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Дорожкина

английскимязык

сщйнтов

В.П. ДОРОЖ КИНА

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК

ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ-

МАТЕМАТИКОВ

Учебник

Издание третье,

переработанное и дополненное

Москва

Астрель *АСТ

2006

УДК 811.111(075.8)

Б Б К 81.2 Англ-923

Д 69

Подписано в печать 17.06.2005. Формат 60x90 ' һ ь

Уел. печ. л. 31,0. Доп. тираж 3000 экз. Заказ № 7068

Общероссийский классификатор продукции

ОК-005-93, том 2; 953005 - литература учебная

Санитарно-эпидемиологическое заключение

№ 77.99.02.953Д.001056.03.05 от 10.03.05 г.

Дорожкина, В.П.

Д 69 Английский язы к для студентов-математиков : учеб

н и к / В.П. Д орож ки н а; под общ. ред. В.А. Скворцова. —

3-е изд., перераб. и доп. —М.: ACT: Астрель, 2006. —490,

[6] с.

ISBN 5-17-010126-0 (ООО «Издательство ACT*)

ISBN 5-271-02775-9 (ООО «Издательство Астрель*)

Учебник состоит из вводного и основного курса. В конце книги

приводиться список использованной литературы.

Цель вводного курса — повторение и закрепление базовой

грамматики английского язы ка, расш ирение активной лексики и

математической терминологии, а также развитие навыков работы со

словарем.

Каждый раздел основного курса содержит тексты, которые

вводят студентов в определенную область математики, механики и

кибернетики, а также включает лабораторные работы и упражнения.

Основной курс учебника формирует навыки разных видов чтения,

учебного перевода, письма, а также свободного общения по темам

специальности.

Для студентов-математиков, аспирантов и ш ирокого круга

специалистов инженерного профиля.

УДК 811.111(075.8)

ББК 81.2 Англ-923

ISBN 5-17-010126-0

(ООО «Издательство АСТ»)

ISBN 5-271-02775-9

(ООО «Издательство Астрель*) © В П. Дорожкина, 2001

© ООО «Издательство Астрель*, 2001

О Т РЕ Д А К Т О РА

Настоящий курс предназначен для студентов всех отделений механико-математических

факультетов университетов и факультетов вычислительной математики и кибернетики.

Современный интернациональный характер развития математики требует от начи

нающих математиков умения свободно читать иностранную научную литературу уже в

ранний период приобщения к творческой деятельности. Во многих случаях первые ша

ги в научной работе студенты-математики делают уже на III курсе: пишут курсовые р а

боты и участвуют в работе специальных семинаров. При этом неизбежно возникает не

обходимость знакомиться со статьями из иностранных журналов, регулярно следить за

справочной литературой, в частности просматривать журнал “ Mathematical Reviews”.

Таким образом, основная цель преподавания английского языка на младших кур

сах - выработка навыка чтения и понимание специальной литературы, а также основ

разговорной речи по специальности.

В силу этого необходимо как можно раньше начинать изучение языка в университете на

базе специальной литературы. Несмотря на то что такой подход при изучении языка свя

зан с определенными трудностями, он обладает рядом преимуществ, так как знакомство с

языком происходит на понятном и интересном для студентов текстовом материале.

Настоящий курс подготовлен в полном соответствии с перечисленными задачами.

Каждый урок курса посвящается отдельному разделу высшей математики или механи

ки, причем основные тексты урока могут служить введением в этот раздел, поскольку

они знакомят не только с лексикой, но и с основными понятиями и фактами соответ

ствующей теории. Отметим, что наряду с текстами, связанными с традиционными раз

делами математики, в учебнике имеются материалы, посвященные таким современ

ным математическим теориям, как алгоритмические языки. Интерес у студентов

вызовут и приводимые во многих уроках сведения по истории того или иного раздела ма

тематики. Таким образом, содержательность большинства включенных в учебник текстов

поможет сочетать овладение специальной лексикой с приобретением полезной информа

ции. Овладение навыками устной речи, изучение грамматики также строится на удачно

подобранном специальном материале. Многочисленные упражнения каждого урока от

крывают возможности для различных форм аудиторных и внеаудиторных занятий.

Можно гарантировать, что полное овладение материалом курса подготовит студентов к

самостоятельному и достаточно свободному чтению научной литературы на английском

языке.

Проф. В.А. Скворцов

(механико-математический факультет

МГУ им. М.В. Ломоносова)

3

ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

Настоящий учебник предназначен для студентов l u l l курсов механико-математиче

ских факультетов университетов и технических вузов, продолжающих изучение анг

лийского языка на базе программы средней школы.

Учебник состоит из 10 разделов (Units).

Вводный курс (Units 1-4) нацелен на повторение и закрепление базовой грамматики

английского языка, на расширение обшеязыковой лексики и овладение математической

терминологией, а также на обучение студентов работе со словарем. Предусматривается

также общее повторение грамматических тем, которые более детально разрабатывают

ся в многочисленных упражнениях основного курса.

Цель Основного курса - обучить студентов технике чтения и адекватного перевода ли

тературы по специальности, а также привить навыки устной речи.

Каждый раздел Основного курса (Units S - 10) посвящен определенной области математики,

механики и кибернетики и состоит из вводного текста (ознакомительное чтение) к несколь

ких основных текстов (изучающее чтение). Тематика основных текстов включает сведения из

истории математики, описание се основных проблем и современную оценку развития дан

ной области науки. Тексты, не проработанные на занятиях, могут быть использованы в зачет

ных контрольных тестах. Тексты учебника заимствованы из специальной научной литерату

ры по математике на английском языке. В текстах сохранена орфография источника.

В каждом разделе на соответствующих моделях последовательно разрабатываются одна

или несколько грамматических тем, которые закрепляются в грамматических упражнениях.

Лабораторные работы предполагают ознакомление студентов с активным словарем

каждого раздела. Студент прослушивает начитанные на пленку предложения на англий

ском языке с переводом на русский, содержащие основные положения данного раздела.

Среди разнообразных упражнений, нацеленных на развитие разговорных навыков и

умений, следует особо выделить “ Comprehension Exercises” и “ Discussion", в которых

студент должен продемонстрировать умение изъясняться по проблемам своей специ

альности: решать п объяснять на английском языке задачи, доказывать теоремы, при

нимать участие в обсуждениях, делать сообщения по темам специальности, составлять

устные и письменные рефераты. Эти упражнения создают благоприятную атмосферу

на занятиях и способствуют активизации речевых навыков.

Система речевых упражнений построена в соответствии с методикой проблемного обучения:

проблемный вопрос, проблемная ситуация, проблемное высказывание, дискуссия по проблеме.

Первое издание учебника вышло в свет в 1973 году, второе - в 1986 году. Настоящее

издание переработано и дополнено новыми материалами. Положительная оценка учеб-

4

пика студентами и преподавателями позволяет автору надеяться на то, что предлагае

мый курс и в дальнейшем будет способствовать эффективному обучению студентов-

математиков английскому языку.

Методическая записка

В основу обучения математиков английскому языку положена методика, разработан

ная на кафедре английского языка механико-математического факультета МГУ.

Эта методика предполагает, что на занятиях со студентами должно быть ими прочи

тано, понято, «проговорено» не менее 300-400 страниц оригинальных текстов по спе

циальности (из разных областей математики, разных авторов и разных стилей).

Уровень знаний студентов и общее количество аудиторных часов (210-350) опреде

ляют количество прорабатываемого материала курса. Обучение предполагает обяза

тельную, систематическую работу студентов в лаборатории устной речи (ЛУРе), осо

бенно студентов, начинающих изучение английского языка в вузе. Изучение каждого

нового раздела следует начинать с лабораторных работ, нацеленных на снятие фонети

ческих, лексических и грамматических трудностей в основных текстах, записанных на

пленку (на английском и русском языке), а также на усвоение активного и пассивного

словаря.

На аудиторных занятиях преподаватель контролирует:

• технику чтения (читаются только отдельные абзацы текстов, подготовлен

ных студентами дома);

• технику перевода на русский язык наиболее трудных словосочетаний и

предложений;

• усвоение активной лексики урока.

При планировании занятия большую часть аудиторного времени следует отводить

развитию навыков устной речи. Речевые упражнения составлены в соответствии с ме

тодикой проблемного обучения, предполагающего персональную оценку содержания

текста.

Каждый раздел учебника рекомендуется прорабатывать на пяти-шести занятиях, а в

группах с высоким уровнем знаний студентов — на четырех занятиях. С самого начала

обучения студентам необходимо научиться работать со словарем, справочными и грам

матическими материалами, выделять а текстах основные идеи, реферировать и анноти

ровать научную литературу по специальности. Постепенно преподаватель увеличивает

недельную дозу прорабатываемого материала, интенсифицируя таким образом весь

процесс обучения. В продолжающих группах обязательна работа со статьями из газет и

журналов на английском языке, что является одним из требований на экзамене на вто

ром курсе.

В. П. Дорожкина

INTRODUCTORY COURSE

UNIVERSITY EDUCATION

Grammar

1. Word Structure.

2. Sentence Structure.

3. Tense-Aspect Forms.

GRAMMAR

1. Word Structure

In this lesson we study basic concepts o f the two sciences - textiinguistics

and mathematics. The smallest unit o f the text is a word, therefore, we begin

our study with the word-building structure in English. The student can find

the necessary unknown or unfamiliar word in the dictionary and must learn

its basic meanings and its related words (its derivatives), e.g., to think (about,

of, out, over) - thinkable, thinking, thinker, thought, thoughtful, thoughtless,

thoughtfulness, thoughtlessly.

Most long English words are not one word. but. as a rule, two or more

words put together, e.g.. real inner product space = Euclidean space, a great

deal of = many (much). Wfe see parts of the words over and over again in other

words. There are family relationships and resemblances. The learners of

English must be architects and wreckers. They must learn to build words up

and break them down. W; build words up with three kinds of parts. The cen

tral part o f the word is the root. The part to the left o f the root (or before it)

is the prefix. The part to the right of the root (or after it) is the suffix. So, first,

we must observe relationships o f words. For example to imagine, imagina

tion, imaginative, unimaginatively, imagery are descendants of image, their

7

parent word. Definitely, finish, finite and infinity are not strangers, they are

family-related words.

Parts o f Speech

The words of every language fall into definite grammatical classes or parts

o f speech which differ from each other in forms, in meaning, or in function —

nouns (n), verbs (v), pronouns {pron), adjectives (a), numerals (num ),

adverbs (aclv), prepositions {prep), conjunctions {conj), particles {part).

отдел; министерст умственные спо период; срок; се

во; департамент; собности; факуль местр; сессия; тер

факультет; кафед тет; преподава мин; условия; цель;

р а ; администра тельский состав; выражение; сужде

ция; управление; власть; право; дар ние; слово

округ; отрасль;

область знаний

2. Use the dictionary and study active vocabulary word families. Learn the m b s with their

related parts of speech and set phrases (expressions).

1) apply (v.f.) — to ask, to appeal, to call for aid (help); to appeal for the

entry into university or vacant job; to put into practice; to realize, to activate

Nouns: an applicant, application, appliance, applicability

Adjectives: applicable, applied

Adverb: applicably

2) hold (held, held) (v.A) - to have and keep fast smth in hands; to contain;

to occupy; to show or display; to assert smth; to control or restrain; to keep

in mind; to maintain

Nouns: a hold - influence, power; a holder - a person or thing that

holds; a holding - land or property; holdings in a business

company: shares, stocks

Set phrases, to hold a chair at the Department; to hold lectures or scrai-

expressions: nars; to hold strange opinions; to hold oneself responsible

for; to hold somebody’s attention; to hold a meeting or a

congress; Hold on! Hold hard! (= Stop!)

8

3) mean (meant, meant) (v.t.) — to intend; to signify; to express; to have

good intentions

Nouns: a means (many means) - ways, devices, instruments

a meaning - a sense; a meaningness; a mean - an interme

diate; a mean —condition, action; a meaningfulness, means

(p[) — wealth, many resources

Adjectives: mean, meaningful

Adverb: meanly

Expressions: by means of - through; by all means —in every possible way;

by no means

4) mind (v.r.) —to pay attention to; to object to; to dislike; to watch; to take

care of; to attend to

Noun: a mind - intellect; brain; remembrance; mental ability

Adjectives: minded; mindful

Adverb: mindfully

Expressions: to bear in mind —to remember; to be in one’s right mind —

to be sane; to make up one’s mind —to come to a decision;

to change one’s mind — to alter one’s purpose; to be in two

minds - to hesitate; to speak one’s mind - to say plainly

what one thinks; to one’s mind - in one’s opinion; to take

one’s mind off —turn away the attention from; to be in two

minds — to be at a loss; Mind you! — Remember! Please

note! Mind your own business! — D on’t interfere! Never

mind! - It does not matter!

sions; to persuade by logical arguments.

Nouns: a reason —the mind; intelligence faculty o f understanding;

a cause; a motive; an explanation; a reasoning - the act or

process to reach conclusions by a logical train of thinking;

reasonableness

Adjective: reasonable —sensible, fair

Adverb: reasonably

Expressions: within reasons - reasonable; by reason of - because of; It

stands to reason! - it’s logical; without rhyme or reason -

without meaning; nonsensically; to reason out - to think

logically

9

6) relate (v./.) —to tell; to narrate; to show the connection between; to be

associated with by birth or marriage; to be connected with

Nouns: a relation; a relative; relativity; relationship

Adjectives: related; relative

Expressions: relatively speaking; in relation to — with reference to;

to bear no (not much) relation to; to be out of all relation to

Notional words —nouns, verbs —both finite and infinite forms, i.e., infini

tives, participles, gerunds, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns

Structural words - articles, particles, prepositions, conjunctions, link-verbs,

modal verbs

Independent elements —yes, no, certainly, please, sorry, etc.

Sentence connectives —yet, nevertheless, in fact, that, etc.

The subject, the predicate, the object (Am. the complement), the attribute,

the adverbial modifier and their respective clauses.

The sentence. The paragraph. There are close connections and interrela

tions o f these parts in the text as one and the same word is both a definite part

o f speech and functions as part o f the sentence.

2. Sentence Structure

The words o f every language fall into definite grammatical classes or parts,

which differ from each other in form, in meaning and in function. The student

must learn to differentiate: parts o f speech in English with their grammatical cat

egories - nouns, verbs, pronouns, adjectives, numerals, adverbs, prepositions,

conjunctions, particles (morphology); parts o f the sentence - the subject, the

predicate, the object, the attribute, the adverbial modifier and their respective

clauses (syntax); parts o f the text — the sentence and the paragraph (syntactics).

There are close connections and interrelationships o f these parts in the text as

one and the same word is both a definite part of speech and functions as a def

inite part o f the sentence. \№ begin our study with the syntax o f the sentence -

sentence structure, its fixed word order and the predicate which is the core of the

sentence. The student must analyze the predicate from the point o f view o f its

structure (simple and compound) and its content {process and non-process).

Syntactic analysis and segmentation of the sentence helps determine the

10

boundaries of the predicate and thereby locate the other principal sentence-

parts —the subject that precedes the predicate and the object that follows it.

Recent syntactic research shows that the qualitative type of the compound

predicate may be long and expanded: E.g. He is here. She likes her friends.

The University has many Departments or The University consists of many

Departments. I am old enough to understand it. This term means to imply dif

ferent notions in various fields of maths (double predicate).

Study the models of the English sentence —the smallest structure which can express a com

plete thought —in the following table:

3. Tense-Aspect Forms

Tense-aspect forms o f the finite verb have the function of the predicate in

the sentence and are characterized by the following categories: tense-aspect,

person number, voice and mood. They show the connection of the subject and

the predicate o f the sentence.

voice infinitives Actions preceding the From speaker’s Actions following the

moment o f speaking point of view moment of speaking

Indefinite Active - to He solved the prob He always solves He will solve the

solve решать lem yesterday. problems in maths. problem tomorrow.

Passive - to be solved ре The problem was Problems are The problem will be

шаться solved yesterday. always solved in solved tomorrow.

maths.

Continuous Active —to be He was solving the He is solving the He will be solving the

solving решать в опреде problem yesterday at problem now. problem at this rime

ленный момент that time. tomorrow:

Passive - to be being The problem was The problem is

solved решаться в опре- being solved at that being solved now.

де/іенный момент time.

Perfect Active — to have He had solved the He has already He will have solved

solved (уже) (раз)ре- problem before we solved the problem. the problem by this

шить came. The problem has time tomorrow.

Passive — to have been The problem had been already been The problem will

solved (уже) было решено solved by that time. solved. have been solved.

Perfect Continuous Active He had been, solving He has been solving He will have been solv

—to have been solving ре the problems for two the problem for an ing the problem for a

шать в течение опреде hours when we came. hour. long lime when we

ленного отрезка времени come tomorrow.

Passive -

* Every tense-aspect form is explained and practised in greater detail in the Essentia! Course lessons.

ii

GRAM MAR AND VOCABULARY E X E R C ISE S

1. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Analyze the predicate tense forms.

1. Among the many adjectives given in the present century (e.g., electron

ic, atomic and space) the term “ m athem atization o f science age” is often

come across. 2. Some people define the unprecedented development o f

modern maths as the “revolution in m aths” Others call it “ maths power”

3. However correct or incorrect these terms may seem, one thing is obvious:

maths is a key science nowadays. 4. Maths has a peculiar and remarkable

language. 5. Certainly it is unlikely any hum an language as, in a sense, it is

an unspoken language. 6. Mathematical language may be called the language

of science. 7. Scientific language must be precise, concise and universal, i.e.

(= that is), it must be the same throughout the world. 8. Unlike the natural

languages, the language o f science is m an-m ade or artificial. 9. Some laymen

unaccustomed to its forms find it confusing. 10. M ath reasoning is o f the

highest level known to man.

2. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Single out the parts of the sentences: the sub

ject; the predicate (verbal and nominal); the object; the attribute; the adverbial modifier. Mind,

that both structural words and independent elements do not perform any syntactical function in

the sentence. They express relations between the words, specify the meaning of a word or are used

as parentheses.

1. Obviously, the meaning o f the word becomes clear from the context.

2. N o mathematician prefers a wordy and lengthy statement o f a theorem o r

law. 3. A math sentence o f signs and symbols is formed by means o f rules o f

syntax of a corresponding formalized theory. 4. Scientists determine the

meaning of symbols by definitions and use them by com m on agreement.

5. The attention paid to rigour and precision in m aths points to the require

ments underlying math research. 6. Certainly, maths is more than a language

or technique, it is, in fact, a body o f knowledge that serves all other sciences.

7. The study o f maths is sometimes discouraging to weak-willed minds,

indeed.

3. Translate the following sentences (simple, compound, complex) and analyze their syntax.

1. The sign < means an angle in maths. 2. The expression a2+ lab+ b2 has

three terms o f algebra. 3. The Pythagorean theorem is the theorem every

body is familiar with. 4. Highschool geometry is a subject in which the idea

o f rigorous definition is meant and given for the first time and where we

learn to think in terms of axioms and theorem s. 5. The need for careful

reasoning in proofs is not at once intuitively apparent to a n o n -m ath e-

12

matician. 6. These two theorems are distinct and they must be clearly dis

tinguished. 7. There is some opposition to his theory, perhaps because of

the complexity of the ideas involved. 8. We call decimals in which one digit

or one group o f digits is repeated over and over repeating decimals and

those which repeat zeroes term inating decimals, e.g., !/з = 0.0333...,

*/4 = 0.25000...

1. W; are in Moscow at present.

2. These young men are first-year students (freshmen) of Moscow State

University.

3. Moscow University is one of the world’s best centres of learning.

4. It has many different departments (faculties) for humanities and for sci

ences.

5. The University course for students runs for five or six years.

6. The University campus occupies a large territory.

7. The real wealth o f the University is its teaching staff (faculty) and stu

dents.

8. Many prom inent scientists are working in Moscow University now.

9. They are training specialists in all fields o f modern science.

10. The main 33-storied building o f the University houses three

Departments: Geology, Geography and our Department of Maths and

Mechanics.

11. The D epartm ent’s Faculty comprises outstanding mathematicians and

scientists of mechanics.

12. Because o f the University worldwide image (reputation) it has been

specializing students from many foreign countries.

13. Tuition is free of charge in state Russia’s educational institutions.

14. Moscow University hostels have been accommodating non-Muscovites

and foreign students.

15. Admission to the University is by competitive examinations.

16. The competition is tough with nearly five applicants for every spot (place).

17. The attendance o f lectures and seminars is obligatory.

18. Students with good progress in their studies are getting state grants

(stipends).

19. The University library has got thousands of volumes of rare books, peri

odicals and scientific journals for study and research in special fields.

20. Moscow University provides sports facilities for every level.

13

GRAMMAR

Interrogative Sentences

Interrogative sentences (questions) have the following characteristics:

1) indirect word order, 2) peculiar interrogative intonation, 3) interrogative

pronouns (question words) who, whom, what, whose, which, why, where, how

much (many).

1. Who knows the history o f maths?

2. Does she know it? Yes. (No.)

3. Don’t they know the history o f maths? Yes, they do.

4. What do (don’t) they know? The history o f maths.

1. The use o f the history o f maths and mechanics gives a good under

standing o f the foundations of these sciences, doesn’t it? It does, surely.

2. Students are interested in the men o f maths as people, aren’t they? They

are, indeed.

3. A historical topic can be an im portant tool to create insight(s), can’t it?

It can, in fact.

Alternative Questions:

1. Can a story about the discovery or invention in maths increase or

decrease students’ interest in maths? It can increase it, sure enough.

2. Do modern mathematicians create abstract or empirical (applied)

maths? Both. They perfect and improve pure and applied maths sim ultane

ously.

3. Does maths advance through one technique or the interplay o f many

techniques? O f course, through many.

Embedded Questions:

1. Do you know where he is studying now?

2. Can you tell me how far the University is from here?

3. She asks if we have got an exam today.

4. I have no idea how long the conference may last.

5. You can’t imagine how well he can solve math problems.

14

Indirect Questions:

1. I wonder why they are absent today.

2. People may wonder what the word “mathematics” means.

3. Wfe do n ’t know how old she is. I wonder if she can tell me the truth.

Problem Questions:

The sentence and sometimes the whole text do not give any information to

answer “problem questions” The student ought to produce an answer of his

own.

E.g. Why does there exist nowadays an unprecedented and ever increasing

urge for maths learning and teaching?

To make a sentence negative, use the negative particle not (no) after the

auxiliary (cannot) or the verb to be (is not) or the appropriate form of don’t,

does not, did not, will not, etc.

1. They are not mathematicians, they are physicists.

2. No (no one, none) mathematician defines this basic term.

3. Don’t mathematicians answer such questions?

Double Negations:

1. Neither students nor teachers miss a chance to discuss this topic.

2. It is not impossible (= it is possible) to do it right now.

3. No unqualified teacher can supervise such a research.

A paragraph is a separate or a distinct section o f the text. A paragraph usu

ally contains a number o f sentences with one (or more) main idea(s). Each

paragraph o f the text has some extra information unnecessary for the repro

duction or writing an abstract. When the student must reproduce the para

graph, he can do it and generalize the main idea(s) with the help of the topic

sentence. It may happen that the paragraph states the topic sentence that

renders the main idea(s) quite obviously, but, as a rule, the student must con

struct it himself.

Reproduce the given paragraphs close to the text and generalize each of them in your own words.

guaranteed by the C onstitution. Primary (elementary) and secondary

IS

(Am. comprehensive) schools together comprise eleven years o f study. After

finishing comprehensive (high) school, lyceum ox gymnasium graduates can

go to higher education institution. Higher education institutions include:

technical training schools, teacher training colleges, professional institutes

and universities, which offer M aster’s and Doctoral Degrees programs.

Most higher educational institutions train both undergraduates and post

graduates in one or several specializations. Some university departm ents

ensure the development o f extramural, correspondence or evening classes.

The Government provides state scholarships (stipends), grants and several

other privileges for students and postgraduates. Universities crown the sys

tem of education in all European countries. In the term s o f the ratio o f stu

dents to the total population Russia ranks among the top ten countries o f

the world.

2. Nowadays Russia is going through a very difficult and at the same time

a very important period o f its historical development, i.e. (that is), a period

o f transition to a market economy. Large-scale reforms call upon large-scale

changes. Political, economic and social restructuring o f society is taking

place against a background o f resource deficiencies: financial, energy, raw

materials, food and many others. However, the most acute problem o f all is

the deficiency o f intellectual resources and the lack o f knowledge and skills

required for survival of the market economy and the well-rounded education

o f Russia’s population.

Read (he (ext. Find the statements you agree or disagree with. Give your reasons. Discuss the

text with your groupmatcs. Work in pairs.

Teaching Material

The optimal teaching material for acquiring skills o f reading, recogni

tion, com prehension o f special math texts in English should be presented

by topical and informative texts. Students must be able to read, understand,

com m ent and reproduce the main ideas of the text. The problem o f c o m

m enting upon math texts is vital for the students’ mastery o f professional

com m unication skills. The vocabulary of a special math text consists of

three strata: general words, scientific words and terms. Students had been

learning basic general words in high school before University. Scientific

words and terms in particular, are the essence o f speciality and are usually

better known by students o f m aths than by teacher o f English. In case of

16

the teacher’s failure to guess the precise meaning o f the term , the students

ought to help the teacher. The teacher’s duty is to explain and correct the

students’ errors in gram m ar forms, structures and style, which are the

most characteristic o f math texts. Teachers and students must go hand in

hand to the mutual benefit o f both in the teaching process.

Special math texts representing the domain o f scientific discourse con

sist mainly o f regular word combinations, which are devoid of emotional,

expressive, evaluative connotations registered in dictionaries. The math

terms are firmly established, regularly reproduced and conventional. They

are so frequently used that there is never any question of who coined

them , or who thought o f them first. They are common property. When

m athem aticians com m unicate, they do n ’t create original word com bina

tions every tim e they want to convey scientific information. Rather they

use ready-m ade neutral word com binations, which had been reproduced

in num erous previous acts. The emphasis, consequently, for students is to

master scientific vocabulary, which is still, as it where, the skeleton of

every specialized m ath text.

M any m ath term s have num erous non-m ath meanings and many spo

ken words are com m only used in maths as terms. For example, “What

relation is he to you? He is a relative o f mine — my brother. Besides I’ve

got business relations with him ” “At this point we wish to add a number of

arguments along the same general line”, and, conversely, such concepts as

“set” “ function” “ operation” etc. have m ath meanings that are almost

entirely divorced from their everyday meanings. That is why m athem ati

cians prefer to introduce such terms explicitly by definition or use them as

undefined terms.

How do nonspecialists appreciate special m ath texts? M athem aticians

claim that there are system and logic in every m ath theory and in the text

presenting the theory. Nonspecialists can see neither system nor logic in

the jungle o f “ meaningless symbols” abbreviations and “senseless asser

tions” in m ath texts. M ath texts for them are dry, bare and boring. No

wonder! The problem o f teaching materials for English classes is the most

crucial one because what to teach is probably more im portant than how to

teach. The best teaching m aterial, which may be recom m ended for devel

oping active students’ skills is the text shaped in perfect, pure, standard

form that can be safely reproduced by foreign learner w ithout any diffi

culty.

17

A C T IV E VO CABU LARY

Consult the dictionary and write down the meanings of the given verbs with their derivatives and

expressions (set phrases) into your vocabulary copybook. You must learn them!

2. to accustom 12. to determine 22. to seek

3. to acquire 13. to distinguish 23. to sense

4. to avoid 14. to elaborate 24. to succeed

5. to claim 15. to evaluate 25. to subject (to)

6. to communicate 16. to fail 26. to suffice

7. to confuse 17. to imply 27. to validate

8. to contribute 18. to involve 28. to vary

9. to deal with 19. to manage 29. to verily

10. to denote 20. to object (to) 30. to wonder

There are no absolute synonyms, but one Russian verb may be expressed

and represented by several English equivalents. Learn to distinguish and dif

ferentiate them in different contexts and styles!

1. to say —to tell —to state —to claim —to hold —to assert —to maintain

2. to define —to determine —to identify —to specify —to fix the meaning

3. to understand —to make out —to follow —to apprehend —to comprehend

4. to estimate - to evaluate —to appreciate —to assess —to value

5. to denote —to indicate —to designate —to name —to appoint —to assign

TEXT ONE

OF MOSCOW STATE LOMONOSOV UNIVERSITY

Read, translate and analyze each sentence structure in the text. Formulate the topic sentence

of each paragraph. Express the main ideas of the text.

Nowadays there exist many universities in Russia. But not all universities

are equal. They differ from one another in history, tradition and academic

organization. Moscow State Lomonosov University founded in 1755 is the

first and the largest university world-famous for its academic excellence. The

University consists of Faculties (Departments) o f Natural Science, Law,

Economics, Informatics and Arts (Humanities).

The Moscow Lomonosov University’s graduates have got the highest-

quality education in Russia, they go on to become professionals not only

18

in education sphere but in the applied fields as well. e. g. (for example),

in the field o f finance, management, marketing and international business.

Tjhe methodological principle of the University training programs com

bines the experiences o f both Russian and international educators with

the peculiarities, traditions and needs o f the Russian society. The

University has a world-wide image in terms of students’ abilities, profes

sional body structure and education system quality. According to the

national rating in the field o f education Moscow Lomonosov University is

the best. The students o f all University D epartm ents (Faculties) appreci

ate and enjoy fist-class training programs, benefit from the highly profes

sional specialists’ experiences, modern methods o f teaching, an enthusi

astic atm osphere and a genuine educators’ desire to be helpful. The

Russians place a high value on education at Mathematics and Mechanics

Department. T he factors determ ining the D epartm ent image and prestige

are: 1. T he top quality o f the teaching faculty; 2. The quality o f research

facilities (labs); 3. The num ber and com petence o f applicants for admis

sion. Admission to the D epartm ent is by tough competitive examinations.

The D epartm ent teaches in all major subject branches o f modern maths.

The faculty staff members are experts in their professional fields. Their

teaching encourages students to learn math and m echanics in the most

effective way.

There had been two principal divisions at the D epartm ent: Maths and

Mechanics which are closely interrelated and interconnected. There have

appeared some more divisions o f late: Math Economy, Informatics,

Psychology, etc. The D epartm ent was not unique in following this expan

sion trend. M odern maths has reached full m om entum soon after the turn

o f the twentieth century. Industrial, economic and military demands began

to draw many established pure math specialists and many younger ones just

starting their careers away from academic life.

N o doubt, however, no expert in any new field of maths is able to solve a

particular “ applied” problem without thorough and wide knowledge and

mastery o f “pure” m aths fundamental means, techniques, rigorous math

reasoning and insight. The change o f occupation, goals and mentality of

many pure m aths specialists has led to a new “management Junction"

Experts and professionals in pure maths have become “ managers” of engi

neering production, economics, finance, marketing, personnel and the

like. The D epartm ent has been teaching students willing to specialize in

any new fields such as personnel psychology, industrial sociology, industri

al econom ics, etc. Any applicant for a job in these areas should display

19

knowledge and skills in both pure and applied maths, in com puter science

and fluent English besides his graduation Diploma.

The University teaching staff members o f all D epartm ents are proud o f

the successes achieved, they are looking forward with confidence and they

firmly believe that their contribution to the new and reform ed system o f

education can help Russia attain its proper place among the leading co u n

tries in the world. For decades Moscow Lomonosov University has been

training professionals for work abroad as well and has acquired vast expe

rience in students and specialists exchange programs that are practically

unavailable in other educational establishm ents. From the very first days

o f its existence the lab. faculties assistants and teaching staff o f the

University have set themselves a difficult task o f becom ing the best

Russia’s educational center. They have been creating and offering both

Russian and foreign students a diverse range o f training, consulting, sci

entific research and other services, so necessary for any successful ed u ca

tional institutions.

TEXT TWO

Read the text, translate and analyze each sentence structure using the dictionary at home.

Write five or six questions dealing with the information given in the text. Work in pairs.

The first International UNESCO Congress entitled “ Inform atics and

Education” was held in Paris, the second — in Moscow State Lomonosov

University in June 1996. The word “ Education” in its title has a special pur

pose. In recent years new technologies are emerging more rapidly than the

possibility o f their use in education. This fact causes that the place o f educa

tion in modem world should be reconsidered and reappreciated.

The place and time of holding the second Congress in Moscow University

with its world-famous image were determined by the “ Resolution: Effects o f

Informatics Application on Education System” of the 27th session o f the

General UNESCO Conference. There were other suggestions, but Russia

has got strong advantages, viz. (namely), reforms carried out in the field o f

education in Russia beginning in 1991.

In the framework o f “Open Education System fo r the 21st Century" Russia

has proposed two projects: 1. World Technological University; 2. Distance

Education and Scholarly Cooperation Program which is open for participation

of any state. The well-rounded education o f population, informatics and

20

new technologies in education are the main ideas o f this program. The order

and tasks from education to industry for the first time were formulated in the

report of Moscow University Rector.

Currently in Russia there are more than 150 ‘'Information Technological

Centers" which have access to the Internet. Nowadays it is necessary' and urgent

for education to implement the new technological achievements. They present

completely new possibilities for creative work, for the acquisition and strengthen

ing of job skills as well as the ability to apply new teaching techniques in practice.

Today Russian universities and higher educational institutions are not only

centres of science education and culture but they are centres o f business activ

ity as well. Thanks to telecommunication networks students cannot only

essentially increase their informational potential, but also get a unique possi

bility to communicate with their colleagues all over the world. In fact, Russia’s

students can graduate from foreign universities while remaining in Russia. Also

many countries abroad study the Russian language and get engineering and

humanities education using information networks. The creation of the Unified

System o f Distance Education with the use of both available now and newly

developed technical aids is crucial for Russia. Distance learning based on the

use of computer telecommunication networks provides constant student-teacher

link.

The Congress in Moscow was o f considerable interest not only for scientists,

specialists and educators. The use o f information technologies has been sup

plying a lot o f good to the mankind. But it also challenges to human mind,

practical activity of people, public morals, economics and international poli

tics. The creators of new technologies, all those who teach and leant should

meet the challenges adequately to bring the mankind into the 21st century.

TEXT THREE

Read and translate the text, using the dictionary, ІГnecessary. Give a summary оГ the text and

reproduce it in class.

For the decades universities and colleges have been looking for ways of

offering courses to students who do not have access to the university campus,

usually because o f physical distance. The Hybrid Wide Web (WWW) is begin

ning to see and develop activity in this regard and this activity increases dra

matically every year. The Internet offers full university-level courses to all

21

registered students, complete with real-time seminars and exams and pro

fessors’ visiting hours. The Web is extremely flexible and its distance presen

tations and capabilities are always up-to-date. The students can get the text,

audio and video o f whatever subject they are willing to have.

M any educational resources already are available through the Web.

Libraries are adding their catalogs and universities are posting information

about degree programs in the Web. You can find research docum ents con

taining information about almost any subject. Before long (soon), travelling

to a library to find this information may become a near obsolete venture (out-

of-day practice). Instead students can find any information sources they

need without leaving their desks.

After human teachers (tutors, educators), the Internet may represent the

most important educational resource in the world providing (if) every student

has got a computer. This is not the case, unfortunately. The Internet, as it

stands now, is an exercise in the expansion o f inequality. By and large, the

students who have got access to the Internet already have access to well-sup

ported schools, well-paid teachers and well-stocked libraries. Students who

do not have access to computers or the Internet often do not have else either.

The problem o f getting classrooms online is often exacerbated (aggravated,

made worse) by the presence o f board members, administrators and teach

ers who don’t recognize that the educational values of computers and online

com m unications fa r exceed the cost. Wfeb pages can offer access to a world o f

information about and exchange with other cultures and communities and

experts in every field.

The possibilities for education on the Wfeb are amazing. Many college and

university classes presently create Wfeb pages for semester class projects.

Research papers on many different topics are also available. Even primary

school pupils are using the \№b to access information and pass along news to

other pupils. Exchange students can com m unicate with their classmates long

before they actually arrive at their new school.

There are resources on the Internet designed to help teachers become bet

ter teachers - even when they cannot offer their students the benefits o f an

on-line community. Teachers can use university or college com puter systems

or home computers and individual Internet accounts to educate themselves

and then bring the benefits o f the Internet to their students by proxy (no

доверенности).

There are other Internet applications: scheduling, inter-personal com m u

nication, meeting, international conferences and congresses - can be par

ticularly valuable to teachers, students and others with an interest in educa

22

tion. M any Internet and education specific resources make great inroads

into creating information “on demand” This page can be of special interest

to college students or those who are heading for the university.

G RAM M AR A N D VOCABULAR Y E X E R C IS E S

1. Use the correct tense of the verb in the parentheses (round brackets). Mind the agreement

between the subject and the predicate.

for its tutelage. 2. Every year the graduates o f special high schools and

math colleges {to apply) to Maths and M echanics D epartm ent because it

{to provide) an excellent math education. 3. All applicants {to be) mathe

m atically-m inded, intelligent and sociable. 4. These first-term students

(freshmen) {to mean) that they {to have) great faith in the future of maths

and their profession. 5. Postgraduates {to carry on) research with the aid of

their supervisors since their enrolment. 6. In Russia, students o f all special

ities {to have) foreign languages on the curriculum as an obligatory subject.

7. Students of M aths and Mechanics Departm ent must {to learn) English as

part of the syllabus for two years. 8. Teachers o f English should {to change)

inadequate and outdated teaching methods and {to elaborate) some new and

effective ones. 9. Prof. X {to hold) the Chair o f Informatics established quite

recently. 10. The lecture halls {to be packed) with students because his lec

tures are never boring. 11. The abbreviation maths {to mean) mathematics,

math — mathematical.

2. Imagine that you are not quite sure of the statement correctness. Express doubt, uncertain

ty or surprise by means of questions.

selves, mustn’t they?

Don’t you know that she does well in maths?

They are solving a very difficult problem

now, aren’t they?

1. It takes her too much time to get to the University. 2. The Department

Faculty makes great contribution to the development o f pure maths theories.

3. At the end o f each term undergraduates get prepared for the credit tests

and examinations. 4. You have already done all your home assignments in

English. 5. Most employees o f the Department are former graduates with

long experience in their fields.

23

3. Learn the conversational formulas.

Models. 1,— Excuse me. Can you direct me to the Dean's office?

—Sorry, I can’t. I am a stranger here myself. I am a stu

dent of Physics Department. To my mind, the boy

over there can help you.

—Oh, I see. I should not ask strangeis, should I?

— It’s O.K. Never mind!

2. — Dean’s office? It is on the fourteenth floor. This way,

please. You can’t go wrong.

—Thank you. I’m much obliged to you.

—Don’t mention it.

1. Are you a Muscovite? 2. How much time does it take you to get to the

Department? 3. What is your favourite math subject? 4. She speaks English flu

ently, doesn’t she? 5. Why do they so often miss English classes? 6. I wonder

what he is like as a Theoretical Mechanics lecturer. 7. D on’t mathematicians

often stress the general educational value o f maths for businessmen? 8. You

must reason logically when you try to draw your conclusions, mustn’t you?

9. Students should not confuse modal verbs with model words, e.g. certainly, per

haps, probably, indeed. 10. What must be, must be. D on’t you know it?

R E A D IN G C O M P R E H E N S IO N

1. Read the text and answer the questions below:

My University Studies

It had been my dream in high school to study in Moscow University. My

dream has come true this year, good luck! 1 was enrolled the first-year stu

dent o f the Maths and M echanics Department. I have managed to cope with

the entrance examinations requirements in all exams subjects. The com peti

tion was very tough. Now I am a “ freshman” at the D epartm ent. Many

school leavers hope to enter Moscow University but only the best out o f the

best applicants with good training and thorough knowledge are lucky to be

enrolled. Moscow Lomonosov University bears the name o f its founder -

the great Russian scientist Lomonosov.

The academic year is divided into two terms, each term (semester) ends

with the winter and spring exams sessions, when the students must take and

pass credit test and examinations on the subjects studied during the term.

24

Wfe have been studying modern maths and other subjects since September.

O ur curriculum involves English classes as well. The attendance o f lectures

and seminars is obligatory.

I am not a Muscovite and I am living in the students’ hostel. Some o f my

groupmates share the room with me. Even at the busiest time - when the

examinations are going on - the students get together and enjoy themselves.

They arrange amateur concerts and dance. All o f them go in for sports and

we can choose the sports we like most. As far as 1 am concerned (as for me),

my favourite sports are swimming, skating and football, of course.

When I came to Moscow, I knew very little o f our capital. My new

University groupmates and friends are showing me the city every weekend.

are very fond o f walking about Moscow, sightseeing, admiring its archi

tecture and ancient monuments. Sometimes we go to the cinema and the

atre, to museums and exhibitions and afterwards discuss what we had seen. 1

have already seen a lot o f famous spots in Moscow myself, and they have

made a deep impression on me.

O f course, we meet with great difficulties in our studies owing to the dif

ference between high school maths and University modern generalized and

abstract pure maths theories. We should read scientific literature and spend

a lot o f time in the library and the labs. My friends are always willing to help

me cope with my troubles. They often stay after our classes and lectures,

explaining to me the most complicated problems of maths and other sub

jects, e.g. English grammar. \ have already enlarged my English vocabulary

and now I can understand math texts in English rather well. Besides, we are

making oral and written abstracts o f the English texts and it is a very diffi

cult home assignment for me so far.

1. Are you a Muscovite? You live in the students hostel, don’t you?

2. Why have you made up your mind to study maths?

3. Who has encouraged you? Your school teacher or your parents (friend)?

4. What was the most difficult exam in your entrance university examina

tions?

5. What is your favourite field in modem maths?

6. Have you got any difficulties with English? Why?

7. A dictionary explains the meanings of words, doesn’t it?

8. Why don’t you check up the meaning of unfamiliar words in the dic

tionary?

9. There are very many abbreviations, e.g., viz., ABC, etc. Can you guess

what they mean in the sentence?

25

2. Read the text. Describe your future profession and the job you are willing to get upon grad

uation.

My Future Profession

When a person leaves high school, he understands that the time to choose

his future profession has come. It is not an easy task to make the right choice

o f future profession and a job at once. Leaving school is the beginning o f the

independent life, the start o f a more serious examination o f a m an’s abilities

and character. As a rule, it is difficult for many school leavers to give a defi

nite and right answer straight away.

As for me (as far as I am concerned), I am a “would be" mathematician —

a great piece o f luck! This year I have managed to cope with and passed

entrance competitive exams successfully and now I am a “freshman” (a first-

year student) o f M oscow Lomonosov U niversity M athem atics and

Mechanics D epartm ent — world-famous for its high reputation and image.

It aims to give the students the top level education and to enable them to

carry on scientific research work. After completing a course o f five years our

Department graduates can continue their studies and research and defend

their thesis (dissertation) to get a scientific degree in both pure and applied

fields o f modern maths.

I have always been interested in maths. In high school my favourite subject

was Algebra. I am very fond o f solving algebraic equations, but it was ele

mentary school algebra. This is not the case with university algebra. To begin

with, Algebra is a multifield subject. M odem abstract algebra deals with not

only equations and simple problems but with algebraic structures such as

“groups” *fields”, “rings”, etc. and comprises new divisions o f algebra, e g .,

linear algebra, Lie groups, Boolean algebra, homological algebra, vector alge

bra, matrix algebra and many more. Now I am a first-term (semester) stu

dent and study the fundamentals of the calculus.

I haven’t made up my mind yet to choose a field o f maths to specialize in.

I am going to make my final decision when I am the fifth-year student busy

writing my research diploma project and consulting my scientific supervisor.

It is equally too early to choose one of the hundreds o f jobs to which I might

be better suited upon graduation. It is for the future to decide whether it

would be school, institute, government or business employment.

At present, I would like to be a teacher o f maths. To my mind, it is a very

noble profession. It is very difficult, indeed, to become a good teacher o f

maths. Undoubtedly, you should know the subject you teach perfectly, you

26

should be well-educated and broad-minded. An ignorant teacher teaches

ignorance, a fearful teacher teaches fear, a bored teacher teaches boredom.

But a good teacher (tutor, educator) develops in his students the burning

desire o f mastering all branches of m odem maths, its essence, influence,

wide-range, and beauty.

M athematicians claim that "maths is art fo r art's sake” It is sophisticated

and requires good training. In our age maths has attained its wide scope and

extraordinary applicability in sciences and engineering. That is why there is

radical transformation in mentality of most mathematicians - today’s prob

lems and demands in applied sciences, economics and industry compel

many “pure maths experts” (i.e., theoreticians) to deal with new goals and

engineering problems. All our Departm ent graduates are sure to get jobs they

are willing to have. I hope the same might hold true for me as well.

3. Agree or disagree with the statements. Give your reasons for or against.

1. Distance education has a lot of implications. 2. Distance education is

very expensive for students studying in the correspondence course o f the

University. 3. M athematicians often stress the general educational value o f

distance education through the Wfeb. 4. Distance education classes are ori

ented towards mastering skills o f professional communication. 5. English is

viewed and taught as an actual means o f communication among specialists

from different countries. 6. Ordinary (rank-and-file) people can afford dis

tance education. 7. Russia’s universities authorities participate in UNESCO

congresses. 8. Information technological centres in Russia have access to the

Internet. 9. Experts recognize and appreciate new technological achieve

ments. 10. Distance education provides constant teacher-student link.

11. N ot only written information from books and scientific articles but oral

forms — lectures, discussions, and conferences — are also available on the

Wfeb channels.

4. Determine the function of italicized Participle I and Participle II in the sentences: adjective,

adverbial modifier (when, if, while), the predicate part. IVanslate the sentences into Russian and

identify the type of the predicate (verbal or nominal); continuous or noncontinuous, active or pas

sive voice.

and many books have been written about them. 2. When asked about his

research, he refuses to give any details. 3. The students are reading the sci

entific text carefully as they must write an abstract. 4. The Internet offers full

university-level courses to all registered students. 5. Many schools and uni

27

versities have created and are maintaining Web pages. 6. Chat channels on the

Internet are conducting conversations in the native language o f the named

country. 7. Web pages have been established with the aim to offer access to a

world o f information. 8. The educational values o f computers and online

Internet communications nowadays have far exceeded the cost o f distance

education. 9. The possibilities for education on the Web are amazing. 10. The

Russia’s access to the Internet has been increasing greatly: in 1996 — half

million students registered, in 1997 — two million, according to the table

published in the press. 11. The students all over the world are appreciating

and enjoying Internet first-class training programs. 12. Research papers on

many scientific problems can be located and reproduced through the Internet.

13. Internet individual accounts had been provided to any persons witling to

acquire them. 14. Windows 95 company has made great inroads and created

information “on dem and” available on its sites. 15. The new technological

achievements should be implemented in the educational sphere.

C O N V E R SA TIO N A L P R A C T IC E

1. Practise problem and topical questions and answers. Work in pairs. Change over! In case yon

disagree with the answer, give your own version.

and “conception” mean? a general idea o f an object or a set o f sit

uations.

“Conception” is an art or a power o f a

man to form a mental image. ( S y n .

thought, vision, comprehension)

2. There are various types Yes, there exist univalent (individual,

(kinds) of scientific concepts, having one valence) concrete, discrete,

aren’t there? general and abstract concepts.

3. How do scientists produce Scientists produce abstract concepts

(create, establish) abstract con when they specify some essential charac

cepts? teristics o f an object and completely

ignore non-essential features.

4. What do concrete concepts Concrete concepts denote (symbolize)

signify (symbolize, fix, denote, essential properties o f separate physical

designate, assign)? objects.

28

5. W hat about abstract con Abstract concepts designate properties of

cepts? a whole class (finite or infinite) o f

objects, some situations and processes

and their interrelations.

6. Is the concept of "distance It is both. It may be abstract - a general

education ” concrete or abstract? idea or concrete - a distance education

establishment (Institution centre) in a

definite country.

7. D o founders and experts o f Yes, they do. Since 1992 they have been

distance education hold regular holding conferences in many world edu

international (or local) congress cational institutions.

es, conferences and seminars?

8. H aven’t they held any in They have held seven international and

Moscow? all-Russia conferences, seminars, and

symposiums since 1994 up to 1999 in

Moscow.

9. Have the founders and Yes, they have precisely defined and

experts defined the concept of specified the concept.

distance education?

10. C an you give (cite, formu Distance education is a well-organized

late) the definition? with definite goals interactive process of

interactions and interrelations between

educators (tutors, teachers) and students,

among students themselves, and educa

tional means irrelative of their res.dence

and time.

11. Try to specify in greater This system claims the specification o f

detail this specific tutorial 12 subsystems involved: goal, content,

deductive system, will you? educators, students, methods, educa

tional m eans and tutorial forms.

M aterial-technical, finance-econom i

cal, legal-normal marketing and identi

fication-controlled.

12. What about the principles o f They are: openness, motivations, inter

distance education? activeness, starting knowledge and skills,

29

identification and educational term s

(periods o f study).

13. We must determine the edu Lecture methods are traditional: system

cationalforms of distance educa atic and problematic presentation o f

tion, e.g. lectures, seminars, lab. some topics, subjects, conceptions.

practices, tests and exam ina Seminars are active, lively, discussions

tions, diplomas, etc., m ustn’t and disputes dealing with the topic con

we? cerned. Exams are assessment (appreci

ation) of the students’ knowledge and

skills obtained.

14. Distance education is very We must consider it from different posi

expensive, isn’t it? Who can tions: the cost for the educational insti

afford it? tution; the users o f distance education;

the econom ic expenses o f the state.

Qualitative expenses vary greatly.

Students from well-to-do families can

afford it.

15. Millions of students, living There are educational institutes and

in far-away centres from the Moscow Lomonosov University among

University have been learning in them, that have been establishing dis

distance education systems all tance education departments and intro

over the world. What about ducing new educational technologies.

Russia?

2. Read the following dialogue models. If you disagree with the answer, give >x>w own version

Lomonosov University is lo visited this picturesque spot in Moscow?

cated. I hope you don’t object A whole new student town has spaing up

my asking you. in this once desolate spot on the

embankment of the Moskva River. The

33-storey M o s c o w University building is

dominating this huge area.

means. and discussing the students' life there.

3. I am a student myself, but I Isn’t distance education too expensive

prefer distance education. for Russian students?

30

н. ii is expensive, m aeea out it is w nat does us cost involve.' as iar as i

reasonable for residents in far know, the student ought to have his own

away towns, e.g., in Siberia. personal computer. What else?

5. Who can afford distance edu Only students from w ell-to-do (very

cation? rich) families, that's for sure.

Nevertheless, millions of students all

over the world have been studying and

the distance education is quite success-,

ful.

6. 1 am a philologist and can I am willing to participate in foreign lan

take foreign language classes guages classes. Can 1?

taught in the country where the

language is spoken.

7. On Internet Relay Chat Server, Chat channels named after a country

a number o f Chat Channels con generally conduct the chat and converse

duct conversations in a lan in the native tongue, don’t they?

guage other than English. These To listen to and master the native lan

channels are great places for guage of the country is the dream of all

students and teachers to practise today’s specialists in science and engi

their foreign language conver neering.

sational skills.

8. I can recom m end you I see. There are advantages, merits, bene

Internet companies and educa fits, drawbacks o f Internet education that

tion-specific resources that are are worth discussing in detail. We must

available on the Wfeb: Microsoft, do it later.

Discovery, Windows 95, Centerfor

Excellence in Education, Edu

cational On-line Sources, Teacher

Education, World Lecture ҢаІІ.

DISCUSSION

1. Dispute the advantages and disadvantages of distance education.

2. Compare the traditional well-grounded population education and dis

tance education in Russia.

3. Describe the activities o f your former schoolmates studying in distance

education centres.

31

U n it Two (2 )

Gram m ar

1. Degrees o f Comparison.

2. Participle Constructions.

LABORA T O R Y P R A C TIC E

Repeat the sentences after the speaker. Mind the division of the sentence into sense groups.

universality.

Математика выделяется | среди всех наук | своей

у н и версал ьностью.

maths as it is a multifield subject. 2. Maths in the broad sense o f the word is

a peculiar form o f the general process o f hum an knowledge o f the real

world. 3. Maths deals with the space forms and quantity relations abstract

ed from the physical world. 4. M ath abstractions are idealizations that have

material or physical origin. 5. Num bers are abstracted ideas or mental

notions only, for numbers do not exist in nature. 6. In m aths the abstract

ed notions and laws become divorced from the real world. 7. In a formal

math system the content is put aside as irrelevant. 8. M aths enjoys an

unparallelled worldwide reputation o f objectivity. 9. C ontem porary m aths

is a mixture o f much that is very old and still im portant (e.g., counting, the

Pythagorean theorem) with new concepts such as sets, axiomatics, struc

ture. 10. The totality o f all abstract m ath sciences is called pure maths.

11. Pure maths is borrowed from the physical world; it represents only one

part o f its forms o f interconnection. 12. The totality o f all concrete inter

pretations is called applied maths. Together they constitute maths as a sci

ence. 13. Maths is the science dealing primarily with what can be obtained

by reasoning alone. 14. Hum an thought moves from the concrete to the

abstract, from specific individual cases to general principles. 15 M ath

thought involves special kind o f thinking and reasoning. 16. Despite the use

fulness o f analogy and induction, maths does not rely upon these methods to

establish its conclusions. All math proofs must be deductive. 17. The need for

32

careful and rigorous reasoning in proofs is not at once intuitively apparent to

a nonmathematician. 18. Mastery o f maths does not demand a “ math

m ind” peculiar talents or genius. The subject is within anybody’s grasp.

19. The common phrase “There is no royal road to maths” can be para

phrased by saying that “There is no royal road to learning” 20. “ Language

is as old as the mind” (Karl Marx.) 21. Human knowledge and notions

about the universe are expressed, represented and stored in language.

22. There are two main forms o f language. They are distinguished in the con

cepts o f language as a specific written code and speech. 23. Speech is the

realization and representation o f this written code. 24. Language is a fore

most means o f both human com m unication and human knowledge.

25. N atural spoken language has numerous and limitless applications.

26. The mass media - the press, radio and TV - make for the correctness of

the formal language spoken in the country. 27. Colloquial language is vague,

ambiguous and unreliable for science. 28. Spoken words may have different

meanings determined by the context. 29. Scientists set up formalized lan

guages to avoid confusion. 30. The essential and peculiar feature of modern

maths is its symbolic language. 31. Math language is designed and ingen

iously devised by the prominent mathematicians. 32. Much of the math lan

guage has the form of signs, symbols, equations and formulas. 33. The devel

opment o f a meaningful, adequate and consistent system of notations in

various branches o f maths is part o f the history of maths. 34. Modern termi

nology and symbolism are a relatively new development. 35. Math notation

involves signs and symbols that represent objects, concepts, statements,

operations, relations, functions, etc. 36. Symbols permit clear, concise,

unambiguous representation of ideas which are sometimes very complex.

37. Math writing is remarkable because it encompasses much information in

few words. 38. Most math texts involve the basic symbols used in algebra,

analytic geometry, calculus, set theory and math logic with the meanings

usually ascribed to them. 39. The precise signification of the symbol is fixed

by usage, i.e., by the context. 40. A formal math system bears some analogy

to a natural language, for it has its own vocabulary and rules. 41. Symbols of

a formalized language are combined in strict accordance with the rules of

semantics and syntax. 42. The creations o f calculus, non-Euclidean geome

tries, set theory and cybernetics may be considered as revolutions in maths.

43. M odern methods of carrying out arithm etic operations (addition, sub

traction, multiplication and division) and their applications become

sophisticated through modern computers. 44. Nowadays mathematicians

frequently liken maths to art or game rather than to science. 45. Most math-

ematicians claim there is great beauty in maths. 46. Math and scientific

problems demand solution. M athematicians seek to solve problems in the

most beautiful, elegant and simple manner. 47. The solution o f difficult

math problems evokes aesthetic emotions. 48. There is an agreement on the

fact that a “beautiful” math result must be nontrivial. 49. An essential ele

ment in the “beauty” o f a theorem lies in its simplicity and generality.

50. The search for simplicity is a leitmotive o f scientific thought in general.

51. To develop a rigorous and elegant proof the mathematician builds a

structure of logic and form which to his eye is as beautiful as the finest poem.

ACTIVE VOCABULARY

2. to advance 14. to define 26. to object (to)

3. to appear 15. to deliver 27. to owe

4. to attend 16. to depend (on) 28. to provide

5. to avail 17. to descend 29. to separate

6. to believe 18. to determine 30. to

7. to belong (to) 19. I 1 develop 31. to signify

8. to calculate 20. to discover 32. to subject (to)

9. to check up 21. to discourse 33. to vary

10. to compute 22. to employ 34. to view

11. to connect 23. to evaluate 3 r. to visualize

12. to contain 24. to evolve

TEXT ONE

WHAT IS MATHEMATICS?

Read the text. TYy to translate each sentence into Russian with the teacher's assistance. (The

text should be read and reread as many times at home as it is necessary for every student to grasp

the meaning. A written translation is recommendable. The active vocabulary of the text ought to

be learnt.)

The students of maths may wonder where the word “ mathematics” comes

from. “ M athematics” is a Greek word, and, by origin or etymologically, it

means “something that must be learnt or understood" perhi ps “acquired

knowledge” or “knowledge acquirable by learning" or “general knowledge” .

The word "m aths” is a contraction o f all these phrases. The ielchrated

Pythagorean school in ancient Greece had both regular ,<nd incidental

members. The incidental njemberswere called “auditors” ; the regular m em

34

bers were named mathematicians” as a general class and not because they

specialized in maths; for them maths was a mental discipline of science

learning. What is maths in the modern sense of the term, its implications and

connotations? There is no neat, simple, general and unique answer to this

question.

Maths as a science, viewed as a whole, is a collection of branches. The

largest branch is that which builds on the ordinary whole numbers, fractions,

and irrational numbers, от what collectively, is called the real number system^

Arithmetic, algebra, the study of functions, the calculus, differential equa

tions, and various other subjects which follow the calculus in logical order

are all developments of the real number system. This part of maths is termed

the maths o f number. A second branch is geometry consisting of several

geometries. Maths contains many more divisions. Each branch has the same

logical structure: it begins with certain concepts, such as the whole numbers

or integers in the maths of number, and such as point, line and triangle in

geometry. These concepts must verify explicitly stated axioms. Some o f the

axioms o f the maths o f number are the associative, commutative, and distrib

utive properties and the axioms about equalities. Some of the axioms o f geom

etry are that two points determine a line, all right angles are equal, etc. From

the concepts and axioms theorems are deduced. Hence, from the standpoint

of structure, the concepts, axioms and theorems are the essential components o f

any compartment o f maths. We must break down maths into separately taught

subjects, but this compartmentalization taken as a necessity, must be com

pensated for as much as possible. Students must see the interrelationships of

the various areas and the im portance o f maths for other domains.

Knowledge is not additive but an organic whole, and maths is an inseparable

part o f that whole. The full significance of maths can be seen and taught only

in terms o f its intimate relationships to other fields of knowledge. If maths is

isolated from other provinces, it loses importance.

The basic concepts o f the main branches o f maths are abstractions from

experience, implied by their obvious physical counterparts. But it is note

worthy, that many more concepts are introduced which are, in essence,

creations o f the hum an mind with or w ithout any help of experience.

Irrational numbers, negative numbers and so forth are not wholly abstract

ed from the physical practice, for the m an's mind must create the notion

o f entirely new types o f numbers to which operations such as addition,

m ultiplication, and the like can be applied. The notion of a variable that

represents the quantitative values o f some changing physical phenom ena,

such as tem perature and tim e, is also at least one mental step beyond the

35

mere observation o f change. The concept o f a function, o r a relationship

between variables, is almost totally a mental creation. The more we study

maths, the more we see that the ideas and conceptions involved becom e

more divorced and remote from experience, and the role played by the

mind o f the m athem atician becomes larger and larger. The gradual in tro

duction o f new concepts which more and more depart from forms o f expe

rience finds its parallel in geometry and many o f the specific geom etrical

terms are mental creations.

As mathematicians nowadays working in any given branch discover new

concepts which are less and less drawn from experience and more and more

from human mind, the development o f concepts is progressive arid later con

cepts are built on earlier notions. These facts have unpleasant consequences.

Because the more advanced ideas are purely mental creations rather than

abstractions from physical experience and because they are defined in terms

o f prior concepts, it is more difficult to understand them and illustrate their

meanings even for a specialist in some oth er province o f m aths.

Nevertheless, the current introduction o f new concepts in any field enables

maths to grow rapidly. Indeed, the growth o f modem maths is, in part, due

to the introduction of new concepts and new systems o f axioms.

Axioms constitute the second major com ponent o f any branch o f maths.

Up to the 19th century axioms were considered as basic self-evident truths

about the concepts involved. Wfe know now that this view ought to be given

up. The objective of math activity consists o f the theorems deduced from a set

o f axioms. The amount o f information that can be deduced from some sets

o f axioms is almost incredible. The axioms o f number give rise to the results

o f algebra, properties o f functions, the theorems o f the calculus, the solution

o f various types o f differential equations. M ath theorems must be deductive

ly established and proved. Much o f the scientific knowledge, is produced by

deductive reasoning; new theorems are proved constantly, even in such old

subjects as algebra and geometry and the current developments are as im por

tant as the older results.

Growth of maths is possible in still another way. M athematicians are sure

now that sets of axioms which have no bearing on the physical world should

be explored. Accordingly, mathematicians nowadays investigate algebras and

geometries with no immediate applications. There is, however, some dis

agreement among mathematicians as to the way they answer the question:

Do the concepts, axioms, and theorems exist in some objective world and are

they merely detected by man or are they entirely human creations? In

36

ancient times the axioms and theorems were regarded as necessary truths

about the universe already incorporated in the design o f the world. Hence

each new theorem was a discovery, a disclosure o f what already existed. The

contrary view holds that maths, its concepts, and theorems are created by

man. M an distinguishes objects in the physical world and invents numbers

and numbers names to represent one aspect o f experience. Axioms are m an’s

generalizations of certain fundamental facts and theorems may very logical

ly follow from the axioms. Maths, according to this viewpoint, is a human

creation in every respect. Some mathematicians claim that pure maths is the

most original creation of the human mind.

TEXT TWO

(СОДЕРЖАНИЕ МАТЕМАТИКИ)

Read the text. Analyze each paragraph and its Russian translation. Practise back translation.

Work in pairs.

space forms and quantity rela объектом пространственные формы

tions o f the real world —that is, и количественные отношения дейст

with material which is very real, вительного мира, стало быть - весь

indeed. The fact that this mate ма реальный материал. Тот факт, что

rial appears in an extremely этот материал принимает чрезвычай

abstract form can only superfi но абстрактную форму, может лишь

cially conceal its origin from the слабо затушевать его происхожде

external world. ние из внеш него мира.

But in order to make it possible Но чтобы быть в состоянии исследо

to - investigate these forms and вать эти формы и отношения в чис

relations in their pure state, it is том виде, необходимо соверш енно

necessary to separate them отделить их от их содержания, оста

entirely from their content, to put вить это последнее в стороне как не

the content aside as irrelevant... что безразличное...

But, as in every department of Но, как и во всех других областях

thought, at a certain stage of мышления, законы, абстрагирован

developm ent the laws, which ные из реального мира, ...противопо-

37

were abstracted from the real ставляются ему как нечто самостоя

world, become divorced from the тельное, как явивш иеся извне зако

real world, ... and are set up ны, с которыми мир должен сообразо

against it as something inde ваться.

pendent, as laws coming from

outside, to which the world has

to conform.

That is how things happened in Так было с обществом и государст

society and in the state, and in вом, так, а не иначе, чистая матема

this way and not otherwise, pure тика применяется впоследствии к ми

mathematics was subsequently ру, хотя она заимствована из этого

applied to the world, although it самого мира и только выражает часть

is borrowed from this world and присущих ему форм связей, — и как

represents only one part o f its раз только поэтому и может вообще

forms o f interconnection — and применяться».

it is only just because o f this that

it can be applied at all.”

(M „ 1959. pp. 58-59.) (М аркс К. и Энгельс Ф.

Собр. соч., т. 20, с. 37-38.)

TEXT THREE

Read and translate the text at home. Be ready a) to illustrate dilTerent meanings of the italicized

words with the examples of your own; b) to speak on the topic “The Language of Science".

What distinguishes the language of science from language as we

ordinarily understand the word? How is it that scientific lan

guage is international? The supemational character o f scientific

concepts and scientific language is due to the fact that they are

set up by the best brains of all countries and all times.

A. Einstein

One of the foremost reasons given for the study of maths is to use a com

mon phrase, that “ maths is the language o f science” This is not meant to

imply that maths is useful only to those who specialize in science. N o. it

38

implies that even a layman must know something about the foundations, the

scope and the basic role played by maths in our scientific age.

The language of maths consists mostly of signs and symbols, and, in a

sense, is an unspoken language. There can be no more universal or more

simple language, it is the same throughout the civilized world, though tht?

people of each country translate it into their own particular spoken language.

For instance, the symbol 5 means the same to a person in England, Spain,

Italy or any other country; but in each country it may be called by a differ

ent spoken word. Some of the best known symbols of maths are the numer

als 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 0 and the signs of addition (+), subtraction ( - ) ,

multiplication (x), division (:), equality (=) and the letters of the alphabets:

Greek, Latin, G othic and Hebrew (rather rarely).

Symbolic language is one of the basic characteristics of modern maths for

it determines its true aspect. With the aid of symbolism mathematicians can

make transition in reasoning almost mechanically by the eye and leave their

mind free to grasp the fundamental ideas of the subject matter. Just as music

uses symbolism for the representation and communication of sounds, so maths

expresses quantitatively relations and spatial forms symbolically. Unlike the

common language, which is the product of custom, as well as social and

political movements, the language of maths is carefully, purposefully and

often ingeniously designed. By virtue o f its compactness, it permits a mathe

matician to work with ideas which when expressed in terms of common lan

guage are unmanageable. This compactness makes fo r efficiency of thought.

Math language is precise and concise, so that it is often confusing to peo

ple unaccustomed to its forms. The symbolism used in math language is

essential to distinguish meanings often confused in common speech. Math

Style aims at brevity and formal perfection. Let us suppose we wish to express

in general terms the Pythagorean theorem, well-familiar to every student

through his high-school studies. We may say: “We have a right triangle. If we

construct two squares each having an arm o f the triangle as a side and if we

construct a square having the hypotenuse of the triangle for its side, then the

area of the third square is equal to the sum o f the areas o f the first two”. But

no mathematician expresses himself that way. He prefers: “The sum of the

squares on the sides o f a right triangle equals the square on the hypotenuse.”

In symbols this may be stated as follows: c1=a2+b1 This economy of words

makes for conciseness o f presentation, and math writing is remarkable

because it encompasses much in few words. In the study of maths much time

must be devoted 1) to the expressing o f verbally stated facts in math language,

that is, in the signs and symbols o f maths; 2) to the translating of math

39

expressions into common language. We use signs and symbols for conven

ience. In some cases the symbols are abbreviations o f words, but often they

have no such relations to the thing they stand for. Wfe cannot say why they

stand for what they do, they mean what they do by common agreement or by

definition.

The student must always remember that the understanding o f any subject

in maths presupposes clear and definite knowledge o f what precedes. This is

the reason why “there is no royal road” to maths and why the study of maths

is discouraging to weak minds, those who are not able to master the subject.

T E X T FOUR

MYTHS IN MATHEMATICS

Read and translate the text in class. Give your comments on the.fnyths mentioned in the text.

Describe some more myths about maths if you know any.

There are many myths about maths, e.g., that (1) “ mathematics is the

queen o f the sciences” (K. Gauss); that (2) the Internet is the cyberspace

world — a new universe — and that (3) informatics will reign and dominate

throughout the 21st century (Microsoft Windows 95 experts claim). Some

people believe that only (4) gifted, talented people can learn maths, that (5)

it is only for m ath-m inded boys, that (6) only scientists can understand math

language, that (7) learning maths is a waste o f time and efforts, etc.

Some analysts claimed in 1900 that nations would face a shortage o f sci

entists and mathematicians in particular in 1980-2000 years. The myths’

practical impact on today’s young mathematicians seeking employment is

that they should take non-academ ic jobs in business, government and indus

try. The full unemployment rate for new math departments graduates was the

highest in 1992-1994.

A related myth in maths goes like this: (8) “Jobs were tight, but the m ar

ket improved. It is a cyclic business and the job market will get better soon

again” Many scientists no longer have faith in this myth and they believe

that math departm ents in all higher educational institutions ought to

reconsider their missions. In particular they should consider downsizing

their graduate program and re-examine the math education provided in

high schools so that the program more closely should fit the reality o f what

the graduates will be doing in the future. Many long-term econom ic, polit

40

ical, academic and teaching issues and problems indicate that the current

employment of the new young m athem aticians is not likely to be reversed

in the next decade. There is sure no single answer to this employment

problem. A spectrum of changes and reforms will be needed to improve the

situation.

In both education and the industrial high-tech workplace the people not

trained as mathematicians are doing math work and research often quite

successfully nowadays. This phenomenon is the legacy of a long and pro

found (very deep) failure of mathematicians to communicate with other

groups. For example, mathematicians believe that (9) engineers and natural

scientists are only interested in the math formulas and not in the theory o f

calculus. However, anyone who specializes in physical chemistry or therm o

dynamics needs to make out (to understand) the chain rule and the implicit

function theorem at a much deeper level than is taught in standard calculus of

several variables in maths. The net result is that physicists and chemists are

teaching at present these things more abstractedly and thoroughly than most

math university departments. Nowadays the ordinary people no longer rank

pure maths research as a top national concern.

The future of maths may depend on whether the emphasis is on the basic

concepts, insight, abstract formalization and proof This does not mean that

rigorous, genuine and valid “p ro o f’ is dead, just that “ insight” is playing a

more im portant role. Successful careers in practical life often require con

ceptualization and abstraction o f some, even engineering, problems. The

majority o f university graduates must be professionally adroit (skillful,

clever) and flexible over a life-long career which includes many uncertain

and difficult conditions o f excess, insufficient or conflicting theories and

data with rarely adequate time for contem plation (thinking or reasoning

about).

A nother myth in maths is that (10) women cannot be genuine mathemati

cians. Female applicants must satisfy the same requirements at the entrance

competitive examinations as boys should, there are no special tracks for girls.

Most female applicants assert to have chosen to study maths because they

like it rather than as a career planning. The change o f high-school maths

into university maths is for many of them a real shock, especially in the

am ount o f information covered and the skills that are being developed.

Despite this shock the study of higher maths should be available to a large set

o f students, both male and female, and not to the selected few.

There is no reason that women cannot be outstanding (famous, promi

nent) mathematicians and the Russian women mathematicians have proved

41

it. There should be affirmative (positive) action to bring women teachers

onto math faculties at colleges and universities. One cannot expect the ratio

to be 50/50, but the tendency should continue until male m athem aticians no

longer consider the presence o f female mathematicians to be unusual at

math department faculty or at the conferences and congresses.

Some ambitious experts claim that they think of mathematicians as ( 1 1)

forming a world nation o f their own without distinctions o f geographical o ri

gins, race, creed (beliefs), sex, age or even time because the m athem aticians

o f the past and “would-be” are all dedicated to the most beautiful o f the arts

and sciences. As far as math language is concerned, it is in fact too abstract

and incomprehensible for average citizens. It is symbolic, too concise and

precise, and often confusing to non-specialists. The myth that there is a

great deal of confusion about m ath symbolism, that mathematicians try by

means of their peculiar language to conceal the subject matter o f m aths from

people at large is unreasonable and meaningless. The maths language is not

only the foremost means o f scientists intercourse, finance, trade and busi

ness accounts, it is designed and devised to become universal for all the sci

ences and engineering, e.g., multilingual computer processing and transla

tion.

T E X T F IV E

Translate the text in class. Write an abstract of the text using the italicized words. Speak on tbe

Russian mathematicians involved in the mathematical analysis of tbe objects of art.

All science as it grows towards perfection and sophistication

becomes mathematical in its ideas.

A .S . W hitehead

and art rather than to science. It is convenient to keep the old classification

o f maths as one of the sciences, but it is more just to call it an art or a game.

Unlike the sciences, but like the art o f music or a game o f chess, m aths is

foremost a free creation o f the hum an mind. Maths is the sister, as well as the

servant o f the arts and is touched with the same genius. In an age when spe

cialization means isolation, a layman may be surprised to hear that maths

and art are intimately related. Yet, they are closely identified from ancient

times. To begin with, the visual arts are spatial by definition, li is therefore

not surprising that geometry is evident in classic architecture or that the ruler

42

and compass are as familiar to the artist as to the artisan. Artists search for

ideal propprtions and math principles o f composition. Many trends and tra

ditions in this search are mixed.

M aths and art are mutually indebted in the area o f perspective and symme

try which express relations only now fully explained by the math theory of

groups, a development of the last centuries. But does not art, in breaking away

from academic canons nowadays, also break with mathematics? On the con

trary. In the last one hundred years maths also has its liberation. From the

science o f number and space, maths becomes the science of all relations, of

structure in the broadest sense. A mathematician, like a painter or a poet, is

a maker o f patterns. The m athem atician’s patterns, like the painter’s or the

poet’s must be beautiful; the ideas, like the colours or the words must fit

together in a harmonious way. Beauty and elegance are the true test for both.

The revolutions in art and maths only deepen the relations between them. It

is a com m on observation that the emotional drive for creation and the satis

faction from success are the same w hether one constructs an object o f art or

a math theory.

In ancient Greece maths was transformed from a tool for the advancement

o f other activities to an art. Arithmetic, geometry and astronomy were to the

classical Greece music for the soul and the art o f the mind; indeed, rational

and aesthetic can hardly be separated in Greek thought. Maths and art were

fused harmoniously in a single individual during the Renaissance. Though

the further developments tended to weaken the connection, it was reinforced

again in the last century and recent revolutionary changes in both fields open

new possibilities for interaction without weakening the potential role o f each

as inspiration to the other. In both areas the creative process involves obser

vation and experiment, judgement and rejection, intuition and feeling, care

ful calculation and analysis, sophistication, flashes of insight, and possibility

results that are thrilling, satisfying and useful to both the artist and his audi

ence. Patterns in either field may illustrate, explain, or inspire work in the

other. The new maths and the new art are capable o f an intimacy that we

have not seen since the Renaissance.

Since maths and the arts often deal with the same material in different

idioms, only the most careful study can show which precedes the other, but

there is certainly much in m odem art to inspire the m athem atician, and

there are many math ideas whose artistic exploitation may reap a rich har

vest. Perhaps m odem art expresses intuitively many relations that appear

deductively in math theories. The professional m athem atician has a strong

poetic sense o f form in his own language o f maths and most m athem ati

43

cians claim that there is great beauty in their science. M aths means prob

lems, and problems demand solutions. When every m athem atician is co n

fronted with a problem , he does his best to solve it by w hatever means he

can think of. But he also tries, if possible, to solve it in the m ost b e au ti

ful and sim ple m anner which is the m ost fruitful in the long run. A m ath

problem o r theory has a history, which follows the same p attern as in

every science. But the fascination o f m aths has a flavour o f its own.*

M ath problem s not only appeal to the scien tist’s delight in solving rid

dles but they definitely evoke aesthetic em otions. C ontrary to the a tti

tude o f the experim ental scientist, th e result alone is not what matters to

the m athem atician, but the difficulty coped w ith to obtain it. T h a t is,

what is beautiful in m aths can never be m erely skin-deep; it m ust pen e

trate deep into, the bottom o f the m ath organism w here all difficult p ro b

lems converge.

In 1933 George Birkhoff, one of the most distinguished m athem aticians o f

his generation, attem pted to apply maths to art in the m anner that proves so

successful in other areas. He began with a precise formulation o f the old

idea that beauty depends on the relations o f the parts o f an art object. He

defined aesthetic measure as varying inversely with the number o f elem ents

present and directly with the number o f relations between them. O f course,

the difficulty o f the problem is to determ ine these two numbers in specific

contents to discover the implications for design and to test and verify the c o n

clusions against hum an aesthetic judgement. This Birkhoff attem pted to do

for painting, poetry and music. His work was an integration in the main

stream o f artistic and math thought and showed great insight, ingenuity and

sophistication.

During the many years from the age o f Pythagoras to the nineteenth cen

tury, mathematicians and musicians alike sought to understand the nature o f

musical sounds and to find the relationship between m aths and music. The

climax to this long series of investigations,/л о т a math standpoint, came with

the work o f the mathematician Joseph Fourier, who showed that all sounds,

vocal and instrumental, simple and complex, are completely describable in

math terms. Because of Fourier’s work not even the elusive beauty o f a musi

cal phrase escapes math formulation. Whereas Pythagoras was content to

pluck the strings o f a lyre, Fourier sounded the whole orchestra. Stated as a

theorem o f pure maths Fourier’s formula у = sin x says about the relations

among variables, which can be represented by means o f a graph.

The graph shows that the function is regular or periodic; or we may say, the

cycle o f у -values repeats itself after every 360-unit interval o f x - values. This

44

function does not quite represent the sound o f music but a very simple m od

ification o f it does. A little effort produces the proper modification and it can

be summarized by the statement that the function у = a sin bx, where a and

b are any positive numbers has the amplitude a and the frequency b in 360

units o f x-values. The formula represents sounds mathematically. But of

course very few musical soqnds are as simple as those that may be represent

ed by the formula. What can the mathematician say about more complex

musical sounds?

Part o f the answer to the question is learnt by observ ing the graphs o f var

ious sounds. The graphs o f all musical sounds show regularity. In “graphic”

terms we have, then, the distinguishing feature between pleasing and dis

pleasing sounds, between musical sounds in the broad sense and noise.

Unfortunately, such a great variety o f musical sounds possesses this feature

o f regularity that further analysis and characterization is necessary - and yet

this seemed impossible until the nineteenth century. Then Fourier entered

the scene and dispelled the confusion.

What is the significance o f Fourier’s theory? In math language the theorem

tells us that the formula for any musical sound is a sum o f terms o f the form

a sin bx. Since each term can represent a simple sound, the theorem says that

each musical sound, however complex, is merely a combination o f simple sounds.

The m ath deduction that any complex musical sound can actually be built up

from simple sounds is physically verifiable. This resolution o f complex sounds

into partials or harmonics helps us describe mathematically the chief charac

teristics o f all musical sounds. Thus, thanks to Fourier, the nature o f musical

sounds is now clear to us. But what can maths say about harmonic combina

tions o f sounds, about the essence o f beautiful musical compositions, about

the “soul” o f music? The role o f maths in music stretches even to the com

position itself. Masters such as Bach constructed and advocated vast math

theories for the composition of music. In such theories cold reason rather

than feeling and emotions produce the creative pattern.

O f course, the math analysis of musical sounds is o f great practical impor

tance. The musical sounds o f most instruments are considerably improved

and perfected by the application of maths. The fact cannot be denied that

maths not only aids in the design o f musical instruments but sometimes

maths rather than the ear is the arbiter o f a perfect design. The engineering

o f practically all the components o f complex instruments relies heavily on

Fourier’s analysis o f musical sounds. Even the layman can soon learn to

speak Fourier’s language. In view of the many shares and bearings o f maths

to the production and reproduction o f musical ideas the modern music lover

45

evidently owes as much to Fourier as to Beethoven. There are philosophical

overtones to Fourier’s work. The essence o f beautiful music is obviously

more than what math analysis can show. Nevertheless, through Fourier’s

theorem this major art leads itself perfectly to math description. Hence, the

most abstract o f the arts can be transcribed into the most abstract o f the sci

ences and the most reasoned o f the arts is clearly recognized to be akin to the

music o f reason.

VOCABULAR Y E X E R C IS E S

This type of exercises must be done by the student at home as one’s drilling in grammar and to

master active vocabulary.

Common nouns (e.g., a text —texts) are countable. Abstract and material

nouns are uncountable and they cannot have plural forms. The uncountable

nouns may be used only with the zero article or combined with the words

the, their, that, much, little, a little, some, any, a piece of, a lot of.

1. Translate the sentences into Russian.

Эти сведения новые. Они поступают регулярно.

1. What is the news? There is some, but I am not sure if it is good news or

bad. 2. He makes good progress in English. 3. Let me give you some advice.

4. It is a fine piece o f music. 5. Sound knowledge can be obtained through

study and research work. 6. Information that is wrong is not useful. 7. This

theory shows much ingenuity and sophistication.

uncountable nouns. There are many abstract nouns in English that have

more than one meaning and which are countable in one meaning but

uncountable in another.

2. Make up the sentences of your own, using the nouns given below and combining them with

these - those, much, many, few, a few, little, a little.

There is still much time before the lecture.

How many times must I add those numbers?

2 x 2 ■ 4 (TWo times two equals four.)

46

3. Use the following nouns with the zero, definite or indefinite articles in the sentences of your

own.

than what it is. 2. Do we have a maths accessible to all

today? 3. By “modern” maths we mean the maths of

the past century.

Art —arts: 1. Model designing is art in science.

2. Maths is art and as such gives the pleasures which all

arts give.

ments, contents, calculi, semantics, transitions, physics, means, computa

tions, numerals, assertions, ends, works

4. Translate the sentences into Russian paying attention to: rather, rather than, other than.

1. Maths is the study o f relations between certain ideal objects, such as

numbers, functions, and geometric figures. These objects are not regarded as

real, but rather as abstract models of physical situations. 2. Mathematicians

want from math objects not their material or physical existence, but rather

the right to use them in proofs. 3. The math concept is a notion or method

rather than content. 4. Maths is an active rather than a passive activity.

5. Maths not only aids in the design of musical instruments but sometimes

maths rather than the ear is the arbiter of perfect design. 6; In this century the

skill o f reading is divided into many types among which intensive, extensive

and silent are most commonly used. Extensive reading is aimed at ideas

rather than grammatical structure and is definitely distinguished from trans

lation. 7. For many physical phenomena no exact concepts exist other than

math notions. 8. The concepts o f number and space figure do not come from

any source other than the world of reality.

5. Read and translate the sentences into Russian using a dictionary if necessary.

1. At present maths means the combination of pure and applied maths.

Pure maths deals with logical (math) structures, it studies them as structures

themselves. 2. Applied maths is the study o f real objects by means of math

methods, i.e., the study o f structures modelling real phenomena. 3. The core

o f maths is pure maths, its theories are beautiful and elegant abstract math

systems expressing not words, but thoughts and ideas. 4. The results in pure

maths are appreciated not by their practical applications, but by their com

pleteness, rigour, consistency, mastery and beauty. 5. People must not con

fuse pure maths and its applications. Pure maths is an abstract science but its

47

applications may be concrete and practical. 6. Can students m aster the

applications o f maths without learning maths itself? By no means. M aths is

undivided and unique. It means that pure and applied maths are parts o f

indivisible whole though it does not imply their identity. 7. From logical

viewpoint mathematicians distinguish the following species o f m ath knowl

edge: concepts, assertions, reasoning, conclusion and sets o f them . 8 Concepts

may be both concrete and abstract. C oncrete concepts signify the essential

properties of separate physical objects. Abstract concepts reflect distinguish

ing and essential properties of a whole class (finite or infinite) o f objects.

9. Abstract concepts are called categories and they are products o f abstraction,

generalization, synthesis, analysis, matching, etc. They possess ascribed

properties which do not exist in reality. 10. They are demonstrated by means

o f drawings, diagrams, schemes,.pictures, figures. The content o f abstract

concepts is disclosed in definitions or in a set o f axioms signifying their prop

erties. 11. Math knowledge is not a set o f concepts alone. Knowledge is a

combination o f interrelationships, interconnections and interdependencies

among concepts and their systems. 12. An assertion is &statement that con

firm s or denies something. An assertion may be both true ox false. The s tr ic

ture o f an assertion consists o f a) the subject, b) the predicate, c) the link.

Concepts and assertions are basic units o f math knowledge. 13. More com

plex math knowledge units, e.g., proofs, arguments, reasoning, explanations,

hypothesis, theories, math subjects are built in terms o f these basic units w ith

the application o f lavs o f logic. 14. In reasoning only those assertions are true

whose truth is proved orjustified. 15. Conclusion is knowledge based on true

assertions. Conclusion is thinking and reasoning from a set o f true state

ments and obtaining a new piece o f knowledge.

6. Read the passages and characterize a) species of math knowledge, b) mathematicians' abili

ties, skills, tasks, goals.

(statem ents), axioms, and theorem s derived from them , constitutes a

pure m ath theory. The theorem s o f the theory hold the com plete accu ra

cy only for the objects that correspond to the assumptions. There are

axiomatic and deductive theories. A xiomatic theories are distinguished

for their rigour. 2; The set o f axioms in axiom atic theories must be c o m

plete, independent, consistent, and form alized m athem atical]) The

developm ent and structure o f the theory depend on strict analysis o f

basic concepts, sets o f axioms and their consistency 3. The truth in m aths

is established by the logical proof o f any statem ent in a sense, a logical

48

deductive p ro o f may play the role o f abstract experim ent. M ath truths are

o f absolute and eternal cha; ;ter, they do not change with the develop

m ent and accum ulation of human knowledge. 4. Existence theorems are

absolute and eternal in maths. Existence in m aths has a different m ean

ing and sense com pared to the existence in the real world, though math

laws are the laws of the real world. 5. All species o f math knowledge are

fixed in term s of spoken words?signs, symbols, models, proofs and th eo

ries. Spoken words are used for the fixation and translation o f math

knowledge. Signs and symbols are the m an-m ade system for coding

knowledge with strictly specific rules o f operations and unique meaning

ascribed to them . Their usage is interrelated to the spoken language

Signs and symbols help and make for the transition in reasoning. 6. The

main task o f m aths is to teach a man to think logically and accurately

(precisely). There is no ugly maths. Inner beauty, harmony, symmetry are

always present in any fundam ental m ath theory. 7. M aths is first and

foremost hard labour and intensive study. It teaches honesty, objectivity,

validity, and beauty. M aths contributes to acquiring rational qualities of a

h um an thinking. It dem ands im aginatio n , insight and intuition

8. M athem aticians must be able: 1) to pose m ath problems; 2) to estab

lish m ath models, i.e., logical idealization o f the physical phenom enon

by ignoring and elim inating some factors; 3)‘to choose an adequate math

m ethod and algorithm for the problem solution; 4) to employ numerical

m ethods and com puters; 5) to apply qualitative methods of research;

6) to work out (to elaborate) practical recom m endations, based on math

analysis perform ed. 9. A math model o f a physical phenom ena c an ’t be

adequate and identical to the phenom enon itself. A model implies logi

cal idealization o f the physicaj phenom enon by ignoring and elim inating

some factors. It helps study processes in the real world. One and the same

model can correspond and describe different physical phenom ena. To

develop a m ath model the m athem atician m ust have thorough and exten

sive knowledge o f maths. 10. Pure m aths too has real objects and goals.

Every theory o f pure m aths has the right to exist if it is really in a position

to answer concrete questions which concern abstract objects like whole

num bers or geom etric figures — or if, at least, it serves for the construc

tion o f things, which happen there. Otherwise, the pure theory is incom

plete o r else it is a docum ent o f confusion.

7. a) Choose the proper Russian equivalent Гог the word development and translate the sen

tences into Russian. Mind the dependence of the meaning on the context.

49

Model, development(s) n — развитие; изложение; раскры

тие; разъяснение; преобразование; построение;

становление; разработка; теория; событие; резуль

тат; совершенствование; достижение

development o f the rigorous math (as opposed to the dictionary) type o f

definition is the product of the m odem maths. 3. Educated people must be

familiar with all the im portant scientific developments o f their day. 4. In

maths the basic development from concrete individual m atter through

abstraction and back again to the concrete and individual gives a theory its

meaning and significance. 5. The concept o f num ber and the process o f

counting developed so long before the tim e o f recorded history that the

m anner o f this development is largely conjectural. 6. The requirem ehts for

quicker aids to com putation lay at the root o f the development o f m ultipli

cation tables, tables o f reciprocals and the like. 7. M aths ranks among the

highest cultural developments o f man. 8. It is especially true that in maths

the creative work is done by individuals mostly; nevertheless tne results are

the product o f centuries o f thought and development. 9. What we call

“m aths” consists o f several discrete individual developments, each manifest

ing its own birth and growth. 10. N o subject can be effectively learned or

taught without an adequate understanding o f its historical development. The

development o f math knowledge is essentially in a continuous evolution.

b) Consult the dictionary and give all possible Russian equivalents of the words diruiem,

power, consideration with illustrative examples.

8. IVanslate the sentences into Russian, paying attention to the words in bold type. Mind flat

one and the same Russian word may be expressed by different English equivalents which are not

synonyms in the proper and strict sense of the term.

for, etc.

help. 4. He treats the child kindly 5. She addresses the meeting with a long

speech. 6. The speaker appeals to (calls upon) all those present to sign the

paper. 7. You should consult a doctor (a lawyer, ah expert, etc.). 8. The stu

dents must translate the text without referring, to the dictionary. 9. D on’t

invoke so much the manager.

50

9. Study the given English equivalents of the Russian words. Consult the dictionary and write

down in your copybook the Russian equivalents оГ the following verbs, adjectives and nouns.

a) discuss, argue, debate, dispute; b) reach, achieve, gain, attain; c) appear, emerge; d) con

nect, link, associate, relate; e) attentive, considerate, thoughtful; 0 care, concern, solicitude

утверждение, высказы phrase, sentence, statem ent, expression,

вание (суждение) wording, utterance, assertion, affirmation,

judgement

importance, significance, signification

цель end, intent, goal, target, object, objective,

purpose

средство aid, means, tool, device, medium, instru

ment, apparatus, technique, appliance

обычный (обычно) average, familiar, usual(ly), commOn(ly),

ordinary(ily), customary(ily), popular(ly)

очевидный (очевидно) clear(lv), plain(ly), evident(ly). obvious(ly),

apparent(ly)

строгость strictness, severity, rigour

строгий (строго) strict(ly), severe(ly), rigorous(ly)

точный (in)exact(ly), (in)accurate(ly)

точность exactness, accuracy

изучать (исследовать) to learn, to study, to investigate, to explore, to

analyze, to make research, to research, to

inquire (into), to make an inquiry

исследование learning, study, investigation, exploration,

analysis, research, inquiry

предполагать to assume, to (pre)suppose, to presume, to

conjecture, to hypothesize

51

предположение (допуще assumption, supposition, presumption, con

ние) jecture, hypothesis

равняться (равно) to be, to make, to equal, to be equal, to

am ount to

соединять (объединять) to tie, to bind, to link, to couple, to combine,

to associate, to relate, to connect, to consol

idate, to amalgamate

соединение tie, bond, link, couple, com bination, associ

ation, relation, connection, consolidation,

amalgamation

требовать to call for, to claim, to dem and, to require

требование claim, demand, requirement

READING COMPREHENSION

Read the text. Comment on and characterize modern maths using the characteristics men

tioned in the text.

and Rigorous

The first actual contact which most people have with m aths is through

arithmetic. That two and two make four is usually taken for granted as a sim

ple math proposition. Arithmetic, therefore, is a good subject to begin with

in order to discover the most obvious characteristic o f m aths as a science.

The first noticeable fact about arithm etic is that it applies to everything: to

apples, to sounds, to angles, to the ideas o f the mind, etc. The nature o f the

things is perfectly indifferent and irrelevant; o f all things whatever, it is true

that two and two make four. Thus, we write down as the leading characteris

tic o f maths that it deals with properties and ideas which are applicable to

things just because they are things and apart from any particular feelings or

emotions in any way connected with them. This is what is m eant by calling

maths as abstract science.

What is the advantage o f maths being abstract? One advantage is im m edi

ately apparent - the gain o f generality. The unfortunate learner finds him self

52

struggling and he always fails to acquire some knowledge from a mass of

facts, details and computational techniques which are not illuminated by a

definite general conception. This is the root reason why maths because of its

very abstractness must always remain one of the most important topics for

scientific thought. The theorem proved about abstract triangle applies equal

ly well to the figure formed by three matchsticks, the triangular boundary of

a piece o f land and the imaginary triangle formed by the earth, sun and

moon at any instant. Maths aims at progressive and higher order abstractions

and ever wider generalizations. Basic math concepts such as number, point,

space, function, etc. are generalized abstractions.

Philosophers single out (extract) another aspect of maths - logical. The

logical aspect deals with the form, structure and ways o f reasoning abstracted

from their specific content. The first contribution to this logicalformalization

was made by the ancient Greek mathematicians and philosophers (T.

Militus, the Pythagoreans, Aristotle). The true start offormal logical presen

tation o f m ath theories emerged with the birth of a modem sophisticated dis

cipline — M athematical Logic. Its founders — Hilbert, Russel, Whitehead,

Frege, Peano - formulated the concept of a whole body o f philosophical

studies under the new name — “metamathematics” “proof theory” or “syn

tax” . M ath formalizm means logical formalization o f the content o f any

math theory in terms of some formalized language possessing strict rules o f

inference. All the notions, expressions and sentences o f the math theory must

be finite sequences o f the admitted signs and symbols o f a formalized lan

guage. Such formalization is the highest level so far developed. In a formal

metamath theories mathematicians remove all the concrete content from the

discourse and go to the abstract development that lies behind any specific

application. It is within the grasp and appreciation o f specialists alone.

After referring to the basic characteristics o f maths let us discuss the

requirem ent o f rigour which implies that the theorem must be proved by a

finite number o f steps based upon a finite number o f axioms explicitly and

exactly formulated. This demand for logical deduction by means o f a finite

num ber o f steps is simply the requirem ent o f rigour in reasoning. It is an

error to believe that rigour in the math proof is the enemy of simplicity. On

the contrary, the rigorous m ethod is at the same tim e sim pler and easier to

understand and worthy in the long run. The very effort for rigour helps the

learners come across a simpler m ethod o f proof and surm ount (overcome)

all the difficulties. It is well known that wherever m aths is applied, it brings

preciseness and rigour about. Whenever in natural sciences a phrase “pre

cise methods” is used, maths is always present. The concept "rigour” in

53

m aths is a definite and exact one. Rigour in a science depends largely upon

the language used. The least rigorous branches o f science are those which

use com m on language for their formalization. The role o f m aths as a

means for rendering rigour to any science is well explained by the fact that

m aths is the “source” of a precise and concise language for all o th e r sci

ences.

In the present indefinite tense either the subject or the predicate may have

s-ending (the law o f one “s”). E.g., mathematicians prove, a m athem atician

proves.

1. Change the subject in the following sentences into the singular altering the predicate.

young man)

This young man means to be a mathematician.

tist) 2. They define this concept in a precise and formal way. (she) 3. VSfe

determine the strict meaning o f this word from the context available, (a

philologist) 4. Different fields o f mathematics involve specific problems, (this

new field) 5. People very often mix up the words “som e” and “sam e", (a

careless student) 6. We introduce a new term to distinguish the notions often

confused, (he) 7. They make up their minds to study the problem involved.

(she) 8. Wfe mean that your reasoning is illogical, (the teacher) 9. Scientists

relate these two facts to one known cause, (a mathematician) 10. H um an

reasoning differs according to the problem under study, (his reasoning)

11. The students get confused when they are unable to solve the problem on

the blackboard, (she) 12. They learn to think in terms o f equations, (an alge

braist)

formula, (she)

Does she express such relations in terms o f a formula?

54

1. We multiply the examples to clarify our viewpoint, (he)

2. Mathematicians never confuse the words "undefined” and “ meaningless” .

(a true scientist) 3. They relate undefined terms to meaningful concepts, (the

mathematician) 4. Mathematicians prefer to introduce new math terms

explicitly by definitions, (the teacher) 5. We add that many math terms have

non-m ath meanings in everyday situations, (he) 6. The sophisticated readers

master math formalized texts quite easily, (the mathematician) 7. They divide

the task and each o f them has his share of work, (he) 8. We try to communi

cate the information by all the means available, (a scientist)

m e n t o f a th e o r e m .

No, th e y d o n ’t. N o m a th e m a tic ia n lik e s it. H e

p refers a s y m b o lic sta te m e n t o f a th e o r e m .

not devote much time to transitions in reasoning. 3. A professional mathe

matician does not develop his arguments verbally. 4. Weak-willed minds can

not master maths. 5. An algebraist does not solve equations by arguing in

words. 6. M athematicians do not rely on intuition in their proofs. 7. Analogy

and induction do not always lead to true conclusions. 8. A layman does not

claim that maths is easy to manage. 9. Math language was not developed all

o f a sudden. 10. The mathematician does not object to the fact that there is a

language barrier between scientists and laymen. 11. The “translation” o f

problems into the language of mathematicians is, in fact, not an easy task.

12. Com m on people do not understand the formalized language of maths.

4. Disagree with the following negative statements and develop them further.

But they dd. Most symbols have the same meaning

throughout all math texts. Certain symbols, in fact,

have numerous connotations.

I. Symbols do not play the role o f words. 2. The math language has no

design and no rules. 3. There are no man-made or artificial languages.

4. Language is not a means for communicating human thoughts. 5. Both the

vocabulary and syntax o f the math language are not strictly devfted.

55

6. Scientists do not think and reason in terms o f formulas. 7. Maths is not dis

tinguished for its universality. 8. In maths the major m ethod o f reasoning is

not deduction. 9. Analogy and induction are not employed in maths at all.

10. There is no difference between inductive and deductive reasoning.

a) General questions

Yes, it is. Scientific language is peculiar.

there be a universal language for codifying science? (Yes, ...) 3. D o linguists

design and devise the language o f maths? (N o, ...) 4. Is there any ambiguity

in the meaning o f symbols and signs? (N o, ...) 5. Does a professional m ath

ematician confuse math concepts? (No, ...) 6. Can a layman understand a

formalized scientific language? ( N o ,...)

cians about this method o f proof.

Does there hold such an agreement? Yes. there does.

No, there does not.

1. There (is) circulates another variant o f this com m on phrase. (Yes, ...)

2. There appears a new meaning of the term. ( Yes,...) 3. There passes a line

through these two points. (N o, ...) 4. There lives a distinguished m athem ati

cian in this city. (Yes, ...) 5. There arises a need for a new formalized lan

guage. (N o ,\..)

c) Special Questions

mon language? (math symbolism)

M ath symbolism distinguishes the language o f science

from common language.

1. What constitutes the most part o f m ath language? (signs and symbols)

2. What makes for efficiency o f thought in m ath reasoning? (the compactness

56

and precision o f the math language) 3. Who designs and devises the language

o f the maths? {distinguished mathematicians) 4. Who sets up the rules of

abstract language? (logicians and semanticists) 5. Who confuses signs and

symbols o f maths? (laymen) 6. What do we call the result of addition, sub

traction, multiplication and division? (a sum, a difference, a product, a quo

tient, respectively) 7. What do scientists use math symbolism for? (for com

pactness, conciseness and unambiguity o f presentation) 8. What theorem is

familiar to every student of maths? (Pythagorean) 9. How is it that scientific

language is universal? {due to the supernational character o f scientific concepts)

10. When does a statement o f a theorem appeal to mathematician? (concise

and precise) 11. Which wording is more concise: verbal or symbolic? (sym

bolic, sure enough) 12. Who can dissociate, generalize and abstract math

concepts? {abstract-mindedscientists) 13. Why do scientific laws seem inde

pendent? {due to their abstract character) 14. Why are scientific laws

abstract? (because their content is put aside as irrelevant)

6. Disagree with the false statements. Begin your sentences with the following opening phrases

and develop them further.

It is quite the reverse. Just the other way round.

In fact, it is quite the reverse. The language o f science

is precise and quite safe.

is the foremost means o f human intercourse. 3. Ordinary people com m uni

cate by means o f the formalized language o f maths. 4. Math language is set

up by distinguished linguists. 5. The only reason for studying maths is to

master basic arithmetical operations. 6. When people try to do without

maths, they lose a colloquial language. 7. Math language and techniques do

not penetrate into fields outside the math science. 8. Statements expressed

in m ath terms are vague and ambiguous. 9. Scientists can use maths as a

shorthand script to codify relationships. 10. Razor-sharp calculus operates

with wordy statements. 11. Pure science is knowledge obtained from expert

iments and calculations. 12. Mental reasoning from obvious truths, i.e.,

axioms and postulates, constitutes applied science. 13. Basic undefined

terms o f maths are meaningless concepts. 14. A sharp dividing line between

57

“pure” and “applied” maths can, in fact, be drawn. 15. The present role o f

maths is the same as in previous stages o f its development. 16. There is a

great deal of confusion about symbolism.

GRAMMAR

1. Degrees of Comparison

Notice that there are some adjectives which owing to their meaning have

neither comparative nor superlative degrees, e.g., perfect, unique, full, empty,

square, round, daily, upper, major, outer, whole, only.

1. The solution of the problem must be perfect but not always unique. Now

its whole solution is available. 2. A sphere is a geometrical name for a round

or ball-shaped solid. 3. Counting arose from daily needs o f calculating

objects in outer physical world. 4. This is the only problem that may attract

our attention. 5. The major method o f proof in maths is deduction.

2. Follow the models and make the sentences in which comparison is expressed.

This problem is as difficult as the first problem.

This definition is as rigorous as the definition given

before.

2. comparison o f inequality (not s o ... as, not as ...as)

This problem is not as interesting as people may think.

The proof is not so valid as he supposed at first.

3. comparison o f parallel increase or decrease ( A t ... the).

The sooner the problem is solved, the better (so much

the better).

The longer he refuses to recognize the impossibility of the

solution, the worse for him (so much the worse for him)

4. comparison o f superiority (...-er than, the m o st... of)

This contribution of the ancient Greeks is much

greater than the formulas o f the Egyptians.

This solution is a great deal better than the last sugges

tion.

Her answer is the most convincing of all.

5. comparison o f inferiority (less ... than; still, a little

worse than)

His argument is less elegant than her proof.

Your drawing is a little worse than my drawing.

58

2. Participle Constructions

Participle I

to go - going, to lie - lying, to study - studying

The sign standing for an angle is <. (Attribute.)

2. When (if) you add fractions in arithmetic, you must

determine the least common denominator of the frac

tions involved.

Adding fractions in arithmetic ... (Adverbial modifier.)

1. The line which passes through these two points is a diameter. 2. If you

express these statements in math terms, you obtain the following equations.

3. A decimal fraction is a fraction which has a denominator of 10, 100, 1000

or some simple multiple of 10 (e.g., 0.05). 4. When we amalgamate several

relationships, we express the resulting relation in terms of a formula. 5. If we

try to do without maths, we lose a powerful tool for reshaping information.

6. The math language which codifies present science so clearly has a long

history o f its development. 7. The formula which describes acceleration is

Ду/Д/ = 32. 8. Calculus which is the main branch of modern maths, oper

ates with the rules of logical arguments. 9. When we use math language, we

avoid vagueness and unwanted extra meanings o f our statements. 10. When

scientists apply maths, they codify their science more clearly and objectively.

Participle I I

to give - given, to mean - meant, to mind - minded, to determine - deter

mined, to speak - spoken, to see - seen, to imply - implied, to communicate

—communicated

Models. I. The reasons which are given for the study of maths.

The reasons given for the study o f maths. (Attribute.)

2. When (if) they are expressed in terms of symbols,

these relations produce a formula.

Expressed in terms of sym bols... (Adverbial modifier.)

1. A com m on phrase which is used in such cases. 2. When they are used as

scientific terms, these concepts have different meanings. 3. The formal lan

59

guage which is spoken in this country is Russian. 4. The meanings o f words

which are always confused in speech. 5. If it is expressed in m ath terms, this

theorem gives a general m ethod o f calculating the area. 6. The sense which

is implied in this assertion is not clear. 7. If it is designed and devised in a

proper way, the symbolic language becomes universal. 8. The time which is

devoted to the translating o f math expressions into com m on language is

wasted for a mathematician.

nitions.

New concepts are introduced by rigorous definitions.

2. M athematicians cannot define some notions in a

precise and explicit way.

Some notions cannot be defined in a precise and

explicit way.

give the principal reasons for the study o f m aths. 2. People often use this

com m on phrase in such cases. 3. Even laymen must know the founda

tions, the scope and the role o f m aths. 4. In each country people tran s

late m ath symbols into peculiar spoken words. 5. All the specialists apply

basic symbols o f m aths. 6. Students may express this fam iliar theorem in

term s o f an equation. 7. Scientists devote little tim e to m aster sym bol

ism. 8. A student may use basic principle to determ ine the relation.

9. All the specialists must thoroughly rem em ber the preceding m aterial.

10. By the aid o f symbolism m athem aticians can make transitions in

reasoning alm ost m echanically by the eye. 11. The students verify the

solution o f this equation easily. 12. People abstract num ber co n cep ts and

a rith m e tic o p eratio n s w ith them from physical reality

13. M athem aticians investigate space form s and quantitative relations in

th eir pure state. 14. Scientists divorce abstract laws from the real world.

15. M athem aticians apply abstract laws to study the external world o f

reality. 16. A m ath formula can represent some form o f in terco n n ectio n s

and interrelations o f physical objects. 17. A m athem atical law involves

abstractions built upon abstractions, i.e., abstractions o f higher order.

18. Scientists can avoid am biguity by m eans o f symbolism and m ath d ef

initions.

60

C O N V ER SATIO N A L PRAC TIC E

To give the exact and explicit definition o f maths is not a simple task.

Numerous definitions o f maths are given by different writers but none of

them is utterly satisfactory. The point is it is impossible to compress into a

few words the definition of so vast and multifield subject. Mathematicians

determine the essence of maths in different ways according to the following

roles o f the science: maths as a science, as a language, as a tool, as a method

of inquiry.

1. Analyze the following definitions of maths and speak on the role of the science implied in each

of them. Compare them with F. Engels’ definition. Which of them may be called scientific and rig

orous? Give a definition of maths.

It’s not a definition at all, to my mind. Rather, it's

schoolchildren's view of maths.

is the queen of the sciences. 4. Maths is a universal tool for describing the

world around. 5. Maths is a device designed to enlarge human powers.

6. Maths is a symbolic representation of human perceptions. 7. Maths is a

game, a free creation of the mind divorced from practical problems. 8. Maths

is a tool for codifying information, for simple-transmission and communica

tion of thought. 9. Maths is a general approach to the whole class o f quite dis

similar situations. 10. Maths is a logical study o f shape, quantity, arrange

ments and structures. 11. Maths is the classification and study of all possible

patterns. 12. Maths is the art of giving the same name to different things.

13. Maths is an inspiration to the artist as well as a tool to scientist. 14. Maths

is the classification of all possible problems and the means appropriate to

their solutions. 15. Maths is the technique o f discovering and expressing in

the most economical possible way useful rules of reliable reasoning about cal

culation, shape and measurement. 16. Maths is an activity which has as its

goal the formulation and understanding o f a complete model of the universe.

2. Read the statements of the following theorems and say which of them is a theorem of pure

maths. Justify your choice.

1. The area o f a circle is nr2 2. The area of a circular field is n times the

square o f a certain physical length.

61

3. Are the following statements true or false? Justify your choice. Add some sentencefs) to sub

stantiate your claim.

In a sense, it is true.

Many math abstractions stand for no teal object in

practice (e.g., a variable, a function), they are, in fact,

mental creations and conveniences. Mathematicians

deal with abstractions to gain generality but some

thing else is involved, o f course. Abstractions make for

the efficiency and compactness o f thought. Through

the employment o f abstractions there results a consid

erable economy, both in math thought and in commu

nication o f thought.

2. Current maths is unmanageable for most social sci

entists.

Not quite so. Math methods o f inquiry constitute the

essential part o f and contribute to practically all the

sciences nowadays. Most social scientists manage to

master and apply math methods in their work.

priests of learning. 2. Math ability is a rare and unusual gift.

3. Mathematicians are by no means as peculiar as they may seem at fust.

4. No special gifts or qualities of mind are needed to master maths. S. Any

man of average intelligence can have access to maths. 6. Mathematicians are

human beings like “you and me”. 7. The mathematician needs only critical

intellect, common sense and a-little imagination. 8. Maths is a temple and

only the initiated are allowed to enter it 9. Maths is a wide science which is

open to anyone who enjoys thinking and precW thinking in particular.

10. Maths requires professionals, not amateurs. 11. Like all other sciences

maths arose out of the needs of men. 12. The abstract ideas of modem maths

are related to real-life situations. 13. It seems that real-life situations have lit

tle to do with maths. 14. The intimate connection between maths and the

objects and events in the physical world is obvious and reassuring. 15. The

subject matter of maths is completely empirical, borrowed from the external

world and then divorced from it. 16. To understand the external world scien

tists must seek its math essence. 17. Pure maths is a fascinating subject.

4. Agree or disagree with the statements. Use the introductory phrases.

Right you are (it is). I am afraid, it к wrong.

Quite so. Absolutely coirect. I don't quite agree to it.

I quite agree to it. Excuse me, hut... Not at aU.

I think, it is right. On the contrary, fer from it

62

1. The transition from concrete and individual to the abstract involves

some difficulty. 2. The attempts to define verbally the “ meaning” o f math

terms lead to confusion and ambiguity. 3. It is more difficult to think and

reason in terms o f abstractions than in concrete physical objects. 4. A math

formula has a direct real physical counterpart. 5. Mathematicians do not rely

on their intuitive judgement - they seek to give a rigorous proof. 6. Proof is

a thread connecting the statements in a math theory. 7. If you want to know

what a m ath theorem states, see what its proof proves. 8. The need for care

ful and exact reasoning in proofs is not at once apparent for laymen.

9. Symbolism often leads to misunderstanding among mathematicians.

10. An idea expressed in symbols is more scientific than the same thought

presented in words. 11. M aths is both intelligible and enjoyable.

12. Scientists alone know about the scope o f maths in our age. 13. In our age

in particular maths attains its wide range, scope and extraordinary applica

bility. 14. A scientist finds that his own thinking is enriched and enlarged by

an insight into m ath thought. 15. Computing procedures are not all maths of

today. 16. There is nothing more practical than a sound fundamental theory.

17. M athem aticians do not deal with applications o f maths.

5. Disagree with the following negative statements and keep the conversation going where pos

sible.

Yes, it can. (But it can.) N ot rarely mathematicians

find new interpretations and applications for theories

formerly considered as “pure science”.

abstract idea o f “num ber” was not the first grand step in maths. 3. Math

abstractions are not reflections o f material objects and their interrelations in

the real world. 4. Maths is not a free creation o f the human mind and rea

soning. 5. Pure maths does not conceal its origin from the external worlfi.

6. To investigate the space forms and quantity relations of the real woijld

maths does not separate them entirely from their content. 7. In pure maths

theory the physical content o f the objects involved is not irrelevant. 8. The

laws abstracted from the real world are not usually divorced and set up

against the real world. 9* The world does not conform to these laws. 10. Pure

maths cannot be applied to the physical world. 11. Maths does not present

the forms o f interconnections o f objects in the physical world. 12. The sub

ject m atter o f m aths is not borrowed from reality. 13. Mathematicians do not

63

seek useful applications of their theories. 14. Most pure maths theories do

not find any practical applications. 15. Pure maths theories are often not sig

nificant and they are entirely forgotten in say, 50 years.

It is, in fact, sophisticated and claims good training.

is maths?” there is a short answer. 3. Mathematicians perfect and refine every

day language and apply it to scientific formalization. 4. Maths is dry, barren

and boring. 5. Mathematicians are high priests o f mysterious and powerful

mind of magic cult. 6. Math activity takes place in high spheres open only to

the few initiated. 7. Maths is a free creation of the mind unconditioned by any

thing except the nature o f the mind itself. 8. There is nothing necessary in any

of the fundamental concepts, definitions and axioms o f any branch o f maths.

9. There is no interconnection and interrelation between maths and the real

world. 10. Mathematicians never care for the useful application o f their sci

ence. 11. Lengthy and boring calculations give satisfaction and aesthetic em o

tions. 12. Most mathematicians are men o f genius with extraordinary mental

abilities. 13. Maths deals with empty equations signifying nothing.

7. Discuss the given alternatives, choose the right one or complete the sentences with your o«w

version.•

• To bridge the gap between the math and non-m ath communities the

mathematicians o u g h t...

1) to popularize maths for the laymen; 2) to make maths more popular; 3)

not to use precisely accurate math terms; 4) to define every math concept; 5)

to speak straightforward, unpretentious language in the explanations; 6) to

apply techniques familiar to non-mathematical audiences; 7) to enlighten the

readers on different subjects o f today’s maths; 8) to co-author their math text

books (manuals) with foremost scientific fiction (sci-fi) writers; 9) to teach

nonspecialists to reason in math terms and reach all the conclusions by the

deduction only; 10) to explicate the history o f every great discovery in maths.

• To establish a rigorous deductive proof o f a theorem the mathematician

should ...

1) get familiar with models o f math proofs; 2 ) master deductive reasoning

procedures; 3) develop a set o f definitions o f basic terms, axioms and postu-

64

lates; 4) collect new results available; 5) be systematic and use perfect logic;

6) apply the rule o f inference; 7) avoid vagueness, ambiguity, implicitness

and circularity; 8) prove its converse; 9) use his inspired intuition and insight

in a proper way; 10) reason deductively and rigorously.

• To develop a new fundamental and consistent math theory the m athe

matician m u s t...

1) review the preceding material on the topic; 2) revise basic math con

cepts; 3) introduce new signs and symbols; 4) invent novel math notions; 5)

deduce new theorem s; 6) create a new hypothesis (conjecture); 7) find the

applications o f the theory; 8) verify the results o f other mathematicians; 9)

reconstruct the old theory; 10) vary and modify old techniques and devices;

11) invent new sophisticated maths; 12) carry out complicated arguments

and demonstrations.

This assertion means that logic is an integral compo

nent o f maths both pure and applied. It implies as well

that mathematicians must reason logically while

developing their theories and establishing their rigor

ous proofs. But maths is not logic only, it has the sub

ject matter o f its own. The assertion is an example of

unscientific definition o f maths.

2. Living maths involves new results and the work of

predecessors.

This assertion means to imply that maths is always in

the making. The work o f predecessors should be mas

tered, developed further and corrected, if necessary.

N ot infrequently new results in maths appear when

the mathematician does not take the classical contri

bution for granted.

maths starts are simple; the rest is not. 3. We say that while the creative work

in maths is done by individuals, the results are the fruition o f centuries o f

thought and development. 4. Maths is something over and above mere devel

opm ent o f axioms, theorems and proofs. 5. M aths is abstract and it is hard.

It is distinctive and effective and thus important. 6. Maths is a living plant

which flourishes and fades with the rise and fall o f civilizations, respectively.

7. We are all laymen outside the field o f our speciality. 8. An educated mind

is composed o f all the minds o f preceding ages. 9. Where there is pattern,

65

there is significance. 10. The intuitive side of the basic concepts is m athe

matically irrelevant. 11. Without maths it is impossible to gain any deep

insight into the essence o f space, time and matter. 12. All things in the whole

wide universe happen mathematically. 13. Math universe is an ideal universe.

14. Pure maths does not arise o f pure thought. 15. While mathematicians

produce formulas, no formula produces mathematicians. 16. M aths is a

body o f knowledge, but it contains no truths. 17. Wherever we have deduc

tive reasoning, we have maths. 18. Much of the scientific knowledge is pro

duced by deductive reasoning. 19. There is no absolute rigour. Rigorous

proof is a slow and torturous method. 20. Rigour in the proof is the enemy

o f simplicity.

9. Agree or disagree with the statements given below. Use the introductory phrases. la case of

agreement repeat the statement, and add some sentenced) to justify your choice.

Exactly. Quite so. You’re wrong there, I am afraid.

It’s correct to say. It’s unlikely.

I quite agree with you. Not at alL Not quite so.

I share this viewpoint. Just the other way round.

That’s right ... Language is the foremost means of

communication.

2. Mathematicians speak only the formalized language

o f maths.

This is not the case. Nobody speaks the formalized

language o f maths. It is an unspoken language. It helps

codify scientific knowledge. Symbolism must be

avoided wherever it is not o f real help or a necessity

only. 2. Natural human languages exist in speech. 3. Speech is the onl>

means o f com m unication. 4. People use speech in preference to other

means o f intercourse. 5. N ational language is the product o f m anners and

customs o f a country. 6. Every generation o f people develops its own new

language. 7. The history o f every national language is indistinguishable

from the history of the particular nation. 8. Speech is the creation and for

m ulation o f human thoughts in term s o f colloquial language. 9. Speech is

the essential means in hum an development. 10. The language o f m aths like

com m on language is natural. 11. Symbolism often leads to m isunderstand

ing. 12. The language o f m aths is set up by distinguished linguists.

13. Scientific languages are designed and devised with the definite purpose

66

and ingenuity. 14. M ost m ath texts are written in everyday language.

15. Today’s math language is the same as the language set up by Newton

and Leibnitz in the 17th century. 16. There is nothing more horrible than

the current misapplication o f symbolism in maths. 17. Basic terms o f pres

ent maths no longer have their usual intuitive meaning, they become

abstract concepts.

10. Suppose that the statement is incomplete. Repeat the statement and add your own reason

ing, developing the idea further. Use the following phrases:

There is one more p o in t... One more remark seems reasonable, namely ...

I may as well add t h a t ... Exactly... Indeed ...

Moreover ... More than th a t ...

language.

Certainly, ... I may as well add that writing involves:

graphics, spelling and composition. So, writing is a

very difficult language skill, to my mind.

2. Maths is often termed the language of science.

Exactly. Maths is, indeed, the language o f science. But

I like to emphasize that maths is not only a language

but a science in its own right.

1. Written and spoken languages are different forms o f human com m uni

cation. 2. Speech is spontaneous while writing allows time for thinking, rea

soning and choosing the right word. 3. Speaking is many times faster than

writing. 4. Early verbal thinking was rough and confused. 5. Reasoning was

unfinished and words mistaken for the things they represent. 6. With speech

and writing came the beginnings o f science. 7. Numbers or the written fig

ures called “ numerals” have a long history. 8. Number names were evident

ly the first words used when people began to talk. 9. Numbers may have dif

ferent representations. 10. Symbolism distinguishes the language o f science

from spoken everyday languages. 11. When maths is used in any science, it

brings precision, rigour and objectivity about. 12. Rigour in science depends

upon the language used. 13. Maths is the source for precise language for all

the sciences. 14. The function o f formalized languages is to codify and pres

ent math theories. 15. Bare math formulas explain nothing; they simply

describe symbols and signs in precise language. 16. Yet, such formulas are

the most valuable knowledge man can acquire about nature.

11. Practise problem questions and answers. Work in pairs. Change over!

67

Model. Q. How many signs and symbols arc there in the lan

guage of maths?

A. As far as I know, there are 50, not less, and of vari

ous categories: symbols o f math objects, relations, and

operations.

Q. Which symbol or sign is the most important in the

language o f maths?

A. Certainly, it’s the little sign “= ” which is translat

able as “is another name for”. Such basic math con

cepts as an equality (e.g., aaa = a’), an identity (e.g.,

ab = ba), an equation (e.g., lx + 5 = 11) all involve

this sign. Most scientific laws are expressed in terms o f

equations.

Q. The equality sign is basic in maths, sure enough.

However, among numerous symbols and signs, one is

remarkable, with the big meaning: How should

we word it?

A. It is pronounced “ infinity” The math notation

must be worded “tends to infinity” .

Q. Is there any need to go out o f this world to locate

math infinity? Where is it exactly situated?

A. In the scientists' mind. It’s an abstract concept. In

the calculus “° ° ” means limit and nothing more.

Q. In algebra we must use the symbol for a variable.

How can you complete the definition, *Avariable is...”?

A. Men use variables readily and never tiy to define the

term precisely, \fery roughly speaking, a variable is a

placeholder symbol for the unspecified numbers.

Generally, literal symbols x, y, z, w are variables

regardless o f what happens to them.

Q. Is it enough to look at a symbol and say, “Ah, this is

a variable!”?

A. By no means, \feriables must be understood in their

context. Suppose, we have a formula x + у * 3, without

additional remarks, very little meaning is conveyed.

1. What do you feel looking at a book page sprinkled with x 's and j ’s. = 's

and other math symbols and signs? 2. Symbolism burdens the memory and

is a bar to understanding. Isn’t it the case? 3. Does the m athem atician write

in the language o f maths to hide his knowledge from the world at large? 4. Is

it possible to make math language-to-Russian dictionary o r a "translation

key”? 5. Does every branch o f m aths have its own “language”? 6. D o new

symbols often appear in maths? 7. When do mathematicians introduce new

symbols and signs into the language o f maths? 8. How old is the language o f

maths? 9. To whom is the language o f m aths “foreign"? Can it be mastered

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overnight? What is the reason for this? 10. The purpose o f math symbolism

is to facilitate concise communication among scientists, isn’t it? How does

it work? 11. Does the language o f maths change from generation to genera

tion as any common language does? 12. Are mathematicians always consis

tent in the way they use their notations? Is the language o f maths perfect?

13. The words “variable” and “constant” sound like antonyms. Are they

used in this sense in maths? 14. The symbol x may have more than ten dif

ferent interpretations. What does its signification depend on? 15. Are arith

metic operations more convenient to perform in Arabic numeral notation or

in Roman numerals?

12. Repeat the statements and keep the conversation going adding the opening phrases.

I don’t mean to sa y ... Scientists do not claim ...

Mathematicians object and sa y ... It is too much to say th a t...

Mathematicians object and claim that the calculus is

the most rational subject in maths. It is a razor-edge

algebra.

o f maths is the language o f the brain. 3. Formalized texts need no explanatory

footnotes. 4. Unsophisticated readers can grasp the fundamental ideas o f a for

malized text quite easily. 5. Math formulas are easy to understand. 6. The for

mulas avoid vagueness and unwanted extra meanings. 7. Routine services of

maths for sciences include only computations. 8. Maths customarily performs

marvels in science and develops entirely new viewpoints.

13. Agree or disagree with the following negative statements and develop them further:

quial phrases.

No, they don’t. They use formalized languages for that

purpose.

2. Maths is not a tool for reshaping information.

But it is. It is like an automaton that operates with the

rules o f logical arguments instead o f wheels and pis

tons.

1. The scientist building knowledge needs not express himself in clear lan

guage. 2. Ordinary languages are not vague and they are reliable for science.

69

3. The language o f maths does not say what it means. 4. Math symbols do not

have any unwanted extra meanings. 5. The formula у = 16Д/2 does not tell

anything about mass or gravity. 6. There is no formula for uniformly accel

erated motion. 7. Scientists do not amalgamate several relationships in their

arguments. 8. The compact shorthand o f algebra is not the main part o f the

language o f maths. 9. Maths is not a clever servant for science. 10. The

knowledge o f the math formulas does not represent knowledge about all the

situations encompassed by the formulas. 11. The person who looks at a math

formula and complains o f its abstractness, dryness and uselessness fails to

grasp its true value.

14. Express surprise, consent or disagreement with the statements given below. Try to prove

your viewpoint or advocate the opinion of others. Summarize the discussion.

1. Is it really? It is too much to say that maths is an art,

to my mind. It runs counter to common sense,

indeed. 1 prefer a conventional definition o f maths

as one of the oldest sciences.

2. Exactly. Maths has nothing to do (= nothing in com

mon) with ait. There is no poetry and no beauty in

maths. From a math standpoint it's nonsense to daim it

3 . 1 share this viewpoint. Science is not the object for

art and beauty. It’s, in fact, a meaningless statement.

4. You’re all a bit wrong, I am afraid. To say that maths is

an art is not to say that it is a mere amusement The

highest compliment to a math work is to call it ele

gant, though it is not easy at all to define elegant

maths.

5. Surely. The inclusion o f maths among arts is appar

ently not illogical. Math creations haw design,

symmetry, harmony and inner beauty i.e., charac

teristics o f art, in the long run.

6. One more remark seems reasonable, namely, in the

search for a method o f proof the mathematician

must use not only his creative ability and insight but

inspiration that we usually associate with the cre

ation o f a piece o f art or music.

7. Certainly. I quite agree to it. 1 may as well add that

the role o f maths as an art is especially emphasized

when conjectures (hypotheses) are proved.

8. That’s right. It's common knowledge that a rigorous

and elegant proof is beautifbl to math eye. It’s a

poem and a delight for the mathematician.

9. There is one more point that I think is relevant. The

analogy between maths and art makes sense only to

a person who loves both.

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10. Summing up the discussion it seems correct to say that there

may be different viewpoints, but ninths is more than only a

language or technique. It’s an art in the broad sense of the

word.

2. M athematicians see beauty where others find only confusion of signs and

symbols. 3. M aths and art are intimately related. 4. Art is beyond the scope

o f a scientist’s interests. 5. Poetry is read only by artistic-minded people —

not by mathematicians. 6. M athematicians pay no attention tp the elegance

o f presentation. 7. M athematicians’ search for beauty and elegance likens

them to artists. 8. The beauty o f a theorem lies in its simplicity and general

ity. 9. M athematical ability is often classed with artistic ability. 10. A beauti

ful math result is always non-trivial. 11. Elegant and beautiful ideas enrich

maths. 12. The mathematician like an artist is a maker of patterns. The

m athem atician not rarely chooses his patterns for beauty’s sake. 13. In

m athem aticians’ view the formula c2 = a2 + b2 is elegant and beautiful.

1. From the time o f Pythagoras the study o f music is regarded as maths in

nature. 2. The relationship between maths and music is obvious. 3. Music —

the most abstract o f the arts —apparently appeals to mathematicians. 4. Not

few m athem aticians are excellent musicians. 5. Masters such as Bach con

structed and advocated math theories for the composition of music. 6. In

such theories cold reason rather than spiritual feeling gives the creative pat

tern. 7. Music lovers can enjoy beautiful music thanks as much to a m athe

matician Fourier as to Beethoven. 8. Unlike the sciences but like the art o f

music, m aths is a free creation o f the mind.

C O N V E R SA TIO N A L P R A C T IC E

Practise questions and answers. Work in pairs. Add some more questions concerning the topic

“The Study of M aths”.

study m aths, people may To some people it is an absolute necessity as

wonder? part of their professional training.

2. W hat about others — I To others maths can provide an introduction

mean not professionals, but to systematic and logical thinking,

ordinary people?

71

3. Maths university depart It’s the real fact, indeed. Besides, many other

ments have been training university departments and institutes require

experts in maths, and people that every student should take a year’s course

take it for granted, don’t they? in maths as part o f his general education.

4. When do freshm en Until the learners start with algebra with its

come across some difficul abstract symbols in place o f numbers, it is

ties in their studies? not difficult to answer the question posed

even for Humanities D epartm ent students.

5. D on’t people realize Yes, they do, sure enough. But once they

the practical advantages o f leave the practical phases o f m aths, the prob

arithmetic — they learn to lem to present a reasonable and acceptable

count, add, subtract, divide motivation for its study becomes increasing

and multiply? ly difficult.

6. How do m athem ati M athematicians claim that maths is universal

cians assess the m ath stud knowledge, the language o f science, a power

ies? ful means o f exact reasoning in science and a

solid foundation for other fields o f learning.

7. Maths is a well-ordered W hen a man tries to reason mathematically,

and perfectly organized rea he shows how he thinks, argues, substanti

soning. What does this ates and proves. It implies as well that every

statement mean to imply? statem ent should be proved logically and

verified in practice.

8. How do they manage to They cany on analysis o f both sets o f state

do it? ments and seek interrelations and intercon

nections between them.

9. Do there exist any rules The mathematician ought to know definite

to carry on such analysis? and reliable rules o f math deduction which

permit and validate the transition in reason

ing from one set o f statements to another.

The only compass in reasoning is rigour in

logic and validity in proofs.

10. Scientists confirm the To my mind, it is a more general formulation

educational value o f maths o f the difficulty o f maths. For the apprecia

studies if maths is taught in a tion o f maths studies actual contact is crucial

special way. Is this really the for every learner o f maths.

case?

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C O M P O SITIO N

Reproduction Writing

Reproduction is a composition in which the ideas are stated explicitly and

the task is to remember correct English ways o f expressing them. The student

must listen attentively to the text, read by the teacher or recorded on the tape

and then write the gist (the essence, the main points) using some words and

expressions from the text either given by the teacher or memorized.

Listen several times to the recording and reproduce (in writing) any part of the text “Myths in

Mathematics”.

Dialogue Writing

A dialogue is a conversation or talk.

Reconstruct the text “Mathematics — the Language of Science” into a dialogue. Write ques

tions and correct answers.

Paragraph Writing

A paragraph consists o f a number o f sentences which are closely related

and deal with the same topic.

Model. Scientific methods o f reasoning seem so different

from the reasoning used in our ordinary life,

because they are more refined, more elaborate and

sophisticated. Yet, essentially, they are the same.

The object o f our reasoning in life and in science is

the same: to order events; to choose the most

essential points of the events; to extract their rela

tions and interconnections; to understand and

explain the world of our sense perceptions.

Write some paragraphs showing in what way you reason a) while trying to prove your viewpoint

in a scientific dispute; b) while developing a formal math theory. Your paragraph must not exceed

eight sentences.

The adjective “abstract” , e.g., “abstract concepts” must not be confused

(mixed up) with the noun “abstract”.

A precis (конспект, реферат) is any abbreviated and condensed restate

m ent (reproduction) o f essential facts, the main ideas, points, details o f a

73

text given for collateral readings made by the student as an exercise in com

position. In scientific literature the term “abstract” is more preferable.

An abstract (реферат) is the expression (reproduction, representation) in

a condensed form of the content o f any piece o f scientific writing in a lim it

ed number o f sentences. The student must briefly formulate the main ideas

in his own words excluding and omitting the unnecessary details. Facts must

become plain statements. An abstract consists o f a) an introduction, i.e.,

data (the printed source, the author's name, the title); b) the principal part;

c) the conclusion.

Abstract Reading*

1. Read, translate and analyze the given model of an abstract from Mathematical Reviews, Jane

1983, p. 2259. (Babbah, R.P. “ Mathematics and Society”.)

The author points out some discrete and indirect contributions o f maths to

the benefit and welfare o f society. Firstly, he mentions some o f the great

achievements o f maths during the last two decades, arguing that whenever

difficult and important problems are solved, “the whole hum an race shares in

the glory” As for the “indirect contributions, the relations between maths,

physics and chemistry are considered. The study of functions o f several vari

ables is assumed to be one o f the most favoured research areas with respect to

these relations. Symmetry and qualitative analysis, leading to group theory,

and, respectively, to topology are general principles used in handling the cor

responding problems. More “direct” contributions o f maths to society can be

seen in the applications in economics, planning, industry, management and

the author gives some examples, e.g., linear programming and input-output

analysis. He mentions some special relations o f maths to other areas, such as

maths and biology, maths and communications, etc. Finally the author con

fesses his belief in the benefit o f math education for gifted young people.

The book shows the author’s view o f the beauty and usefulness o f maths.

It should be useful supplementary reading for students who seek an intro

ductory overview to maths, its utility and beauty. The book encourages the

m aths students to be involved more deeply into the history o f current maths.

2. Look through some abstracts in scientific journals, e.g.. Mathematical Reviews of the cur

rent year, choose one of them and study it carefully. Be ready: 1) to read and translate it in class;

2) to display its components structure; 3) to assess its subject n u tter; 4) to analyze its grammati

cal and stylistic peculiarities; 5) to justify your choice.

* Abstract reading practice is compulsory for the students in every unit o f this textbook.

74

Abstract Writing

Read the text “ Mathematics and Art” carefully several times. When it is completely under

stood, start writing an abstract, i.e., a brief condensation of the whole text.

a) Give your abstract a suitable title;

b) Begin the abstract with one of the introductory general phrases:

The text deals with ... (speaks about, says that, presents, shows, relates, points out, discusses,

describes, reviews, sketches, surveys, consists of, is devoted to, throws light on, gives some com

ments on, traces the history of, outlines the development of, olTers an overview, etc.)...

c) The principle part must not exceed six plain statements generalizing the main ideas of the

text in a logical sequence; d) Conclude the abstract with your personal viewpoint (opinion, judge

ment, critical comments, etc.) of both the content and the language of the text, using the given

phrases:

The language is quite (unm anageable... The style is formal (academic)...

There are practically no (many) unknown The meaning of the unfamiliar words can(not) be

words ... grasped from the context...

The text is dry, dull and boring ... It is (not) worth reading and abstracting...

The reading of the text (does not) gives The reading of the text increases (decreases) lan

some satisfaction and pleasure ... guage skills.

Composition Writing

A composition is a creative literary work dealing with one problem or topic

in detail.

Write out from all the texts and exercises of Unit IWo the definitions of maths which, to your

mind, are correct. Arrange them up to your liking and add some more relevant and important

information. Make up a plan for the composition. Write a composition, using the active vocabu

lary, on the topic “What Is Mathematics?”.

C O M P R E H E N SIO N E X E R C ISE S

Questions

Choose and answer some problem question(s) in writing and be ready to take part in the dis

cussion.

1. Where does the word “m athem atics” come from, 1 wonder? 2. Does

math knowledge come as a consequence (result) o f studying and learning

alone? 3. How many subject-fields (branches, domains, divisions, compart- *

* N o personal viewpoint is wanted in a formal abstract meant for publication in a scientific jour

nal, e.g., Mathematical Reviews, but for teaching purposes such a conclusion is desirable.

75

merits) o f maths do there exist nowadays? 4. What are the fundamental co m

ponents o f any branch of maths? 5. Can you name some new branches o f

modern maths? 6. What field o f maths is the most interesting (im portant,

essential, significant), to your mind? 7. Why are axioms necessary in a

deductive system? 8. Why ought the m athem atician to reason deductively?

9. Can we distinguish between whole numbers and irrational numbers from

the viewpoint o f their origin? 10. What are the factors that make possible the

growth o f maths? 11. What can research in m aths mean? 12. Is the use o f

abstractions peculiar to maths alone? 13. Are the concepts o f force, mass,

energy, wealth, liberty, justice, democracy, etc., mental creations? 14. What

is m eant by the phrases “pure m aths” “applied m aths”? 15. W hat is more

important: a math theory or practical applications? 16. Can a single person

be a specialist in many if not all the branches o f present-day maths?

17. Where is progress more rapid: in pure or applied maths? 18. W here do

math concepts come from? 19. Most abstract m ath concepts have their

physical counterparts, haven’t they? 20. Are math concepts discovered or

invented? 21. Do mathematicians mean the objective existence o f the objects

they study? 22. Although maths is a science, it is usually distinguished from

science by its relative independence from empirical considerations. How

does pure maths manage to conceal its origin from the real world? 23. Does

maths deal only with numbers and geometrical forms and the concepts built

upon these basic ideas? 24. What does the degree o f abstraction o f a math

notion depend on? 25. Why do m athem aticians not deal with abstractions of

other sciences? 26. Do mathematicians make an agreement with physicists,

economists, chemists, sociologists and others and divided abstract concepts

among themselves? 27 What is a math postulate (axiom, theorem, proof,

theory)? 28. How is maths created and developed? 29. What mathematicians

may be called distinguished (famous, prom inent, outstanding, o f genius,

etc.)? Who are the greatest Russian and Soviet mathematicians according to

your personal viewpoint and criterion? 30. D o modern young m athem ati

cians advance more rapidly than the m athem aticians o f the previous (pre

ceding) ages? 31. Do the phrases “ math language” , “ math notation” “ m ath

symbolism” mean the same thing? 32. What were the first math signs and

symbols, to your mind? 33. What is the distinction between natural language

and the language of maths? 34. What do they have in common? 35. Is there

any difference between the language o f algebra and the language o f the cal

culus? 36. What language(s) do mathematicians speak? 37. How do m athe

maticians prefer to express themselves in their m ath writing? 38. What lan

guage (Latin, French, English, native, formalized) do m athem aticians use

76

for their scientific publications? 39. What is the distinction between a strict

scientific presentation and a popular scientific presentation of a math theo

ry? 40. Can every mathematician introduce any symbols he likes or prefers

into the language o f maths? 41. Can a common language render the subtle

art o f scientific reasoning, designing hypotheses and developing math theo

ries? 42. If a speaker uses a word we are not familiar with, the context usu

ally gives the clue (key) to its meaning. Can a scientist understand the

meaning o f the unfamiliar symbol in a formalized text? 43. How do m ath

em aticians make transitions in reasoning? 44. What do we call reasoning

from particular and individual to general, and vice versa? 45. If we wish to

avoid “circular reasoning” , what must we do? 46. What method o f reason

ing is the most reliable in science? 47. What is the difference between a dic

tionary (encyclopaedic) and a rigorous m athem atical definition?

48. Implicit (explicit) definition. The range o f definition. What do these

phrases mean in maths? 49. While proving a theorem, what can the m athe

matician rely on: intuition, instinct, imagination, a flash o f insight, logic,

the power o f deduction, inspiration, common sense, experience? 50. If

there is no ready-made solution for the problem involved, what must the

m athem atician do? 51. Is the inclusion o f maths among arts senseless?

52. W hat does the creative process in both maths and art involve? 53. Are

aesthetic requirem ents (beauty, elegance o f proof, etc.) subject to formal

and logical analyses? 54. What is meant by the phrase “revolutions in art

and m aths”? 55. D o mathematicians seek to understand the nature o f musi

cal sounds? Why? 56. What are some o f the cultural bearings and hum anis

tic implications of maths?

DISCUSSION

1. What do the given definitions emphasize? What do they have in com

mon?

a) Pure “mathematics may be defined as the subject in which we never

know what we are talking about, nor whether what we are saying is true.”

(B. Russell.)

b) “ M athematics is a meaningless game played with meaningless marks on

paper and shifting these marks about in accordance with certain tacitly

assumed or explicitly formulated rules o f play.” (D. Hilbert.)

2. Which image o f maths do you prefer? Give reasons for your preference.

a) “ M aths is general learnable knowledge.” (The Pythagoreans.)

b) “ M aths is great oaktree with deep roots and powerful trunk, and from

77

the trunk’s top numerous branches had issued and subdivided into smaller

branches.” (H. Eves, historian o f maths.)

c) “ Maths is the whole universe.” (Experts o f modem mathematical

logic.)

3. M athematicians - what are they? When (why) does a person make up

his mind to become a mathematician? What motivates and directs the activ

ities of mathematicians? What mathem atician(s), to your mind, is (are) the

most distinguished and why?

4. What are the mathematicians and scientists who made contribution to

the development o f math language and introduced the basic signs and sym

bols? Consult the articles: Знаки математические. БСЭ. Изд. 3-е. Том 9. М.,

1972, с. 548—550. Is m ath language no more than a system o f signs and

symbols? Has it any content o r is it above reality? Has it any roots in

some actuality o r are the truths o f math language independent o f all expe

rience? If language is a means o f com m unication between hum an beings,

what is com m unicated by m ath language? How is this com m unication

effected?

5. How is an abstract m ath science constructed? Does the abstract sci

ence consist o f abstract concepts alone? Is m odem m aths abstract or

empirical? W hat are the (dis)advantages o f m aths being abstract? Symbolic

language determ ines the true aspect o f m odern maths. What does this

statem ent imply? Is an abstract math theory o f use to any one but m athe

maticians?

6. Strictly speaking, the careful m athem atician cannot say: “ It is tru e.”

He must instead make statem ents like this: “ If A is true, then В is true.” If

you wish to prove a statem ent in any subject o f m aths, why do you prove it

by deducing it from other statements? The truth o f m ath statem ents is rel

ative and relevant only to maths and has no direct bearing on the physical

world. Why?

7. Most mathematicians object to the separation o f pure and applied

aspects of maths. Wiry? D o pure and applied maths have common language,

methods, applications?

8. Reasoning may be: true, false, (in)valid, rigorous, vague, (un)scientific.

What do all these phrases mean? W hat’s the distinction between everyday

reasoning in life and scientific reasoning?

9. The requirement o f rigour in reasoning is proverbial in maths. M ath

rigour - who needs it?

10. What is the role o f a) experience, b) com m on sense, c) intuition, d) tal

ent, e) genius, 0 imagination, g) flashes o f insight in maths?

78

11. Language that is reliable for science. What characteristics must it

have? Its vocabulary and syntax. “ English cannot be taught, it must be

learnt.” (M . Wfest.) D o scientists learn formalized languages o r do they

master them w ithout learning? Your own experience. What other formal

ized languages besides m aths do you know? How did you manage to master

them? .

12. There exist several types o f translation, viz., literal, word-for-word,

verbal, adequate, literary. Explain what all these terms mean. Which type o f

these translations is the best? Does the translation o f the verbal or wordy

statement o f a m ath problem into a symbolic language involve similar diffi

culties as the translation from foreign languages?

13. G ram m ar is the study and analysis o f how the language is spoken and

written by most educated people. As language habits and customs change

with years, the “rules” o f grammar change, too. What about the “rules” o f

formalized languages? Do they change with time?

14. What is m eant by the phrase “mathematization o f science”? What are

its (dis)advantages and implications? In the present age, specialization

means isolation. Give the reasons and possible arguments. The use o f math

methods enlarges the objective value o f scientific theories. Why? Illustrate it

by some examples.

15. “The science o f pure mathematics in its modem development may claim

to be the foremost original creation o f the human mind. Another claimant for

this position is music.” (A. Whitehead.) Is maths the creation o f the human

mind alone? What about applied maths? Can we liken it to music? Why?

16. The professional mathematician has a strong poetic form in his own way

o f scientific presentation. Illustrate it by examples to show the compactness

and elegance o f m ath style. What’s the layman’s viewpoint on this question?

17. “ Music is the pleasure the human soul experiences from counting

without being aware that it is counting.” (G . Leibnitz.) Explain in your own

words the meaning (sense) o f this statement. Whs G. Leibnitz a mathemati

cian or a musician?

18. J. Fourier’s theorem says that all sounds, vocal or instrumental, sim

ple or complex, are completely describable in m ath terms, i.e., by a for

mula. Every musical sound, however complex, is merely a combination o f

simple sounds. Is this theorem o f pure m aths o r o f physics? What is its sig

nificance in m aths? How can it help distinguish between musical sounds

and noise? C an the theorem explain the sweetness o f some sounds and

harshness o f others? Why does the same note given off by both violin and

piano sound different to the ear? The role o f m aths is music.

79

19. “ In the interest of clarity, I did not hesitate to repeat myself and did not pay

the slightest attention to the elegance o f presentation. I sincerely stuck to the

prescription of the great theoretician L. Boltzmann that the business o f elegance

should be left to the tailors and shoe-makers.” (A. Einstein.) Are Einstein’s cre

ations elegant, to your mind? D o scientists like Einstein’s form o f scientific pres

entation? How much information does mass-eneigy-relation ( £ = me2) encom

pass? Why did Einstein have to repeat himself? Are Einstein’s creations easy to

understand? Why do you think Einstein made such a statement?

20. Wherein is the beauty o f maths? Beautiful maths is the greatest contri

bution o f the m an’s mind to all the civilizations. Prove it.

21. It is convenient to keep the old classification o f m aths as one o f th e sci

ences, but it is more just to call it an art. If maths is an art with cultural bear

ings it must be a part o f the liberal education o f a doctor, lawyer o r average

educated person. Agree or disagree.

Unit Three (3 )

Grammar

1. Ing-Ending Forms in English.

2. Indefinite Pronouns, Adverbs and

Their Derivatives.

GRAMMAR

1. /ng-Ending Forms

N umerous ing-ending forms in English may have different meanings and

different functions in the sentence. The translation o f a particular ing-end

ing depends on its part o f speech and its function in the sentence.

a morning interesting expressing in solving

a building following (выражающий; by measuring

a meaning misleading выражая) without findii^

80

Verbal Noun Preposition Conjunction Adverb

areas and volumes, regarding supposing notwithstanding

The understanding owing to seeing running

o f the article.

As an example let us take the word “ meeting” and analyze its meaning,

functions and possible translation. As a noun it may have the following

meanings: собрание, заседание, митинг, встреча, пересечение, схожде

ние, слияние, соединение, разъезд, стык и т. д. It may have all the functions

o f a noun in the sentence (the subject, the predicative, the object, the attrib

ute). As a Participle I or Gerund it may be translated as: удовлетворять

(-ющ ий, -ая), отвечать, соответствовать требованиям и т.д. So, be

careful while translating ing-ending forms!

Repeat the sentences after the speaker. Mind the m^-ending forms in it.

There is much thinking and reasoning in maths. Students master the sub

ject m atter not only by reading and learning, but by proving theorems and

solving problems. The problems therefore are an important part of teaching,

because they make students to discuss and reason and polish up their own

knowledge. To understand how experimental knowledge is matched with

theory and new results extracted, the students need to do their own reason

ing and thinking. O f course, it is quicker and easier, for both teacher and stu

dent, if the text states all the results and outlines all the reasoning; but it is

hard to remember such teaching for long, and harder still to get a good

understanding o f science from it. So, in this textbook many o f the problems

ask you to do your own thinking; and for this reason they form a very impor

tant part o f the teaching.

Som e problem s raise general questions whose discussion can do much

to advance your understanding concerning particular points o f the th e o

ry. Such general questions ask for opinions as well as reasoning; they

obviously do not have a single, unique o r com pletely right answer. More

th an th a t, the answers available are som etim es misleading, demanding

m ore reasoning and further proving. Yet, thinking your way through them

and making your own choice o f opinion and discussing oth er choices is

part o f a good education in science and a good m ethod o f teaching.

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2. Indefinite Pronouns, Adverbs and Their Derivatives

every everybody everyone everything everywhere whoever

any anybody anyone anything anywhere whichever

no nobody none nothing nowhere wherever

1. Wfe know something about his work. 2. You can’t find this book any

where, it is practically unavailable. 3. No mathematician confuses these basic

terms: 4. Whatever book you choose, it is good to begin with. 5. Everything

is ready for the experiment. 6. Whoever says it, he is wrong. 7. Whenever she

sees him, he is always in a hurry. 8. Everybody knows this familiar theorem.

9. Whichever of these problems you try to solve, you must use this method of

reasoning.

A C T IV E VOCABULARY

1. to achieve 12. to intersect

2. to appreciate 13. to investigate

3. to challenge 14. to originate

4. to conceal 15. to perform

5. to concern 16. to reduce

6. to emerge 17. to reveal

7. to estimate 18. to specify

8. to evaluate 19. to succeed

9. to except 20. to unify

10. to extend 21. to yield

11. to improve

TEXT ONE

Read and translate the text into Russian. Sum up the main ideas. Be ready to ask and answer

all topical questions. Work in pairs.

W hat are numbers, after all? In view of the fact that most four-year-olds are

able to manage finger-reckoning and can count at least to 10, the question

posed may seem meaningless and irrelevant. Nevertheless, to answer it is by

no means an easy task, as num ber is both an everyday word and a scientific

term. Ordinary people take numbers for granted as a means in counting and

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measurements and never think about their origin and evolution. This is not

the case with mathematicians. Numbers for them are not only basic con

cepts but the most mysterious math entities as well.

Generally, mathematicians try to clarify vague notions by means o f precise

definitions. The formal explicit (verbal) and rigorous definition o f the term

“num ber” has been unavailable so far. Even though we may know intuitive

ly what natural or cardinal numbers —3 , —2 , — 1 , 0 , 1,2, 3, ... are, they are

not easy to define. The scientific definition demands a lot, indeed: the

knowledge o f maths, erudition, rich and productive imagination and lucky

insight. It is customary nowadays that mathematicians do not give a single

formal definition o f a number concept, possibly because numbers have so

many varied properties and interrelations which mathematicians fail to

compress into one explicit definition. There might be other reason, o f

course.

No mathematician knows the name o f the man who was the first to say 1,

2, 3, ... Unfortunately, the origin o f many fundamental math concepts is

wholly anonymous. Obviously, this still unidentified person was abstract-

minded, with number sense, had a lot of experience (practice) in counting

and creative insight. Maths owes a lot to this generator o f abstract mental

idea o f a num ber concept.

The existence o f abstract m ath entities lies in their math properties and

relations in terms o f which mathematicians interconnect and group them.

These relations and properties are the only possible aspects under which an

object can enter the realm o f math activity. As our primitive math objects we

may take natural numbers or their positive integers both in cardinal ( 1 , 2 ,

3, . . . ) and ordinal ( the first 1st, the second 2d, the third 3d, ...) sense. Their

practical uses are numerous. They are a concrete aspect of the physical uni

verse in the form of the number of fingers and toes on the human hand and

leg. The positive integers are the numbers a child learns to count with and

the world nations symbolize them by different numerals and notations.

If we look at the names o f natural or cardinal numbers, it becomes clear

that the num ber 10 {ten) plays a very special role in numeration. When we

study the historical development o f maths, we find that even in the hiero

glyphic symbols o f ancient Egypt (2000 B.C.) the number 10 was exception

ally prom inent. With hieroglyphics, however, it is quite a difficult problem to

check up even the simplest operations o f arithmetic. Most people are more

familiar with the Roman numerals. We still use and see them on faces o f some

clocks, on official documents and for chapters o f the book. Their base is also

the num ber 10 and though they may seem simpler than hieroglyphics, their

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arithmetic is just as bad. Their advantage lies in the fact that even in simple

calculations we must count how many times each symbol appears in the

number.

We cannot name and symbolize each natural num ber unless we use some

system to group them. Otherwise we ought to invent and remember infinite

ly many different names for natural numbers which are abstractions from the

process o f counting finite collections o f objects. The dots in the ordered series

1, 2, 3, 4,... mean that there are infinitely many integers and that the set o f

positive integers is countable or denumerable. The dots interpret the meaning

o f math infinity visually and precisely.

In the Hindu-Arabic decimal positional notation there are ten digits to

express any number. W; group numbers into larger units or number orders by

10 in this num eration system. Wfe can group natural numbers by some num

ber other than (different from) 10 as well. The num ber 20 has had some

importance in number names and symbols. Even today the English use the

word score = 20 as a basic unit and they say, e.g., “two score” and “three

score” in place o f forty (40) and sixty (60). The advantages o f decimal nota

tion are so great that arithmetic is no longer a subject for scientists alone,

with decimal numerals maths has become public property. The principal

characteristic o f this notation is that it comprises the use o f symbols (digits)

with the convention that the position o f each digit tells us whether it stands

for ones, tens, hundreds o r thousands.

In daily life we need not only to figure out (to get the result of counting) and

enumerate individual objects but also to measure quantities such as lengths,

weight, time, volume, etc. For such measurements we should employ the

other number systems. By further abstraction, generalization and construc

tion, mathematicians had been progressing from the primitive positive inte

gers to real and complex numbers and to transfmite numbers to render infini

ty which are several levels o f abstraction higher than the positive integers.

T E X T TW O

Read, translate and reproduce the text in detail. Illustrate the number systems of maths with

numerical examples.

cific field o f maths - number theory - which is the oldest and purest branch

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of maths. The generators o f classical number theory — the ancient Greek

mathematicians - studied numbers with no immediate applications in

mind. The main value o f numbers for them was that “ numbers are amusing

and challenging to the human imagination” and they assigned all kinds of

mysterious meanings and interpretations to numbers: the number 2 for them

stood for fem ale, 3 stood for male, 4 —for justice, 5 —for marriage because it

is the union o f the first odd and the first even number, etc. Although applica

tions were not the main objective (aim) o f the classical number theory, Greek

investigators discovered many curious and fascinating number properties

and gave birth to theoretical pure maths. They were the first to formulate the

abstract notion o f “ num ber” that constituted a grand advance of the human

intellect. The positive integers or natural numbers were the foundation o f all

classical m aths and the major ancient G reeks’ thesis was that “number is the

essence o f reality, that scientists should study nature quantitatively and

express the results in terms o f math laws (rules) and theories”. This thesis has

been dom inating modern times maths since its creation in the 19th century.

In m aths there exist various ways to study numbers — one way o f further

extension, generalization and synthesis when mathematicians build up num

ber concepts o f great complexity and generality. A nother method is analysis

when m athem aticians arrive at the essence o f numbers, when they break

down the complexities and study the original primitive positive integers and

their properties. Both ways are of great importance.

Nowadays mathematicians separate the num ber systems o f maths into five

principal stages. Each stage has got a long history of its development and

recognition. They are: 1. The system o f natural numbers or positive integers

only; 2. The next stage comprises positive as well as negative integers and zero;

3. The rational numbers which combine integers and fractions; 4. The real

numbers that include irrational numbers such as 71^5. The complex numbers

that contain the so-called “imaginary” num ber Vl. In modern maths there

are several new num ber systems. O f these modern systems three occupy an

exceptionally significant place within maths, viz. (namely), quaternions

(triplets), matrices and transfinite numbers.

Some com m ents are necessary, indeed. The word "rational” does not

mean “reasonable” — it comes from the word ratio or quotient of two inte

gers. D on’t think that the word "imaginary ” means that these numbers are

mystical or unreal in the everyday sense o f the word, or that “complex”

means “com plicated” Imaginary numbers and complex numbers have had

very “ real” applications in many branches o f m aths and science. It is inter

85

esting to mention that the number 0 (zero) originally had signified an empty

place only. Modern mathematicians recognize zero as any other num ber and

not just a symbol for an empty space. Zero is a meaningful m ath object with

the properties defined by a set o f rules. Zero is neither “ more real” or “less

real” than any other number.

TEXT TH REE

MATHEMATICAL PROOF

Read the text and point out the sentences with a) substitutes of the noon, b) emphatic con

structions. Sum up orally the main ideas of the text.

proofs and it is even doubted by some people w hether “ proof” in the precise

and rigorous sense which the ancient G reek m athem aticians gave to this

word, is to be found outside maths. We may say that this sense did not change

because what constituted a proof for Euclid is still a proof for us. It is to the

Greeks that modem mathematicians turn again for models o f proof.

The G reeks were the first to apply the dedu ctive procedures developed by

the G reek philosophers in m aths. They are credited with the use o f deduc

tive m ethods o f p ro o f in geom etry instead o f intuition, experim ent and

trial-and-error m ethods o f the Egyptians. Philosophers and m athem ati

cians do not reason and prove as do scientists on the basis o f personally

conducted experiments. R ather their reasoning centres about abstract

concepts and broad generalization. Deduction as a m ethod o f obtaining

conclusion has many advantages over reasoning by induction and analo

gy. Some historians claim that it was the discovery o f the incom m ensu

rable line segments that forced the Pythagoreans to accept the axiom atic

and synthetic approach in m ath proofs (i.e., an approach w ithout using

numbers) and led to the m ethod o f deriving theorem s from axioms. The

G reeks insisted that all m ath conclusions should be established by ded u c

tive reasoning only.

Math proof, thus, demands a specific kind o f reasoning. In a formal math

proof the mathematician cannot rely on his intuition, insight and imagination.

He must reason logically and start with (1) the definitions o f basic concepts for

the theory involved, (2) axioms (or postulates) and (3) deduce a conclusion

without making further assumptions. By analysis o f the mechanism and struc

86

ture of proofs we can see that the main feature o f formal math proofs is that

every statement in the p iv o f must be justified by referring to (a) definition; (b)

axioms (or postulate); (c) chain substitution; (d) the theorem already proved.

An important property o f the equality is that o f substitution, e.g., i f a = b

and b = c, then a = c (a, b, c are natural numbers). We can express this in

words by saying that “ natural numbers equal to the same natural number are

equal to each other” (axiom). Generalizing this rule further, we may say that

if a = b and b = c, and d = e, then a = e. This can be justified by saying that

we can replace a by b, b by с, c by d, and d by e, and thus in fo u r steps, a by

e. This kind o f substitution is referred to as a chain substitution and this term

is used regardless o f how many steps (substitutions) are actually involved.

Most proofs o f fundamental theorems are much more complicated. One

question, which invariably arises in connection with a formal proof is: How

does one know what postulates to use and how does one know that they can

lead to the desired result? This question is reasonable, but, unfortunately, not

easy to answer. Most m ath proofs can be given in many different ways. One

proof is better than another only in as much as it may be easier to understand

and requires fewer steps. In order to avoid unnecessary steps and make a

proof elegant, it is usually best to survey the situation and outline what must

be done before actually writing anything down.

By analysis o f the mechanism o f proofs in suitably chosen math texts, it is

possible to disclose the structure underlying both vocabulary and syntax.

This analysis leads to ttfe conclusion that a sufficiently explicit math text can

be expressed in a conventional language containing only a small number of

fixed “words” assembled according to a syntax consisting o f a small number

of unbreakable rules. Such a text is referred to as “form alized”. The descrip

tion o f a game o f chess, in the usual notation, a table o f logarithms, the for

mulae o f ordinary algebraic calculation are examples o f formalized texts.

The correctness o f a m ath text is verified by comparing it more or less explic

itly with the rules o f a formalized language.

A formal system has some analogy with a natural language. Its symbols

correspond to letters o f the alphabet, punctuation marks, numerals and so

forth. The form ation rules correspond to the grammatical rules o f a natural

language. The transformation rules correspond to various operations any

speaker can perform on the language, such as changing a sentence from

active into passive. The axioms have fewer identifiable corresponding items

in the natural language. They may be considered comparable to such sen

tences as “whatever it is” o r “A is A ”, i.e., simple and obvious assumptions

or self-evident truth that we can take for granted.

87

There are of course important differences between natural languages and

formal systems but the analogy is close enough so that when formal systems

are interpreted, they are often called artificial m a th languages. When trans

form ation rules are applied to the axioms, the result is a theorem. The exhi

bition o f the application o f the transformation rules is a p ro o f More explicitly,

a p r o o f is a finite sequence o f formalized sentences such that each sentence

is an axiom or follows from an earlier formalized sentence by the application

o f a transformation rule. The last line o f the proof is a theorem. The trans

formation rules must be such that it is merely a mechanical procedure to

determ ine whether or not a given sequence o f formalized sentences is a

proof. How is it possible to prove a thing im possible? Suppose we wish to

prove that Vi”is not a rational number. W i must first assume that Vi"is a

rational number and then dem onstrate that such an assumption leads logi

cally to an absurdity. When we look at any isosceles right triangle — and

rem em ber that the size is unim portant, for the length o f one o f the equal

sides can always be considered the unit o f measure — it is clear that the

hypotenuse cannot be measured by a whole number. Wfe know by the

Pythagorean theorem that the hypotenuse must be equal to the square root

o f the sum o f the squares o f the other two sides. Since l 2 + l 2 = 2, the

hypotenuse must be equal to V2. Some num ber multiplied by itself m ust pro

duce 2. W hat is this number? It cannot be a whole number, since 1 x 1 = 1

and 2 x 2 = 4. It must be a num ber between 1 and 2. The Pythagoreans

always assumed that it was a rational number.

Nowadays when we know that the rational numbers between 1 and 2 are so

numerous, that between any two o f them we can always find an infinite num

ber o f other rational numbers, we cannot blame the Pythagoreans for their

assuming that among such infinities upon infinities there must be some

rational number which when multiplied by itself produces 2. The closest

they came to such a number was 17/12, which when multiplied by itself pro

duces 289/144.

But one o f the Pythagoreans, a man truly ahead o f his time, stopped com

puting and considered instead another possibility: perhaps there is no such

number. Merely considering such a possibility must be rated as an achieve

ment. In some respect it was even a greater achievement than the discovery

and proof of the famous theorem that produced the dilemma!

Wfe can only imagine with what consternation this result was received by

the other Pythagoreans. But by the perfect math proof (proof per impossi

ble, or, more commonly referred to as reduction a d absurdum ) one o f their

88

members showed that there could be no such number! The Pythagoreans

had to recognize that the diagonal o f so simple a figure as the unit square was

incommensurable with the unit itself. It is no wonder that they called л/2

irrational*. It was not a rational number, and it was contrary to all they

believed rational or reasonable. The worst o f the matter was that V2was not

by any means the only irrational number. They went on to prove individual

ly that the square roots o f 3, 5 ,6 , 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 1 3 ,1 4 ,15and 17werealso

irrational. The general theorem states that the “square root o f any number

which is not a perfect square is an irrational num ber” . According to a more

general theorem , the mth root o f any num ber which is not a perfect mth

power is irrational.

The Pythagoreans and their successors from Euclid to Einstein, had to live

and work with the irrationals. “He is unworthy o f the name o f man who is

ignorant o f the fact that the diagonal o f the square is incommensurable with

the side,” said Plato. It was at this point that the Pythagoreans rather than

struggling arithmetically, took the way o f geometers. If they could not repre

sent V2 exactly by a number, they could represent it precisely by a line seg

ment. For the diagonal o f the unit square is VJ

The argum ent o f “ reduction a d absurdum ” is very powerful and frequently

used in maths. Euclid used it to prove that the set o f prime numbers (1, 3, 5,

7, 11, 13, 17,...) is infinite.

Translate the following sentences into Russian and use them while demonstrating some math

proofs.

stration. 2. The property demonstrated is called a theorem. 3. In the proof o f

geometric theorem s mathematicians proceed from the earlier established

properties assumed to be true without proof. 4. Such properties, or self-evi

dent truths, are called axioms. 5. N ot a single geometric property taken sep

arately is an axiom, since it can be dem onstrated on the basis o f other prop

erties. 6. Axioms are chosen from among the most elementary geometric

properties. 7. M athematicians apply dem onstrative reasoning in proofs,

which is reliable, incontrovertible and final. 8. Natural scientists use plau si

ble reasoning based on induction, analogy, observations, hypotheses and

experiments. 9. Plausible reasoning is conditional, arguable and risky.

10. M aths is the sole avenue for learning how to reason via proof. 11. A com

plete and rigorous theory appears as a pure theory o f math proof. 12. Before

89

proving a math fact, the mathematician should discover it, guess it, conjec

ture it. 13. The main problem is to be able to distinguish proof from conjec

ture, justified and valid proof from unjustified proof. 14. M any m ath th eo

rems consist o f a set o f hypotheses and a conclusion o f the form i f P, then Q.

15. The proof consists o f a demonstration that P = > Q is a true statement.

16. The most commonly used words in proofs are the following: let, if... then,

suppose, than, hence, therefore, thus, contradiction, in fa c t, etc. 17. M odel th e

orem: 1 is the largest natural number.

P roof Suppose that 1 is not the largest natural number. Let Wbe the largest

natural number. Now N + 1 is the largest natural number, which is a contra

diction. (Is it?) Thus, 1 is not the largest natural number, in fact.

The proof establishes the truth.

TEXT FOUR

Read the text. Segment it into paragraphs. Express the main idea(s) of each paragraph. Write

out the main ideas of the text. Draw all the geometric figures mentioned in the text and discuss

their properties.

The practical value o f geometry lies in the fact that we can abstract and

illustrate physical objects by drawings and models. For example, a drawing o f

a circle is not a circle, it suggests the idea o f a circle. In our study o f geometry

we separate all geometric figures into two groups: plan cjigu res whose points

lie in one plane and space figures or solids. A point is л primary and starting

concept in geometry. Line segments, rays, triangles and circles are definite sets

o f points. A simple closed curve with line segments as its boundaries is a

polygon. The line segments are sides o f the polygon and the end points o f the

segments are vertices o f the polygon. A polygon with four sides is a qu adri

lateral. We can name some important quadrilaterals. Remember, that in each

case we name a specific set o f points. A trapezoid is a quadrilatern’ with one

pair of parallel sides. A rectangle is a parallelogram with four right angles .4

square is a rectangle with all sides o f the same length. TV rcguia /v ,'.; -.7

are a part o f geometric study сһіеП\ in antiquity. Tlv\ lave a symmetric.-;

beauty that fascinates men of all ages. The first question in connection vrith

regular polyhedra is: How many different types are there? Thanks to the

ancient Greeks we know that there are exactly five types o f polyhedra. All

90

objects in their view are composed of four basic elements: earth, air, fire and

water. They believe that the fundamental particles o f fire have the shape of

tetrahedron , the air particles have the shape o f octahedron, o f water - the

icosahedron, and the earth — the cube. The fifth shape, the dodecahedron,

they reserve for the shape o f the universe itself- Plane geometry is the science

o f the fundam ental properties o f the sizes and shapes o f objects and treats

geometric properties o f figures. The first question is, upder what conditions

two objects are equal or congruent in size and shape. Next, if figures are not

equal, what significant relationship may they possess to each other and what

geometric properties can they have in common? The basic relationship is

shape. Figures o f unequal size but o f the same shape, that is, sim ilar figures

have m any geometric properties in common. If figures have neither shape

nor size in com m on, they may have the same area, or, in geometric terms,

they may be equivalent, or may have endless other possible relationships.

Geometry is the science o f the properties, measurement and construction o f

lines, planes, surfaces and different geometric figures. W hat do we call “con

structions” in our study o f geometry? Ruler-compass constructions are sim

ply the drawings which we can make when we use only a straightedge and a

compass. A compass is a misleading word. It is not only «компас» in the

maths, it is usually «циркуль». We call such misleading words «ложные

друзья переводчика». For a ruler you ought to use an unmarked straight

edge because measurement has no role in ruler-compass constructions. O f

course, you can use a marked straightedge if you don’t permit yourself to use

these marks for measurement. Later you ought to do some measurement to

“check” your constructions. We measure segments in terms o f other seg

ments and angles in terms o f other angles. It seems only natural that we find

areas indirectly as well. How does a person find the area o f a floor? Does he

take little squares one foot on a side, lay them out over the entire floor and

thus decide that the area o f a floor is 100 square feet, for this is indeed the

meaning o f area? O f course, he does not. He measures the length and width,

quantities usually quite simple, and then multiplies the two numbers to

obtain the area. This is indirect measurement, for we find the area when we

measure lengths. The dimensions we take in the case o f volume are the area

and the length or the height. Greek mathematicians are the founders o f indi

rect measurem ent methods. Their contribution to this subject are formulae

(-las) for areas and volumes o f particular geometric shapes, that we use

nowadays. Thus, thanks to the Greeks we can find the area o f any one single

triangle when we take the product o f its base and half its height. We also know

due to them , that the “areas o f two sim ilar triangles are to each other as the

91

squares o f corresponding sides” In other words, even the very com m on for

mulae o f geometry which we owe to the Greeks permit us to measure areas

and volumes indirectly, when we express these quantities as lengths. We

ought not to undervalue this contribution o f the ancient G reek m athem ati

cians. Their formulae for areas and volumes represent a great practical and

im portant result. But this type o f indirect measurement is not the only one

o f interest to the Greeks. They measure indirectly the radius o f the Earth, the

diameter o f the Sun and M oon, the distances to the M oon, the Sun, some

planets and stars.

GRAM M AR A N D VOCABULARY E X E R C IS E S

1. Write 12 sentences with the active vocabulary words and ask your pair-mate to translate

them. Change the roles over!

speculate signify mental activities. 2. When people

count (calculate, compute), they work with numbers.

3. Wfe can picture or figure geometric objects quite

easily by means o f their physical counterparts. 4. Wfe

may imagine, e.g., two sun rays that meet in a point,

and thus we visualize a geometric point. 5. Wfe may

next idealize, generalize and summarize common

properties o f geometric points. Hence, geometric

concepts are abstractions from physical objects.

numbers is unknown. 2. History teaches that civilizations develop at various

rates in different places. 3. In primitive civilizations “ num ber words” appear

with the creation o f a language, both spoken and written. 4. The oldest writ

ten documents available show the simultaneous appearance o f the cardinal

number concept in ancient C hina, India, Mesopotamia and Egypt. 5. These

docum ents contain the question “ How many?” 6. People can answer this

question best in terms o f a cardinal number. 7. The ancients used both their

fingers and toes as the natural counting sequence. 8. The m odem funda

mental concept o f a “set” is the m an’s abstraction. 9. Wi name the present

so-called Hindu-Arabic numeration system after the Hindus - its inventors,

and after the Arabs, its later transmitters to Europe. 10. The num ber o f

ancient numeration systems is about the same as the num ber o f ancient w nt-

ten languages. 11. The Hindu-Arabic base-ten-and-place-value system is

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universal nowadays because it is unambiguous and easy to count with, but

people still use binary, four-, twelve-, twenty-, sixty-, etc., base numeration

systems as well.

3. Make the false statements negative. Paraphrase, if possible, the negative sentences in more

than one way.

Mathematicians do not define this basic term.

No mathematician defines this basic term. (Ни один... не)

Don’t mathematicians define this basic term? (Разве... не)

2. Zero plays an im portant role in nonpositional numeration systems, e.g.,

Romans’. 3. Nonpositional numeration follows positional numeration in

most civilized regions o f the ancient world. 4. Letters o f the ancient Greeks’

alphabet serve as letters only. 5. There is a special sign in Greek and Hebrew

numeration systems which helps interpret the composition o f letters as a

number. 6. There is a great need for a zero symbol in ancient Greeks’ system.

7. People can recognize the G reek letter numeral without difficulty.

8. M odern m athem aticians use the classical Greeks’ numeration system.

9. There can be only one way to represent numbers nowadays. 10. It is pos

sible to describe precisely the development o f the Hindu-Arabic numeration

system.

4. Ask questions to which the following statements may serve as answers.

geometiy through our high-school studies o f maths.

Why are you already familiar with the basic concepts of

geometry?

concepts. 2. Ruler and compass are the simplest instruments to make a

drawing. 3. With a ruler (straightedge) we may draw (construct) a line. With

a compass we may construct a circle. 4. Measurements have no role in ruler-

compass constructions. 5. The necessity for geometric drawings and models

is as old as geometry itself, 6. Visual method is especially important in geom

etry. 7. The power to picture mentally a geometric object is a great, talent.

8. The figure is to the geometer what the numerical example is to the alge

braist. 9. Plane geometry requires drawings, but solid geometry - models.

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10. Models o f geometry are idealizations abstracted from physical objects.

11. All geometric models are inaccurate and misleading. 12. The points o f

geometry have no size and no dimensions. 13. Geom etric planes have no

boundaries, they are endless in both directions. 14. N o, there is nothing in

the physical world that illustrates these geometric concepts with complete

accuracy. 15. A point is a prim ary and starting concept in geometry. 16. W j

can define all other geometric figures in terms o f sets o f points. 17. Plane

geometry is the science o f the m etric properties and constructions o f geo

metric figures. 18. Solid geometry studies the properties o f the figures in

space and the measurement o f areas, surfaces and volumes o f solids.

5. Write some problem questions that pertain to numeration systems and basic geometric con

cepts. Ask your groupmates to answer them. Work in pairs.

CONVERSATIONAL PRACTICE

1. Read the given sentences, find some more information and dispute the advantages and dis

advantages of certain numeration system.

not have enough evidence to fix the period in history o f the invention o r dis

covery o f cardinal numbers. 3. The origin o f number and counting is hidden

behind countless prehistoric ages. The earliest docum ents available show

that the num ber concept is equally present in many ancient civilizations.

4. Counting represents a very im portant milestone in the progress o f civi

lization. The first requirement in com putation is a system o f numerals, i.e.,

a way to write numbers. 5. N um eration first evolves through the use o f spo

ken and later on written languages. Some ancient tribes used a base o f 2 and

3 to count by (1 -2, 2-1,2-2) (1 -2-3, 3 -1 ,3 -3 ). 6. Historical records give evi

dence o f the astronomical and arithm etical achievements o f the ancient

Babylonians, Sumerians and Chinese. Sometime before 2000 B.C. the

Babylonians developed a base-sixty or sexagesimal system o f num eration

with the positional principle which is still useful in astronomical calcula

tions. The Babylonians o f 2000 B.C. were well-trained and skillful calcula

tors. 7. The early Egyptian numeration system used a base o f ten with no more

than three symbols to express any number less than 100 - one for units, one

for tens, and one for hundreds. The zero symbol is unnecessary. 8. Vfery little

is known about the origin o f the Roman notation fo r numbers, which is still

important. 9. The ancient Greeks' nonpositional numeration system employs

94

twenty-four letters o f their alphabet to produce letter-numerals and special

symbols (M = myriad) for large numbers. To tell a number from a word the

ancient Greeks used an accent (stress) at the end of a number sign or a stroke

over it. 10. The traditional Chinese-Japanese numeration system is a basecten

system with nine numerals and symbols for the place value. Numbers go

from the top downward or from left to right. 11. The Mayan numeration sys

tem (400 A. D.) uses the base twenty with positional notation and a special

symbol for zero. 12. The details of the exact formation of the Hindu-Arabic

symbolic system are missing. 13. Binary system is of recent origin and

extremely important in cybernetics. It needs only a sequence o f two digits, 0

and 1, to represent numbers o f any size. 14. The advantages of our present

positional numeration systems, based on place value, with the choice o f a cer

tain num ber as a base are numerous and well known. 15. The British mone

tary system with its farthings, pennies, threepence, sixpence, shillings, half

crown, crowns, pounds and guineas was a V4-*/2- 1-3-6-12-30-60-140-252

system — a mixture of several archaic systems that confounds foreigners so

much. It is different nowadays.

2. Practice problem and topical questions and answers. Work in pairs. Change over! In case you

disagree with the answer, give your version.

1. N um bers are m en Numbers may be both abstract and concrete, e.g.,

tal abstract concepts, <Sstudents is a concrete quantity of students, and

aren’t they? 8 is a discrete concept and generates no ambigui

ty or misconception in this case. >

2. When do numbers Numbers become abstract when we begin to rea

become abstract con son about their nature and enumerate their prop

cepts? erties through arithmetical and logical operations.

3. How do numbers People abstract and generalize numbers from

originate and emerge? counting process. Abstract number concept is Of

much higher level than individual and discrete

numbers. There exists a hierarchy o f abstract

number concepts in modern maths.

cians disclose the con orous definitions or in terms of a set of axioms

tent o f abstract num (postulates) that disclose their meaning.

ber concepts?

95

5. Aren’t numbers pri By no means. Numbers belong to all peoples and

vate property and per all the world civilizations since the dawn o f record

sonal belongings of the ed history.

mathematicians alone?

6. What is the difference M athematicians differentiate “natural numbers”

(distinction) between (whole positive integers) from “cardinal numbers”

two math terms: “natu through the notions o f “order”, “sense "and “pow er”.

ral numbers” and “car

dinal numbers”? Is the

number 5 natural or

cardinal?

7. What do you mean to The natural num ber 5 follows 4 in a series o f whole

imply by these notions? natural numbers. It orders and specifies a definite

o t,e ct in an ordinal sense.

8. It’s more or less clear. Wfe may interpret the num ber 5 in the cardinal or

But about “power” — quantitative sense as the num ber which represents

what can you say? the size o f the pow er o f a definite set o f objects with

5 members. Thus, the num ber 5 may be both “nat

ural” and “cardinal” . Cardination is the matching

o f things in a set.

9. What are the main They are: O ne-m any (one to many), even (2, 4, 6,

categories o f natural 8, 10) and o d d (1, 3, 5, 7, 9)

numbers? 3

3. Translate the sentences into Russian and discuss the significance of negative numbers in

detail.

1. It is hard to grasp the idea o f - 2 . Negative num bers were not allowed

into m aths for a long tim e. 2. Some financial problem s can n o t be solved

except in term s o f a negative number. 3. The negative num ber was in ter

preted as a financial loss o r debt. 4. The negative num bers had em erged in

maths and were interpreted in many different ways. 5. They m easure dis

tances back along a road, tem peratures below zero, tim es before the pres

ent, etc. 6. Negative num bers are simply useful abstractions and m ath e

m aticians see and consider them as creations o f their own m ind. 7. This

insight emerged with the investigations o f higher degree algebraic eq u a

tions. 8. Negative num bers are not mere fantasies o f the m ath im agina

tion only.

96

4. Characterize modern maths. Use the given sentences, if necessary:

the thick o f modern life. 3. "Art-for-art’s sake” outlook has resulted in a

prodigal inventiveness. 4. Today’s mathematicians have ridden off in all

directions at once. 5. They are conquering new fields of maths faster than

they can send messages home. 6. Some scholars (scientists) refer to this

expansion in maths that we are living in as to golden age of maths.

7. According to their estimate as much new maths had been created in the

last 100 years as in all previous centuries combined. 8. The emergence of new

number systems has proved it. 9. In both range and remoteness modern

maths defies easy description even by math experts.

5. Make the right choice and complete the sentences:

1. The set o f all points in geometry is a ... ( volume, plane, line, space, model,

surface). 2. Sets o f points which all lie in one plane are ... (circles, rays,

angles, solids, ellipses, plane figures, squares). 3. The regular polyhedra are a

part of geometric study in antiquity. How many different types are there?

{rhombus, trapezoid, square, cube, tetrahedron, octahedron, dodecahedron,

icosahedron). 4. A solid with opposite faces equal and parallel is a ... {cube,

cylinder, prism, pyramid, sphere). 5. The idea o f “betweenness” in m athe

matics means t h a t ... {one point is between two other points, all the given points

lie on one line). 6. The set of 3 points not all on one line and all the points

between them on the segments is a ... {parallelepiped, triangle, rhombus, rec

tangle, cone). 7. When we cut a cone at different angles we obtain a set o f

curves such as ... {circle, cycloid, catenary, ellipse, parabola, hyperbola, con

choid, quadratrix, spiral, circumference). 8. It is convenient to have labels for

angles and we usually classify them according to ... {the measures of their

angles, the measures of their sides). 9. The angle o f 90° is ... {straight, right,

acute, obtuse, adjacent, complementary). 10. A triangle with its sides equal is

... {right, acute, isosceles, equilateral). 11. The distance around the circle is a

(an) ... {perimeter, parabola, hyperbola, circumference, ellipse). 12. We

describe the concept o f congruence in geometry by the phrase ... {“is the

same size as”, “has the same length as” “is equal to ” “has the same measure

as”). 13. The area o f a rectangle is the product o f two dim ensions:... {the side

and the base', the side and the altitude', the base and the height). 14. If we know

the three sides o f any triangle, we can find its area by Heron’s formula ...

{S = 6a2; V = a3; S = V p (p -a )(p -b )(p -c). 15. The area of a circle contains

the number n {mfi/A; V = nr2h; 2 nrh).

97

4 Английский язык для студентов-математиков

6. A gree o r disagree with th e following sta te m en ts:

metric figures.

I t’s true. Geometric figures are graphic formulas and

no geometer can do without them.

2. Ancient mathematicians’ indirect measurements

formulas are out-of-date and useless nowadays.

Not at all. When we calculate the area, surface or vol

ume, we make use of them. They are very valuable

though they seem trivial today.

2. The ancient Egyptians initiate the science o f measurement. 3. The ancient

Greek mathematicians base their maths on the results o f their predecessors

(Egyptians and Babylonians). 4. Archimedes’ way to find the area o f a circle

is well-known. 5. In scientific work we usually measure in units o f the metre

and the kilogram of the metric or decimal system. 6. The decimal system is

not the international system o f measures and weights nowadays. 7. The only

big countries that still use the imperial system o f feet and pounds are

America and Canada.

7. Try to define the given geometric objects, using the list of verbs and paymg attention to the

predicate of a definition.

is both a description o f a scientific concept such as “ force” “distance’’

“energy” “velocity” “acceleration” “ m om entum ” etc., and the way to

measure it. The formula d - 16t2 tells us how a rock falls. define “accel

eration” as w = Av/ДЛ

обозначает) a visual picture o f a geometric object.

prism, a polygon, a tetrahedron

assigns, marks, notifies, represents, illustrates, pictures, classifies, desig

nates, denotes, fixes, points, describes, manifests, figures, formulates, dis

plays, produces, establishes, is a sign of, gives a name of, models, refers to,

functions as, equals, suggests.

98

8. D isagree with the false sta te m e n ts. Begin your answ er with the opening phrases.

It's not right, I am afraid. On the contrary.

It’s wrong, Quite the reverse.

one direction. 3. A polygon with exactly four sides is a polyhedron. 4. Wfe call

decimals in which one digit or one group o f digits repeats over and over non

terminating decimals. 5. Wfe find the area directly by laying out little squares

over the entire floor o f the room. 6. There is no formula to calculate the vol

ume o f a cube. 7. Wfe undervalue the contribution o f the ancient Greek

mathematicians.

READING COMPREHENSION

1. Read the text, study carefully Feano's system of axioms and compare it with J . Freund’s

system of twelve postulates.

M odern mathematicians are accustomed to derive properties o f natural

numbers from a set o f axioms or postulates, i.e. (that is), undefined and

unproved statements that disclose the meaning o f the abstract concepts.

Axioms acquire the status o f true statements. Wfe may begin with the well-

known system o f 5 axioms o f the Italian mathematician Peano that provides

the description o f natural numbers. These axioms are: First — 1 is a natural

number. Second — any num ber which is a successor (follower) of a natural

num ber is itself a natural number. Third — no two natural numbers have the

same follower. Fourth — the natural number 1 is not the follower o f any other

natural number. Fifth —if a series o f natural numbers includes both the num

ber 1 and the follower o f every natural number, then the series contains all

natural numbers. The fifth axiom is the principle (law) o f math induction.

From the axioms it follows that there must be infinitely many natural num

bers since (as) the series cannot stop. It cannot circle back to its starting

point either, because 1 is not the imrfiediate follower o f any natural number.

In essence, Peano’s theory states that the series o f natural numbers is well-

ordered and presents a general problem o f quantification. It places the natu

ral numbers in an ordinal relation and the commonest example o f ordination

is the counting o f things. The domain of applications of Peano’s theory is

99

much wider than the series o f natural numbers alone, e.g., the relational

fractions l, 1/2, 1/3, 1/4 and so on, satisfy the axioms similarly. From

Peano’s five rules we can state and enum erate all the familiar characteris

tics and properties o f natural num bers. O ther m athem aticians define

these properties in terms o f 8 or even 12 axioms (J.E. Freund) and these

systems characterize properties o f natural num bers much m ore com pre

hensively and they specify the notion o f operations both arithm etical and

logical.

Note that sums and products o f natural numbers are written as a+b and a-b

or ab, respectively.

Postulate No. 1: For every pair o f natural numbers, a and b, in that order,

there is a unique (one and only one) natural number called the sum o f a and b.

Postulate No. 2: If a and b are natural numbers, then a+b = b+a.

Postulate No. 3: If a, b and c are natural numbers, then (a+b)+c =

a+(b+c).

Postulate No. 4: For every pair o f natural numbers, a and b, in that order,

there is a unique (one and only one) natural num ber called the product.

Postulate No. 5: If a and b are natural numbers, then ab = ba

Postulate No. 6: If a, b and c are natural numbers, then (ab) c = a(bc).

Postulate No. 7: If a, b and c are natural numbers, then a(b+c) = ab+ac.

Postulate No. 8: There is a natural num ber called “one” and written I so

that if a is an arbitrary natural number, then a 1 = a.

Postulate No. 9: If a, b and c are natural numbers and if ac = be, then a = b.

Postulate No. 10: If a, b and c are natural numbers, and if a+c = b+c.

then a - b.

Postulate No. 11: Any set o f natural numbers which (1) includes the num

ber l, and which (2) includes a + 1 whenever it includes the natural number

a, includes every natural number.

Postulate No. 12: For any pair o f natural numbers, a and b, one and only one

o f the following alternatives must hold: either a = b, or there is a natural num

ber x such that a+x = b, or there is a natural num ber)1such that b+y = a.

Freund’s system o f 12 postulates provides the possibility to characterize

natural numbers when we explain how they beha\e and what math rules they

must obey. To conclude the definition o f “natural numbers" we can say that

they must be interpreted either as standing for the whole number от else for

math objects which share all their math properties. The arithm etic o f whole

numbers is based on 12 postulates. Using these postulates m athem aticians

are able to prove all other ntles about the natural numbers with which peo

ple have long been familiar. Since m athem aticians are interested mainly in

100

the m ath properties o f number, they use the term “ natural numbers” in pref

erence to “whole numbers”

2. Pronounce the sentences as you draw all geometric figures, illustrating each step of the solu

tion of the problems given below.

1. For each case below try to determ ine if it is a plane geom etric figure:

a) Two lines which are not parallel and have no com m on points, b) Two

triangles with a com m on side, c) Two intersecting lines. 2. Draw illustra

tions for each o f the plane geom etric figures and define them all. 3. Find

illustrations o f space geom etric figures in the physical world. 4. We can

define a sphere in m uch the same way as a circle. Give the definition o f a

sphere. 5. Draw a triangle with sides 3, 4 and 5 inches. Use a protractor

and m easure the angles o f this triangle. W hat kind o f a triangle do you

have? W hat is the area o f this triangle? 6. a) Two triangles are congruent.

D o they have the same area? b) Two triangles have the same area. Are

they congruent?

3. Determine whether the following statements are true or false. Draw figures to help with your

decision.

3. T he “opposite sides” o f a parallelogram are congruent to each other.

4. A rectangle that is inscribed in a circle is a square. 5. N o parallelogram

is a trapezoid. 6. Some quadrilaterals are triangles. 7. Every rhombus with

one right angle is a square. 8. N o trapezoid has two right angles. 9. If a

rectangle has a pair o f congruent sides, then it is square. 10. If a trapezoid

has one right angle, then it has two right angles. 11. If a quadrilateral has

two pairs o f congruent sides, then it is a parallelogram. 12. If two diam e

ters o f a circle are perpendicular to each other, then their end points

determ ine the vertices o f a square. 13. There is a square that is not a p ar

allelogram . 14. N o rhombus is a trapezoid. 15. N o trapezoid has a pair o f

congruent sides.

4. Determine the fallacy in the given statem ents. M ake a drawing to help you find the

errors.

2. A part o f a line is equal to the whole line. 3. The sum o f the lengths o f

two sides o f any triangle is equal to the length o f the third side. 4. Every

triangle is isosceles. 5. я /4 is equal to n /3 . 6. If two opposite sides o f a

quadrilateral are equal, the o th er two sides must be parallel. 7. Every

ellipse is a circle.

101

U n it F our ( 4 )

UNSOLVED PROBLEMS

Grammar

1. Modal \ferbs and Their Equivalents.

2. Indefinite Pronouns, Adverbs

and Their Equivalents.

Repeat the sentences after the speaker.

1. In this lesson we are to get familiar with geometric constructions under

the conditions specified and the famous unsolved problems in maths.

2. Students are taught maths at school and college with the idea that all math

problems can be solved. Unfortunately, this is not the case. 3. In maths there

exist problems that can be readily solved as well as the problems that are

impossible and the ones demanding the right, often ingenious, technique for

their solution. 4. However, the conviction o f the solvability o f every math

problem is a powerful challenge and stimulus to the researcher. 5. The

Pythagoreans’ discovery that V2 is irrational was the first example o f a proof o f

impossibility in maths. 6. Every math problem must be settled either in the

form o f a direct answer to the question posed, or by the proof o f the impossi

bility o f its solution. 7. Numerical evidence counts for very little, the only lux

ury a reputable mathematician allows himself is proof. 8. Math rigour in rea

soning demands that the solution o f the problem must be established by means o f

a finite number ofsteps based upon a finite number o f hypotheses preciselyformu

lated. 9. This high standard of math rigour was formulated by the ancient

Greek mathematicians and philosophers in order to make maths finite, rigor

ous and coherent. 10. The search for the construction problem solution is a

favourite subject in geometry. 11. The ancient Greeks are given credit for pos

ing famous unsolved construction problems that challenge mathematicians

and amateurs alike even today. 12. The Greeks imposed severe restrictions

upon the instruments used for the construction. Ruler-compass constructions

are the drawings made by using only a straightedge (an unmarked ruler) and a

compass. The constructions must be performed with the highest degree of

accuracy and precision. 13. The Greeks gave special attention to geometric

constructions, as each construction served as a sort o f existence theorem for the

figure or concept involved. 14. To prove that a certain object exists means for

102

the Greeks to construct it. With a straightedge we may draw (construct) a line

determined by any two points. With a compass we may construct a circle.

15. The classical Greeks were able to carry out many constructions with these

two permissible tools. Nevertheless, despite the persistent efforts, the Greeks

failed to solve the three famous construction problems, viz., “squaring the cir

cle” “doubling the cube” and “trisecting the-angle” 16. The Greek geome

ters realized that the allowable instruments were inadequate for the solution

sought. 17. Though the construction was the main part of the solution, it was

not the whole task. The problems were of both practical and theoretical inter

est. 18. The Greeks sought to prove that the constructions could be performed

in principle, that the solution could be found theoretically. 19. They tried to

devise a theory in terms o f which they could rely on the construction in place

o f the existence theorem, but they did not succeed in creating it, however.

20. The theory in question was developed successively by a Danish geometer

G. Mohr (1672), then by an Italian engineer L. Mascheroni (1797) and by a

Swiss scientist J. Steiner (1833). 21. In the 19th century it was finally proved

that the famous unsolved problems defy solution under the restrictions speci

fied. 22. It should be emphasized that though the Greeks failed to find the

solution satisfying their criterion, they made great math discoveries on the way,

for in maths there is no futile search. 23. The failure with the classical unsolved

problems was the stimulus for many novel developments in maths. 24. Every

generation o f mathematicians ever since the Greek times on has to seek a proof

that certain problems are solvable or insoluble in principle. 25. The number of

problems in maths is inexhaustible and as soon as one problem is solved, oth

ers come forth in its place. Maths offers an abundance of unsolved problems.

ACTIVE VOCABULARY

1. to achieve 15. to dwell (on) 29. to pursue

2. to appeal (to) 16. to estimate 30. to recur

3. to approach 17. to exist 31. to reduce

4. to approximate 18. to exhaust 32. to refer (to)

5. to attain 19. to extend 33. to refute

6. to attract 20. to Tail 34. to remind

7. to attribute 21. to generate 35. to restrict

8. to award 22. to guide 36. to reveal

9. to cease 23. to identify 37. to reverse

10. to challenge 24. to impose 38. to satisfy

11. to conclude 25. to intersect 39. to specify

12. to converge 26. to intrude 40. to succeed

13. to convince 27. to investigate 41. to suffice

14. to defy 28. to issue 42. to surmount

103

T E X T ONE

U N SO LV E D P R O B L E M S O F A N T IQ U IT Y

Read and translate the text into Russian. Practise “question-answer” type of reproduction of

the main ideas of the text. Work in pairs.

Greek maths is significant for the questions it raised and did not answer.

Among such questions are three famous construction problems known to

every am ateur in maths. They are referred to as “squaring the circle” “dou

bling the cube” and “trisecting the angle” To square the circle means to con

struct a square, the area o f which is equal to the area o f a given circle. To

double a cube means to construct the side o f a cube whose volume shall be

double that o f a given cube. To trisect an angle means to divide any angle into

three equal parts. These constructions are to be performed only with an

unmarked ruler and a compass. N o other instruments are to be used.

The reason for this restriction sheds light on the classic attitude towards

maths. A ruler and a compass are the physical counterparts suggesting the

concepts of a straight line and a circle. This restriction, self-imposed and

arbitrary, was motivated by the desire to keep geometry simple and harm o

nious. The three construction problems were very popular in Greece. The

first historical reference to them states that the philosopher Anaxagoras

passed his time in prison trying to square the circle. Despite the repeated

efforts o f the best Greek m athem aticians the problems were not solved. N or

were they to be solved for the next two thousand years. It was finally proved

that the constructions cannot be performed under the conditions specified.

construction for the edge of a cube having twice the volume o f a given cube.

It probably dates back to the time of the Pythagoreans (c. 540 B.C.). The

Pythagorean theorem suggests a simple means for finding a square with

twice the area of a given square — it is the “square" on the diagonal If the

side o f the square is of unit length, we can thus solve the problem o f finding

a line segment of length V2. The corresponding problem o f finding a segment

o f length 42 was stated in a much more interesting form by the Greeks.

The Greek com m entator o f the period tells us o f a letter supposedly w rit

ten to Ptolemy I (not to be confused with the mathematician o f the same

name) concerning King Minos, who had a cubical tomb constructed for his

104

son. The king was displeased with the size of the monument, however, and

so ordered it doubled in size — by doubling the side. The com m entator

points out that this was an error as the tomb would thereby be increased four

fold in area and eightfold in volume; but he says, the geometers then tried to

solve the problem.

A second and better known story is also told o f the source o f the problem.

It is said that the gods sent a plague to the people of Athens. The people sent

a delegation to the oracle at Delos to ask what could be done to appease the

gods. They were told to double the size o f the cubical altar to Apollo, and the

plague would cease. They built a new altar, each edge o f which was twice as

long as each edge o f the old altar. But since the gods’ demand was not ful

filled, the plague continued. The story fails to relate what was finally done to

appease the gods, but evidently the plague eventually left the city.

The search for solutions to this problem, to be carried out if possible with

the restriction o f using only a straightedge and a compass, was to lead the

Greeks to many math discoveries during the next several centuries. A com-

pass-and-straightedge construction for this problem was not one o f their dis

coveries, however, it can be proven that this cannot be done under these

restrictions. Menaechmus (c. 350 B.C.) is given credit for discovering the

conic sections in the process o f trying to find a solution to this problem. He

gave two solutions, one involving the intersection of two parabolas, and the

other the intersection o f a hyperbola and parabola. (It can easily be seen by

analytic geometry, that when the equations у =x2 and xy= 2 are solved simul

taneously, then x=V2.) It should be emphasized that these were perfectly

legitimate solutions, but they did not satisfy the Greek criterion o f restrict

ing the tools used, to straightedge and compass. Plato (340 B.C.) discovered

a mechanical solution, and during the third century B.C. Nicomedes used the

curve called the conchoid. Diocles (c. 180 B.C.) used the cissoid to effect

duplication.

Viete in 1593 proved that every cubic equation not otherwise solvable leads

to either a duplication or a trisection problem. It remained for Descartes in

1637 to prove the impossibility of a solution by means o f lines and circles. He

showed that a parabola and a circle can be used to find the roots o f a cubic

equation, if the second-degree term is missing. Since every cubic may be

reduced to one with no second-degree term, every cubic may be solved by

means o f a circle and a parabola. But the parabola may not be constructed

with a straightedge and a compass, hence, neither the duplication o f the

cube nor the trisection o f the angle may be so performed.

105

But people still try and often claim success. They are either wrong o r they

misunderstand the problems. The problems are insoluble for the same sort o f

reason, viz., that the solution involves a kind o f irrational num ber which

cannot be constructed by Euclidean methods. A good approxim ation to the

solution is not what is wanted.

While it is customary to emphasize the futile search o f the G reeks for the

solutions (perhaps because am ateur mathem aticians at all periods o f time

eagerly exercised their ingenuity on these problems), a more accurate

appraisal must be made that even the early Greek geometers realized that the

allowable means were inadequate. They set to work to find other m eans to

solve these problems and here they did not fail. By making use o f certain

curves, not circles, supposedly already completely drawn, they were able to

solve many o f the construction problems.

The discovery o f the conic sections and the use o f such curves as the con

choid and the quadratrix to effect solutions is an obvious evidence o f the

ingenuity o f the Greek geometers. The fact that they lacked the necessary

math tools o f analytic geometry and algebraic theory to describe the possi

bilities o f various geometrical instruments (and thereby also to show what is

impossible) cannot be held against the Greeks. A valid and rigorous proof

that “squaring the circle” problem cannot be solved by compass and

straightedge alone was not given until 1882.

Nowadays it is well known that problems in construction can be solved by

various uses o f the basic geometrical tools, and in most cases in more than

one way with each (by straightedge and compass, by compass only, by com

pass with the same opening throughout the construction, i.e., “ fixed com

pass” and other limited means). A natural question is: “Which way is best?”

Possible criterion was established in 1907: the simplicity o f the construction

is the sum o f the numbers of the simple operations (steps) used in the co n

struction.

The early G reeks had to give special atten tio n to geom etric c o n stru c

tion because each served as a sort o f existence theorem for the figure o r

concept involved. The establishing o f the various equivalence theorem s

(e.g., that the compass alone is equivalent to straightedge and m odem

compass) reverses the approach - now a geom eter is interested in sh o w

ing that theoretically, at least, the results are attainable even w ithout c a r

rying out the actual construction, i.e., that the construction can be p e r

formed in principle.

106

T E X T TWO

Extracts from the lecture delivered by D. Hilbert before the International Congress

of Mathematicians in Paris, 1900

Read and translate the text into Russian. Write out all /л£-ending forms and arrange them into

groups according to their part of speech.

Who o f us cannot be glad to lift the veil behind which the future lies hid

den; to cast a glance at the next advances o f our science and at the secrets o f

its development during future centuries? What particular goals can there be

which the leading math minds o f coming generations will strive? What new

methods and new facts in the wide and rich field o f math thought can the

new centuries disclose?

History teaches the continuity o f the development o f science. We know that

every age has its own problems, which the following either solves or casts

aside as worthless and replaces by new ones. If we could obtain an idea o f the

probable development of math knowledge in the immediate future, we must

let the unsettled questions pass in our minds and consider the problems

which the science o f today sets and whose solution we expect from the

future. To such a review o f present-day problems, raised at the meeting o f the

centuries, I wish to turn your attention. For the close o f a great epoch o f the

19th century not only invites us to look back into the past but also directs our

thought to the unknown future.

The deep significance of certain problems for the advance of math science,

in general, and the important role which they play in the work of the indi

vidual investigator are not to be denied. As long as a branch o f science offers

an abundance o f problems, so long it is alive, a lack of problems foreshadows

extinction o r the cessation of independent development. Just as every

human undertaking seeks after certain objects, so also math research

requires its problems. It is by the solution o f problems that the researcher

tests the tem per o f his steel; he finds new methods and new outlooks, and

gains a wider and freer horizon.

It is difficult, often impossible, to judge the value o f a problem correctly in

advance, for the final award depends upon the gain which science obtains

from the problem. Nevertheless, we can ask whether there are general crite

ria which m ark and label a good m ath problem. An old French m athem ati-

107

cian said: “A math theory is not to be considered completed until you made

it so clear that you can explain it to the first man whom you meet in the

street.” This clearness and ease o f understanding, here claimed for a math

theory, 1 should still more dem and for a math problem that it ought to be

perfect; for what is clear and easily understandable attracts, while the com

plicated repels us. Moreover, a math problem should be difficult in order to

appeal to us, yet not completely inaccessible, lest it mock at our efforts. It

should be to us a guide post on the mazy paths to hidden truths, and ulti

mately a reminder o f our pleasure in the successful solution.

The mathematicians o f past centuries were accustomed to devoting them

selves to the solution o f difficult particular problems with passionate zeal.

They knew the value o f difficult problems. 1 remind you only o f the “prob

lem of quickest descent” proposed by J. Bernoulli, o f Ferm at’s assertion

x n+yn=zn (x, y, z integers) which is unsolvable except in certain self-evident

cases. The calculus o f variations owes its origin to this problem o f Bernoulli

and to similar problems. The attem pt to prove the impossibility o f Ferm at’s

theorem offers a striking example o f the inspiring effect which such a very

special and apparently unim portant problem may have upon science. 1 can

remind you as well o f the problem o f three bodies. The fruitful m ethods and

the far-reaching principles which Poincare brought into celestial mechanics

and which are today recognized and applied in practical astronomy arc due

to the fact that he sought to treat anew that difficult problem and to come

nearer to its solution.

But it often happens also that the same special problem finds application

in the most diverse and unrelated branches o f maths. So for example, the

problem o f the shortest line plays a chief and historically im portant part in the

foundations o f geometry, in the theory o f curved lines and surfaces, in

mechanics and in the calculus o f variations. And F. Klein convincingly pic

tured, in his work on the icosahedron, the significance which is attached to

the problem of the regular polyhedra in elementary geometry, in group th e

ory, in the theory of equations and in the theory o f linear differential equa

tions.

After referring to the general importance o f problems in maths, let us

return to the question from what sources this science derives its problems.

Surely, the first and oldest problems in every field o f maths spring from expe

rience and are suggested by the world ofexterhal phenomena. Even the rules

of calculation with natural numbers were discovered in this fashion in a lower

stage of human civilization, just as the child o f today learns the application

of these laws by empirical methods. The same is true o f the first unsolved

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problems o f antiquity, such as the duplication of the cube, the squaring of the

circle. Also the oldest problems in the theory o f the solution of numerical

equations, in the theory of curves and the differential and integral calculus,

in the calculus of variations, the theory of Fourier series and the theory of

potential, to say nothing of the abundance of problems properly belonging to

mechanics, astronomy and physics.

But, in the further development o f the special domain of maths, the

human mind, encouraged by the success of its solutions becomes convinced

o f its independence. It evolves from itself alone, often without appreciable

influence from outside by means of logical combination, generalization,

specialization, by separating and collecting ideas in elegant ways, by new and

fruitful problems, and the mind appears then as the real questioner and the

source o f the new problems. Thus arose the problem of prime numbers and

the other unsolved problems o f number theory, G alois’ theory of equations,

the theory o f algebraic invariants, the theory o f Abelian and automorphic

functions; indeed, almost all the nicer problems o f modern arithmetic and

function theory arose in this way.

In the meantime, while the creative power of pure reason is at work, the

outer world again comes into play, forces upon us new questions from actu

al experience, opens up new divisions of maths and while we seek to conquer

these new fields o f knowledge for the realm o f pure thought, we often find

the answers to old unsolved problems and thus simultaneously advance most

successfully the old theories, thanks to this ever-recurring interplay between

pure thought and experience.

It remains to discuss briefly what general requirements may be proposed

and laid down for the solution of a math problem. I want first of all say this:

that it shall be possible to establish the correctness of the solution by means

o f a finite num ber o f steps based upon a finite number of hypotheses which

are implied in the statem ent of the problem and which must always be exact

ly formulated. This demand for logical deduction by means of a finite number

of processes is simply the requirement of rigour in reasoning. Indeed, this

requirement o f rigour, which became proverbial in maths, corresponds to a

universal philosophical necessity of our understanding; and on the other

hand, only by satisfying this claim do the problems attain their full effect.

Besides, it is an error to believe that rigour in the proof is the enemy of

simplicity. On the contrary, we find it proved by numerous examples that the

rigorous method is at the same time the simplest and worthy in the long run

and easier to understand. The very effort for rigour helps us come across a

simpler method of proof. It also frequently leads the way to methods which

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are more capable o f development than the old methods ofless rigour. Thus,

the theory o f algebraic curves experienced a considerable simplification and

attained greater unity by means o f a more rigorous function-theoretical

methods and the introduction o f transcendental curves.

To the new concepts correspond, necessarily, new signs. These we choose

in such a way that they remind us o f the phenom ena o f the external world.

Likewise, the geometric figures are signs or symbols o f space intrusion and

are used as such by all mathematicians. W ho does not always use along with

the double inequality a>b>c the picture or drawing o f three points following

one another on a straight line as the geometrical idea o f “betweenness”?

Who does not make use o f drawings o f segments and rectangles closed in one

another, when it is required to prove with perfect rigour a difficult theorem

on the continuity of functions o r the existence o f points o f condensation?

Who can do without the figure o f the triangle, the circle with its centre, or

with the cross o f three perpendicular axes? The arithmetical symbols are

written diagrams and the geometric figures are graphic formulas and no

mathematician can do without them or avoid them.

Some remarks upon the difficulties which math problems may offer and

the means o f overcoming and coping with them may be worth discussing. If

we do not manage and are not able to solve a math problem, the reason often

consists in our failure to recognize the more general standpoint from which

the problem under study appears only as a single link in a chain o f related

problems. After finding this standpoint, the problem becomes more accessi

ble to our investigations and we possess then a method which is applicable

also to related problems. This way for finding general methods is certainly

the most fruitful and the most certain; for who seeks for m ethods without

having a definite problem in mind seeks for the most part in vain.

In dealing with math problems, specialization plays, to my mind, a still

more important part than generalization. Perhaps in most cases where we

seek in vain the answer to a question, the cause o f the failure lies in the fact

that problems simpler and easier than the one at issue were either not at all

or incompletely solved. All depends, then, on finding out these easier prob

lems, and on solving them by means o f devices as perfect as possible and of

concepts capable o f generalization. This rule is one o f the most im portant

levers for overcoming math difficulties and I think, that it is used wherever it

is possible, though sometimes unconsciously.

Occasionally it happens that we seek the solution under insufficient

hypotheses or in an incorrect sense and for that reason do not surm ount the

difficulty. The problem then arises: to show the impossibility o f the solution

110

under the conditions specified. Such proofs of impossibility were effected by

the ancients, for instance, when they showed that the ratio o f the hypotenuse

to the side o f an isosceles right triangle is irrational. In later maths, the ques

tion of the impossibility of certain solutions plays a great part and we realize

in this way that old and difficult problems, such as the proof of the axiom of

parallels, the squaring the circle, the solution o f equations of the fifth degree

by radicals found fully satisfactory and rigorous solutions, although in a dif

ferent sense than that originally intended. It is probably this important fact

along with other philosophical reasons that gives rise to the conviction

(which every mathematician shares but which as yet no one supported by a

proof or refuted) that every definite math problem must necessarily be settled,

either in the form o f a direct answer to the question posed, or by the proof o f the

impossibility o f its solution and, hence, the necessary failure o f all attempts.

Is this axiom of the solvability o f every problem a peculiar characteristic of

math thought alone, or is it possibly a general law inherent in the nature of

the mind, that all questions which it asks must be answerable? For in other

sciences there exist also old problems which were handled in a m anner most

satisfactory and most useful to science by the proof of their impossibility, for

example, the problem of perpetual motion. The efforts to construct a per

petual motion machine were not futile as the investigations led to the dis

covery o f the law o f the conservation o f energy, which, in turn, explained the

impossibility o f the perpetual motion in the sense originally presupposed.

This conviction of the solvability o f every math problem is a powerful stim

ulus and impetus to the researcher. Wfe hear within us the perpetual call:

There is the problem. Seek its solution. You can find it, for in maths there is

no futile search even if the problem defies solution. The number o f problems

in maths is inexhaustible and as soon as one problem is solved, others come

forth in its place. Permit me in the following to dwell on particular and def

inite problems, drawn from various departments o f maths, whose discussion

and possible solution may result in the advancement and progress o f science.

Unsolved Problems

1. C antor’s problem o f the cardinal number o f the continuum.

2. The compatibility o f the arithmetical axioms.

3. The equality of the volumes o f two tetrahedra o f equal bases and equal

altitudes.

4. Problems o f the straight line as the shortest distance between two

points.

5. Lie’s concept of a continuous group o f transformations w ithout the

assumption o f the differentiability o f the functions defining the group.

6. Math treatm ent o f the axioms o f physics.

7. Irrationality and transcendence o f certain numbers.

8. Problems o f prime numbers.

9. Proof o f the most general law o f reciprocity in any number field.

10. Determ ination o f the solvability o f a Diophantine equation.

11. Quadratic forms with any algebraic numerical coefficients.

12. Extension o f Kronecker’s theorem on Abelian fields to any algebraic

realm o f rationality.

13. Impossibility of the solution o f the general equation o f the 7th degree

by means o f functions o f only two arguments.

14. Proof o f the finiteness of certain complete systems o f functions.

15. Rigorous foundations o f Schubert’s enumerative calculus.

16. Problem o f the topology o f algebraic curves and surfaces.

17. Representation o f definite forms by squares.

18. Building up o f space from congruent polyhedra.

19. Are the solutions of regular problems in the calculus o f variations

always necessarily analytic?

20. The general problem o f boundary values.

21. Proof of the existence o f linear differential equations having a pre

scribed monodromic group.

22. Uniformization of analytic relations by means o f automorphic func

tions.

23. Further development of the methods o f the calculus o f \-ariations.

The problems mentioned are merely samples o f problems yet they will suf

fice to show how rich, how manifold and extensive the math science o f today

is, and the question is raised whether m aths can, like other sciences, split

into separate branches, whose representatives can hardly understand one

another and whose connection becomes ever more loose. 1 do not believe

this nor wish it. Math science is in m \ opinion, an indivisible whole, an

organism whose vitality is conditioned upon the ties o f its pans For with all

the variety o f math knowledge, we are still convinced o f the similarity o f the

logical devices, the relationship of the ideas in maths as a whole and the

numerous analogies in its different departments.

But, we ask, with the extension o f math knowledge cannot it finally

become impossible for a single person to embrace all the areas o f this know I-

edge? In answer let me point out, that it is quite possible for the individual

112

investigator to master and make all new sharper tools and methods his own

and find his way more easily in the various parts o f modern maths than it is

possible in any other science. The organic unity o f maths is inherent in the

nature o f this science, for maths is the foundation o f all exact knowledge o f

natural phenom ena. That it may completely fulfil this high mission, may

(let) the new century bring it gifted master and many enthusiastic disciples.

1. Translate the sentences (a) and word combinations (b) into Russian. Specify the ing-, ending

forms as parts of speech and define their function in the sentence. Consult the dictionary, if nec

essary.

набросок, изображение; рисующий, чертежный; вычерчивающий

Линейка - простейший инструмент для черчения.

(Какой инструмент?)

racy. 2. Ruler-compass constructions are simply the drawings made by using

only a straightedge and a compass. 3. We always refer to a drawing as a geo

metric object. 4. Drawing a picture o f two intersecting lines helps the student

discuss the idea o f the interior and exterior o f the angles obtained.

5. Drawing is his favourite subject. 6. Let us represent geometric figures by

drawings.

b) drawing board, drawing compass, drawing knife, drawing master, draw

ing paper, drawing pen, drawing press.

недостающ ий, слабеющий; за неимением, ввиду отсутствия, из-за

отсутствия

means to effect the solution.

Ввиду отсутствия реш ения греки стремились

найти другие средства для его достижения.

1. Persistence o f the Greeks in their efforts to solve the three famous con

struction problems can’t be considered as failing. 2. Failing to obtain the

113

solution sought, the Greeks did not stop raising some other im portant prob

lems, e.g., o f constructing with a ruler and a compass a regular polygon o f /»

sides. 3. Failing to construct the regular heptagon {n—1) can be explained by

the same impossibility o f the solution. 4. The failing tools o f analytic geom

etry and modern algebra were some o f the reasons o f the G reeks’ inability to

solve the problems. 5. Failing the understanding o f the theoretical character

of the problems under study, modern angle-trisectors, cube-duplicators and

circle-squares issue faulty solutions.

2. Consult the dictionary, if necessary, and give the Russian equivalents of the following English

words:

Adjectives: striking, surprising, astonishing, tiring, exhausting, annoying,

missing, lacking, exciting, startling, intriguing, tempting, misleading, con

vincing, encouraging, disappointing, running, appealing, inspiring, boring.

Adverbs', according, notwithstanding, running.

Prepositions', according to, concerning, regarding, respecting, relating to,

pertaining, considering, touching, excepting, saving, pending, during, fail

ing, following, owing to, depending on.

Conjunctions', providing, granting, supposing.

3. Observe the multifunctional use of i/ig-ending forms and their possible translations.

notwithstanding adv nevertheless тем не менее

conj in spite o f the fact несмотря на то что

adv mod

problems решаем задачи; ест решать задачи

4. Don’t mix these words up! Illustrate their meaning by the examples of your own.

plane volume extent vague space course overshadowed

lateral equation expansion completed unworthy unit

literal equality extension complicated worthless unit\

carry out ellipse ultimate result from describe

carry through eclipse eventual result in ascribe

5. Make up sentences following the models.

114

Models: 1. Wfc credit Mcnnchmus with discovering conic sec

tions.

Menachmus is credited with discovering conic sec

tions.

Menachmus is given credit for (with) discovering

conic sections.

2. V\fe attribute (ascribe) discovering conic sections to

Menachmus.

Discovering conic sections is attributed (ascribed) to

Menachmus.

3. Either Pythagoras or some of his pupils proved the

famous theorem.

Neither the duplication o f the cube nor the triscction

o f the angle can be performed under the conditions

specified.

4. It goes without saying that irrational number cannot

be constructed by Euclidean methods.

It goes without saying that proof must be valid, rigor

ous and elegant.

6. Use the proper English verb or one of its derivatives equivalent to the verb in brackets. Try to

explain in your own words the difference in their meanings-

1. You must (определить) this term in a more precise and formal way. Your

(определение) is too broad and unscientific. 2. Can you (определить) this

geometric figure? — Yes, 1 can, sure enough. It is a triangle. 3. She should

(уточнить) the conditions for the construction. 4. There exists a specific

formula to (определить) the volume o f a sphere. 5. (Если противное не

оговорено), the concept “congruence” is undefined in today’s maths. 6. We

may (определить) this ratio as constant as it is true and holds in all cases.

7. Their (решение) to solve this famous problem is definite and should be

encouraged.

2. N ine (деленное) by three equals three. 3. 1 (разделяю) your views on

this point to some extent. 4. (Разделите) these numbers (раздельно) and

then add together the quotients. 5. Let us (разделим) the whole work so

that everyone should have an equal share o f it. 6. How can we (разделить)

all geom etric figures? 7. G reat distance (разделяет) us. 8. Does maths

(разделена) into (отдельные) fields with nothing in common?

115

c) to estimate, to evaluate, to appreciate, to appraise, to value, to assess

I. Scientists can (оценить, вычислить) the size and the altitude o f that

distant star only approximately. 2. (Оценить) the full significance o f this

work is difficult so far. 3. He can (оценить) this picture. He is a painter, after

all. 4. I (ценю) this book very much. It is a present o f my best friend. 5. Is it

difficult to (оценить) the ingenuity o f the G reek geometers? 6. You

(оцениваете, рассчитываете) that the work may take three months. 7. The

time and origin o f that problem is hard to (оценить).

1. First (выполните) the operation o f division and th en m ultiply the

quotients. 2. You ought to (выполнить) the work and (выполнить) your

promise. It is your duty. 3. (Выполнить) the con stru ctio n o f that famous

unsolved problem proved hopeless o f (выполнения). 4. He is given cred

it for the (выполнение) o f the task so quickly and accurately. 5. The

G reeks failed to (выполнить) the constru ctio n u n d er the conditions

specified.

1. She often (предлагает) to help me, but 1 prefer to do my work without

anybody's help. 2. Listen! He can (предложить) a good idea. It is worth dis

cussing, to my mind. 3. The Greeks (предложили) a lot o f theoretical ques

tions to be solved by later generations o f m athem aticians. 4. He

(предлагает) a new way o f settling this problem.7

a) to draw - to picture — to portray — to depict —to paint / to get to —to

reach —to achieve —to gain —to attain —to accomplish / to finish —to end —

to stop —to cease - to terminate / to fix - to sign - to assign - to designate —

to denote / to bound —to limit —to restrict —to confine —to restrain / to dis

cuss - to aigue — to debate - to dispute / to mislead — to deceive / to be

sure - to be certain — to be convinced / to fit — to suit — to match / to do

problems - to solve - to resolve - to settle - to handle / to select - to choose -

to single out / to raise a question - to pose - to state - to formulate / to carry

through - to realize —to put into practice

b) bound - limit - boundary - border - frontier - verge - margin / top -

peak - apex - vertex - summit / height - altitude - elevation - pitch - tall

ness - highness / name - title - label / source - origin - spring / absence -

116

privation — lack —want —shortcoming / degree —power —extent / estima

tion —evaluation — appreciation —appraisal —assessment / point of view —

viewpoint —standpoint / method —means —device —technique —procedure

c) futile — vain — fruitless / difficult — hard — complicated / strange —

peculiar — odd / valid — legal —lawful —legitimate —legislative / endless —

infinite — nonterm inating / countable — numerable / final — ultimate —

teminal / ardent — passionate / different — various / flawless — perfect /

rough - approximate

d) in the end —at last —finally —eventually / at the same time —simulta

neously / really — in fact — indeed —actually

e) yet — however — nevertheless — nonetheless / likewise — in the similar

way / also — moreover

GRAMMAR

I want to make a drawing оГ this figure.

1 can m ake... I am able to m ake...

A drawing o f this figure can be made.

want to apply their theories in practice. 3. She wants to evaluate the area of

the floor. 4. Scientists want to solve this famous problem. 5. We want to per

form the construction with compass alone.

Possibly (perhaps), geometers use other tools Гог the

construction.

Geometers may u se ... Geometers are allowed to use...

Other tools may be used for the construction.

scientists handle the problem completely. 3. Possibly, they misunderstand

the theoretical character o f the issue. 4. Perhaps, he specifies the restriction

on the instruments. 5. Possibly, mathematicians give perfectly legitimate

solutions.

117

ModeI3. must —> need, shall, should, to be to, to have to, ought

to, to have got to, to be obliged to

It is necessary (important) for you to make a drawing

with high degree o f accuracy.

You must (shall, should, ...) make a drawing with

high...

2. It is important for us to seek the solution to this problem. 3. It is necessary

for them to fulfil the demand. 4. It is im portant for you to draw three arbi

trary circles in the plane. 5. It is not necessary for her to construct a regular

polygon:

2. Change the following sentences, using the equivalents of the modal verbs:

Model. Vte can give a short “yes —no” answer only, (to be able)

Wfc are able to give a short “yes — no” answer only.

1. The Greeks agreed to use only a straightedge and a compass in the con

struction. (to be able to) 2. She works too much at her problems, she must

have a rest, (should) 3. They may take a “ fixed” compass to perform the con

struction. (to be allowed to) 4 . 1 failed to find the solution, I think I must try

again, (ought to) 5. The existence or nonexistence o f the proof must be devel

oped. (have to)

No, you needn't. This one will do.

1. Must she make her own choice? (No, discuss other choices.) 2. D o we

have to define conic sections? (No, they arefam iliar to ewryone.) 3. M ust you

measure the perimeter? (No, it is not necessary.) 4. Does he have to refer to

this issue again? (No, it is worthless.) 5. Do they have to reverse their

approach to the problem? (No, tty the old method.)4

to the area o f the given circle.

You have to construct a square...

118

1. She (ей придется) to give a reason and possible justification for the

restriction. 2. We (нам предстоит) to find a good approximation to the

num ber я value. 3. He (ему следует) specify the conditions o f the experi

ment. 4. They (им разрешают) to use a dictionary if necessary. 5. I (в

состоянии) to solve this difficult problem myself. 6. You (ваш долг) to exer

cise all your ingenuity and fulfil the task. 7. They (им нужно) to check all the

calculations again. 8. Wfe (нам следует) to satisfy the requirements for the

solution. 9. She (ей не надо) to refer to her failure with the task now. 10, The

students (должны) to appreciate the ancient maths in a proper way.

I know nothing about that famous problem.

1. Somebody can perform the drawing in a better way. (the work) 2. The

teacher asks someone to find the area directly, (the volume) 3. Refer to this

issue somewhere in your report, (if not asked) 4. There is something unfamil

iar in his description, (o f a procedure)

2. Ask questions substituting ллу-forms for яо-forms adding the words in bracket;.

Are there really any equations in this text?

1. There is nobody to help you find the proof o f the theorem, (right now?)

2. None o f us underestimates his contribution to science, (o f the Greeks)

3. There is nothing in the text to justify the choice, (the failure?) 4. We can

seek the solution nowhere. It is impossible, (the proof?)

3. Change the following sentences using the word else and the derivatives of some, any, no, body, one.

o f paper, (somewhere)

Make a drawing o f a quadrilateral somewhere else.

1. Give that task to some other person, (someone) 2. They want to measure

some other surface, (something) 3. There is no other figure to define, (noth

in

ing) 4. They needn’t perform any other construction. (anything)

5. Somebody can draw figures with such a high degree o f accuracy. (no one)

CONVERSATIONAL PRACTICE

L. Make the following sentences more emphatic by using the interrogative pronouns:

( Wherever)

Wherever we have deductive reasoning, we have

maths.

2. He suggests this idea, he is wrong. (Whoever)

Whoever suggests this idea, he is wrong.

to obtain the solution. ( Whichever) 2. The measures o f areas and volumes

you take, they are indirect m easurem ents. (Whatever) 3. He seeks the

solution otherwise, his trials may not be futile. (Whoever) 4. The efforts

they apply to handle the problem , they are in vain. (W hatever) 5. W hen he

bisects an angle, the angles obtained are congruent. (W henever) 6. The

higher curves the ancient geom eters discovered to effect the solution, the

solutions were not valid according to the criterion. ( Whichever) 7. He dis

covered conic sections, he is credited with great contribution to maths.

(Whoever) 8. We refer to the three famous unsolved problem s, we em pha

size the ingenuity of the G reen geometers. ( Wherever) 9. W hen we employ

the formulae for areas and volumes, we give credit to the G reek m athe

maticians. (Whenever) 10. M odern circle-squares, angle-trisectors, cube-

duplicators issue their solutions, the solutions involve some fallacies.

( Wit enever)

2. Convince or refute.

This is a convincing argument. The statement must be refitted.

The statement is convincing by itself. 1 have a counter-argument that nuqr

serve as a refutation.

The assertion convincingly represents... One can refute fc by..

Although no conviction serves as a proof... Although no refutation is offered...

not mathematicians. 2. Due to their seeming simplicity and recreational

120

nature, the construction problems do not appeal to em inent m athem ati

cians. 3. The theoretical proof is unnecessary, only precise drawing is

required for their solution. 4. A more severe restriction o f the tools (e.g., with

a compass alone) limit the num ber o f possible constructions. 5. It is always

possible to improve on earlier constructions by performing them in fewer

steps. 6. The solution for the construction problems can be found by pure

reason. 7. The ancient Greeks proved the impossibility o f the solutions under

the conditions specified. 8. The solution should be obtained by means of a

finite number of steps. 9. The answers to famous unsolved problems are still

not found. 10. There are no unsolved problems in modern maths. 11. People

should not confuse the G reek letter я [pat] with the math symbol я (pi:).

12. The history of the num ber я is associated with the oldest o f unsolved

construction problems “quadrature of the circle” .

3. Suppose that the statement is insufficient. Repeat the statement and add your own reason

ing. Use the opening phrases. Summarize the whole topic.

three equal parts.

That’s right... But I may as well add that many special

angles, e.g„ an angle of 90°, can, of course, be easily

trisected.

1. Using only a straightedge and a compass the Greeks could easily divide

any line segment into any num ber o f equal parts. 2. The ease with which any

angle can be bisected was the motivation to attempt the multisection o f any

angle under similar restrictions. 3. The problem o f constructing a regular

polygon o f nine sides which requires the trisection o f a 60° angle was the sec

o nd source o f the famous problem. 4. The Greeks could not solve the prob

lem not because they were not clever enough, but because the problem is

insoluble under the specified conditions. 5. The Greeks added “ the trisec

tion problem ” to their three famous unsolved problems. 6. It is customary to

emphasize the futile search o f the Greeks for the solution. 7. However, a very

important fact should not be pverlooked. 8. The ancient Greek geometers

realized that the allowable instruments were inadequate for trisecting any

arbitrary angle. 9. They tried to find other means to solve the trisection prob

lem. 10. They devised various methods by means o f special geometric curves

11. Nicomedes invented a special curve, the conchoid, with which he could

trisect any angle. 12. Papus trisected an angle with the aid o f a hyperbola.

121

13. Hippias used quadratrix to divide an angle in any given ratio. 14. O ther

Greek mathematicians used various тесһалісаі solutions. 15. All these con

structions produced good approximations to the trisection o f an angle.

16. The solutions were not theoretically exact and didn’t satisfy the criteri

on. 17. The search for the solution under the imposed restrictions led the

Greeks to many great math discoveries. 18. Math discoveries and the use of

higher geometric curves to effect the solution o f the problem show th e great

ingenuity o f the Greek geometers. 19. To give a valid proof they lacked the

necessary tools o f analytic geometry and algebraic theory. 20. Over a period

o f two thousand years mathematicians were sure that it is impossible to per

form the construction under the conditions stated. 21. The first rigorous

proof o f the impossibility o f the trisection o f any given angle by compass and

straightedge was given by P. WantzeI in 1837. 22. The proof is algebraic in

nature and involves such concepts as domain o f rationality, algebraic num

bers and group theory. 23. The solution o f the problem can be found by

means o f higher algebraic and transcendental curves. Otherwise no solu

tion is possible. 24. This century geometers amuse themselves by imposing

even more severe restrictions on instrum ents uses in construction prob

lems. 25. Nowadays it is proved that trisection problem can be solved by

various uses o f even more limited means, e.g., by compass alone. 26. In

most cases the construction can be perform ed in more than one way.

27. The criterion is the simplicity and a small num ber o f operations used

in the construction.

1. Not all math problems can be solved right away.

(There are some problems that are impossible to solve (insoluble)

because... Such problems challenge mathematicians o f all periods as... The

conviction o f the solvability o f every problem is a powerful stimulus to the

researcher because...)

2. Higher algebraic curves were invented by the G reeks to effect the solu

tion o f the famous construction problems.

(The wonderful curves invented are... They have valuable properties such

as... and they are still applied in...)

3. The search for the solutions led the Greeks to the novel developments in

maths.

(The Greeks sought to devise a theory which... M enachm us’ discowry of

conic sections provided the foundations for...)

4. Maths offers an abundance o f unsolved problems.

122

(A number o f unsolved problems can be settled if one invents the right and

often sophisticated technique or...)

READING COMPREHENSION

To solve a m ath problem originally meant to find its complete numerical

solution. Gradually it became clear that such explicit solutions are possible

only in exceptional cases, that in general one must be satisfied with a scheme

by which the solution may be determined approximately, though with any

desired accuracy. Something quite different is very frequently offered as the

solution o f a m ath problem, namely, a representation o f the solution in terms

o f the data o f the problem; although it is in principle possible to devise a

scheme for numerical calculation from such a representation, the question

remains: What actually is the solution? M athematicians, in their search for

representations o f solutions, often modified th e meaning o f “solution” even

further: to solve a problem is simply to prove the unique existence o f a solution.

Clearly, if a math problem is the correct expression o f a physical one, it has

a unique solution, for the physical situation to be determined from given

data does actually occur. Thus, to know that certain math problems have

unique solutions may have no significance in maths. The statement that a

unique solution exists may then serve as a partial verification o f the correct

ness o f the m ath expression o f the problem. If the solution is not unique, the

data given are not sufficient; if the solution does not exist, the data are

incompatible.

A math problem which possesses a unique solution is referred to as correct

ly posed or formulated. For a large class o f math problems, the way in

which they are posed is never questioned, just because o f their physical

significance. These problem s are mostly o f a standard, rttther regular,

type. D oubts arise, however, when, for simplicity, the actual physical

problem is replaced by an idealized problem . Such idealized problems

may be considered as limiting cases o f actual problems, arising when, for

example, the dom ain is extended to infinity, forces are concentrated on

surfaces, lines o r points, or terms in the equations are simply om itted as

insignificantly small. To the understanding o f such idealized problems,

purely m ath existence and uniqueness, considerations may still make

Valuable contributions.

123

As it is often emphasized, not only existence and uniqueness, but also a

third abstract property of the solution should be required o f the problem if it

is to be called correctly posed: the property o f continuous dependence on

the data. Since physical data are not given with absolute precision, the math

problem is certainly not the appropriate expression o f an actual physical sit

uation if an arbitrarily small variation o f the data may have a finite effect on

the solution, or even destroy its existence o r uniqueness. If the solution does

not depend continuously on the data, it may be called unstable. It should,

however, be noted that in the customary sense the term “ instability” refers to

the problems in which the continuous dependence on the data breaks down

only for exceptional values o f the data. There are important problems, prob

lems in transonic flow, for example, which possess solutions only for excep

tional values o f the data; thus the solutions do not depend continuously on

the data even when they exist.

C O M P O SIT IO N

long abstracts.

A “construction” is drawing geometric figures with a high degree o f accu

racy. The construction performed constitutes both a proof o f the existence of

a geometric object and the solution o f the problem. The ancient G reeks were

convinced that all plane figures can be constructed with a compass and a

straightedge alone. Their methods o f bisecting a line segment and an angle

are ingenious and hard to improve on. They worked with all numbers geo

metrically. A length was chosen to represent the number l, and all other

numbers were expressed in terms o f this length. They solved equations with

unknowns by series o f geometric constructions. The answers were line seg

ments whose lengths were the unknown value sought. The Greeks imposed

the restrictions o f straightedge and compass for the construction o f the prob

lems. It is supposed that this tradition was started by Plato, G reece’s great

est philosopher. He claimed that more complicated instruments called for

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manual skill unworthy of a thinker. The Greeks failed to obtain the solution

o f the famous problems under the restrictions specified not due to the lack

o f ingenuity o f the geometers. (The famous problems are insoluble because

they involve irrational numbers that cannot be constructed by Euclidean

methods.) The Greeks’ persistent efforts to find compass-and-straightedge

ways o f trisecting an angle, squaring the circle and duplicating the cube were

not futile for almost 2000 years. The Greeks made great math discoveries on

the way. The desire to gain full understanding o f the theoretical character o f

the problems inspired many great mathematicians - among them Descartes,

Gauss, Poncelet, Lindemann - to mention but a few. The long years o f

labour on these “ impractical” , “worthless” problems indicate the care,

patience, persistence and rigour o f mathematicians in their attempts to per

form the constructions and justify them theoretically. The problems did not

exhaust themselves. Even nowadays some authors o f the scientific papers

issued “solutions” containing some fallacies. The search for the rigorous

solution resulted in great discoveries and novel developments in maths. It

introduced new geometric concepts (e.g., conic sections), raised a number

o f im portant theoretical questions (e.g., to prove the impossibility o f the

solution) and suggested an entirely new direction for scientific research (e.g.,

the extension and further generalization o f number concept).

2. Write a generalizing sentence to characterize the stylistic peculiarities ofTcxt Two or choose

one of those given below.

1) dull, uninteresting prose; 2) dry, formal, boring, academic; 3) clear and

vivid, notwithstanding scientific; 4) popular, pulsating with life and em o

tions; 5) quite within the grasp o f even a layman; 6) pathetic, un co m rr n for

the m athem atician; 7) too involved, only specialists can appreciate it.

3. Study the text carefully and answer (in writing) the following questions:

M athem aticians is the appropriate and right place for a) the review and

appraisal o f the development and achievements o f maths, and b) for formu

lating and posing the “open” “unsolved” or “challenging” questions and

problems? 2. For how long can a particular field o f maths be considered

“alive” ? 3. Specify in which paragraph D. Hilbert speaks about a) a good

m ath problem , b) the requirements for the solution o f the problem, c) the

sources m aths derives its problems from, d) the unity o f all fields o f maths

and the reasons justifying this unity, e) the interrelations of maths and the

125

external world, 0 the problems that are the product o f the hum an mind

alone.

Paragraph Writing

Study the problems thoroughly and write a paragraph (seven sentences) while answering the

questions.

(7—15], [16—23).

2. Wfere the problems formulated and stated in a good way? VNferc all the

problems formulated by D. Hilbert alone? W ire the problems really the most

vital and significant for that time? Are the problems in question easy to

solve?

3. Did D. Hilbert reveal great insight in selecting the problems? Does the

20th-century maths justify his choice?

4. Is there any problem in the list having anything to do with the unsolved

problems o f antiquity, with algebra, with num ber theory? W hich o f them

consists, in fact, o f several problems?

5. What directions and tendencies in the 19th-century m aths gave impli

cations and led D. Hilbert to formulating those particular problems? How is

the then level of maths reflected in the problems?

6. Do modern mathematicians give a short “y es-n o " answer to the (3-7)

problems?

7. Which problems are solved? For which o f them the impossibility o f the

solution is proved?

8. How and to what extent did the problems listed make for the solution of

more general and complicated problems o f today’s maths? Could they dis

close the future development o f maths?

9. How do the 20th-century mathematicians estimate the solution o f any

problem in D. Hilbert’s list?

10. Does the a priori and exciting conviction o f solvability o r impossibili

ty o f the solution add anything appealing and reassuring to the m athem ati

cian?

11. What is the contribution o f the Russian and Soviet m athem aticians to

the solution o f the problems understudy?

12. Are the unsolved problems the very essence o f maths?

126

Composition Writing

Write a composition “Unsolved Math Problems of D. Hilbert” Try to give convincing argu

ments оГ the signiGcancc of both the Second Congress of Mathematicians in 1900 and the report

of D. Hilbert for the further development of maths. Your answers to the above-given questions, and

your paragraphs should be included. Your composition must be two pages long. Consult the fol

lowing books, if necessary:

Гильберта. - Историко-математические исследования. Вып. XVIІ. М.,

1966.

COMPREHENSION EXERCISES

Questions

any line o r lifting the pencil from the paiper? 2. W hat is the triangle o f

th e sh o rte st p erim eter th a t can be inscribed in a given triangle?

3. W hat is the sm allest circle th at encloses a finite set o f points?

4. U n d e r w hat co n d itio n s are two objects equal (o r co n g ru en t) in size

an d shape? 5. If figures are not equal,* w hat significant relationship

may they possess to each o th e r and w hat geom etric pro p erties can

th ey have in com m on?

DISCUSSION

1. In maths the conviction that a definite math problem can necessarily be

solved must be supported by a proof either in the form o f a direct answer to

the question posed or by the proof o f the impossibility o f the solution. What

about other sciences?

2. Among professional mathematicians asking questions rates almost as

high as answering them. Why?

3. There are two kinds o f math problems: one is so easy that it is not worth

doing and the other so difficult that it can’t be done. Give some examples.

4. It is one thing to say that a problem is not solved yet and another thing

to say that it is impossible to solve it. How is it possible to prove a thing

impossible?

127

5. Wlmt is more difficult to prove: the possibility (the existence) o f a solu

tion of some problem or the impossibility (the nonexistence) o f the solution

sought?

6. How is it possible to prove that certain problem cannot be solved?

7. What other branches of maths, besides geometry, have unsolved prob

lems with seemingly simple nature failing the solution since antiquity?

8. How can we estimate the new and novel developments in maths raised

by the Greeks’ famous unsolved problems?

9. What do the three famous problems have in common?

10. Your appreciation of “squaring the circle” “doubling the cube” “tri

secting the angle” problems.

11. Unsolved problems formulated by D. Hilbert in 1900. W hich of them

are solved? Choose one o f them and explain why it is so difficult to solve it.

12. Unsolved problems of m odem maths.

ESSENTIAL COURSE

U n it F ive (5 )

INTRODUCTION TO GEOMETRY

Grammar:

1. Substitutes o f the Noun: it, one, that of, those of, the

former, the latter.

2. Emphatic Constructions.

3. Impersonal Sentences.

LA B O R A T O R Y PR A C TIC E

1. honour ancient Greece as the cradle of modern science; it was in

ancient Greece that the first math, astronomical and physical theories origi

nated and developed. 2. The Greeks’ contributions to philosophy, art, liter

ature and architecture are as significant today as they were in antiquity.

3. Nevertheless, the contribution o f the Greeks that determines most the

character of the present-day civilization was their maths. 4. The Greeks must

be credited with the founding o f maths as scientific discipline; even among

the Greeks themselves maths was set up as the standard for all the sciences.

5. The Greeks were the first people to pursue maths as an art for its own sake.

Pure maths emerged when the Greeks began to think o f numbers as numbers

and o f shapes as shapes. 6. The Greeks were the first to formulate the two

m ental processes vital to all m ath progress: abstraction and proof.

7. Abstraction is the art o f perceiving common qualities in different things

and forming a general idea therefrom. 8. Proof is the art o f arguing from

premises to a conclusion in such a way that no flaws can be picked in any

step o f the argument. 9. Using the information of the premises the Greeks

proved by a reasoning process, known as deduction, the inescapable conclu

sion. 10. There are two main forms of thinking — deduction and induction.

For the former we are chiefly indebted to the Greeks. They first saw clearly

revealed the great power o f announcing general axioms or assumptions and

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5 Английский язык для студентов-математиков

deducing from these a useful array o f implied propositions. 11. Inductive

thinking proceeds in the opposite direction from deduction. Starting from

the facts o f experience, it leads us to infer general conclusions. Inductive

reasoning produces in most cases an uncertain inference. 12. Deductive rea

soning is flawless, definite and absolute. Its specific inferences follow

inescapably from the general assumptions. 13. The Greeks converted maths

from empirical science into a deductive system o f thought. Greece is the

mother o f logic. A logical deductive system must start somewhere and

according to the Greeks’ criterion it must start with a list o f definitions,

axioms and postulates. 14. It is always better in pure science — the Greeks

claimed —to assume as little as possible at the start and from a few assum p

tions to deduce as much as one can. 15. The Greeks created the theory o f the

logical discourse and they embodied it in the first model o f material

axiomatic system —Euclidean geometry. 16. Euclid was genius for system; his

work Elements is a m onum ent o f the classical age maths. There were many

“elements” before Euclid; there was none after him. 17. Right up to and

including the present time, Euclid’s masterpiece serves as the highest stan

dard o f logic, rigour and perfect reasoning for all scientific treatments.

18. The Greeks had only one space and only one geometry ; these were

absolute concepts. 19. For more than twenty centuries mathematicians did

not doubt the absolute truth o f Euclidean geometry. Euclidean geometry was

all o f geometry; it is no more. 20. The challenging idea o f a non-Euclidean

geometry originated in the 19th century', simultaneously and independently

in different countries. 21. Lobachevsky —one o f the greatest Russian m ath

ematicians — revolutionized the science o f space and objects in space.

22. With the discovery o f non-Euclidean geometry, mathematicians realized

that there is more than one conceivable space and hence more than one

geometry. 23. In the twentieth century geometry lost its former intimate con

nection with physical space and the study o f “abstract spaces' was inaugu

rated. 24. The creators o f non-E uclidean geometry did not think o f its

practical applications. It was pure science. 25. Hilbert built a model o f

non-Euclidean geometry, thereby the pure science received its theoretical

justification. 26. After the days of Lobachevsky it became the fashion to

challenge axioms. 21. There developed the concept ofform al axiomatics and

postulate sets for a large variety o f geometries were investigated. Axiomatics

as a science came into being. 28. Whereas the axiomatic method was for

merly used for explaining the foundations o f maths, nowadays it is a tool for

concrete math research. 29. Einstein applied Ricmann s and Minkovsky s

non-Euclidean geometries in his relativity theory. Thus, pure science

130

obtained its practical justification. 30. Einstein’s geometry is four-dimen

sional. Space-time is its fourth dimension. Contemporary mathematicians

speak o f nth dimensional geometries. 31. Euclidean geometry nowadays is

only one applied science furnishing an interpretation of Hilbert’s pure sci

ence. There are an infinite number of others besides. 32. Today mathem ati

cians claim that geometry is not a separate math discipline, but a particular

point of view - a particular way of looking at a subject.

GRAM M AR R E V IS IO N *

1. Give the forms of the past indefinite and the Participle II of the following irregular verbs.

to break to do to take to know to bear

to choose to give to write to show to tear

to feel to hear to leave to mean to seek

to find to learn to light to read to stand

to bet to cut to let to set to split

to cast to hit to put to shut to upset

2. Put the verb in brackets in the proper tense form and translate the text into Russian. Sum up

the main ideas of the text.

G reat minds o f Greece such as Thales, Pythagoras, Euclid, Archimedes,

Apollonius, Eudoxus, etc. (to produce) an amazing amount of first-class

maths. The fame o f these mathematicians (to spread) to all corners o f the

M editerranean world and (to attract) numerous pupils. Masters and pupils

* Revision of all the grammar rules studied should be done at the end of each term.

131

(to gather) in schools which though they had few buildings and no campus

(to be) truly centres of learning. The teaching o f these schools (to dominate)

the entire life of the Greeks.

Despite the unquestioned influence o f Egypt and Babylonia on Greek

mathematicians, the maths produced by the Greeks (to differ) fundam ental

ly from that which (to precede) it. It (to be) the Greeks who (to found) maths

as a scientific discipline. The Pythagorean school (to be) the most influential

in determining both the nature and content o f Greek maths. Its leader

Pythagoras (to found) a com m unity which (to embrace) both mystical and

rational doctrines.

The original Pythagorean brotherhood (c. 550-300 B.C.) (to be) a secret

aristocratic society whose members (to prefer) to operate from behind the

scenes and, from there, to rule social and intellectual affairs with an iron

hand. Their noble bom initiates (to be taught) entirely by word o f mouth.

Written documentation (not to be permitted), since anything written (may)

give away the secrets largely responsible for their power. Among these early

Pythagoreans (to be) the men who (to know) more about maths then avail

able than most other people o f their time. They (to recognize) th at vastly

superior in design and manageability Babylonian base-ten positional

num eration system (may) make com putational skills available to people in

all walks o f life and rapidly democratize maths and diminish their power over

the masses. They (to use) their own non-positional num eration system

(=standard Greek alphabet supplem ented by special symbols). Although

there (to be) no difficulty in determ ining when the symbols (to represent) a

num ber instead of a word, for com putation the people o f the lower classes

had to consult an exclusive group o f experts or to use complicated tables —

and both o f these sources o f help (to be controlled) by the brotherhood. The

Pythagorean (can) tell the tradesmen how such tables and devices (e.g..

Abaci) were to be used but never how to make them or what the hidden p at

terns (to be) which (to make) them possible.

For Pythagoras and his followers the fundamental studies (to be) geometry,

arithm etic, music, and astronomy. The basic element o f all these studies (to

be) number not in its practical com putational aspects, but as the very essence

o f their being; they (to mean) that the nature o f numbers should (to be con

ceived) with the mind only. In spite o f the mystical nature o f much o f the

Pythagorean study the members o f community (to contribute) during the two

hundred or so years following the founding o f their organization, a good deal

o f sound maths. Thus, in geometry they (to develop) the properties o f paral-

132

lei lines and (to use) them to prove that “the sum of the angles o f any trian

gle is equal to two right angles” . They (to contribute) in a noteworthy m an

ner to Greek geometrical algebra, and they (to develop) a fairly complete the

ory o f proportion though it (to be limited) to commensurable maghitudes,

and (to use) it to deduce properties o f similar figures. They (to be aware) o f

the existence o f at least three o f the regular polyhedral solids, and they (to

discover) the incommensurability o f a side and a diagonal o f a square.

Details concerning the discovery o f the existence o f incommensurable

quantities (to be) lacking, but it is apparent that the Pythagoreans (to find) it

as difficult to accept incommensurable quantities as to discover them. Two

segments (to be) commensurable if there (to be) a segment that “measures”

each o f them —that is, (to be contained) exactly a whole number o f times in

each o f the segments. The fact that there (to reveal) pairs o f segments for

which such a measure (not to exist) provides the incommensurable case. It (to

be) possible that the first pair o f segments found to be incommensurable (to

be) the side and diagonal o f a regular pentagon, the favourite figure o f the

Pythagoreans because its diagonals (to form) the star pentagon, the distinc

tive mark o f their society. This same geometric procedure (can) also (to be

adapted) to the side and diagonal o f a square. Here there (to exist) an associ

ation with the so-called Pythagoreans’ side and diagonal numbers. The ratio

o f associated pairs of these numbers (to give) successively closer and closer

rational approximations to V2; in fact, they (to be) the approximations

obtained by computing successive convergents o f the continued fraction

from This (to be reflected) in modern maths in the concept o f irrational

number, a num ber that (can) (not to be expressed) as the ratio o f two integers,

e.g., n, e, Ц2. This devastating discovery (to be ascribed) to Pythagoras him

self, but more probably it (to be made) by some Pythagorean. Since the phi

losophy o f the Pythagorean school (to be) that whole numbers or whole

numbers in ratio (to be) the essence o f all existing things, the followers o f that

school (to regard) the emergence o f irrationals as a “logical scandal”. As the

revelation o f geometrical magnitudes whose ratio (can) (not to be represent

ed) by pairs o f integers (to lead) to the “crisis” in the foundations o f their

m aths, the Pythagoreans (to try) to conceal their greatest discovery. A

Pythagorean Hippasus (c. 400 B.C.) who first (to bring out) the irrationals

from concealm ent into the open supposedly (to perish) in a shipwreck at sea.

But great discoveries (can) (not to be suppressed)! The discovery o f incom -

mensurables (to be) a turning-point, a landmark in the history o f maths and

its significance (can) hardly (to be overappreciated). It (to result in) a need to

133

establish a new theory o f proportions independent o f commensurability.

This (to be accomplished) by Eudoxus (c. 370 B.C.). The details o f the grad

ual transition from a theory of proportions which {to include) incom m ensu

rable quantities to a clear realization o f the concept o f an irrational number

{to cover) a wide range o f sophisticated math topics and this concept {to be

fully clarified) only in the 19th century by R. Dedekind and G . Cantor. In

maths o f today the irrationals {to form ) an important subset o f real numbers,

the basis of both algebra and analysis.

The Pythagorean theorem {to be) one o f the most im portant propositions

in the entire realm o f geometry. There {to be) no doubt, however, that the

“ Pythagorean property”: {to be known) prior to the time o f Pythagoras;

there {to exist) clay tablet texts which {to contain) columns o f figures related

to Pythagorean triples. The frequent textbook reference to Egyptian “ rope-

stretchers” and their knotted surveying ropes is proof that these ancients (to

know) the theorem (to be) erroneous. While it (to be known) that the

Egyptians (to realize) as early as 2000 B.C. that 42+ 32= 5 2, there (to be) no

evidence that the Egyptians (to know) or (to be able) to prove the right angle

property o f the figure involved. Pythagoras (to be credited) with the proof of

this property which {to be) true for all right triangles, and for all natural num

bers. Although much o f this information (to be known) already to the

ancients o f earlier times, the deductive aspect o f geometry (to be exploited

and advanced) considerably in the work o f the Pythagoreans.

The mysticism o f this celebrated school (to arouse) the suspicion and dis

like of the people who finally (to drive) the Pythagoreans out o f Crotone, a

G reek seaport in Southern Italy and (to bum) their buildings. Pythagoras (to

be murdered) but his followers (to scatter) to other Greek centres and (to con

tinue) his teachings. The Pythagoreans (to be credited) with giving the subject

of maths special and independent status. They (to be) the first group to treat

math concepts as abstractions and they (to distinguish) math theory from

practices or calculations. They (to prove) the fundamental theorem s o f plane

and solid geometry and of “arithm etica” - the theory o f numbers.

More widely known than the Pythagoreans (to be) the Academy o f Plato

which (to have) Aristotle as its most distinguished student. The latter then (to

found) his own school at the time o f Plato’s death. Plato's pupils (to be) the

most famous philosophers, mathematicians and astronomers o f their age.

U nder Plato’s influence they {to emphasize) pure maths to the extent o f

ignoring all practical applications and they (to add) immensely to the range

o f maths.

134

GRAMMAR

it one

It is necessaiy to do it. One can define this term rigorously.

It appears that there is a I can’t solve this problem, let me try another

new meaning o f this term. one.

that of those of

Your proof is more elegant His results are much better than those o f his

than that of the rest o f the friends.

students.

the former the latter

O f those two properties the O f the Greek mathematicians people know

former is far more impor Pythagoras and Euclid best o f all, the latter

tant. is the author o f the Elements.

2. Emphatic Constructions

Именно, как раз. Действительно, в самом деле, ведь, же.

1. The N ear Eastern civilizations from which maths arose were the Egyp

tian and the Babylonian ones. Yet, it was the Greeks who formed maths as a

scientific discipline. 2. It was with the Greeks o f the classical period that our

m odern maths began. 3. It was from about 600 to 300 B.C. that the classical

period lasted. 4. It was by deductive reasoning that the Greeks derived all

m ath conclusions. 5. It was Euclid who gave the summation o f the maths of

the classical period in his Elements. 6. Although the Greeks did regard a

straight line as being infinite in extent and defined parallel lines as lines

which do not meet however far extended, they did not carry far enough the

idea o f geometrical infinity. 7. The Greeks.did perform many constructions

using only a straightedge and a compass.

135

3. Impersonal Sentences

(говорится, говорим)

It is said. can cannot

It be said. It be said,

It is not said. may may not

One say. One say.

One does not say. may may not

We We Wfe

say. can cannot

You You say. You say.

do not say. may may not

They They They

can

People do not say. People say. People say.

may may not

1 am (we are)

told. (coll.)

Wfe (they) hear.

сказать говорить можно сказать

It be said. It be said. It can ^ar<^ y be said.

should should not scarcely

One say. One say. One can hardly say.

should should not

We Wfe Wfe

,, must _, must not

say. You can hardly s

0U should S!,y- should nol

They They They

should should say.

4. Translate the following impersonal sentences into Russian:

num bers, functions, mappings, transform ations, etc.) and the math

method. 2. It should be said that a proof constitutes the principal part o f the

math m ethod. 3. One may not know that it was Thales of Miletus who

introduced the concept of a rigorous math proof. 4. It is conjectured that

the crisis in G reek m aths resulted from the discovery o f irrational numbers

led to the m ethod o f deriving theorems from axioms. 5. You ought not to

define axioms today as self-evident or universally recognized truths,

accepted w ithout proof. 6. People say now that some terms must be taken

as undefined and axioms are mere assumptions about these undefined

term s (or variables). 7. It can hardly be denied that the choice of axioms for

a logical system is a creative act. 8. When the axioms are selected, one must

then determine w hether or not the axioms chosen satisfy certain properties

among themselves. 9. We can say that axioms and their properties are

im portant enough. Yet, this is only the beginning. 10. One should deter

mine next w hat the relationship between the axioms and other statements

called “theorem s” is. 11. They assert that if such and such statements are

granted as axioms, then such and such statem ents follow. 12. It is known

that the process o f reaching conclusions from axioms is called deduction.

13. One says that the relationship that holds between the statements cho

sen as axioms and those which are deduced from them is called implica

tion. 14. We can state therefore that the axioms imply theorems. 15. In

fact, one can in theory prove any theorem directly from the axioms; how

ever, the theorem s in turn, are usually a convenient short-cut to proofs.

16. One should not confuse the postulate with the definition.

5. Read the text in class. Find emphatic constructions and impersonal sentences. Practise

questions and answers on the text.

Most people think o f ancient Greece in terms o f the 3rd, 4th and 5th cen

tury B.C. The “golden age” when the empire was at its height and the great

est artists, poets and writers lived, was the 5th century B.C. But the giants in

maths came later, Eudoxus about 350 B.C., and Euclid, Archimedes and

Apollonius between 300 and 200 B.C. The greatest math centre o f ancient

world was neither Crotone nor Athens but Alexandria. It is with Alexandria

that the names o f Euclid, Archimedes, Apollonius, Ptolemy, Heron, Pappus,

Hypatia, D iophantus, Hipparchus, etc. are connected.

137

For at least four thousand years the civilization o f Egypt followed a rigid

pattern. In religion, maths, philosophy, commerce, and aigiculture each

man imitated his forefathers. No external influence disrupted the calm life

and fixed ways. Then, about 325 B.C. Alexander the Great conquered this

vast land as well as Greece and the Near. East. He founded the city o f

Alexandria and moved the capital of the ancient world from Athens to this

new city. From a fusion of cultures, centered at Alexandria, a new civiliza

tion appeared and made its very significant and distinctive contribution to

maths and to Western civilization. Two factors vitally influenced the charac

ter o f the culture o f Alexandria: the commercial interests o f the Alexandrians

with their geographical and navigational problems and the fact that the

scholars became involved in the problems facing the people at large.

Alexandria became the center o f the entire ancient world, for it was ideally

located at the junction o f Asia, Africa and Europe. On the streets o f the city

native Egyptians met and traded with Greeks, Persians, Syrians, Romans

and Arabs. N o city in the world ever embraced such a variety o f peoples. It

was to this im portant center that traders and businessmen from all com ers of

the world directed their routes.

One must not foiget that credit for making Alexandria the intellectual cen

tre o f the new world does not go to the founder o f the city, who died while

still engaged in conquests, but to the very capable Ptolemy the First, the gen

eral who took over control o f Egypt on the death o f Alexander. Aware o f the

cultural importance o f the great G reek schools such as those founded by

Pythagoras, Plato and Aristotle, Ptolemy decided that Alexandria should

have such a school and that it should become the center o f Greek culture in

this new world. He built a home for the Muses and adjacent to this museum

Ptolemy erected a library not only for the preservation o f important m anu

scripts but also for the use by the general public. This famous library at one

time contained 750,000 volumes. Together with the museum, the library

resembled a modern university, though no university o f today can boast of

possessing as many great intellects as were assembled there. Today, however,

not the slightest trace remains of the famous library and museum and even

their exact locations are merely conjectural.

Scholars o f all countries were invited to Alexandria by Ptolemy and were

supported by grants from him. Consequently, there gathered at this m use

um poets, philosophers, philologists, astronom ers, geographers, physi

cians, historians, artists, and the most famous m athem aticians o f the

Alexandrian age. The principal group o f the scholars gathered at the m use

138

um was G reek, but distinguished members o f many other nations also set

tled there. Among the non-G reeks the most celebrated was the learned

Egyptian astronomer, Claudius Ptolemy. One can hardly doubt, of course,

that m aths had a most important place in the Alexandrian world, but it was

not the m aths that the classical G reek scholars knew. The civilization o f

Alexandria developed a kind of maths almost opposite in character to that

produced by the classical Greek age. The new maths was practical', while

the form er was entirely unrelated to application, the latter measured the

distance to the farthest stars, enabled men to travel over land and sea, etc.

T he great A lexandrian m athem aticians A rchim edes, H ipparchus,

Ptolemy, H eron, Menelaus, D iophantus, etc. though they did display

almost w ithout exception the G reek genius for theoretical abstractions,

nevertheless, they were quite willing to apply their talents to the practical

problems necessarily im portant in their civilization. The man whose work

best epitom izes the character of the Alexandrian age is Archimedes, one of

the greatest intellects of antiquity.

In the field o f maths proper the Alexandrians created and applied methods

o f indirect measurement. One ought not to underestimate this contribution

o f the Alexandrians. Their formulas for areas and volumes surprisingly are

not in Euclid’s Elements for though Euclid lived at the beginning o f the

Alexandrian age, his goal and the subject m atter was really the summation

and culm ination of the maths of the classical period. Euclid’s work is a m on

ument both in original or in any epitome. As far as the Alexandrian age is

concerned, the supreme achievement of the Alexandrians was the creation

o f the most accurate and most influential astronomical theory of ancient

times developed by Hipparchus and Claudius Ptolemy.

Unfortunately, the intellectual life o f the Greeks was cut short by political

events beyond the control of m athem aticians and philosophers. The

Romans rolled over the Italian peninsula and then began to attack other

lands bordering the Mediterranean. The fire swept in from the sea destroyed

the great library (47 B.C.) at Alexandria. Two and a half centuries of book

collecting and half a million manuscripts were wiped out. The fire at

Alexandria was symbolic of the Roman contem pt for abstract knowledge.

The Romans were practical people and they boasted o f their practicality.

They left no worthy imprint in the history o f maths. Though the museum of

Alexandria and the great library were destroyed and the scholars dispersed,

Greek science eventually re-emerged, Greek culture did survive, and Europe

did learn a lot from the Greeks.

139

INTRODUCTORY TEXT

The story o f the history o f geometry, like that o f many other growing and

changing subjects, is composed o f two intertwined strands. One strand nar

rates the growing content o f the subject and the other the changing nature of

the subject. The following is a brief outline o f the birth and the development

o f geometry.

Subconscious Geometry

The first geometrical considerations o f man are unquestionably very

ancient. They had their origin in simple observation stemming from human

ability to recognize physical form and to compare shapes and sizes. The

notion o f distance was undoubtedly one of the first geometric concepts

developed. Many observations in the daily life o f early man led to the notion

o f simple geometric concepts such as rectangles, squares, triangles, curves,

surfaces and solids. Such geometry may, for want o f a better name, be called

“subconscious geometry”

Scientific Geometry

In the beginning, “ man considered only concrete geometrical problems,

which present themselves individually and with no observed interconnec

tions. Later (but still before the dawn o f recorded history), human intelli

gence evolved to the point where it was able to extract from a number of

observations certain general properties and relationships. This introduced

the advantage of ordering practical geometrical problems into sets such that

the problems in a set can be solved by the same general procedure. One thus

arrives at the notion o f a geometrical law or rule. This higher stage o f geom

etry may be called “scientific geometry” in view o f the fact that induction,

trial and error, and empirical procedures were the tools o f discovery.

Geom etry became a collection o f general rule-of-thum b and laboratory

results, concerning areas, volumes, and relationships o f various figures sug

gested by physical objects. N o evidence permits us to estimate the num ber of

centuries that passed before man was able to raise geometry to the status of

a science, but the writers o f antiquity unanimously agree upon the Nile

Valley o f ancient Egypt and Babylonia as the place where subconscious

geometry first became scientific geometry. Geometry rem ained o f this type

until the great Greek period o f antiquity.

140

Demonstrative Geometry (Early Greek Geometry)

The econom ic and political changes o f the last centuries o f the second

millennium B.C. caused the power o f Egypt and Babylonia to wane. New

peoples came to the fore, and it happened that the further development of

geometry passed over to the Greeks, who transformed the subject into

something vastly different from the set o f empirical conclusions worked

out by their predecessors. The Greeks insisted that geometric fact must be

established not by empirical procedures, but by deductive reasoning; geo

metrical truth was to be attained in the classroom rather than in laborato

ry. In short, the Greeks transformed the empirical or scientific geometry of

the ancient Egyptians and Babylonians into what we may call “systematic”

or “dem onstrative” geometry. G reek geometry started in an essential way

with the work o f Thales o f Miletus in the first half o f the sixth century B.C.

This versatile genius, one o f the “seven wise m en” o f antiquity was a wor

thy founder o f demonstrative geometry. He is the first known individual

with whom the use o f deductive methods in geometry is associated. He is

credited with a num ber o f very elem entary geometrical results the value of

which is not to be measured by their content but rather by the belief that

he supplied them with a certain am ount o f logical reasoning instead of

intuition and experim ent. The next outstanding G reek geom eter is

Pythagoras who continued the systematization o f geometry begun some

fifty years earlier by Thales.

The three most outstanding Greek geometers of antiquity are Euclid (c.

300 B.C.), Archimedes (287-212 B.C.) and Apollonius (c. 225 B.C.) and it is

no exaggeration to say that almost every subsequent significant geometrical

development, right up to and including the present time, finds its seeds of

origin in some work o f these three great scholars.

With the passing o f Apollonius the golden age o f Greek geometry came to

an end. The geometers who followed did little more than fill in details and

perhaps independently develop certain theories the germs o f which were

already contained in the works o f the three great predecessors. Among these

later geometers special m ention should be made o f Heron (or Hero) of

Alexandria (c. A.D. 75), Menelaus (c. 100) and Claudius Ptolemy (c. 85-c.

165). In ancient G reek geometry both in its form and its content, we find the

fountainhead o f the subject.

141

Middle Ages

The closing period o f ancient times comes when in 146 B.C. Greece

became a province o f the Roman Empire and a gradual decline in creative

thinking set in. The period starting with the fall o f the Roman Empire in the

middle of the fifth century and extending into the eleventh century is known

as Europe’s Dark Ages, for during this period civilization in western Europe

reached a very low ebb. Schooling became almost nonexistent, G reek learn

ing all but disappeared, and many o f the arts and crafts were forgotten.

During this period o f learning, the peoples o f the East, especially the Hindus

and the Arabs, became the major custodians o f maths. Although the Hindus

excelled in com putation, contributed to the devices o f algebra, and played an

important role in the development o f our present positional numeral system,

they produced almost nothing o f importance in geometry or in basic math

methodology.

It was not until the latter part o f the eleventh century that G reek classics

in science and maths began once again to filter into Europe. The fifteenth

century, the early period o f the Renaissance, witnessed the rebirth o f art and

learning in Europe. M any G reek classics, known up to that time only

through Arabic translations, often quite inadequate, could now be studied

from original sources. M ath activity in this century was largely centered in

the Italian cities and in the central European cities o f Nuremberg, Vienna

and Prague. It concentrated on arithmetic, algebra, and trigonometry, under

the practical influence o f trade, navigation, astronomy, and surveying.

Projective Geometry

In an effort to produce more realistic pictures, many o f the Renaissance

artists and architects became deeply interested in discovering the formal laws

controlling the constructions o f objects on a screen, and as early as the fif

teenth century a num ber o f these men created the elem ents o f an underlying

geometrical theory o f perspective... Some aspects o f this subject which con

cerns a way o f representing and analyzing three-dim ensional objects by

means of their projections on certain planes had their origin in the design of

fortifications.

Analytic Geometry

Projective geometry was overshadowed by the more supple analytic geom

etry introduced by Rene Descartes and Pierre de Fermat. There is a funda

mental distinction between the two studies, for the former is a branch of

142

geometry whereas the latter is a method of geometry. Analytic geometry is

often described as the “ royal road” in geometry that Euclid thought did not

exist.

Differential Geometry

Many new and extensive fields of math investigation were opened up in the

seventeenth century, making that era an outstandingly productive one in the

development o f maths. Unquestionably, the most remarkable math achieve

ment of the period was the invention of the calculus by Isaac Newton and

Gottfried Wilhelm von.Leibnitz. A fair share of its remarkable applicability lies

in the field o f geometry and there is an exceedingly vast body of geometry

wherein one studies properties of curves and surfaces, and their generaliza

tions, by means o f the calculus. This body of geometry is known as “differ

ential geometry” For the most part, differential geometry investigates curves

and surfaces only in the immediate neighbourhood of any one of their

points. This aspect o f differential geometry is known as “local differential

geometry” or “differential geometry in the small” However, sometimes

properties o f the total structure o f a geometric figure are implied by certain

local properties o f the figure that hold at every point of the figure. This leads

to what is known as “ integral geometry” or “global differential geometry”

or “differential geometry in the large” It is probably quite correct to say that

differential geometry, at least in its modern dress, started in the early part o f

the eighteenth century with the interapplications o f the calculus and analyt

ic geometry. Karl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855) introduced the fruitful

method o f studying the differential geometry o f curves and surfaces by

means of param etric representation o f these objects. Bernhard Riemann

introduced an improved notation and a procedure independent of any par

ticular coordinate system employed. The tensor calculus was accordingly

devised and developed. Here we find an assertion o f the tendency of maths

in recent times to strive for the greatest possible generalization.

Generalized differential geometries, known as Riemannian geometries were

explored intensively, and this in turn led to non-Riem annian, and other,

geometries. M uch o f this material finds significant application in relativity

theory and other parts of modern physics.

Non-Euclidean Geometry

There is evidence that a logical development o f the theory o f parallels gave

the early Greeks a lot o f trouble. Euclid met the difficulties by defining par

allel lines as coplanar straight lines that do not meet one another however far

143

they may be produced in either direction, and by adopting as an initial

assumption his now famous parallel postulate: “ If a straight line intersects

two straight lines so as to make the interior angles on one side o f it together

less than two right angles, the two straight lines will intersect, if indefinitely

produced, on the side on which are the angles which are together less than

two right angles” . Actually, the postulate is the converse o f Proposition 17 of

Euclid’s Book II and it seemed more like a proposition than a postulate. It

was natural to ask if the postulate was really needed at all, or perhaps it could

be derived as a theorem, or, at least, it could be replaced by a more accept

able equivalent. The attempts to devise substitutes and to derive it as a theo

rem from the rest of Euclid’s postulates occupied geometers for over two

thousand years and culminated in the most far-reaching development o f

modern maths —non-Euclidean geometry.

Topology started as a branch o f geometry, but during the second quarter o f

the twentieth century it underwent such generalization and became involved

with so many other branches o f maths that it is now more properly consid

ered, along with geometry, algebra, and analysis, a fundamental division of

maths. Today topology may roughly be defined as the math study o f contin

uity, though it still reflects its geometric origin. Topology is the study o f those

properties of geometric figures which remain invariant under so-called topo

logical transformations, that is, under single-valued continuous mapping

possessing single-valued continuous inverses.

In the middle o f the nineteenth century a number of different geometries

came into existence, and the time was ripe for some sort o f codification, syn

thesis and classification to give a sense o f order to these geometries. Such a

scheme was announced in 1871 by Felix Klein, in his inaugural address upon

appointm ent to the Philosophical Faculty and the Senate o f the University

o f Erlanger. This address, based on work he and Sophus Lie did in group th e

ory, set forth a remarkable definition o f “a geometry" one that served to

codify essentially all the existing geometries of the time and pointed the way

to new fields o f research in geometry. This address with the program o f geo

metrical study advocated by it is known as Erlanger Program Somewhat

oversimply stated, the Erlanger Program claims that geometry is the investi

gation o f those properties o f figures which remain unchanged when the fig

ures are subjected to a group of transformations. It advocates the classifica

tion o f existing geometries and the creation and study o f new geometries,

according to this scheme. In particular one should study the geometries

144

characterized by the various proper subgroups of the transformation group of

a given geometry, thereby obtaining geometries that embrace others.

For plane Euclidean metric geometry, the group of transformations is the

set o f all rotations and translations in the plane; for plane projective geome

try, the group of transformations is the set of all so-called planar projective

transformations; for topology, the group o f transformations is the set o f all

topological transformations. Each geometry has its underlying controlling

transformation group. In building up a geometry, then, one is at liberty to

choose, first of all, the fundamental elements (point, line, e tc .), next the m an

ifold o f these elements (plane of points, ordinary space of points, spherical

surface o f points, plane o f lines, pencil o f circles, e tc .), and, finally, the group

o f transformations to which the manifold o f elements is to be subjected.

Abstract Spaces

In the twentieth century the study of “abstract spaces” was inaugurated and

some very general geometries came into being. A “space” became merely a

set o f objects, for convenience called “points” together with a set o f relations

in which these points are involved, and a geometry becomes simply the th e

ory o f such a space. The set o f relations to which the points are subjected is

called the “structure” o f the space, and this structure may or may not be

explainable in terms o f the invariant theory of a transformation group.

Through set theory geometry received a further generalization or m etam or

phosis. These new geometries find invaluable application in the modem

development o f analysis. Im portant among abstract spaces are the so-called

metric spaces, H ausdorf spaces, topological spaces, Hilbert’s spaces, and

vector spaces.

The discovery by Lobachevsky, Bolyai and Gauss of a self-consistent

geometry different from the geometry of Euclid liberated geometry from its

traditionarm old. A deep-rooted and centuries-old conviction that there can

be only one possible geometry is shattered and the way is opened for the cre

ation o f many different systems o f geometry. With the possibility of creating

such purely “artificial” geometries, it becomes apparent that geometry is not

necessarily tied to actual physical space. The postulates of geometry become,

for the mathematician, mere hypotheses whose physical truth or falsity need

not concern him. The mathematician may take his postulates a suit he pleas

es, рю -ided they are consistent with one another. W hereasit is customary, in

Euclidean geometry, to think o f the objects that represent the primitive terms

145

o f an axiomatic discourse as being'known prior to the postulates, now the

postulates become regarded as prior to the specification o f primitive terms.

This new point of the axiomatic method is known as “formal axiomatics” in

contrast to the earlier “ material axiomatics” In a formal axiomatic treatment

the primitive terms have no meaning whatever except that implied by the pctu-

lates, and the postulates have nothing to do with “self-evidence” or “truth” —

they are merely assumed statements about the undefined primitive terms.

Many mathematicians now regard any discourse conduc ed by formal

axiomatics as a “branch o f pure maths” If for the primitive terms in such a

postulation discourse we substitute terms of definite meaning which convert

the postulates into true statements about those terms, then we have an “inter

pretation” of the postulate system. Such an interpretation may also, if the

reasoning is valid, convert the derived statements o f the discourse into true

statements. Such an evaluation o f a branch Of pure maths is called a “branch

o f applied maths” Clearly, a given branch of pure maths may possess many

interpretations and may thus lead to many branches o f applied maths. From

this point of view, we see that material axiomatics is the independent axiomat

ic development o f some branch o f applied axiomatics. In a formal axiomatic

treatment one strips the discourse of all concrete content and goes to the

abstract development that lies behind any specific application.

Formal axiomatics was first systematically developed by David Hilbert in

his famous book The Foundations o f Geometry in 1899. Thisjittle work, which

ran through nine editions, is today a classic in its field. Next to Euclid's

Elements it may be regarded as perhaps the most influential work so far writ

ten in the field of geometry. Backed by the author’s great math authority, the

work firmly implants the postulation method o f formal axiomatics not only

in the field of geometry but also in nearly every branch o f nlaths of the twen

tieth century. The book offers a completely acceptable postulate set for

Euclidean geometry, and it can be read by any intelligent person.

ACTIVE VOCABULARY

1. to accomplish 10. to convert 19. to propose

2. to approach 11. to deserve 20. to realize

3. to assert 12. to display 21. to substitute

4. to assume 13. to doubt 22. to survey

5. to conceive 14. to emerge 23. to survive

6. to concern 15. to furnish 24. to trace

7. to confide 16. to inaugurate 25. to unify

8. to confine 17. to infer 26. to yield

9. to contradict 18. to proceed

TEXT ONE

EUCLID’S ELEMENTS

Analyze A. Einstein’s quotation with the teacher in class. Sura up the main ideas in it. Read the

text and 1) find some evidence or proof of Einstein’s statements, 2) some disproofs or refutations.

as the cradle o f western sci колыбель западной науки. Там была

ence. She for the first time cre впервые создана геометрия Евклида —

ated the intellectual miracle of это чудо мысли, логическая система,

a logical system, the assertions выводы которой с такой точностью вы

o f which followed one from текают один из другого, что ни один из

another with such rigour that них не был подвергнут какому-либо со

not one o f the demonstrated мнению.

propositions admitted o f the

slightest doubt — Euclid's geo

metry.

This marvellous accom Это удивительнейшее произведение

plishment o f reason gave to мысли дало человеческому разуму ту

the mind the confidence it уверенность в себе, которая была необ

needed for its future achieve ходима для его последующей деятель

ments. The man who was not ности. Не рожден для теоретических

enthralled in youth by this исследований тот, кто в молодости не

work was not bom to be a sci восхищался этим творением». (А. Эйн

entific theorist.” (A. Einstein) штейн)

* * *

When most people describe the Greeks’ contribution to modem civiliza

tion, they talk in terms o f art, literature and philosophy. N o doubt the

Greeks deserve the highest praise in all these fields. Nevertheless, the con

tribution o f the Greeks that determines most the character o f present-day

civilization was their mathsl

In a relatively brief period (from about 600 till 300 B.C.) great intellects

such as Thales, Pythagoras, Euclid, Eudoxus, Archimedes and Apollonius cre

ated an amazing am ount o f first-class maths. It is disappointing that unlike

the situation with the ancient Egyptian and Babylonian geometry, there exist

virtually no primary sources for the study o f very early.Greek geometry. Wfe

147

are forced to rely on manuscripts and accounts that are dated several hun

dred years after the birth o f the original treatment.

O ur principal source of information concerning very early G reek geome

try is the so-called Eudemian Summary o f Proclus. This sum m ary constitutes

several pages of Proclus’ Commentary on Euclid, Book / and is a brief outline

o f the development o f G reek geometry from the earliest times up to Euclid.

Although Proclus lived in the fifth century A.D., a good thousand years after

the inception of Greek geometry, he still had access to a num ber o f histori

cal and critical works that are now lost to us except for the fragments and

allusions preserved by him and others.

Although much o f the information on plane geometry was known to the

Babylonians o f earlier times, the deductive aspect o f geometry was introduced

for the first time by the Pythagoreans. Chains o f propositions in which suc

cessive propositions are derived from earlier ones began to emerge in the

works o f Thales. As the chains lengthen and some are tied to others, the bold

idea o f developing all o f geometry in one long chain suggests itself.

During the first three hundred years o f Greek maths, there developed the

G reek notion of a logical discourse as a sequence o f statements obtained by

deductive reasoning from the accepted set o f initial statements. Now, both

the initial and the derived statem ents o f the discourse were statem ents about

the technical matter o f the discourse and hence involved special o r technical

terms. The meanings o f these terms must be clear to the reader, and so, for

the Greeks the discourse must start with a list of explanations and definitions

o f these technical terms. After these explanations and definitions the initial

statements, called “axioms” or “postulates” o f the discourse, were to be list

ed. These initial statements, according to the Greeks, should be so carefully

chosen that their truths were quite acceptable to the reader in the light o f the

explanations and definitions already cited. Certainly, the most outstanding

contribution of the early Greeks to maths was the formulation o f the math

method (400 B.C.), for this m ethod is the very core o f m odem maths.

Unfortunately, we do not know with whom the math method originated per

sonally, but it evolved with the Pythagoreans as a natural outgrowth and

refinement o f the early application o f deductive procedures to maths.

It is claimed in Proclus’ Summary that a Pythagorean, Hippocrates o f

Chios, attempted, with at least partial success, a logical presentation o f

geometry in the form o f a single chain o f propositions based on a few initial

definitions and assumptions. There followed other writers’ attem pts and

then, about 300 B.C., Euclid produced his epoch-m aking effort, the

Elements, a single deductive chain o f 465 propositions neatly and beautiful-

148

Vy comprising plane and solid geometry, number theory, and Greek geomet

rical algebra.

From its very first appearance this work was accorded the highest respect,

and it so quickly and so completely superseded all previous efforts o f the

same nature that now no trace remained o f the earlier systems. The work of

many schools and isolated individuals was unified by Euclid in this most

famous textbook on geometry. Euclid deduced all the most important results

o f the G reek masters o f the classical period and therefore the Elements con

stituted the math history o f the age as well as the logical presentation of

geometry. The effect o f this single book on the future development o f geom

etry was enormous and is difficult to overstate.

The plan of Euclid’s Elements is as follows. It begins with a list o f defini

tions o f such notions as point and line; for example, a line is defined as

“length without breadth” Next appear various statements some o f which are

labelled axioms and others postulates. It appears that the axioms are intend

ed to be principles o f reasoning which are valid in any science (for example,

one axiom asserts that “equals to the same thing are equal to each other”),

while the postulates are intended to.be assertions about the subject matter,

that is, geometry (for example, one postulate asserts that “it is possible to

draw a line joining any two distinct points”).

From a m odem viewpoint it may be said that Euclid treats point and line

essentially as primitive or undefined notions, subject only to the restrictions

stated in the postulates, and that his definitions o f these notions offer m ere

ly an intuitive description which helps one in thinking about formal proper

ties o f points and lines. Concerning the postulates, he probably believed that

they were true statements on the basis of the meaning suggested by his defi

nitions o f the terms involved and the proofs acquired status o f “self-evident

truths”

The axioms chosen by Euclid state properties o f points, lines and other

geometric figures that are possessed by their physical counterparts. The

properties in question are so obviously true o f these physical objects that all

mathem aticians agreed on them as a basis for further reasoning. In the selec

tion o f axioms Euclid displayed great insight and judgement. Euclid chose a

very limited number o f axioms, twelve in all (later generations reduced this

num ber to ten), and constructed the whole system o f geometry.

From this starting point o f definitions, axioms and postulates, Euclid pro

ceeds to derive propositions (theorems) and at appropriate places to introduce

further definitions (for example, an obtuse angle is defined as an angle which

is greater than a right angle). His metnod o f p r o f is strictly deductive, that is,

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his theorems are proved by several deductive arguments, each employs

unquestionable premises and yields an unquestionable conclusion.

A discourse developed according to the above plan is referred to as “mate

rial axiomatics”. Certainly, the most outstanding contribution o f the early

Greeks to maths was the formulation o f the pattern o f material axiomatics

and the insistence that geometry should be systematized according to this

pattern. Euclid’s Elements is the earliest extensively developed example o f

this use o f the pattern available to us. In recent years, this pattern was signif

icantly generalized to yield a more abstract form o f discourse known as “fo r

mal axiomatics”.

The creation o f Euclidean geometry is more than the contribution of

numerous useful theorems. It reveals the power o f reason. N o other human

creation demonstrates how much knowledge can be derived by reasoning

alone as have the hundreds o f proofs in Euclid’s Elements: The necessity for

accurate and exact definitions, for clearly stated assumptions and for rigor

ous proof became evident in Euclid’s Elements.

We know much of the material o f Euclid’s Elements through our high-

school studies. By studying Euclid, hundreds o f generations from Greek

times learned how to reason, how perfect logical reasoning must proceed,

how to master the procedure, how to distinguish exact reasoning from vague

pretence o f proof. Even nowadays this masterpiece of Euclid serves as a log

ical exercise and as a model o f reasoning and the art o f the mind.

T E X T TW O

NON-EUCUDEAN GEOMETRIES

Read the text in class. Analyze and translate the sentences (or paragraphs) that may present

some difficulty for understanding. Collect the information concerning N. Lobachevsky. Add your

own comments and speak about his bold and great discovery.

The man, who deserves the honour for the creation o f non-Euclidean

geometry, is the distinguished Russian mathematician N. Lobachevsky.

Lobachevsky challenged the parallel axiom and substituted a n o th e r

“Through a point outside a line L there are an infinite number o f lines par

allel to L .” He built a new geometry on the basis o f a parallel axiom contra

dicting Euclid’s, it is a logically consistent geometry, the one in which there

are no contradictions. The most unbelievable theorems to which he was led

did not discourage him and he came to the conclusion: “There are geom e

tries different from Euclid’s and equally valid.”

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Lobachevsky succeeded in creating a new geometry with many surprising

theorems. The most unexpected is the theorem that the sum of the angles o f

any triangle is always less than 180° Moreover, o f two triangles the one with

a larger area has a smaller angle sum, i.e., two similar triangles must be also

congruent. As a final example is the following: the distance between two

parallel lines approaches zero in one direction along the lines and

becomes infinite in the other direction.

Which then is correct geometry? Which is the correct theory o f the uni

verse? Which is the most convenient theory? Which fits the observed data

best and involves the least computation and the simplest maths? We may

think that the new geometry cannot be applied to the physical world

because, for example, it asserts that similar triangles must be congruent. The

surprising revelation that emerged from all the attempts to decide which o f

the two geometries fits physical space is that both fit equally well.

The creation o f non-Euclidean geometry brought into clear light a dis

tinction between math space and physical space. The axioms of Euclidean

geometry are true o f physical space. With the creation of non-Euclidean

geometry mathematicians appreciated the fact that systems of thought based

on statem ents about physical space might be different from that physical

space.

If both Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometry can represent physical

space equally well, which one is the truth about space and figures in space?

One cannot say. In fact, the choice may not be limited to just these two.

G eom etry is not the truth about physical space but the study o f possible

spaces. Several o f these mathematically constructed spaces, differing sharply

from one another, can fit physical space equally well as far as experience can

decide.

We m ust give due credit also to other mathematicians who contributed

m uch to the creation o f non-Euclidean geometry. J. Bolyai, a Hungarian

m athem atician, worked out the notion o f a non-Euclidean geometry simul

taneously with Lobachevsky, but independently. Since Lobachevsky’s publi

cations precede Bolyai’s, it is customary to name Lobachevsky as the dis

coverer o f the concept o f non-Euclidean geometry.

K. F. Gauss, the math giant o f the nineteenth century, discovered the same

results as Lobachevsky and Bolyai before either and lacked the courage to

publish facts so startling. After carefully considering the parallel axiom,

Gauss gave a criterion for determining the truth o f Euclidean geometry:

measuring the angles o f a triangle must decide which geometry fits the phys

ical world in the particular case.

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These radical departures from Euclid followed by Riemann’s geometry

with many striking theorems. The G erm an mathematician Riemann (1826-

1866) postulated no parallels. In other words, he substituted for Euclid’s par

allel postulate the assumption that: “Through a point P outside a line L there

is no line parallel to it; that is, every pair o f lines in a plane must intersect.”

In his geometry all the perpendiculars to a straight line meet in a point, the

sum o f the angles of any triangle is greater than 180“ etc.

To test the “truth” o f all these theorems revealed in G auss’ criterion,

mathematicians once tried to measure a huge triangle with vertices on three

peaks in Germany. But all experiments failed to bring about a decisive con

clusion. The sum of the angles found was always so close to 180* that the

excess or deficit in each case could be made by the unavoidable imperfection

in the measuring techniques. Even if the three theories fit experimental facts

equally well, they are not equal in convenience o f computation. For ordinary

everyday purposes, the Euclidean system is the simplest and hence we use it

not because o f the “absolute” and only truth, but because it makes our work

easier. Riem ann’s system is the simplest for use in Einstein’s theory.

When the term "non-EucIidean geometry” is used in math literature, the

geometries o f Lobachevsky and Riemann are always meant, although the

term may well be applied generically to any geometry that denies one or

more axioms o f Euclid. After the days o f Lobachevsky and Riemann it

became the fashion to challenge axioms. To correct the defects in Euclid’s

Elements many axiom (postulate) systems were suggested and developed.

Among these systems are those o f Pasch (1882), Peano (1889). Veblen

(1904), Hilbert (1909) and BirkhoJJ and Beatley (1940). Each is different;

some have certain advantages over the others. Hilbert’s system, perhaps

because he is known as one o f the outstanding mathematicians o f the twen

tieth century, had the most profound effect. Perhaps too, this is because his

system, as compared to the others, is most similar to Euclid’s. Whatever the

reasons, Hilbert’s system was so widely used, revised, and refined over the

years that many variations o f his system - changes in statements and phrase

ology —arc now in existence.

Euclidean geometry is only one applied science furnishing an interpreta

tion o f Hilbert’s pure science; spherical geometry is another. There are an

infinite number o f others besides —some vital, many trivial, but all possible

interpretations. It took unusual imagination to entertain the possibility o f a

geometry different from Euclid’s, for the human mind was for two millennia

bound by the prejudice o f tradition to the firm belief that Euclid's system was

most certainly the only way geometrically to describe physical space, and

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that any contrary geometric system simply could not be consistent. One may

ask today whether a geometry is based on a set o f consistent postulates,

whether these postulates are independent o f one another, or whether this

geometry serves better than another geometry for a given application. But

the question o f whether a geometry is “true” has no place in pure science.

TEXT THREE

Read and translate the text in class. Practise questions and answers. Find the paragraph or the

sentence which may be used as a short answer to the question: What is a modern view of geomeiry?

For a long time geometry was intimately tied to physical space, actually

beginning as a gradual accumulation of subconscious notions about physical

space and about forms, content, and spatial relations o f specific objects in

that space. We call this very early geometry “subconscious geometry”. Later,

human intelligence evolved to the point where it became possible to consoli

date some o f the early geometrical notions into a collection of somewhat gen

eral laws or rules. We call this laboratory phase in the development of geome

try “scientific geometry” About 600 B .C the Greeks began to inject

deduction into geometry giving rise to what we call “demonstrative geometry”

In time demonstrative geometry becomes a material-axiomatic study of

idealized physical space and o f the shapes, sizes, and relations of idealized

physical objects in that space. The Greeks had only one space and one

geometry; these were absolute concepts. The space was not thought of as a

collection o f points but rather as a realm or locus, in which objects could be

freely moved about and compared with one another. From this point of view,

the basic relation in geometry was that o f congruence or superppsability.

With the elaboration o f analytic geometry in the first half o f the seven

teenth century, space came to be regarded as a collection o f points; and with

the invention, about two hundred years later, o f the classical non-Euclidean

geometries, m athem aticians accepted the situation that there is more than

one conceivable space and hence more than one geometry. But space was

still regarded as a locus in which figures could be compared with one anoth

er. The central idea became o f a group o f congruent transformations o f a

space into itself and geometry came to be regarded as the study o f those

properties o f configurations of points which remain unchanged when the

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enclosing space is subjected to these transformations, and geometry is defined

as the invariant theory o f a transformation group. Geometry came to be rather

far removed from its former intimate connection with physical space, and it

became a relatively simple matter to invent new and even bizzare geometries.

At the end o f the last century, Hilbert and others formulated the concept

offormal axiomatics, and there developed the idea o f branch o f m aths as an

abstract body of theorems deduced from a set o f postulates. Each geometry

became, from this point o f view, a particular branch o f maths. Postulate sets

for a large variety o f geometries were studied.

In the twentieth century the study o f abstract spaces was inaugurated and

some very general studies came into being. A space became merely a set of

objects together with a set o f relations in which the objects are involved, and

geometry became the theory o f such a space. It must be confessed that this

latter notion o f geometry is so embracive that the boundary lines between

geometry and other areas o f m aths became very blurred, if not entirely oblit

erated. It is essentially only the terminology and the mode o f thinking

involved that makes the subject “geom etric”

There are many areas o f maths where the introduction o f geometrical ter

minology and procedure greatly simplifies both the understanding, and the

presentation of some concept or development. This becomes increasingly

evident in so much o f maths that some mathematicians o f the second half of

the twentieth century feel that perhaps the best way to describe geometry

today is not as some separate and prescribed body o f knowledge but as a point

o f view —a particular way o f looking at a subject. Not only is the language of

geometry often much simpler and more elegant than the language o f algebra

and analysis, but it is at times possible to carry through rigorous trains o f rea

soning in geometrical terms without translating them into algebra or analy

sis. There results a considerable economy both in thought and in com m uni

cation o f thought. Moreover, and perhaps most important, the suggested

geometrical imagery frequently leads to further results and studies, thus fur

nishing us with a powerful tool o f inductive o r creative reasoning. A great

deal o f modern analysis becomes singularly compact and unified through the

employment o f geometrical language and imagery.

VOCABULAR Y EXERCISES

1. Consult the dictionary and translate the following phrases into Russian:

1. derivative o f an elem ent, absolute derivative, approximate derivative.

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directional derivative, left-hand (right-hand) derivative, total derivative;

2. emergency control, emergency signal, in case o f emergency, the state of

emergency, emergency door, emergency landing, emergency measures, emer

gency boat, emergency service, emergency work, on an emergency basis,

emergence probability;

3. a succession of, in succession, by succession, successive carriers, succes

sive derivatives, method o f successive approximations, a successor, a worthy

successor, succeeding ages, the succeeding period, to be a success, to turn out

a success, among successes, success is never blamed, successful results, to be

successful in doing smth, to be successful in everything (nothing), to deal suc

cessfully with a task, to undergo a test successfully;

4. (in)consistent, (in)consistency, (in)consistently, simple consistency,

consistency o f an estimation, consistent system, consistent policy;

5. conscience, conscious, consciousness, consciousless, subconscious, sub

consciously, self-conscious, conscientious, conscientiously;

6. convert, converse, conversely, conversion, conversion factor, conversion

frequency, conversion table, code conversion, digital conversion, analog-to-

digital converter, binary-to-digital converter, data converter, pulse convert

er, radix converter

derive, to deserve, to give rise, to proceed, to trace, to distinguish, to fail

ence, but sometimes it does not guarantee the certainty of the conclusions.

The Greeks ... all the math conclusions only by ... 2. Despite the unques

tioned influence o f Egypt and Babylonia on Greek minds, the maths pro

duced by the Greeks differs radically from that which ... it. 3. He ... highest

praise for this work. N o doubt, it’s his masteipiece. 4. Apparently, one may

find ... that ... to these m ath abstractions. 5. The creation o f Euclidean

geometry ... the power o f reason. 6. The deductive reasoning ... as follows:

“All good people are honest and if I am good then 1 must be honest. And if I

am not honest, I am not then g o o d /’ 7. Geometry, philosophy, logic and art

are all expressions o f one type of mind, one outlook on the universe, and it

is reasonable ... the existence o f common characteristics in all these phases

o f the classic Greek culture. 8. One m u s t... a rigorous proof from vague pre

tence o f proof. 9. The trial and error m ethod s... during ages o f experience to

arrive at the simple math formulae. 10. Elementary maths ... with the prop

erties o f numbers and o f space, in other words, with algebi a and geometry.

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3. T ra n sla te the sentences and analyze th e w ords in bold type.

to concern, to be concerned with (v); concern (n); concerned, concerning (participles)\ con

cerning (prep)

1. In the m odern approach to elem entary m aths, we distinguish from

the outset between num erals and num bers. O ne aspect o f the num ber

study is concerned with w hat is called “ properties o f num bers” , the

o th er deals with “ num ber system ” G eom etry — the study o f form s —

was the special concern o f the classical G reeks. 2. Concerning n u m era

tion and num ber, it may be conjectured th at the classical G reeks were

hardly concerned with num eration - if, indeed, they were interested in

it at all. T h eir minds apparently were not inclined toward the m ech an i

cal aspect o f elem entary m aths but rath er were fascinated by the p ro p e r

ties o f num bers; th eir m ain concern were positive integers. F or the

m ath em atician the postulates o f geom etry today are mere hypotheses

whose physical truth o r falsity need n o t concern him. 3. Historically,

concern w ith com putation preceded by m any centuries’ concern w ith

properties o f num bers. In tu rn , the latter preceded concern w ith num ber

system s by alm ost two thousand years. 4. W riters o f antiquity w ho con

cerned them selves with geom etry unanim ously agreed upon the Nile

Valley o f ancient Egypt as the place where subconscious geom etry

becam e scientific geometry. 5. O ur c h ie f sources o f inform ation con

cerning ancient Egyptian geom etry are the M oscow and R hind papiri,

m ath texts containing 25 and 85 problem s, respectively, and dating from

approxim ately 1850 B.C. and 1650 B.C. 6. G reek m aths concerning

m ostly w ith plane geom etry buried algebra in geom etry and developed

the so-called “geom etrical algebra” 7. Early G reek geom eters devel

oped no tio n s concerning infinitesim als and lim it and su m m atio n

processes. 8. G aspard M onge’s projective geom etry concerning a way o f

representing and analyzing three-dim ension al projects by m eans o f th eir

projections on certain planes, had its origin in the design o f fortifica

tions. 9. Q uestions concerning E uclid’s fifth postulate brought about

startling developm ent in m aths. 10. Euclid did not consider the possibil

ity concerning other postulates to define o th er geom etries. 11. W here

m aths is concerned, no doubt I am only a layman. 12. As far as the m em

bership was concerned, the Pythagoreans’ brotherhood had only male

m em bers, despite a doubtful anecdote concerning Pythagoras' beautiful

girlfriend adm itted as a member.

G RAM M AR A N D VOCABULAR Y E X E R C IS E S

1. Refer the following sentences to the past. Mind the passive voice.

scientific reasoning.

The Greeks applied deduction as a principal means of

scientific reasoning.

2. The students conceive the concept o f geometry as a logical system based

upon postulation thinking. 3. The lesson introduces students to a modern

rigorous approach to the foundations o f geometry. 4. The students trace and

appreciate the historical evolution o f geometrical concepts. 5. The subject

m atter o f the lesson reveals the relation o f Euclidean geometry to the space

we live in. 6. The lesson provides an understanding of a formal and valid

proof. 7. One can say that geometry in fact consists of several geometries.

8. The students infer how Euclidean geometry is related to many other

geometries. 9. M athematicians claim that it becomes a relatively simple m at

ter to invent new geometries. 10. The students do not fail to discover the hier

archy o f geometries and abstract spaces. 11. There is no logical reason why

one geometry should be preferred to another. 12. Mathematicians do not

arrive at any contradictions and inconsistencies in the alternative geome

tries. 13. The study yields a good understanding of a modern view o f geom

etry. 14. Geometrical language, imagery and the mode ofthinking makes any

subject under study “geometric”. 15. Geometry as a science never exhausts

itself.

logical system structure? (N o , ...)

No, they did not. But the Greeks did.

(the Greeks) 2. Was a definition for the Babylonians a phrase revealing a

thing’s essence? (N o ,...) (the Greeks) 3. Did the definitions enable Egyptians

to associate names with elements and relations? (No, ...) (the Greeks)

4. Should definitions be concisely stated? (Yes, ...) (according to the Greeks’

demand) 5. Must definitions give distinguishing characteristics o f the ele

m ent o r relation involved? (Y es,...) 6. Did the definition of the Greeks con-

157

tain any new element? (N o ,...) 7. 'Nas a definition o f a new term accepted if

it comprised undefined terms? (No, ...) 8. Did the G reeks’ definitions assert

the existence o f the thing defined? (Y es,...) 9. D id the Babylonians develop

a rigorous mathematical (as opposed to the dictionary) type o f definitions?

(No, ...) (the Greeks) 10. Did Euclid preface his Elements with a list o f defi

nitions? (Yes, ...) 11. Did Euclid actually use the definitions further in his

work? (No, ...) 12. Wfere Euclid’s definitions criticized? (Yes, ...) 13. Did

mathematicians manage to improve Euclid’s definitions? ( N o ,...) 14. Can

any mathematician give an explicit definition o f every basic term o f a logical

system? (No, ...) 15. Do continual definitions lead to a “vicious circle”?

(Y es,...) 16. Do mathematicians nowadays accept basic terms as undefined?

(Yes, ...) 17. Do axioms specify basic terms in m odem treatment? (Y e s ,...)

18. Do scientists interpret the undefined term s in any concrete way they

please? (Yes, ...) 19. Did the Greeks avoid the circularity o f definitions by

accepting undefined basic terms? (No, ...) (modem scientists) 20. Did the

Babylonians’ empirical procedures have anything in common with the Greeks’

material axiomatic method? (No, ...) (contemporaryformal axiomatics)

M odem maths began in ancient Greece.1*7

maths? (undoubtedly Pythagoras and his followers) 2. Whose pupil was

Pythagoras? ( Thales’, thefounder o f deductive methods) 3. What doctrines did

the Pythagoreans teach? (a mixture o f morality, astrology, music and genuine

maths) 4. What ancient cultures did the Pythagoreans inherit math knowl

edge from? (Babylonians, Egyptians and Indians) 5. What contribution did

the Pythagoreans make to maths? (abstracted the concepts o f number, geomet

ric form and figure; developed and applied deductive reasoning) 6. What were

their profoundest discoveries? (Pythagorean theorem, incommensurabies)

7. Who proved the general theorem? (Pythagoras is credited with; the proof is

attributed to) 8. How did the Pythagoreans prove their great theorem? (under

the unchallenged assumption that "Numbers rule the universe ”) 9. What was

the Pythagoreans’ contribution to number theory? (the creation o f the classi

cal theory o f natural numbers) 10. How did the Pythagoreans treat natural

numbers? (the essence o f all the existing things) 11. How did the Pythagoreans

come to recognize incommensurable quantities? (failed to fin d a rational

numberfor \2 ) 12. How did they regard the discovery o f incommensurables?

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(logical scandal-crisis in the foundations o f maths) 13. What did they call

numbers v 2 , \ 3 , etc.? ( irrationals) 14. How did they deal with irrationals?

(by approximating them by means o f ratios) 15. What did the discovery o f

incommensurables result in? (a need to establish a new theory o f proportions

independent o f commensurability) 16. Who developed a theory o f incommen

surables? (Eudoxus) 17. Who made this theory popular? (Euclid) 18. How

did mathematicians learn about the theory? (Euclidpresented it in geometrical

form in his Elements) 19. How can Eudoxus’ theory be estimated? (a master

piece o f Greek maths) 20. When did Eudoxus’ theory become fully appreciat

ed? (in the late nineteenth century) 21. Who constructed the first truly rigofoUs

theory o f irrational numbers? (Dedekind, Cantor, Weierstrass) 22. How did

Greek maths benefit from its first classical crisis in the foundations o f maths?

(ultimate influence was beneficial and considerable) 23. What did the

Pythagoreans’ discovery o f “incommensurable” quantities bring about?

(ultimately dispelled the belief that the universe was built on natural numbers)

4. Ask questions as in the model using the question words suggested in brackets.

words for “earth measure”. ( Where ...from ?)

Where was the word “geometry” derived from?

1. The ancients believed that the Earth was flat. (What?) 2. The early

geometers dealt with measurements o f line segments, angles, and other fig

ures in a plane. ( W hat... with ?) 3. Gradually the meaning o f “geometry” was

extended to the ordinary space of solids. (How?) 4. Greek mathematicians

considered geometry as a logical system. (Who?) 5. They assumed certain

properties and try to deduce other properties from these assumptions.

(How?) 6. During the last century geometry was still further extended to

include the study o f abstract spaces. ( Why?) 7. Nowadays geometry has to be

defined in an entirely new way. (How?) 8. In contemporary science geomet

rical imagery (points, lines, planes, etc.) may be represented in many ways.

(What?) 9. Any modern geometric discourse starts with a list o f undefined

terms and relations. (W h a t... with?) 10. The set o f relations to which the

points are subjected is called the structure o f the space. (What?)

11. G eom etry today is the theory o f any space structure. (What?)

12. G eom etry multiplied from one to many. (How?) 13. Some very general

geometries came into being. (What?) 14. Each geometry has its own under

lying controlling transformation group. (What?) 15. New geometries find

invaluable application in the modern development o f analysis. (Where?)

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S. C hange the sen ten c es, m ake them negative using th e w ords in b rac k ets.

counting, (practically)

The early Greeks did not practically deal with numera

tion systems and counting.

numeration system, (in spite o f infinite contact) 2. Their minds were inclined

toward the elementary mechanical aspect o f maths, (apparently) 3. The

Greeks’ system of counting was simple, (obviously) 4. It was positional sys

tem based on 10. (non-positional, without place value or symbol fo r zero)

5. They used special symbols for numbers, (letters o f their alphabet fo r num

bers) 6. The Pythagoreans investigated and discovered many operations on

real numbers, (properties o f natural numbers) 7. They represented numbers as

algebraic structures, (geometric patterns) 8. They developed algebra, (buried

algebra in geometry) 9. They created a grand structure o f num ber systems

similar to that for geometry, (since their general outlook was geometric rather

than arithmetical) 10. The principal G reek contributions were num ber sys

tems. (since they were fascinated by the properties and not the operations on

numbers)

6. Make the sentences impersonal using the noun-substitutes and modal verbs.

intellectual achievement (accomplishment).

One can ctaim that maths is man’s greatest intellectu

al achievement (accomplishment).1*367

1. Historians assert that geometry — the study o f forms —was the special

concern o f the classical Greeks. 2. The scientists failed to trace the exact date

o f the emergence of abstract notions of number and geometric figure.

3. Tradition credits the Pythagoreans with this greatest contribution. 4. It is

necessary to emphasize that the appreciation o f number as an abstract idea

was one of the major advances in the history o f thought. 5. It is true to say

that pure abstract geometric form is the common property o f all solids.

6. Scientists do not perforin any experim ents w ith pure forms.

7. Mathematicians deal exclusively with abstract pure forms in maths. 8. The

Greeks introduced and applied extensively the pure deductive reasoning w ith

abstract forms. 9. By means o f deductive reasoning geometers reveal the

essential properties and the relationships o f geometric forms. 10. By

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abstracting the concept o f a geometric figure the Greeks achieved the great

est level o f generalization then known. 11. Nowadays mathematicians gain a

new understanding of the abstract foundations of maths.

Objects have both essential and accidental properties.

According to the Greeks only the former should enter

into definition of an object.

tions. According to their principles ... was mechanical, and ... was vulgar.

2. C urrent m aths is a m ethod o f inquiry known as postulation thinking and

a field for creative endeavour. ...constitutes responses to purely intellectual

challenges. 3. The G reeks had only one space and one geometry; these were

absolute concepts. T oday... is the set o f objects together with a set o f rela

tions in which the objects are involved, and ... is the theory of such a space.

4. The m odern concept o f geometry is so embracive that the boundary lines

between ... and the other areas o f mathematics became very obliterated.

5. Some m athem aticians claim that geometry is not a separate math disci

pline but a point of view. ... implies a particular way o f looking at a subject.

6. The concept of axiomatic method originated in ancient Greece in the

fifth century B.C. The modern form of axiomatic method was in a stage o f

evolution for more than half o f the 19th century. The application o f... was

em bodied in Euclid’s Elements, while ... was exemplified by H ilbert’s

geometry. 7. Without doubt the most outstanding contribution o f the early

G reeks was the formulation of the pattern of axiomatics. Unlike Hilbert’s

pattern o f “ formal axiomatics” ... is usually referred to as “material

axiom atics” 8. The modern form of axiomatic method and a very high level

of abstraction characterize today’s m a th s.... is the unifying principle for all

the branches o f m aths, ... implies a higher order o f abstraction compared

to E uclid’s as the objects, relations and operations are already themselves

abstractions. 9. From the axiomatic point o f view maths is a storehouse of

abstract forms and m ath structures. Most o f ... had originally a very defi

nite intuitive content. 10. The interdependence in maths and the interna

tionalism of its appeal are displayed by simultaneous discoveries in maths.

The evidence o f ... is the discovery o f non-Euclidean geometry by a

G erm an, a Russian and a H ungarian, who had no connections with or

knowledge o f each other.7

7. Make the sentences more emphatic. Turn active into passive, if necessary.

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6 Английский язык для студентов-математиков

Model 1. The only numbers accepted by the Greeks were the

natural numbers.

is ...that It was the natural numbers that were the

was...who only numbers accepted by the Greeks.

Greeks gave maths a major place in their civilization. 3. The Greeks initiat

ed patterns of thought that are still basic in our civilization. 4. The Greeks

converted maths into abstract, deductive and axiomatic system of thought.

5. In constructing methods o f proof, mathematicians employ a high order of

intuition, imagination and ingenuity. 6. Though Thales o f M iletus proved

some geometric theorems deductively, the Pythagoreans applied this process

o f reasoning exclusively and developed it further. 7. M ath theory emerged

and evolved first in the maths of the early Greeks. 8. Euclid's Elements were

the first successful attempt to build all geometry based on postulation think

ing. 9. Euclid based his development o f geometry on a logical system.

10. D espite some shortcom ings the Elem ents are a work o f genius.

11. Ancient Greece created the intellectual miracle o f a logical system.

12. Euclid's masterpiece was the first magnificent and epoch-m aking appli

cation o f the axiomatic method. 13. M athematicians study Euclid’s Elements

to master the art o f rigorous geometric reasoning. 14. The subject o f geome

try was once almost synonymous with the name of Euclid. 15. Euclidean

geometry was the only geometry for more than two thousand years. It is not

any more. 16. The Elements are no longer all geometry, but this masterwork

is the logical ideal o f all science. 17. The Elements is the most durable and

influential textbook in the history o f maths.

lates and axioms.

Modem maths does ignore this distinction.1*45

other creators o f the subject. The term is due to him. 2. Gauss claimed that

there exists a closed and consistent geom etry in which the Euclidean 5th

postulate does not hold. 3. Euclid him self realized the impossibility of

deriving the parallel postulate from the rest o f the axioms and postulates.

4. M any m athem aticians after Euclid attem pted to prove the parallel pos

tu late by an indirect m ethod (i.e., reductio ad absurdum ).

5. M athem aticians tried to construct a geom etry in which the negation (the

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converse) x>f the parallel postulate holds. 6. The futile and fruitless efforts

to produce a proof o f the parallel postulate led to the idea o f a geometry

with m ore than one parallel. 7. The discoverers o f non-Euclidean geom e

try wanted to show that the 5th postulate is, in fact, deducible. 8. In this

they failed. But they succeeded in finding a new world, a new consistent

geom etry with infinitely many parallel lines. 9. N. Lobachevsky published

the first account dealing with non-Euclidean geometry and created the

subject concerned. 10. Priority arguments are very important in science

and that is why we honour N. Lobachevsky as the creator o f non-Euclidean

geometry. 11. G auss and Bolyai independently drew the same conclusions

from the impossibility o f proving the parallel postulate. 12. Their contem

poraries paid almost no attention at first to their novel and grand ideas.

13. New non-E uclidean geometry lacked intuitive appeal and so was

alm ost ignored. 14. Euclidean geometry rooted so firmly in thought that

th eir contem poraries hardly recognized and appreciated the latter. 15. A

few decades passed before m athem aticians took notice o f this grand dis

covery. 16. T he new geometry gained intuitive appeal as a result o f the

“m odels” for non-Euclidean geometry constructed by E Klein, Poincare

and Hilbert.

8. Translate the sentences into Russian paying attention to the grammar patterns involved.

1. One knows that geometry started far back in antiquity from some very

modest beginnings and gradually grew to its present enormous size. 2. People

are aware that the nature, or inherent character o f the subject had different

connotations at different periods o f its development. 3. Many observations

in the daily life o f early man did lead to the geometric concepts o f curves,

surfaces and solids. 4. It was the construction o f houses that suggested the

notion o f vertical, o f parallel, and o f perpendicular. One can multiply such

examples almost indefinitely. 5. While we must not be certain, it does seem

safe to assume that scientific geometry arose from practical necessity. 6. It

was the Greeks who transformed geometry into something vastly different

from the set o f empirical conclusions worked out by the ancient Egyptians

and Babylonians. 7. Induction and deduction are different ways o f reason

ing. The former is mainly used in experimental science, while the latter is the

major m ethod o f reasoning in maths. 8. People can hardly overemphasize the

im portance o f Euclid’s Elements. 9. The theory o f parallels did occupy

geometers for over two thousand years. 10. Euclidean and non-Euclidean

geometries are alternative ways geometrically to describe physical space,

both the former and the latter are consistent.

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G RAM M AR R E V IS IO N

Summarize all the grammar rules and the verb to do functions so far studied.

1. Im perative Sentences.

E.g. Suppose (Let us suppose) we have a theorem. Prove it deductively. Let

her (him, them ) do it.

E. g. M athematicians prove (must prove) theorems deductively

Present and rigorously. Theorems are proved (must be proved) deduc

tively and rigorously.

orems deductively. Theorems were proved (were to be proved,

Past had to be proved) deductively. A deductive proof is (was) much

spoken and written about. A rigorous and elegant deductive

k proof is (was) looked at with admiration.

3 . Questions.

E.g. Who proves (must prove) theorem s? Who proved (was to prove, had

to prove) theorem s? W hat do (did) m athem aticians do? How do (did)

m athem aticians prove theorem s? M athem aticians prove(d) theorem s,

don’t (didn’t) they? Do (Did) m athem aticians prove theorem s deductively

or inductively? W hat is a deductive proof? Is it difficult to prove theorems

deductively? 4

4 . N egations.

E.g. Don’t prove theorems that way. Don’t let him (her, them) prove theo

rems that way. Let us not prove theorems that way. M athematicians do not

(did not) prove theorems that way. No mathematician proves theorems that

way. Don’t (D idn’t) m athem aticians prove theorem s deductively?

M athematicians prove(d) no theorem that way. M athematicians prove(d)

nothing that way. M athematicians prove(d) theorems that way nowhere.

There is m uch thinking, reasoning, proving and justifying in maths. Is

there? There is no arguing (not any argum ent) in this theory. There exists

(emerged) a new proof o f this theorem. Does there exist...? There does not

exist... Did there emerge...? There did not emerge a new proof o f this th e

orem.

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5. Im p erso n a l Sentences.

E.g. It is (presupposed that mathematicians prove(d) theorems that way.

One (does not) suppose(s) (can hardly suppose)... We (you, they) must (not)

suppose... People should (not) suppose...

6 . E m phatic Sentences.

E.g. It is (was) mathematicians who prove(d) theorems. It is (was) deduc

tively that mathematicians prove(d) theorems. Do prove theorems deductive

ly! M athem aticians do (did) prove theorem s deductively. Whatever

(Whichever) Euclid’s proof you take, it is deductive. The earlier you master

the procedure o f a deductive proof, the sooner you appreciate math rigour.

E.g. The p ro o fs) by deduction is (are) m uch more rigorous than that of

(those of) by induction. Deduction and rigour are essentials o f a math proof.

The former and the latter are essentials o f a math proof. These proofs are

valid but try to establish more rigorous ones.

E.g. M athem aticians prove theorems inductively rather rarely but physi

cists do it regularly. M athematicians prove what they do (= prove) deductive

ly and rigorously.

E.g. 1. These students do maths. 2. What do these students do? 3. They do

prove theorems. Do prove this theorem deductively! 4. They do not prove th e

orems but we do. They prove what they do deductively.

C O N V E R SA TIO N A L P R A C TIC E

1. Use the following sentences in your oral description of ancient practical (empirical, experi

mental) geometry.

1. The word “geometry” refers to the branch o f maths. 2. Geometry arose

from practical necessities and appeared several thousand years before our

era. 3. The need to bound land led to the notion o f simple geometric con

cepts. 4. The notions o f vertical, o f parallel, and o f perpendicular were sug

gested by the construction o f buildings. 5. M any observations o f the physical

forms and shapes in the daily life led to the conception o f curves, surfaces,

and solids. 6. Empirical geometry was developed in certain areas o f the

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ancient Orient — Egypt, Mesopotamia, India, China. 7. G eom etry appeared

as a science to assist surveying, agricultural and engineering pursuits. 8. The

river basins (the Nile, the Tigris and Euphrates, the Indus and Ganges, the

Yangtze) cradled advanced forms o f society known for their engineering

skill. 9. Surveying and engineering projects required the creation o f much

practical geometry. 10. Trial and error methods and empirical procedures

were the tools and means o f discovery. 11. Geometry was a collection o f lab

oratory results, some correct, others only approximate, concerning areas

and volumes. 12. The earliest existing records o f m an's geometrical activity

were found in Mesopotamia (= Babylonia once situated on the territoiy o f

modern Iraq) and dated from Sumerian times about 3000 B.C. 13. The

ancient Babylonians used the imperishable baked-clay tablets to record their

results. 14. The Babylonians o f 2000-1600 B.C. were familiar with the gen

eral rules for com puting land areas and volumes o f solids. 15. The

Pythagorean theorem was also known to them (without any proof, o f course)

as far back as 2000 B.C.

Our chief sources of information concerning ancient Egyptian geometry

are the Moscow (1850 B.C.) and Rhind (1650 B.C.) papiri. A Scottish schol

ar and antiquary, A.M . Rhind discovered in 1858 in Egypt and bought an

ancient Egyptian papyrus found in some ruins in Thebes. The Rhind papyrus

is a collection of arithmetical, geometrical and miscellaneous problems,

including some area and volume applications. The papyrus is a copy o f 1650

B.C. o f much earlier writings o f the latter part o f the 1900 B.C. The entire

work emphasizes the two concepts that particularly characterize the maths of

the early Egyptians: 1) the consistent use o f additive procedures and 2) com

putations with fractions. Most problems are o f practical nature. Some prob

lem may present a challenge even to the modern student; e.g., “ Find the vol

ume o f a cylindrical granary of diam eter 9 and height 10 cubits.”

The Moscow papyrus also referred to as the Golenishchev papyrus for the

man who owned it before its acquisition by the Moscow M useum o f Fine

Arts, was probably written about 1850 B.C. Although it contains only 25

problems, it is similar to the Rhind papyrus. This work shows that the

Egyptians were familiar with the formula for the area o f a hemisphere and

the correct form ula for the volume o f a truncated square pyramid

y - ^ ± a j b The solution is expressed only in terms o f the necessary com

putational steps for the given numerical values: height o f 6 and the bases of

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sides 4 and 2. There are various conjectures about how the Egyptians could

develop this procedure, but the papyrus offers no help. This formula is often

referred to as the Egyptians’ “greatest pyramid” . A challenging and exciting

discovery of more than a century ago o f these two math texts gives fascinat

ing exercise to the student o f maths, both m odem and ancient. O f the 110

problems in the papiri 26 concern the computation o f land areas and vol

umes. The ancient Egyptians recorded their work on stone and papyrus

resisting the ages because o f Egypt’s dry climate. There is no documentary

evidence that the ancient Egyptians were aware o f the Pythagorean theorem.

Nevertheless, early Egyptian surveyors realized that a triangle with sides of

lengths 3, 4 and 5 units is a right triangle. Egyptian geometry arose from

necessity. The annual inundation o f the Nile Valley forced the Egyptians to

develop some systems for redetermining land markings; in fact, the word

“surveying” means “ measurement o f the earth” The Babylonians likewise

faced an urgent need for maths in the construction o f the great engineering

structures (marsh drainage, irrigation and flood control) for which they were

famous. Similar undertakings and geometrical accomplishments occurred in

India and China. The ancient Indians and Chinese, however, used very per

ishable writing materials (bark bast and bamboo) and due to the lack o f pri

mary sources we know next to nothing about maths in ancient India and

China. To a great extent the earliest geometries were little more than a prac

tically workable empiricism —a collection o f rule-of-thum b procedures and

trial-and-error methods that gave results o f sufficient acceptability for the

simple needs of those early civilizations. In spite o f the empirical nature o f

ancient oriental geometry, with its complete neglect o f proof and the lack of

difference between exact and approximate truth, mathematicians are never

theless struck by the extent and the diversity o f the problems so successfully

attacked. One ought not to underestimate the contributions o f these ancient

civilizations to the development o f geometry.

3. Substantiate the main ideas (claims) in the text with your examples and proofs.

The ability to think out answers to new problems is a defining characteris

tic o f hum an beings. People are not always reasonable, that’s for sure. But

people do reason. They do try to figure things out. Reasoning is thinking in

which one step leads to the next step and the whole process draws finally to

a conclusion. Human reasoning is, in fact, a step-by-step process o f reaching

conclusions by a connected logical train o f thought. Reasoning can follow

many routes among which the most commonly used are: reasoning by anal

ogy, induction and deduction. Deductive reasoning has many advantages, and

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it is this kind of thinking that reaches a particularly refined level in maths. Its

precision in maths depends upon several things — the unambiguous way in

which terms are defined, the restraint with which the definitions are obeyed,

and the care with which all the rules o f procedure are set out and made clear.

This kind o f thinking is logical thinking; and logic itself can be defined as the

systematic study o f the conditions and procedures which permit valid infer

ence — that is to say, which permit one to start with one or more statements

(or propositions) and derive from these or infer from these, one o r more new

statements which are valid in the sense that they are justified by, and are in

strict fact consequences o f the starting (initial) statements. Thus, what is

im portant about a logical inference is not its truth but rather its validity. A

logical conclusion can properly merit the adjectives correct, sound, or accu

rate but not true.

The type o f reasoning used in geometry and algebra was developed in clas

sical (Aristotelian) logic. It involves three steps. First, you start out with a set

o f premises (statements of postulates) which are to be accepted without ques

tion. In modern maths these initial premises are recognized as pure assump

tions without further discussion. The second step involves the application, to

the starting premises, o f rules o f logic. The core o f deductive logic is the so-

called syllogism, which consists o f a major premise, a minor premise and a

conclusion. In m ath terms a syllogism runs like:

Every M is P Either A or В or C

S is M N ot A, not В

Therefore S is P Therefore C

But the most important aspect —the third and culminating step o f the classi

cal procedure that one first learns in geometry - is precisely that there is a

definite conclusion and one can be sure that the conclusion is, under the given

premises, completely valid, and that its opposite is completely false. This type

o f reasoning produces nothing more than an “ if-then" kind o f result. That

is, i f the assumption holds, then the result is valid. Indeed it is then unques

tionably valid, and its opposite is unquestionably false. This process enables

one confidently to decide that certain statements, on the basis o f the given

start, are true or false. To certain questions one can confidently respond

“yes” or “ no” But this process in its classical form has an absolutely d e f

lating limitation. The trouble is that there arc so very many interesting and

im portant questions to which this logical method does not apply at all. There

are many questions which cannot possibly be answered with either “yes" or

“n o ” There are so very many cases in which our starting knowledge is sim

168

ply not sufficiently extensive, or sufficiently reliable, to lead to completely

negative “ no” The answer should be “a definite may be”

There are other limitations of classical logic. One of the most fundam en

tal and exciting intellectual feats o f the 20th century is the discovery by Kurt

Godel that logic has some built-in limitations which were previously unsus

pected. When one wishes to develop any logical system (say, the logical basis

for arithm etic, or the logical basis for some field o f physics), he has to start

with a set of assumptions or postulates. It is naturally a matter o f the great

est concern to be sure that the set o f postulates chosen is internally consistent

so that they do not in some complicated and concealed way contradict each

other. Godel proved the absolutely stunning result (stunning in all senses)

that it is impossible —actually impossible, not just unreasonably difficult —to

prove the consistency o f any set o f postulates which is rich enough in con

tent, that is, in the sense o f leading to a useful body o f results. The question,

“ Is there an inner flaw in this logical system?” is a question which is unan

swerable'. The business of classical logic is to put all statements into only two

categories: true (1) and false (0). A third, and embarrassingly large, category

contains all the statements which classical logic cannot handle at all, i.e.,

statem ents that are presumably neither completely true nor completely false.

Godel also proved that this is not so! He demonstrated that it is always pos

sible with a logical system, to ask questions which are undecidablel The lim

itation to only two truth values (true or false) does in fact keep most o f us,

the most o f the time, from getting a great deal o f practical help from logic. It

is at just this point that logic o f probability comes to our rescue.

“The Pythagorean” theorem is one o f the most important propositions in

the entire realm o f geometry. Despite the strong Greek tradition that associ

ates the name o f Pythagoras with the statement that “the square on the

hypothenuse o f the right-angled triangle is equal to the square on the sides

containing the right angle” there is no doubt that this result was known prior

to the time o f Pythagoras.

It is ppssible that Pythagoras gave the proof o f the theorem based on the

proportionality o f similar figures. With the later realization that all lines are

not necessarily commensurable, this proof became invalid. Thus, at the time

o f Euclid’s Elements there was no need for a more adequate proof. Euclid’s

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Proposition 147 is the Pythagorean theorem, with a proof universally cred

ited to Euclid himself. Proclus’ speculation was simply that Euclid rewrote

the proof in order that he might put the proposition in his first book to com

plete it. There is also considerable evidence that the first book was written to

lead to the climax o f this theorem and its converse.

In 1907 L.S. Loomis published his book The Pythagorean Proposition, a

work that contained 370proofs o f this theorem. Probably no other theorem

in maths can be demonstrated by such a wide variety o f algebraic and geo

metric proofs. The Pythagorean theorem and the proof are so important in

maths that Loomis writes in his book: “ I noticed two or three American texts

on geometry in which Euclid’s proof o f the Pythagorean theorem does not

appear. I suppose the author wishes to show his originality or independence

- possibly up-to-dateness. He shows something else. The leaving out o f

Euclid’s proof is like the play of Hamlet with Hamlet left o u t.”

Is the Pythagorean theorem general or special?

1. General. 2. Special. 3. Fundamental.

What role do fundam ental theorems play in math reasoning, in proofs, justi

fication and in science?

1) Every fundamental theorem is a landmark in the history o f maths. 2)

They are precise and concise arguments. 3) They are convenient shortcuts to

proofs. 4) T heir application is the best justification. 5) They serve as points

o f reference in maths. 6) They are the main guiding threads in scientific the

ories.

Pythagorean theorem)?

1) They enjoy doing it. 2) It’s their hobby. 3) Re-proving theorems is m en

tal gymnastics. 4) It is the “ food” for the mind. 5) Euclid gave the proof o f a

special case o f the Pythagorean property. 6) It’s simple to give a proof o f this

theorem. 7) The first proof is, as a rule, not rigorous and elegant. 8) They

want to become more famous. 9) ...to display their ingenuity. 10) ...to broad

en the range and scope o f the theory, where it was originally proved.

his life. Why is it unforgettable?

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1) Because o f the legendary fame of its creator — Pythagoras. 2) Because

according to the legend for the proof Pythagoras sacrificed 100 oxen to the

Gods. 3) Due to the mastery o f high-school teachers’ presentation o f the

theorem. 4) Thanks to the simplicity o f its proof. 5) Because there exist too

many proofs. 6) Geometry begins with this theorem. 7) The theorem runs

“like golden thread” throughout math history. 8) Because o f the beauty and

elegance o f its proof. 9) The theorem is an obvious consequent o f lots o f

other theorems. 10) It holds for all right triangles and for all Pythagorean

triples (= a set o f three positive whole numbers x , у and z such that x*+yl=zl,

e.g., 3, 4, 5 and 5, 12, 13). 11) The theorem leads directly to the famous

Fermat’s theorem xr + у = z*.

6. Suppose you are to prove the Pythagorean theorem. What proof (geometric, algebraic, etc.)

do you prefer? Study the models of proofs in books devoted to the Pythagorean theorem available

in the library, choose the one up to your liking and demonstrate it in class, expressing all the for

malized statements of the proof in words.

7. Ask questions for which the following statements may serve as answers. Work in pairs.

1. Precise definitions o f the logical system concepts are all important foun

dation for the whole structure. 2. In giving verbal definitions one has to begin

somewhere; it is impossible to define every single term. 3. Axioms are asser

tions about the undefined and defined terms accepted without proof.

4. Axioms are the sole basis for any conclusion that may be drawn about the

concepts under discussion. 5. M athematicians accepted Euclid’s axioms

because experience with similar physical figures guaranteed and supported

these axioms. 6. The axioms of any branch o f maths must be consistent with

each other, or else only confusion results. 7. Consistency means also that the

axioms must not give rise to theorems contradicting each other. 8. Any inter

pretation o f nature may not only be wrong, but it may also be inconsistent.

9. The axioms should be simple and independent o f each other. 10. There are

many sources o f possible theorems. The subject m atter o f maths itself, expe

rience and scientific problems are by far the most fruitful. 11. Pure chance,

guesswork, imagination, intuition and insight o f creative genius are valuable

sources o f possible theorems as well.

8. Dispute the following statements:

1. Knowing what to prove precedes knowing how to prove it. 2. The m ath

ematician may be convinced o f the possibility to prove a certain theorem.

3. But until he can give a deductive proof o f this theorem he cannot assert or

apply it. 4. The distinction between conviction that a theorem should hold

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and the proof o f the theorem is exemplified by classical unsolved problems.

5. Mathematicians literally work thousands o f years to obtain such proofs.

6. What goes on in the m athem atician’s mind while he works on the prob

lem, we do not know. 7. Wfe can say only that creative ability in maths calls

for mental qualities o f unusual excellence. 8. M aths advances by the inter

play o f many devices and approaches. 9. The proof should be valid, rigorous

and elegant. 10. It is easy to establish rigorous proofs in m odem mechanics.

9. Agree with the following statements and develop the ideas further where possible. Use the fol

lowing phrases:

I quite agree to it. I share this viewpoint Absolutely correct

logical structure. 2. Euclid produced his geometry only through conscious

design. 3. Euclid’s Elements ranks with the greatest works o f all times. 4. It

sets the pattern for characterizing abstract math objects by means o f axioms

and postulates. 5. Euclid’s postulates have intuitive appeal because they

apply, at least approximately, to the physical objects identified with points,

lines, triangles, circles, etc. 6. Euclid formulated a set o f basic postulates and

proceeds to use them in giving the proofs o f hundreds o f im portant theo

rems. 7. It is probable that the Elements is, for the most part, a highly suc

cessful compilation and systematic arrangement o f earlier writers’ works.

8. N o doubt, Euclid had to supply a number o f the proofs and to perfect

many others. 9. The chief merit o f Euclid’s work lies in the skilful selection

o f the propositions and in their arrangem ent into a logical system.

10. Euclid’s masterpiece serves as a model for all pure m ath theories.10

1. The parallel postulate is difficult to justify on intuitive grounds. 2. For

many centuries mathematicians tried to derive it from other postulates and

convert it into a theorem. 3. They never accomplished this goal; as by-prod

ucts they proved many interesting results. 4. It was not until the 19th centu

ry that it became apparent why all these attempts had to fail. S. Their failures

did not result from a lack o f ingenuity on the part o f the mathematicians.

6. The parallel postulate cannot be derived as a consequence o f the other

postulates. 7. This was dem onstrated dramatically with the construction of

non-Euclidean geometries in which Euclid’s parallel postulate does not

hold. 8. The most significant fact is that by substituting alternative postulates

the mathematicians did not arrive at any contradictions o r inconsistencies.

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9. The other departure from the parallel postulate by Riemann led ultimate

ly to the theory of relativity.

11. Agree or disagree with the given statements. Add whatever you like, it you think that the

information is insufficient.

1. The Elements consist o f nothing but propositions and proofs. 2. To learn

the Elements is to learn the art o f geometry. 3. The Greeks were the first

mathematicians who are still “ real” to us today. 4. Synthetic approach to

geometry was first employed by Euclid. Metric approach is o f ancient origin

as well. 5. G reek mathem aticians spoke the language which one cannot

understand today. 6. One can still believe Plato’s statement that “geometry

draws soul towards truth” M aths is a body of knowledge, but it contains no

truths. 7. The method o f moving figures and putting one on top o f the other

to see whether or not they coincide is called superposition. Intuition tells us

that it is simple to compare sizes of geometric figures by superposability.

8. Congruence, similarity and equivalence are major themes o f Euclidean

geometry. 9. N on-E uclidean geom etry creators challenged Euclid.

Euclidean geometry is useless today. 10. Language habits change and die.

Basic geometric ideas are always up-to-date.

12. Express consent, doubt or disagreement in response to the statements describing Euclid’s

errors (flaws, defects, omissions). Use the following phrases:

I quite agree th a t ... I can’t agree th a t...

I doubt th a t ... Not quite so.

It’s too much to say th a t ... It’s not a defect, in my opinion.

means o f diagrams or otherwise:

1. The existence o f points and lines. 2. Uniqueness o f certain points and

lines. 3. The infinitude o f a straight line. 4. The continuity o f his figures.

5. The existence of order relations on a line. 6. The concepts “inside” , “out

side” , “between” “ interior” “exterior” 7. Controversial method o f super

position. 8. The lack o f axiom justifying superposability. 9. Euclid’s geome

try is 1) closed and finite, 2) static.

13. Summarize the topic “ Euclid’s Elements Is a Work of Genius”. The following statements

may prove helpful:

Euclid’s Elements are the first remarkable attempt to build all geometry.

Euclid succeeded in basing his development of geometry on a system. A log

ical self-sufficient system must start somewhere. To be precise about what his

abstract terms include Euclid begins his logical system with the first princi-

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pies o f definitions, axioms and postulates. Euclid’s definitions were rightly

criticized. “A point is that which has no part” is the definition we are not told

what a point is but rather what it is not. After centuries o f vain effort it was

realized that one must give up definitions o f the kind attem pted by Euclid.

These must be a foundation on which to build, i.e., undefined terms.

Euclid’s fundamental propositions from which further statem ents follow

logically are divided into “postulates” and “axioms” . M odem m aths ignores

the distinction between these terms. A derivation o f a theorem involves a

proof. The precise and rigorous sense which the Greeks gave to this word may

be understood by studying Euclid’s Elements. This sense is not changed

because what constituted a proof for Euclid is still a proof for us. It is to

Euclid’s Elements that mathematicians turn for models o f proof. However,

intensive and sufficiently exhaustive study o f the Elements revealed some

tacit assumptions that converted some o f his proofs into invalid dem onstra

tions. Besides, Euclid’s first principles are insufficient for the derivation of

all the 465 propositions. The fact o f the impossibility o f deriving the propo

sition on parallels from the rest o f postulates and axioms was clearly recog

nized by Euclid himself. Despite some shortcomings and the inadequacy of

Euclid’s definitions, the Elements are a work o f genius. There is no textbook

in the history o f mankind which retained a position o f prominence for as

long time as this work o f Euclid. Nowadays high-school geometry is based

principally on Euclid’s accomplishment. Even the emergence o f non-

Euclidean geometries did not spoil the “image" o f Euclid or o f his Elements.

R E A D IN G C O M P R E H E N SIO N

1. Read the text making notes. Enlarge upon topology and significance of topological transfor

mations.

Tbpology

Topology is that branch of geometry, which deals with those properties of

figures which are unchanged by continual deformations. Topology is often

called “rubber-sheet geometry"t and this metaphorical appellation helps us

understand the nature o f this interesting and difficult branch o f maths.

Suppose a figure is drawn on a rubber sheet and that the sheet is thereupon

stretched, twisted and distorted in every conceivable way except by being cut

or tom . What happens to the figure? Obviously, distances, directions and sizes

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are changed. At first blush (glance) it may appear that no similarities remain.

Yet, they are present. A point, which was between two other points con

tinues to be between them.

W ; know that modern maths is composed o f many different divisions.

Despite its rigorousness topology is one o f the most appealing. Its study is

today one o f the largest and most important o f math activities. Although the

study o f polyhedra held a central place in Greek geometry, it remained for

Descartes and Euler to discover the following fact: In a simple polyhedron let

V denote the number o f vertices, E —the number o f edges, and F — the num

ber o ffaces; then always

V+F-E=2.

By a polyhedron is meant a solid, whose face consists o f a number o f polyg

onal faces. In the case o f the regular solids all the polygons are congruent and

all the angles at vertices are equal. A polyhedron is simple if there are no

“holes” in it, so that its surface can be deformed continuously into the sur

face o f a sphere. There are o f course, simple polyhedra which are not regu

lar and polyhedra which are not simple. It is not difficult to check the fact

that Euler’s formula holds for simple polyhedra, but does not hold for non

simple polyhedra.

Wfe must recall that elementary geometry deals with magnitudes (lengths,

angles and areas) that are unchanged by the rigid motions, while projective

geometry deals with the concepts (point, line, incidence, and cross-ratio),

which are unchanged by the still laiger group o f projective transformations.

But the rigid motions and the projections are both very special cases o f what are

called topological transformation: a topological transformation of one geo

metrical figure A into another figure A ' is given by any correspondence P++P'

between the points P o f A and the points P ' o f A ', which has the following

two properties: (1) The correspondence is biunique. This means to imply that

to each point P of A corresponds just one point P ' of A ' and conversely. (2)

The correspondence is continuous in both directions. This means that if we take

any two points P, q o f A and move P so that the distance between it and q

approaches zero (0), then the distance between the corresponding points P,

q o f A ' will also approach zero, and conversely.

The most intuitive examples o f general topological transformations are

deformations. Imagine, a figure such as a sphere or a triangle to be made

from, or drawn upon, a thin sheet of rubber, which is then stretched and

twisted in any m anner without tearing it and without bringing distinct points

into actual coincidence. The final position o f the figure will then be a topo

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logical image o f the original. A triangle can be deformed into any other trian

gle or into a circle or an ellipse, and hence these figures have exactly the

same topological properties. But one cannot deform a circle into a line seg

ment, nor the surface o f a sphere into the surface o f an inner tube. The gen

eral concept o f topological transformation is wider than the concept of

deformation. For example, if a figure is cut during a deformation and the

edges of the cut sewn together after the deform ation in exactly the same

way as before, the process still defines a topological transform ation o f the

original figure although it is not a deform ation. Topological properties

(such as are given by Euler’s theorem ) are o f the greatest interest and

im portance in many m ath investigations. They are, in a sense, the deep

est and most fundam ental o f all geom etrical properties, since they persist

(continue to hold) under the most drastic changes o f shape. O n the basis

o f Euler’s formula it is easy to show that there are no m ore than fiv e reg

ular polyhedra.

The science — topology - examines not only spheres that we can flatten

out but even an astronomical universe which may be closed in on itself. It is

an amazing universe in which we, nevertheless, can preserve a logical math

system. It deals with the fantastic world, a kind o f math puzzles, as that o f

the seven bridges of Konigsbeig - whether one could travel over all seven

without repeating any part of the journey —which Euler was able to answer

in the negative.

1. Euclid’s geometry can be mastered in ten easy lessons. 2. Every concept

or a term can be defined explicitly without entering upon an endless succes

sion o f definitions. 3. Axioms are assertions about undefined terms which we

cannot accept without a proof and construction. 4. The use o f logic adds new

information to the statements of Euclid’s postulates. 5 Euclid's system is,

most certainly, the only way geometrically to describe physical space.

6. Lobachevsky, Gauss and Bolyai drew different conclusions from the

impossibility o f proving the parallel postulate. 7. The projections o f three-

dimensional objects and the “principle o f duality" are the main concern of

Euclidean geometry.

The plan o f Euclid’s Elements proceeds as follows: definitions, axioms,

postulates, propositions, construction, proof, conclusion. Euclid's method

of proof is strictly deductive, that is, his theorems are proved by several

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deductive arguments, each employs unquestionable premises and yields an

unquestionable conclusion.

4. Suppose you are asked to explain the sense and meaning of a certain approach in maths or

in science. Read the explanations given below. If they seem insufficient to you, develop the infor

mation available and emphasize the difference (distinction), advantages and disadvantages of each

approach.

Formal synthetic approach. This phrase is used to name (to describe) the

approach to geometry first employed by Euclid and later used by many oth

ers. The phrase does not refer to a deductive system as such but rather to

such a pure system when it is developed without the use o f numbers. The for

mer adjective “formal” means official, i.e., the then accepted in science.

Contrasted to this approach are “analytic” and “m etric”

Empirical approach means the form ulation o f conclusions based upon

experience or observation o f special cases, coincidences, good guessing

and flashes o f intuition. N o real understanding is involved, and the logi

cal elem ent does not appear. The rule-of-thum b procedures and trial-

an d -error m ethods are employed. The results may be faulty; guessing

supersedes deductive logic; patience replaces brilliance. Empirical con

clusions are generalizations based upon lim ited num ber o f observations

and experiments.

Metric approach is that in which one does employ numbers and uses them to

define real-value functions (distance and angular measures) in terms o f

which the concept o f congruence and “betweenness” can then be defined. It

is o f comparatively recent origin (the 19th century). The word “metric” may

have other uses in today’s maths when the numbers are not employed at all.

Formal axiomatic approach is embodied in a discourse conducted by form al

axiomatics methods. In a formal axiomatic treatm ent primitive or basic terms

are undefined and postulates have nothing to do with “truth” or “self-evi

dence” This approach implies that one strips the discourse o f all concrete

content and goes to the abstract development that lies behind any specific

application.

scientific; popular.5

5. Discuss the problems trying to prove your point of view. Use the following phrases:

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1 have to admit th a t... My point is th a t...

1 have reason to believe th a t... It seems reasonable to assert th a t...

that points exist? Does the statement say anything about the existence of

points? Compare: Any line is determined by two points.

2. There exist at least three points on a line. There exist at least one pair o f

non intersecting lines. Are these the statements o f the existence theorems?

Make a drawing to help with your reasoning.

6. Express your personal view on the statements given below and speak on the topic “The

Discovery of Г«Іоп-Euclidean Geometry”. Use the following phrases:

As far as I am concerned... In conclusion, I may say ...

What I mean to say i s ... To summarize the topic ...

and axioms. 2. M athematicians for years thought o f Euclidean geometry as

the true and ideal system abstracted from physical points and lines. 3. Its

axioms were viewed as necessary and self-evident, probably on the basis of

observations o f the physical world and geometric diagrams. 4. The source

and the role o f axioms are viewed differently today. 5. Such phrases as “ It is

axiomatic that” , “ It is a fundamental postulate o f ...” are often used to sig

nify statements beyond all logical opposition. 6. Within maths this viewpoint

concerning the nature o f axioms and postulates altered radically. 7. The

change was gradual and it accompanied the full understanding o f the dis

covery o f non-Euclidean geometry 8. The parallel postulate is the most

famous postulate in math history. 9. For more than twenty centuries m athe

maticians struggled for proofs o f the parallel postulate. 10. The problem of

finding the proof furnished the same challenge to m athem aticians as the

famous unsolved problems o f antiquity. 11. M athematicians sought to

deduce the postulate concerned from the rest o f Euclid’s postulates. In this

they failed; their efforts, however, were not in vain. 12. Many “proofs” o f the

postulate were offered, but each was sooner or later shown to rest upon a

tacit assumption equivalent to the postulate itself. 13. It is reasonable to say

that Gauss, Lobachevsky and Bolyai independently drew the same conclu

sion because the time was ripe for the idea o f non-Euclidean geometry.

14. Nevertheless, priority arguments are very important in maths and we

honour Lobachevsky as the discoverer o f non-Euclidean geometry. 15. Their

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contemporaries paid almost no attention to the new challenging ideas.

16. The new geometry lacked intuitive appeal and so was almost inconceiv

able. 17. A few decades passed before mathematicians took notice o f their

work. 18. The new geometry gained recognition due to the “ models” con

structed by F. Klein and Poincare. 19. The “model” concept itself is quite

m odem , but it has an extensive historical background. 20. With the creation

ofpurely “artificial” geometry, it became apparent that geometry is not nec

essarily tied to physical space. 21. Non-Euclidean geometry can be present

ed in various ways. 22. It became a relatively simple m atter to invent new and

even bizzare geometries. 23. Non-Euclidean geometry is o f great importance

in the study o f the foundations o f maths. 24. Lobachevsky was the father o f

the most famous revolution in maths, but the tsarist government erected no

m onum ent to commemorate the revolution for which Lobachevsky was

responsible. 25. Instead the government relieved him o f his job as head o f the

University o f Kazan at the age o f fifty-four —this with no explanation what

soever, to a mathematician so great and well-known throughout the world.

Lobachevsky survived this disgrace but his health failed and he became

blind.

1. In maths all roads lead to Greece, “the morning-land o f civilization”

2. Num ber rules the universe. (The Pythagoreans.) 3. The math theory results

from the interplay o f the two things: a set of postulates and a logic. 4. Men

accepted the axioms of Euclidean geometry because experience with physical

figures vouched for those axioms. 5. Certainly Euclid’s geometry was a grand

abstraction from physical world but the current math abstractions are o f even

higher order. 6. With the creation of non-Euclidean geometries mathemati

cians inaugurated the interpretation of nature. 7. Nature is consistent, maths

also has to be consistent. 8. Absolute consistency is unattainable. 9. In a m od

em deductive proof from explicitly stated axioms the meaning o f the unde

fined terms is irrelevant. 10. Mathematics does not deal with objects, rela

tions and phenomena o f the external world, but, strictly speaking, only with

objects and relations of its own imagery. 11. A maths absolutely divorced from

reality soon becomes sterile. 12. The question o f whether a geometry is “true”

has no place in pure science. 13. Pure geometry is far richer in meaning,

vaster in scope, and more fruitful in application than it was suspected before.

14. Hyperbolic geometry is one o f many non-Euclidean geometries. It is par

ticularly important. 15. The best way to describe geometry today is to display

a geometrical way o f looking at any subject.

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C O M P O SIT IO N

1. What was the cradle o f maths? 2. How can the maths preceding Greek

times be characterized? 3. How did the Egyptians and the Babylonians pro

duce their best math results? 4. W hat are the contributions o f the Greeks to

maths? 5. What is the advantage o f maths being abstract? 6. W hat is usually

meant by a deductive system? 7. W hat are the basic means o f geometry?

8. Why did the Greeks turn toward geometry and did not create num ber sys

tems or algebra? 9. How did m ath theories originate in G reek maths?

10. What was the result o f the G reeks’ discovery that the num ber >/2 is irra

tional? 11. What are the earliest math theories o f antiquity? 12. What is the

most outstanding contribution o f the early Greeks? 13. What do you mean

by “ material axiomatics”? 14. W ho o f the Greek mathematicians created the

best example o f material axiomatics? IS. What do Euclid’s Elements deal

with? 16. What is the origin o f the creation o f non-Euclidean geometry?

17. Euclid recognized that a postulate (an assumption, undemonstrable

statem ent) was needed to specify the nature of parallel lines, didn’t he?

18. Was parallel postulate Euclid’s great contribution or a blemish in his the

ory? 19. Why did parallel postulate give so much trouble? 20. When did dis

satisfaction with Euclid’s parallel postulate appear? How long did geome

ters’ attempts last to find a better statem ent o f this postulate or to prove it as

a theorem dependent on other postulates? 21. What geometry may be called

non-Euclidean? 22. Who created non-Euclidean geometry? 23. Did the cre

ators o f non-Euclidean geometry have any real understanding o f the results

obtained? 24. What developed out o f their invention?

C O M P R E H E N SIO N E X E R C ISE S

Questions

1. Why is it customary to refer to Thales o f Miletus as a) one o f the “seven

wise men o f antiquity’’, b) a worthy founder o f demonstrative geometry?

What do you know about the rest six “wise men o f antiquity”? W hat were

Thales’ great innovations and contribution to maths and science?

2. Did the residents of Crotone appreciate the Pythagoreans’ activities and

their maths'? Can you characterize Pythagoras as a person (leader, m athe

matician, teacher, athlete, speculative natural philosopher)? What legends

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abqut Pythagoras do you know? Why are the Pythagoreans’ works unavail

able in the libraries nowadays? W ho(m) do we owe the preservation o f the

Pythagoreans’ maths to?

3. What is Euclid's definition? What types o f definition do you know? What

is the distinction between explicit and implicit definitions? How can one dis

tinguish between an implicit definition and a tacit assumption?

4. What is an axiom? How did Euclid himself differentiate between the

axioms which referred to general math ideas and those which referred specif

ically to geometric objects? C an you give a simple noncircular and uniquely

characterizing definition o f an axiom? Why does one choose the axioms one

does? Is there any technique, mechanical process or algorithm to help us

select out o f infinite variety o f statements those that should be used for

axioms? O r is it an art that demands genius?

5. What is a deduction? How does Euclid draw all his conclusions? Is

deduction o f any value in actual practice? Can one deduce a cure for cancer

from some definitions and axioms? Deductive reasoning is carried on as fol

lows: “All good people are honest and if I am good then I must be honest.

And if I am not honest I am not then good.” Illustrate deductive reasoning

in maths. Prove a theorem or solve some problem applying math deduction.

6. What is a theorem? How does one discover what theorems one can prove

from a particular set of axioms? Is proving theorems difficult? Can a theo

rem once proved be disproved? Does a proved theorem ever become old,

old-fashioned or out-of-date? When does a proved theorem become a par

ticular case o f a more general principle? Can you give some examples?

7. W hat is a proof? W hat constituted a proof for Euclid is still a proof for

us. Why? When do mathematicians call a proof rigorous, valid, elegant?

Priority arguments concerning proof are not very important (Euclid), are

they? Are there any proofs in applied mathematics?

8. Geometric knowledge. What does this phrase mean? D o geometric ideas

die? V&s geometric knowledge submitted to re-examination and re-evalua-

tion? Can geometric knowledge be decreased, reduced or diminished?

9. W hat is an axiomatic approach? W hat is the role o f the axiomatic

approach in current maths? What properties must an axiomatic system

possess? Is the ordering o f theorem s o f any importance in the axiomatic

system?

10. Why do we call D. H ilbert’s geometry form al? Do there exist different

view points (standpoint) concerning geometry today? Does geometry

exhaust itself? What is the distinction between abstract and formal geo

m etry?

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DISCU SSIO N

1. It is customary to speak about the ancient Egyptians’, Babylonians’ and

Greeks’ geometry. Does there exist any national geometry today? Why?

2. The empirical nature (rule-of-thum b procedures, trial-and-error m eth

ods) o f pre-Hellenistic maths and its accomplishments.

3. The Pythagoreans’ maths.

4. The first genuine stride o f maths as a science was taken by geometry and

not by num ber o r algebra. Why?

5. The importance and formal nature o f Euclid’s Elements. Deduction ver

sus induction.

6. In Euclid’s Elements each proposition stands by itself; its connection

with others is never indicated; the leading ideas contained in his proofs are

not stated explicitly; general principles do not exist. M odem tendency is

toward generalization. What does it mean?

7. Professional mathematicians admire Euclid’s work, nevertheless, none

o f them likens him to, say, Archimedes. Why? Historians display extensive

testimonials to the greatness o f Archimedes. There is nothing like this in the

case o f Euclid. Why?

8. The best math proofs are usually short, direct and penetrating. Give

some examples.

9. Every proof o f Euclid calls for some new, often ingenious approach. Is

this lack o f a general procedure a merit or shortcoming o f Euclid?

Advantages and disadvantages.

10. There are no motivations, explanations or justifications in Euclid’s

Elements. He never mentions the name o f a person, he never makes a state

ment about or even an allusion to genetic development o f maths. He has a

fixed pattern for the enunciation o f a proposition and never deviates from or

reverses the procedure. In short, Euclid’s Elements is the work o f a dull

unsufferable pedant and martinet. Your viewpoint?

11. G reek maths is “perm anent” more perm anent than Greek literature

or art. Some historians o f maths assert that maths was created by the ancient

Greeks and very little was added since their time. Prove it or disagree.

12. The parallel postulate is rich in implications. Its implications are dras

tic. What do these statements mean? What may happen if one discards or

neglects the parallel postulate? Can a geometry be consistent w ithout it?

13. The essence o f Euclid’s, Lobachevsky’s, Riem ann’s parallel postu

lates. How many non-Euclidean geometries do there exist (are studied and

developed) today? Was non-Euclidean geometry invented o r discovered?

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14. The creation o f non-Euclidean geometry brought about momentous

innovations and novel developments in maths. What are they?

15. Geom etry that is 1) true, 2) worthy o f investigation, 3) the most con

venient, 4) the most up-to-date.

16. There are unexpected reverse movements in maths in which a special

ized theory (such as the theory o f real numbers) lends indispensable aid in

the construction o f a more general theory (like topology or integration).

Sortie examples o f reverse movements (approaches) in geometry.

17. M aterial and formal axiomatics. The meaningfulness o f axiomatic

approach in maths. There are three im portant concepts, usually associated

with any axiomatic system: consistency, independence and completeness.

W hat do they all mean?

18. D. H ilbert’s famous book The Foundation o f Geometry. Its role in the

development o f m odem mathematics.

19. Throughout the history, in fact, improvements in notation always suc

ceed and parallel the progress in maths. Did there appear any improvements

in geometrical notation?

20. A m odem view of geometry as 1) a branch o f maths which is the invari

ant theory o f a transformation group (the Erlanger program), 2) a point o f

view, a particular way of looking at a subject (abstract spaces). M odem

geometry is the royal road that Euclid thought did not exist.

21. G eom etry is the only field o f maths in which two-thousand-year-old

traditions and theories are still valid and there is always a flood o f fresh ideas.

Today the fastest growing and most radically changing of all the branches o f

maths is geometry. What are some o f the new aspects (parts, divisions) o f

geometry that claim the attention o f contem porary researchers?

22. The sense o f beauty is very personal and subjective. Nevertheless m ath

ematicians unanimously agree that a certain math result is elegant and beau

tiful. D o validity and truth alone suffice to make a math theorem beautiful?

How can one recognize “beauty” in a m ath theorem? Some examples o f

beautiful theorem s in geometry.

23. “A geometry is the study o f those properties o f a set S which remains

invariant when the elements o f the set S are subjected to the transformations

o f some transformation group.” (F. Klein.) Does there exist a still more gen

eral concept o f geometry nowadays?

U n it S ix ( 6 )

Grammar:

1. Indefinite Tense Forms.

2. Different Means of Expressing Future Actions.

3. Nouns of Latin and Greek Origin.

LABORATORY PRACTICE

geom etry and th e h e art o f th is body was E u c lid ’s co n trib u tio n .

2. Euclidean geom etry confines itself to figures form ed by straight lines

and circles. 3. In the seventeenth century the advances o f sciences and

technology produced a need to work with many new configurations and

new curves. 4. The great m athem aticians o f the Age o f G enii (the seven

te en th century) were m uch co n cern ed w ith the study o f curves.

5. Ellipses, parabolas and hyperbolas becam e im portant because they

have a host o f practical applications. 6. The classical works and methods

on conic sections becam e inadequate when dealing with practical prob

lems. 7. Euclidean synthetic m ethods were too lim ited to deal with the

problem s o f projectile paths, m ap-m aking and the study o f lenses. 8. All

these problem s not only increased the need for knowledge o f properties

o f fam iliar curves but also introduced new curves. 9. O f two great thinkers

R. Descartes (the Latin version o f his name is Renatus Cartesius) and

P. Fermat who founded analytic geometry, the form er was a profound

philosopher, the latter was a scientist in the realm o f ideas. 10. Analytic

geom etry is a general m ethod o f geom etry and the basis o f all m odem

applied maths. 11. Analytic geom etry is often appreciated as the logical

basis for m echanics and physics. Such appraisals are wholly verified.

12. D escartes saw as the objective o f his work the cooperation o f algebra

and geometry so that m aths might have the best aspects o f both b ranch

es. 13. In the end it turned out that geometry lost popularity in the p a rt

nership. 14. G eom etry was arithm etized and the beautiful geom etrical

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reasoning was abandoned. 15. G eom etry was submerged in a sea o f for

mulas. The spirit o f geom etry was banished for more than 150 years.

16. G eom eters rem ained in the shadow. In the 19th century, however,

projective geom etry revived spirit and vitality o f pure geometry. 17. The

idea o f identifying num bers with points originated in antiquity. 18. The

discovery o f incom m ensurables led to the definition o f the real numbers

with which we assign a num ber to each point o f a line. 19. Logically

speaking, this is the basis o f analytic geometry because it enables one to

identify points (the most basic objects o f geometry) with numbers (the

most basic objects o f arithm etic and algebra). 20. A system with which

one coordinates num bers and points is referred to as coordinate system

o r frame o f reference. 21. Thanks to Descartes and Fermat points

becam e pairs o f num bers, and curves becam e collection o f pairs o f num

bers expressed in equations. 22. The properties o f curves can be deduced

by algebraic processes applied to the equations. 23. Analytic geometry

replaced curves by equations through the device o f a coordinate system.

24. C oordinate system locates points in a plane or in space by numbers.

25. The association o f equation and curve, the com bination o f the best o f

algebra and the best o f geom etry was a revolutionary new thought.

26. D escartes and Ferm at created a new m ethod for studying geometric

figures and curves, both fam iliar and new. 27. The heart o f D escartes’ and

F erm at’s idea is the following: To each curve there belongs an equation,

that uniquely describes the points o f that curve and no other points.

28. Conversely, each equation involving x and у can be pictured as a curve

by interpreting x and у as coordinates o f points. 29. The equation o f any

curve is an algebraic equality which is satisfied by the coordinates o f all

points on the curve but not the coordinates o f any other points. 30. In

analytic geom etry o f a three-dim ensional space a plane is characterized

by a linear equation. 31. A quadratic surface, e.g., a sphere or an ellip

soid, is characterized by a quadratic equation. 32. A quadratic equation

is the one in w hich the highest power o f an unknown is its square. 33. It

is not difficult to generalize the basic ideas to include also points in

space. 34. To coordinate numbers to points in space we shall employ a

coordinate system consisting o f three m utually perpendicular axes -

x , y , z axes. 35. The algebraization o f geometry permits one to speak o f a

space o f more than three dimensions, say, л -dimensions.

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GRAMMAR

Present M athem aticians com m only This frame o f reference is

use this frame o f reference to commonly used to locate a

locate a point in the plane. point in the plane.

Past M athem aticians used this This frame o f reference was

frame o f reference to solve used to solve that problem.

that problem.

Future M athematicians will use this This frame o f reference will be

frame o f reference to locate a used to locate a point in space.

point in space.

1. As far as three centuries ago the main fabric o f math thought was sup

plied by geometry, inherited from the ancients and only perfected during the

intervening 20 centuries. 2. Then began a radical and rapid transformation of

maths. 3. It is true that the deductive m ethod starting from axioms provides

a shortcut for covering a large territory and general theories. 4. But the con

structive method, that proceeds from the particular to the general, leads the

way more surely to independent productive thinking. 5. The rigorous

axiomatic, deductive style o f geometry yielded to inductive, intuitive insights

and pure geometric notions gave way to concepts o f num ber and algebraic

operations which are embodied in analytic geometry and calculus. 6. Few

academ ic experiences will be more thrilling to the students o f m aths than an

introduction to this new and powerful method o f attacking geometrical

problems - analytic geometry. 7. The task o f establishing a theorem in

geometry will be cleverly shifted to that o f establishing a corresponding the

orem in algebra. 8. Since many students arc considerably more able as alge

braists than as geometers, analytic geometry can be described as the “royal

road” in geometry that Euclid thought did not exist. 9. R. D escartes’ claim

to the invention o f analytic geometry rests on one o f the three appendices to

his famous philosophical treatise on universal science: “ Discourse on the

M ethod o f Rightly Conducting Reason and Seeking Truth in the Sciences"

which was published in 1637. 10. R Ferm at's claim to priority rests on a let

186

ter written in 1636 in which it is stated that the ideas of the writer were even

then seven years old. 11. Although solid analytic geometry was mentioned by

R. Descartes, it was not elaborated thoroughly and exhaustively by him.

12. A century later the whole subject matter o f analytic geometry was well

advanced beyond its elementary stages by L. Euler.

1. M eans o f expressing ability, capability and permission in the future:

algebra in analytic geometry. They will be allowed to apply this coordinate

system in the following problems.

E.g. Wfe shall have to plot the graph more accurately. They will have to ver

ily their results once more.

future:

o f analytic geometry. Are you going to use this method of reasoning again?

He was about to perform the construction and then changed his mind.4

dition and concession.

when, while, till, until, before, after, as soon as, once, if, unless, on condi-

187

tion (that), provided (providing) that, in case, even if, even though, no matter

how, whenever, whatever, however.

E. g. When the student studies calculus, he will find that radian measure

ment of angles is the natural and convenient system for use in theoretical

developments. Providing the angle is measured in radians there will be sever

al useful geometric relations. Whenever we turn to general methods of graph

ing functions, we shall discuss in detail the most common two-dimensional

representation of a plane.

3. Nouns of Latin and Greek Origin

Singular Plural Singular Plural

a) -on (-am ) -» -а [э]

continuum continua maximum maxima

континуум максимум

criterion criteria medium media

критерий среда

curriculum curricula minimum minima

учебный план минимум

datum data momentum momenta

данная количество

величина движения

equilibrium equilibria phenomenon phenomena

равновесие явление

infinitum infinite polyhedron polyhedra

бесконечность многогранник

latus rectum latcra recta quantum quanta

фокальный квант

параметр

symposium symposia vacuum vacua

симпозиум вакуум

spectrum spectra stratum strata

спектр слой

b) -is (is) |

- » - « [i:z]

-ix|iks) J

analysis analyses emphasis emphases

анализ эмфаза

axis axes hypothesis hypotheses

ось гипотеза

basis bases index indices

базис указатель

crisis crises matrix matrices

кризис матрица

directrix directrices parenthesis parentheses

директриса скобка

188

vertex vertices phasis phases

вершина фаза

thesis theses synthesis syntheses

тезис, синтез

диссертация

с) -us [as] -> -i [at]

исчисление. модуль

математический анализ

focus foci nucleus nuclei

фокус ядро

genius genii radius radii

гений радиус

locus loci rhombus rhombi

геометрическое место ромб

точек

d) Similar Forms

аппарат, прибор средство

a headquarters headquarters a series series

штаб ряд

news news a speeds species

новость вид

Modem Forms

abscissa abscissae abscissas criterions

абсцисса formulas hyperbolas

hyperbola hyperbolae geniuses indices

гипербола radiuses terminuses

formula formulae mediums nucleuses

формула indexes spectrums

corona coronae rhombuses vacuums

корона lacunas maximums

lacuna lacunae

пустота

nebula nebulae

туманность

1. The area o f an ellipse equals я /4 times the product o f the long and the

short diam eters or n times the product o f the long and the short radii. 2. If a

189

curve is symmetric with respect to both axes, is it symmetric with respect to

the origin? 3. Analytic methods give us a means o f finding the equations o f

/ос/; all these loci (a circle, an ellipse, a hyperbola, a parabola) are called

conic sections or simply conics. 4. The notion o f a four-dimensional geom

etry is a very helpful one in studying physical phenomena. 5. A chord drawn

through either focus of the ellipse and perpendicular to the principal axis is

called a latus rectum. Find the equation o f the ellipse with fo ci at the points

(0 ,4 ), if the length of its minor axis is 6. Find the end points o f its latera recta

and sketch the ellipse. 6. In each o f the following hyperbolae, locate the ver

tices, foci, and end o f the latera recta', draw the asymptotes and the curves.

7. All these facts may serve as reference data. 8. Complete surfaces formed

with regular polygons such as a complete surface o f cube built up by joining

six squares along their edges are called regular polyhedra.

INTRODUCTORY TEXT

Every student o f maths meets the remarkable subject called analytic geom

etry, and he can hardly fail to be impressed by the powerful idea behind it.

The essence o f the idea as applied to the plane, it will be recalled, is the

establishment o f a correspondence between pairs o f real numbers and points

in the plane, thereby making possible a correspondence between curves in

the plane and equations in two variables, so that for each curve in the plane

there is a definite equation f ( x , y) = 0, and for each such equation there is a

definite curve in the plane. A correspondence is similarly established

between the algebraic and analytic properties o f the equation f ( x , y) = 0, and

the geometric properties o f the associated curve. The task o f proving a theo

rem in geometry will cleverly be shifted to that o f proving a corresponding

theorem in algebra and analysis.

There is no unanimity o f opinion among historians o f maths concerning

who invented analytic geometry, nor even concerning what age should be

credited with the invention. M uch o f this difference o f opinion is caused by

a lack of agreement regarding just what constitutes analytic geometry. There

are those who, favouring antiquity as the era o f the invention, point out the

well-known fact that the concept o f fixing the position o f a point by means

o f suitable coordinates, was employed in the ancient world by the Egyptians

and the Romans in surveying, and by the Greeks in map-making. And, if

190

analytic geometry implies not only the use o f coordinates but also the geo

metric interpretation o f relations among coordinates, then a particularly

strong argument in favour of crediting the Greeks is the fact that Apollonius

(c. 225 B.C.) derived the bulk of his geometry o f the conic sections from the

geometrical equivalents of certain Cartesian equations o f these curves, the

idea which originated with Menaechmus about 350 B.C.

Others claim that the invention o f analytic geometry should be credited to

Nicole Oresme, who was born in Normandy about 1323 and died in 1382

after a career that carried him from a maths professorship to a bishopric.

Nicole Oresme in one of his math tracts anticipated another aspect of ana

lytic geometry, when he represented certain laws by graphing the dependent

variable against the independent one, as the latter variable was permitted to

take on small increments. Advocates for N. Oresme as the inventor o f ana

lytic geometry see in his work such accomplishments as the first explicit

introduction o f the equation o f a straight line and the extension of some o f

the notions o f the subject from two-dimensional space to three-, and even

four-dimensional spaces. A century after N. Oresme’s tract was written, it

enjoyed several printings and in this way it may possibly exert some influence

on the succeeding mathematicians.

However, before analytic geometry could assume its present highly practi

cal form, it had to wait the development o f algebraic symbolism, and,

accordingly, it may be more correct to agree with the majority o f historians,

who regard the decisive contributions made in the seventeenth century by

the two French mathematicians, R. Descartes (1596-1650) and P. Fermat

(1601-1663), as the essential origin of at least the modern spirit of the sub

ject. After the great impetus given to the subject by these two men, we find

analytic geometry in a form with which we are familiar today. In the history

o f maths a good deal o f space will be devoted to R. Descartes and R Fermat,

for these men left very deep imprints on many subjects. Also, in the history

o f maths, much will be said about the importance o f analytic geometry, not

only for the development o f geometry and for the theory o f curves and sur

faces in particular, but as an indispensable force in the development o f the

calculus, as the influential power in molding our ideas o f such far-reaching

concepts as those o f “function” and “dimension”.

Thus, applied maths in the modern sense o f the term was not the creation

o f the engineer or the engineering-minded mathematician. O f the two great

thinkers who founded this subject one was a profound philosopher, the other

was a scientist in the realm o f ideas. The former, Rene Descartes, devoted

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him self to critical and profound thinking about the nature o f truth, and the

physical structure o f the universe. The latter, P. Fermat, lived an ordinary life

as a lawyer and civil servant, but in his spare time he was busy creating and

offering to the world his famous theorems. The work o f both men in many

fields will be immortal. Descartes proposed to generalize and extend the

methods used by mathematicians in order to make them applicable to all

investigations. In essence, the m ethod will be an axiomatic deductive con

struction for all thought. The conclusions will be theorems derived from

axioms. Guided by the methods o f the geometers Descartes carefully formu

lated the rules that would direct him in his search for truth. His story o f the

search for method and the application o f the method to problems o f philos

ophy was presented in his famous Discourse on Method. The method

Descartes abstracted from maths and generalized, he then reapplied to

maths; with it he succeeded in creating a new way o f representing and ana

lyzing curves. This creation, now known as coordinate geometry, is the basis

o f all modern applied maths.

P. Fermat, despite the brief am ount o f time he was able to spend on maths

and the pleasure-seeking attitude with which he approached it, established

himself as one of the truly great mathematicians o f all times. His contribu

tions to the calculus were first-rate though somewhat overshadowed by those

o f Newton and Leibnitz. He shared with Pascal the honour o f creating the

m ath theory o f probability, and shared with Descartes the creation o f coor

dinate geometry, and founded the theory o f numbers. In all these fields this

“am ateur” produced brilliant results. Though not concerned with a univer

sal method in philosophy, Fermat did seek a general method o f working with

curves and here his thoughts joined company with those o f Descartes'

One must understand why it was that the great mathematicians o f the time

were so much concerned with the study o f curves. In the early part o f the sev

enteenth century maths was still essentially a body o f geometry and the heart

o f this body was Euclid’s contribution. Euclidean geometry confines itself to

figures formed by straight lines and circles, but by the seventeenth century

the advances o f science and technology produced a need to work with many

new configurations. Ellipses, parabolas and hyperbolas became important

because they described the paths o f the planets and projectiles such as can

non balls.

Both Descartes and Fermat recognized that geometry supplied informa

tion and truth about the real world. They also appreciated the fact that alge

bra could be employed to reason about abstract and unknown quantities;

and it could be used to mechanize the reasoning process and minimize the

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effort needed to solve problems. Therefore they proposed to borrow all that

was best in geometry and algebra and correct the defects o f one with the help

o f the other. In Descartes’ general study o f method he decided to solve all

problems by proceeding from the simple to the complex. Now, the simplest

figure in geometry is the straight line. He therefore sought to approach the

study o f curves through straight lines and he found the way to do this.

To discuss the equation o f a curve he introduced a horizontal line called

the A^axis, a point О on the line called the origin, and a vertical line through

О called У-axis. If Я is any point on a curve, there are two numbers that

describe its position. The first is the distance from О to the foot o f the per

pendicular, from P to the Af-axis. This number, called A'-value, is the abscis

sa o f P. The second num ber is the distance from P to the У-axis, called Y-

value or ordinate o f P. These two numbers are called the coordinates o f P and

are generally written as P (x , y). The curve itself is then described alge

braically by stating some equation which holds forx and у values o f points on

that curve and only for those points.

The heart o f Descartes’ and Ferm at’s idea is the following. To each curve

there belongs an equation that uniquely describes the points o f that curve

and no other points. Conversely, each equation involving x and у can be pic

tured as a curve by interpreting x and у as coordinates of points.

Thus formally stated: the equation o f any curve is an algebraic equality

which is satisfied by the coordinates o f all points on the curve but not the

coordinates o f any other point.

Since each o f these pairs o f coordinates represents a point on the curve, we

can plot these points and join them by a smooth curve. The more coordi

nates we calculate, the more points can be plotted and the more accurately

the curve can be drawn.

Beyond the analysis o f properties o f individual curve, the association of

equation and curve makes possible a host o f scientific applications o f maths.

Among the practical applications o f maths we shall merely mention that all

the conic sections possess the properties that make these curves effectively

employed in lenses, telescopes, microscopes, A'-ray machines, radio anten

nas, searchlights and hundreds o f other major devices. When Kepler intro

duced the conic sections in astronomy, they became basic in all astronomi

cal calculations including those o f eclipses and paths of comets.

To summarize, it was not so m uch the use o f coordinates that made the

work o f Descartes and Fermat so important; coordinates were used effec

tively in antiquity, especially in the geometry o f Apollonius, and again in the

fourteenth century in a more primitive form in the latitude o f forms of

193

Oresme. Descartes saw as the objective o f his work the cooperation o f alge

bra and geometry to the end that maths might have the best aspects o f both

branches. In the end, however, it turned out that geometry lost popularity in

the partnership. Pure geometry was so overshadowed that it made little

progress during the next century and a half, during which time infinitesimal

analysis went through a progress o f arithm etization that am ounted almost to

a revolution.

Though P. Fermat and R. Descartes founded analytic geometry, they did

not advance the subject far enough and did not elaborate it purely analyti

cally, either. A century later L. Euler (1707-1783), a Swiss mathematician

who lived the greater part o f his life in Russia, engaged in scientific

research, lecturing and textbook writing in St. Petersburg Academy, devel

oped the subject m atter o f both plane and solid analytic geometry far

beyond its elementary stages. Euler’s m ath career opened when analytic

geometry (made public in 1637) was ninety years old, the calculus about

fifty. In each o f these fields a vast num ber o f isolated problems were solved,

but no systematic unification o f the whole o f the then maths, pure and

applied, was made. In particular, the powerful analytic methods o f Fermat,

Descartes, Newton and Leibnitz were not exploited to the limit o f what

they were capable, especially in calculus, geometry and mechanics, where

Euler proved him self the master.

In the 18th century the universities were not the principal centers o f sci

ence in Europe. The lead in scientific research was taken by the various

royal academies. In Euler’s case St. Petersburg and Berlin furnished the

sinews o f m ath creation. Both o f these foci o f creativity owed their inspi

ration to the restless ambition o f Leibnitz. These academies were like some

o f these today: they were research organizations which paid their leading

members to produce scientific research. Euler became famous for his great

output o f original maths and for the wide range o f subjects he covered. He

contributed new ideas to calculus, geometry, algebra, num ber theory, cal

culus o f variations, probability and topology. He also worked in many areas

o f applied maths, such as acoustics, optics, m echanics, astronomy, ballis

tics, navigation, statistics and finance. His industry was as remarkable as

his genius. Euler was the most prolific m athem atician in history; his scien

tific heritage is vast, a list of some 850 works, o f which 550 were published

in his lifetime. Euler wrote his great memoirs quite easily and even total

blindness during the last seventeen years o f his life did not retard his unpar

194

alleled productivity. He overcame the difficulty o f blindness chiefly by

means o f his remarkable memory. Indeed, if anything, the loss o f his

eyesight sharpened Euler’s perception o f the inner world o f his imagina

tion.

Euler first gave the examples o f those long analytic procedures in which

conditions o f the problem are first expressed by algebraic symbols and then

pure calculation resolves the difficulties. He skillfully applied his analytic

m ethod to geometry and mechanics. W here the synthetic methods o f

Euclidean geometry required elaborate and complicated constructions and

furnished lengths that could be measured only approximately, algebraic

equation o f analytic geometry is a much simpler tool and furnishes answers

to as m any decim al places as individual cases require. Euler improved the

basic concepts o f math analysis, prom oted differential and integral calcu

lus, fathered the theory of linear differential equations and devised m eth

ods for their approximate solution. His treatises Introduction to the Analysis

o f Infinities, Differential Calculus and Integral Calculus which for the most

part present E uler’s own results served as an encyclopedia in math analysis

o f the period. Euler’s contem poraries called him “Analysis Incarnate”

One o f the most remarkable features o f Euler’s universal genius was its

equal strength in both o f the main currents o f maths, the continuous and

the discrete. “Read Euler, he is teacher o f us a ll...” Laplace so amptly

assessed his worth. But Euler was far more than a textbook writer. He

enriched m aths with beautiful new results. Differential geometry got its

first real start in Euler’s study o f lines o f curvature (1760) and the calculus

o f variations took an independent status, when Euler (1736) gave his dif

ferential equation expressing a necessary condition for a minimizing curve.

Curiously enough, in arriving at his theoretical conclusions, by working

on practical tasks in different fields, Euler sought to “ rid” math analysis o f

geom etrical, mechanical and physical interpretation and couch it in purely

analytic form. Thus, he wrote, “Here the entire exposition is limited to pure

analysis and, hence, not a single drawing was needed to set out the rules o f this

calculus.” In an effort to replace synthetic methods by analytic, Euler was

succeeded by Lagrange, who dealt not with special concrete cases and tasks,

but sought for abstract generality. Nevertheless, Euler was never excelled

either in productivity or in the skillful and imaginative use o f algorithmic

devices for the solution of problems.

T he co n trib u tio n that this illustrious scientist made to m aths is truly

enorm ous. We have every right to entitle him the 18th-century M athe

m atician Num ber One whose works left th eir im print on alm ost all

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branches o f maths. Leonard Euler was buried in 1783 near Lom onosov’s

grave in the old cem etery o f the A lexandro-N evsky M onastery in St.

Petersburg necropolis. Even when he was com pelled to em igrate to

Germany, Russia ever rem ained in Euler’s heart and m ind and he never

ruptured ties with the St. Petersburg Academy. To this day the great m ath

em atician’s descendants live in this country, whose people will always

revere his name. In 1983 scientists around the world extensively com m em

orated the 275th birthday and death bicentennial o f this great scientist.

Nomography

The use o f graphic techniques for computation and solution o f equations

goes back thus to antiquity. In the time o f Hipparchus (150 B.C.) graphic

solution o f spherical triangles was very popular. During the Middle Ages,

Arab mathematicians used geometric means to solve quadratic equations,

and in the seventeenth century W. Oughtred used graphic methods for solv

ing spherical triangles. However, the key to general application o f graphic

methods to the solution o f algebraic problems was analytic geometry, intro

duced by R. Descartes and P. Fermat. The theory o f nomograms rests large

ly on analytic geometry.

In 1842 L. Lalanne pointed out that by altering the scales along the

Cartesian axes it is often possible to simplify graphs o f equations in two vari

ables. Furthermore, he noted that if these changes are subject to certain

minimal restrictions, the new graph is essentially equivalent to its Cartesian

counterpart. Lalanne called his new theory “geometrical anamorphosis”

and further advances were made in this theory by J. Massau and

C. Lallemand during the 1880’s. Those and other developments were fore

shadowings. The real creator o f nomography was the French mathematician

M. d ’Ocagne (1862-1938). D ’Ocagne was the first to describe the “alignment

chart” (1884), and he applied this chart to many engineering formulas. In

1899 he published Traite de Nomographie, in which he brought together both

the general theories and many applications o f the subject. Since that time

numerous texts on the subject were issued and many nomograms appeared

in technical journals.

It is interesting th a t the original im petus for study o f nom ography

cam e from problem s th a t arose during the co n stru ctio n o f railroads in

France. T hus, m ost n in e te en th -ce n tu ry c o n trib u to rs to the subject

were engineers. In fact, nom ography rem ains essentially a b ranch o f

applied m aths w ith uses in engineering, industry, physical and natural

sciences.

196

A C TIV E VOCABULARY

1. to abandon 10. to embody 19. to perceive

2. to align 11. to exceed 20. to preclude

3. to anticipate 12. to facilitate 21. to publish

4. to assign 13. to favour 22. to scale

5. to associate 14. to fit 23. to submerge

6. to coordinate 15. to frame 24. to unite

7. to correspond 16. to handle 25. to urge

8. to designate 17. to innovate 26. to utilize

9. to elaborate 18. to locate

TEXT ONE

AND “PARABOLA”

Read and translate the text jn class. I ty to guess the meaning of all the italicized words; para

phrase them or give definitions, synonyms or explanations of their meaning in English.

bola” , and “parabola” may be understood by studying the discoveries o f his

tory’s great mathematicians. As with many other words now in use, the orig

inal application was very different from the modem.

Pythagoras (c. 540 B.C.), or members o f his society, first used these terms

in connection with a method called the “application o f areas”. In the course

o f the solution (often a geometric solution o f what is equivalent to a quad

ratic equation) one o f three things happens: the base o f the constructed fig

ure either falls short of, exceeds, or fits the length o f a given segment.

(Actually, additional restrictions were imposed on certain o f the geometric

figures involved.) These three conditions were designated as ellipsis

( “defect”), hyperbola (“excess”) and parabola (“a placing beside”). It

should be noted that the Pythagoreans were not using these terms in refer

ence to the conic sections.

In the history o f the conic sections M enaechmus (350 B.C.), a pupil o f

Eudoxus, is credited with the first treatm ent o f the conic sections.

M enaechmus was led to the discovery o f the curves o f the conic sections by

a consideration o f sections o f geometrical solids. Proclus in his Summary

reported that the three curves were discovered by Menaechmus; consequent

ly, they were called the “ M enaechm ian triads” . It is thought that

M enaechmus discovered the curves now known as the ellipse, parabola and

hyperbola by cutting cones with planes perpendicular to an element and with

the vertex angle o f the cone being acute, right, obtuse, respectively.

197

The fame o f Apollonius (c. 225 B.C.) rests mainly on his extraordinary Conk

Sections. This work was written in eight books, seven o f which are preserved.

The work of Apollonius on the conic sections differed from that o f his prede

cessors in that he obtained all o f the conic sections from one right double cone

by varying the angle at which the intersecting plane cuts the element.

All o f Apollonius’ work was presented in regular geometric form, without

the aid o f the algebraic notation o f the present-day analytic geometry.

However, his work can be described more easily by using m odem term inol

ogy and symbolism. If the conic is referred to a rectangular coordinate system

in the usual manner with point A as the origin and with (x , y) as coordinates

o f any point P on the conic, the standard equation o f the parabola y 2=px

(where p is the length o f the latus rectum, i.e., the length o f the chord that

passes through a focus o f the conic perpendicular to the principal axis) is

immediately verified. Similarly, if the ellipse or hyperbola is referred to a

coordinate system with vertex at the origin, it can be shown that y 2<px or

y 2>px, respectively. The three adjectives “hyperbolic” “parabolic” and

“elliptic” are encountered in many places in maths, including projective

geometry and non-Euclidean geometries. Often they are associated with the

existence o f exactly two, one, or none o f something o f particular relevance.

The relationship arises from the fact that the number o f points in common

with the so-called line at infinity in the plane for the hyperbola, parabola and

ellipse is two, one and zero, respectively.

T E X T TW O

ANALYTIC GEOMETRY

Read the text in class. Make drawings of conic sections and supply them with their equations

of analytic geometry. Discuss their properties and the roles they play in modem maths and engi

neering.

between number pairs and points; that is, corresponding to a number pair

(Aj, K[) there is always one and only one point P,; and corresponding to a

point P2 there is one and only one num ber pair (Af2, ) 2). This one-to-one

correspondence is the starting point o f the plane analytic geometry.

The notion of a correspondence between a point in the plane and a pair of

numbers can be extended to a more general kind o f correspondence, nam e

ly, between a geometric locus and an equation. The graph o f an equation is

the locus of the points whose coordinates satisfy the equation. Conversely,

198

the equation of a given curve is an equation satisfied by the coordinates of

every point on the curve and by the coordinates o f no other points.

This correspondence between equations and geometric loci will, indeed,

form the central subject o f our study. That is to say, our main investigation

will take the form o f one or the other o f the problems:

1. Given an equation, to obtain the corresponding geometric locus (the

graph of the equation) along with its properties.

2. Given a geometric locus whose points possess some common property

(shared by no other points), to find the corresponding equation.

In the latter case the equation, in turn, will help us in studying other prop

erties o f the locus.

T hus, we define a curve as com posed o f points whose coordinates sat

isfy a certain equation. We may think o f a curve as a locus o r a path traced

by a moving point according to certain specified conditions. From these

conditions it is possible to derive the equation o f its curve and then dis

cuss the curve in detail from the equation. The locus o f an equation in X

and Y is defined as the totality o f points whose coordinates satisfy the

equation. There exists no definite rule for finding the equation o f the

locus. As a m atter o f fact the problem is to translate the geom etric defi

nition o f the locus into an algebraic form with a suitable choice o f a co o r

dinate system.

We shall proceed to the discussion o f particular species o f loci — namely,

the straight line, a circle, a parabola, an ellipse, and a hyperbola.

The problem o f finding the equation o f the straight line is the simplest case

o f the general problem o f finding the equation o f a curve. The equation o f a

straight line is determined by two points P (X b Y{) and P2 (X2, Y2). This

equation will be obtained from the fact that the point P (X , Y) is on the

straight line, if and only if, the slopes o f the segments PXP and P XP2 are equal.

This condition is ( Y - Yl) / ( X - X l) = ( Y2- Үх)/{Хг~ Х {), X x * X2 We shall refer

to this as the two-point form o f the equation o f the straight line. Thus any

straight line may be represented by an equation o f the first degree in X and

Y. Conversely, every equation o f first degree Ax + By + C = 0 represents a

straight line.

The following loci lead to particular type o f second degree equations, in

two variables.

The circle is the locus o f a point, which moves so that its distance from a

fixed point, called a centre, is constant. The distances from its centre to the

locus are radii o f the circle. Thus, x 2 + y 2 = r2 is the equation o f the circle

with the centre at the origin and a radius r.

199

The parabola is the locus o f points which are equidistant from a fixed point

and a fixed straight line.

T he fixed point is the focus, the fixed line is the directrix. The line per

pendicular to the directrix and passing through the focus is the axis o f the

parabola. The axis o f the parabola is, obviously, a line o f symmetry. The

point on the axis halfway between the focus and the directrix on the

parabola is the vertex o f the parabola. The parabola is fixed when the focus

and the directrix are fixed. The equation o f the parabola, however,

depends on the choice o f the coordinate system. If the vertex o f the

parabola is at the origin and the focus is at the point (О, P), its equation

i s * 2 = 2 P Y or Y1 = IPX.

The ellipse is the locus o f a point which moves so that the sum o f its dis

tances from two fixed points called the foci is constant. This constant will be

denoted by 2a, which is necessarily greater than the distance between the

foci (the focal distance). The line through the foci is the principal axis o f the

ellipse; the points in which the ellipse cuts the principal axis are called the

vertices o f the ellipse. If the centre o f the ellipse is at the origin but the foci

are on the у -axis its equation is

£ 2

62 = 1,

w here a and b represent the lengths o f its sem im ajor and sem im inor

axes.

The hyperbola is the locus o f a point which moves so that the difference of

its distances from two fixed points is a constant 2a. Its equation is

= 1.

This equation shows that the hyperbola is symmetric with respect to both

coordinate axes and also the origin. It intersects the A'-axis but does not cut

the К-axis. Hence, the curve is not contained in a bounded portion o f a

plane. The curve consists of two branches. The line segment joining the ver

tices is called the transverse axis o f the hyperbola; its length is 2a. The point

midway between the vertices is a geometrical centre and is called the centre

o f the hyperbola.

T E X T TH REE

HIGHER DIMENSIONS

Read and translate the text in class. Discuss the problems involved.

that it becomes easier to generalize concepts beyond those dealing with three

dimensions. In other words, the methods of analytic geometry make it easi

er to study geometric objects for which our power o f visualization fails.

To illustrate this, let us show how the notion of a distance can be general

ized from one and two dimensions to three, four, five and even higher

dimensions. One knows that the distance between (xi, yi) and (x2, у 2),

namely, the distance between two points in a plane is d—\(x 2—X j^+ O ^—Ух)2

In order to generalize this formula to three dimensions we have only to con

sider a coordinate system consisting o f three mutually perpendicular axes.

With the use of this system we can locate any point in space by starting at the

origin, going a certain distance to the right or left, then to the front or back,

and finally, a certain distance up or down. With perpendicular axes like these

we can identify each point with three coordinates x, у and z, and one can

show that the distance between points (xh y \, and (x2, y 2, Z2) is

d='J(x2—X |)2+ (y 2—У\)г + {Zj—Zx)1. As in the two-dimensional case, the der

ivation o f this formula is based on the Pythagorean theorem. If one wants to

express these two distance formulas in words, one can say that “the distance

between two points is given by the square root o f the sum of the squares o f

the differences o f the respective coordinates” Since this rule applies to one,

two and three dimensions, it is tempting to let it apply also in the case where

there are more than three.

In order to make such a generalization it will be necessary to explain first

what a m athem atician means when he speaks o f four-dimensional, five

dim ensional, o r /і-dimensional space. Evidently, the word “space” can no

longer be interpreted in its colloquial sense standing for “physical space”

or “the space we live in” Taking this term in its colloquial sense one can

hardly go beyond the customary three dimensions of “left and right” ,

“ front and back” and “up and dow n” Indeed, when a m athem atician

talks about a space, he is referring to a collection o f math objects which (for

the sake o f convenience) may be referred to as points. He then defines the

dim ension o f such a space as the num ber o f coordinates needed to d eter

m ine each point.

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A line or a curve constitutes a one-dimenslonal space since each point can

be identified with one real number. Similarly, a plane or a surface constitutes

a two-dimensional space since each point can be identified with two real

numbers, namely, its two coordinates. Since three numbers are needed to

locate a point in ordinary space, one says that these points constitute a three-

dimensional space. So far the m ath concept o f a dimension agrees with the

intuitive notion which one ordinarily associates with this term. However, the

analogy breaks down the mom ent, one says that a collection o f points con

stitutes a four-dimensional space because four numbers are needed to deter

mine each point or if one says that a collection o f points constitutes an

n-dimensionalspace because n numbers are needed to determine each point.

It must be understood, therefore, that when a mathematician speaks o f a

four-dimensional space, he does not refer to some mysterious generalization

o f the intuitive notion o f a three-dimensional space. He refers to a set of

math objects which are individually determ ined by means o ffour numbers.

To give an example o f such a four-dimensional space, let us consider the

position o f an airplane at two different times: at 1:15 p.m. and 1:17 p.m. One

says that the position o f the airplane is in each case given by a point in a

three-dimensional space. Although the position o f airplane is given by three

coordinates x, y, z, it cannot be found unless one also knows the time, i.e.,

unless one knows a fourth variable t. In other words, to specify the location

o f the airplane one has to give four numbers x, y , z, t. It is in this sense, that

one says that the location o f the airplane is a point in a four-dimensional

space. Naturally, it will be unreasonable to expect that one can visualize this

in the same way in which one can visualize a point in one-, two-, or three-

dimensional space. As a second example o f a higher dimensional space, let

us consider five rolls o f a die which yielded the numbers 3, 6, 1,2, 5. When

taken individually, these rolls o f a die are given as single numbers, i.e., they

are points in a one-dim ensional space, when taken together they can be

looked upon as a single point in a five-dimensional space. In other words, the

experiment as a whole is characterized by five numbers, and it is therefore a

point in a five-dimensional space. In the given example the rolls o f the die

correspond to the point (3, 6 ,1 ,2 , 5). If the rolls are all 2's, they will corre

spond to the point (2, 2, 2, 2, 2).

Statisticians often refer to a sample o f five measurements as a point in a

five-dimensional sample space, and more generally, they refer to a sample o f

n measurements as a point in an n-dimensional sample space. This is just

another way o f saying that the sample as a whole consisted of n numbers.

Physicists often consider systems o f molecules in which the position o f each

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molecule is determined by three coordinates x, y, z. If a gas consists of

Г,000,000 molecules, we shall need 3,000,000 numbers to describe the gas as

a whole and we therefore refer to the state o f this gas as a point in a

3,000,000-dimensional space. If we also want to describe the motion o f each

particle, three more numbers will be needed for each molecule and the state

o f the gas will be a point in a 6,000,000-dimensional space.

Let us now return to the problem which originally motivated this brief

excursion into higher dimensions, namely the problem o f generalizing the

formula which measures the distance between two given points. Applying the

rule that the distance between two points is the square root o f the sum o f the

squares o f the differences o f the respective coordinates to four dimensions,

one can write the distance between points (хь у і, Z\, U\) and (x2, y2, *2> ul)

as a formula d = V(x2—X|)2+(y2- y |) 2 + (z2—Z\)2 + (w2- « i ) 2. It is important to

note that this formula actually defines what one means by the distance

between two points in a four-dimensional space. Proceeding in the same

way, one can also define the distance between two points in a five-dimen-

sional space as d = V(x2—X|)2+(y2- y i ) 2 + (Z2~z{)2 + (u2- u l)2 +(v2-V j)2 and

if one introduces a suitable notation, one will be able similarly to define the

distance between two points in an л -dimensional space. In the same way, in

which we generalized the distance formula, we are able to generalize many

o f the other formulas and equations o f analytic geometry. For example,

where in two dimensions ax + by + c = 0 is the equation o f a line, we shall

say that in three dimensions ax + by + cz + d = 0 is the equation o f a plane,

and that in four dimensions ax + by + cz + du + e = 0 is the equation o f a

hyperplane.

In analytic geometry one insists that it takes two numbers to locate a point

in the plane, i.e., it takes two coordinates to identify a point in a two-dimen

sional space. This is correct only as long as we restrict ourselves to real num

bers, there is a way in which one can identify each point o f plane by means

o f a single complex number. This is done simply by identifying the point

whose coordinates are (x, y) with the complex number x + iy. This means

that one can identify the points (1 ,4 ), (- 2 , 5) and (3, - 7 ) with the complex

numbers 1 + 4/, - 2 + 5/, 3 — 7/ and that one can vice versa plot the points 2 + 3/

and 4 — 2/. (They are the points whose coordinates are (2,3) and (4, -2 ).) One

can thus identify the x- and у -coordinates o f a point with the real and the

imaginary parts o f a complex number and represent each point by means o f

a unique complex number. Incidentally, this provides a “concrete” interpre

tation o f the complex numbers. Complex numbers, thus, represent the

points o f a plane.

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VOCAB ULAR Y E X E R C IS E S

1. Translate the following phrases into Russian, consulting the dictionary of mathematical

terms:

assigned two indices, assignable causes, assignment problem, associate ele

ments, associated prime ideal, coefficient of association, associative algebra,

associative law for multiplication, associativity relation, coordinate curve,

coordinate paper, incidence correspondence, excess o f nine, excess o f trian

gle, excess-six code, coefficient o f excess, favourable event, goodness o f fit,

least square fitting, guidance computer, hold circuit, hold rele, data han

dling, influence function, influence line, domain o f influence, local param

eter field/stability, localized vector, localization theorem, locally compact

group, measure of location, storage location, locus o f an equation, preserva

tion o f angles, norm-preserving mapping, providing bank, character recog

nition, pattern recognition, survey design, pilot survey, unified field theory,

unique solution, unique factorization theorem , to vary directly, to vary indi

rectly, calculus o f variations, function o f bounded variation, reducible vari

ety, minimal variety

2. Give the corresponding plural form of the following nouns and their Russian eqaivaleats:

a) continuum —» continua

datum , medium, vacuum, spectrum , quantum, infinitum, stratum, mini

mum, extremum, maximum, m om entum , polyhedron, criterion, phenom

enon, equilibrium, latus rectum , trustrum , circum

b) axis axes

thesis, emphasis, analysis, basis, appendix, crisis, phasis, synthesis,

hypothesis, parenthesis, index, matrix, vertex, radix, directrix, bisectrix, tri-

sectrix, tractrix, separatrix, indicatorix

c) focus -» foci

calculus, genius, locus, modulus, nucleus, stimulus, radius, rhombus, aba

cus, regulus, torus, syllabus

abscissa, hyperbola, nebula, corona, lacuna, coma, tessera

a series, a species, news, an apparatus, л headquarters

20 4

3. Give the Russian equivalent of the following groups of words:

a) to fix —to plot —to locate a point / to encounter —to come across / to

draw —to sketch —to produce a line / to fix —to denote —to assign an axis /

the relation is satisfied —is true —holds / to elaborate —to work out / to stem

from —to arise from / to coordinate —to arrange —to range — to align / to

create —to produce —to set up —to establish / to understand —to compre

hend - to perceive / to give —to provide - to supply - to furnish - to yield

b) task —assignment / alignment chart — nomogram / scale — rule / scale

—balance / scale — numbering / correspondence — mail / impetus —stim

ulus / survey —inspection / survey —summary / change —alteration —m od

ification —variation / variable —unknown / locus —graph / looking glass —

m irror

c) cartesian — rectangular coordinates / deep —profound / chief —main —

principal / huge —grand — immense / visual —visible / gifted —talented —

able

4. TVanslate the following antonyms into Russian:

negative / to differ —to liken / mortal —immortal / rectangular —oblique /

initial — terminal / coincident — intersecting / to land — to borrow / to

exceed —to fall short / to generate —to degenerate / equality —inequality /

preceding —subsequent / to be aware —to be ignorant / minimize —maxi

mize / civil — military / truth —falsity

1. R. Descartes did recognize some values o f studying traditional philoso

phy, nevertheless he acknowledged that it could not serve as the foundation

for the precise sciences as “ real or veritable truth was noticeable in it by its

absence” . 2. “The long chains o f simple and easy reasonings by means o f

which geometers are accustomed to reach the conclusions o f their most dif

ficult dem onstrations” , he admitted, led him to believe that “all things to the

knowledge o f which man is com petent are mutually connected in the same

way” . 3. He claimed that a sound body o f philosophy could be deduced only

by the methods o f geometers, for only they, he acknowledged, were able to

reason clearly and to arrive at indubitable truths. 4. He confessed that the

m ethod o f establishing new truths came to him in a dream while he was on

one o f his military campaigns.

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6. Practise (back) translations of the following sentences:

1. The equivalent equations have the same loci. 2. The points that are

common to two loci form their intersection. 3. The graph o f an equation in

X and Tis a drawing that pictures the corresponding locus. 4. The construc

tion o f a graph is called curve plotting. 5. The locus o f every equation o f the

first degree in X and К is a straight line. 6. Any point P which satisfies the

geometric conditions must sausfy the algebraic equation and conversely.

7. When a right circular cone (including both its upper and lower nappes) is

cut by a plane, a conic section will result. 8. If the plane does not pass

through the vertex o f the cone, the section is a parabola, an ellipse, o r a

hyperbola. 9. If the plane does pass through the vertex, the section may be 1)

a single point, 2) a straight line, 3) two intersecting lines, 4) two coincident

lines. 10. All these loci are called conic sections or simply conics. 11. Wfe may

use the term regular conics to designate sections cut by the planes, that do not

pass through the vertex. 12. Wfe may use the term degenerate conics to denote

those cut by the planes through the vertex. 13. The conic sections will be

defined with reference to a focus and a directrix. 14. If the cutting plane is

perpendicular to the axis o f the cone, the section will be a circle.

15. Coordinate systems are used to locate points in the plane or in space.

16. There are two systems o f plane coordinates in general use, rectangular

and polar. 17. The coordinates o f a point are numbers that determine the

position o f a point in reference to a fixed figure (the frame o f reference).

18. The projection o f a point upon a straight line is the foot o f the perpendi

cular dropped from the point to the line. 19. If the point lies on the fine, it is

its own projection. 20. A point will be plotted when it is located by means of

its coordinates. 21. A pair o f coordinates determines one and only one point

P o f the plane and conversely. 22. This correspondence between number

pairs and points o f the plane is called one-to-one correspondence. 23. It

provides a means o f passing from the analytic form o f an expression to the

geometric, and vice versa. 24. The graph o f an equation is the locus o f the

points whose coordinates satisfy the equation. 25. Conversely, the equation

o f a given curve is satisfied by the coordinates o f every point on the curve and

by the coordinates of no other points. 26. A line segment is a part o f a line

which is terminated by the two points given on it. 27. A directed line segment

is a line segment to which either a positive or negative direction is assigned.

28. By the inclination o f a line in the plane o f a rectangular coordinate sys

tem is meant the smallest angle, positive or zero, measured from the positive

A'-axis to the line. 29. The tangent of the inclination is called the slope o f the

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line. 30. Analytic geometry is a branch of mathematics in which one studies

geometry by means o f algebra. 31. The first systematic treatment of the sub

ject was published by Rene Descartes in 1637.

G RAM M AR A N D VOCABULAR Y E X E R C IS E S

1. Say the following sentences using future indefinite tense forms (active or passive voice).

Analytic geometry will unify both sciences.

problems o f geometry are solved with the methods of algebra. 3. Scientists

had to study the properties o f curves referred to as conic sections. 4. The path

o f heavenly bodies and projectiles directed and guided the research and appli

cations o f conics. 5. Advances o f science and technology influence the inves

tigation and introduction o f new curves. 6. Scientists sought for a general

method to represent curves algebraically. 7. The devices of analytic geome

try replace curves by equations through a coordinate system. 8. A coordinate

system locates points in a plane by means o f numbers. 9. In a plane the coor

dinate system assigns two numbers to a point, viz., an abscissa and an ordi

nate. 10. The abscissa denotes the distance o f the point from a fixed vertical

reference line, called the T-axis. 11. The ordinate fixes the distance o f the

point from a horizontal reference line, called the X-axis. 12. Distances to the

right o f the T-axis, or above the X-axis are designated as positive; distances

in the opposite directions are denoted as negative. 13. In analytic geometry

points become pairs o f numbers and curves become collections o f number

pairs expressed in equations. 14. Coordinates o f the points that lie on the

curve satisfy the equation. 15. The properties o f curves are deduced by alge

braic processes applied to the equations. 16. The properties common to all

the curves and special characteristics wherein they differ from each other are

discussed. 17. The continuity with which the curves pass into each other

appear from the definition o f a conic section as a locus. 18. Analytic m eth

ods hold good in problems dealing with more than three dimensions. 19. In

such problems there exists the difficulty in visualizing geometric objects.

20. Euclidean synthetic m ethods fail to cope with such problems.

21. Analytic geometry is appreciated as the basis o f all modern applied

maths.

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2. Use the proper (present, past, future) indefinite tense form according to the time indicator.

(in this problem, last century, with the creation o f analytic geometry, in future,

at present). 2. Three-dimensional coordinate system (to relate) algebraic

equations and geometric figures in space, (in three-dimensional geometry, in

the next problem, in the theory o f relativity, with the inauguration o f abstract

spaces, in the nineteenth century) 3. Pure geometry (to be arithmetiied)

through the devices o f coordinate geometry, (nowadays, next decade, in the

seventeenth century)

2. Analytic geometry replaced curves by equations through the device o f a

coordinate system. 3. The coordinate system will locate points in a plane or

in space by numbers: an abscissa and an ordinate. 4. Kepler introduced

effective methods o f working with the conic sections in astronomy. 5. The

coordinates o f any point that lies on the curve will satisfy the equation.

6. The mathematicians can deduce the properties o f the curves involved by

algebraic processes applied to the equations. 7. The classical Greeks em bod

ied algebra in geometry. 8. As solid analytic geometry fails to cope with slope

and curvature —the fundamental properties o f the curves —mathem aticians

must employ the differential calculus to deal with curves and surfaces.

9. M athematicians created a new term to designate the study o f calculating

the rates o f change o f slope and curvature. 10. Wfe refer to the study which

yields such rates as differential geometry.

4. Join the sentences. Express the action in the clause by using present indefinite tense forms

after the conjunctions: if, when, after, before, till, until, unless, as soon as, providing.

angles.

Wfc shall obtain a Cartesian coordinate s^ tem . (pro

viding)

Providing we take two reference lines, we shall obtain...

1. You’ll find the pair o f values (x. >) - the abscissa and the ordinate o f the

point. You’ll obtain the rectangular coordinates o f the point, (as soon as)

2. They’ll not indicate the position o f the point. They’ll plot the point, (untit)

3. The coordinates of the point will be plotted. The point in the plane will be

located by a pair o f numbers, (when) 4. A pair o f coordinates will not deter

208

mine one and only one point of the plane. A given point o f the plane will not

be determined by one and only one pair of coordinates. ( unless) 5. We’ll

apply the polar coordinate system. The system will locate a point by means

of a pair o f values (p, Ө). (provided) 6. You’ll take the polar axis, the pole, and

the radius vector. A more convenient and useful frame of reference will

result, (as soon as) 7. Any collections of points and lines will not be used to

set up a coordinate system. A frame of reference will not be obtained, (until)

8. Wfe’ll introduce a still more general frame of reference for the plane called

a triangle o f reference. Rectangular and oblique axes will be only special

cases of it. (if) 9. Just as in a plane or in space we shall assign coordinates to

a point. Wfe’ll use a frame of reference, (when) 10. An equation will be given.

The corresponding geom etric locus along with its properties will be

obtained, (before) 11. A geometric locus will be given whose points possess

some common property. The corresponding equation will be found, (after)

12. The rectangular coordinate system in a plane will be established. It will

provide a one-to-one correspondence between number pairs and points of

the curve, (as soon as) 13. We’ll write the equation of a certain line as

у = mx + b. We shall refer to m and b as constants and to x and у as variables.

(providing) 14. The correspondence pairing off values ofx and у will be called

a functional relationship. An equation in two variables x and у will establish

a certain correspondence between the numerical values, (if)

геометрического места. 2. Когда будет необходимо, они выберут

подходящую систему координат. 3. Пока это не будет сделано, точка

на плоскости не будет определяться парой чисел. 4. В случае, если

значение одной тригонометрической функции угла А будет дано,

остальные функции будут однозначно определены.

the near future actions and obligation resulting from some instruction.

The problem is going to be difficult.

1. Will they start a new series o f experiments? 2. Will the work be very com

plicated? 3. They will not take this frame of reference for the problem.

4. What subject will she specialize in? 5. He will make a report on analytical

209

methods. 6. We’ll finish the article concerning the study o f the phenomenon.

7. The professor will present his viewpoint at the conference. 8. The authois

will not publish the results o f the experiment. 9. The study o f such complex

problems will involve exceeding difficulty. 10. They will explain the methods

by which such results were obtained.

Wfc are to coordinate numbers with points.

given line. 2. We’ll choose the point which’ll correspond to zero and indicate

the unit o f length. 3. There will be only one specific point corresponding to

each positive and negative real number. 4. The directions in which measure

ments will be made may be clockwise or counterclockwise. 5. A system with

which we’ll coordinate numbers and points depends on the type o f the prob

lem concerned. 6. In most cases they’ll employ either rectangular or polar

system. 7. Following the usual convention we’ll first choose the point from

which to start —the origin. 8. Then we’ll indicate the directions in which the

distances will be measured by means o f coordinate axes. 9. The numbers

which will correspond to a point will be called its coordinates. 10. These coor

dinates will tell us how far we must go in the direction o f the x - and y-axes

until the point is reached. 11. The adding o f a third number will specify the

location o f a point in space. 12. To coordinate numbers to points in space we ll

employ a coordinate system consisting of three mutually perpendicular axes.

CONVERSATIONAL PRACTICE

1. Emphasize the revolutionary character and innovations ot analytic geometry. The given

statements may prove helpful.1*5

1. The Greeks’ invention o f pure forms and abstract shapes (e.g.. cubic

curves are often .S-shaped) laid the basis for Euclid’s geometry. 2. The

Greeks thought of curves as tracings made by moving points. 3. Analytic

geometry merged all the arithm etic, algebra and geometry o f ages past in a

single technique. 4. Analytic method is a means o f visualizing numbers as

points on a graph, equation as geometric shapes and shapes as equations.

5. Thanks to analytic geometry every equation can be converted into a geo

metric shape and conversely. 6. Some shapes can be represented only by

indefinitely long equations and some equations represent shapes hard to

visualize. But every equation has its equivalent in algebraic form. 7. Out o f

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Cartesian system emerged concepts fundamental to all higher maths: the

ideas o f “variables” and "functions” 8. If an x and у can be related through

an equation or graph, they are called “variables” i.e., one changes in value

as the other changes in value. The two have a functional relationship. 9. In

an ordinary algebraic equation у is a function o f x if y's value changes when

the value o f x changes. 10. Cartesian system’s basic contribution to maths

was essentially a philosophical one. 11. By allowing a broad interchangeabil

ity o f viewpoints, it gave rise to analysis which encompasses much o f higher

maths. 12. Analytic geometry was to grow far beyond Descartes’ original

brief presentation and was to touch nothing in maths without transforming

it. 13. Descartes’ association o f equation and curve uncovered a new world

o f curves. 14. Since the num ber and the variety o f equations is unlimited, so

is the range o f curves useful in various applications. 15. Descartes’ associa

tion held forth prospects o f new higher-dimensional spaces. 16. Nowadays

G reek and Cartesian geometries are special cases in generalized geometries

o f л -dimensions.

2. Answer the questions, using the words and phrases suggested. Work in pairs.

representing and analyzing curves)

Analytic geometry originated as a new way of repre

senting and analyzing curves.

appear? (in the Pythagorean school) 2. What did these words mean at the out

set? (three different conditions resulted from a method o f geometric solution)

3. What did these terms designate? (defect, excess, a placing beside, respec

tively) 4. Who invented conic sections? (Menaechmus, 350 B.C.) 5. How was

M enaechm us led to discover conic sections? (trying to fin d a solution o f the

“duplication o f the cube”problem) 6. What did Menaechmus do to obtain the

curves? (cut cones with planes at different angles) 7. What were the curves dis

covered by M enaechmus called? (Menaechmian triads) 8. What was the main

innovation introduced by Apollonius in his extraordinary Conic Sections?

(obtained all the conics from one double cone or conical surface) 9. Who sup

plied the terms “ellipse” , “parabola” and “hyperbola” referring to conic

sections? (Apollonius) 10. Whs Apollonius the only geometer in antiquity

who fixed the position o f a point in a plane by means o f suitable coordinates?

(the Egyptians and the Romans used them in surveying and the Greeks in map

making) 11. D o we have to cut cones with planes to obtain conic sections

211

nowadays? (by no means) 12. What is the simplest coordinate system or

frames o f reference we can obtain conic sections with? (a fixed straight line,

a fixed point and a generator will do) 13. When were coordinate systems used

in Middle Ages? (in the fourteenth century by Oresme in his "Latitude o f

Forms”) 14. What did Oresme represent by means o f a coordinate system?

(certain laws by graphing both dependent and independent variables) 15. When

did treatm ent o f the conic sections once again claim the attention o f

researchers? (in the seventeenth century) 16. Why was the time ripe for pres

ent-day analytic geometry only in the seventeenth century? (it had to await

the development o f algebraic symbolism) 17. Who devised the method o f plot

ting graphs with x and у coordinates? (the French mathematicians R.

Descartes and P. Fermat) 18. What will the adjective o f the name R.

Descartes be? (Cartesian) 19. How did the creators o f analytic geometry

approach the study o f curves? (through plotting points and straight lines)

20.. Why are the graphs so useful and helpful? (give a way o f revealing a rela

tionship between the measured things) 21. Why did Kepler introduce and

apply conic sections in astronomy? (the curves describe the paths o f celestial

bodies better than the circle) 22. Which conic assumed the role o f guide in

math astronomy? (the ellipse) 23. What motivated the engineering applica

tions of the conics? (problems o f projectile paths, the study o f lenses fo r tele

scope, microscope, X-ray machines and other devices) 24. What was the objec

tive the creators o f analytic geometry set for themselves? (the cooperation o f

the best aspects o f both algebra and geometry) 25. Why did they apply algebra

for solving geometric problems? (algebra enables to reason about abstract and

unknown quantities) 26. Whs it the only gain available? (it mechanizes the rea

soning process and minimizes the effort needed to solve problems)

3. Agree or disagree with the following statements. Use the opening phrases suggested. Repeat

the statement and develop it further.

Exactly. Certainly. I don’t think this is jest the case.

This is the case. I doubt it. Far from that.

I fully agree to it. Just the other way round.

I accept it fully. Not at all. Quite the reverse.

1. The association o f curve and equation was the brand new thought. 2.

Descartes and Fermat created a new method o f solving geometric problems.

3. One does not generally distinguish between science and engineering.

4. Practically all applications o f maths to the physical world depend on the

coordinate geometry. 5. The theory o f nomograms rests largely on analytic

212

geometry. 6. Analytic geometry accomplishes everything Descartes envi

sioned and expected. 7. Modern analytic geometry solves all geometric prob

lems whatever. 8. Through analytic geometry the importance o f m athem at

ics was considerably decreased and diminished. 9. Drawings are the subject

matter o f analytic geometry. 10. Graphical methods are hardly known to the

public at large. 11. G raphs have more visual appeal than formulas and tables.

12. Visual pictures permit mathematicians to reason from them and prove.

13. Analytic geometry presents the basic ideas in a straightforward, colour

less and m atter-of-fact manner. 14. In higher dimensional geometry visual

ization is o f great help. 15. There exists a frame o f reference for an n-dim en-

sional space. 16. The notion of a four-dimensional geometry is very helpful

in studying physical phenomena. 17. The physical world should be regarded

as four-dimensional. 18. The four numbers x , y , z and t, sometimes more

than four, specify any physical event. 19. The notions o f dimension and o f a

higher-dimensional geometry are fascinating branches o f maths. 20. They

are the basis o f the most sophisticated o f m odern scientific developments,

including the theory o f relativity.

4. Agree with the following negative statements, develop your answer further and keep the con

versation going where possible.

in philosophy.

No, he wasn’t. Nevertheless, he sought general meth

ods in maths, and he did establish a general procedure

o f working with curves. But it’s only one o f his great

accomplishments in maths.

1. P. Ferm at’s life was not adventurous. 2. P. Fermat was not a professor o f

maths at the University o f Toulouse. 3. P. Fermat did not practise teaching

maths. 4. P. Ferm at’s leisure was not devoted to jurisprudence. 5. P. Fermat

did not possess broad knowledge o f medicine or military art. 6. P. Fermat

enjoyed classical literature and even wrote verse himself but literary studies

were not his real love and passion, 7. P. Fermat did not publish anything per

sonally. 8. M any o f P. Fermat’s correspondents were not like he himselt, but

professional mathematicians. 9. P. Ferm at’s books, notes and his volumi

nous correspondence were not lost after his death. 10. P. Fermat did not

acknowledge, due to his modesty, the outstanding value o f his math achieve

ments. 11. There is no doubt that P. Ferm at was the inventor and codiscov

erer o f coordinate geometry. 12. P. Ferm at’s challenging problems are not

foigotten or abandoned. 13. One cannot overestimate the influence o f

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P. Fermat’s famous theorems in the development o f modern maths. 14. The

solutions of many difficult P. Ferm at’s problems are not established. 15. The

proofs of his famous theorems are not obtained. 16. One cannot say that

modern mathematicians reject and abandon P. Ferm at’s challenges as their

goal and a constant source o f new efforts.

5. Explain in your own words the meaning оГ the statements or answer the questions posed.

coordinates, was he? No, he was not. Why are they,

then, usually referred to as “Cartesian”?

They bear this name because o f many innovations and

improved algebraic notation introduced by Descartes

into his coordinate geometry.

deals with many basic ideas for solving equations that arise in connection

with geometric problems —primarily the study o f conic section by algebraic

methods. He was the first to introduce the concepts o f a variable and a fu n c

tion. Explain why Descartes had to introduce these concepts.

2. Descartes’ variable possesses dual nature: it presents a) a line segment o f

varying length and constant direction or a continuous curve traced by a mov

ing point coordinate; b) a continuous numerical variable that involves the set

ol all numbers expressing the line segment. Explain how this dual image o f a

variable helped Descartes unite and interrelate geometry and algebra.

3. Though the appendix is entitled “Geom etry” Descartes made in it his •

greatest contribution to algebra and the whole o f maths. It was celebrated

Descartes’ rule o f signs “Wfe can determine the num ber o f true (positive) and

false (negative) roots that the equation can have as follows: An equation can

have as many true roots as it contains changes o f sign from + to —, or from

- to +; and as many false roots as the number o f times two + signs or

two —signs are found in succession” When applied to Cartesian coordinates

this rule enables one to determine the sign (plus or minus) o f coordinates

How? Explain.

4. As is often the case with the promulgation o f a significant math result,

this first statement o f the relation between changes in signs o f the successive

terms o f the polynomial and the nature o f roots was not complete. Explain

what Descartes’ statem ent o f the rule lacks.

5. Analytic geometry was brought to bear on num ber theory. Negative

numbers were not readily accepted by mathematicians. Thanks to Descartes'

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coordinate geometry and his rule o f signs negative numbers became legiti

mate in maths as directed ordinates. Explain.

6. Descartes anticipated many successive im portant discoveries and proofs

in maths. Gauss gave (1797) the first proof o f the fundamental theorem o f

algebra: Every algebraic equation o f degree n has n roots. The insights o f

Descartes on this m atter are o f special interest because they are related to his

famous rule of signs: “ Every equation can have as many distinct roots (val

ues of the unknown quantity) as the number o f dimensions (i.e., degree) o f

the unknown quantity in the equation. It often happens, however, that some

o f the roots are false, or less than nothing” Explain the importance o f this

statement to Descartes’ geometric study o f curves, tangents, normals to a

curve, etc.

7. The term “area” as it is understood in modern maths, refers to real

numbers. From Descartes the study o f geometry is reduced to the study o f

real numbers. Explain.

8. By means of Cartesian coordinates Gauss gave geometric interpretation

of complex numbers. What does this phrase mean? Explain.

9. P. Fermat and R. Descartes came to develop analytic geometry almost

simultaneously. Why was the time ripe for the creation o f the synthesis o f

geometry and algebra in the mid o f the seventeenth century? Explain.

10. Much terminology, like our classification o f curves (and surfaces) into

linear, quadratic, cubic and so forth, stems from our use o f Cartesian coor

dinate systems. Some curves, however, such as many spirals, have intractable

equations when referred to a Cartesian frame whereas they enjoy relatively

simple equations when referred to some other skilfully designed coordinate

system. What system? Explain.

engineer, teacher, concurrently — was a true 18th-century scientist. 2. Euler

was a great geometer though there are no drawings and constructions in his

works. 3. Mathematicians like Euler are bom, not made. 4. Euler calculated

without apparent effort: he was never bored with lengthy computations which

were his passion and hobby. 5. Euler loved beautiful formulas for their own

sake. 6. G eom etry was lost among countless formulas due to Euler.

7. Geometry became a precise science due to Euler. 8. Euler was never sur

passed in devising algorithms for the solution o f difficult problems. 9. Wfork at

the St. Petersburg Academy comprised the most productive chapter in Euler’s

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life. 10. While in Berlin (1741-1766) Euler carried out many commissions for

the St. Petersburg Academy and gave expert advice. ! 1. Euler dealt with ana

lytic functions only. 12. “A function o f a variable is any analytic expression

whatsoever composed of that variable quantity and numbers or constant quan

tities.” (Euler.) 13. “A curve is specified by analytic expression.” (Euler.)

14. Euler classified all the curves according to their order. 15. Euler’s theory o f

all algebraic curves is distinguished by its generality and clarity o f presentation.

16. Euler was the first to solve the equation in three variables corresponding to

the surface o f the second order (ellipsoid, hyperboloid, paraboloid). 17. Euler

developed the notion o f geometric and conformal transformations. 18. “The

knowledge of analytic geometry and the theory o f functions is necessary to

master math analysis.” (Euler.) 19. All modem topological theories stem from

Euler’s work. 20. Euler’s notation for “e”, “я ” and “/” received universal

acceptance. 21. Euler can be compared to Euclid. 22. “ Euler’s works are the

best possible school for mathematicians.” (Gauss.) 23. One is still amazed by

Euler’s prolific writings. It seemed as if age had no effect.

ables, 0 coordinates, g) spherical geometry, h) theorem o f polyhedra. i) con

formal transformations.

READING COMPREHENSION

Four-Dimensional Geometry

Read the text and discuss the problem involved. Sam up the discussion. Use the following phrases:

It seems reasonable to say.. On the whole... In the long run.

I can start by saying... In conclusion I must say..

Until almost the beginning o f the 20th century the attitude o f m athem ati

cians and laymen alike toward geometries o f more than three dimensions —

if notice was given to them at all — was one o f scepticism. It was generally

thought that reference to physical considerations alone was sufficient to pre

clude the existence of more than three dimensions.

Aristotle said that a solid has magnitude “ in three ways, and beyond these

there is no other magnitude because the three are all” Ptolemy, as quoted by

216

Simplicius, said, “ It is possible to take only three lines that are mutually per

pendicular; two by which the plane is defined and a third measuring depth.”

To the Greeks no further explanation was necessary.

In the fourteenth century N. Oresme sought a graphic representation of

Aristotelian forms as heat, velocity, sweetness and so on by laying down a line

as a basis, called a longitude, and taking one of the forms to be represented by

lines perpendicular to this as a latitude. The form was then represented by a

surface. Taking a surface as a basis, with latitude perpendicular at each point,

a solid was formed. He even went on to take a solid as a basis and at each point

considered an increment. But he rejected a fourth-dimensional figure out of

hand and considered instead the solid as consisting of infinitely many planes.

Taking perpendiculars at each point o f each plane, the result was an infinite

set o f intersecting solids. However, he did use the phrase “fourth dimension”

Girolamo Cardano in his Ars Magna (G reat Art) o f 1545 referred to power

o f numbers in geometric terms, saying, “The first power o f a number refers

to a line, the square to a surface, the cube to a solid, and it would be fatuous

indeed for us to progress beyond for the reason that it is contrary to nature.”

Rene Descartes tried to find a graphic representation o f the motion of freely

falling bodies. He said that if a body is acted on by one accelerating force,

motion is represented by a triangle. If it is affected by two forces, it is represent

ed by an angular pyramid. But if acted on by three forces, it is represented “by

other figures” What these figures are Descartes did not attempt to point out.

John Wallis' Algebra o f 1685 includes the passage: “A line drawn into a line

shall make a plane or surface; this (line) drawn into a line shall make a solid;

but if this solid be drawn into a line, or this plane into a plane, what shall it

make? A plane-plane? That is a monster in nature, and less possible than a

centaur. For length, breadth and thickness take up the whole o f space. Nor can

we imagine how there should be a fourth local dimension beyond those three.”

Some progress is noted in the eighteenth century. A more modern note was

struck by Jean Le Rond D’A lembert in 1754. “I stated above, that it is impos

sible to conceive o f more than three dimensions. A man o f parts, o f my

acquaintance, holds that one may, however, look upon duration as a fourth

dimension. This idea may be challenged but it seems to me to have some

merit other than that o f mere novelty.”

Joseph Louis Lagrange, in 1787, said, “ Since the position o f a point in

space depends upon three rectangular coordinates, these coordinates in the

problems o f mechanics are conceived as being functions o f t. Thus, we may

regard mechanics as a geometry o f four dimensions, and mechanical analy

sis as an extension o f geometrical analysis.”

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Most scientists rejected four dimensions because in nature we do not know

o f any quantity which has more than three dimensions. There are, however,

several references in the nineteenth century to four dimensions in occult,

mystical and theological writing. With the advent o f Einstein’s theory o f rel

ativity and subsequent discussions o f time-space and the possible curvature

o f our three-dimensional in a four-dimensional space, four-dimensional

concepts are spoken o f calmly, and we now realize that the physical existence

or nonexistence o f a four-dimensional body has nothing to do with its exis

tence as a math entity.

W hat is four-dim ensional geom etry? A pproached pictorially the c o n

cept has no m eaning. But we can think about four m utually p erp en d icu

la r lines, i.e., fo u r lines each p e rp e n d icu la r to the o th e r th ree.

A point in a four-dim ensional space may also be regarded as rep resen t

ed by four num bers o r coordinates (the distance one must proceed along

the four axes to reach that point). T hus, these coordinates are w ritten (x,

У, Z, w).

How can one think o f geom etric figures in a four-dim ensional space?

The m ost convenient way is through the language o f analytic geometry,

i.e., equations. The figures o f four-dim ensional geom etry exist in the

same sense as do the figures in two and three dim ensions. The hyperplane

is as “ real” as the straight line and plane; and the hypersphere as “ real" as

the circle and sphere. The same applies to all other objects o f higher

dim ensional geometry. T he difficulty most people experience in accepting

four-dim ensional geometry and the corresponding equations is due to the

fact th at they confuse mental constructions and visualization. All o f

geom etry deals with ideas that exist in the hum an mind only Fortunately,

people can visualize o r picture two- and three-dim ensional ideas by

m eans o f drawings on paper. N o one can visualize four-dim ensional

structures, unfortunately; one must rely on the mind alone. One can study

four-dim ensional figures in term s o f two- and three-dim ensional sections

o f these figures. As a m atter o f fact, it is possible to visualize sections o f

figures in a four-dim ensional space. O ne finds the equation o f the section

first and obtains its shape with the knowledge o f ordinary two- o r three-

dim ensional coordinate geometry. T hus the problem o f studying a figure

in a four-dim ensional space is reduced to that o f studying figures in th ree-

and tw ordim ensional spaces.

COMPOSITION

Read and translate the text. Write an objective description of the structure of a thing or con

cept. Some type of coordinate systems in common use should be described (e.g., oblique, alTine,

cylindrical, etc.).

Frames of Reference

M uch terminology, like our classification o f curves (and surfaces) into lin

ear, quadratic, cubic and so forth, stems from our use of Cartesian coordinate

system. Some curves, however, such as many spirals, have intractable equa

tions when referred to a Cartesian frame, whereas they enjoy relatively sim

ple equations when referred to some other skilfully designed coordinate sys

tem. Particularly useful in the case o f spirals is the polar coordinate system.

Polar Coordinates. Points are most commonly described today by ordered

pairs (x, y) in the Cartesian system, where x is the directed distance from the

vertical axis and у is the directed distance from the horizontal axis. For cer

tain kinds o f curves, however, a more convenient and useful form o f repre

sentation is that o f polar coordinates. The polar ordered pair is (r, Ө), where

Ө is the angle the vector makes with the reference line or polar axis and r is

the length o f the vector.

Isaac Newton was the first to think o f using polar coordinates. In a treatise

Method o f Fluxions (written about 1671) which dealt with curves defined

analytically, Newton showed ten types o f coordinate systems that could be

used; one o f these ten was the system o f polar coordinates. However, this

work o f Newton was not published until 1736; in 1661 Jakob Bernoulli

derived and made public the concept o f polar coordinates; his polar system

used for reference a point on a line rather than two intersecting lines. The

line was called the “polar axis” and the point on the line was called the

“pole” The position o f any point in a plane was then described, first, by the

length o f a vector from the pole to the point and, second, by the angle the

vector made with the polar axis. After Bernoulli, Jakob Hermann, in a paper

o f 1729, asserted that polar coordinates were just as useful for studying geo

metric loci as were the Cartesian coordinates. However, H erm ann's work

was not well known, and it remained for Euler, about twenty years later, to

make the polar coordinates system really popular.

Further coordinate systems were not investigated until toward the close o f

the nineteenth century, when geometers were led to break away from the

Cartesian systems in situations where the peculiar necessities o f a problem

indicated that some other algebraic apparatus is more suitable. An interest -

219

ing development in coordinate systems was inaugurated by J. Pliicker in

1829, when he noted that our fundamental elem ent need not be the point

but can be any geometric entity. This, in turn, led Plucker to the concept o f

the dimension o f a manifold o f geometric entities as simply the essential

number o f coordinates needed to determine one o f the entities in the m ani

fold. The first nebulous and vague notions o f a hyperspace which is

w-dimensional (/i>3) in points are lost in the dimness o f the past and were

confused by metaphysical considerations. Aristotle, for example, in his

Physics talked o f six dimensions, but these were up and down, before and

behind and right and left.

Nowadays any collection o f points, lines, curves or any geometric entities

whatever that are used to set up a system o f coordinates for the points o f a

plane is called a fram e o f reference for this plane. It is customary, that a pair

o f rectangular or oblique axes, their point o f intersection (0, 0) and the two

so-called unit points on the axes, namely (0, 1) and (1 ,0 ) constitute such a

frame o f reference for coordinates in the plane. One designates as the ordi

nary frame o f reference in a plane the frame consisting o f a pair o f rectangu

lar axes with the same-sized unit on each axis. The formulas for the distance

between two points, for the angle between two lines, for the area o f a trian

gle, the equations o f conics and many other formulas and equations in ana

lytic geometry presuppose the use of this com m on frame o f reference.

Later on, a still more general frame o f reference for the plane called a tri

angle o f reference can be introduced. It is obvious that any triangle ABC can

be used as a triangle o f reference and if we join any point P in the plane to

the vertices A and В of this triangle, the lines AP and BPmW cut the sides CB

and CA, respectively, in points whose coordinates are assigned to P

Rectangular and oblique axes are only special cases o f a triangle o f reference.

Just as in a plane, so on a line and in space whenever we assign coordinates

to a point, we shall use a frame o f reference. For example, when we attach to

the points /*1, P2, P2 ... o f a line L the coordinates Xy, X2, X2 ..., respectively,

we shall employ a frame o f reference composed o f any two distinct points on

L to which we give the coordinates 0 and 1.

COMPREHENSION EXERCISES

Questions

I. What is your favourite subject: algebra or geometry and why? 2. Can

analytic geometry be described as the “royal road” in geometry that Euclid

220

thought did not exist? 3. Why is Cartesian geometry the essential base for

modern applied sciences? 4. How can one set up a two-, three-, four-,

л -dimensional coordinate system? 5. What is meant by Cartesian coordi

nates? 6. What do we call the point 0 in different frames of reference?

7. What is m eant by the axis of abscissas? 8. What is meant by the axis of

ordinates? 9. In what order are the four quadrants formed by the axes o f

coordinates designated? 10. What directions are considered positive (nega

tive)? 11. How are points located in Cartesian coordinates? 12. What is

meant by the distance? 13. What are polar coordinates? 14. What is the prin

cipal value o f polar coordinates? 15. What other types o f frames of reference

are worthy o f investigation? 16. Which is the most convenient coordinate

system and why? 17. Why were both Descartes and Fermat dissatisfied with

the limited methods o f Euclidean geometry? 18. Is algebra really a universal

science for an analytic method? 19. What was Descartes’ point of view con

cerning algebra? 20. Was Descartes alone in the history o f maths to interpret

algebra as a universal language? 21. What can you say about Leibnitz’s objec

tive to set up such a language? 22. Actually, both Descartes and Fermat were

very much interested in optics, weren’t they? 23. Descartes published an

essay on the passage o f light through lenses. Was he concerned with light

rays, the structure o f lenses or conic sections in this research? 24. Fermat

contributed several fundamental laws to optics. What are they? 25. How can

one approach four-dimensional geometry? 26. If a curve o f a four-dimen

sional space lies in a plane, can it be visualized despite the fact that it is part

o f four-dimensional world? 27. Do mathematicians actually believe in the

real existence o f a world o f four spatial dimensions and hope some day to

train our visual apparatus to perceive this world?

DISCUSSION

1. “As long as algebra and geometry proceeded along separate paths, their

advance was slow and their applications limited. But when these sciences

joined company, they drew from each other fresh vitality and thence forward

marched on at a rapid pace toward perfection.” (J.L. Lagrange.) Prove it or

disagree.

2. Descartes claimed that he ought to find the simple, clear and distinct

truths that could play the same part in his philosophy that axioms play in

maths proper. The results o f his search are famous. From the one reliable

source — his consciousness o f self — he extracted the building blocks o f his

philosophy: a) I think, therefore I am; b) each phenom enon must have a

221

cause; c) an effect cannot be greater than the cause, and d) the ideas o f per

fection, sp<tce, time and motion are innate to the m ind and could be

obtained only from the existence o f a perfect being, who is G od. Therefore

God exists. With Descartes, theology and philosophy parted company.

Characterize Descartes’ philosophy (mystical, methaphysical, theological,

rational, mathematized, etc.). Is it tied only to a particular tim e o f Descartes

or is it up-to-date? What produced co-ordinate geometry: D escartes’ philo

sophical interest in method or his intellectual delight in m ath activity?

3. In contrast to D escartes’ adventurous, rom antic and purposive

life, Ferm at’s was dull, highly conventional, and m atter-of-fact. He lived

quietly, ignored problems involving G od, man, and the nature o f the uni

verse and devoted his spare tim e to maths. Whereas to Descartes maths

served to solve philosophical and scientific problems and to m aster nature,

to Fermat the subject offered beauty, harmony and the pleasures o f contem

plation. Characterize Ferm at as a mathematician —the greatest “ am ateur”

in the history o f maths. His accomplishments and anticipations, his famous

theorems, his method o f proof.

4. Scale, chart, drawing, picture, graph, diagram, nomogram, fram e o f refer

ence. Their characteristics, distinctions and applications.

5. Conic sections. Their math properties and applications.

6. Advantages and disadvantages o f the algebraic language o f analytic

geometry. Consider the equation representing a circle. Where is the round

ed figure, the path that knows no end, the beauty o f the most perfect shape?

Does this formula represent all the properties o f the geometric circle?

Algebra replaced geometry, the mind replaced the eye. Is it a convenient way,

after all?

7. The word “focus” ( F) means “a hearth” or “burning-place” in Latin.

Why? Suppose that the parabola is a cross-section of a reflecting surface and

it is held so that its axis points to a distant star. The light rays will come in

practically parallel to the axis o f the parabola, will strike the parabola, and

will be reflected to the point /•'(focusl. Hence there will be a great concen

tration of light at F enabling scientists to view the distant star more clearly.

What will happen to an object placed at F i f the sun is viewed instead o f a

star?

8. yV-dimensional geometry. Illustrate it by some problems.

Unit Seven (7)

INTRODUCTION TO MECHANICS

Grammar:

Continuous Tense Forms.

LABORATORY PRACTICE

1. M echanics is a classical subject which deals with the motion o f bodies

and construction o f machines and various mechanical devices. 2. Mechanics

is closely identified with physics and engineering. 3. There exist many extensive

branches o f general or theoretical mechanics which have their own princi

ples and independent significance. 4. All the fields and subjects o f m echan

ics apply the methods and equations o f theoretical mechanics. 5. The prim

itive elements o f mechanics are bodies, forces, motion. These basic elements

are governed by assumptions, principles or laws which describe mechanics as

a whole. 6. Mechanical laws abstract, codify and record the common fea

tures o f all mechanical phenom ena. 7. Scientists are seeking for laws because

laws are theory and experimental knowledge combined. 8. Extracting and

deducing laws is one o f the great activities o f a scientist. 9. Most laws in sci

ence state the relationships between measurements of two (three) quantities.

10. Almost all scientific laws can be reworded with the word “constant” as

their essential characteristic. 11. Most mechanical laws were derived induc

tively from experiments. 12. In some cases, however, scientists deduce laws

or rules from some theoretical scheme. 13. The general principles in

mechanics are illustrated by constitutive equations which abstract the differ

ences among bodies. 14. The fundamental entity in mechanics is the materi

al particle and bodies are considered as aggregates o f such particles. 15. The

general laws o f mechanics apply to all bodies and all motions. 16. The ele

m ents in terms o f which motion is described are position in space and time. 17.

Space that is used in m echanics is Euclidean three-dimensional; time is

absolute. 18. The assumption o f absolute time did not lead to contradictions

when applied to facts known up to the nineteenth century. 19. With the

advent o f Einstein’s theory o f relativity, mechanics came to be regarded as a

geometry o f four dimensions and space became finite but unbounded. 20.

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The concept o f time was changed: there is no absolute time according to the

relativistic viewpoint. 21. It was in the concept o f time that the classical and

relativistic developments diverged. 22. M echanics is seeking the simplest

possible description o f how bodies actually move, it makes no pretence o f

explaining why bodies move. 23. The description o f motion involves general

principles stated in math terms embracing all particular motions as special

cases. 24. The natural philosophers o f ancient Greece liked to do experi

ments in their heads. 25. Centuries later Galileo developed the “ thought

experiment” intended for the imagination only, into a fruitful m ethod o f

inquiry o f free fall. 26. In our time “thought experiments” appealed strong

ly to such scientists as Einstein and Fermi. 27. O f all the forces playing part

in mechanics (contact, i.e., pushes and pulls, frictional, electrical, nuclear,

etc.) the most important is the force o f gravity. 28. The force o f gravity acts

on any object vertically downward and it is proportional to its mass or iner

tia. 29. U nder the influence o f gravity all objects fall with the same acceler

ation. 30. Throughout recorded history the speculations o f civilized men on

the nature o f gravitation ranged from the naive (Aristotle: objects fall to the

earth, because that is their natural place) to the sophisticated (Einstein). 31.

Newton was the first to recognize that the force o f gravity is only a special

case o f a general attraction between any two masses. 3 2 . This general attrac

tion is responsible for keeping the Earth and other planets on their courses

around the Sun. 33. Every scientific theory, though speculative in its charac

ter, is meaningful only if it can be tested and verified by experiment. It dies if

it fails such tests. 34. A genuine understanding of theory and its relationship

with experiment is essential if one wishes to know science. 35. Einstein pre

sented a new concept of gravitation. There is, he claimed, no absolute force

o f gravity pulling objects down. 36. On the contrary, every mass has within it

a force in proportion to its mass which attracts objects to it. 37. This attrac

tion force o f masses is also responsible for the curvature of the universe and

for variations in orbits o f celestial bodies. 38. Today many scientists firmly

believe that Einstein’s general theory o f relativity which explains gravity as a

curvature or warping o f space and tim e, is the correct theory o f gravitation.

39. They praise its beauty and agreement with observation and experiment.

40. O ther workers, however, are openly dubious o f the general relativity and

suggest that alternative theories provide a better description o f grav ity. 41.

The general theory of relativity nowadays has many competing successors.

42. For such new theories to be viable they have to meet observational and

theoretical criteria that are steadily becoming more rigorous. 43. The gener

al theory o f relativity predicts that accelerated masses radiate gravitational

224

waves, i.e., gravitational fields propagating with the speed o f light. 44. Such

waves resemble electromagnetic waves as they carry energy, momentum and

information. 45. Whereas electromagnetic waves interact only with electric

charges and currents, however, gravitational waves interact with all forms o f

m atter energy. 46. Experiments designed to detect gravitational waves record

evidence that they are being emitted in bursts from the direction o f the cen

tre o f all galaxy. 47. The origin o f the observed gravitational radiation is not

determ ined, only the direction o f its arrival. 48. These findings are stimulat

ing much theorizing (conjecturing) and a good deal o f disagreement among

astrophysicists and gravitationalists. 49. It is conjectured that the source

might be an unusual object such as a pulsating neutron star very much clos

er than the galactic centre. 50. It is conceivable that the mass at the galactic

centre is acting as a giant lens, focussing gravitational radiation from an ear

lier epoch o f the universe. 51. Since gravitational radiation is not apprecia

bly absorbed by matter, the authors o f this hypothesis maintain, it should

have been accumulating since, perhaps, the beginning o f time. 52. The rela

tively large radiation intensity apparently observed may be telling us when

the time began. 53. In the past few years several versions of Einstein's

“thought experiments” were carried out with real apparatus to verify some of

the new hypotheses. 54. The current existing mechanical theory is the quan

tum theory. Q uantum mechanics domain begins in the nucleus and extends

as far as the solar system.

GRAMMAR

am am

Present is asking is being asked

are are

were were

Future shall

be asking

will

Continuous tense forms are used to express an action which is going on (=is

in progress) at a definite moment o f present, past o r future. Time indicators

are not always necessary and such adverbial modifiers as now, at present,

always, constantly, all day, all that year, the whole morning, at this time

tomorrow, etc. are found. As a rule, the precise time limits o f the action are

not specified.

It should be borne in mind that though most English verbs can be used in

the continuous aspect, some o f them , however, do not adm it it. This refers

to verbs denoting actions o f unlimited duration, o f physical perception, o f

emotions, mental processes, etc. such as to hear, to notice, to watch, to see,

to hate, to like, to love, to desire, to want, to wish, to appreciate, to assume,

to imagine, to know, to mind, to think, to recognize, to understand, to agree,

to be, to feel, to find, to seem, to satisfy, to succeed, to suffice, to value, etc.

However, in spoken English some o f the verbs listed may be occasionally

used in the continuous aspect; in this case the continuous aspect gives them

emotional colouring. Thus, the division o f verbs into those which admit the

continuous form and those which do not, as a rule, admit it, cannot be

explained by any grammatical reasons but is purely semantically coloured

and traditional.

Translate the following sentences into Russian ami try to explain the use o f the coatinaons

tense forms of the predicates.

1. Forces are pushes and pulls, i.e., the things you feel (= y o u ’re feeling)

when they are acting on you; things that are stretching springs; things that

arc making moving bodies accelerate. 2. \Nfe can com pare the results that

are being predicted theoretically with those observed experimentally.

3. Since dynam ics is the science o f m otion, the question at once arises:

what is moving (=m oves) and what are the simplest elem ents in terms o f

which its m otion may be described? 4. All forces are always occurring

(= occur) in pairs which may be conveniently spoken o f as action and

reaction. 5. Large heavenly bodies are moving (=m ove) in regular orbits.

6. Som ething is being interfered (in te rf e r e s ) with their straight-line

motion. 7. They are being attracted (= are attracted) to some centre o f

force around which th eir circular m otion occurs. 8. G alileo was experi

menting and thinking and teaching new scientific knowledge o f m echan

ics. 9. The Moon must be revolving around the Earth because the Earth is

attracting it (= attracts it). 10. Whatever speed a spaceship o f the future

attains, it will be going in a straight line forever, unless it enters the gravi

tational field o f another celestial body.

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INTRODUCTORY T E X T

Ancient scientists sought to learn what happens and how things happen

and for many centuries wanted to explain why things happen. Greek thinkers

founded new methods in science — they began to look for general schemes,

which could account for and predict separate facts. About 2500 years ago

there appeared scientists or natural philosophers trying to describe nature.

They collected facts and combined them into distinct groups seeking to

reveal properties common to the behaviour o f the whole group and develop

a theory. Thus, from the Greeks to Galileo, science was being built by col

lectors, accurate observers, makers o f schemes, authoritarian philosophers.

The collectors gathered a lot of knowledge which by itself was too diverse to

be called science. The scheme-makers organized this knowledge and extract

ed rules that were good working prescriptions, able to summarize the facts and

often to make predictions. Rules and knowledge together with techniques for

gaining more knowledge made the beginning o f the genuine science.

The Greeks deduced their explanations and schemes for nature from a few

genera! ideas which they just assumed, e.g., from “circles are perfect” they

deduced epicycloids. In the course of the 17th century this kind of deductive

reasoning fell into disfavour as it was really philosophical speculation flour

ishing with authority rather than science. By the middle of that century

experiment came to be regarded as the real source and test of science.

Scientists were concerned and occupied with extracting rules or laws by

inductive reasoning from experiment. In doing this, they too were making

assumptions: that nature is simple and uniform, i.e., that in the same condi

tions the same behaviour occurs again and again. They still assumed that

there are causes for things, but the meaning of causality remained as difficult

a problem as ever. As general working rules emerged, e.g., Copernicus’ sun-

in-centre scheme, H ooke’s law, Kepler’s laws, the sense o f security and

comfort increased and the early belief that nature is definite and reasonable

gained ground as a basic belief in science.

Though this inductive method was an honest one leading to good rules, it

lacked the general tying-together and mental,satisfaction that a grand theo

ry can give. Newton, with greater insight and judgement, was the first to look

at experiment, then reversed to theory and worked back deductively from

theory, predicting results that could be tested and verified. This brought the-

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ory back into science as a framework o f thought, but in a more respectable

and responsible form. Theory was again considered valuable but this tim e as

a servant to science rather than as master.

Later still, say, in the last century, theory was subjected more and more to

the test o f productiveness. Scientists were asking: “Can this theory make

(further) predictions?” If not, it was to be modified. In the 20th century this

seems too harsh a treatm ent for theory. Its use may lie not only in its ability

to make predictions but also in the frame o f thinking that it offers us.

Nowadays scientists are following Galileo and Newton in one scheme o f sci

entific method: scientists plan and frame their experimenting carefully and

treat it by a formal system o f inductive reasoning and testify, i.e., they collect

information, extract rules, frame hypothesis, deduce consequences, test

deductions, verify the results, etc.

Scientists are setting forth ideal schemes (models) for science, but if you

watch scientists at work, you will see that there is no one scientific method.

Science does not develop as a simple rigid chess game; nor is the progress just

a series o f forward leaps. A first round o f thinking and experimenting may

even lead back to the starting point, but, as with seeing a movie over again,

we have a richer knowledge with which to pursue the second round. In the

real development o f science we approach our problems and build our knowl

edge by many methods: sometimes we start by guessing freely, sometimes we

build a model for math investigation, and then make experimental tests.

Sometimes we just gather experimental information with an eye open for the

unexpected; sometimes we plan and perform one great experiment and

obtain an important result directly or by statistical sorting o f a wealth of

measurements. Sometimes a progressive series of experiments carries us

from stage to stage of knowledge - the results o f each experiment guiding

both our reasoning and our planning of the next experiment. Sometimes we

carry out a grand analysis thinking from stage to stage with a gorgeous mix

ture o f information, rules, guesses and logic, with only an occasional exper

imental test.

Yet, experiment is the ultimate touch-stone throughout good science,

w hether it comes at the beginning as a gathering o f empirical facts o r at the

end in the final tests of a grand conceptional scheme. How far scientists’ the

oretical thinking will be developing at a given time depends on the state of

knowledge and interest - on w hether the time is ripe. When the time is ripe,

the same problem is often attacked by many scientists simultaneously and

the same solution may be discovered by several. Yet, one scientist may get the

credit for reaping the harvest - quite right if he is the only man with enough

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insight or skill to carry the innovation through. In Newton’s day new inter

est in motion, general thinking about the planets, Kepler’s discoveries, new

studies o f magnetism and light phenomena, new attitudes towards experi

menting and scientific knowledge — all made contributions o f facts and

approaches — the time was ripe for the great development. Hooke, Wren,

Halley, Huygens and many others were all seeking to reach a unified theory

for celestial and earthly motions. Each succeeded in grasping some parts of

the solution, but it was Newton who gave the complete solution in one grand

theory, making “ not a leap but a flight” .

ACTIVE VOCABULARY

1. to account (for) 13. to disturb 25. to predict

2. to annihilate 14. to diverge 26. to predominate

3. to attach 15. to exert 27. to prejudice

4. to behave 16. to experience 28. to propagate

5. to cancel 17. to guess 29. to repel

6. to clarify 18. to induce 30. to resist

7. to coincide 19. to insulate 31. to revise

8. to collide 20. to interfere 32. to scrutinize

9. to conduct 21. to modify 33. to speculate

10. to conserve 22. to obey 34. to spread

11. to discard 23. to occur 35. to transfer

12. to distribute 24. to penetrate 36. to transverse

TEXT ONE

SCIENTIFIC LAWS

Read and translate the text in class. Sum up the main ideas of the text, following the outline

given below.

1. Scientific law is not a legislation or a decree.

2. Alexandrian mathematicians - the forerunners o f modem science.

3. Archimedes’ discoveries.

4. The usefulness of scientific laws.

What is a scientific law? Who makes it, who obeys? Who uses it, the great

thinker or the engineer? The use o f the word “ law” in scientific literature is

not fortunate. We know o f no legislation or decree that established the rules

we describe; it is probably more accurate to think of laws as invented rather

than discovered. Historical records reveal the origin of some laws; others are

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concealed, because the man who first proposed them did not let us know

how they had occurred to him first.

Scientific knowledge grew up with the early civilizations from simple

noticing natural phenomena to systematic observing. The observations were

not real science but they set the pattern o f a speculative scheme to “explain”

the facts. When Greek civilization formed, the wisest thinkers brought a new

attitude to observations: their aim was to make a scheme that could account

for facts. This was a grander business than either collecting facts or telling a

new tale for each fact. This was an intellectual advance, the beginning o f

great scientific theory. The scientists o f Alexandria made more accurate

observations, devising new methods and new mechanical devices, producing

better and more sophisticated m ath and astronomical theories.

The man whose work best epitomizes the character o f the Alexandrian age

is Archimedes whose fame was based for many centuries not upon the

immortal achievements explained in his own works, but upon the legends

around his name. These legends had a core o f truth: he did invent machines,

such as com pound pulleys, burning mirrors, etc., but these activities were

secondary, he was primarily a mathematician, the greatest o f antiquity and

one o f the very greatest of all times. Archimedes lacked the encyclopedic

tendencies of Euclid who tried to cover the whole field o f geometry; he was,

on the contrary, a writer o f a num ber o f works limited in their scope, but his

treatm ent o f any subject was masterly in its order and clarity.

The ingenuity o f the mechanical devices invented by the Alexandrians in

response to the new interests is astonishing even by m odem standards. Most

spectacular o f those was Archimedes’ huge mirror which concentrated the

sun’s rays on Roman ships besieging his native city o f Syracuse. The ships

were burnt under the intense heat. Perhaps the most famous o f Archimedes'

scientific discoveries is the hydrostatic principle now named after him. A story

preserved in history tells how Archimedes was led to make his great discov

ery. The king o f Syracuse ordered a crown made o f gold. When the crown

was delivered, the king suspected that it contained some baser metals; so he

sent it to Archimedes and asked him to devise a method o f testing the co n

tents without, o f course, destroying the workmanship. Archimedes pondered

the problem and one day while bathing, suddenly grasped the principle that

enabled him to handle the problem. Archimedes discovered that a body

immersed in water is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight o f the water dis

placed. Since the weight of the displaced water as well as the weight o f a body

in air can be measured, the ratio o f the weights is known. This ratio is con

stant for a given metal no m atter what its shape and differs from metal to

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metal. Hence Archimedes had to determine this ratio for a piece of metal

known as gold and compare it with the corresponding ratio for the crown.

Unfortunately, history does not record his decision.

The principle that Archimedes discovered is one o f the first universal laws

o f science; he incorporated it among others in his book On Floating Bodies.

Two branches o f mechanics — statics and hydrostatics — were founded on

math bases by Archimedes who must be called the first rational scientist o f

mechanics. Archimedes’ creation o f those two branches of theoretical

m echanics is perhaps even more remarkable than his math investigations.

Two o f his mechanical treatises came down to us. They both begin with def

initions and postulates on the bases o f which a number of propositions are

geometrically proved. There was no other scientist comparable to him until

the time o f Galileo who was bom more than eighteen centuries later.

Possessed o f a lofty intellect, great breadth o f interests both theoretical and

practical, extraordinary mechanical skill, fertile imagination and the inquir

ing mind, Archimedes was greatly respected and admired by his contem po

raries.

The history o f science is not simply the history o f great scientists. When

one investigates carefully the genesis o f any discovery of a universal law, one

finds that it was gradually prepared by a number o f smaller ones, and the

deeper o n e’s investigation, the more intermediary stages are found. The

word “ law” is misleading, in fact. It is used in science for a relationship or

description o f behaviour discovered and which seems very general and

appeals to us as simple and important. Most scientific laws are first derived

inductively from experience; others are first deduced from some theoretical

scheme. Sometimes a different title is awarded: “principle” or “ rule” or even

the honest word “relation” for example, “the principle of conservation o f

energy” , “the quantum rules” , “the mass-energy relation £=m c2” Thus,

the words “law” —“principle” —“rule” , at present you may regard them as

all much the same, all are summaries o f what we find or think does happen

in nature. There is a tendency to use the word “law” for great simple ou t

comes o f experiment, “ principle” — for general beliefs which are built into

theory and “ rule” — for more working statements. Nevertheless, one can’t

appreciate the value o f the discovery by the label alone.

Wfe take it for granted that there are simple laws to be found and they are

true descriptions o f nature when we do find them. But the modem philoso

phy o f science warns us that we are being overconfident. It reminds us that

our whole behaviour in seeking laws is artificial. The nature we codify is just

our idea o f nature. O ur laws are m an-m ade, because we make assumptions

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to suit our hopes. The equations scientists write seem to contain in them

selves the working o f the world; by their manipulation, it seems, one can

manipulate nature itself. The most remarkable aspect is psychological. When

a relation such as the rule of vector addition was first suggested as the rule for

the combination o f forces, the suggestion was tentative, but when buildings

and bridges were being constructed for years following the rule, it became a

law o f nature. And we often hear “ forces are vectors” O f course, forces are

not vectors — they are forces; but the association o f forces with vectors is so

successful that the distinction becomes blurred and obliterated.

In codifying our knowledge o f nature in simple laws, scientists are looking

first for constancy; the mass of a body remains constant; total electric charge

remains constant; momentum is conserved; all electrons are the same, etc.

Almost as simple and equally fruitful is direct proportionality when two meas

ured quantities increase together in the same proportion: stretch o f a spring

with its load; force and acceleration; gas pressure and gas density, etc.

Extracting laws is one o f the great activities o f a scientist, but there is imagi

native thinking, too, and above all much scheming to combine laws togeth

er, hoping to find a common key or to reveal new predictions. The diverse

motions may be linked together by a common characteristic. Without the

help of combined laws, the common behaviour may remain unknown and

some o f the motions never put to use or fully understood.

So it is unfortunate that scientists say, “ ...obey ... law” Scientific laws do

not command nature like policemen. N or should we use them to “explain”

the observations that suggested them —though they can throw light on other

experiments. Laws are, rather, simple guiding threads which we draw from the

tangled web (nature) we study, the main threads o f experimental knowledge

which we weave into the fabric of science. Science gets nowhere if knowledge

is just a vast tangle o f facts or random observations. Thus, scientists are trying

to organize facts into groups and extract common pieces o f behaviour. They

call the extracted statements or relation a “ rule" a “law” occasionally a

“principle” Hence “law” is a generalized record o f nature. not a command

that compels nature.

TEXT TWO

CELESTIAL MECHANICS

Read the text. Be ready to speak in detail on the scientists mentioned in the text, their discov

eries and contribution to science.

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Astronomy is almost as old as man himself, it is older than mechanics or

physics. Astronomy is that part of science which provides a clear example of

the growth and use o f theory in science. In fact, it got science started by

showing the beautiful simplicity o f the motion o f the planets and stars, the

understanding o f which was the beginning of science. It deals with the histo

ry o f our knowledge o f the solar system from early watching and observa

tions, simple fables to the magnificent success o f N ew ton’s gravitational the

ory and Einstein’s relativity theory. Every scientist is aware of this important

and historical continuity in science. Discoveries in science are made only

when time is ripe for them. Discoveries are followed by the development o f

more sophisticated theories. The growth o f celestial mechanics is largely

cyclic in nature. T he first period was that o f the ancient Greek scientists.

All the G reek scientists were trying to build a picture and a theory o f the

universe founded on observed facts and speculation. The earliest o f the

Greek “ natural philosophers” ( Thales — 600 B.C., Pythagoras — 530 B.C.,

Eudoxus — 370 B.C.) tried to start with a few simple assumptions or general

principles and draw from them as logically as possible a complete “explana

tion” o f the observed natural behaviour. This explanation served to coordi

nate the information available and to make predictions, but above all, to give

a feeling that there is a pattern that holds diverse behaviour together, that

nature makes sense. Although some o f the search for a good scheme was

prompted by practical needs such as, e.g., calendar-making, this delight in a

unified clear explanation went far beyond that. Driven by an urge to ask

“why” , the G reek philosophers were seeking and making scientific theory.

Though our m odern tradition o f experimenting and our modern wealth of

scientific tools made great changes, we still hold the G reek delight in a the

ory that can account for the natural phenomena.

Aristotle (340 B.C.), the great philosopher, teacher and encyclopedic sci

entist was the “ last speculative philosopher” in ancient astronomy. The

Pythagoreans began the great debate concerning the E arth’s place in the

world which continued for over 2000 years. The Earth was the centre o f

Aristotle’s universe which was closed, bounded at its outer edge by the celes

tial sphere, populated with air, earth, fire, water and celestial substance or

the staff out o f which the planets and stars were made. Each planet was fol

lowing its natural circular motion about the Earth in contrast to material

bodies whose natural motions were up and down, as light things rose and

heavy things fall to the earth. In supporting the scheme o f concentric spin

ning spheres Aristotle gave a dogmatic reason: the sphere is the perfect solid

shape and it prejudiced astronomical thinking about orbits for centuries. For

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ages Aristotle’s writings were the only attem pt to systematize the whole o f

nature. They were translated from language to language, printed and studied

and quoted as authority.

In the course o f these translations and retranslations errors were made

resulting in a great deal of confusion and in a new profession: that o f a schol

ar v/ho spent his time trying to decide what was actually contained in these

ancient texts. Aristotle’s conception o f the universe —his own research, crit

icism, his repetition of hearsay and the ideas o f others — became part of

Christian religion and an attack thereafter on Aristotle was an attack on the

church itself. In mechanics proper Aristotle discovered the law o f the lever

for vertical forces and proposed incorrect theory on moving bodies. His

importance in the history o f science is due to the fact that he was investigat

ing in over twenty-five different fields o f knowledge and that until the

Renaissance no comparable systematic survey o f knowledge was made. His

works are an encyclopedia o f the learning o f the ancient world and in every

field he contributed something o f value. He was probably the first to con

ceive the idea of organized and systematized research. The science of

Aristotle was purely speculative and dogmatic not compared with and con

trolled by observation and experiment.

The astronom ers o f A lexandrian school Aristarchus (240 B.C.),

Hipparchus (140 B.C.) and Ptolemy (120 A.D.), made more accurate obser

vations and produced better theories. Claudius Ptolemy compiled the sum

mary o f the Greek effort to order the motion o f the stars and planets in his

book Almagest meaning “The Greatest of Books” , w hich survived until m od

ern times, exerting a great influence on all astronomical thought. The

Ptolemaic picture of the universe dominated astronomy for the next fourteen

centuries. Ptolemy set forth the general picture: the heaven o f the stars is a

sphere turning steadily round a fixed axis in 24 hours; the Earth is a sphere

at rest at the centre o f the heavens. The Sun moves round the Earth. The

Ptolemaic system was believed and hardly questioned. Corrected, amended,

revised with circles added to circles, it passed from generation to generation

until the fifteenth century, when it lost its ethics appeal it once claimed.

Medieval world of dogmas and printed authorities created an unbearable

pressure and there appeared scientists who were building that rational world

which was to dominate science thereafter.

In Nicolaus Copernicus ( 1 4 7 t-1543) the dissatisfaction with the Ptolemaic

picture was so great that he was led finally to challenge the hypothesis o f the

ancient cosmology and to change the picture o f the universe. He suggested

Sun-at-centre (heliocentric) picture which was a revolutionary advance in

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science. He wrote a great book setting forth the details o f his system, show

ing calculations o f its size and predicting tests. After his death this view

spread, though it was not universally accepted for a long time.

Giordano Bruno (1548-1600) burst the starry immobile sphere, he made

the universe endless, space infinite, Earth and Sun lost among countless

other planets and suns. He was burned for his heresy. So, the universe, no

longer, according to G. Bruno, centred about a unique fixed point, was no

longer filled or finite; objects were moving through this space uniformly from

point to point, because the space on all sides is the same.

Rene Descartes (1596-1650) rejected all philosophical doctrines and dog

mas putting aside all authorities, Aristotle in particular, doubted everything.

His new method was to analyze complex notions into their constituents until

the irreducible elements are simple, clear, distinct ideas. He described a world

system as mechanical, i.e., in terms o f general principles o f mechanics. He

opposed the idea of vacuum and filled space with whirling vortices to carry

the planets. G od, Descartes claimed, created matter and endowed it with

motion; after that the world is evolving by the laws o f mechanics without

interference.

Tycho Brahe (1546-1601), a Danish nobleman and astronomer, who, fired

with curiosity about the planets, became a brilliant observer, a genius at

devising and using precise instruments. He built the first great observatory.

He did not challenge the simplicity o f the Copernican system; but simplici

ty was not a sufficient reason for him to accept the notion that the Earth is

moving. This refusal did not prevent him in his great work o f mapping the

position o f the stars and the planets over a long period o f time. It was soon

clear from his observations that the Copernican orbits o f the planets were

only roughly correct. He constructed far more accurate planetary tables than

anybody before him and left his pupil Kepler to complete their publication.

Johann Kepler (1571-1630), a G erm an, was a striking contrast to T. Brahe,

his former teacher, to brilliant observer who gathered data and recorded what

he saw. Kepler —the theoretician —was fascinated by the power o f maths and

was seeking for a numerical scheme underlying the planetary system. Using

Tycho Brahe’s observations and data, he extracted three general laws for the

motion o f the planets without finding any explanation o f these laws. After

Kepler ( “ Legislator o f the Heavens”) the main question became: “What the

ory will give Kepler’s laws?” And the planets —what o f them? According to

Kepler they were no longer moving uniformly, no longer in circles, no longer

in harm onic proportion. Kepler used an imaginary spoke connecting the

Sun to the planet and driving the planets in their orbits. He found simple

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curves —ellipses —along which the planets are moving, sweeping ou t equal

areas in equal times.

Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) advocated Copernicus’ picture. With a tele

scope o f his own design he gained evidence supporting Copernicus’ theory.

To the dismay of the classical philosophers, and at his own peril, he preached

the need to abide by experiment. He was experimenting and teaching new

scientific knowledge o f astronomy and mechanics. The scope o f G alileo’s

interests and activities was unbelievably broad even fo ra great intellect o f the

Age o f G enii (the seventeenth century). He was always keenly interested in

mechanical devices. At home, he kept a workshop in which he spent a great

deal o f his time. There he produced so many new and ingenious devices that

he can be called the father o f m odem invention. The most fruitful creation

o f the myriad-m inded Galileo was a grand plan for reading the book o f

nature. The key o f the success o f m odem science was the selection o f a new

goal for scientific activity set by Galileo and pursued by his successors. This

new goal was that o f obtaining quantitative description o f scientific phenom

ena independently o f any physical explanation instead o f unsuccessful qual

itative and causal inquiries into nature. G alileo was the first to formulate

explicitly this new plan and put it into effect by establishing a number o ffu n

damental laws and the scientific theory, the connective tissue and a body of

math laws.

Math deduction, Galileo proved, produces knowledge o f the physical

world. While studying the motion o f projectiles (e.g., cannon balls) Galileo

observed that an object’s motion can result from two independent simultane

ous motions. The meaning o f this discovery can be clarified by an example.

An object dropped from an airplane flying horizontally possesses two

motions. In accordance with Galileo’s third law o f motion - i f one body is

carried by another, the first shares the motion o f the second — one m otion is

straight out in the same direction as the plane is going, the other motion is

straight down. The combination o f these two simultaneous m otions causes

the object to travel downward along a curve, which, as Galileo pointed out,

is path o f a parabola. However, the horizontal and vertical motions o f the

falling object are independent o f each other. The now famous rule - paral

lelogram rule (also called the triangle for the composition o f forces, velocities,

etc.) - was introduced first by Simon Stevin (1548-1620), an engineer with

an immediate practical need for this knowledge. Just as different things

(apples, stones, and people) can be counted with numbers, different physi

cal quantities (e.g., forces, velocities) can be associated with vector?. The

parallelogram addition o f forces, velocities, etc. essentially implies that one

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vector does not disturb another: they act independently and just add geo

metrically. All through his experiments Galileo insisted that motions (forces,

etc.) are independent of each other. For example, a constant horizontal

motion and a vertical accelerated motion simply add by vectors — one

motion does not modify the other but each has its full effect. Galileo

preached this independence of vectors again and again in his problems and

“thought experiments” and showed that a steady motion o f the laboratory

does not affect experiments on statics, free fall, or projectiles. A laboratory

steady motion cannot be detected by any mechanical experiments inside.

This is Galilean relativity - one of his greatest discoveries. The potential

value o f this relativistic principle of motion is obvious enough and it was

A. Einstein - the creator o f relativistic theory - who capitalized on it.

Isaac Newton (1642-1727) with the tools, the insights, the knowledge set

by the seventeenth-century scientists and his own investigations and experi

ments created the first great mechanical theory which “explains” the whole

Copernicus-Kepler system. He restated and generalized Galileo’s discover

ies concerning mass, motion and force into clearly-worded “laws of m otion”

and proposed further that bodies attract one another according to universal

inverse-square law o f gravitation F=gMxM1/ d 2 Newton achieved one of the

major objectives in G alileo’s plan by showing that l) the laws of motion and

gravitation are fundamental; 2) they apply equally well to so many varied sit

uations on heaven and Earth; 3) all three Kepler’s laws follow from the basic

laws o f m otion and the law of gravitation. N ew ton’s theory was world-wide

success, it impressed educated people not only as the brilliant ordering of

celestial nature, but as a model for other grand explanations to come. During

the next two centuries further perfection o f Newton's theory was made and

consequences were worked out by other mathematicians and astronomers

including the French mathematicians J.L. Lagrange and P.S. Laplace. One

remarkable deduction from the general astronomical theory of Lagrange and

Laplace is especially worth mentioning. This was the purely theoretical pre

diction o f the existence and the location o f the planet Neptune by two

astronomers: J.C. Adams in England and U.J. Leverrier in France by its

minute gravitational effects on the known planet. This discovery o f a new

planet was regarded as a great trium ph o f theory and the universal applica

tion o f N ew ton’s law o f gravitation.

Early in this century, Albert Einstein (1879-1955) suggested modifications

and reinterpretation o f the laws o f mechanics. These did not destroy

N ew ton’s work but enabled scientists to explain many phenomena then

unaccounted for. In addition to much modification of the “working rules” of

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mechanics, the great value o f relativity lies in the light it throws on the rela

tion between experiment and theory, ruling out unobservable things from

even the speculation o f wise scientists. It makes the model o f the physical

world more susceptible to proof by experiments. The major difference in

point o f view between N ewton’s and Einstein’s theory o f gravitation (gener

al theory o f relativity) lies in their convention concerning geometry o f space

and time. In the Newtonian theory (mechanical theory) space is Euclidean

and particles that move on curved paths do so because o f forces. In general

relativity (field) theory space-time is not Euclidean and particles always

move in such a way that they traverse the shortest distance between any two

points, given the constraints o f space. These two points o f view (mechanical

and field theory), although there are important differences, lead in most

cases o f practical experience to almost identical results.

TE X T TH REE

GRAVITATION

Read the text. Which theory (hypothesis) do you favour? Why are you “Гог'* or “agamst” a par

ticular theory? Are the advanced hypotheses presented in the text building a bridge from the M i-

verse to the microcosm or vice versa?

Gravity is a force that holds together the hundred billion stars o f the Milky

Way. It makes the Earth revolve around the Sun and the M oon around the

Earth. There are three great names in the history o f man s understanding o f

gravity: Galileo who was the first to study in detail the process o f free and

accelerated fall; Newton, the first to have the idea o f gravity as a universal

force. However, Newton admitted that he did not know its ultimate cause

( “ I will not feign hypothesis”) but he offered many a keen guess at the nature

and mechanism o f gravitation; and Einstein, who said that gravity is nothing

but the curvature o f the four-dimensional space-tim e continuum .

In specifying gravitation on the new geometrical view Einstein did not

prove “ Newton’s law o f gravitation” wrong but offered a refining modifica

tion - though this involved a radical change in viewpoint. Wfe must not think

o f either *aw as right (or wrong) because it is suggested by a great man or

because it is embodied by beautiful maths; we are offered it as a brilliant

guess from the real universe. The changes from N ew ton's predictions to

Einstein’s, though fundamental in nature, are usually too small in effect to

make any difference in laboratory experiments or even in most astronomical

238

measurements. By reducing gravity to geometrical properties of a space-time

continuum , Einstein concluded that the electromagnetic field must also

have some purely geometrical interpretation. The unified field theory, which

grew from this conclusion had rough going and Einstein died without com

pleting it. Some scientists claim that it is very odd indeed that the theory o f

gravitation originated by Newton and developed further by Einstein should

stand now in majestic isolation, having nothing to do with the rapid devel

opment o f other branches of science. This is not the case, however. The

progress in quantum mechanics, modem cosmology and astrophysics makes

this claim unjustified.

The universal law o f gravitation is claiming more and more attention from

scientists. When Newton described gravitation for the first time, he gave sci

ence the law o f universal gravitation. Einstein “exploded” traditional classi

cal notions about it, linking gravitation with the curvature of space with his

general theory o f relativity. In both cases gravitation was seen as a phenom

enon o f a cosmic scale, since gravitational fields are “perceptible” only with

the existence o f huge masses. Now scientists hope that it may provide a key

to understanding processes in a microcosm, at the quantum level. It is at the

junction o f quantum and gravitational ideas that science can expect to make

the most sensational discoveries. This expectation characterized gravitation-

alists’ discussions at the 6th All-Union Gravitational Conference and at

symposiums in Moscow and Leningrad (1984). What ideas do scientists have

who are trying to connect the gravitational processes o f the universe with the

world o f elementary particles? Here are just three o f them.

The general theory o f relativity, which is being brilliantly confirmed by

experiments, the equations o f which are used by astrophysicists to compute

the gravitational fields o f space objects, possesses fundamental difficulties

which are not clarified to this day. The chief one is the problem o f deter

mining the energy of the gravitational field. In the framework o f Einstein’s

theory this question remains a veritable “ headache” for scientists. Opinions

on how exactly to com pute this energy invariably differ. Recently

Academician A. Logunov and Professor M. Mestvirishvili advanced a new

theory o f gravitation, in which the energy o f the gravitational field can

always be determined. Unlike Einstein, Logunov and Mestvirishvili m ain

tain that our world is homogeneous, while gravitational attractions in it are

239

conditioned not by the curvature of space but by some physical force neld

like the electromagnetic field. They draw on the methods used in the field

theory of elementary particles.

What is to be done with the equations of the general theory o f relativity

which faithfully serve science? Are they not in antagonistic contradiction

with Logunov and Mestvirishvili’s theory? In fact, they are not. They are

perfectly consistent with it if another four equations are added. Moreover,

the curvature of space, which is the main element for Einstein, plays only a

secondary part in the new theory. It is interesting to note that all the experi

ments, which hitherto corroborated the general theory o f relativity, also con

firm Logunov and Mestvirishvili’s theory.

So, what does the universe look like according to the new theory?

Einstein’s theory allows for the exisience of different models o f the un.ven .*■

— “open”, “closed” , etc. — but Logunov and Mestvirishvili allow for only

one model. Their universe can only be “flat” This, in turn, presupposes the

existence in it of some concealed, unobserved,e ma^s. Surpassing the mass of

all galaxies taken together many times over, this invisible mass ensures the

evolution of the universe as a flat world. As often happens with new theories.

Logunov and Mestvirishvili’s theory is hostile!}' being received by many

gravitationalists. However, it is mtuiieiuaticaliy correct, not open to doubt.

N or is it at variance with known experimental data. To solve the question of

which is correct — Einstein’s general theory o f relativity or the theory'

advanced by Logunov and Mestvirishvili - there will have to be more exper

iments.

Most people invariably tend to associate U FO ’s - one o f the enigmas of

our civilization — with antigravitation; it is mankind’s cherished dream to

master antigravitation. But however splendid this dream may be, neither th e

ories nor experiments of m odem science provided any grounds for opti

mism. However, there is already a distant glimmer o f hope. The physicist

A. Burmsky o f Moscow forwarded a hypothesis suggesting that some quan

tum phenomena indicate a path to achieving an antigrav itational effect.

Scientists considered a vacuum not to be a void but an intricate structure

filled, as it were, with photon “gas” with the minimum am ount o f energy.

What is known as the Casimir effect became highly popular in today’s search

es for a connection between quantum and gravitational theories. Long

known to scientists, it makes it possible to tangibly “ perceive" the existence

o f this “gas” This leads to a very unexpected conclusion: a certain body

24 0

(conductor) placed in the vacuum, obstructs the penetration into it of the

photon “gas” , ousts it, with a resulting loss in energy, and mass (in exactly

the same way as a body submerged in a liquid loses weight). This is nothing

short o f antigravitation.

However, for known bodies from ordinary materials this effect is so

insignificant that it does not give us a chance to “feel” or see antigravita

tion. But isn’t there a condition under which this effect will become pal

pable. According to Burinsky the antigravitational effect becomes more

acute with the increase in density o f objects. For materials where the par

ticles are “ packed” with extreme density, the antigravitational effect

becomes so strong that its quantity can be compared with mass o f the

object itself.

“ It may be supposed that in objects o f extreme density such as the neu

tron stars, for instance, the antigravitational effect ‘eats u p ’ a large part

o f their m ass,” said Burinsky. “ In the process of a star’s compression (col

lapse) its density increases and reaches a state o f extreme density. In this

case a large part of the star’s mass sort o f converts to a concealed form

while the collapsing star itself assumes the form of a swiftly rotating disc.

This follows from the famous solution of Einstein’s equations, discovered

by Roy Kerr in 1963. Scientists found that the material of this ‘Kerr disc’

possesses highly unusual properties: it is superconductive and weighs

nothing!”

The hypothetical K err disc is o f interest to scientists not only for the

purpose o f describing the processes taking place in space. Burinsky, in

particular, believes that the rotating Kerr disc (like the disc o f the neu

tro n star, but “ m ade” not o f neutrons but o f densely packed “ quarks” )

constitutes the basic structure o f ... elem entary particles! But then the

masses “ eaten up” by the antigravitational effect must be present in a

concealed form in the elem entary particles. If so, the physical picture o f

the world, as we know it today, must owe its com pleteness to the exis

tence o f both gravitation and antigravitation. To what extent does this

conception (if Burinsky’s hypothesis is correct) bring us nearer to the

m astering o f this force? “T he m ain condition for this would be the c re

ation, at lea^t in laboratory conditions, o f a material with the superdense

packing o f extreme density particles,” says Burinsky. Evidently today

this is an extremely com plicated problem , even for om n ip o ten t physics.

B ut the history and logic o f the developm ent o f science show, that the

“ im possible” simply requires a little more time. And som etim es - more

chance.

241

Does the Universe Rotate?

Does the whole o f the universe rotate? This is the central question today

for scientists in relativist cosmology and gravitation theory. The supposition

on the possible rotation o f the m eta-galaxy was engendered by the

announcem ent o f British astrophysicists in the global unevenness they dis

covered in the radiation o f space radiosources. Moscow University Professor

D. Ivanenko believes that the universe does have a general rotation at a slow

speed. This fact can be explained and mathematically described from posi

tions o f Einstein’s general theory o f relativity. This is being done by

Ivanenko’s co-author V Krechet. The solution obtained by Ivanenko and

Krechet link the speed o f the universe rotation and its angular momentum

(spin) with the average density o f the matter contained in it. Thus, the rotation

o f the universe can serve as one more observable phenomenon corroborating the

correctness o f the general theory o f relativity (along with the already known

expansion o f the universe, the deflection o f star light near the Sun, etc.).

The formula o f the dependence o f the spin and mass found by Ivanenko

and Krechet for the universe coincides with the dependence known for ele

mentary particles. This coincidence points to the existence o f a profound

analogy between the universe and the microcosm which is an additional

argument in the so-called hierarchic concept o f the structure o f the physical

world, developed by Ivanenko and Krechet. It regards the universe and

microparticles as two elements o f a single system possessing a num ber of

com m on properties but differing in level: in exactly the same way as, say, a

giant matryoshka doll differs from the tiniest one fitted into it. Will science

ever be able to encompass the universe as a whole, to comprehend the single

laws connecting the macro- and microcosm, to confirm the correctness o f

Academician Markov’s hypothesis that our entire universe is nothing more

than an elementary particle and that every elementary particle is a vast, infi

nite world like ours? Evidently, not. Knowledge is boundless. But it is the

only path o f Reason.

T E X T FOUR

Read and translate the text at home (paragraphs I, 9 and 10 in writing). Write an abstract of

the text taking into account the following questions:

What does the phrase “the big bang” in cosmology mean?

242

Has a “black body” been already detected or located in space?

How do cosmologists picture nowadays the location of most galaxies?

Is the manned mission into the orbit aboard the space shuttle possible?

OF THE UNIVERSE

is just how all the stars and galaxies visible in the night sky came to be there.

Theories explaining this mysterious process abound, each more exotic than

the next. But not long ago, many of them collapsed as astrophysicist flashed

one simple graph summarizing the first results from NASA’s Cosmic

Background Explorer (СОВЕ) satellite, launched in November 18, 1989.

2. C O B E’s instruments show that the primordial fireball that spawned the

universe — popularly known as the big bang — apparently was a completely

smooth explosion, sending radiation evenly into the nascent universe. This

is not what most cosmological theorists expected to find. They anticipated

perturbations, disturbances and “lum ps” that would somehow metastasize

later into galaxies and other great heavenly structures. “The important con

clusion is, there isn’t anything else there,” said astronomers.“ N othing.”

3. “Zone o f Mystery.” That fundamental finding, along with other new dis

coveries, poses an enormous conundrum for cosmologists studying the ori

gin, evolution and structure o f the universe. C O BE’s remarkable instrument

looked back to within a year after the big bang, farther back in time than any

astronomical instrument has ever gazed before, and found nothing but

smoothness (СОВЕ looks back in time by measuring faint radiation from the

big bang that pervades the universe). Yet in November, California Institute o f

Technology astronomers reported that they had discovered the oldest quasar

— an extremely bright object in a distant galaxy — ever seen, dating from a

mere one billion years after the big bang. Something obviously happened

during that tim e —a mere blink o f the eye in cosmological terms - to cause

the formation o f the enormous celestial structures detectable from Earth.

Theoreticians at this point simply cannot explain what occurred. “ It’s a zone

o f mystery,” they claimed.

4. Previous models of the universe’ evolution assumed the existence o f sev

eral so-far-unseen phenomena: ancient black holes, “cosmic strings,” “dark

m atter” and pregalactic explosions. But these phenomena require some

lumpiness in the earliest radiation, which СОВЕ failed to detect. “We’re

243

careering to'^ar i a:, absolutely contradictory situation,” says Harvard cos-

mologists. Observations show that the universe is more lumpy than believed

before, but the surprising smoothness of the early radiation does not lead

logically to such observations. Five years ago, theoretical cosmologists had a

lot o f theories and no way to prove them right or wrong. Now, there are lots

and lots of data and no viable theories.

5. Significantly, however, СОВЕ did not knock out the big-bang theory

itself; indeed, it confirmed it in its simplest formulation. The big-bang the

ory holds that the universe began 10 to 20 billion years ago as a superbot,,

dense fireball that rapidly expanded and then cooled to form the complex

heavenly structures now seen. In 1965, this idea advanced by detecting tne

first direct evidence. They found weak background radiation that pervades

the universe in ail directions —radiation, that must have come from the orig

inal explosion has since cooled to about 3 degrees above absolute zero, and,

like a fossil, it can reveal pioctsses ;hat shaped the explosion and its after-

math. Since the radiation is disturbed by the E arth’s atmosphere, СОВЕ was

designed to fly above the atmosphere and measure the cosmic background

radiation far more precisely than ever before.

6. The experiment is straightforward. A m ajor instrum ent aboard СОВЕ,

called the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, looks to see how the

cosmic background radiation compares with that o f a “black body” a

hypothetically perfect radiator that emits a completely sm ooth spectrum of

energy. Before the satellite flew, Space Flight C enter said that if deviations

from a perfect black-body spectrum were found, that would indicate explo

sions or other phenom ena took place in the early universe. Last year, in fact,

a team o f scientists from the University o f California at Berkeley and Japan

reported that they had seen substantial deviations using another instrum ent,

touching off a flurry o f scientific papers that attem pted to account for it.

7. No Missing Link. Surprisingly, the data received so far from СОВЕ “tell

you the universe didn’t even burp after it exploded", says John Bachall, a

theoretical astrophysicist at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton,

who found the results so “clear and beautiful that I had chills going up and

down the back o f my neck”

8. A second СОВЕ experiment, mapping minute differences in the bright

ness o f the background radiation across the sky, failed to detect any hint o f

galactic progenitors or other stellar objects even 300,000 years further on in

the universe’s evolution. The scientists were looking for “the missing link"

that might explain what we know appeared later. But again nothing. Project

scientists concede now that even if СОВЕ reveals some cosmic ripple in the

244

next year and a half, it will probably not be significant enough to explain the

existing universe.

9. More Mysteries. C O BE’s remarkable new findings are not the only ones

causing cosmologists theoretical difficulty. They have to contend also with

recent discoveries o f bigger, more massive structure than any previously

known. These, too, are important to the understanding of the evolution o f the

universe. Most galaxies, it now appears, are on the walls o f enormous bubble

like voids. Scientists have identified a sheet of galaxies 500-million-light years

long, dubbed the “Great WfoU” , which is too big to fit into some theories of the

universe’s evolution. Astronomers confirmed the existence o f an enormous

gravitation source only 150 million light years from the Earth, called the

“Great Attractor” . With a mass equivalent to tens o f thousands of galaxies, it

appears to be pulling other galaxies, including the Milky Why, toward it. They

suggest that the existence o f such large structures — others are likely to be

found —could be fatal to the notions o f how matter clustered during the uni

verse’s development.

10. Ironically, the spectacular CO BE’s mission that promises to keep cos

mologists busy for years to come almost didn’t take place. It was conceived

in 1974 as NASA’s first probe o f the dawn of the universe and designed to fly

into orbit aboard the space shuttle. But the Challenger tragedy scratched

СОВЕ from the shuttle schedule, even though the satellite had already been

constructed. Scientists and engineers at Goddard persuaded NASA head

quarters that they could change its design so it could fly on an expendable

rocket. They managed the neat technical trick o f preserving COBE’s scien

tific capabilities while sweating the satellite’s weight from 10,000 pounds to

half o f that. Then a series o f nagging technical glitches delayed the launch.

Now СОВЕ is safely in orbit 560 miles above the Earth. But the data all may

bb sucked into a terrestrial black hole.

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

1. Make use of the following word combinations, synonyms and antonyms in sentences of your own:

Word combinations:

to deduce law invented

to derive rule estimated

law is

to extract relation discovered

to infer principle manufactured

245

to obey holds

to observe is valid

law law

to break is obeyed

to violate is satisfied

to gather general

facts

to collect common

data behaviour

to process specific

information

to accumulate erratic

(non)uniform motion to alter a view- scholastic philo

(ir)regular move to modify point Aristotelian sopher

ment speculative

(in)violent to revolu

tionize

to solve applied

covered

to settle exerted

a problem the distance travelled force

to tackle impressed

traversed

to handle transferred

single

elapsed solid

regular

the time passed rigid body observation

random

taken heavenly

routine

mean

speed to take into consideration

average

velocity to take for granted

mutual attraction to be prejudiced (in)

repulsion to be destined (to)

Synonyms:

velocity frequency com m and timepiece vacuum

246

speculation core stop ray wave

meditation kernel halt beam billow

thought nucleus cease bundle surge

research reduction to decrease to ponder

quest contraction to diminish to meditate

Antonym s:

to repel to discard to conceal risky heavy

narrow random artificial downwards external

assumed rise to consume uncapable o f

law piece vast routine particular legislator

vortices fertile curse precision experience

engineering geliocentric physician to refuse supernatural

to pull to radiate to move to curve to explain

to destruct to annihilate to prove wrong to pursue

247

a) law — act — bill — decree — legislation / pulse — impulse — impetus /

order — com m and / search — quest — inquiry / speed — velocity — rate —

frequency / fault — blame — fallacy / resistance — opposition / surge — bil

low / superstition — prejudice / quotation — citation — excerpt

b) to turn about — to move around — to revolve — to rotate — to orbit —

to whirl — to circle — to career — to spin / to consider carefully — to reflect

— to meditate — to speculate — to cogitate / to draw — to pull — to attract

/ to repel — to push — to rebound / to meet — to come across — to

encounter — to blunder — to collide / to happen — to occur / to interfere —

to disturb — to bother — to hinder / to predict — to foretell — to forecast /

to ponder — to speculate — to reflect / to inhabit — to populate — to peo

ple / to unlock — to uncover — to discover

c) legal — lawful — legitimate — valid / suitable — appropriate / heavenly

— celestial / thoughtful — speculative / erroneous — fallacious — mislead

ing / strange — curious — problematic — doubtful / void — empty / m an

made — false — artificial / viable — vital — fruitful — productive — useful /

fundamental — basic — essential

5. Find illustrative examples of the following synonyms in the texts of L'nit Six.

2. to have — " — Somebody came to do smth.

3. to force smb. to do smth. c) to explain — to account for

4. to cause — — d) to take into account —

5. to get — " — to take into consideration

6. to urge — — e) on no account — by no means

7. to compel — — 0 a refutation — a disproof

8. to impel — — g) experienced — skillful

9. to challenge — — h) continuity — succession

10. to bring (oneself) — —

6. Translate the following text at sight, giving synonyms, antonyms and definitions of the itali

cized words.

Inertial FVanie

One o f the great contributions o f maths to physics is relativity which is

both maths and physics; you need good knowledge o f both, m aths and

physics, to understand it. The theory o f relativity, which modified our

mechanics and clarified scientific thinking, arose from a simple question:

248

“ H q w fast are we moving through space?’*Attempts to answer that by exper

iment led to a conflict that forced scientists to think out their system o f

knowledge afresh. Out of that reappraisal came relativity—a brilliant appli

cation o f m aths and philosophy to our treatm ent of space, time and motion.

Since relativity is a piece o f maths, popular accounts that try to explain it

without maths almost all fail. To understand relativity you should either fol

low its algebra through in standard texts, or examine the origins and final

results, taking the m ath machine-work on trust.

What can we fin d out about space? Where is its fixed framework and how

fast are we moving through it? Nowadays we find the Copernican view com

fortable, and picture the spinning Earth moving around the Sun with an

orbital speed o f about 70,000 miles/hour. The whole solar system is moving

towards the constellation Hercules at some 100,000 miles/hour, while our

whole galaxy...

Wfe must be careering along a huge epicycloid through space without

knowing it. Without knowing it, because, as Galileo pointed out, the

mechanics o f m otion — projectiles, collisions, etc. — is the same in a steadi

ly moving laboratory as in a stationary one; as though the Earth’s velocity

changes around its orbit, we think o f it as steady enough during any short

experiment. Galileo quoted thought experiments o f men walking across the

cabin o f a sailing ship or dropping stones from the top o f its mast. Review

thought experiments in moving trains. Suppose one train is passing another

in constant velocity without bumps, and in a fog that conceals the country

side. Can the passengers really say which is moving? Can mechanical exper

iments in either train tell them? They can only observe their relative motion.

In fact, we developed the rules o f vectors and laws of motion in earthly labs

that are moving; yet those statements show no effect o f that motion.

We give the name inertial frame to any frame o f reference o f laboratory in

which N ew ton’s laws describe nature truly; objects left alone without force

pursue straight lines with constant speed, or stay at rest; forces produce p ro

portional accelerations. We find that any frame moving at constant velocity

relative to an inertial frame is also an inertial frame. Newton's laws hold

here, too. In the discussions that concern Galilean relativity and Einstein’s

special relativity, we assume that every laboratory we discuss is an inertial

frame — as a laboratory at rest on the Earth is, to a close approximation.

Wfe are not supplied by nature with an obvious inertial frame. The spinning

Earth is not a perfect inertial frame (because its spin imposes certain accel

erations), but in case we ever find a perfect one, then our relativity view o f

nature assures us we could find any num ber o f other inertial frames. Every

249

frame moving with constant velocity relative to our first inertial frame is an

equally good inertial frame — N ew ton’s laws o f m otion, which apply by def

inition in the original frame, apply in all the others. When we do experiments

on force and motion and find that Newton’s laws hold, we are, from the

point o f view o f relativity, simply showing that our earthly lab, does provide

a practically perfect inertial frame.

Read the text and express your opinion concerning the number of dimensions. Are yon in favoar

o f the three or o f more number dimensional space?

and a single dim ension o f tim e. T hat is, any event th a t occurs anywhere

in the universe can be assigned a location in space using three coordinates

and a location in tim e using one. But physicists and m athem aticians have

studied hypothetical worlds in which more o r fewer dim ensions exist, and

so questions arise as to w hether the usual belief about o u r world is strict

ly correct, and if so, w hether we can find any reason for it being true. For

exam ple, we might consider the possibility th a t there are really four

dim ensions o f space, but th at for some reason, all o f the phenom ena that

we usually observe have the same value for one o f the space coordinates.

It has been known for a century that if the dim ensionality o f space were

other than three, and if free m otion were possible in all o f the dimensions

in the same way, then some o f the known laws o f physics would not be

obtained. N ew ton’s inverse square law for the force o f gravity is one such.

This argument gives additional evidence that space is in fact th ree-d im en

sional, but does not explain why this is so. Furtherm ore, it does not rule out

the possibility that our world has more than the expected num ber of

dimensions, but that most phenom ena are restricted in how they can \ary

in the extra dimension.

O ur approach to the question is to consider how spaces and tim es with

different num bers o f dim ensions might behave. For exam ple, one might

find that the dim ensionality o f space and time can itself undergo evolu

tion, and that the values fam iliar to us are the present result o f that evo

lution. Such an approach would involve relations between the num ber o f

•250

dim ensions and o th e r physical quantities such as the tem perature o f the

universe. Through these relations, the dim ensionality would be deter

m ined by these o th er quantities. Since dim ensionality is usually taken to

be a whole number, it m ight not be possible for a dim ension to disappear

through evolution. Instead, what might happen through evolution is that

some extra dim ensions could become suppressed in com parisons with

others. O ur present picture o f the expansion o f the universe makes this

idea much more plausible than it was once. Since everything was once

m uch closer together, than it is now, we can imagine that there are,

indeed, m ore dim ensions than we think. The expansion o f the universe

may have taken place asymmetrically, so that in one o f the dimensions

there has been little o r no expansion, and the scale o f distances in that

dim ension would still be as small as it was at the beginning o f the u n i

verse.

If this idea is correct, it would m ean that there really are more than the

fam iliar num ber o f dim ensions. It is intriguing to think that it might be

possible to find some technological m eans to find and study the usually

inaccessible dim ensions. Very likely some phenom ena would be different

in a universe w ith m ore than four dim ensions, even if there were no sym

m etry between the different dim ensions. It would be o f great interest to

identify such phenom ena and to see if they can be observed.

T heoretical investigations have shown that if the general theory o f rel

ativity is set up in a space-tim e o f more than four dim ensions, and if the

extents o f the extra dim ensions are made small and connected like a

cylinder, then the resulting theory describes no t only gravity, but also

electrom agnetism and o th er fields that have been introduced to describe

subatom ic particles. The extra dimensions in this case are associated not

w ith space and tim e, but with the internal symmetries. Physicists are

actively trying to unite space-tim e sym m etries and internal symmetries

in this way.

If other dim ensions do exist, we would still want to account for the prer

cise number, through som e m ore basic principles. In the type o f theory

just described, the total num ber o f dim ensions would be related through

an internal sym m etry to the num ber o f quantum fields that exist. But we

should still need to understand why precisely four dim ensions have

expanded while the others rem ained small. The question o f the dim en

sionality o f space-tim e is ripe for more serious investigation. Scientists

expect that some new insights into it will em erge in the com ing years.

251

GRAM MAR AN D VOCABULARY EXERCISES

Large heavenly bodies are moving in regular orbits.

2. Something (to be interfered with) their straight-line

motion.

Something is being interfered with their straight-line

motion.

2. \Afe (to honour) the great G reek scientists — the founders o f astronomy. 3.

The Earth (to spin) about its axis while it (to move) in an orbit about the Sun.

4. The planets (to rotate) on elliptical orbits with the Sun at one focus o f the

ellipse. 5. Celestial bodies (to be attracted) to some centre o f force around

which their circular motion takes place. 6. All the planets (to whirl) at

tremendous speeds around the Sun and (to rotate) at the same time. 7. A sys

tem o f orbits along which the planets (to move) (to be constructed). 8. The

M oon (to circle) around the Earth because the Earth (to attract) it. 9. All

forces (to occur) always in pairs which are always referred to as action and

reaction. 10. The planetary laws (to be verified) in today’s cosmic flights.

2. In the following statements use past continuous tense forms, active or passive voice.

tions.

Astronomical knowledge was growing with early civi

lizations.

2. Ancient astronomers were supplied with the materi

al for calendar-making by observations and collecting

facts.

Ancient astronomers were being supplied with the

material for calendar-making by observations and col

lecting facts.

tematic observing. 2. Ancient astronomers sought to learn what happens and

how things occur. 3. With the accum ulated knowledge there evolved stories

and myths describing the nature. 4. The stories and myths were not real sci

ence but they set the pattern o f a scheme to “explain” the facts. 5. For many

centuries ancient astronomers tried to explain “why" phenom ena occur. 6.

New attitude and methods were brought and founded by the G reek thinkers.

252

7. They sought general schemes and principles to account for and predict

separate facts. 8. They were awarded the title “ natural philosophers” 9.

G reek speculative philosophers gave simple pictures o f the universe. 10.

They started with a few general principles, drew logically a complete “expla

nation” o f the observed behaviour and produced theory.

test for a true theory.

“ Mr. Experiment” will be entering science as the only

reliable test for a true theory.

unprejudiced scientists who make astronomy and mechanics inductive-deduc

tive sciences. 3. They devise their theories with the help of guesses from exper

iments. 4. They base their theories on assumptions that are consistent with

experiment. 5. From their theories they draw many predictions which in turn

they verify again by experiments. 6. Scientists devise new astronomical instru

ments and methods o f indirect measurements. 7. Scientists distinguish scien

tific sophisticated methods of reasoning from those used in our ordinary life.

8. They order facts, deduce laws and predict events to understand the world of

our sense impressions. 9. Scientists o f mechanics develop mechanics as a

rational structure. 10. They clarify and modify scientific concepts.

1. He observes the motion o f heavenly bodies.

now, all night through, tomorrow, at midnight, the day before yesterday, regularly

2. Great progress is made in maths.

last century, next year, at Cambridge University, at present, not long ago,

at that time, soon, nowadays

3. We discuss this important law.

the other day, at this time in a week, the whole lesson, next Monday, now,

while they were away

5. Use the present continuous tense forms to express actions in the near future due to a previ

ous arrangement.

name o f Newton.

Wfe are connecting mechanical world view with the

name o f Newton.

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1. Similarly, we shall connect the field theory with the names o f Maxwell

and Einstein. 2. Nowadays scientists will distinguish between the mechanical

and field views. 3. A mechanist will characterize the principal features o f

Newtonian view as particles and simple forces acting between them . 4. A

mechanist will assume the universe forms a complicated machine that obeys

Newtonian laws. 5. A mechanist will claim that mechanical view is most suc

cessful in mechanics and astronomy. 6. Maxwell’s field theory will deal with

the description o f changes that spread continuously through space in time.

7. Maxwell’s theory will describe electromagnetic waves and the laws o f their

propagation. 8. The field view will prove successful in the dom ain o f electri

cal and optical phenom ena. 9. According to the Newtonian theory o f gravi

tation we shall assume that time and space are absolute and that there exists

an inertial system. 10. G eneral relativity theory will attack the problem o f

gravitation in an entirely new way. 11. In relativity theory we shall consider

space and time as a four-dimensional background o f all events. 12. W i shall

assume further that field theory laws are valid in any system.

6. Use the future continuous tense forms to express an action to take place in the fntnre in the

normal, natural course of events. Mind that this is the main application of the future continuous

tense in modem English.

problem o f gravity.

The scientist will be commenting on the evolution o f

the problem o f gravity.

1. To explain the phenom ena o f heat, light and flowing fluids the scientist

of mechanics (to invent) an appropriate m echanical picture or a model. 2.

Mechanical waves (to spread) only in a material medium. 3. According to

Galileo’s relativity principle we (not to detect) uniform motion in two systems

in uniform relative motion. 4. Wfe (to describe) as an achievement Einstein's

destroying once and for all the concept o f ether. 5. Wfe (to assume) that the

speed o f light is always the same irrespective o f what system we (to measure)

it in. 6. In relativity theory we (to change) the most basic concepts o f space

and time. 7. When we are considering bodies moving with speeds small com

pared to that o f light, we (to employ) the principles o f classical mechanics. 8.

If the velocities o f moving bodies are approaching that o f light (electron

motion), we (to use) the Einstein’s relativistic mechanics. 9. Mechanists (to

claim) that perhaps the greatest triumph o f Newtonian mechanics was its

solution o f the gravitational problem. 10. M odem physicists (to object) that

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the Newtonian gravitational law is the law o f a gravitational field changing

in time and space; so this law is invalid.

Laws describing nature are being sought for.

2. Scientists were codifying the knowledge of nature in

simple laws.

The knowledge o f nature was being codified in simple

laws.

lating. 2. M odern physical science is deriving most scientific laws induc

tively from experim ent. 3. N atural scientists are using deduction to extract

com m on behaviour from a few laws. 4. Physicists are testing the deduc

tions by experiments. 5. While experimenting the scientists are looking for

constancy. 6. Scientists were gradually discovering the conservation o f

mass, m om entum and charge. 7. Scientists are considering conservation

laws as a basis o f mechanics. 8. Hooke was experimenting with springs and

loads. 9. He was observing direct proportionality between a stretch o f a

spring and the force applied. 10. Engineers are estimating Hooke’s law as

accurate over a wide range o f stretches. 11. Engineers are encountering

similar H ooke’s law behaviour in all varieties o f elastic deformations. 12.

Scientists are claiming constancy as the most essential characteristic o f all

scientific laws.8

This is the research 1 am carrying on now.

mechanical picture ... {mechanics experts, to apply at that time)

light phenomenon ... (physicists, to explain in a new way then)

This is the hypothesis o f absolute time and space {Einstein, to discard

early in the century)

general relativity theory ... (Einstein, to develop, to revise the

gravitation problems)

field view point... (physicists, to spread and deepen)

255

Model 2. What arc you going to do with this speculative the

ory? (to put it to experimental verification)

Wfe’ll be putting it to experimental verification.

once more)

What 2) the data collected? (to devise a general scheme or principle)

are you 3) the model o f inertial system? (to apply Einstein's principle)

going to 4) the small disagreements between two theories? (to confirm

do with that they lie beyond experimental error)

5) the time worlds o f observers moving relative to each other?

(to show that they are different)

6) the light ray? (to show that the light ray is curved in a gravita

tionalfield)

1. The modern existing mechanical theory is the quantum theory. 2. Its

domain begins in the nucleus and extends to the solar system. 3. Quantum

theory is becoming the classical theory. 4. There is a transition between the

classical and quantum domains. 5. Scientists are tracing and locating subtle

penetration o f quantum effects into a completely classical domain. 6.

Q uantum mechanics was developing the undeterministic idea in the specifi

cation o f position and velocity o f a particle. 7. Q uantum mechanics is the

m ath theory o f particles. 8. Q uantum rules obey in any system. 9.

Gravitation is extending over enormous distances. 10. All bodies are inter

acting gravitationally. 11. The gravitational field is being created and annihi

lated in small regions by the process of transformation. 12 . To solve the prob

lem o f gravitation scientists are considering the tim e-space geometry in a

new way.

CONVERSATIONAL PRACTICE

1. Express your views on the following statements trying to prove your point. The given phras

es may come in handy.

ment is t h a t... I have reason to believe th a t...

1. It is characteristic o f the scientific laws that they have abstract charac

ter. 2. If law does not work even in one place where it ought to, it must be

256

wrong. 3. One can claim for scientific laws a universal validity. 4. Any great

discovery o f a new law is useful only if we can take more out than we put in.

5. The fundamental hypothesis of science is: the sole test o f the validity of

any idea is experiment. 6. Experiments help produce laws; they can give one

hints and clues. 7. Scientists need curiosity, imagination, insight, persist

ence to guess and create from the hints and clues the great and broad gen

eralizations. 8. This imagining process is so difficult that there is a division

o f labour in science. 9. There are theoreticians, who imagine, deduce and

guess at new laws, but do not experiment. 10. There are experimentators,

who experiment, imagine, deduce and guess. 11. Observations, reasoning

and experim ent make up w hat we call the scientific m ethod. 12.

Fundamental scientific ideas arose from the application o f the scientific

method. 13. The basic theoretical problem is to find laws behind experi

m ent that can amalgamate different phenomena. 14. We make conservation

laws o f energy, mass and m om entum a great basis o f mechanics. 15.

Im portant conclusions are drawn from simple idealized “thought experi

m ents” 16. There are no absolute laws in the sense o f laws independent o f

observers. 17. A law must be framed in terms o f the measurements o f a par

ticular observer. Laws are tied to observers. 18. One should not speak about

things one cannot measure.

2. Characterize the problems the fundamental fields of mechanics deal with. If you are the

mechanics student, what field are you going to specialize in? Give your reasons.

Model. It is easy to show that forces are vectors, i.e., that they

obey geometrical addition. The vector treatment of

balanced forces is called statics. The geometrical prop

erties of the motion o f rigid bodies constitute the sub

ject m atter of kinematics. The study o f motion subject

to external forces is dynamics. There arc two basic

problems in dynamics: to find the forces exerted that

cause the motion and determine the motion of the

body when the forces applied are specified.

in various trends. The theories o f stable motion, o f automatic and optimal

operations, the dynamics o f flight, etc. are treated. The problems concern

ing the behaviour o f mass-points, motion, density, liquids, gases, plasma and

their states are dealt with. Ideal physical and mechanical models are intro

duced to make formulation o f mechanics possible with the aid o f differential

and integral calculus.9

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2. Analytical Mechanics formulated at least 200 years ago studies systems o f

mass-points or rigid bodies, finite in number. Analytic methods and the

methods of differential equations are used.

3. Applied Mechanics. The theory o f machines and mechanical devices, the

theories of vibrations, regulations, gyroscope, automatic control, etc. are

developed. Most problems are o f engineering and manufacturing aspect.

4. Electromechanics commonly implies the interaction o f currents with flu

ids and the construction of practical electromechanical energy-converting

devices. The theory covers topics regarding the nature o f the m echanical and

electrical properties o f the interacting medium. It makes a great difference

whether the fluid is a gas, a liquid, or a plasma to say nothing o f the diversi

ty o f properties associated with each o f these media.

5. Hydrodynamics. Aerodynamics. Magnetohydrodynamics. Electrohydro

dynamics. They are all based on classical N ewton’s mechanics and the model

o f material continuum. The theories o f perfect fluid and viscous fluid, the

perfectly flexible line, the membrane, gas and wave dynamics, the perfectly

elastic solid, the infinitesimally visco-elastic material and plastic material, the

phenomena in the Earth’s interior and in its atmosphere are created.

6. Celestial Mechanics. Stellar Astronomy. Astrophysics. The investigations

o f the gravitational fields, celestial bodies with various configurations, the

evolution of planetary and satellite systems and their stability, the motion of

cosmic dust, topological peculiarities o f the rotation o f celestial bodies, stel

lar atmosphere, cosmic gas dynamics, the structure and evolution o f stars,

etc. are being performed in all these fields.

7. Continuum Mechanics. The theories of elasticity, plasticity, creep and relax

ation in solids, the theory o f motion of plasma constitute the subject matter of the

field. The problems of the elastic limit, the origin o f a residual plastic deforma

tion, the motion of highly compressed liquids and gases, or conversely, rarefied

gases, mechanical models for polymeric plastic materials, etc. are dealt with.

3. Suppose that information in the given statement is insufficient. Repeat the statement and add

your own comments thus extending and developing the idea. Use the opening phrases.

antiquity.

In fact, Archimedes was by common consent the

founder of mechanics in antiquity Moreover,

Archimedes was a natural philosopher, an engineer

and n physicist. His works in both maths and mechan

ics are masterpieces. Archimedes is, indeed, one o f the

greatest scientists o f all li mes.

258

1. Archimedes was interested in and concerned with both pure and applied

science. 2. He originated two branches o f theoretical mechanics: statics and

hydrodynamics. 3. Archimedes was thoroughly schooled in the Euclidean

tradition. 4. He employed the math method in his works on theoretical

mechanics. 5. In his treatise On Plane Equilibrium Archimedes established

25 theorems on mechanics on the basis o f three simple postulates. 6. In his

treatise On Floating Bodies he establishes 19 propositions on the two funda

mental postulates. 7. This treatise is the first recorded application o f maths

to hydrostatics. 8. It begins with the developing o f the laws which are the

base o f m odem hydrostatics. 9. It culminates with a remarkable investigation

o f paraboloid o f revolution floating in a fluid. 10. In his work On the Sphere

and Cylinder Archimedes explicitly stated the postulate introducing the con

cept o f continuity that bears his name. 11. Archimedes was renowned for his

mechanical inventions, some o f them were put to use in the defense o f

Syracuse against the Romans. 12. The ingenuity o f the mechanical devices

invented by Archimedes are astonishing even by modern standards. 13. He

designed waterclocks, sun dials, pumps, pulleys, wedges, tackles, geared

devices, mileage measuring device. 14. The principles underlying water- arid

steam-driven devices were explained in his treatises on pneumatics and

hydrostatics. 15. M ath prescriptions for the construction o f vaults, catapults

and digging tunnels in a mountain were explained by him in detail. 16.

Distinguished in the classical pursuits o f maths Archimedes also displayed

profound genius in mechanics. 17. There was a gap o f eighteen hundred

years between Archimedes and Simon Stevin (1548-1620), the next major

contributor to the knowledge o f hydrostatics and the statics of solids. 18. The

work o f S. Stevin appreciably advanced statics and hydrodynamics beyond

the points reached by Archimedes. 19. Stevin was developing the principles

o f statics while Galileo was working on dynamics. 20. Stevin and Galileo laid

the foundations o f applied mechanics.

4. Listen to the tape or read the text. Reproduce it orally and speak on some other important

laws of mechanics based on observation of mechanical behaviour and discovered through experi

ment.

Hooke's Law

In 1676 Robert Hooke announced his discovery concerning springs. He

discovered that when a spring is stretched by an increasing force, the stretch

varies directly as the force. It was a simple law, accurate over a wide range,

259

destined to play an important part in science and engineering. As you know

from your own work, this relation holds for a steel spring with remarkable

accuracy over a wide range o f stretches. It holds for springs o f other m ateri

als, perhaps best o f all for a spiral o f quartz (pure melted sand). The law is

surprising and useful for the relation holds until the spring's stretch is sever

al times its original length. The law is remarkable not just for its simplicity

but for its wide range.

Wfe meet similar Hooke’s law—behaviour in many cases o f stretching, com

pression, twisting, bending — all varieties o f elastic deformations. The gener

al form of Hooke’s law “stress / strain is constant” or “deformation varies

directly as the deforming force” applies to all materials (within limits) and to

many types o f distortion. A wooden beam may be bent, or a hair-spring coiled

up, through a large angle and still fit with H ooke’s law. Even a simple metal

wire when stretched fits Hooke’s law over a surprising range o f stretches — far

beyond the tiny expansion caused by heating. Its atoms dragged apart against

electrical attractions experience individual H ooke’s law forces. This general

rule is called “ Hooke’s law” in honour o f H ooke’s discovery.

Once extracted, may scientific laws be discredited by the discovery of

exceptions or limitations? Some scientists idealize laws. They take each law

as simple and exact and award them much more perm anent privilege. They

take the view that the law is there, a clear statem ent o f possible simple

behaviour, with no question o f its being wrong or untrue, it just states what

it states. When we are trying to extract a law, we usually restrict our attention

to particular aspects o f nature. When we are finding Hooke’s law, our spring

may be twisting, the loads may be painted different colours, the loads may

even be evaporating, but we ignore those distractions. O r our spring may be

growing hotter in an overheated laboratory; and then we find the stretch

changing less simply.

In discussing H ooke’s law, “stretch varies as load” we should not ask: “ Is

that statement true?” but rather, “ How closely do the facts fit the statement?

Do many substances in many shapes 'obey’ it? Does it apply over a small

range o f stretch or a large one?” When we find that most springs and wires

obey it over a large range o f stretching, we consider it a useful law, worth

naming. Wfe may picture the law itself as going on forever, right out towards

infinite stretches and back into compressions, but we have no illusion that

real materials obey it over such a range. Instead we pride ourselves on a cun

ning knowledge (drawn, o f course, from experience) o f its limitations. Wfe

consider we know within what range o f stretches it applies to, say, a steel

wire, and in that range how closely experimental measurements fit it. And

260

we keep track o f special substances, such as glass and clay, that we suspect of

serious deviations from the law.

essences, form , quality, causality and ends that do not lend themselves to

quantization. 2. By the end o f the sixteenth century there were available

alternatives to the universe as conceived by Aristotle. 3. Rather than closed,

the universe was open; rather than filled, it was empty. 4. Spate, rather than

having a unique point, was the same in all directions. Space was pebpled

with particles that do not fall or rise but remain in uniform motion unless they

collide. 5. Galileo, unlike Aristotle, approached the problem as a m athe

matician and emphasized and fixed on matter moving in space and time as the

fundamental phenom enon o f nature. 6. Galileo concentrated his study on

such concepts as space, time, weight, velocity, acceleration, inertia, force and

momentum. 7. Galileo offered a totally new concept o f scientific goals and

the role o f m aths in achieving them. He claimed that science was to be pat

terned on the math model. 8. Galileo sought math formulas that can

describe the motion o f bodies and nature’s behaviour. 9. Bare math formulas

explain nothing; they simply describe in precise language. Yet, such formu

las are the most valuable knowledge man can acquire about nature. 10.

Science is not a series of experiments regardless o f how skilfully they are exe

cuted. The value lies in the theory that unifies experiments and facts deduced

from them . 11. Galileo created a structure o f bodies in motion very much

like Euclid developed a structure o f relations o f objects in space. 12.

Newton, born the year that Galileo died, created the first great mechanical

theory which dom inated scientific thought for two centuries. 13. Newton

restated and generalized Galileo’s findings in the form o f two laws o f motion

and added a third. 14. Newton tested and verified, in a way, the laws, while

investigating motions o f planets and the Moon. 15. Newton’s successors

extended them to molecules, atoms and even parts o f atoms. 16. Newton’s

laws o f m otion are clear, powerful working rules based on experiment, the

clarification o f terms and deduction. 17. Right down to this day scientists

disagree over the status o f Newton’s laws o f motion. 18. Some scientists

claim that the laws are wholly definitions and conventions and contain no

experimental ties to the natural world. 19. Some arguers see Law One as

chiefly a description o f force, and Law Two as a definition o f force-measure

ment. 20. Such appraisals are misleading. N ew ton’s laws o f motion and grav

261

itation are fundamental and apply equally well on heaven and Earth. 21. Like

the axioms o f Euclid, N ewton’s formulas serve as a logical basis for other

valuable laws in mechanics and physics.

6. Starting from general assumptions, Newton tied together in a single scheme many diverse

and disconnected things. Explain what enabled him to make his great guess, concerning each and

all taken together.

Disturbances o f M oon’s simple motion.

Planetary motions (K epler’s laws).

Planetary perturbations. All related by inverse-

Motion o f comets. Tides. ► square-law o f gravitation

Bulge o f the Earth. and a spinning Earth.

Differences o f gravity.

Precision o f equinoxes.

The motion o f a gyroscope.

1. A spinning top has the same weight as a still one. 2. Mass is constant,

independent o f speed. 3. Mass increases with velocity, but appreciable

increases require velocities near that o f light. 4. If an object moves with a

speed o f less than one hundred miles a second, the mass is constant to with

in one part o f a million.

8. Speak on the topic “How Much of Science Became Mathematized in the Form of

Geometry” extending each statement into a paragraph, adding some illustrations, proofs, evi

dence, your own viewpoint, etc. (You must do it in writing first.)

best understood in terms of geometrical properties.

I think, they were right, after all. They sought knowl

edge o f what is univetsal and eternal, rather than indi

vidual and fleeting. Geometry, the study o f forms, was

the special concern o f the Greeks and their greatest

accomplishment. Their astronomical inquiries, too,

led the Greeks to favour geometry. The Pythagoreans

observed the fact that natural phenomena which are

physically most diverse exhibit identical geometrical

properties, c.g., size, shape, volume, dimensions, etc.,

and they claimed that math relations underlie diversi

ty and must be essence o f phenomena.

262

2. One should distinguish between geometry as a branch

of maths and geometry as a branch of physics.

Quite right. As a branch of maths geometry is an

abstract body o f theorems deduced from a set o f pos

tulates. Postulates are perfectly arbitrary subject to the

requirements that they should be consistent and

mutually independent. Postulates and theorems of

geometry have nothing to do with observations, exper

iments and verifications. As a branch of physics geom

etry is the description o f the results of a vast body of

observations and experiments. It tells us what will

happen if you do certain things. It is the main concern

and objective o f the physicist to verify the validity of

postulates and theorems. Thus, we postulate the exis

tence o f certain idealized objects (point, line, circle,

sphere or manifold o f these elements — plane o f

points, ordinary space o f points, pencil o f circles,

etc.). The theory (geometry) o f these idealized objects

with the assigned and explicitly stated properties is a

branch o f maths. Geometry as the body o f experi

ments and observations in which this maths is used is

a branch o f physics.

1. From the days o f Euclid the laws o f physical space were no more than

theorems o f geometry. 2. Hipparchus, Ptolemy, Copernicus and Kepler

summarized the motion o f the heavenly bodies in geometrical terms. 3. With

his telescope Galileo extended the application o f geometry to infinite space

and to many millions o f heavenly bodies. 4. Descartes’ doctrine is that the

phenomena o f m atter and motion can be explained in terms o f the geome

try df space. 5. Lobachevsky, Bolyai, and Riemann showed how to construct

different geometrical worlds. 6. The study of the properties o f the points of a

plane which remain invariant under the group o f transformations is known

as a (special) Lorentz geometry. 7. Minkowski insisted that the universe was

naturally a four-dim ensional space-tim e unity. 8. Einstein seized

Minkowski’s idea to fit our physical world into a four-dimensional math

world. 9. The Lorentz transformation is always valid as it recognizes the rel

ative character not only o f space geometry but also o f time. 10. Gravity, time

and m atter became, along with space, merely part o f the structure o f geom

etry. 11. The tw entieth-century science is being mathematized in the form of

geometry. 12. The science o f the vast universe and the infinitesimal realms

was both geometrized by quantum theory.9

9. Disagree with the following negative statements. Give your reasons or possible justification.

263

1. The basis of science is not built through scientific laws. 2. The laws o f

nature must not be valid in any system. 3. O ur inability to detect absolute

motion is not a result o f experiments. 4. The classical concepts o f absolute

space, light path (distance) and time interval were not to be revised. 5. The

idea of absolute frame o f reference must not be abandoned. 6. Vvfe d o n ’t give

mass the relativistic property o f increasing with motion. 7. Riem annian

and Minkowski’s geometries found no application in relativity theory. 8.

Time, distance and simultaneity are not different for the people in the un i

verse. 9. Relativity theory did not enlarge the framework o f classical

m echanics. 10. General relativity theory did not clarify the connection

between mechanics and geometry. 11. Einstein did not revise the problem

o f gravitation. 12. G ravitation does not go out inversely as the square o f the

distance. 13. Gravity does not exist at bigger dimensions. 14. Einstein did

not predict the deflection (bending) o f a lightray in the gravitational field

o f the Sun. 15. The gravitational field is not annihilated by the process o f

transform ation. 16. The work done in going around any path in a gravita

tional field is never zero. 17. Einstein did not discover the existence o f

gravitational waves. 18. G eneral relativity theory does not explain the

abnorm al behaviour o f M ercury’s orbit. 19. There exist no experimental

verification and confirm ation o f general relativity theory predictions. 20.

Relativity theory did not clarify scientific thinking and modify laws o f clas

sical mechanics. 10*

10. Discuss the significance of the great discoveries in mechanics and physics.

(1807) J. Fourier presented to the French Academy a theorem o f unprece

dented importance for the progress of science, which advanced the math

mastery o f the motion of waves: Any wave, whatever its form, can be treated

as a sum o f a set o f simple harmonic waves.

(1864) J. Maxwell published a paper synthesizing notions about electrici

ty, magnetism and light. According to Maxwell’s theory o f electromagnetic

radiation visible light, ultraviolet light and any possible radiations o f still

higher frequencies must be em itted by oscillating electric charges within

atoms. Accelerated charges produce the electromagnetic waves that we

observe as light when they strike our eyes.

(1900) M. Planck introduced rather startling hypothesis that light is em it

ted in bundles in the black body enclosure and that the amount o f energy in

each bundle is related to the frequency o f light by E = hy2. In this way A,

Planck’s constant (A = 6.6 x 10~27 erg/sec)—the quantum o f action was first

introduced.

26 4

(1905) A. Einstein picking up the theme introduced by Planck proposed

that light is not only emitted in units o f energy E = hy2, but it is also absorbed

in such bundles which he called photons. The photon theory did not aban

don the wave concept completely but stated that the energy o f light is not

distributed over the whole wave front (Maxwell), but rather is concentrated

or localized in tiny bundles — “ photons”

One must not think that the photon theory is a revision o f corpuscular the

ory. Corpuscules were thought o f as actual particles o f matter, whereas pho

tons represent bundles o f energy that have no rest mass. This means, once

the photon stops, it ceases to exist and its energy is transferred to whatever

stoppe'd it.

(1909) H. Lorentz’s investigations showed that if the material bodies are

made up o f chained particles and if the forces between them behave as

Maxwell’s equations indicate, then, because o f the change in forces between

charged particles when they are in motion, one can conclude that a body

should contract (shrink) in the direction o f its motion, e.g., the mass of the

electron changes when it is in motion. In modern atomic physics, where

nature provides us with velocities close to that o f light, Galileo’s transforma

tion fails and it has to be replaced by the Lorentz transformation — a means

o f finding the space and time coordinates o f events in one system if they are

known in the other, and if the relative speed o f these two systems is known.

The structure o f Maxwell’s equations does not change under the Lorentz

transformation.

(1911) A. Einstein. General Relativity. The light is curved in the gravita

tional field. (1915) Accelerated mass should radiate energy in the form o f

gravitational waves.

(1924) De Broglie Duality. Any moving particle (electron, atom, neutron,

a quantum o f light) is an extensive wave in some o f its behaviour, and a com

pact particle in some o f its behaviour. All objects should have with them a

wavelength related to their m om entum , e.g., an electron must have a wave

length associated with it.

(1926) E. Schmdinger’s Equation: the law o f motion fo r quantum system.

Shortly after De Broglie introduced the idea o f the associated wave o f an

electron, E. Schro dinger gave the answer to the question o f what happens to

the associated wave if a force acts on it. Schro dinger’s equation — the heart

o f quantum mechanics — gives the possible waves associated with a particle

designated by the wave function у (jc, y, z, t), i.e., given a particle and given

the force system that acts, it yields the wave function solutions for all possi

ble energies. The wave function satisfies the most fundamental properties o f

265

waves — e. g., the property o f superposition, i.e., that a trough and a crest can

be added to cancel one another.

(1927) Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle. There is some uncertainty in the

specification o f position and velocity o f a quantum particle. W; can say, at

least, that there is certain probability that any particle will have a position

near some coordinate x. The most precise description o f nature must be in

terms of probabilities.

11. Discuss the problem concerned. The following phrases may be helpful:

The statement may be confirmed by... I deny that the statement is true.

One can confirm it by further... It can(not) be denied that...

Although no confirmation is available... There is no denying the tact that...

The possible existence o f gravitational waves, similar to electromagnetic

ones but possessing unusual properties, was first predicted by Einstein’s gen

eral theory o f relativity at the beginning o f the century. But their rather frac

tional energy and very weak absorption by substances account for the fact

that the existence o f gravitational waves is up to this day a subject o f very

heated discussion. An active search for them was on in the USSR, the USA,

Italy, Japan, Wfest G erm any and in China. It is not coincidental that ques

tions pertaining to the study, irradiation and reception o f gravitational waves

were high on the agenda o f the 6th A ll-Union Conference o f Gravitationists

among the problems of the general theory o f relativity and gravitation. The

problem is so im portant that it is not easy even to assess the revolution in

physics, if the waves are to be discovered. Russian gravitationists have

designed several types of antennae which are currently being used in con

junction with their foreign colleagues in probing for gravitational waves that

are supposed to come from outer space.

There are two elements in Einstein’s theory — one, that light from a dis

tant star will be bent by the gravitational pull o f the Sun and the other, that

the Sun s gravitational pull will have a distinctly measurable effect on the

way the innermost planet Mercury revolves around the Sun. Einstein’s 1916

extraordinary prediction that the accelerated mass should radiate energy in the

form o f gravitational waves is supported nowadays by evidence that a pulsar’s

orbit around a companion star is slowly shrinking. Yet, the waves are so weak

and their interaction with m atter is so feeble that Einstein himself wondered

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whether they would ever be detected. In 1974 nevertheless, an object (a pul

sar) suitable for testing the prediction was found.

The num erous experiments conducted in the last years (since 1970) to

see if starlight is bent by the Sun’s pull all verified Einstein. Two experi

ments showed that light from distant quasars was bent by the Sun's gravity

in just the way Einstein predicted, another that pulsar light did the same

thing. A fourth experiment showed that radio signals from the Viking

spacecraft th at landed on Mars in 1976 were bent in the same way by the

Sun’s gravity w hen Mars was on the other side o f the Sun from the Earth.

M ore recent experim ents bouncing radar signals off the planet Mercury

back to radio antennae in California, M assachusetts and Puerto Rico also

verified th at M ercury moves around the Sun in just the way that Einstein

said it would. Is Einstein’s general theory o f relativity being challenged? It

is. Three astronom ers from the University o f Arizona recently found that

the Sun is not a perfect sphere as Einstein assumed it was when he devel

oped his theory in 1916. There are fluctuations in the way the Sun’s edge

darkens at the equator that strongly suggest the Sun’s equator is bulging

and its north and south poles are flat. If true, this means the Sun is more

oblate than it is spherical. They found that the Sun’s interior spins once

every 3.5 earth days, a brand new discovery that means the Sun is spinnihg

seven tim es faster in its interior than it is on the surface. The solar exteri

o r’s spin rate is once every 25.4 earth days, a fact known already for some

time.

There is still enough uncertainty w ith planetary orbits that nobody

could m easure M ercury’s orbit with enough precision to say what it real

ly is. I f the interior o f the Sun is rotating as rapidly as the three

astronom ers o f Arizona say it is, it makes an im portant contribution to the

way M ercury is orbiting the Sun. E instein’s theory o f how Mercury orbits

the Sun is based on the assumption that the Sun is a perfect sphere, which

they do not believe it is. They claim that there is a 95-percent chance that

there is a problem with E instein’s theory. It is a true and fresh challenge

to E instein’s theory o f relativity. W hat will happen if Einstein is dis

proved? N ot m uch. O ur atom ic clocks might be off by an infinitesimal

fraction o f a second.

12. Agree or disagree with the following statements. Use the introductory phrases and develop

the idea further.

I quite agree to it. Quite the reverse.

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Exactly. Quite so. Far from that.

I doubt it. It's hardly likely that...

Models. 1. The precise form o f the wave function for all future

time is determined by the Schrodinger equation.

That’s right. Given the wave function for a system at

some time and the forces to which the system is sub

jected, the precise form of the wave function for all

future time is determined by the Schrodinger equa

tion.

2. W: can’t understand what is going on inside a star.

This is not the case, because what is going on inside a

star is well-understood since we can calculate what the

atoms in the star should most likely do in various cir

cumstances.

3. There is no probability that a "quantum ” particle

will have a position near some coordinate x.

But there is. According to Heisenberg uncertainty

principle there is certain probability that a "quantum ”

particle will have a position near some coordinate x.

2. Interference is not characteristic wave phenom enon. 3. N either the wave

viewpoint nor the particle viewpoint is correct. 4. Both theories were

approximate and both will change. 5. The wave function from the quantum

viewpoint contains all the information. 6. All energies, all momenta, all

wave-lengths are allowed for a quantum particle by the Schrodinger equa

tion. 7. Light or electrom agnetic waves are abstract entities propagating

through nothing. 8. A photon is never moving. 9. Any large num ber o f pho

tons can occupy the same place at the same time and can be described by

identical wave function. 10. The precise quantum description o f nature

must not be in terms o f probabilities. 11. Logically consistent formulation

o f m echanics should be explainable on a purely relativistic basis.

12. Science is able to locate unequivocally absolute inertial frame. 13. The

centre o f the system o f the world is immovable. 14. Wfe understand the dis

tribution o f m atter in the interior o f the Sun far better than that o f the

Earth. 15. The m om entum o f quantum particle is always zero. 16. Outside

nucleus scientists know all; inside it — quantum m echanics is valid.

17. The principles o f quantum mechanics never fail. 18. N uclear reactions

must be going on in the stars to make them shine. 19. The quantum view is

not consistent as it fails to specify precisely the position o f the quantum

particle. 20. The rules o f quantum m echanics can be employed to calculate

the results o f the experiments.

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13. What do we mean when we say:

tion. 2. The classical concept o f the “state o f rest” is being modified into

the concept o f the “zero oscillations state” 3. In m echanics a “field” is a

continuous set o f points. 4. There exists the unity o f all natural forces

interactions. 5. Q uarks (never visualized) always ap p ear in pairs.

6. Vacuum is full o f particles and antiparticles; gravitation and antigravita

tion. 7. A wave function is not a physically existing entity, it is an informa

tion containing wave. 8. A wave function changes by jum ps depending upon

the conditions specified. 9. Conditional probability is determinative in

quantum mechanics. 10. The significance and scientific contributions o f

1910-1930 years to m echanics and physics cannot be overassessed. 11. A

scientific bloodless revolution occurs whenever lots enough facts and

experimentally verified proofs are accumulated to produce a new theory.

12. A scientific revolution is a big breakthrough and advance in an under

standing o f nature.

14. Translate the text into Russian and give your definition and assessment of quantum mechan

ics as a science.

One expects that any successful theory in the physical sciences makes

accurate predictions. Given some well-defined experiment, this theory

should correctly specify the outcome or should at least assign the correct

probabilities to all possible outcomes. From this point o f view, quantum

mechanics must be judged highly successful. As the fundamental modern

theory o f atoms, o f molecules, o f elementary particles, o f electromagnetic

radiation and o f the solid state, it supplies methods for calculating the results

o f experiments in all these realms.

Apart from experim ental confirm ation, however, som ething more is

generally dem anded o f a theory. It is expected that it not only determ ines

the results o f an experim ent but also provides some understanding o f the

physical events th at underlie the observed results. It oth er words, the th e

ory should not only give the position o f a pointer on a dial but also explain

why the pointer takes up that position. When one seeks inform ation of

this kind in the quantum theory, certain conceptual difficulties arise. For

exam ple, in quantum m echanics an elem entary particle such as an elec

tron is represented by the m ath expression called a wave function, which

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often describes the electron as if it were smeared out over a large region of

space.

This representation is not in conflict with experiment; on the contrary,

the wave function yields an accurate estim ate o f the probability th at the

electron will be found in any given place. When the electron is actually

detected, however, it is never sm eared out but always has a definite posi

tion. H ence, it is not entirely clear what physical interpretation should be

given to the wave function or what picture o f the electron one should keep

in mind. Because o f the ambiguities such as this, many scientists find it

most sensible to regard quantum m echanics as merely a set o f rules that

prescribe the outcome o f experim ents. According to this view, quantum

m echanics is concerned only with observable phenom ena (the observed

position o f the pointer) and not w ith any underlying physical state (the real

position o f the electron).

It now turns out that even this renumeration is not entirely satisfactory.

Even if quantum mechanics is no more than a set o f rules, it is still in con

flict with a view o f the world that many people consider obvious or natural.

This world view is based on three assumptions, o r premises that must be

accepted without proof. One is realism, the doctrine that regularities in

observed phenom ena are caused by some physical reality whose existence is

independent o f human observers. The second premise holds that inductive

inference is a valid mode o f reasoning and can be applied freely, so that legit

imate conclusions can be drawn from consistent observations. The third

premise is called Einstein’s separability or Einstein’s locality, and it states that

no influence o f any kind can propagate faster than the speed o f light. O f the

three premises realism is the most fundamental. The three premises, which

often have the status of well-established truths, form the basis o f what is

called local realistic theories o f nature.

1. A wave transfers energy. 2. Wavelike objects show particle properties.

3. N o two electrons can be found in exactly the same state (including

spin). 4. The relations between the fields and the charges retain the same

form in the moving system as they had in the fixed system. 5. The energy

o f a body always equals me2 6. Light always propagates in em pty space

with a constant speed c, independent o f the state o f m otion o f the e m it

ting body.

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COMPOSITION

1. Write an abstract of the text “Gravitation”. Your abstract must not exceed fifteen sentences.

2. Write a composition on “Theoretical and Engineering Aspects of Modern Mechanics’’

COMPREHENSION EXERCISES

Questions

1. Where do laws which are to be tested and verified come from? 2. What

is the source o f scientific knowledge? 3. Why was Pythagoras awarded the

title “ philosopher”? 4. Why should philosophers be concerned with science?

5. W hat do we mean by “ understanding” and “explanation” in science?

6. W hat is the criterion for choosing and employing one theory or the other?

(classical, relativistic, quantum?) 7. Did Galileo guess his famous times-

squared (odd-num ber) law o f free fall by pure reasoning? 8. What common

features do different motions have? 9. Does the inertia of a body depend on

its energy? 10. What causes a body to accelerate uniformly near the surface

o f the Earth? 11. What is acceleration? Does a greater speed imply a greater

acceleration? What is the relation between the force and the acceleration?

12. Why do planets remain in their orbits? 13. How can one calculate the

motion o f planets? 14. Does light travel at a finite or infinite speed? 15. Can

there be velocity greater than that o f light? 16. How can the two theories o f

light (corpuscular and wave) both be true? 17. Newton's laws o f motion do

not m ention the size, the shape or colour o f the body. Can you give an exam

ple o f a m otion that depends on the size o f the body? Will Newton’s laws be

saved in such a case? 18. What is the speed o f the Earth in its orbit? 19. What

is the force that the Sun exerts on the Earth to keep it in a circular orbit?

20. Does N ew ton’s law o f gravitation imply that there is only one kind o f

force acting between two bodies — gravity? 21. Do Newton’s laws give any

inform ation about the cause o f the gravitational force and its origin? 22. Ts

the theory o f gravitation now a completed theory? 23. What is the magnitude

o f the gravitational force that the Earth (the Sun, the Moon) exerts on the

body? 24. W hat happens to mass, velocity and momentum if a constant force

is exerted on a particle for a long time? 25. What happens to the relativistic

modifications o f N ewton’s equations if the speed o f light becomes infinite?

26. From N ew ton’s viewpoint can one understand why light bends as it pass

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es near the Sun? 27. Do we have an idea about the overall curvature o f our

universe on a large scale? 28. Where is it most convenient to stand if we want

to describe the motion o f the solar system? 29. What is the picture o f an

atom? What is the machinery o f interaction between atoms? Is it gravita

tional or electrical? 30. How much is electricity stronger than gravitation?

3 1. What happens while the electrons in the wire are being accelerated first

positively, and then negatively? 32. How can we force particles to move with

a speed only slightly smaller than that o f light? 33. How can one explain

interference and diffraction with the quantum theory? 34. What laws of

quantum m echanics are worth discussing and why? 35. What Russian scien

tists contributed to the developments o f mechanics?

DISCUSSION

1. “The scientist must order. One makes science with facts as a house with

stones; but an accumulation o f facts is no more science than a pile o f stones

is a house.” (Poincare.) Prove it or disagree.

2. “ If science is more than an accumulation o f facts; if it is not simply pos

itive knowledge, but systematized positive knowledge; if it is not simply

unguided analysis and haphazard empiricism, but synthesis; if it is not sim

ply a passive recording, but constructive activity then, undoubtedly, ancient

Greece was its cradle.” (G. Sarton.) Extract from the above quotation the

main features o f ancient Greek science, add some more comments o f your

own and characterize it.

3. Aristotle’s Mechanics — the only significant system o f mechanics which

Renaissance world possessed. Describe its merits and fallacies.

4. Copernicus put the Sun at the centre o f the universe, leaving for the

Earth the reduced status o f one among the other planets. Compare this sys

tem with that of Ptolemy. Dispute Copernicus’ contribution to science.

5. G. Bruno — apostle o f infinite space — burst the starry sphere and made

the universe endless, the Earth and the Sun lost among countless other plan

ets and suns. Why was the church so violently opposed to his theory?

G. Bruno: “Thus, let this surface be what it will, 1 must always put a question,

what is beyond?. If space ends, what is beyond?” Explain in your own words

the meaning o f the quotation. Wasn’t G. Bruno’s question challenging?

6. “ It is R. Descartes who gave us the new m ethod o f reasoning much more

admirable than his philosophy itself, in which a large part is false, or very

doubtful according to the very rules that he is teaching us. (Fbntenellc.)

Characterize Descartes’ philosophy and his mechanics.

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7. Galileo was teaching new science o f mechanics, advocating Copernicus’

picture o f the world. How did the church manage to stop him? Did he yield

earnestly? One o f G alileo’s early discoveries was the remarkable property o f

pendulums: that (for small amplitude) the time o f swing is independent of

amplitude. Discuss the significance o f this discovery and its application.

8. J. Kepler affirmed: “The reality o f the world consists of its math rela

tions. M ath laws are the true cause o f phenom ena.” What made Kepler

believe that way? Did his belief help him discover his famous laws o f plane

tary motions? What do math models represent and reflect? Why must the

ideal math universe in your mind be the same as in mine?

9. /. Newton said, “ I don’t know what I may appear to the world; but to

myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the seashore, and

diverting myself now and then by finding a smoother pebble or a prettier

shell than ordinary; whilst the great ocean o f truth lay all undiscovered

before m e. I f I saw a little farther than others, it is because / stood on the shoul

ders o f g ia n ts” W ho, to your mind, of his predecessors did Newton call

“giants” and why? How did Newton estimate his creations?

10. “Newton was not only the greatest but the most fortunate among sci

entists, because the science o f the world can be created only once, and it was

Newton who created it.” (Lagrange.) Your viewpoint.

11. N ew ton’s scientific thought rested ultim ately on metaphysical

assumption involving G od, absolute space, absolute time, absolute laws o f

motion and gravity, that rule the universe. Are N ewton’s laws absolutely

right in our solar system? Do they extend beyond the relatively small dis

tances o f the nearest planets? Do stars attract each other as well as planets?

The two stars are going around each other. Do they rotate according to

N ew ton’s laws?

12. “ No one must think that Newton’s great creation can be overthrown

by relativity or any other theory. His clear and wide ideas will forever retain

their significance as the foundation on which our modern conceptions of

physics were built.” (Einstein.) What is the modern view o f Newton’s

mechanics?

13. The new relativistic frame became one o f the most important guides in

m odem mechanics and physics. Why? Dispute Einstein’s theory as a ration

al structure: in part philosophical and speculative, yet capable o f experimen

tal verification.

14. Einstein showed that the assumptions o f absolute length, time and

simultaneity were unjustified. A true scientist refuses to accept an empirical

formula until he (or someone else) developed a theory to justify it, e.g.,

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Planck had to find some theoretical justification for his radiation formula.

Give some more examples.

15. The general theory of relativity has numerous successors and com peti

tors. Enumerate some alternative theories. How are they tested?

16. There are a few wise scientists who decline to favour one theory' of

gravitation over another. They attempt to study all the theories as a class,

hoping thereby to unlock some o f the secrets o f gravitation in an unbiased

m anner independent of any one particular theory'. Are they right? Your view

point.

17. “What goes up must come dow n” is a classical saying which is not true

any longer. Some o f the rockets launched in recent times from the surface o f

the Earth became artificial satellites o f the Earth, with indefinitely long life

times, while others are lost in the vast expanse o f interplanetary space.

Explain the reason and possible justification.

18. The Quantum Mechanics Founders: Einstein, Dirac, Rutherford, Bohr,

Planck, De Broglie, Schr6dinger, Heisenberg, Swinger, Fermi, Fok, Tamm,

Landau.

19. According to quantum mechanics — the math theory o f particles — our

most precise description o f nature must be in terms o f probabilities. For the

description of the small-scale phenom ena o f atomic and nuclear physics,

classical mechanics was superseded by quantum mechanics. For phenome

na involving speeds approaching that o f light — by relativity. Characterize

modern mechanics as a science. The interrelation and interconnection o f all

branches of modern mechanics.

Unit Eight (8 )

INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRA

Grammar

1. Perfect Non-Continuous Tense Forms.

2. Perfect Continuous Tense Forms.

3. Modal Compound Predicate.

4. Adjectives, Adverbs and Their Russian Equivalents.

1. The origin o f the title “Algebra” is rather exotic. 2. We owe the word

“algebra” to the Arab mathematician al-Khowarismi. 3. Although original

ly algebra referred only to equations and their solution, the word today has

acquired a new connotation. 4. Algebra in its development passed succes

sively through three stages: the rhetorical (or verbal), the syncopated, and the

symbolic. 5. Rhetorical algebra is characterized by the complete absence of

any symbols and the words were used in their symbolic sense. 6. In synco

pated algebra certain words of common and frequent use were gradually

abbreviated. 7. Eventually these abbreviations have become symbols.

Modern algebra is symbolic. 8. One of the most interesting problems o f alge

bra is that o f the algebraic solution of equations. 9. Elementary algebra (from

1700 B.C. until about 1700 A.D.) dealt exclusively with the general proper

ties of numbers and the solution of algebraic equations. 10. Nearly all math

ematicians of distinguished rank have treated this subject. 11. They arrived

(the 16th century) at the general expression o f the roots of equations o f the

first four degrees. 12. However, these solutions were achieved by ingenious

devices rather than advances in insight and theory. 13. It was believed that a

uniform method of solving equations should be applicable to an equation of

any degree. 14. The m athem atician’s failure to reach the objective led to the

presumption that the solution o f general equations was impossible alge

braically. 15. Early in the 19th century a new view of maths began to emerge.

16. Maths came not to restrict itself to numbers and shapes. 17. Algebra

nowadays deals effectively with anything (although “anything” often contin

ues to be related in some way to numbers). 18. The mainstream in the devel

opment o f algebra followed a parallel and concurrent stream in the develop

275

ment o f the complex number system. 19. The introduction and acceptance

o f negative, imaginary, complex and hypercomplex numbers contributed to

the development o f m odem algebraic notation. 20. M odern higher algebra

can deal effectively with anything and occasionally it is pursued without ref

erence to anything in particular. 21. The word “algebra” was gradually being

expanded to include any system o f handling symbols according to prescribed

rules. 22. Anyone is free now to invent his own algebra. 23. It is known that

there are only three algebras over the real field: a) the real number system,

b) the complex number system, c) the system o f quaternions. 24. M odem

abstract algebra is the study o f math structures such as groups, rings, fields,

integral domains, etc. 25. It has many distinct departm ents but each separate

branch cannot be treated in isolation: all o f them constitute the subject m at

ter o f algebra.

G RAM M AR

Active Passive

to have + done to have been + done

Present I have just done my work. The work has just been done.

Past I had done my work before he came. The work had been done

before he came.

Future 1 shall have done my work by (at) The work will have been done

5 o ’clock tomorrow. by 5 o ’clock tomorrow.

to have been + doing r R>r a month (week, term, etc.).

Present 1 have been doing my work Lately. For quite a while.

since early morning. Since morning (5 o’clock, etc).

Past I had been doing my work for 1 How long?

two hours when he came. Since when?

Future I shall have been doing my work for Up to now.

two hours before the lecture begins ^ So far.

tomorrow.

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Read and translate the following text. Comment on the perfect tense forms used.

Mathematics is the queen of natural knowledge.

K. F. Gauss

There are two ways in which maths has become so effective in our age.

The first is through its relationships with science, the second is through its

connection with human reasoning. Math method is reasoning o f the highest

level known to man, and every field o f investigation — be it law, politics, psy

chology, medicine or anthropology — has felt its influence and had modelled

itself on maths to some extent ever since its creation. In order to gain a more

comprehensive view o f the relation o f maths to the sciences, let us analyze

the various ways in which maths has been serving scientific investigations.

1. Maths has been supplying a language for the treatm ent o f the quantita

tive problems o f the physical and social sciences. Much o f this language has

taken the form o f m ath symbols. Symbols also permit concise, clear (unam

biguous) representation o f ideas which are sometimes very complex.

Scientists have learned to use m ath symbols whenever possible.

2. Maths has been supplying science with numerous methods and con

clusions. Among the important conclusions are its formulas, which scientists

have accepted and used in solving problems. The use o f such formulas is so

common that the contribution o f maths in this direction has not been fully

appreciated.

3. Maths has been enabling the sciences to make predictions. This is per

haps the most valuable contribution of maths to the sciences. The ability to

make predictions by math means was exemplified in the most remarkable

way in 1846 by the two astronomers Leverrier and Adams. As a result o f cal

culations, they predicted, working independently, that there must exist

another planet beyond those known at the time. A search for it in the sky at

the predicted place and time revealed the planet Neptune. Prediction has

played a part in every m ath solution of a quantitative problem arising in the

physical and social sciences.

4. Maths has been furnishing science with ideas to describe phenomena.

Among such ideas may be mentioned the idea for functional relation; the

graphical representation o f functional relations by means o f coordinate

geometry; the notion o f a limit; the notion o f infinite classes which helps us

to understand motion. O f special importance are the statistical methods and

277

theories which have led to the idea o f a statistical law. The description is not

complete without mentioning the fact that for many physical phenom ena no

exact concepts exist other than math ones.

Maths has been o f use to science in preparing m en’s mind for new ways

o f thinking. The concepts o f importance in science had been coming to men

with great difficulty. The concepts o f gravity, o f energy and o f limitless space

took years to develop and men o f genius were required to express them pre

cisely. G reat as is the genius o f Einstein, it is almost certain that he was able

to achieve some o f his results only because the maths o f preceding decades

had suggested new ways o f thinking about space and time.

To summarize: Maths has been supplying a* language, methods and con

clusions for science; enabling scientists to predict results; furnishing science

with ideas to describe phenom ena and preparing the minds o f scientists for

new ways o f thinking.

It would be quite wrong to think that maths had been giving so much to

the sciences and receiving nothing in return. Physical objects and observed

facts had often served as a source o f the elements and postulates o f maths.

Actually, the fundamental concepts o f many branches o f maths are the ones

that had been suggested by physical experiences. Scientific theories have fre

quently suggested directions for pursuing math investigations, thus furnishing

a starting point for math discoveries. For example, Copemican astronomy had

suggested many new problems involving the effects o f gravitational attraction

between heavenly bodies in motion. These problems had stimulated the further

activities o f many scientists in the field o f differential equations.

passive) forms a modal compound predicate.

1. He must solve the problem himself. ... должен ...

3. He must have solved the problem. должно быть ...

4. He must have been solving the problem for

a long time.

Can, may, could, might express more uncertainty, doubt, improbability:

278

1. Не can (may) make the research all alone. ... может ...

2. He can (may) be making the research all alone.

3. He can (may) have made the research all alone. возмож но...

4. He can (may) have been making the research all alone.

may have been used in Ancient Egypt to com pute the am ount o f grain co n

tained in them . 2. Babylonians must have been the first to solve the cubic

equations by substitution. 3. The discovery o f the theorem o f Pythagoras

can hardly have been made by Pythagoras himself; but it was certainly made

in his school. 4. The Pythagoreans may have been the first to give a rigor

ous proof to the famous theorem. 5. Regardless o f what mystical reasons

may have motivated the early Pythagorean investigators, they discovered

many curious and fascinating num ber properties. 6. Before Archimedes

there might have been no systematic way o f expressing large numbers.

7. The oath must have been galling to Cardano. 8. Viete’s inability to accept

negative num bers (not to mention imaginary numbers) must have prevent

ed him from attaining the generality he sought and partly comprehended in

giving, for example, relations between the roots and the coefficients o f a

polynomial equation. 9. Descartes’ geometric representation o f negative

num bers could have been helping m athem aticians to make negative num

bers m ore acceptable. 10. N ewton’s earliest manifestations of the higher

m ath talent may well have passed unnoticed. 11. Imaginary numbers must

have been looking like higher magic to many eighteenth-century m athe

maticians. 12. Euler can have been using imaginary numbers quite success

fully as it is to him that we owe the formula e2ni= l. 13. Gauss must have been

the first to introduce the special sign = for the concept o f congruence —

although, o f course, the concept itself was not original with Gauss. 14. In

ordinary algebra, in which the letters represent real numbers, the field

axioms must be assumed. 15. One must be arriving at nothing significant by

adding telephone numbers. 16. The symbol V ” may have been used in the

sixteenth century and it resembled a m anuscript form o f the small r

(radix), o r it might have been invented arbitrarily. By the seventeenth cen

tury the use o f the symbol V for square root had become quite standard.

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4. Adjectives, Adverbs and Their

Russian Equivalents

Mind the difference:

Adjective Adverb I Adverb II

bad bad(ly) badly — очень, весьма

close close closely — внимательно

fair — fairly — весьма, совершенно, справедливо

hard hard hardly — едва, почти не

high high highly — очень, весьма

late late lately — недавно, за последнее время

like — likely — вероятно

large — largely — главным образом

near near nearly — почти

present — presently — сейчас, скоро

ready — readily — легко, охотно

short — shortly — вскоре

sure — surely — конечно

most most mostly — главным образом, обычно

mere — merely — только, просто, единственно

subtracted terms to the other side o f an equation” and “the cancellation of

like (equal) term s on opposite sides o f the equation” 2. Nearly all m athe

m aticians o f distinguished rank have treated the subject o f the algebraic

solution o f equations. 3. The Arabs acquired most readily the G reek and

Hindu scientific writings which they translated into Arabic and preserved

through the Dark Ages o f Europe. 4. Powerful com m ercial cities arose first

in Italy and surely it was here that the algebraic renaissance in Europe

began. 5. D escartes’ La Geometrie consists mostly o f what we now call the

“theory o f equations” and it contains his famous rule o f signs for deter

mining the num ber of positive and negative roots o f an equation. 6. In the

symbolic stage algebraic notation went through many m odifications and

changes until it became fairly stable by the time o f Newton. 7. A great

many persons have been involved in developing the foundations o f m odern

algebra, largely the m em bers o f the British school o f algebraists.

8. Considering closely the algebraic aspects o f the real numbers, m athe

m aticians came to broad generalizations such as those o f rings and fields,

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which not only contributed to an expansion o f algebra but gave a penetrat

ing perspective to elem entary arithm etic. 9. More than two hundred alge

braic structures have been studied lately. 10. In 1826 the twenty-four-year-

old Abel, poverty-stricken and suffering from tuberculosis, wanting badly

some recognition, published the first general proof o f the binomial theo

rem for arbitrary complex exponents. 11. Abel died when he was only 27

leaving behind a wealth o f highly original work which stimulated research

for many years after. 12. Shortly after Galois was killed in a duel in 1832,

the development o f group theory was substantially advanced by Cauchy.

13. The contributions o f Abel and G alois to modern algebra can hardly be

overestimated. 14. In collaboration with Sylvester, Cayley (1846) began the

work on the theory o f algebraic invariants, which had been merely in the air

for some time and which, like matrices, received some o f its motivation

from determ inants.

INTRODUCTORY TEXT

T H E H ISTO RY O F ALGEBRA

Exotic and intriguing is the origin of the word “algebra” It does not sub

mit to a neat etymology as does, for example, the word “arithm etic” which

is derived from the Greek arithmos ( “ num ber”). Algebra is a Latin variant o f

the Arabic word al-jabr (sometimes translated al-jebr) as employed in the

title o f a book Hisab al-jabr w’a l mugabalah, written in Baghdad about 825

A.D. by the Arab mathematician Mohammed ibn-M usa al-Khowarismi. This

treatise on algebra is commonly referred to, in shortened form, as Al-jabr. A

literal translation o f the book’s full title is “science o f restoration (or

reunion) and opposition” , but a more math phrasing is “science o f transpo

sition and cancellation” Perhaps the best translation is simply “the science

o f equations”

A lthough originally “algebra” referred to equations, the word today

has a m uch broader m eaning, and a satisfactory definition requires a

tw o-phase approach: 1. Early (elem entary) algebra is the study o f equa

tions and m ethods o f solving them . 2. M odern (abstract) algebra is the

study o f m ath structures such as groups, rings, and fields — to m ention

only a few. Indeed, it is convenient to trace the developm ent o f algebra in

term s o f these two phases, since the division is both chronological and

conceptual.

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The Early Algebra

Babylonian Algebra — Rhetorical Style

Since algebra might have probably originated in Babylonia, it seems

appropriate to credit the country with the origin o f the rhetorical style o f

algebra, illustrated by the problems found in clay tablets dating back to

c. 1700 B.C. The problems show the relatively sophisticated level o f their

algebra. Nowadays, such problems are solved by the method o f elimination.

The Babylonians also knew how to solve systems by elim ination but pre

ferred often to use their parametric method. The Babylonians were able to

solve a rather surprising variety o f equations, including certain special types

o f cubics and quarries — all with numerical coefficients, o f course.

Algebra in Egypt

Algebra in Egypt must have appeared almost as soon as in Babylonia; but

Egyptian algebra lacked the sophistication in method shown by Babylonian

algebra, as well as its variety in types o f equations solved. For linear equa

tions the Egyptians used a method o f solution consisting o f an initial esti

mate followed by a final correction, a method now known as the Urule o f false

position” The algebra o f Egypt, like that o f Babylonia, was rhetorical.

The numeration system o f the Egyptians, relatively primitive in compar

ison with that o f the Babylonians, helps to explain the lack o f sophistication

in Egyptian algebra. European mathematicians o f the sixteenth century had

to extend the Hindu-Arabic notion o f number before they could progress

significantly beyond the Babylonian results in solving equations.

The algebra o f the early Greeks (o f the Pythagoreans and Euclid,

Archimedes, and Apollonius, 500-200 B.C.) was geometric because o f their

logical difficulties with irrational and even fractional numbers and theirprac-

tical difficulties with G reek numerals, which were somewhat similar to

Roman numerals and just as clumsy. It was natural for the G reek mathe

maticians of this period to use a geometric style for which they had both taste

and skill.

The Greeks o f Euclid’s day thought of the product ab (as we write it

nowadays) as a rectangle o f base b and height a and they referred to it as

“a rectangle contained by CD and D F \ Some centuries later, another

Greek, Diophantus, made a start toward modem symbolism in his work

Diophantine Equations by introducing abbreviated words and avoiding the

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rather cumbersome style o f geometric algebra. D iophantus introduced the

syncopated style o f writing equations.

Little is known about Hindu maths before the fourth or fifth century

A.D. because few records of the ancient period have been found. India was

subjected to numerous invasions, which facilitated the exchange of ideas.

Babylonian and G reek accomplishments, in particular, were apparently

known to Hindu mathematicians. The Hindus solved quadratic equations by

“completing the square’' and they accepted negative and irrational roots;'they

also realized that a quadratic equation (with real roots) has two ropts. Hindu

work on indeterminate equations was superior to that o f Diophantus; the

Hindus attem pted to find all possible integral solutions and were perhaps the

first to give general methods o f solution. One o f their most outstanding

achievements was the system o f Hindu (often called Arabic) numerals.

Algebra in Europe

In the eleventh century many Greek and Arabic texts on maths were

translated into Latin and became available in Europe. However, even more

im portant for Europe, especially Italy, was the Liber Abaci (1202) o f

Fibonacci (Leonardo o f Pisa) in which he solved equations in the rhetorical

and general style and strongly advocated the use o f Hindu-Arabic numerals,

which he discovered on his journeys to many lands as a merchant and trades

man. It is not surprising that at first the local chambers o f commerce (in Pisa

and neighbouring city-states o f Italy) resisted the adoption o f the “ new”

Hindu-Arabic numerals and, in fact, viewed them with suspicion; but they

were gradually adopted, and the old abacus was stored in the attic.

The algebra that entered Europe (via Fibonacci’s “Liber abaci” and

translations) had retrogressed both in style and in content. The semisymbol

ism o f D iophantus and relatively advanced accomplishments o f the Hindus

were not destined to contribute to the eventual breakthrough in European

algebra.

t

M odem symbolism began to emerge around 1500. A banner year was

1545: in that year G. Cardano, an Italian scholar, published his Ars Magna

(G reat Art) containing the solution o f the cubic and the quartic. These solu

tions represented the first really new material since antiquity, even though

these essentially general solutions were achieved by “ingenious devices”

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rather than advances in insight and theory. The watershed o f algebraic

thought (separating the early shallow flow o f “ manipulative solution o f

equations” from the deeper m odem stream which began with the theoreti

cal properties o f equations) is personified in the Frenchm an F. Viete, who in

1573 was the first to introduce letters as general (positive) coefficients and to

put some other finishing touches to symbolism. Later R. Descartes systemat

ically used the first letters o f the alphabet for the given quantities, and the last

letters for the unknowns and made algebraic notation finally up-to-date by

the time of 1. Newton. Just as the discovery o f zero created the arithmetic o f

today, so did the literal notation ushered in a new era in the history o f alge

bra. Wherein lies the power o f this symbolism? First o f all, the letter liberat

ed algebra from the slavery o f the word. This is important enough; but what

is still more important is that the letter is free from the taboos which have

been attached to words through centuries o f use. In the second place, the let

ter is susceptible o f operations which enable one to transform literal expres

sions and thus to paraphrase any statem ent into a number o f equivalent

forms. But the most important contribution o f symbolism is the role it has

been playing in the formation o f the generalized number concept.

Algebra is not only a part o f m aths; it also plays within maths the role

which m aths itself had been playing for a long time with respect to

physics. What does the algebraist have to offer to other m athem aticians?

Occasionally, the solution o f a specific problem; but mostly a language in

which to express m ath facts and a variety o f patterns o f reasoning, put in

a standard form. Algebra is not an end in itself; it has to listen to outside

dem ands issued from various parts o f maths. This situation is o f great b en

efit to algebra; for, a science, or a part o f science, which exists to solve its

own problem s only, is always in danger o f falling into peaceful slum ber

and from there into a quiet death. But in order to take full advantage of

this state o f affairs, the algebraist must have the ability to derive profit

from what he perceives is going on outside his own dom ain. Algebra, like

every other modern branch o f m aths and science, continues to proliferate

with the vitality and expansiveness o f a tropical forest and every particu

lar part o f algebra has much new m ath knowledge that is being discovered,

so that the algebraist should keep his eyes open for the small piece that

may be o f great value to him. M aths is changing constantly, and algebra

must reflect these changes if it wants to stay alive. This explains the fact

that algebra is one o f the most rapidly changing areas o f maths; it is sen

sitive not only to what happens inside its own boundaries; but also to the

trends which originated in all other branches o f maths. The most im por

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tant new dem ands on algebra come from topology, analysis and algebraic

geometry.

The mainstream in the development o f algebraic structure followed a

parallel and concurrent stream in the development o f the complex-number

system. The introduction and acceptance o f negative, imaginary and com

plex numbers contributed to the development o f modern algebraic notation.

The foundations begun by Viete for the m odern structural formulation of

algebra had to wait some two hundred years before Niels Henrik Abel (1824)

and especially Evariste Galois (1831) introduced the idea o f a group, in their

independent proofs that a polynomial equation o f degree greater than fo u r has

no general algebraic solution. During the two hundred years from Viete to

Abel and Galois, mathematicians were not idle; the group concept, o f

course, did not emerge suddenly with Abel and Galois. In the works o f the

best mathematicians o f the time an implicit grasp o f the group concept was

already to be found.

A C T IV E VO CABU LARY

1. to adopt 14. to endeavo(u)r 27. to remedy

2. to appoint 15. to expand 28. to revive

3. to appropriate 16. to evoke 29. to revoke

4. to approve 17. to forbid 30. to submit

5. to bailie 18. to foredoom 31. to surrender

6. to benefit 19. to govern 32. to surround

7. to betray 20. to haunt 33. to survive

8. to comprehend 21. to permute 34. to suspect

9. to confer 22. to pervade 35. to swear

10. to dawn 23. to presume 36. to unfold

11. to divulge 24. to prevail 37. to unravel

12. to eliminate 25. to proliferate 38. to vanish

13. to encounter 26. to release 39. to vindicate

TEXT ONE

O F TH IRD AND H IG H ER DEGREE

Read the text. Give some more details and your own comments concerning all the algebraists

mentioned in the text. Practise questions and answers.

The first records o f m an’s interest in cubic equations date from the time

o f the old Babylonian civilization, about 1800-1600 B.C. Among the math

materials that survive, are tables o f cubes and cube roots, as well as tables of

values o f n2 + л3. Such tables could have been used to solve cubics o f special

types. For example, to solve the equation 2x3 + 3x2 = 540, the Babylonians

might have first multiplied by 4 and made the substitution у = 2x, giving

y 3 + 3y2 = 2,160. Letting у = 3z, this becomes z3 + Z2 — 80. From the tables,

one solution is z = 4, and hence 6 is a root o f the original equation.

In the Greek period concern with volumes o f geometrical solids led eas

ily to problems that in modern form involve cubic equations. The well-

known problem o f duplicating the cube is essentially one o f solving the equa

tion x3 = 2. This problem, impossible o f solution by ruler and compasses

alone, was solved in an ingenious m anner by Archytas o f Tarentum (c. 400

B.C.), using the intersections o f a cone, a cylinder, and a degenerate toms

(obtained by revolving a circle about its tangent).

The well-known Persian poet and mathematician Omar Khayyam (1100

A.D.) advanced the study o f the cubic by essentially G reek methods. He

found solutions through the use o f conics. It is typical o f the state o f algebra

in his day that he distinguished thirteen special types o f cubics that have pos

itive roots. For example, he solved equations o f the type x 2 + №x = bik

(where b and c are positive numbers) by finding intersections o f the parabo

la x 2 = by and the circle y2 = x(c—x), where the circle is tangent to the axis

o f the parabola at its vertex. The positive root o f Om ar Khayydm’s equation

is represented by the distance from the axis o f the parabola to a point of

intersection o f the curves.

The next major advance was the algebraic solution o f the cubic. This dis

covery, a product ofthe Italian Renaissance, is surrounded by an atmosphere

o f mystery; the story is still not entirely clear. The method appeared in print

in 1545 in the Ars Magna o f Girolamo Cardano o f Milan, a physician,

astrologer, mathematician, prolific writer, and suspected heretic, altogether

one o fth e most colourful figures o f his time. The method gained currency as

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“C ardan’s formula” (Cardan is the English form o f his name). According to

Cardano himself, however, the credit is due to Scipione del Ferro, a professor

o f maths at the University o f Bologna, who in 1515 discovered how to solve

cubics o f the type x 3 + bx = c. As was customary among mathematicians o f

that time, he kept his methods secret in order to use them for personal

advantage in math duels and tournaments. When he died in 1526, the only

persons familiar with his work were a son-in-law and one o f his students,

Antonio Maria Fior o f Nfenice.

In 1535 Fior challenged the prominent mathematician Niccolo Tartaglia

o f Brescia (then teaching in Vfenice) to a contest because Fior did not believe

Tartaglia’s claim o f having found a solution for cubics o f the type

x 3 + bx2 = c. A few days before the contest Tartaglia managed to discover also

how to solve cubics o f the type jc3 + ax = c, a discovery (so. he relates) that

came to him in a flash during the night o f February 12/13, 1535. Needless to

say, since Tartaglia could solve two types o f cubics whereas Fior could solve

only one type, Tartaglia won the contest. Cardano, hearing o f Tartaglia’s vic

tory, was eager to learn his method. Tartaglia kept putting him off, however,

and it was not until four years later that a meeting was arranged between

them. At this meeting Tartaglia divulged his methods, swearing Cardano to

secrecy and particularly forbidding him to publish it. This oath must have

been galling to Cardano. On a visit to Bologna several years later he met

Ferro’s son-in-law and learned o f Ferro’s prior solution. Feeling, perhaps,

that this knowledge released him from his oath to Tartaglia, C ardano pub

lished a version o f the m ethod in Ars Magna. This action evoked bitter attack

from Tartaglia, who claimed that he had been betrayed.

Although couched in geometrical language the method itself is algebraic

and the style syncopated. Cardano gives as an example the equation

x 3 + 6x = 20 and seeks two unknown quantities, p and q, whose difference is

the constant term 20 and whose product is the cube o f 1/3 the coefficient o f

x , 8. A solution is then furnished by the difference o f the cube roots o f p and

q. For this example the solution is

The procedure easily applies to the general cubic after being transformed to

remove the term in x 2. This discovery left unanswered such questions as these:

What should be done with negative and imaginary roots, and (a related question)

do three roots always exist? What should be done (in the so-called irreducible

case) when Cardano’s method produced apparently imaginary expression like

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481 + 3 0 ^ + 4 8 1 - 30V^3

for the real root, - 6 , o f the cubic x 3 - 63x - 162 = 0? These questions were

not fully settled until 1732, when Leonard Euler found a solution.

The general quartic equation yielded to methods o f similar character; and

its solution, also, appeared in Ars Magna. C ardano’s pupil Ludovico Ferrari

was responsible for this result. Ferrari, while still in his teens (1540), solved

a challenging problem that his teacher could not solve. His solution can be

described as follows: First reduce the general quartic to one in which the x3

term is missing, then rearrange the terms and add a suitable quantity (with

undetermined coefficient) to both sides so that the left-hand mem ber is a

perfect square. The undeterm ined coefficients are then determined so that

the right-hand member is also a square, by requiring that its determ inant be

zero. This condition leads to a cubic, which can now be solved — the quar

tic can then be easily handled.

Later efforts to solve the quintic and other equations were foredoomed to

failure, but not until the nineteenth century was this finally recognized. Karl

Friedrich Gauss proved in 1799 that every algebraic equation o f degree n over

the real field has a root (and hence n roots) in the complex field. The prob

lem was to express these roots in terms o f the coefficients by radicals. Paolo

RuJJini, an Italian teacher o f maths and medicine at M odena, gave (in 1813)

an essentially satisfactory proof o f the impossibility o f doing this for equa

tions of degree higher than four, but this proof was not well-known at the

time and produced practically no effect.

T E X T TW O

TH E THEORY OF EQUATIONS

Read the text. Sum it up expressing the main ideas оГthe text and reproduce it in class.

History shows the necessity for the invention o f neu numbers in the

orderly progress o f civilization and in the evolution o f maths. Wfe must

review briefly the growth o f the number system in the light o f the theory o f

equations and see why the complex number system need not be enlarged fur

ther. Suppose we decide that we want all polynomial equations to have roots.

Now let us imagine that we have no numbers in our possession except the

natural numbers. Then a simple linear equation like 2x = 3 has no root. In

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order to remedy this condition, we invent fractions. But a simple linear equa

tion, like x + 5 = 2 has no root even among the fractions. Hence we invent

negative numbers. A simple quadratic equation like x 2 = 2 has no root among

all the (positive and negative) rational numbers, therefore we invent the irra

tional numbers which together with the rational numbers complete the sys

tem of real numbers.

However, a simple quadratic equation like x2 = —1 has no root among all

the real numbers, hence, we invent the pure imaginary numbers. But a simple

quadratic equation like x2 + 2x + 4 = 0 has no roots among either the real or

pure imaginary numbers; therefore we invent the complex numbers. The story

of y p l , the imaginary unit, and o f x + yi, the complex number, originated

in the logical development of algebraic theory. The word “ imaginary”

reflects the elusive nature o f the concept for distinguished mathematicians

who lived centuries ago. Early consideration o f the square root o f a negative

num ber brought unvarying rejection. It seemed obvious that a negative num

ber is not a square, and hence it was concluded that such square roots had no

meaning. This attitude prevailed for a long time.

G. Cardano (1545) is credited with some progress in introducing complex

numbers in his solution of the cubic equation, even though he regarded them

as “fictitious” He is credited also with the first use of the square root o f a

negative num ber in solving the now-famous problem, “ Divide 10 into two

parts such that the p ro d u c t... is 40” which Cardano first says is “ manifest

ly impossible” ; but then he goes on to say, in a properly,adventurous spirit,

“ Nevertheless, we will operate.” Thus he found 5 + V l5 and 5 —"\Pl5 and

showed that they did, indeed, have the sum o f 10 and a product of

40. Cardano concludes by saying that these quantities are “truly sophisticat

e d ” and that to continue working with them is “as subtle as it is useless”

Cardano did not use the symbol V - 15, his designation was “Rx-m” , that is,

“radix m inus” , for the square root of a negative number. R. Descartes (1637)

contributed the terms “ real” and “imaginary”. L. Euler (1748) used “i” for

V—I and K. F. Gauss (1832) introduced the term “complex number” He

made significant contributions to the understanding o f complex numbers

through graphical representation and defined complex numbers as ordered

pairs o f real numbers for which (a, b) (c, d) = (oc — bd, ad + be), and so

forth.

Now, we may well expect that there may be some equation o f degree 3

o r higher which has no roots even in the entire system o f complex num

bers. That this is not the case was known to K. F. Gauss, who proved in

1799 the following theorem , the truth o f which had long been expected:

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10 Английский язык для студентов-математиков

Every algebraic equation o f degree n with coefficient in the complex number

system has a root (and hence n roots) among the complex numbers. Later

Gauss published three more proofs o f the theorem . It was he who called it

“fundam ental theorem o f algebra” M uch o f the work on complex num ber

theory is G auss’ He was one o f the first to represent complex num bers as

points in a plane. Actually, Gauss gave four proofs for the theorem , the last

when he was seventy; in the first three proofs, he assumes, the coefficients

o f the polynomial equation are real, but in the fourth proof the coefficients

are any complex numbers. W: can be sure now that for the purpose o f solv

ing polynomial equations we do not need to extend the num ber system any

further.

The general linear equation can be written in the form ax + b = 0 (a * 0),

hence, the formula for its roots is x = The m athem atician’s desire for

several results makes it natural to ask the following question: Can we get sim

ilar formulas giving the roots as algebraic expressions in terms o f the coeffi

cients for the general equation o f any degree? For the general quadratic and

cubic equations and the equation o f degree four, such formulas, as we have

already seen, were obtained in the 16th century. The next task was n at

urally to obtain sim ilar form ulas for the general equation o f degree five:

ax5 + bx* + cx3 + dx2 + ex +/ = 0. Attempts to find such formulas were made

from the 16th century until early in the 19th century without success. The

reason for this failure became evident (in 1824) when N. H. Abe! and

E. Galois (in 1831) proved that it is not possible to write the roots o f the gen

eral equation o f degree higher than four as algebraic expressions in terms of

the coefficients. You may be tempted to ask: “ How can you boldly assert that

it is impossible to find such formulas? Perhaps some day some genius will

discover them. All things are possible. Are you sure you d o n ’t mean simply

that no one has found them yet?” The answer is that we do not merely mean

that no one has found them yet; we mean that no one will ever find them

because it is impossible for such formulas to exist. Notice that we have not

said that the general equation o f degree five cannot be solved. In fact, it can

be solved by other means, but its roots cannot be given as algebraic expres

sions in the coefficients. However, the roots o f some particular equations o f

degree five or more can be obtained. For example, if in the fifth-degree

equation above we restrict ourselves to the particular case where

6 = с = г / = е = 0 < ;* 0 , that is, to equations o f the form ax5 + f - 0. then we

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can clearly express one root as x = V—f / a which is an algebraic expression.

Therefore, a natural question to raise is: Given a definite polynomial equation

o f degree five or more, how can we tell whether or not its roots are expressible as

algebraic expressions in its coefficients'? This question was settled by E. Galois.

Before describing the momentous work o f Abel and Galois, we must note

some o f the events immediately preceding and directly influencing the

remarkable achievements o f these gifted young mathematicians both o f

whom died in their twenties. In 1770 Euler devised a new method for solving

the quartic equation but his optimistic hope that some similar method could

solve the general polynomial equation was ill-fated. In the same year

Lagrange considered the problem o f solving the general polynomial equation

by comparing the known solutions o f quadratic, cubic and quartic equations

and noting that in each o f these three cases a certain reduction transformed

the equation to one o f the lower degree; but, unhappily, when Lagrange tried

this “ reduction” on a quintic equation, the degree o f the resulting equation

was increased rather than decreased. Although Lagrange did not succeed in

his main objective, his attack on the problem made use o f permutations o f the

roots o f the equations-, and he discovered the key to the theory o f permutation

groups, including the property mentioned earlier and now called Lagrange’s

theorem.

Both Abel and Galois built on Lagrange’s work. It is not surprising that

Abel approached the general problem o f trying to solve the polynomial equa

tion o f degree n by trying to solve the general quintic equation. In fact, he

thought he had succeeded and the “solution” was sent to a leading m athe

matician, but while waiting for a reply, Abel fortunately discovered his m is

take and this misadventure caused him to wonder whether a general algebra

ic solution н ш indeed possible. Although Abel succeeded in showing that for

n greater than four the general polynomial equation could not be solved alge

braically, he did not claim to have completely achieved the objective he set

for himself: 1) to find all the equations o f any degree which are solvable alge

braically; 2) to determine whether a given equation is or is not solvable alge

braically.

It was fortunate that Abel’s proof, in which he used permutation groups

to some extent, received early publication. This proof caught the imagina

tion o f Galois who gave complete answers to the questions proposed by Abel.

Galois showed that every equation could be associated with a characteristic

group and that the properties o f this group could be used to determine

w hether the equation could be solved by radicals. In 1831 Galois stated his

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criterion: A polynomial equation is solvable if, and only if, its group, over the

coefficient field, is solvable. The concept associated with this result was usu

ally characterized as Galois’ theory. In his work he used the idea o f isomor

phic groups, and was the first to demonstrate the importance o f invariant (or

normal) subgroups and factor groups. The term “group” is due to Galois. The

work o f Galois was quite original in character and was not well understood

at the time because o f the sketchy expositions which he presented. Galois’

math abilities were not appreciated by his teachers, and in fact he received

no recognition for his work while he lived. Although G alois’ accomplish

ments were math landmarks o f the greatest significance and originality, they

did not immediately make their full impact on his contem poraries because

these men were slow to understand, appreciate, and publish G alois’ work.

However, what is now called the Galois' theory o f equations is studied every

where by advanced students o f maths.

Abel was not yet 27 when he died leaving behind a wealth o f highly orig

inal work which stimulated math research for many years after. Galois was

killed in a duel at the age of less than 21. Abel and Galois proved in entirely

different ways that there cannot be any general formulas fo r solving polynomi

al equations o f degree higher than four. At least there can be no formulas

which give the solutions in terms o f the coefficients and which involve only

addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and the extraction o f roots.

TE X T TH REE

Read the text. Speak on the historical development of algebraic structures and explain why

many different branches of modern maths are all interrelated by virtue of the “group” structures.

The concept of a “ field” was used by both Abel and Galois at an intuitive,

subformal level in their work on polynomial equations. In algebra the word

“ field” is used to describe a structure that closely resembles ordinary arith

metic. The operations o f addition, subtraction, multiplication and division

occur in a field and are much like the corresponding operations in arith

metic. The set o f real numbers, under ordinary addition and multiplication, is

the most fam iliar example o f a field. There exists a large variety o f fields in

algebra. In ordinary algebra in which the letters represent real numbers, the

field axioms are assumed. One o f the most interesting field properties usual

ly assumed in ordinary algebra (actually it is not an axiom but a theorem ) is

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the “nonexistence o f zero dividors” This is used in solving quadratic equa

tion by the factoring method and guarantees that if a product like (x - 2)

(x — 3) is zero, at least one o f the factors must be zero. In 1871 R. Dedekind

gave a concrete formulation and the earliest expositions o f the theory o f

fields. One o f the greatest accomplishments of the 19th century' in maths is

expressed in the statem ent that the real number system is a "complete ordered

fie ld ”

More formally the word “ field” means a math system in which addition

and multiplication can be carried out in a way that satisfies the familiar rules,

namely, (1) the commutative law of addition and multiplication, (2) the

associative law o f addition and multiplication, (3) the distributive law.

Furtherm ore, a field must contain a zero element 0, characterized by the

property, th a tx + 0 = x for any elem ent x. It contains a unit element, 1, that

has the property that 1 x x = x. For any given element x there exists another

elem ent —x such that —x + x = 0. Finally, for any elements x (x * 0) a field

must contai n an element 1/x such that x( 1/x) = l . Thus, a field is a structure

(exemplified by, e.g., the rational numbers) whose elements can be added, sub

tracted, multiplied and divided under the familiar rules o f arithmetic.

Considering now the second word, a field is “ordered” if the sizes o f its

elements can be compared. The shorthand symbol used to denote this prop

erty is the sign >, meaning “greater than” This symbol must obey its own set

o f rules, (1) the trichotomy law: for any two elements x and y , exactly one of

the following three relations is true, x > y, x —y, or у > x; (2) the transitivity

law: if x > у and y > z, then x > z\ (3) the law o f addition: if x > y, then x + z

> у + z; (4) the law o f multiplication: if x > у and z > 0, then xz > yz.

Finally, what do we mean by the word “complete” in describing the sys

tem o f real numbers as a “complete ordered field”? This has to do with the

problem raised by a num ber such as ^2 . Practically speaking, ^ 2 is given by

a sequence of rational numbers such as 1,1.4, 1.41,1.414... that provide bet

ter and better approximation to it. Squaring these numbers yields a sequence

o f numbers that are getting closer and closer to 2. So, we think o f v2 as a

“limiting value” o f such a sequence o f approximation. An ordered field is

called “complete” if, corresponding to any regular sequence o f elements,

there is an elem ent o f the field that the sequence approaches as a limiting

value. This is “the law o f completeness” the final axiomatic requirement for

the real-num ber system.

In a field as we have just seen, we can add, subtract, multiply and divide

(except that division by 0 is barred). N ot all algebraic structures have as com

prehensive a list o f operations. In a ring, for example, we can add, subtract

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and multiply but not necessarily divide. A familiar example o f a ring is the

whole numbers, both positive and negative. Even more restricted than a ring is

the concept o f a group, with the existence in it o f only one operation, which

can be thought o f as a kind o f generalized multiplication. The idea o f a group

is one which pervades the whole of modern m aths both pure and applied.

The theory o f groups, a central concern o f contem porary maths, has evolved

through a progression of abstractions. A group is one o f the simplest and the

most important algebraic structures o f consequence. G roup theory traces its

origin back to a problem that has fascinated mathematicians since the

Middle Ages: the solution of algebraic equations o f degree greater than two

by algebraic processes. In the particular form o f the study o f symmetry,

group theory can claim to have its origin in prehistoric times. Nowadays,

group theory is developed in an abstract way so that it can be applied in many

different circumstances but many o f those applications still concern symme

try.

Some o f the com ponents o f the group concept (i.e., those essential prop

erties that were later abstracted and formulated as axioms) and also o f the

field concept, were recognized as early as 1650 B.C. when the Egyptians

showed a curious awareness that something was involved in assuming that

ab = ba. The Egyptians also freely used the distributive law, namely.

a(b + c) = ab + ac, but without any com m ent. The Babylonians (c. 1700

B.C.) also used the commutative and distributive laws. These laws were tac

itly assumed in their rhetorical algebra when, in effect, they used such for

mulas as (a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2. Looking at Greek maths, we see that

Euclid was more aware o f the explicit nature o f the distributive law, declar

ing in his proposition 1: a(b + c + d) = ab + ac + ad. Somewhat later

Diophantus exhibited interesting insights regarding multiplicative inverses

and the unity element. One may, perhaps, claim that the concept o f a cyclic

group is prehistoric in the sense that the ancients measured a circle by using

equal divisions o f its circumference, or that the 24-hour clocks o f the

Babylonians and Egyptians were (implicitly) examples o f finite additive

groups with 24 used as a zero element, and Euclid’s work contains at the

implicit level what is classified now as algebraic num ber theory and group

theory.

The group concept was not recognized as explicitly as were some o f its

axioms, but even so it was implicitly sensed and used before Abel and Galois

brought it into focus and before Cayley (1854) defined a general abstract

group. During the two hundred years from Victc to Abel and Galois, in the

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work o f some great mathematicians an implicit grasp o f the group concept

was already to be found. During the seventeenth century it was clear to those

working with the /ith roots o f unity that these n elements formed a multi

plicative cyclic group and that the primitive nth roots could be used as gen

erators o f the group. The use o f group theory at the subformal level — and a

striking one — is found in Euler’s proof (1760-1761) o f a generalization of

Fermat’s “little theorem ” Euler was actually using an idea later formulated

by Lagrange (1770) and now known as Lagrange’s theorem, which says that

the number of elements in the first-column subgroup divides the number o f

elements in the whole table. Lagrange gave the idea an explicit and general

formulation and showed that the number o f elements in a symmetric group

is divisible by the num ber o f elements in any subgroup (which is, of course,

a permutation group). H ence his result was valid for non-Abelian permuta

tion groups as well as for Abelian groups.

In 1779 Paolo Ruffini showed that the converse o f Lagrange’s theorem is

not true; that is, a group o f order n does not necessarily have a subgroup of

order s just because s divides n. Just preceding Abel and Galois, Cauchy

(1815) published his first article on group theory, dealing with the permuta

tion groups, and Gauss formalized the modular system (which are additive

cyclic groups) and in his work on the theory o f the composition of quadrat

ic forms derived a complete set o f properties, which, taken axiomatically,

define an Abelian group. In 1854 Cayley published an article entitled “On the

Theory o f Groups as Depending on the Symbolic Equation Ө" = 1” which is

noteworthy because it gives what is probably the earliest definition o f a finite

abstract group. It also gives the result now known as Cayley’s theorem, that

“every finite group is isomorphic to a regular permutation group” In 1870

D.S. Jordan published his Trade des Substitutions — a masterly presentation

o f permutation groups — covering the results of Lagrange, Abel, Galois,

Cauchy as well as his own contributions to the subject. In the same year

L. Kronecker gave a set o f axioms defining finite Abelian groups. Out o f this

complete axiomatic system for finite Abelian groups, Kronecker, working

with a completely arbitrary abstract set of elements, derived the customary

group properties.

It will be convenient at this point to give a formal definition o f a group,

and we shall illustrate the definition by giving an example o f a permutation

group, since perm utation groups were historically important in developing

the group concept. Consider the set G = {1, a, b, c, d, e) where the six ele

ments o f C are, respectively, the six permutations 1) 123, a) 132, b) 213, c)

231, d) 312, e) 321. The “product” ab is defined to mean that the first per

295

mutation a is performed and then perm utation b is performed on the result

o f a. Thus, a produces (1 ,3 ,2 ) and, applying b to (1 ,3 , 2), we get the result

(2, 3, 1), which is c. So we say that ab = c. Notice that ba = d, and so our

multiplication in this example is not commutative. All possible products are

given in the figure below. (To find the product ab from the table, use the left

and top margins, in their order, for a and b\ the entry is c, indicated by the

dotted lines.) By referring to the table the following defining properties

(axioms) o f a group are easily checked:

1. The set G is closed with respect to the defined multiplication; that is,

the product o f any two elements o f G is

1 a bj c d e again an element o f G. Thus, be=e, and e is

an elem ent o f G.

1 1 a bI c d e 2. The associative law holds for any three

a a 1 c! b d e elem ents o f G. Thus, (ab)c=a(bc);

(c)c=a(e); d=d.

b b d 1 e a c

3. T he set G has an id en tity elem en t

c c e a d 1 b (in th is exam ple, l) w ith the property

th a t a \ = \a = a , b[ = \b= b, etc.

d d b e 1 c a

4. Each element o f G has an inverse; for

e a c d a b 1 example, we can find,

an x so that ax= 1

(in fact, x=a, since aa= 1).

A y so that by= 1 (in fact, y=b, since bb=1).

А г so that cz= 1 (in fact, z=d, since cd= 1).

The set G is called a group if, and only if, the above four properties hold.

Some groups have the additional property o f commutativity, and they are

called Abelian (от commutative) groups. Part o f the fascination that group

theory exercises on many m athem aticians lies in the fact that the whole

structure is created on the logical foundation o f these four simple axioms.

The relation o f the group concept to that o f a field may be briefly indicated

by noting that the set F o f real numbers is an example o f a field because the

elements of F satisfy the five axioms for a commutative group with respect to

addition (where the identity elem ent is represented by 0); the nonzero ele

ments o f Fsatisfy five more axioms for a commutative group with respect to

multiplication (where the identity elem ent is represented by 1); and the ele

ments o f F satisfy a final axiom called the distributive law, namely,

a(b+c)=a b+a c, which “distributes” the multiplication "over” the addition.

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Pure group theory is not usually the most fruitful part o f the theory. The

reason for this is that it is not the symmetry as such which is of prime impor

tance but rather the way in which the symmetry governs and simplifies the

discussion of the quantitative properties of the system. This quantitative

aspect is known as group representation theory since the abstract groups or

symmetry groups are represented by groups of matrices.

Group Algebra

In order to be able to investigate the structure of a group more p ro

foundly it is necessary to introduce addition as a second operation

between group elements. This addition has to be considered as a formal

operation in the sense that the coefficients o f the various group elem ents

are added separately just as algebraic expressions in different unknowns x,

y, z, etc., are added. By introducing addition as a second operation into

the group, a more elaborate algebraic entity has been created whose ele

m ents are the linear com binations o f group elements. This entity in the

group algebra is one example o f the more general concept of a linear asso

ciative algebra.

G roups and semigroups have considerable significance in the founda

tions o f maths. The im portance o f groups and semigroups in algebra lies

largely in the fact that many algebraic systems are actually groups o r sem i

groups with respect to one or more o f the binary operations o f the sys

tem s. In other words, many algebraic structures contain the group structure

or the semigroup structure within them as a substructure. G roups and sem i

groups are like algebraic atoms from which many algebraic systems can be

constructed. These ideas are illustrated by the following alternative defi

nitions o f ring, commutative ring, ring with identity, integral dom ain,

division ring and field.

1. A ring is a set S o f elem ents for which two binary operations, ad d i

tion and m ultiplication, are defined such that (1) S is an Abelian group

under addition with identity elem ent called zero, (2) S is a semigroup

under m ultiplication, (3) the two distributive laws of m ultiplication over

addition hold.

2. A commutative ring is a ring in which the multiplicative semigroup is

Abelian.

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3. A ring with identity is a ring in which the multiplicative semigroup has

an identity element.

4. An integral domain is a ring in which the nonzero elem ents constitute

a subsemigroup o f the multiplicative semigroup.

5. A division ring (or a field) is a ring o f more than one elem ent in which

the nonzero elements constitute a subgroup o f the multiplicative semigroup.

6. A field is a division ring in which the multiplicative semigroup is

Abelian. Two very im portant examples o f ordered fields are the set o f all

rational numbers and the set of all real numbers, with the operations o f addi

tion and multiplication performed on these numbers.

T E X T FOUR

Read the text. Speak on the extensions of the number concept and its generalizations.

peoples is W. R. Hamilton, who was bom in Dublin in 1805 and died in

1865. His fame has had curious and regular changes. During his lifetime he

was celebrated but not understood; after his death his reputation declined

and he came to be counted in the second rank; in the twentieth century he

has become the subject o f an extraordinary revival o f interest and apprecia

tion. H am ilton’s scientific career is astonishing. When he was only 21 years

old, he submitted to the Royal Irish Academy a paper entitled A Theory o f

Systems o f Rays, which in effect made a new science o f math optics. The

communication of the paper was soon followed by a great change in

H am ilton’s circumstances. The chair o f Professor o f Astronomy at Trinity

College was vacated in 1826 and H am ilton was appointed to the chair which

conferred to its occupant the title o f Royal Astronomer o f Ireland. The elec

tion o f an undergraduate to a professorial chair was an astonishing event.

In 1832 Hamilton announced to the Royal Irish Academy a remarkable

discovery in optics which followed up his theory o f systems o f rays. In 1835

Hamilton received the honour o f knighthood, and two years after he was

elected President o f the Royal Irish Academy. In 1837, six years after Gauss

invented his treatment o f complex numbers, Hamilton arrived at his own

independent discovery o f the same ideas, which he applied to rotations and

vectors in the plane, as others had done. In the second paper on this subject

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he generalized from ordered pairs to «-tuples with emphasis on quadruples

(or “quaternions”), which extended the algebra o f vectors in the plane to

vectors in space. Thus, the concept of a complex number, a+bi was extend

ed to the form a + Ы + cj + dk (a, b, c, d real) where i2 = J2 = k 2= — 1= ijk.

Thus, in 1843 Hamilton made his greatest scientific discovery — the calculus

o f quaternions.

Hamilton was led to this discovery by long thought o f the problem of

finding a general rule for computing the fourth proportional to three

straight-line segments when the directions o f those lines were taken into

account. The roots o f vector algebra go back to the geometric concept of

directed line segments in space. The composition o f forces by the parallelo

gram law led to the idea o f addition o f vectors. Their representation as

ordered sets o f real numbers could occur only after the extension o f number

systems beyond the complex numbers. It had taken fifteen years to work

before it dawned on Hamilton that it was possible to create a consistent and

useful m ath system that contradicted the tim e-honoured law that AB=BA.

This flash o f insight occurred one October day when he was out strolling with

his wife along the Royal Canal in Dublin, and he carved the basic formulas

on a stone in Brougham Bridge. Hamilton suddenly realized the answer: the

geometrical operation o f three-dim ensional spaces required for their

description not triplets but quadruplets. To specify the operation needed to

convert one vector into another in space, one had to know four numbers: 1)

the ratio o f the length o f one vector to the other; 2) the angle between them;

3) the node; 4) the inclinations o f the plane in which they lie. Hamilton

named the set of four numbers a quaternion, and found that he could multi

ply quaternions as if they were single numbers. But he discovered that the

algebra o f quaternions differed from ordinary algebra in a crucial respect: it

was noncommutative. The surrender o f the commutative law was a trem en

dous break with tradition. It marked the beginning o f a new era.

From this time (1843) until his death, H am ilton’s chief interest (for 22

years!) was to develop the new calculus. H am ilton’s discovery was quickly

followed by other new algebras, such as the theory o f matrices, which is like

wise noncommutative. Thus, Hamilton started a glorious school o f maths,

though it was not to come into full flower for another half century. The dis

covery o f special relativity brought quaternions to the fore because quater

nions could be applied to the representation o f rotations in four-dimension

al space. H am ilton’s work stirred up considerable disputation throughout

the Wfestern world on the question whether quaternions should replace vec

tors as an everyday tool in physics and maths and it resulted in the formula

299

tion of an international association to study the question. As it turned out,

quaternions were not as practical as Hamilton had believed, and they were

soon eclipsed by later inventions that were easier to apply; but they began to

do for algebra what non-Euclidean concepts were doing for geometry. Once

it was realized that BA=AB was not an irrevocable axiom, mathematicians

began to experiment with new systems in which other axioms were also

changed.

As a standard device for everyday use in physics, quaternions disappeared

entirely. They are, however, very much alive now with a different “ raison

d ’etre”. Today mathematicians are interested in studying number systems in

their entirety, in learning their properties and in learning how to construct

new ones. One prom inent type is called an associative division algebra over

a field. It is known that there are only three such algebras over the real field:

1) the real num ber system, 2) the complex num ber system, and 3) the sys

tem o f quaternions. Thus, the system o f quaternions may be designated as

the only noncommutative associative division algebra over the real field.

It is only fair to mention in passing that in 1844 Hermann Grassmann

simultaneously and independently created an even more general theory of

л -tuples than Hamilton. Instead o f considering ordered sets o f quadruples of

real numbers, Grassmann dealt with ordered sets o f n real numbers. To

establish such a set (X|, x 2, ..., x„) Grassmann associated a hypercomplex

number o f the form x le l+x2e2+.. -xnen, where e t, e2,..., e„ are the fundamen

tal units o f his algebra. Two such hypercomplex numbers are added and mul

tiplied like polynomials in e b e2, ..., en. The addition o f two such numbers

yields, then, a num ber o f the same kind. To make the product o f two such

numbers a number o f the same kind requires the construction o f a multipli

cation table for the units е 1г..., e„ similar to H am ilton’s multiplication table

for his quaternions. Here one has considerable freedom and different alge

bras can be created by making different multiplication tables. H am ilton’s

quaternions and to some extent G rassm ann’s calculus o f extension were

devised by their creators as math tools for the exploration o f physical space.

These tools proved to be too complicated for quick mastery and easy appli

cation, but from them emerged the much more easily learned and applied

the subject o f vector analysis. This work was due to, principally, the Arne rican

physicist J.W. Gibbs (1838-1903) and is encountered by every student of

maths and physics.

TEX T F IV E

LINEAR ALGEBRA

Read the text. Sum it up expressing its main ideas and illustrate them with some problems in

linear algebra.

Linear algebra like several other math disciplines may be considered from

two different points o f view: 1) as a branch o f maths o f independent interest

with a development and with problems o f its own; 2) as a tool for other math

disciplines and for math physics. A large class o f math problems is generally

called “ linear” the simplest problem is the following: Let a and b be two

given (real or complex) numbers —to find a number x that satisfies the equa

tion ax=b. The problem has a unique solution x, if, and only if, a*0; no solu

tion at all if a—0, b*0) an infinity o f solutions, viz., all real (or complex) x if

a=0 and b=0. This statem ent comprises the whole theory o f the problem.

One o f the main technical devices o f linear algebra is the theory o f deter

minants and for a long time it has been the only part o f linear algebra which

was studied systematically. This is the more surprising as the notion o f matrix

— the main object o f modern linear algebra — is evidently more fundamen

tal than that o f a determ inant because a determinant is only a certain number

associated with a given square matrix. Whilst the notion of determinant was

discovered by Leibnitz (c. 1690), the notion o f matrix appeared only much

later in 1854 in a paper by Cayley and independently in 1867 in a paper by

Laguerre. Since then linear algebra and matrix calculus have developed into

a vast domain o f maths closely connected with a good many other math

branches, such as the theory o f groups, the theory of invariants, tensor cal

culus, the theory o f systems o f differential equations, etc. Linear algebra

provides the methods o f proof as well as the adequate algebraic formalism for

a considerable part o f analytic geometry. It has served as a model in recent

developments o f analysis (theory o f integral equations and of linear transfor

mation in infinite-dimensional spaces) which have considerably advanced

this branch o f maths and proved importan* -.n m odem physics.

As a result o f the historical developm ent o f ideas leading to the term

“discrim inant” there is today a slight inconsistency in the use o f the

word. Texts dealing w ith the equation A x2 + Bx + C=0 call B2 — 4AC the

discriminant o f the equation. O ther texts discussing the binary quadratic

301

form Q(x, y)= Ax2 + 2Bxy + Cy2 call AC—B2 the discriminant o f Q. Sim ilar

though these expressions are, it is n o t im m ediately obvious that we are

justified in using the same name — th at we have the same m ath entity. By

the middle o f the eighteenth century it was well known that a necessary

and sufficient condition for the equation /4x2+filx+C=0 to have two iden

tical roots was B2—4AC=0. The expression was known; m athem aticians

knew w hat it signified and how to4work w ith it; but it was not yet recog

nized as a m ath entity.

D uring the next hundred years m ath em atician s studied several

expressions related to the quadratic form. In 1748 L. Euler used co n d i

tions involving expressions like those above to determ ine w hether a

quadratic surface is contained in finite space; but Euler did not give a

nam e to these expressions. The expression th at was not yet an entity

reappeared in 1773. J.L. Lagrange was studying the binary quadratic form

given above. H e proved that if x+A.y were substituted fo rx , leading to a

new form А {х + \у )2+2В(х+'ку)у+Су2у then if the new expression is sim

plified to A 'x 2+ 2B 'xy+ C 'y2, we must have A ' C B ' 2=AC—B2. O ther

m athem aticians turned to the study o f such invariants, and similar

expressions kept reappearing. K.F. Gauss called such an expression a

“determinant” o f the function. It rem ains for the J.J. Sylvester, who called

him self the “ m athem atical A dam ” because o f his habit o f giving names to

m ath creatures, to name this one. In 1851 he was studying invariants in

reducing certain sixth-degree functions o f two variables to sim pler forms.

What he found was what he called (and what we now recognize as) the

“discrim inant o f a cube” The discriminant is a combination o f constants

which vanishes i f at least two factors o f a function are the same.

The Japanese m athem atician S eki Kowa (1683) system atized an old

C hinese m ethod o f solving sim ultaneous lin ear equations whose coeffi

cients were represented by calculating sticks — bam boo rods placed in

squares on a table, with the positions o f the different squares correspon

ding to the coefficients. In the process o f working out his system , Kowa

rearranged the rods in a way sim ilar to that used in our sim plification of

determ inants; thus, it is thought that he had the idea o f a determinant.

Ten years later G. Leibnitz formally originated determ inants and gave a

w ritten notation for them . In a letter to M. de L’Hospital Leibnitz gave

a discussion o f a system o f three linear equations in two unknow ns: “ l

suppose that*

*

in modern notation

302

a xo+ axxx+ a x2y = О

a20+a2Xx+a22y=0 (1)

азо+азіх+азіУ=0-

...Eliminating у first from the first and the second equations and then from

the first and third and eliminating the letter x... as a result we shall have

a \o a \\ a n

a 20 a 2l a 22

= 0. ( 2)

°30 a 3 \ a 32

The reader may recall, or easily verify, that (2) is the condition for the three

straight lines represented by (1) to pass through a common point. The now-

standard “vertical line notation” used in (2) right-hand column above was

given by A. Cayley. Determinants were invented independently by G. Cramer,

whose now well-known rule for solving linear systems was published in 1750,

although not in present-day notation. Many other mathematicians also

made contributions to determinant theory—among them A. T. Vandermonde,

P.S. Laplace, J.M. Wronski, and A.L. Cauchy. It is Cauchy who applied the

word “determinant” to the subject; in 1812 he introduced the multiplication

theorem. The fundamental importance o f determinants as working tools in

maths has come to be widely recognized.

Suppose there are two homogeneous linear equations in three variablesx,

У, z:

02X+ Һ-2У+ c2z=0.

Then in general they have a solution

X ______ у ______ z

b xc2 - b 2c x c xa2 - c2a x a xb2 —a2bx

These denom inators are called determinants o f the second order, they can be

written in various ways, all o f which have a great value.

303

A more familiar notation for the determinant b xc2— bycx is the well-

known square array b l c,

introduced by Cayley in 1841 long after deter

b2 c2

minants were first invented. Determinants provide an efficient com putation

al tool for various purposes, notably to determine when vectors are linearly

independent and it is consequently useful to have them for such com puta

tions. In spite of the great intrinsic interest o f the subject, and the wonderful

flexibility of determinants as practical working tools in many branches of

pure and applied maths, there is still a considerable absence o f systematic

knowledge o f even the main results in the theory.

Although the idea o f a matrix was implicit in the quaternions (4-tuples)

o f W. Hamilton and also in the “extended magnitudes’’ (л-tuples) of

H. G rassm ann, the credit for inventing matrices is usually given to Cayley

with a date of 1857, even though H am ilton obtained one or two isolated

results in 1852. Cayley says that he got the idea o f a matrix “either directly

from that of a determ inant, or as a convenient mode o f expression o f the

equations x'=ax+by, y'= cx+ dy”. He represented this transformation and

developed an algebra o f matrices by observing properties o f transformations

on linear equations:

X' = ax+by a b

—>

y ' = cx+dy c d.

form as shown above where o, b, c, d are suitable complex numbers. For

example, if we let the quaternion units 1, i j , к be represented by

» У and

0 1 0 /_ —1 0 / 0

4 + 5/ 6 + 71

- 6 + 7/ 4 - 5/

304

This led P.G. Tait, a disciple of Hamilton, to conclude erroneously that

Cayley had used quaternions as his motivation for matrices. It was shown by

Hamilton in his theory o f quaternions that one could have a logical system

in which the multiplication is not commutative. This result was undoubted

ly o f great help to Cayley in working out his matrix calculus because matrix

multiplication also is noncommutative. In 1925 Heisenberg discovered that

the algebra o f matrices is just right for the noncommutative maths describ

ing phenomena in quantum mechanics.

Cayley’s theory o f matrices grew out of his interest in linear transforma

tions and algebraic invariants, an interest he shared with J.J. Sylvester. In

collaboration with J.J. Sylvester, Cayley (с. 1846) began the work on the the

ory o f algebraic invariants which had been in the air for some time and

which, like matrices, received some o f its motivation from determinants.

They investigated algebraic expressions that remained invariant (unchanged

except, possibly, for a constant factor) when the variables were transformed

by substitutions representing translations, rotations, dilatations (“stretch

ings” from the origin), reflections about an axis, and so forth.

. There are three fundamental operations in matrix algebra: addition, mul

tiplication and transposition, the last does not occur in ordinary algebra. The

law o f multiplication of matrices which Cayley invented and his successors

have approved, takes its rise in the theory of linear transformations. Linear

combinations o f matrices with scalar coefficients obey the rules o f ordinary

algebra. A transposition is a perm utation which interchanges two numbers

and leaves the others fixed, or in other words: the formal operation leading

from x to x ' and also that leading from x 'to x is called transposition. A matrix

o f m rows and n columns has rank r, when not all its minor determ inants o f

order г vanish, while o f order r+ 1 do so. A matrix and its transposed have the

same rank. The rank o f a square matrix is the greatest number o f its rows or

columns which are linearly independent.

Today, matrix theory is usually considered as the main subject o f linear

algebra, and it is a mathematical tool o f the social scientist, geneticist, stat

istician, engineer, and physical scientist.

VOCAB U LA R Y E X E R C I S E S

1. Check up the meaning of the following words and word combinations in the dictionary.

current — undercurrent / current o f air / the current of events / alterna

tive current / the current year / current prices / current opinions / in current

305

use / to gain (to obtain) currency / words in com m on currency / paper cur

rency / foreign currency

reciprocal correspondence / reciprocal differences / reciprocal equation /

reciprocal matrix / reciprocal ratio / reciprocal theorems / reciprocity law

homogeneous coordinates / homogeneous equation / homogeneous

function / homogeneous integral equation / homogeneous process / homo

geneous space / homogeneous substance

ill-fated / ill-advised / ill-affected / ill-favoured / ill-judged / ill-timed /

ill-used

misfortunate — misadvantage — misunderstanding — misusage — mis

information — miscalculation — misconception

falsehood — likelihood — neighbourhood — knighthood — brotherhood

— childhood — m otherhood — manhood

irrational — irreconcilable — irreducible — irrefutable — irrevocable —

irregular — irrelevant — irresistible — irrespective — irresponsible

to put smb off / to use smth for personal advantage / efforts were fore

doomed to failure / to catch the imagination / to receive no recognition / to

receive the honour o f knighthood / to bring smth to the fore / to delete pos

tulates / to show a curious awareness

a) name — title — heading — headline / field — sphere — domain —

province / landmark — watershed — boundary line symbol — turning point /

contest — competition — tournam ent — duel / oath — swear word — solemn

statement — solemn promise / assertion — declaration — claim / permuta

tion — combination — arrangement in orders / answer — reply — response /

connection — relation — tie / impact — collision / effect — results — influ

ence — impression / presumption — presupposition / cancellation — reduc

tion / proliferation — abundancy / disciple — follower / array — table — map /

row — line / promulgation — announcement — proclamation

b) current — modern — today’s -- contem porary / ill-fated — unlucky —

fatal — misfortunate — unsuccessful / galling — annoying / remarkable —

out of ordinary — notable — worthy o f notice / irrevocable — final — unal

terable / appropriate — fit — suitable / understandable — comprehensible /

erroneous — mistaken / infallible — unmistaken / inverse — reciprocal /

tempestuous — violent — stormy / simultaneous — happening at the same

time / rectangular — square

306

c) to forbid — to prohibit — to ban — to outlaw / to delete — to bar / to

word — to put (express) in words — to phrase — to couch / to make a secret

known — to reveal a secret — to divulge a secret / to be eager — to long —

to be anxious / to cause — to produce — to bring out — to evoke / to be false —

to be unfaithful — to give away — to betray / to recall — to remember — to call

back to mind / to have — to have got — to possess / to remedy — to cure — to

put right / to reject — to refuse / to assert — to declare — to claim / to stem

from — to originate / to surrender — to give up — to abandon — to sacrifice /

to eclipse — to surpass — to outshine — to darken / to pervade — to pene

trate — to spread through / to preclude — to prevent / to embrace — to include

— to involve / to signify — to mean — to make known / to approve — to be

satisfied with / to overcome — to vanquish / in search o f — in quest o f / to

perfect — to improve — to refine — to purify

4. Read and translate the text into Russian. Give synonyms, antonyms, definitions of all the

words in bold type.

In 1637 Rene Descartes published a book with a lengthy title Discourse on

the Method o f Rightly Conducting One’s Reason and Seeking Truth in the

Sciences. Three appendixes were included: Optics, Meteorology, Geometry.

The third part o f the third appendix is entitled in translation On the

Construction o f Solid and Supersolid Problems. It deals with many basic ideas

for solving equations that arise in connection with geometric problems (pri

marily the study o f conic sections by algebraic methods).

After posing some problems on mean proportions, Descartes proceeds to

construct a fourth-degree polynomial equation by multiplying together the

linear factors (x — 2), (x — 3), (x —4) and (x + 5) to obtain x4 —4x3 — I9x2

+ 106x - 120 = 0. He remarks that the polynomial is divisible by no other

binomial factors and that the equation has “only the four roots 2, 3, 4 and

5” The fact that the fourth root is —5 rather than 5 is recognized by speak

ing o f 5 as a “false” root, in contrast to the positive numbers which are called

“true” roots. (The minus sign is not used by Descartes to designate negative

numbers.) Then comes the statement o f the celebrated rule o f signs:

“W; can determine also the number o f true and false roots that any equa

tion can have, as follows: An equation can have as many true roots as it con

tains changes o f sign, from + to - or from - to + ; and as many false roots

as the number o f times two “ + ” signs or two “—” signs are found in succes

sion.”

307

Following this general com m ent, Descartes points out the three changes

o f sign and the one succession (permanence) o f sign in his example and con

cludes, “Wfe know there are three true roots and one false root.”

As is often the case with the promulgation o f a significant math result, this

first statem ent of the relation between changes in signs o f the successive

terms o f the polynomial and the nature o f the roots was not complete.

N either was any attempt made at proof, other than the illustrative example

that accompanied it.

The process o f refining the rule o f signs continued over a period o f two

centuries. In this process two points, specifically, were clarified: (1) the fact

that variations in sign determine only upper bounds for the number o f posi

tive roots because o f the possibility o f imaginary roots and (2) the fact that

the perm anence o f sign determine bounds for the number o f negative roots

only for a complete polynomial — that is, one with no coefficients equal to

zero.

I. N ew ton in his work Arithmetica Universalis (published in 1707 but

w ritten some thirty years earlier) gave an accurate statem ent o f the rule o f

signs and presented w ithout proof a procedure for determ ining the num

ber o f im aginary roots. At about the same tim e, G. Leibnitz pointed out a

line o f proof, although he did not give it in detail. Several proofs were

given in the period from 1745 to 1828, some o f them quite insufficient.

K. G auss added the significant contribution to the statem ent o f the rule

that if the num ber o f positive roots falls short o f the num ber o f variations,

it does so by an even integer. The com plete statem ent o f Descartes’ rule o f

signs is as follows:

“Let Pn(x) = OqX" + +... + a n, where the coefficients Oq, a x, ........ .

an are real numbers, n0*0. Then, the number of positive real roots of the equa

tion Pn(x)=0 [a root of multiplicity m being counted m times] is either equal

to the number of variations in signs or less than that number by a positive even

integer.”

The m atter o f negative roots o f / >n(x)=0 is handled simply by considering

the positive roots o f Pn(- x )= 0. Thus, the m atter o f permanence o f sign is

avoided. The crux o f the proof stems from the work o f Gua de Malves and

Segner. It consists in showing that if Pn( x ) - ( x - r ) Pn_x{x), where Pn_,(x) has

real coefficients and r is positive, then Pn(x) has at least one more variation

in sign than does /^„((x) — for the general case, an odd number more.

GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY EX ER C ISES

Я решаю задачи. I am solving problems. (Present Continuous)

I have been solving problems for an hour. (Pres-

_ ent Perfect Continuous)

nite)

I was solving the problems when he came. (Past

Continuous)

I have solved the problems. (Present Perfect)

Я решал (решил) I had solved the problems before he came. (Past

задачи. Perfect)

I had been solving the problems for an hour

V when he came. (Past Perfect Continuous)

Indefinite)

I shall be solving the problems when he comes

Я буду решать (решу) tomorrow. (Future Continuous)

задачи. I shall have been solving the problems for an

hour when he comes tomorrow. (Future Perfect

Continuous)

I shall have solved the problems when he comes.

^ (Future Perfect)

2. Write all the tense forms of the predicate in the following sentences. Consult the above

given patterns, if necessary.

1. T he knowledge o f algebra does not grow steadily. 2. We talk about

the way in w hich vectors are added. 3. M athem aticians encounter im ag

inary num bers as roots o f polynom ial equations. 4. In elem entary alge

bra sym bols stand for number. 5. Thanks to the fundam ental theorem o f

algebra the solution o f polynom ial equations requires no new kinds o f

num bers.

3. Use the proper tense form (indefinite, continuous, perfect or perfect continuous) in the

sentences.

(by the end o f the last century, in future, since the birth o f modem civi

lization, usually, nowadays, fo r a long time, i f necessary, in this particu

lar problem)

2. Axiomatic inquiry brings forth new concepts in algebra.

(still, from the outset, in 1873, eventually, this year, already, next decade)

в алгебре. in algebra.

Such problems are being solved in algebra

k nowadays.

r Such problems were usually solved in al

gebra.

Такие задачи решались Such problems were being solved in a l

(решены) в алгебре. gebra at that time.

Such problems have already been solved in

algebra.

Such problems had been solved by the end

o f the past century.

(решены) в алгебре. Such problems will have been solved in

algebra when the necessity comes.

1. Contemporary algebra is considered as a mixture o f m uch that is vers

old and still important, e.g., counting and newer concepts such as structures.

2. The beginnings o f the development o f numbers are lost in prehistory.

3. Complex numbers arc expressed in the form o f a number-couple. 4. The

sign “ + ” is used in modem algebra only for commutative systems.

6. Thinslate the following sentences paying special attention to the way the predicate shoald

be rendered in Russian:

3 10

1. We are so accustomed to expressing relations by m eans o f com pact

symbols that it is tempting to identify the symbols with algebra itself.

2. However, for a long time the subject m atter o f algebra was written out

in com m on language. 3. The m ajor task o f historian seeking to under

stand ancient algebra has always been to express it, if possible, in m odern

symbols and thus to disclose its abstract form. 4. Any developm ent

toward a more com pact way o f displaying complex relationships has been

regarded as a fundam ental advance. 5. Such an advance in the field o f

algebra was made by the French m athem aticians R. Descartes and

F. Viete. 6. The concern for unam biguous terminology and symbolism

had preceded by two centuries the concern with structures. 7. It was not

until the end o f the fifteenth century that algebra was assuming a som e

w hat m odern form. 8. A general theory o f structure (beginning w ith the

solution o f polynomial equations and the relations between their roots

and coefficients) has led to the “com pletion” o f the com plex-num ber

system. 9. Due to the extension of the complex numbers by hyperconv

plex num bers, new algebraic structures have been created. 10. The

dom ain of algebra has been profoundly expanded thanks to the change of

the whole nature o f algebra. 11. Early in the nineteenth century algebra

has become a science th a t could deal effectively w ith anything.

12. M odern algebra is being made to apply to situations, which at first

sight in no way related to algebra.

1. Algebraic symbolism is frequently thought of as the hallm ark o f

algebra itself. 2. A bel’s first im portant paper on the quintic equation

was sneered at by his contem porary m athem aticians. 3. G alois was

looked upon as a lazy and queer boy by his schoolteachers. 4. The work

o f genii o f m aths is m uch commented on and accounted fo r by the his

to rian s o f m aths. 5. T heir great discoveries and contributions have been

a good deal written about. 6. G rassm an n ’s work was disapproved o f by

his contem poraries so its true significance had to wait for the passage o f

tim e. 7 The general expressions o f the roots o f equations o f the first

four degrees are arrived at w ithout difficulty. 8. D iscrim inants, and

m atrices are dealt with in linear algebra. 9. This p ro o f cannot be relied

on — a more rigorous one is still being looked for by the m ath em ati

cians 10. Such results must not be wondered a t — they are approved o f

by practice.

311

8. Change active into passive.

numerals as exponents on a given base.

The use of Hindu-Arabic numerals as exponents on a

given base was introduced in c. 1637.

not decimally. 2. D iophantus developed “syncopated algebra” , the use o f the

abbreviated words (c. 250 A.D.). 3. At least three thousand years ago people

were employing implicitly the notion o f a function. 4. The Italian Luca

Picioli applied (1494) the rule o f false position. 5. Natural scientists had often

used the parallelogram as a means o f addition. 6. A. G irard (1629)

approached both negative and imaginary numbers with great boldness. 7. Ail

the distinguished nineteenth-century mathematicians have treated the alge

braic solution o f equations. 8. People generally associate adding in arith

metic with the idea o f “putting together” . 9. Algebraists refer to this class o f

equations as “differential equation^” 10. M odem mathematicians are

attaching several different meanings to the expression A+B.

9. Express probability, certainty and strong likelihood in the following statements using mmy

or m u st with the proper form of the infinitive (indefinite, continuous, perfect, perfect continuous).

Algebra may have originated in Babylonia.

2. The historians claim that the rhetorical style of

algebra is an accomplishment of that country.

The historians claim that the rhetorical style of alge

bra must be an accomplishment of that country.

1. Scientists do not have enough evidence to fix the date when the

epochal discovery o f cardinal number was made: the concept was equally

present in Egypt, China, India, Mesopotamia. 2. Certainly, algebra appeared

in Egypt as soon as in Babylonia. 3. In both the Babylonian and the Egyptian

civilizations com putations were handled mostly by the priests. 4. Babylonian

and G reek accomplishments in maths were apparently known to Hindu

mathematicians. 5. One of the Hindu famous achievements is obviously the

system o f Hindu (often called Arabic) numerals. 6. Arabic algebra probably

came from both the Greeks and the Hindus. 7. Throughout the Dark Ages

the Arabs preserved the Greek and Hindu works in algebra for posterity —

evidently without their translations most o f the prior work could have been

lost. 8. O f course, the ease and facility in handling Hindu-Arabic numerals

312

contributed to the growth o f algebra in Europe. 9. It is likely that the inven

tion o f printing and the expansion o f trade and travel facilitated the exchange

o f ideas. 10. The symbols “ + ” and ” (as it seems) occurred in the fifteenth

century in problems solved by false position to indicate excess and deficien

cy. 11. In modern algebra the sign “ + ” does not always signify addition in any

real sense. 12. Surely, the V~~ sign is a modification o f r for radix or root.

13. At present different branches o f maths are evidently interacting to a sur

prising degree through algebra.

C O N V E R S A T IO N A L P R A C T IC E

1. Read the given statements adding your own comments, examples, characteristics, view

points, historic evidence, etc., thus developing the idea further.

period from about 1700 B.C. to 1700 A.D.

There is a lot of historical evidence that as long ago as

Babylonian times elementary algebra and number the

ory were being originally developed. The first general

treatment of polynomial equations was given by

F. Victe in 1603. The statement may be thusjustified, to

my mind.

symbolism and the solving o f equations. 2. The development o f algebraic

notation progressed through three stages: the rhetorical (verbal), the synco

pated and the symbolic. 3. In the symbolic stage, algebraic notation went

through many modifications and changes. 4. Algebraic notation became

fairly stable by the time o f Newton. 5. Egyptian algebra lacked the sophisti

cation in m ethod shown by Babylonian algebra. 6. Most o f the standard

Babylonian problems were phrased in geometric terminology by the early

Greeks. 7. They solved, e.g., quadratic equation by giving a “prooF’, i.e., a

construction o f the positive root of the equation, followed by a verification.

8. The early Greeks gave their algebra geometric formulation because of

their conceptual difficulties with irrational numbers. 9. Perhaps it is not

entirely joking to say that their linear continuum was literally linear.

10. Diophantus made a fresh start in algebra by introducing the syncopated

style o f writing equations. 11. Diophantus gave an ingenious treatment of

indeterminate equations often called Diophantine equations. 12. These are

313

usually two or more equations in several variables that have an infinite num

ber o f rational solutions.

2. Read the sentences and characterize the algebraic activities during the Dark Ages of

Europe.

1. It was the Arabs who preserved the G reek and Hindu scientific w rit

ings through the Dark Ages o f Europe. 2. O ur main interest during the

Arabic period centres on al-Khowarismi and Omar Khayyam. 3. Al-

Khowarismi’s books — the Al-jabr and the Liber Algorismi — greatly influ

enced European maths. 4. Al-Khowarismi’s aim was to write a practical

textbook on solving equations, his algebra seems prosaic. 5. O m ar

Khayyam’s greatest contribution to algebra was a geometric solution o f cubic

equations. 6. Brahmangupta (c. 628) and Bhaskara (c. 1150) were the most

prom inent o f the Hindu algebraists. 7. H indu work on indeterminate equa

tions was superior to that o f Diophantus. 8. The Hindus solved quadratic

equations by completing the square and they accepted negative and irra

tional roots. 9. One o f their greatest accomplishments was the system of

Hindu (often called Arabic) numerals. 10. It was Italy that produced the

greatest algebraists during 1200-1620 period. 11. Fibonacci (1202) did a great

deal to popularize Hindu-Arabic numerals in his book on arithmetic and

algebra. 12. Tartaglia (1535) solved two types o f cubic equations. 13. Cardano

(“gambling scholar”) published (1545) the complete solution o f all varieties

o f the cubic equations. 14. C ardano’s Лг