......................... 158
Key Terms .............................................................................................. 160
Topics for Discussion and Exercises ......................................................... 160

Chapter 11
A World English ..................................................................................... 163
11.1. Canadian English ...................................................................... 163
11.2. Australian English ..................................................................... 164
11.3. New Zealand English ................................................................ 166
11.4. Indian English .......................................................................... 167
11.4.1. Pronunciation .............................................................. 168
11.4.2. Grammar ..................................................................... 168
11.4.3. Vocabulary: loans ......................................................... 169
11.4.4. Usage ........................................................................... 171
Key Terms .............................................................................................. 172
Topics for Discussion and Exercises ......................................................... 173

Review .................................................................................................. 174


References ............................................................................................. 185
Dictionaries ........................................................................................... 187
Glossary ................................................................................................ 188

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Preface

This book is based upon a series of lectures on English Lexicology


delivered at the Ural State Pedagogical University of Yekaterinburg,
Russia.
The theoretical Course in Modern English Lexicology forms a part
of the curriculum for the English Departments in Foreign Languages
and Linguistic Institutes.
In accordance with the basic aim the Guide incorporates lectures,
topics for discussion and exercises that cover the main areas of
lexicology. The Course highlights the recent tendencies in the linguistic
science; it combines theoretical study and practice.
Each chapter provides a variety of instructional activities that help
students evaluate the information they have learned, express their
thoughts and analyse the most pressing issues of current lexicology.
The book includes a list of terms and concepts.
All these materials are aimed at expanding students’ language
knowledge. They enhance theoretical competence, students’ reflective
thinking whenever they have a problem to solve, and challenge students
to make individual judgements.
It is hoped that this approach will be conducive to a better
understanding of the fundamental principles of lexicology, and students
will find much of value in this book. We’d appreciate any comments or
suggestions you may have for improving this text.

Galina N. Babich

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Introduction

It is both a pleasure and a privilege to write the introduction for


this exceptional guide. As an American who formerly taught English, I
only wish I had access to the wealth of information provided herein.
Indeed, students of any age, teachers of English throughout the world,
or any person with an interest in language will find this contribution
both engaging and informative. This well-written book has a global
appeal.
The author has been my friend and professional colleague for over
a decade. In this guide she displays an amazing grasp of this branch of
linguistics. The accomplishment does not surprise me, however, as
Dr. Babich has long been a “citizen of the world”, studying, observing,
and writing about her experiences. Readers of many nations will enjoy
this book and I recommend it highly.

Jeanne C. Baxter, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus


Northeastern Illinois University, Chicago, Illinois, USA
Partner, Quality Education Associates

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