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В. П.

Дорожкина

английскимязык
сщйнтов
В.П. ДОРОЖ КИНА

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ-
МАТЕМАТИКОВ
Учебник

Под общей редакцией проф. В. А. Скворцова

Издание третье,
переработанное и дополненное

Москва
Астрель *АСТ
2006
УДК 811.111(075.8)
Б Б К 81.2 Англ-923
Д 69

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Дорожкина, В.П.
Д 69 Английский язы к для студентов-математиков : учеб­
н и к / В.П. Д орож ки н а; под общ. ред. В.А. Скворцова. —
3-е изд., перераб. и доп. —М.: ACT: Астрель, 2006. —490,
[6] с.
ISBN 5-17-010126-0 (ООО «Издательство ACT*)
ISBN 5-271-02775-9 (ООО «Издательство Астрель*)
Учебник состоит из вводного и основного курса. В конце книги
приводиться список использованной литературы.
Цель вводного курса — повторение и закрепление базовой
грамматики английского язы ка, расш ирение активной лексики и
математической терминологии, а также развитие навыков работы со
словарем.
Каждый раздел основного курса содержит тексты, которые
вводят студентов в определенную область математики, механики и
кибернетики, а также включает лабораторные работы и упражнения.
Основной курс учебника формирует навыки разных видов чтения,
учебного перевода, письма, а также свободного общения по темам
специальности.
Для студентов-математиков, аспирантов и ш ирокого круга
специалистов инженерного профиля.
УДК 811.111(075.8)
ББК 81.2 Англ-923

ISBN 5-17-010126-0
(ООО «Издательство АСТ»)
ISBN 5-271-02775-9
(ООО «Издательство Астрель*) © В П. Дорожкина, 2001
© ООО «Издательство Астрель*, 2001
О Т РЕ Д А К Т О РА
Настоящий курс предназначен для студентов всех отделений механико-математических
факультетов университетов и факультетов вычислительной математики и кибернетики.
Современный интернациональный характер развития математики требует от начи­
нающих математиков умения свободно читать иностранную научную литературу уже в
ранний период приобщения к творческой деятельности. Во многих случаях первые ша­
ги в научной работе студенты-математики делают уже на III курсе: пишут курсовые р а­
боты и участвуют в работе специальных семинаров. При этом неизбежно возникает не­
обходимость знакомиться со статьями из иностранных журналов, регулярно следить за
справочной литературой, в частности просматривать журнал “ Mathematical Reviews”.
Таким образом, основная цель преподавания английского языка на младших кур­
сах - выработка навыка чтения и понимание специальной литературы, а также основ
разговорной речи по специальности.
В силу этого необходимо как можно раньше начинать изучение языка в университете на
базе специальной литературы. Несмотря на то что такой подход при изучении языка свя­
зан с определенными трудностями, он обладает рядом преимуществ, так как знакомство с
языком происходит на понятном и интересном для студентов текстовом материале.
Настоящий курс подготовлен в полном соответствии с перечисленными задачами.
Каждый урок курса посвящается отдельному разделу высшей математики или механи­
ки, причем основные тексты урока могут служить введением в этот раздел, поскольку
они знакомят не только с лексикой, но и с основными понятиями и фактами соответ­
ствующей теории. Отметим, что наряду с текстами, связанными с традиционными раз­
делами математики, в учебнике имеются материалы, посвященные таким современ­
ным математическим теориям, как алгоритмические языки. Интерес у студентов
вызовут и приводимые во многих уроках сведения по истории того или иного раздела ма­
тематики. Таким образом, содержательность большинства включенных в учебник текстов
поможет сочетать овладение специальной лексикой с приобретением полезной информа­
ции. Овладение навыками устной речи, изучение грамматики также строится на удачно
подобранном специальном материале. Многочисленные упражнения каждого урока от­
крывают возможности для различных форм аудиторных и внеаудиторных занятий.
Можно гарантировать, что полное овладение материалом курса подготовит студентов к
самостоятельному и достаточно свободному чтению научной литературы на английском
языке.
Проф. В.А. Скворцов
(механико-математический факультет
МГУ им. М.В. Ломоносова)

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ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ
Настоящий учебник предназначен для студентов l u l l курсов механико-математиче­
ских факультетов университетов и технических вузов, продолжающих изучение анг­
лийского языка на базе программы средней школы.
Учебник состоит из 10 разделов (Units).
Вводный курс (Units 1-4) нацелен на повторение и закрепление базовой грамматики
английского языка, на расширение обшеязыковой лексики и овладение математической
терминологией, а также на обучение студентов работе со словарем. Предусматривается
также общее повторение грамматических тем, которые более детально разрабатывают­
ся в многочисленных упражнениях основного курса.
Цель Основного курса - обучить студентов технике чтения и адекватного перевода ли­
тературы по специальности, а также привить навыки устной речи.
Каждый раздел Основного курса (Units S - 10) посвящен определенной области математики,
механики и кибернетики и состоит из вводного текста (ознакомительное чтение) к несколь­
ких основных текстов (изучающее чтение). Тематика основных текстов включает сведения из
истории математики, описание се основных проблем и современную оценку развития дан­
ной области науки. Тексты, не проработанные на занятиях, могут быть использованы в зачет­
ных контрольных тестах. Тексты учебника заимствованы из специальной научной литерату­
ры по математике на английском языке. В текстах сохранена орфография источника.
В каждом разделе на соответствующих моделях последовательно разрабатываются одна
или несколько грамматических тем, которые закрепляются в грамматических упражнениях.
Лабораторные работы предполагают ознакомление студентов с активным словарем
каждого раздела. Студент прослушивает начитанные на пленку предложения на англий­
ском языке с переводом на русский, содержащие основные положения данного раздела.
Среди разнообразных упражнений, нацеленных на развитие разговорных навыков и
умений, следует особо выделить “ Comprehension Exercises” и “ Discussion", в которых
студент должен продемонстрировать умение изъясняться по проблемам своей специ­
альности: решать п объяснять на английском языке задачи, доказывать теоремы, при­
нимать участие в обсуждениях, делать сообщения по темам специальности, составлять
устные и письменные рефераты. Эти упражнения создают благоприятную атмосферу
на занятиях и способствуют активизации речевых навыков.
Система речевых упражнений построена в соответствии с методикой проблемного обучения:
проблемный вопрос, проблемная ситуация, проблемное высказывание, дискуссия по проблеме.

Первое издание учебника вышло в свет в 1973 году, второе - в 1986 году. Настоящее
издание переработано и дополнено новыми материалами. Положительная оценка учеб-

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пика студентами и преподавателями позволяет автору надеяться на то, что предлагае­
мый курс и в дальнейшем будет способствовать эффективному обучению студентов-
математиков английскому языку.

Методическая записка
В основу обучения математиков английскому языку положена методика, разработан­
ная на кафедре английского языка механико-математического факультета МГУ.
Эта методика предполагает, что на занятиях со студентами должно быть ими прочи­
тано, понято, «проговорено» не менее 300-400 страниц оригинальных текстов по спе­
циальности (из разных областей математики, разных авторов и разных стилей).
Уровень знаний студентов и общее количество аудиторных часов (210-350) опреде­
ляют количество прорабатываемого материала курса. Обучение предполагает обяза­
тельную, систематическую работу студентов в лаборатории устной речи (ЛУРе), осо­
бенно студентов, начинающих изучение английского языка в вузе. Изучение каждого
нового раздела следует начинать с лабораторных работ, нацеленных на снятие фонети­
ческих, лексических и грамматических трудностей в основных текстах, записанных на
пленку (на английском и русском языке), а также на усвоение активного и пассивного
словаря.
На аудиторных занятиях преподаватель контролирует:
• технику чтения (читаются только отдельные абзацы текстов, подготовлен­
ных студентами дома);
• технику перевода на русский язык наиболее трудных словосочетаний и
предложений;
• усвоение активной лексики урока.
При планировании занятия большую часть аудиторного времени следует отводить
развитию навыков устной речи. Речевые упражнения составлены в соответствии с ме­
тодикой проблемного обучения, предполагающего персональную оценку содержания
текста.
Каждый раздел учебника рекомендуется прорабатывать на пяти-шести занятиях, а в
группах с высоким уровнем знаний студентов — на четырех занятиях. С самого начала
обучения студентам необходимо научиться работать со словарем, справочными и грам­
матическими материалами, выделять а текстах основные идеи, реферировать и анноти­
ровать научную литературу по специальности. Постепенно преподаватель увеличивает
недельную дозу прорабатываемого материала, интенсифицируя таким образом весь
процесс обучения. В продолжающих группах обязательна работа со статьями из газет и
журналов на английском языке, что является одним из требований на экзамене на вто­
ром курсе.

В. П. Дорожкина
INTRODUCTORY COURSE

Unit One (1)


UNIVERSITY EDUCATION
Grammar
1. Word Structure.
2. Sentence Structure.
3. Tense-Aspect Forms.

GRAMMAR
1. Word Structure
In this lesson we study basic concepts o f the two sciences - textiinguistics
and mathematics. The smallest unit o f the text is a word, therefore, we begin
our study with the word-building structure in English. The student can find
the necessary unknown or unfamiliar word in the dictionary and must learn
its basic meanings and its related words (its derivatives), e.g., to think (about,
of, out, over) - thinkable, thinking, thinker, thought, thoughtful, thoughtless,
thoughtfulness, thoughtlessly.
Most long English words are not one word. but. as a rule, two or more
words put together, e.g.. real inner product space = Euclidean space, a great
deal of = many (much). Wfe see parts of the words over and over again in other
words. There are family relationships and resemblances. The learners of
English must be architects and wreckers. They must learn to build words up
and break them down. W; build words up with three kinds of parts. The cen­
tral part o f the word is the root. The part to the left o f the root (or before it)
is the prefix. The part to the right of the root (or after it) is the suffix. So, first,
we must observe relationships o f words. For example to imagine, imagina­
tion, imaginative, unimaginatively, imagery are descendants of image, their

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parent word. Definitely, finish, finite and infinity are not strangers, they are
family-related words.

Parts o f Speech
The words of every language fall into definite grammatical classes or parts
o f speech which differ from each other in forms, in meaning, or in function —
nouns (n), verbs (v), pronouns {pron), adjectives (a), numerals (num ),
adverbs (aclv), prepositions {prep), conjunctions {conj), particles {part).

1. Learn the Russian equivalents of the following English nouns:

department faculty term


отдел; министерст­ умственные спо­ период; срок; се­
во; департамент; собности; факуль­ местр; сессия; тер­
факультет; кафед­ тет; преподава­ мин; условия; цель;
р а ; администра­ тельский состав; выражение; сужде­
ция; управление; власть; право; дар ние; слово
округ; отрасль;
область знаний
2. Use the dictionary and study active vocabulary word families. Learn the m b s with their
related parts of speech and set phrases (expressions).

1) apply (v.f.) — to ask, to appeal, to call for aid (help); to appeal for the
entry into university or vacant job; to put into practice; to realize, to activate
Nouns: an applicant, application, appliance, applicability
Adjectives: applicable, applied
Adverb: applicably

2) hold (held, held) (v.A) - to have and keep fast smth in hands; to contain;
to occupy; to show or display; to assert smth; to control or restrain; to keep
in mind; to maintain
Nouns: a hold - influence, power; a holder - a person or thing that
holds; a holding - land or property; holdings in a business
company: shares, stocks
Set phrases, to hold a chair at the Department; to hold lectures or scrai-
expressions: nars; to hold strange opinions; to hold oneself responsible
for; to hold somebody’s attention; to hold a meeting or a
congress; Hold on! Hold hard! (= Stop!)

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3) mean (meant, meant) (v.t.) — to intend; to signify; to express; to have
good intentions
Nouns: a means (many means) - ways, devices, instruments
a meaning - a sense; a meaningness; a mean - an interme­
diate; a mean —condition, action; a meaningfulness, means
(p[) — wealth, many resources
Adjectives: mean, meaningful
Adverb: meanly
Expressions: by means of - through; by all means —in every possible way;
by no means

4) mind (v.r.) —to pay attention to; to object to; to dislike; to watch; to take
care of; to attend to
Noun: a mind - intellect; brain; remembrance; mental ability
Adjectives: minded; mindful
Adverb: mindfully
Expressions: to bear in mind —to remember; to be in one’s right mind —
to be sane; to make up one’s mind —to come to a decision;
to change one’s mind — to alter one’s purpose; to be in two
minds - to hesitate; to speak one’s mind - to say plainly
what one thinks; to one’s mind - in one’s opinion; to take
one’s mind off —turn away the attention from; to be in two
minds — to be at a loss; Mind you! — Remember! Please
note! Mind your own business! — D on’t interfere! Never
mind! - It does not matter!

5) reason (v.t.) — to think logically; to argue or discuss; to draw conclu­


sions; to persuade by logical arguments.
Nouns: a reason —the mind; intelligence faculty o f understanding;
a cause; a motive; an explanation; a reasoning - the act or
process to reach conclusions by a logical train of thinking;
reasonableness
Adjective: reasonable —sensible, fair
Adverb: reasonably
Expressions: within reasons - reasonable; by reason of - because of; It
stands to reason! - it’s logical; without rhyme or reason -
without meaning; nonsensically; to reason out - to think
logically

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6) relate (v./.) —to tell; to narrate; to show the connection between; to be
associated with by birth or marriage; to be connected with
Nouns: a relation; a relative; relativity; relationship
Adjectives: related; relative
Expressions: relatively speaking; in relation to — with reference to;
to bear no (not much) relation to; to be out of all relation to

N o tional a n d Stru ctu ra l Words


Notional words —nouns, verbs —both finite and infinite forms, i.e., infini­
tives, participles, gerunds, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns
Structural words - articles, particles, prepositions, conjunctions, link-verbs,
modal verbs
Independent elements —yes, no, certainly, please, sorry, etc.
Sentence connectives —yet, nevertheless, in fact, that, etc.

Parts o f the Sentence ( S yn ta x)


The subject, the predicate, the object (Am. the complement), the attribute,
the adverbial modifier and their respective clauses.

Parts o f the Text


The sentence. The paragraph. There are close connections and interrela­
tions o f these parts in the text as one and the same word is both a definite part
o f speech and functions as part o f the sentence.

2. Sentence Structure
The words o f every language fall into definite grammatical classes or parts,
which differ from each other in form, in meaning and in function. The student
must learn to differentiate: parts o f speech in English with their grammatical cat­
egories - nouns, verbs, pronouns, adjectives, numerals, adverbs, prepositions,
conjunctions, particles (morphology); parts o f the sentence - the subject, the
predicate, the object, the attribute, the adverbial modifier and their respective
clauses (syntax); parts o f the text — the sentence and the paragraph (syntactics).
There are close connections and interrelationships o f these parts in the text as
one and the same word is both a definite part of speech and functions as a def­
inite part o f the sentence. \№ begin our study with the syntax o f the sentence -
sentence structure, its fixed word order and the predicate which is the core of the
sentence. The student must analyze the predicate from the point o f view o f its
structure (simple and compound) and its content {process and non-process).
Syntactic analysis and segmentation of the sentence helps determine the

10
boundaries of the predicate and thereby locate the other principal sentence-
parts —the subject that precedes the predicate and the object that follows it.
Recent syntactic research shows that the qualitative type of the compound
predicate may be long and expanded: E.g. He is here. She likes her friends.
The University has many Departments or The University consists of many
Departments. I am old enough to understand it. This term means to imply dif­
ferent notions in various fields of maths (double predicate).

Study the models of the English sentence —the smallest structure which can express a com­
plete thought —in the following table:

3. Tense-Aspect Forms
Tense-aspect forms o f the finite verb have the function of the predicate in
the sentence and are characterized by the following categories: tense-aspect,
person number, voice and mood. They show the connection of the subject and
the predicate o f the sentence.

Aspects (or groups*) and Past Present Future


voice infinitives Actions preceding the From speaker’s Actions following the
moment o f speaking point of view moment of speaking

Indefinite Active - to He solved the prob­ He always solves He will solve the
solve решать lem yesterday. problems in maths. problem tomorrow.
Passive - to be solved ре­ The problem was Problems are The problem will be
шаться solved yesterday. always solved in solved tomorrow.
maths.
Continuous Active —to be He was solving the He is solving the He will be solving the
solving решать в опреде­ problem yesterday at problem now. problem at this rime
ленный момент that time. tomorrow:
Passive - to be being The problem was The problem is
solved решаться в опре- being solved at that being solved now.
де/іенный момент time.
Perfect Active — to have He had solved the He has already He will have solved
solved (уже) (раз)ре- problem before we solved the problem. the problem by this
шить came. The problem has time tomorrow.
Passive — to have been The problem had been already been The problem will
solved (уже) было решено solved by that time. solved. have been solved.
Perfect Continuous Active He had been, solving He has been solving He will have been solv­
—to have been solving ре­ the problems for two the problem for an ing the problem for a
шать в течение опреде­ hours when we came. hour. long lime when we
ленного отрезка времени come tomorrow.
Passive -

* Every tense-aspect form is explained and practised in greater detail in the Essentia! Course lessons.

ii
GRAM MAR AND VOCABULARY E X E R C ISE S

1. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Analyze the predicate tense forms.
1. Among the many adjectives given in the present century (e.g., electron­
ic, atomic and space) the term “ m athem atization o f science age” is often
come across. 2. Some people define the unprecedented development o f
modern maths as the “revolution in m aths” Others call it “ maths power”
3. However correct or incorrect these terms may seem, one thing is obvious:
maths is a key science nowadays. 4. Maths has a peculiar and remarkable
language. 5. Certainly it is unlikely any hum an language as, in a sense, it is
an unspoken language. 6. Mathematical language may be called the language
of science. 7. Scientific language must be precise, concise and universal, i.e.
(= that is), it must be the same throughout the world. 8. Unlike the natural
languages, the language o f science is m an-m ade or artificial. 9. Some laymen
unaccustomed to its forms find it confusing. 10. M ath reasoning is o f the
highest level known to man.
2. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Single out the parts of the sentences: the sub­
ject; the predicate (verbal and nominal); the object; the attribute; the adverbial modifier. Mind,
that both structural words and independent elements do not perform any syntactical function in
the sentence. They express relations between the words, specify the meaning of a word or are used
as parentheses.
1. Obviously, the meaning o f the word becomes clear from the context.
2. N o mathematician prefers a wordy and lengthy statement o f a theorem o r
law. 3. A math sentence o f signs and symbols is formed by means o f rules o f
syntax of a corresponding formalized theory. 4. Scientists determine the
meaning of symbols by definitions and use them by com m on agreement.
5. The attention paid to rigour and precision in m aths points to the require­
ments underlying math research. 6. Certainly, maths is more than a language
or technique, it is, in fact, a body o f knowledge that serves all other sciences.
7. The study o f maths is sometimes discouraging to weak-willed minds,
indeed.

3. Translate the following sentences (simple, compound, complex) and analyze their syntax.

1. The sign < means an angle in maths. 2. The expression a2+ lab+ b2 has
three terms o f algebra. 3. The Pythagorean theorem is the theorem every­
body is familiar with. 4. Highschool geometry is a subject in which the idea
o f rigorous definition is meant and given for the first time and where we
learn to think in terms of axioms and theorem s. 5. The need for careful
reasoning in proofs is not at once intuitively apparent to a n o n -m ath e-

12
matician. 6. These two theorems are distinct and they must be clearly dis­
tinguished. 7. There is some opposition to his theory, perhaps because of
the complexity of the ideas involved. 8. We call decimals in which one digit
or one group o f digits is repeated over and over repeating decimals and
those which repeat zeroes term inating decimals, e.g., !/з = 0.0333...,
*/4 = 0.25000...

4. Read the sentences. Characterize the predicate tense and aspect.


1. W; are in Moscow at present.
2. These young men are first-year students (freshmen) of Moscow State
University.
3. Moscow University is one of the world’s best centres of learning.
4. It has many different departments (faculties) for humanities and for sci­
ences.
5. The University course for students runs for five or six years.
6. The University campus occupies a large territory.
7. The real wealth o f the University is its teaching staff (faculty) and stu­
dents.
8. Many prom inent scientists are working in Moscow University now.
9. They are training specialists in all fields o f modern science.
10. The main 33-storied building o f the University houses three
Departments: Geology, Geography and our Department of Maths and
Mechanics.
11. The D epartm ent’s Faculty comprises outstanding mathematicians and
scientists of mechanics.
12. Because o f the University worldwide image (reputation) it has been
specializing students from many foreign countries.
13. Tuition is free of charge in state Russia’s educational institutions.
14. Moscow University hostels have been accommodating non-Muscovites
and foreign students.
15. Admission to the University is by competitive examinations.
16. The competition is tough with nearly five applicants for every spot (place).
17. The attendance o f lectures and seminars is obligatory.
18. Students with good progress in their studies are getting state grants
(stipends).
19. The University library has got thousands of volumes of rare books, peri­
odicals and scientific journals for study and research in special fields.
20. Moscow University provides sports facilities for every level.

13
GRAMMAR

Interrogative Sentences

General and Special Questions. Answers:


Interrogative sentences (questions) have the following characteristics:
1) indirect word order, 2) peculiar interrogative intonation, 3) interrogative
pronouns (question words) who, whom, what, whose, which, why, where, how
much (many).

Study the following grammar models:


1. Who knows the history o f maths?
2. Does she know it? Yes. (No.)
3. Don’t they know the history o f maths? Yes, they do.
4. What do (don’t) they know? The history o f maths.

Disjunctive Questions (Am. Tag Questions):


1. The use o f the history o f maths and mechanics gives a good under­
standing o f the foundations of these sciences, doesn’t it? It does, surely.
2. Students are interested in the men o f maths as people, aren’t they? They
are, indeed.
3. A historical topic can be an im portant tool to create insight(s), can’t it?
It can, in fact.

Alternative Questions:
1. Can a story about the discovery or invention in maths increase or
decrease students’ interest in maths? It can increase it, sure enough.
2. Do modern mathematicians create abstract or empirical (applied)
maths? Both. They perfect and improve pure and applied maths sim ultane­
ously.
3. Does maths advance through one technique or the interplay o f many
techniques? O f course, through many.

Embedded Questions:
1. Do you know where he is studying now?
2. Can you tell me how far the University is from here?
3. She asks if we have got an exam today.
4. I have no idea how long the conference may last.
5. You can’t imagine how well he can solve math problems.

14
Indirect Questions:
1. I wonder why they are absent today.
2. People may wonder what the word “mathematics” means.
3. Wfe do n ’t know how old she is. I wonder if she can tell me the truth.

Problem Questions:
The sentence and sometimes the whole text do not give any information to
answer “problem questions” The student ought to produce an answer of his
own.
E.g. Why does there exist nowadays an unprecedented and ever increasing
urge for maths learning and teaching?

Negative Sentence Structure


To make a sentence negative, use the negative particle not (no) after the
auxiliary (cannot) or the verb to be (is not) or the appropriate form of don’t,
does not, did not, will not, etc.
1. They are not mathematicians, they are physicists.
2. No (no one, none) mathematician defines this basic term.
3. Don’t mathematicians answer such questions?
Double Negations:
1. Neither students nor teachers miss a chance to discuss this topic.
2. It is not impossible (= it is possible) to do it right now.
3. No unqualified teacher can supervise such a research.

Paragraph Structure. Topic Sentence


A paragraph is a separate or a distinct section o f the text. A paragraph usu­
ally contains a number o f sentences with one (or more) main idea(s). Each
paragraph o f the text has some extra information unnecessary for the repro­
duction or writing an abstract. When the student must reproduce the para­
graph, he can do it and generalize the main idea(s) with the help of the topic
sentence. It may happen that the paragraph states the topic sentence that
renders the main idea(s) quite obviously, but, as a rule, the student must con­
struct it himself.
Reproduce the given paragraphs close to the text and generalize each of them in your own words.

1. Residents o f Russia o f all nationalities have the right to education


guaranteed by the C onstitution. Primary (elementary) and secondary

IS
(Am. comprehensive) schools together comprise eleven years o f study. After
finishing comprehensive (high) school, lyceum ox gymnasium graduates can
go to higher education institution. Higher education institutions include:
technical training schools, teacher training colleges, professional institutes
and universities, which offer M aster’s and Doctoral Degrees programs.
Most higher educational institutions train both undergraduates and post­
graduates in one or several specializations. Some university departm ents
ensure the development o f extramural, correspondence or evening classes.
The Government provides state scholarships (stipends), grants and several
other privileges for students and postgraduates. Universities crown the sys­
tem of education in all European countries. In the term s o f the ratio o f stu­
dents to the total population Russia ranks among the top ten countries o f
the world.
2. Nowadays Russia is going through a very difficult and at the same time
a very important period o f its historical development, i.e. (that is), a period
o f transition to a market economy. Large-scale reforms call upon large-scale
changes. Political, economic and social restructuring o f society is taking
place against a background o f resource deficiencies: financial, energy, raw
materials, food and many others. However, the most acute problem o f all is
the deficiency o f intellectual resources and the lack o f knowledge and skills
required for survival of the market economy and the well-rounded education
o f Russia’s population.

Read (he (ext. Find the statements you agree or disagree with. Give your reasons. Discuss the
text with your groupmatcs. Work in pairs.

Teaching Material
The optimal teaching material for acquiring skills o f reading, recogni­
tion, com prehension o f special math texts in English should be presented
by topical and informative texts. Students must be able to read, understand,
com m ent and reproduce the main ideas of the text. The problem o f c o m ­
m enting upon math texts is vital for the students’ mastery o f professional
com m unication skills. The vocabulary of a special math text consists of
three strata: general words, scientific words and terms. Students had been
learning basic general words in high school before University. Scientific
words and terms in particular, are the essence o f speciality and are usually
better known by students o f m aths than by teacher o f English. In case of

16
the teacher’s failure to guess the precise meaning o f the term , the students
ought to help the teacher. The teacher’s duty is to explain and correct the
students’ errors in gram m ar forms, structures and style, which are the
most characteristic o f math texts. Teachers and students must go hand in
hand to the mutual benefit o f both in the teaching process.
Special math texts representing the domain o f scientific discourse con­
sist mainly o f regular word combinations, which are devoid of emotional,
expressive, evaluative connotations registered in dictionaries. The math
terms are firmly established, regularly reproduced and conventional. They
are so frequently used that there is never any question of who coined
them , or who thought o f them first. They are common property. When
m athem aticians com m unicate, they do n ’t create original word com bina­
tions every tim e they want to convey scientific information. Rather they
use ready-m ade neutral word com binations, which had been reproduced
in num erous previous acts. The emphasis, consequently, for students is to
master scientific vocabulary, which is still, as it where, the skeleton of
every specialized m ath text.
M any m ath term s have num erous non-m ath meanings and many spo­
ken words are com m only used in maths as terms. For example, “What
relation is he to you? He is a relative o f mine — my brother. Besides I’ve
got business relations with him ” “At this point we wish to add a number of
arguments along the same general line”, and, conversely, such concepts as
“set” “ function” “ operation” etc. have m ath meanings that are almost
entirely divorced from their everyday meanings. That is why m athem ati­
cians prefer to introduce such terms explicitly by definition or use them as
undefined terms.
How do nonspecialists appreciate special m ath texts? M athem aticians
claim that there are system and logic in every m ath theory and in the text
presenting the theory. Nonspecialists can see neither system nor logic in
the jungle o f “ meaningless symbols” abbreviations and “senseless asser­
tions” in m ath texts. M ath texts for them are dry, bare and boring. No
wonder! The problem o f teaching materials for English classes is the most
crucial one because what to teach is probably more im portant than how to
teach. The best teaching m aterial, which may be recom m ended for devel­
oping active students’ skills is the text shaped in perfect, pure, standard
form that can be safely reproduced by foreign learner w ithout any diffi­
culty.

17
A C T IV E VO CABU LARY

Consult the dictionary and write down the meanings of the given verbs with their derivatives and
expressions (set phrases) into your vocabulary copybook. You must learn them!

1. to account 11. to design 21. to rely on


2. to accustom 12. to determine 22. to seek
3. to acquire 13. to distinguish 23. to sense
4. to avoid 14. to elaborate 24. to succeed
5. to claim 15. to evaluate 25. to subject (to)
6. to communicate 16. to fail 26. to suffice
7. to confuse 17. to imply 27. to validate
8. to contribute 18. to involve 28. to vary
9. to deal with 19. to manage 29. to verily
10. to denote 20. to object (to) 30. to wonder

There are no absolute synonyms, but one Russian verb may be expressed
and represented by several English equivalents. Learn to distinguish and dif­
ferentiate them in different contexts and styles!
1. to say —to tell —to state —to claim —to hold —to assert —to maintain
2. to define —to determine —to identify —to specify —to fix the meaning
3. to understand —to make out —to follow —to apprehend —to comprehend
4. to estimate - to evaluate —to appreciate —to assess —to value
5. to denote —to indicate —to designate —to name —to appoint —to assign

TEXT ONE

MATHEMATICS AND MECHANICS DEPARTMENT (M M D)


OF MOSCOW STATE LOMONOSOV UNIVERSITY
Read, translate and analyze each sentence structure in the text. Formulate the topic sentence
of each paragraph. Express the main ideas of the text.

Nowadays there exist many universities in Russia. But not all universities
are equal. They differ from one another in history, tradition and academic
organization. Moscow State Lomonosov University founded in 1755 is the
first and the largest university world-famous for its academic excellence. The
University consists of Faculties (Departments) o f Natural Science, Law,
Economics, Informatics and Arts (Humanities).
The Moscow Lomonosov University’s graduates have got the highest-
quality education in Russia, they go on to become professionals not only

18
in education sphere but in the applied fields as well. e. g. (for example),
in the field o f finance, management, marketing and international business.
Tjhe methodological principle of the University training programs com ­
bines the experiences o f both Russian and international educators with
the peculiarities, traditions and needs o f the Russian society. The
University has a world-wide image in terms of students’ abilities, profes­
sional body structure and education system quality. According to the
national rating in the field o f education Moscow Lomonosov University is
the best. The students o f all University D epartm ents (Faculties) appreci­
ate and enjoy fist-class training programs, benefit from the highly profes­
sional specialists’ experiences, modern methods o f teaching, an enthusi­
astic atm osphere and a genuine educators’ desire to be helpful. The
Russians place a high value on education at Mathematics and Mechanics
Department. T he factors determ ining the D epartm ent image and prestige
are: 1. T he top quality o f the teaching faculty; 2. The quality o f research
facilities (labs); 3. The num ber and com petence o f applicants for admis­
sion. Admission to the D epartm ent is by tough competitive examinations.
The D epartm ent teaches in all major subject branches o f modern maths.
The faculty staff members are experts in their professional fields. Their
teaching encourages students to learn math and m echanics in the most
effective way.
There had been two principal divisions at the D epartm ent: Maths and
Mechanics which are closely interrelated and interconnected. There have
appeared some more divisions o f late: Math Economy, Informatics,
Psychology, etc. The D epartm ent was not unique in following this expan­
sion trend. M odern maths has reached full m om entum soon after the turn
o f the twentieth century. Industrial, economic and military demands began
to draw many established pure math specialists and many younger ones just
starting their careers away from academic life.
N o doubt, however, no expert in any new field of maths is able to solve a
particular “ applied” problem without thorough and wide knowledge and
mastery o f “pure” m aths fundamental means, techniques, rigorous math
reasoning and insight. The change o f occupation, goals and mentality of
many pure m aths specialists has led to a new “management Junction"
Experts and professionals in pure maths have become “ managers” of engi­
neering production, economics, finance, marketing, personnel and the
like. The D epartm ent has been teaching students willing to specialize in
any new fields such as personnel psychology, industrial sociology, industri­
al econom ics, etc. Any applicant for a job in these areas should display

19
knowledge and skills in both pure and applied maths, in com puter science
and fluent English besides his graduation Diploma.
The University teaching staff members o f all D epartm ents are proud o f
the successes achieved, they are looking forward with confidence and they
firmly believe that their contribution to the new and reform ed system o f
education can help Russia attain its proper place among the leading co u n ­
tries in the world. For decades Moscow Lomonosov University has been
training professionals for work abroad as well and has acquired vast expe­
rience in students and specialists exchange programs that are practically
unavailable in other educational establishm ents. From the very first days
o f its existence the lab. faculties assistants and teaching staff o f the
University have set themselves a difficult task o f becom ing the best
Russia’s educational center. They have been creating and offering both
Russian and foreign students a diverse range o f training, consulting, sci­
entific research and other services, so necessary for any successful ed u ca­
tional institutions.

TEXT TWO

THE NEW ROLE OF UNIVERSITY EDUCATION


Read the text, translate and analyze each sentence structure using the dictionary at home.
Write five or six questions dealing with the information given in the text. Work in pairs.
The first International UNESCO Congress entitled “ Inform atics and
Education” was held in Paris, the second — in Moscow State Lomonosov
University in June 1996. The word “ Education” in its title has a special pur­
pose. In recent years new technologies are emerging more rapidly than the
possibility o f their use in education. This fact causes that the place o f educa­
tion in modem world should be reconsidered and reappreciated.
The place and time of holding the second Congress in Moscow University
with its world-famous image were determined by the “ Resolution: Effects o f
Informatics Application on Education System” of the 27th session o f the
General UNESCO Conference. There were other suggestions, but Russia
has got strong advantages, viz. (namely), reforms carried out in the field o f
education in Russia beginning in 1991.
In the framework o f “Open Education System fo r the 21st Century" Russia
has proposed two projects: 1. World Technological University; 2. Distance
Education and Scholarly Cooperation Program which is open for participation
of any state. The well-rounded education o f population, informatics and

20
new technologies in education are the main ideas o f this program. The order
and tasks from education to industry for the first time were formulated in the
report of Moscow University Rector.
Currently in Russia there are more than 150 ‘'Information Technological
Centers" which have access to the Internet. Nowadays it is necessary' and urgent
for education to implement the new technological achievements. They present
completely new possibilities for creative work, for the acquisition and strengthen­
ing of job skills as well as the ability to apply new teaching techniques in practice.
Today Russian universities and higher educational institutions are not only
centres of science education and culture but they are centres o f business activ­
ity as well. Thanks to telecommunication networks students cannot only
essentially increase their informational potential, but also get a unique possi­
bility to communicate with their colleagues all over the world. In fact, Russia’s
students can graduate from foreign universities while remaining in Russia. Also
many countries abroad study the Russian language and get engineering and
humanities education using information networks. The creation of the Unified
System o f Distance Education with the use of both available now and newly
developed technical aids is crucial for Russia. Distance learning based on the
use of computer telecommunication networks provides constant student-teacher
link.
The Congress in Moscow was o f considerable interest not only for scientists,
specialists and educators. The use o f information technologies has been sup­
plying a lot o f good to the mankind. But it also challenges to human mind,
practical activity of people, public morals, economics and international poli­
tics. The creators of new technologies, all those who teach and leant should
meet the challenges adequately to bring the mankind into the 21st century.

TEXT THREE

THE INTERNET DISTANCE EDUCATION


Read and translate the text, using the dictionary, ІГnecessary. Give a summary оГ the text and
reproduce it in class.
For the decades universities and colleges have been looking for ways of
offering courses to students who do not have access to the university campus,
usually because o f physical distance. The Hybrid Wide Web (WWW) is begin­
ning to see and develop activity in this regard and this activity increases dra­
matically every year. The Internet offers full university-level courses to all

21
registered students, complete with real-time seminars and exams and pro­
fessors’ visiting hours. The Web is extremely flexible and its distance presen­
tations and capabilities are always up-to-date. The students can get the text,
audio and video o f whatever subject they are willing to have.
M any educational resources already are available through the Web.
Libraries are adding their catalogs and universities are posting information
about degree programs in the Web. You can find research docum ents con­
taining information about almost any subject. Before long (soon), travelling
to a library to find this information may become a near obsolete venture (out-
of-day practice). Instead students can find any information sources they
need without leaving their desks.
After human teachers (tutors, educators), the Internet may represent the
most important educational resource in the world providing (if) every student
has got a computer. This is not the case, unfortunately. The Internet, as it
stands now, is an exercise in the expansion o f inequality. By and large, the
students who have got access to the Internet already have access to well-sup­
ported schools, well-paid teachers and well-stocked libraries. Students who
do not have access to computers or the Internet often do not have else either.
The problem o f getting classrooms online is often exacerbated (aggravated,
made worse) by the presence o f board members, administrators and teach­
ers who don’t recognize that the educational values of computers and online
com m unications fa r exceed the cost. Wfeb pages can offer access to a world o f
information about and exchange with other cultures and communities and
experts in every field.
The possibilities for education on the Wfeb are amazing. Many college and
university classes presently create Wfeb pages for semester class projects.
Research papers on many different topics are also available. Even primary
school pupils are using the \№b to access information and pass along news to
other pupils. Exchange students can com m unicate with their classmates long
before they actually arrive at their new school.
There are resources on the Internet designed to help teachers become bet­
ter teachers - even when they cannot offer their students the benefits o f an
on-line community. Teachers can use university or college com puter systems
or home computers and individual Internet accounts to educate themselves
and then bring the benefits o f the Internet to their students by proxy (no
доверенности).
There are other Internet applications: scheduling, inter-personal com m u­
nication, meeting, international conferences and congresses - can be par­
ticularly valuable to teachers, students and others with an interest in educa­

22
tion. M any Internet and education specific resources make great inroads
into creating information “on demand” This page can be of special interest
to college students or those who are heading for the university.

G RAM M AR A N D VOCABULAR Y E X E R C IS E S
1. Use the correct tense of the verb in the parentheses (round brackets). Mind the agreement
between the subject and the predicate.

1. Moscow Lomonosov University {to be known) and worldwide famous


for its tutelage. 2. Every year the graduates o f special high schools and
math colleges {to apply) to Maths and M echanics D epartm ent because it
{to provide) an excellent math education. 3. All applicants {to be) mathe­
m atically-m inded, intelligent and sociable. 4. These first-term students
(freshmen) {to mean) that they {to have) great faith in the future of maths
and their profession. 5. Postgraduates {to carry on) research with the aid of
their supervisors since their enrolment. 6. In Russia, students o f all special­
ities {to have) foreign languages on the curriculum as an obligatory subject.
7. Students of M aths and Mechanics Departm ent must {to learn) English as
part of the syllabus for two years. 8. Teachers o f English should {to change)
inadequate and outdated teaching methods and {to elaborate) some new and
effective ones. 9. Prof. X {to hold) the Chair o f Informatics established quite
recently. 10. The lecture halls {to be packed) with students because his lec­
tures are never boring. 11. The abbreviation maths {to mean) mathematics,
math — mathematical.
2. Imagine that you are not quite sure of the statement correctness. Express doubt, uncertain­
ty or surprise by means of questions.

Models. Students must choose their speciality them­


selves, mustn’t they?
Don’t you know that she does well in maths?
They are solving a very difficult problem
now, aren’t they?

1. It takes her too much time to get to the University. 2. The Department
Faculty makes great contribution to the development o f pure maths theories.
3. At the end o f each term undergraduates get prepared for the credit tests
and examinations. 4. You have already done all your home assignments in
English. 5. Most employees o f the Department are former graduates with
long experience in their fields.

23
3. Learn the conversational formulas.

Models. 1,— Excuse me. Can you direct me to the Dean's office?
—Sorry, I can’t. I am a stranger here myself. I am a stu­
dent of Physics Department. To my mind, the boy
over there can help you.
—Oh, I see. I should not ask strangeis, should I?
— It’s O.K. Never mind!
2. — Dean’s office? It is on the fourteenth floor. This way,
please. You can’t go wrong.
—Thank you. I’m much obliged to you.
—Don’t mention it.

4. Use the following questions and compose a dialogue. Work in pairs.


1. Are you a Muscovite? 2. How much time does it take you to get to the
Department? 3. What is your favourite math subject? 4. She speaks English flu­
ently, doesn’t she? 5. Why do they so often miss English classes? 6. I wonder
what he is like as a Theoretical Mechanics lecturer. 7. D on’t mathematicians
often stress the general educational value o f maths for businessmen? 8. You
must reason logically when you try to draw your conclusions, mustn’t you?
9. Students should not confuse modal verbs with model words, e.g. certainly, per­
haps, probably, indeed. 10. What must be, must be. D on’t you know it?

R E A D IN G C O M P R E H E N S IO N
1. Read the text and answer the questions below:

My University Studies
It had been my dream in high school to study in Moscow University. My
dream has come true this year, good luck! 1 was enrolled the first-year stu­
dent o f the Maths and M echanics Department. I have managed to cope with
the entrance examinations requirements in all exams subjects. The com peti­
tion was very tough. Now I am a “ freshman” at the D epartm ent. Many
school leavers hope to enter Moscow University but only the best out o f the
best applicants with good training and thorough knowledge are lucky to be
enrolled. Moscow Lomonosov University bears the name o f its founder -
the great Russian scientist Lomonosov.
The academic year is divided into two terms, each term (semester) ends
with the winter and spring exams sessions, when the students must take and
pass credit test and examinations on the subjects studied during the term.

24
Wfe have been studying modern maths and other subjects since September.
O ur curriculum involves English classes as well. The attendance o f lectures
and seminars is obligatory.
I am not a Muscovite and I am living in the students’ hostel. Some o f my
groupmates share the room with me. Even at the busiest time - when the
examinations are going on - the students get together and enjoy themselves.
They arrange amateur concerts and dance. All o f them go in for sports and
we can choose the sports we like most. As far as 1 am concerned (as for me),
my favourite sports are swimming, skating and football, of course.
When I came to Moscow, I knew very little o f our capital. My new
University groupmates and friends are showing me the city every weekend.
are very fond o f walking about Moscow, sightseeing, admiring its archi­
tecture and ancient monuments. Sometimes we go to the cinema and the­
atre, to museums and exhibitions and afterwards discuss what we had seen. 1
have already seen a lot o f famous spots in Moscow myself, and they have
made a deep impression on me.
O f course, we meet with great difficulties in our studies owing to the dif­
ference between high school maths and University modern generalized and
abstract pure maths theories. We should read scientific literature and spend
a lot o f time in the library and the labs. My friends are always willing to help
me cope with my troubles. They often stay after our classes and lectures,
explaining to me the most complicated problems of maths and other sub­
jects, e.g. English grammar. \ have already enlarged my English vocabulary
and now I can understand math texts in English rather well. Besides, we are
making oral and written abstracts o f the English texts and it is a very diffi­
cult home assignment for me so far.

1. Are you a Muscovite? You live in the students hostel, don’t you?
2. Why have you made up your mind to study maths?
3. Who has encouraged you? Your school teacher or your parents (friend)?
4. What was the most difficult exam in your entrance university examina­
tions?
5. What is your favourite field in modem maths?
6. Have you got any difficulties with English? Why?
7. A dictionary explains the meanings of words, doesn’t it?
8. Why don’t you check up the meaning of unfamiliar words in the dic­
tionary?
9. There are very many abbreviations, e.g., viz., ABC, etc. Can you guess
what they mean in the sentence?

25
2. Read the text. Describe your future profession and the job you are willing to get upon grad
uation.

My Future Profession
When a person leaves high school, he understands that the time to choose
his future profession has come. It is not an easy task to make the right choice
o f future profession and a job at once. Leaving school is the beginning o f the
independent life, the start o f a more serious examination o f a m an’s abilities
and character. As a rule, it is difficult for many school leavers to give a defi­
nite and right answer straight away.
As for me (as far as I am concerned), I am a “would be" mathematician —
a great piece o f luck! This year I have managed to cope with and passed
entrance competitive exams successfully and now I am a “freshman” (a first-
year student) o f M oscow Lomonosov U niversity M athem atics and
Mechanics D epartm ent — world-famous for its high reputation and image.
It aims to give the students the top level education and to enable them to
carry on scientific research work. After completing a course o f five years our
Department graduates can continue their studies and research and defend
their thesis (dissertation) to get a scientific degree in both pure and applied
fields o f modern maths.
I have always been interested in maths. In high school my favourite subject
was Algebra. I am very fond o f solving algebraic equations, but it was ele­
mentary school algebra. This is not the case with university algebra. To begin
with, Algebra is a multifield subject. M odem abstract algebra deals with not
only equations and simple problems but with algebraic structures such as
“groups” *fields”, “rings”, etc. and comprises new divisions o f algebra, e g .,
linear algebra, Lie groups, Boolean algebra, homological algebra, vector alge­
bra, matrix algebra and many more. Now I am a first-term (semester) stu­
dent and study the fundamentals of the calculus.
I haven’t made up my mind yet to choose a field o f maths to specialize in.
I am going to make my final decision when I am the fifth-year student busy
writing my research diploma project and consulting my scientific supervisor.
It is equally too early to choose one of the hundreds o f jobs to which I might
be better suited upon graduation. It is for the future to decide whether it
would be school, institute, government or business employment.
At present, I would like to be a teacher o f maths. To my mind, it is a very
noble profession. It is very difficult, indeed, to become a good teacher o f
maths. Undoubtedly, you should know the subject you teach perfectly, you

26
should be well-educated and broad-minded. An ignorant teacher teaches
ignorance, a fearful teacher teaches fear, a bored teacher teaches boredom.
But a good teacher (tutor, educator) develops in his students the burning
desire o f mastering all branches of m odem maths, its essence, influence,
wide-range, and beauty.
M athematicians claim that "maths is art fo r art's sake” It is sophisticated
and requires good training. In our age maths has attained its wide scope and
extraordinary applicability in sciences and engineering. That is why there is
radical transformation in mentality of most mathematicians - today’s prob­
lems and demands in applied sciences, economics and industry compel
many “pure maths experts” (i.e., theoreticians) to deal with new goals and
engineering problems. All our Departm ent graduates are sure to get jobs they
are willing to have. I hope the same might hold true for me as well.

3. Agree or disagree with the statements. Give your reasons for or against.
1. Distance education has a lot of implications. 2. Distance education is
very expensive for students studying in the correspondence course o f the
University. 3. M athematicians often stress the general educational value o f
distance education through the Wfeb. 4. Distance education classes are ori­
ented towards mastering skills o f professional communication. 5. English is
viewed and taught as an actual means o f communication among specialists
from different countries. 6. Ordinary (rank-and-file) people can afford dis­
tance education. 7. Russia’s universities authorities participate in UNESCO
congresses. 8. Information technological centres in Russia have access to the
Internet. 9. Experts recognize and appreciate new technological achieve­
ments. 10. Distance education provides constant teacher-student link.
11. N ot only written information from books and scientific articles but oral
forms — lectures, discussions, and conferences — are also available on the
Wfeb channels.

4. Determine the function of italicized Participle I and Participle II in the sentences: adjective,
adverbial modifier (when, if, while), the predicate part. IVanslate the sentences into Russian and
identify the type of the predicate (verbal or nominal); continuous or noncontinuous, active or pas­
sive voice.

1. The study o f these math problems is truly fascinating for mathematicians


and many books have been written about them. 2. When asked about his
research, he refuses to give any details. 3. The students are reading the sci­
entific text carefully as they must write an abstract. 4. The Internet offers full
university-level courses to all registered students. 5. Many schools and uni­

27
versities have created and are maintaining Web pages. 6. Chat channels on the
Internet are conducting conversations in the native language o f the named
country. 7. Web pages have been established with the aim to offer access to a
world o f information. 8. The educational values o f computers and online
Internet communications nowadays have far exceeded the cost o f distance
education. 9. The possibilities for education on the Web are amazing. 10. The
Russia’s access to the Internet has been increasing greatly: in 1996 — half
million students registered, in 1997 — two million, according to the table
published in the press. 11. The students all over the world are appreciating
and enjoying Internet first-class training programs. 12. Research papers on
many scientific problems can be located and reproduced through the Internet.
13. Internet individual accounts had been provided to any persons witling to
acquire them. 14. Windows 95 company has made great inroads and created
information “on dem and” available on its sites. 15. The new technological
achievements should be implemented in the educational sphere.

C O N V E R SA TIO N A L P R A C T IC E
1. Practise problem and topical questions and answers. Work in pairs. Change over! In case yon
disagree with the answer, give your own version.

1. What do the words “concept” “Concept" means a mental impression o r


and “conception” mean? a general idea o f an object or a set o f sit­
uations.
“Conception” is an art or a power o f a
man to form a mental image. ( S y n .
thought, vision, comprehension)
2. There are various types Yes, there exist univalent (individual,
(kinds) of scientific concepts, having one valence) concrete, discrete,
aren’t there? general and abstract concepts.
3. How do scientists produce Scientists produce abstract concepts
(create, establish) abstract con­ when they specify some essential charac­
cepts? teristics o f an object and completely
ignore non-essential features.
4. What do concrete concepts Concrete concepts denote (symbolize)
signify (symbolize, fix, denote, essential properties o f separate physical
designate, assign)? objects.

28
5. W hat about abstract con­ Abstract concepts designate properties of
cepts? a whole class (finite or infinite) o f
objects, some situations and processes
and their interrelations.
6. Is the concept of "distance It is both. It may be abstract - a general
education ” concrete or abstract? idea or concrete - a distance education
establishment (Institution centre) in a
definite country.
7. D o founders and experts o f Yes, they do. Since 1992 they have been
distance education hold regular holding conferences in many world edu­
international (or local) congress­ cational institutions.
es, conferences and seminars?
8. H aven’t they held any in They have held seven international and
Moscow? all-Russia conferences, seminars, and
symposiums since 1994 up to 1999 in
Moscow.
9. Have the founders and Yes, they have precisely defined and
experts defined the concept of specified the concept.
distance education?
10. C an you give (cite, formu­ Distance education is a well-organized
late) the definition? with definite goals interactive process of
interactions and interrelations between
educators (tutors, teachers) and students,
among students themselves, and educa­
tional means irrelative of their res.dence
and time.
11. Try to specify in greater This system claims the specification o f
detail this specific tutorial 12 subsystems involved: goal, content,
deductive system, will you? educators, students, methods, educa­
tional m eans and tutorial forms.
M aterial-technical, finance-econom i­
cal, legal-normal marketing and identi­
fication-controlled.

12. What about the principles o f They are: openness, motivations, inter­
distance education? activeness, starting knowledge and skills,

29
identification and educational term s
(periods o f study).
13. We must determine the edu­ Lecture methods are traditional: system­
cationalforms of distance educa­ atic and problematic presentation o f
tion, e.g. lectures, seminars, lab. some topics, subjects, conceptions.
practices, tests and exam ina­ Seminars are active, lively, discussions
tions, diplomas, etc., m ustn’t and disputes dealing with the topic con­
we? cerned. Exams are assessment (appreci­
ation) of the students’ knowledge and
skills obtained.
14. Distance education is very We must consider it from different posi­
expensive, isn’t it? Who can tions: the cost for the educational insti­
afford it? tution; the users o f distance education;
the econom ic expenses o f the state.
Qualitative expenses vary greatly.
Students from well-to-do families can
afford it.
15. Millions of students, living There are educational institutes and
in far-away centres from the Moscow Lomonosov University among
University have been learning in them, that have been establishing dis­
distance education systems all tance education departments and intro­
over the world. What about ducing new educational technologies.
Russia?

2. Read the following dialogue models. If you disagree with the answer, give >x>w own version

1. 1 wonder where Moscow On the Vorobyovy Hills. Haven't you ever


Lomonosov University is lo ­ visited this picturesque spot in Moscow?
cated. I hope you don’t object A whole new student town has spaing up
my asking you. in this once desolate spot on the
embankment of the Moskva River. The
33-storey M o s c o w University building is
dominating this huge area.

2. I should go there by all Every one enjoys sightseeing, meeting


means. and discussing the students' life there.
3. I am a student myself, but I Isn’t distance education too expensive
prefer distance education. for Russian students?

30
н. ii is expensive, m aeea out it is w nat does us cost involve.' as iar as i
reasonable for residents in far­ know, the student ought to have his own
away towns, e.g., in Siberia. personal computer. What else?
5. Who can afford distance edu­ Only students from w ell-to-do (very
cation? rich) families, that's for sure.
Nevertheless, millions of students all
over the world have been studying and
the distance education is quite success-,
ful.
6. 1 am a philologist and can I am willing to participate in foreign lan­
take foreign language classes guages classes. Can 1?
taught in the country where the
language is spoken.
7. On Internet Relay Chat Server, Chat channels named after a country
a number o f Chat Channels con­ generally conduct the chat and converse
duct conversations in a lan­ in the native tongue, don’t they?
guage other than English. These To listen to and master the native lan­
channels are great places for guage of the country is the dream of all
students and teachers to practise today’s specialists in science and engi­
their foreign language conver­ neering.
sational skills.
8. I can recom m end you I see. There are advantages, merits, bene­
Internet companies and educa­ fits, drawbacks o f Internet education that
tion-specific resources that are are worth discussing in detail. We must
available on the Wfeb: Microsoft, do it later.
Discovery, Windows 95, Centerfor
Excellence in Education, Edu­
cational On-line Sources, Teacher
Education, World Lecture ҢаІІ.

DISCUSSION
1. Dispute the advantages and disadvantages of distance education.
2. Compare the traditional well-grounded population education and dis­
tance education in Russia.
3. Describe the activities o f your former schoolmates studying in distance
education centres.

31
U n it Two (2 )

WHAT IS M ATH EM ATICS?


Gram m ar
1. Degrees o f Comparison.
2. Participle Constructions.

LABORA T O R Y P R A C TIC E

Repeat the sentences after the speaker. Mind the division of the sentence into sense groups.

Model. Among all the sciences | maths is distinguished | for its


universality.
Математика выделяется | среди всех наук | своей
у н и версал ьностью.

1. It is impossible to give a concise and readily acceptable definition o f


maths as it is a multifield subject. 2. Maths in the broad sense o f the word is
a peculiar form o f the general process o f hum an knowledge o f the real
world. 3. Maths deals with the space forms and quantity relations abstract­
ed from the physical world. 4. M ath abstractions are idealizations that have
material or physical origin. 5. Num bers are abstracted ideas or mental
notions only, for numbers do not exist in nature. 6. In m aths the abstract­
ed notions and laws become divorced from the real world. 7. In a formal
math system the content is put aside as irrelevant. 8. M aths enjoys an
unparallelled worldwide reputation o f objectivity. 9. C ontem porary m aths
is a mixture o f much that is very old and still im portant (e.g., counting, the
Pythagorean theorem) with new concepts such as sets, axiomatics, struc­
ture. 10. The totality o f all abstract m ath sciences is called pure maths.
11. Pure maths is borrowed from the physical world; it represents only one
part o f its forms o f interconnection. 12. The totality o f all concrete inter­
pretations is called applied maths. Together they constitute maths as a sci­
ence. 13. Maths is the science dealing primarily with what can be obtained
by reasoning alone. 14. Hum an thought moves from the concrete to the
abstract, from specific individual cases to general principles. 15 M ath
thought involves special kind o f thinking and reasoning. 16. Despite the use­
fulness o f analogy and induction, maths does not rely upon these methods to
establish its conclusions. All math proofs must be deductive. 17. The need for

32
careful and rigorous reasoning in proofs is not at once intuitively apparent to
a nonmathematician. 18. Mastery o f maths does not demand a “ math
m ind” peculiar talents or genius. The subject is within anybody’s grasp.
19. The common phrase “There is no royal road to maths” can be para­
phrased by saying that “There is no royal road to learning” 20. “ Language
is as old as the mind” (Karl Marx.) 21. Human knowledge and notions
about the universe are expressed, represented and stored in language.
22. There are two main forms o f language. They are distinguished in the con­
cepts o f language as a specific written code and speech. 23. Speech is the
realization and representation o f this written code. 24. Language is a fore­
most means o f both human com m unication and human knowledge.
25. N atural spoken language has numerous and limitless applications.
26. The mass media - the press, radio and TV - make for the correctness of
the formal language spoken in the country. 27. Colloquial language is vague,
ambiguous and unreliable for science. 28. Spoken words may have different
meanings determined by the context. 29. Scientists set up formalized lan­
guages to avoid confusion. 30. The essential and peculiar feature of modern
maths is its symbolic language. 31. Math language is designed and ingen­
iously devised by the prominent mathematicians. 32. Much of the math lan­
guage has the form of signs, symbols, equations and formulas. 33. The devel­
opment o f a meaningful, adequate and consistent system of notations in
various branches o f maths is part o f the history of maths. 34. Modern termi­
nology and symbolism are a relatively new development. 35. Math notation
involves signs and symbols that represent objects, concepts, statements,
operations, relations, functions, etc. 36. Symbols permit clear, concise,
unambiguous representation of ideas which are sometimes very complex.
37. Math writing is remarkable because it encompasses much information in
few words. 38. Most math texts involve the basic symbols used in algebra,
analytic geometry, calculus, set theory and math logic with the meanings
usually ascribed to them. 39. The precise signification of the symbol is fixed
by usage, i.e., by the context. 40. A formal math system bears some analogy
to a natural language, for it has its own vocabulary and rules. 41. Symbols of
a formalized language are combined in strict accordance with the rules of
semantics and syntax. 42. The creations o f calculus, non-Euclidean geome­
tries, set theory and cybernetics may be considered as revolutions in maths.
43. M odern methods of carrying out arithm etic operations (addition, sub­
traction, multiplication and division) and their applications become
sophisticated through modern computers. 44. Nowadays mathematicians
frequently liken maths to art or game rather than to science. 45. Most math-

2 Английский язык для студентов-математиков 33


ematicians claim there is great beauty in maths. 46. Math and scientific
problems demand solution. M athematicians seek to solve problems in the
most beautiful, elegant and simple manner. 47. The solution o f difficult
math problems evokes aesthetic emotions. 48. There is an agreement on the
fact that a “beautiful” math result must be nontrivial. 49. An essential ele­
ment in the “beauty” o f a theorem lies in its simplicity and generality.
50. The search for simplicity is a leitmotive o f scientific thought in general.
51. To develop a rigorous and elegant proof the mathematician builds a
structure of logic and form which to his eye is as beautiful as the finest poem.

ACTIVE VOCABULARY

1. to abstract 13. to count 25. to miss


2. to advance 14. to define 26. to object (to)
3. to appear 15. to deliver 27. to owe
4. to attend 16. to depend (on) 28. to provide
5. to avail 17. to descend 29. to separate
6. to believe 18. to determine 30. to
7. to belong (to) 19. I 1 develop 31. to signify
8. to calculate 20. to discover 32. to subject (to)
9. to check up 21. to discourse 33. to vary
10. to compute 22. to employ 34. to view
11. to connect 23. to evaluate 3 r. to visualize
12. to contain 24. to evolve

TEXT ONE

WHAT IS MATHEMATICS?
Read the text. TYy to translate each sentence into Russian with the teacher's assistance. (The
text should be read and reread as many times at home as it is necessary for every student to grasp
the meaning. A written translation is recommendable. The active vocabulary of the text ought to
be learnt.)

The students of maths may wonder where the word “ mathematics” comes
from. “ M athematics” is a Greek word, and, by origin or etymologically, it
means “something that must be learnt or understood" perhi ps “acquired
knowledge” or “knowledge acquirable by learning" or “general knowledge” .
The word "m aths” is a contraction o f all these phrases. The ielchrated
Pythagorean school in ancient Greece had both regular ,<nd incidental
members. The incidental njemberswere called “auditors” ; the regular m em ­

34
bers were named mathematicians” as a general class and not because they
specialized in maths; for them maths was a mental discipline of science
learning. What is maths in the modern sense of the term, its implications and
connotations? There is no neat, simple, general and unique answer to this
question.
Maths as a science, viewed as a whole, is a collection of branches. The
largest branch is that which builds on the ordinary whole numbers, fractions,
and irrational numbers, от what collectively, is called the real number system^
Arithmetic, algebra, the study of functions, the calculus, differential equa­
tions, and various other subjects which follow the calculus in logical order
are all developments of the real number system. This part of maths is termed
the maths o f number. A second branch is geometry consisting of several
geometries. Maths contains many more divisions. Each branch has the same
logical structure: it begins with certain concepts, such as the whole numbers
or integers in the maths of number, and such as point, line and triangle in
geometry. These concepts must verify explicitly stated axioms. Some o f the
axioms o f the maths o f number are the associative, commutative, and distrib­
utive properties and the axioms about equalities. Some of the axioms o f geom­
etry are that two points determine a line, all right angles are equal, etc. From
the concepts and axioms theorems are deduced. Hence, from the standpoint
of structure, the concepts, axioms and theorems are the essential components o f
any compartment o f maths. We must break down maths into separately taught
subjects, but this compartmentalization taken as a necessity, must be com ­
pensated for as much as possible. Students must see the interrelationships of
the various areas and the im portance o f maths for other domains.
Knowledge is not additive but an organic whole, and maths is an inseparable
part o f that whole. The full significance of maths can be seen and taught only
in terms o f its intimate relationships to other fields of knowledge. If maths is
isolated from other provinces, it loses importance.
The basic concepts o f the main branches o f maths are abstractions from
experience, implied by their obvious physical counterparts. But it is note­
worthy, that many more concepts are introduced which are, in essence,
creations o f the hum an mind with or w ithout any help of experience.
Irrational numbers, negative numbers and so forth are not wholly abstract­
ed from the physical practice, for the m an's mind must create the notion
o f entirely new types o f numbers to which operations such as addition,
m ultiplication, and the like can be applied. The notion of a variable that
represents the quantitative values o f some changing physical phenom ena,
such as tem perature and tim e, is also at least one mental step beyond the

35
mere observation o f change. The concept o f a function, o r a relationship
between variables, is almost totally a mental creation. The more we study
maths, the more we see that the ideas and conceptions involved becom e
more divorced and remote from experience, and the role played by the
mind o f the m athem atician becomes larger and larger. The gradual in tro ­
duction o f new concepts which more and more depart from forms o f expe­
rience finds its parallel in geometry and many o f the specific geom etrical
terms are mental creations.
As mathematicians nowadays working in any given branch discover new
concepts which are less and less drawn from experience and more and more
from human mind, the development o f concepts is progressive arid later con­
cepts are built on earlier notions. These facts have unpleasant consequences.
Because the more advanced ideas are purely mental creations rather than
abstractions from physical experience and because they are defined in terms
o f prior concepts, it is more difficult to understand them and illustrate their
meanings even for a specialist in some oth er province o f m aths.
Nevertheless, the current introduction o f new concepts in any field enables
maths to grow rapidly. Indeed, the growth o f modem maths is, in part, due
to the introduction of new concepts and new systems o f axioms.
Axioms constitute the second major com ponent o f any branch o f maths.
Up to the 19th century axioms were considered as basic self-evident truths
about the concepts involved. Wfe know now that this view ought to be given
up. The objective of math activity consists o f the theorems deduced from a set
o f axioms. The amount o f information that can be deduced from some sets
o f axioms is almost incredible. The axioms o f number give rise to the results
o f algebra, properties o f functions, the theorems o f the calculus, the solution
o f various types o f differential equations. M ath theorems must be deductive­
ly established and proved. Much o f the scientific knowledge, is produced by
deductive reasoning; new theorems are proved constantly, even in such old
subjects as algebra and geometry and the current developments are as im por­
tant as the older results.
Growth of maths is possible in still another way. M athematicians are sure
now that sets of axioms which have no bearing on the physical world should
be explored. Accordingly, mathematicians nowadays investigate algebras and
geometries with no immediate applications. There is, however, some dis­
agreement among mathematicians as to the way they answer the question:
Do the concepts, axioms, and theorems exist in some objective world and are
they merely detected by man or are they entirely human creations? In

36
ancient times the axioms and theorems were regarded as necessary truths
about the universe already incorporated in the design o f the world. Hence
each new theorem was a discovery, a disclosure o f what already existed. The
contrary view holds that maths, its concepts, and theorems are created by
man. M an distinguishes objects in the physical world and invents numbers
and numbers names to represent one aspect o f experience. Axioms are m an’s
generalizations of certain fundamental facts and theorems may very logical­
ly follow from the axioms. Maths, according to this viewpoint, is a human
creation in every respect. Some mathematicians claim that pure maths is the
most original creation of the human mind.

TEXT TWO

THE SUBJECT MATTER OF MATHEMATICS


(СОДЕРЖАНИЕ МАТЕМАТИКИ)

Read the text. Analyze each paragraph and its Russian translation. Practise back translation.
Work in pairs.

...“Pure maths deals with the ...«Чистая математика имеет своим


space forms and quantity rela­ объектом пространственные формы
tions o f the real world —that is, и количественные отношения дейст­
with material which is very real, вительного мира, стало быть - весь­
indeed. The fact that this mate­ ма реальный материал. Тот факт, что
rial appears in an extremely этот материал принимает чрезвычай­
abstract form can only superfi­ но абстрактную форму, может лишь
cially conceal its origin from the слабо затушевать его происхожде­
external world. ние из внеш него мира.
But in order to make it possible Но чтобы быть в состоянии исследо­
to - investigate these forms and вать эти формы и отношения в чис­
relations in their pure state, it is том виде, необходимо соверш енно
necessary to separate them отделить их от их содержания, оста­
entirely from their content, to put вить это последнее в стороне как не­
the content aside as irrelevant... что безразличное...
But, as in every department of Но, как и во всех других областях
thought, at a certain stage of мышления, законы, абстрагирован­
developm ent the laws, which ные из реального мира, ...противопо-

37
were abstracted from the real ставляются ему как нечто самостоя­
world, become divorced from the тельное, как явивш иеся извне зако­
real world, ... and are set up ны, с которыми мир должен сообразо­
against it as something inde­ ваться.
pendent, as laws coming from
outside, to which the world has
to conform.
That is how things happened in Так было с обществом и государст­
society and in the state, and in вом, так, а не иначе, чистая матема­
this way and not otherwise, pure тика применяется впоследствии к ми­
mathematics was subsequently ру, хотя она заимствована из этого
applied to the world, although it самого мира и только выражает часть
is borrowed from this world and присущих ему форм связей, — и как
represents only one part o f its раз только поэтому и может вообще
forms o f interconnection — and применяться».
it is only just because o f this that
it can be applied at all.”

From: F. Engels. Anti-Duhring. Энгельс Ф. Анти-Дюринг


(M „ 1959. pp. 58-59.) (М аркс К. и Энгельс Ф.
Собр. соч., т. 20, с. 37-38.)

TEXT THREE

MATHEMATICS - THE LANGUAGE OF SCIENCE

Read and translate the text at home. Be ready a) to illustrate dilTerent meanings of the italicized
words with the examples of your own; b) to speak on the topic “The Language of Science".
What distinguishes the language of science from language as we
ordinarily understand the word? How is it that scientific lan­
guage is international? The supemational character o f scientific
concepts and scientific language is due to the fact that they are
set up by the best brains of all countries and all times.
A. Einstein

One of the foremost reasons given for the study of maths is to use a com ­
mon phrase, that “ maths is the language o f science” This is not meant to
imply that maths is useful only to those who specialize in science. N o. it

38
implies that even a layman must know something about the foundations, the
scope and the basic role played by maths in our scientific age.
The language of maths consists mostly of signs and symbols, and, in a
sense, is an unspoken language. There can be no more universal or more
simple language, it is the same throughout the civilized world, though tht?
people of each country translate it into their own particular spoken language.
For instance, the symbol 5 means the same to a person in England, Spain,
Italy or any other country; but in each country it may be called by a differ­
ent spoken word. Some of the best known symbols of maths are the numer­
als 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 0 and the signs of addition (+), subtraction ( - ) ,
multiplication (x), division (:), equality (=) and the letters of the alphabets:
Greek, Latin, G othic and Hebrew (rather rarely).
Symbolic language is one of the basic characteristics of modern maths for
it determines its true aspect. With the aid of symbolism mathematicians can
make transition in reasoning almost mechanically by the eye and leave their
mind free to grasp the fundamental ideas of the subject matter. Just as music
uses symbolism for the representation and communication of sounds, so maths
expresses quantitatively relations and spatial forms symbolically. Unlike the
common language, which is the product of custom, as well as social and
political movements, the language of maths is carefully, purposefully and
often ingeniously designed. By virtue o f its compactness, it permits a mathe­
matician to work with ideas which when expressed in terms of common lan­
guage are unmanageable. This compactness makes fo r efficiency of thought.
Math language is precise and concise, so that it is often confusing to peo­
ple unaccustomed to its forms. The symbolism used in math language is
essential to distinguish meanings often confused in common speech. Math
Style aims at brevity and formal perfection. Let us suppose we wish to express
in general terms the Pythagorean theorem, well-familiar to every student
through his high-school studies. We may say: “We have a right triangle. If we
construct two squares each having an arm o f the triangle as a side and if we
construct a square having the hypotenuse of the triangle for its side, then the
area of the third square is equal to the sum o f the areas o f the first two”. But
no mathematician expresses himself that way. He prefers: “The sum of the
squares on the sides o f a right triangle equals the square on the hypotenuse.”
In symbols this may be stated as follows: c1=a2+b1 This economy of words
makes for conciseness o f presentation, and math writing is remarkable
because it encompasses much in few words. In the study of maths much time
must be devoted 1) to the expressing o f verbally stated facts in math language,
that is, in the signs and symbols o f maths; 2) to the translating of math

39
expressions into common language. We use signs and symbols for conven­
ience. In some cases the symbols are abbreviations o f words, but often they
have no such relations to the thing they stand for. Wfe cannot say why they
stand for what they do, they mean what they do by common agreement or by
definition.
The student must always remember that the understanding o f any subject
in maths presupposes clear and definite knowledge o f what precedes. This is
the reason why “there is no royal road” to maths and why the study of maths
is discouraging to weak minds, those who are not able to master the subject.

T E X T FOUR

MYTHS IN MATHEMATICS
Read and translate the text in class. Give your comments on the.fnyths mentioned in the text.
Describe some more myths about maths if you know any.

There are many myths about maths, e.g., that (1) “ mathematics is the
queen o f the sciences” (K. Gauss); that (2) the Internet is the cyberspace
world — a new universe — and that (3) informatics will reign and dominate
throughout the 21st century (Microsoft Windows 95 experts claim). Some
people believe that only (4) gifted, talented people can learn maths, that (5)
it is only for m ath-m inded boys, that (6) only scientists can understand math
language, that (7) learning maths is a waste o f time and efforts, etc.
Some analysts claimed in 1900 that nations would face a shortage o f sci­
entists and mathematicians in particular in 1980-2000 years. The myths’
practical impact on today’s young mathematicians seeking employment is
that they should take non-academ ic jobs in business, government and indus­
try. The full unemployment rate for new math departments graduates was the
highest in 1992-1994.
A related myth in maths goes like this: (8) “Jobs were tight, but the m ar­
ket improved. It is a cyclic business and the job market will get better soon
again” Many scientists no longer have faith in this myth and they believe
that math departm ents in all higher educational institutions ought to
reconsider their missions. In particular they should consider downsizing
their graduate program and re-examine the math education provided in
high schools so that the program more closely should fit the reality o f what
the graduates will be doing in the future. Many long-term econom ic, polit­

40
ical, academic and teaching issues and problems indicate that the current
employment of the new young m athem aticians is not likely to be reversed
in the next decade. There is sure no single answer to this employment
problem. A spectrum of changes and reforms will be needed to improve the
situation.
In both education and the industrial high-tech workplace the people not
trained as mathematicians are doing math work and research often quite
successfully nowadays. This phenomenon is the legacy of a long and pro­
found (very deep) failure of mathematicians to communicate with other
groups. For example, mathematicians believe that (9) engineers and natural
scientists are only interested in the math formulas and not in the theory o f
calculus. However, anyone who specializes in physical chemistry or therm o­
dynamics needs to make out (to understand) the chain rule and the implicit
function theorem at a much deeper level than is taught in standard calculus of
several variables in maths. The net result is that physicists and chemists are
teaching at present these things more abstractedly and thoroughly than most
math university departments. Nowadays the ordinary people no longer rank
pure maths research as a top national concern.
The future of maths may depend on whether the emphasis is on the basic
concepts, insight, abstract formalization and proof This does not mean that
rigorous, genuine and valid “p ro o f’ is dead, just that “ insight” is playing a
more im portant role. Successful careers in practical life often require con­
ceptualization and abstraction o f some, even engineering, problems. The
majority o f university graduates must be professionally adroit (skillful,
clever) and flexible over a life-long career which includes many uncertain
and difficult conditions o f excess, insufficient or conflicting theories and
data with rarely adequate time for contem plation (thinking or reasoning
about).
A nother myth in maths is that (10) women cannot be genuine mathemati­
cians. Female applicants must satisfy the same requirements at the entrance
competitive examinations as boys should, there are no special tracks for girls.
Most female applicants assert to have chosen to study maths because they
like it rather than as a career planning. The change o f high-school maths
into university maths is for many of them a real shock, especially in the
am ount o f information covered and the skills that are being developed.
Despite this shock the study of higher maths should be available to a large set
o f students, both male and female, and not to the selected few.
There is no reason that women cannot be outstanding (famous, promi­
nent) mathematicians and the Russian women mathematicians have proved

41
it. There should be affirmative (positive) action to bring women teachers
onto math faculties at colleges and universities. One cannot expect the ratio
to be 50/50, but the tendency should continue until male m athem aticians no
longer consider the presence o f female mathematicians to be unusual at
math department faculty or at the conferences and congresses.
Some ambitious experts claim that they think of mathematicians as ( 1 1)
forming a world nation o f their own without distinctions o f geographical o ri­
gins, race, creed (beliefs), sex, age or even time because the m athem aticians
o f the past and “would-be” are all dedicated to the most beautiful o f the arts
and sciences. As far as math language is concerned, it is in fact too abstract
and incomprehensible for average citizens. It is symbolic, too concise and
precise, and often confusing to non-specialists. The myth that there is a
great deal of confusion about m ath symbolism, that mathematicians try by
means of their peculiar language to conceal the subject matter o f m aths from
people at large is unreasonable and meaningless. The maths language is not
only the foremost means o f scientists intercourse, finance, trade and busi­
ness accounts, it is designed and devised to become universal for all the sci­
ences and engineering, e.g., multilingual computer processing and transla­
tion.

T E X T F IV E

MATHEMATICS AND ART

Translate the text in class. Write an abstract of the text using the italicized words. Speak on tbe
Russian mathematicians involved in the mathematical analysis of tbe objects of art.
All science as it grows towards perfection and sophistication
becomes mathematical in its ideas.
A .S . W hitehead

Today mathematicians frequently liken maths and its creations to music


and art rather than to science. It is convenient to keep the old classification
o f maths as one of the sciences, but it is more just to call it an art or a game.
Unlike the sciences, but like the art o f music or a game o f chess, m aths is
foremost a free creation o f the hum an mind. Maths is the sister, as well as the
servant o f the arts and is touched with the same genius. In an age when spe­
cialization means isolation, a layman may be surprised to hear that maths
and art are intimately related. Yet, they are closely identified from ancient
times. To begin with, the visual arts are spatial by definition, li is therefore
not surprising that geometry is evident in classic architecture or that the ruler

42
and compass are as familiar to the artist as to the artisan. Artists search for
ideal propprtions and math principles o f composition. Many trends and tra­
ditions in this search are mixed.
M aths and art are mutually indebted in the area o f perspective and symme­
try which express relations only now fully explained by the math theory of
groups, a development of the last centuries. But does not art, in breaking away
from academic canons nowadays, also break with mathematics? On the con­
trary. In the last one hundred years maths also has its liberation. From the
science o f number and space, maths becomes the science of all relations, of
structure in the broadest sense. A mathematician, like a painter or a poet, is
a maker o f patterns. The m athem atician’s patterns, like the painter’s or the
poet’s must be beautiful; the ideas, like the colours or the words must fit
together in a harmonious way. Beauty and elegance are the true test for both.
The revolutions in art and maths only deepen the relations between them. It
is a com m on observation that the emotional drive for creation and the satis­
faction from success are the same w hether one constructs an object o f art or
a math theory.
In ancient Greece maths was transformed from a tool for the advancement
o f other activities to an art. Arithmetic, geometry and astronomy were to the
classical Greece music for the soul and the art o f the mind; indeed, rational
and aesthetic can hardly be separated in Greek thought. Maths and art were
fused harmoniously in a single individual during the Renaissance. Though
the further developments tended to weaken the connection, it was reinforced
again in the last century and recent revolutionary changes in both fields open
new possibilities for interaction without weakening the potential role o f each
as inspiration to the other. In both areas the creative process involves obser­
vation and experiment, judgement and rejection, intuition and feeling, care­
ful calculation and analysis, sophistication, flashes of insight, and possibility
results that are thrilling, satisfying and useful to both the artist and his audi­
ence. Patterns in either field may illustrate, explain, or inspire work in the
other. The new maths and the new art are capable o f an intimacy that we
have not seen since the Renaissance.
Since maths and the arts often deal with the same material in different
idioms, only the most careful study can show which precedes the other, but
there is certainly much in m odem art to inspire the m athem atician, and
there are many math ideas whose artistic exploitation may reap a rich har­
vest. Perhaps m odem art expresses intuitively many relations that appear
deductively in math theories. The professional m athem atician has a strong
poetic sense o f form in his own language o f maths and most m athem ati­

43
cians claim that there is great beauty in their science. M aths means prob­
lems, and problems demand solutions. When every m athem atician is co n ­
fronted with a problem , he does his best to solve it by w hatever means he
can think of. But he also tries, if possible, to solve it in the m ost b e au ti­
ful and sim ple m anner which is the m ost fruitful in the long run. A m ath
problem o r theory has a history, which follows the same p attern as in
every science. But the fascination o f m aths has a flavour o f its own.*
M ath problem s not only appeal to the scien tist’s delight in solving rid ­
dles but they definitely evoke aesthetic em otions. C ontrary to the a tti­
tude o f the experim ental scientist, th e result alone is not what matters to
the m athem atician, but the difficulty coped w ith to obtain it. T h a t is,
what is beautiful in m aths can never be m erely skin-deep; it m ust pen e­
trate deep into, the bottom o f the m ath organism w here all difficult p ro b ­
lems converge.
In 1933 George Birkhoff, one of the most distinguished m athem aticians o f
his generation, attem pted to apply maths to art in the m anner that proves so
successful in other areas. He began with a precise formulation o f the old
idea that beauty depends on the relations o f the parts o f an art object. He
defined aesthetic measure as varying inversely with the number o f elem ents
present and directly with the number o f relations between them. O f course,
the difficulty o f the problem is to determ ine these two numbers in specific
contents to discover the implications for design and to test and verify the c o n ­
clusions against hum an aesthetic judgement. This Birkhoff attem pted to do
for painting, poetry and music. His work was an integration in the main
stream o f artistic and math thought and showed great insight, ingenuity and
sophistication.
During the many years from the age o f Pythagoras to the nineteenth cen ­
tury, mathematicians and musicians alike sought to understand the nature o f
musical sounds and to find the relationship between m aths and music. The
climax to this long series of investigations,/л о т a math standpoint, came with
the work o f the mathematician Joseph Fourier, who showed that all sounds,
vocal and instrumental, simple and complex, are completely describable in
math terms. Because of Fourier’s work not even the elusive beauty o f a musi­
cal phrase escapes math formulation. Whereas Pythagoras was content to
pluck the strings o f a lyre, Fourier sounded the whole orchestra. Stated as a
theorem o f pure maths Fourier’s formula у = sin x says about the relations
among variables, which can be represented by means o f a graph.
The graph shows that the function is regular or periodic; or we may say, the
cycle o f у -values repeats itself after every 360-unit interval o f x - values. This

44
function does not quite represent the sound o f music but a very simple m od­
ification o f it does. A little effort produces the proper modification and it can
be summarized by the statement that the function у = a sin bx, where a and
b are any positive numbers has the amplitude a and the frequency b in 360
units o f x-values. The formula represents sounds mathematically. But of
course very few musical soqnds are as simple as those that may be represent­
ed by the formula. What can the mathematician say about more complex
musical sounds?
Part o f the answer to the question is learnt by observ ing the graphs o f var­
ious sounds. The graphs o f all musical sounds show regularity. In “graphic”
terms we have, then, the distinguishing feature between pleasing and dis­
pleasing sounds, between musical sounds in the broad sense and noise.
Unfortunately, such a great variety o f musical sounds possesses this feature
o f regularity that further analysis and characterization is necessary - and yet
this seemed impossible until the nineteenth century. Then Fourier entered
the scene and dispelled the confusion.
What is the significance o f Fourier’s theory? In math language the theorem
tells us that the formula for any musical sound is a sum o f terms o f the form
a sin bx. Since each term can represent a simple sound, the theorem says that
each musical sound, however complex, is merely a combination o f simple sounds.
The m ath deduction that any complex musical sound can actually be built up
from simple sounds is physically verifiable. This resolution o f complex sounds
into partials or harmonics helps us describe mathematically the chief charac­
teristics o f all musical sounds. Thus, thanks to Fourier, the nature o f musical
sounds is now clear to us. But what can maths say about harmonic combina­
tions o f sounds, about the essence o f beautiful musical compositions, about
the “soul” o f music? The role o f maths in music stretches even to the com­
position itself. Masters such as Bach constructed and advocated vast math
theories for the composition of music. In such theories cold reason rather
than feeling and emotions produce the creative pattern.
O f course, the math analysis of musical sounds is o f great practical impor­
tance. The musical sounds o f most instruments are considerably improved
and perfected by the application of maths. The fact cannot be denied that
maths not only aids in the design o f musical instruments but sometimes
maths rather than the ear is the arbiter o f a perfect design. The engineering
o f practically all the components o f complex instruments relies heavily on
Fourier’s analysis o f musical sounds. Even the layman can soon learn to
speak Fourier’s language. In view of the many shares and bearings o f maths
to the production and reproduction o f musical ideas the modern music lover

45
evidently owes as much to Fourier as to Beethoven. There are philosophical
overtones to Fourier’s work. The essence o f beautiful music is obviously
more than what math analysis can show. Nevertheless, through Fourier’s
theorem this major art leads itself perfectly to math description. Hence, the
most abstract o f the arts can be transcribed into the most abstract o f the sci­
ences and the most reasoned o f the arts is clearly recognized to be akin to the
music o f reason.

VOCABULAR Y E X E R C IS E S
This type of exercises must be done by the student at home as one’s drilling in grammar and to
master active vocabulary.
Common nouns (e.g., a text —texts) are countable. Abstract and material
nouns are uncountable and they cannot have plural forms. The uncountable
nouns may be used only with the zero article or combined with the words
the, their, that, much, little, a little, some, any, a piece of, a lot of.
1. Translate the sentences into Russian.

Model. This information is new. It comes regularly.


Эти сведения новые. Они поступают регулярно.

1. What is the news? There is some, but I am not sure if it is good news or
bad. 2. He makes good progress in English. 3. Let me give you some advice.
4. It is a fine piece o f music. 5. Sound knowledge can be obtained through
study and research work. 6. Information that is wrong is not useful. 7. This
theory shows much ingenuity and sophistication.

It is sometimes difficult to draw a line of division between countable and


uncountable nouns. There are many abstract nouns in English that have
more than one meaning and which are countable in one meaning but
uncountable in another.
2. Make up the sentences of your own, using the nouns given below and combining them with
these - those, much, many, few, a few, little, a little.

Model, time —> a time, much time, many times


There is still much time before the lecture.
How many times must I add those numbers?
2 x 2 ■ 4 (TWo times two equals four.)

science, people, mind, art, beauty, quality, quantity, development

46
3. Use the following nouns with the zero, definite or indefinite articles in the sentences of your
own.

Models. Maths: 1. In a sense it is easier to say what maths is not


than what it is. 2. Do we have a maths accessible to all
today? 3. By “modern” maths we mean the maths of
the past century.
Art —arts: 1. Model designing is art in science.
2. Maths is art and as such gives the pleasures which all
arts give.

aids, news, habits, mechanics, customs, aims, ideas, advances, judge­


ments, contents, calculi, semantics, transitions, physics, means, computa­
tions, numerals, assertions, ends, works

4. Translate the sentences into Russian paying attention to: rather, rather than, other than.
1. Maths is the study o f relations between certain ideal objects, such as
numbers, functions, and geometric figures. These objects are not regarded as
real, but rather as abstract models of physical situations. 2. Mathematicians
want from math objects not their material or physical existence, but rather
the right to use them in proofs. 3. The math concept is a notion or method
rather than content. 4. Maths is an active rather than a passive activity.
5. Maths not only aids in the design of musical instruments but sometimes
maths rather than the ear is the arbiter of perfect design. 6; In this century the
skill o f reading is divided into many types among which intensive, extensive
and silent are most commonly used. Extensive reading is aimed at ideas
rather than grammatical structure and is definitely distinguished from trans­
lation. 7. For many physical phenomena no exact concepts exist other than
math notions. 8. The concepts o f number and space figure do not come from
any source other than the world of reality.

5. Read and translate the sentences into Russian using a dictionary if necessary.
1. At present maths means the combination of pure and applied maths.
Pure maths deals with logical (math) structures, it studies them as structures
themselves. 2. Applied maths is the study o f real objects by means of math
methods, i.e., the study o f structures modelling real phenomena. 3. The core
o f maths is pure maths, its theories are beautiful and elegant abstract math
systems expressing not words, but thoughts and ideas. 4. The results in pure
maths are appreciated not by their practical applications, but by their com­
pleteness, rigour, consistency, mastery and beauty. 5. People must not con­
fuse pure maths and its applications. Pure maths is an abstract science but its

47
applications may be concrete and practical. 6. Can students m aster the
applications o f maths without learning maths itself? By no means. M aths is
undivided and unique. It means that pure and applied maths are parts o f
indivisible whole though it does not imply their identity. 7. From logical
viewpoint mathematicians distinguish the following species o f m ath knowl­
edge: concepts, assertions, reasoning, conclusion and sets o f them . 8 Concepts
may be both concrete and abstract. C oncrete concepts signify the essential
properties of separate physical objects. Abstract concepts reflect distinguish­
ing and essential properties of a whole class (finite or infinite) o f objects.
9. Abstract concepts are called categories and they are products o f abstraction,
generalization, synthesis, analysis, matching, etc. They possess ascribed
properties which do not exist in reality. 10. They are demonstrated by means
o f drawings, diagrams, schemes,.pictures, figures. The content o f abstract
concepts is disclosed in definitions or in a set o f axioms signifying their prop­
erties. 11. Math knowledge is not a set o f concepts alone. Knowledge is a
combination o f interrelationships, interconnections and interdependencies
among concepts and their systems. 12. An assertion is &statement that con­
firm s or denies something. An assertion may be both true ox false. The s tr ic ­
ture o f an assertion consists o f a) the subject, b) the predicate, c) the link.
Concepts and assertions are basic units o f math knowledge. 13. More com ­
plex math knowledge units, e.g., proofs, arguments, reasoning, explanations,
hypothesis, theories, math subjects are built in terms o f these basic units w ith
the application o f lavs o f logic. 14. In reasoning only those assertions are true
whose truth is proved orjustified. 15. Conclusion is knowledge based on true
assertions. Conclusion is thinking and reasoning from a set o f true state­
ments and obtaining a new piece o f knowledge.
6. Read the passages and characterize a) species of math knowledge, b) mathematicians' abili­
ties, skills, tasks, goals.

• 1. Math theory is, in a sense, a proved hypothesis. A set o f assum ptions


(statem ents), axioms, and theorem s derived from them , constitutes a
pure m ath theory. The theorem s o f the theory hold the com plete accu ra­
cy only for the objects that correspond to the assumptions. There are
axiomatic and deductive theories. A xiomatic theories are distinguished
for their rigour. 2; The set o f axioms in axiom atic theories must be c o m ­
plete, independent, consistent, and form alized m athem atical]) The
developm ent and structure o f the theory depend on strict analysis o f
basic concepts, sets o f axioms and their consistency 3. The truth in m aths
is established by the logical proof o f any statem ent in a sense, a logical

48
deductive p ro o f may play the role o f abstract experim ent. M ath truths are
o f absolute and eternal cha; ;ter, they do not change with the develop­
m ent and accum ulation of human knowledge. 4. Existence theorems are
absolute and eternal in maths. Existence in m aths has a different m ean­
ing and sense com pared to the existence in the real world, though math
laws are the laws of the real world. 5. All species o f math knowledge are
fixed in term s of spoken words?signs, symbols, models, proofs and th eo ­
ries. Spoken words are used for the fixation and translation o f math
knowledge. Signs and symbols are the m an-m ade system for coding
knowledge with strictly specific rules o f operations and unique meaning
ascribed to them . Their usage is interrelated to the spoken language
Signs and symbols help and make for the transition in reasoning. 6. The
main task o f m aths is to teach a man to think logically and accurately
(precisely). There is no ugly maths. Inner beauty, harmony, symmetry are
always present in any fundam ental m ath theory. 7. M aths is first and
foremost hard labour and intensive study. It teaches honesty, objectivity,
validity, and beauty. M aths contributes to acquiring rational qualities of a
h um an thinking. It dem ands im aginatio n , insight and intuition
8. M athem aticians must be able: 1) to pose m ath problems; 2) to estab­
lish m ath models, i.e., logical idealization o f the physical phenom enon
by ignoring and elim inating some factors; 3)‘to choose an adequate math
m ethod and algorithm for the problem solution; 4) to employ numerical
m ethods and com puters; 5) to apply qualitative methods of research;
6) to work out (to elaborate) practical recom m endations, based on math
analysis perform ed. 9. A math model o f a physical phenom ena c an ’t be
adequate and identical to the phenom enon itself. A model implies logi­
cal idealization o f the physicaj phenom enon by ignoring and elim inating
some factors. It helps study processes in the real world. One and the same
model can correspond and describe different physical phenom ena. To
develop a m ath model the m athem atician m ust have thorough and exten­
sive knowledge o f maths. 10. Pure m aths too has real objects and goals.
Every theory o f pure m aths has the right to exist if it is really in a position
to answer concrete questions which concern abstract objects like whole
num bers or geom etric figures — or if, at least, it serves for the construc­
tion o f things, which happen there. Otherwise, the pure theory is incom ­
plete o r else it is a docum ent o f confusion.

7. a) Choose the proper Russian equivalent Гог the word development and translate the sen­
tences into Russian. Mind the dependence of the meaning on the context.

49
Model, development(s) n — развитие; изложение; раскры­
тие; разъяснение; преобразование; построение;
становление; разработка; теория; событие; резуль­
тат; совершенствование; достижение

1. The math theory o f groups is a development b f the last centuries. 2. The


development o f the rigorous math (as opposed to the dictionary) type o f
definition is the product of the m odem maths. 3. Educated people must be
familiar with all the im portant scientific developments o f their day. 4. In
maths the basic development from concrete individual m atter through
abstraction and back again to the concrete and individual gives a theory its
meaning and significance. 5. The concept o f num ber and the process o f
counting developed so long before the tim e o f recorded history that the
m anner o f this development is largely conjectural. 6. The requirem ehts for
quicker aids to com putation lay at the root o f the development o f m ultipli­
cation tables, tables o f reciprocals and the like. 7. M aths ranks among the
highest cultural developments o f man. 8. It is especially true that in maths
the creative work is done by individuals mostly; nevertheless tne results are
the product o f centuries o f thought and development. 9. What we call
“m aths” consists o f several discrete individual developments, each manifest­
ing its own birth and growth. 10. N o subject can be effectively learned or
taught without an adequate understanding o f its historical development. The
development o f math knowledge is essentially in a continuous evolution.

b) Consult the dictionary and give all possible Russian equivalents of the words diruiem,
power, consideration with illustrative examples.

8. IVanslate the sentences into Russian, paying attention to the words in bold type. Mind flat
one and the same Russian word may be expressed by different English equivalents which are not
synonyms in the proper and strict sense of the term.

Model. Обращаться (к, с, за) - to speak to, to treat. In apply


for, etc.

1. Speak to Comrade Petrov. 2. He turns to me for help. 3. She applies for


help. 4. He treats the child kindly 5. She addresses the meeting with a long
speech. 6. The speaker appeals to (calls upon) all those present to sign the
paper. 7. You should consult a doctor (a lawyer, ah expert, etc.). 8. The stu ­
dents must translate the text without referring, to the dictionary. 9. D on’t
invoke so much the manager.

50
9. Study the given English equivalents of the Russian words. Consult the dictionary and write
down in your copybook the Russian equivalents оГ the following verbs, adjectives and nouns.

a) discuss, argue, debate, dispute; b) reach, achieve, gain, attain; c) appear, emerge; d) con­
nect, link, associate, relate; e) attentive, considerate, thoughtful; 0 care, concern, solicitude

понятие (представление) idea, term, notion, concept, conception


утверждение, высказы­ phrase, sentence, statem ent, expression,
вание (суждение) wording, utterance, assertion, affirmation,
judgement

значение meaning, sense, value, bearing, implication,


importance, significance, signification
цель end, intent, goal, target, object, objective,
purpose
средство aid, means, tool, device, medium, instru­
ment, apparatus, technique, appliance
обычный (обычно) average, familiar, usual(ly), commOn(ly),
ordinary(ily), customary(ily), popular(ly)
очевидный (очевидно) clear(lv), plain(ly), evident(ly). obvious(ly),
apparent(ly)
строгость strictness, severity, rigour
строгий (строго) strict(ly), severe(ly), rigorous(ly)
точный (in)exact(ly), (in)accurate(ly)

(не) точно (im)precise(ly), (not)neat(ly)


точность exactness, accuracy
изучать (исследовать) to learn, to study, to investigate, to explore, to
analyze, to make research, to research, to
inquire (into), to make an inquiry
исследование learning, study, investigation, exploration,
analysis, research, inquiry
предполагать to assume, to (pre)suppose, to presume, to
conjecture, to hypothesize

51
предположение (допуще­ assumption, supposition, presumption, con­
ние) jecture, hypothesis
равняться (равно) to be, to make, to equal, to be equal, to
am ount to
соединять (объединять) to tie, to bind, to link, to couple, to combine,
to associate, to relate, to connect, to consol­
idate, to amalgamate
соединение tie, bond, link, couple, com bination, associ­
ation, relation, connection, consolidation,
amalgamation
требовать to call for, to claim, to dem and, to require
требование claim, demand, requirement

READING COMPREHENSION

Read the text. Comment on and characterize modern maths using the characteristics men­
tioned in the text.

Mathematics is Abstract, General, Logical, Formal


and Rigorous
The first actual contact which most people have with m aths is through
arithmetic. That two and two make four is usually taken for granted as a sim ­
ple math proposition. Arithmetic, therefore, is a good subject to begin with
in order to discover the most obvious characteristic o f m aths as a science.
The first noticeable fact about arithm etic is that it applies to everything: to
apples, to sounds, to angles, to the ideas o f the mind, etc. The nature o f the
things is perfectly indifferent and irrelevant; o f all things whatever, it is true
that two and two make four. Thus, we write down as the leading characteris­
tic o f maths that it deals with properties and ideas which are applicable to
things just because they are things and apart from any particular feelings or
emotions in any way connected with them. This is what is m eant by calling
maths as abstract science.
What is the advantage o f maths being abstract? One advantage is im m edi­
ately apparent - the gain o f generality. The unfortunate learner finds him self

52
struggling and he always fails to acquire some knowledge from a mass of
facts, details and computational techniques which are not illuminated by a
definite general conception. This is the root reason why maths because of its
very abstractness must always remain one of the most important topics for
scientific thought. The theorem proved about abstract triangle applies equal­
ly well to the figure formed by three matchsticks, the triangular boundary of
a piece o f land and the imaginary triangle formed by the earth, sun and
moon at any instant. Maths aims at progressive and higher order abstractions
and ever wider generalizations. Basic math concepts such as number, point,
space, function, etc. are generalized abstractions.
Philosophers single out (extract) another aspect of maths - logical. The
logical aspect deals with the form, structure and ways o f reasoning abstracted
from their specific content. The first contribution to this logicalformalization
was made by the ancient Greek mathematicians and philosophers (T.
Militus, the Pythagoreans, Aristotle). The true start offormal logical presen­
tation o f m ath theories emerged with the birth of a modem sophisticated dis­
cipline — M athematical Logic. Its founders — Hilbert, Russel, Whitehead,
Frege, Peano - formulated the concept of a whole body o f philosophical
studies under the new name — “metamathematics” “proof theory” or “syn­
tax” . M ath formalizm means logical formalization o f the content o f any
math theory in terms of some formalized language possessing strict rules o f
inference. All the notions, expressions and sentences o f the math theory must
be finite sequences o f the admitted signs and symbols o f a formalized lan­
guage. Such formalization is the highest level so far developed. In a formal
metamath theories mathematicians remove all the concrete content from the
discourse and go to the abstract development that lies behind any specific
application. It is within the grasp and appreciation o f specialists alone.
After referring to the basic characteristics o f maths let us discuss the
requirem ent o f rigour which implies that the theorem must be proved by a
finite number o f steps based upon a finite number o f axioms explicitly and
exactly formulated. This demand for logical deduction by means o f a finite
num ber o f steps is simply the requirem ent o f rigour in reasoning. It is an
error to believe that rigour in the math proof is the enemy of simplicity. On
the contrary, the rigorous m ethod is at the same tim e sim pler and easier to
understand and worthy in the long run. The very effort for rigour helps the
learners come across a simpler m ethod o f proof and surm ount (overcome)
all the difficulties. It is well known that wherever m aths is applied, it brings
preciseness and rigour about. Whenever in natural sciences a phrase “pre­
cise methods” is used, maths is always present. The concept "rigour” in

53
m aths is a definite and exact one. Rigour in a science depends largely upon
the language used. The least rigorous branches o f science are those which
use com m on language for their formalization. The role o f m aths as a
means for rendering rigour to any science is well explained by the fact that
m aths is the “source” of a precise and concise language for all o th e r sci­
ences.

GRAMMAR AN D VOCABULARY EXERCISES

In the present indefinite tense either the subject or the predicate may have
s-ending (the law o f one “s”). E.g., mathematicians prove, a m athem atician
proves.

1. Change the subject in the following sentences into the singular altering the predicate.

Model. Many young boys mean to be mathematicians, (this


young man)
This young man means to be a mathematician.

1. M athem aticians claim that m aths is the language o f science, (a scien­


tist) 2. They define this concept in a precise and formal way. (she) 3. VSfe
determine the strict meaning o f this word from the context available, (a
philologist) 4. Different fields o f mathematics involve specific problems, (this
new field) 5. People very often mix up the words “som e” and “sam e", (a
careless student) 6. We introduce a new term to distinguish the notions often
confused, (he) 7. They make up their minds to study the problem involved.
(she) 8. Wfe mean that your reasoning is illogical, (the teacher) 9. Scientists
relate these two facts to one known cause, (a mathematician) 10. H um an
reasoning differs according to the problem under study, (his reasoning)
11. The students get confused when they are unable to solve the problem on
the blackboard, (she) 12. They learn to think in terms o f equations, (an alge­
braist)

2. Ask a general question altering the subject.

Model. Mathematicians express such relations in terms o f a


formula, (she)
Does she express such relations in terms o f a formula?

54
1. We multiply the examples to clarify our viewpoint, (he)
2. Mathematicians never confuse the words "undefined” and “ meaningless” .
(a true scientist) 3. They relate undefined terms to meaningful concepts, (the
mathematician) 4. Mathematicians prefer to introduce new math terms
explicitly by definitions, (the teacher) 5. We add that many math terms have
non-m ath meanings in everyday situations, (he) 6. The sophisticated readers
master math formalized texts quite easily, (the mathematician) 7. They divide
the task and each o f them has his share of work, (he) 8. We try to communi­
cate the information by all the means available, (a scientist)

3. Agree with the following statements and develop them further.

Model. M a th e m a tic ia n s d o n o t lik e a lo n g w o rd y s ta te ­


m e n t o f a th e o r e m .
No, th e y d o n ’t. N o m a th e m a tic ia n lik e s it. H e
p refers a s y m b o lic sta te m e n t o f a th e o r e m .

1. Mathematicians do not confuse basic signs and symbols. 2. Scientists do


not devote much time to transitions in reasoning. 3. A professional mathe­
matician does not develop his arguments verbally. 4. Weak-willed minds can­
not master maths. 5. An algebraist does not solve equations by arguing in
words. 6. M athematicians do not rely on intuition in their proofs. 7. Analogy
and induction do not always lead to true conclusions. 8. A layman does not
claim that maths is easy to manage. 9. Math language was not developed all
o f a sudden. 10. The mathematician does not object to the fact that there is a
language barrier between scientists and laymen. 11. The “translation” o f
problems into the language of mathematicians is, in fact, not an easy task.
12. Com m on people do not understand the formalized language of maths.

4. Disagree with the following negative statements and develop them further.

Model. Symbols do not have the same meaning.


But they dd. Most symbols have the same meaning
throughout all math texts. Certain symbols, in fact,
have numerous connotations.

I. Symbols do not play the role o f words. 2. The math language has no
design and no rules. 3. There are no man-made or artificial languages.
4. Language is not a means for communicating human thoughts. 5. Both the
vocabulary and syntax o f the math language are not strictly devfted.

55
6. Scientists do not think and reason in terms o f formulas. 7. Maths is not dis­
tinguished for its universality. 8. In maths the major m ethod o f reasoning is
not deduction. 9. Analogy and induction are not employed in maths at all.
10. There is no difference between inductive and deductive reasoning.

S. Give both short and Tull answers.

a) General questions

Model. Is scientific language peculiar? ( Yes,...)


Yes, it is. Scientific language is peculiar.

1. Do peoples have their particular national language? (Yes, ...) 2. Must


there be a universal language for codifying science? (Yes, ...) 3. D o linguists
design and devise the language o f maths? (N o, ...) 4. Is there any ambiguity
in the meaning o f symbols and signs? (N o, ...) 5. Does a professional m ath­
ematician confuse math concepts? (No, ...) 6. Can a layman understand a
formalized scientific language? ( N o ,...)

b) “There Is”/ “There Exists” Construction

Model. There holds a common agreement among mathemati­


cians about this method o f proof.
Does there hold such an agreement? Yes. there does.
No, there does not.

1. There (is) circulates another variant o f this com m on phrase. (Yes, ...)
2. There appears a new meaning of the term. ( Yes,...) 3. There passes a line
through these two points. (N o, ...) 4. There lives a distinguished m athem ati­
cian in this city. (Yes, ...) 5. There arises a need for a new formalized lan­
guage. (N o ,\..)

c) Special Questions

Model. What distinguishes the language o f science from com ­


mon language? (math symbolism)
M ath symbolism distinguishes the language o f science
from common language.

1. What constitutes the most part o f m ath language? (signs and symbols)
2. What makes for efficiency o f thought in m ath reasoning? (the compactness

56
and precision o f the math language) 3. Who designs and devises the language
o f the maths? {distinguished mathematicians) 4. Who sets up the rules of
abstract language? (logicians and semanticists) 5. Who confuses signs and
symbols o f maths? (laymen) 6. What do we call the result of addition, sub­
traction, multiplication and division? (a sum, a difference, a product, a quo­
tient, respectively) 7. What do scientists use math symbolism for? (for com­
pactness, conciseness and unambiguity o f presentation) 8. What theorem is
familiar to every student of maths? (Pythagorean) 9. How is it that scientific
language is universal? {due to the supernational character o f scientific concepts)
10. When does a statement o f a theorem appeal to mathematician? (concise
and precise) 11. Which wording is more concise: verbal or symbolic? (sym­
bolic, sure enough) 12. Who can dissociate, generalize and abstract math
concepts? {abstract-mindedscientists) 13. Why do scientific laws seem inde­
pendent? {due to their abstract character) 14. Why are scientific laws
abstract? (because their content is put aside as irrelevant)

6. Disagree with the false statements. Begin your sentences with the following opening phrases
and develop them further.

1 am afraid, you are mistaken here. On the contrary.


It is quite the reverse. Just the other way round.

Model. The language o f science is vague and unreliable.


In fact, it is quite the reverse. The language o f science
is precise and quite safe.

1. M ath language is a natural spoken language. 2. The language of science


is the foremost means o f human intercourse. 3. Ordinary people com m uni­
cate by means o f the formalized language o f maths. 4. Math language is set
up by distinguished linguists. 5. The only reason for studying maths is to
master basic arithmetical operations. 6. When people try to do without
maths, they lose a colloquial language. 7. Math language and techniques do
not penetrate into fields outside the math science. 8. Statements expressed
in m ath terms are vague and ambiguous. 9. Scientists can use maths as a
shorthand script to codify relationships. 10. Razor-sharp calculus operates
with wordy statements. 11. Pure science is knowledge obtained from expert
iments and calculations. 12. Mental reasoning from obvious truths, i.e.,
axioms and postulates, constitutes applied science. 13. Basic undefined
terms o f maths are meaningless concepts. 14. A sharp dividing line between

57
“pure” and “applied” maths can, in fact, be drawn. 15. The present role o f
maths is the same as in previous stages o f its development. 16. There is a
great deal of confusion about symbolism.

GRAMMAR

1. Degrees of Comparison
Notice that there are some adjectives which owing to their meaning have
neither comparative nor superlative degrees, e.g., perfect, unique, full, empty,
square, round, daily, upper, major, outer, whole, only.

1. Translate the sentences into Russian, paying attention to the adjectives.

1. The solution of the problem must be perfect but not always unique. Now
its whole solution is available. 2. A sphere is a geometrical name for a round
or ball-shaped solid. 3. Counting arose from daily needs o f calculating
objects in outer physical world. 4. This is the only problem that may attract
our attention. 5. The major method o f proof in maths is deduction.

2. Follow the models and make the sentences in which comparison is expressed.

Models. 1. comparison o f equality (as ... as)


This problem is as difficult as the first problem.
This definition is as rigorous as the definition given
before.
2. comparison o f inequality (not s o ... as, not as ...as)
This problem is not as interesting as people may think.
The proof is not so valid as he supposed at first.
3. comparison o f parallel increase or decrease ( A t ... the).
The sooner the problem is solved, the better (so much
the better).
The longer he refuses to recognize the impossibility of the
solution, the worse for him (so much the worse for him)
4. comparison o f superiority (...-er than, the m o st... of)
This contribution of the ancient Greeks is much
greater than the formulas o f the Egyptians.
This solution is a great deal better than the last sugges­
tion.
Her answer is the most convincing of all.
5. comparison o f inferiority (less ... than; still, a little
worse than)
His argument is less elegant than her proof.
Your drawing is a little worse than my drawing.

58
2. Participle Constructions

Participle I
to go - going, to lie - lying, to study - studying

1. Transform the following sentences using Participle I constructions:

Model. 1. The sign which (that) stands for an angle is <.


The sign standing for an angle is <. (Attribute.)
2. When (if) you add fractions in arithmetic, you must
determine the least common denominator of the frac­
tions involved.
Adding fractions in arithmetic ... (Adverbial modifier.)

1. The line which passes through these two points is a diameter. 2. If you
express these statements in math terms, you obtain the following equations.
3. A decimal fraction is a fraction which has a denominator of 10, 100, 1000
or some simple multiple of 10 (e.g., 0.05). 4. When we amalgamate several
relationships, we express the resulting relation in terms of a formula. 5. If we
try to do without maths, we lose a powerful tool for reshaping information.
6. The math language which codifies present science so clearly has a long
history o f its development. 7. The formula which describes acceleration is
Ду/Д/ = 32. 8. Calculus which is the main branch of modern maths, oper­
ates with the rules of logical arguments. 9. When we use math language, we
avoid vagueness and unwanted extra meanings o f our statements. 10. When
scientists apply maths, they codify their science more clearly and objectively.

Participle I I
to give - given, to mean - meant, to mind - minded, to determine - deter­
mined, to speak - spoken, to see - seen, to imply - implied, to communicate
—communicated

2. TYansform the following sentences using Participle II constructions:

Models. I. The reasons which are given for the study of maths.
The reasons given for the study o f maths. (Attribute.)
2. When (if) they are expressed in terms of symbols,
these relations produce a formula.
Expressed in terms of sym bols... (Adverbial modifier.)

1. A com m on phrase which is used in such cases. 2. When they are used as
scientific terms, these concepts have different meanings. 3. The formal lan­

59
guage which is spoken in this country is Russian. 4. The meanings o f words
which are always confused in speech. 5. If it is expressed in m ath terms, this
theorem gives a general m ethod o f calculating the area. 6. The sense which
is implied in this assertion is not clear. 7. If it is designed and devised in a
proper way, the symbolic language becomes universal. 8. The time which is
devoted to the translating o f math expressions into com m on language is
wasted for a mathematician.

3. Change active into passive.

Models. 1. Scientists introduce new concepts by rigorous defi­


nitions.
New concepts are introduced by rigorous definitions.
2. M athematicians cannot define some notions in a
precise and explicit way.
Some notions cannot be defined in a precise and
explicit way.

1. Students o f the D epartm ent o f M athem atics and M echanics can


give the principal reasons for the study o f m aths. 2. People often use this
com m on phrase in such cases. 3. Even laymen must know the founda­
tions, the scope and the role o f m aths. 4. In each country people tran s­
late m ath symbols into peculiar spoken words. 5. All the specialists apply
basic symbols o f m aths. 6. Students may express this fam iliar theorem in
term s o f an equation. 7. Scientists devote little tim e to m aster sym bol­
ism. 8. A student may use basic principle to determ ine the relation.
9. All the specialists must thoroughly rem em ber the preceding m aterial.
10. By the aid o f symbolism m athem aticians can make transitions in
reasoning alm ost m echanically by the eye. 11. The students verify the
solution o f this equation easily. 12. People abstract num ber co n cep ts and
a rith m e tic o p eratio n s w ith them from physical reality
13. M athem aticians investigate space form s and quantitative relations in
th eir pure state. 14. Scientists divorce abstract laws from the real world.
15. M athem aticians apply abstract laws to study the external world o f
reality. 16. A m ath formula can represent some form o f in terco n n ectio n s
and interrelations o f physical objects. 17. A m athem atical law involves
abstractions built upon abstractions, i.e., abstractions o f higher order.
18. Scientists can avoid am biguity by m eans o f symbolism and m ath d ef­
initions.

60
C O N V ER SATIO N A L PRAC TIC E

To give the exact and explicit definition o f maths is not a simple task.
Numerous definitions o f maths are given by different writers but none of
them is utterly satisfactory. The point is it is impossible to compress into a
few words the definition of so vast and multifield subject. Mathematicians
determine the essence of maths in different ways according to the following
roles o f the science: maths as a science, as a language, as a tool, as a method
of inquiry.

1. Analyze the following definitions of maths and speak on the role of the science implied in each
of them. Compare them with F. Engels’ definition. Which of them may be called scientific and rig­
orous? Give a definition of maths.

Model. Maths means problems.


It’s not a definition at all, to my mind. Rather, it's
schoolchildren's view of maths.

1. Maths is what mathematicians do. 2. Maths is what maths does. 3. Maths


is the queen of the sciences. 4. Maths is a universal tool for describing the
world around. 5. Maths is a device designed to enlarge human powers.
6. Maths is a symbolic representation of human perceptions. 7. Maths is a
game, a free creation of the mind divorced from practical problems. 8. Maths
is a tool for codifying information, for simple-transmission and communica­
tion of thought. 9. Maths is a general approach to the whole class o f quite dis­
similar situations. 10. Maths is a logical study o f shape, quantity, arrange­
ments and structures. 11. Maths is the classification and study of all possible
patterns. 12. Maths is the art of giving the same name to different things.
13. Maths is an inspiration to the artist as well as a tool to scientist. 14. Maths
is the classification of all possible problems and the means appropriate to
their solutions. 15. Maths is the technique o f discovering and expressing in
the most economical possible way useful rules of reliable reasoning about cal­
culation, shape and measurement. 16. Maths is an activity which has as its
goal the formulation and understanding o f a complete model of the universe.

2. Read the statements of the following theorems and say which of them is a theorem of pure
maths. Justify your choice.

1. The area o f a circle is nr2 2. The area of a circular field is n times the
square o f a certain physical length.

61
3. Are the following statements true or false? Justify your choice. Add some sentencefs) to sub­
stantiate your claim.

Models. I. Math abstractions are mental comeniences only.


In a sense, it is true.
Many math abstractions stand for no teal object in
practice (e.g., a variable, a function), they are, in fact,
mental creations and conveniences. Mathematicians
deal with abstractions to gain generality but some­
thing else is involved, o f course. Abstractions make for
the efficiency and compactness o f thought. Through
the employment o f abstractions there results a consid­
erable economy, both in math thought and in commu­
nication o f thought.
2. Current maths is unmanageable for most social sci­
entists.
Not quite so. Math methods o f inquiry constitute the
essential part o f and contribute to practically all the
sciences nowadays. Most social scientists manage to
master and apply math methods in their work.

1. It is common misconception to look at mathematicians as the high


priests of learning. 2. Math ability is a rare and unusual gift.
3. Mathematicians are by no means as peculiar as they may seem at fust.
4. No special gifts or qualities of mind are needed to master maths. S. Any
man of average intelligence can have access to maths. 6. Mathematicians are
human beings like “you and me”. 7. The mathematician needs only critical
intellect, common sense and a-little imagination. 8. Maths is a temple and
only the initiated are allowed to enter it 9. Maths is a wide science which is
open to anyone who enjoys thinking and precW thinking in particular.
10. Maths requires professionals, not amateurs. 11. Like all other sciences
maths arose out of the needs of men. 12. The abstract ideas of modem maths
are related to real-life situations. 13. It seems that real-life situations have lit­
tle to do with maths. 14. The intimate connection between maths and the
objects and events in the physical world is obvious and reassuring. 15. The
subject matter of maths is completely empirical, borrowed from the external
world and then divorced from it. 16. To understand the external world scien­
tists must seek its math essence. 17. Pure maths is a fascinating subject.
4. Agree or disagree with the statements. Use the introductory phrases.
Right you are (it is). I am afraid, it к wrong.
Quite so. Absolutely coirect. I don't quite agree to it.
I quite agree to it. Excuse me, hut... Not at aU.
I think, it is right. On the contrary, fer from it

62
1. The transition from concrete and individual to the abstract involves
some difficulty. 2. The attempts to define verbally the “ meaning” o f math
terms lead to confusion and ambiguity. 3. It is more difficult to think and
reason in terms o f abstractions than in concrete physical objects. 4. A math
formula has a direct real physical counterpart. 5. Mathematicians do not rely
on their intuitive judgement - they seek to give a rigorous proof. 6. Proof is
a thread connecting the statements in a math theory. 7. If you want to know
what a m ath theorem states, see what its proof proves. 8. The need for care­
ful and exact reasoning in proofs is not at once apparent for laymen.
9. Symbolism often leads to misunderstanding among mathematicians.
10. An idea expressed in symbols is more scientific than the same thought
presented in words. 11. M aths is both intelligible and enjoyable.
12. Scientists alone know about the scope o f maths in our age. 13. In our age
in particular maths attains its wide range, scope and extraordinary applica­
bility. 14. A scientist finds that his own thinking is enriched and enlarged by
an insight into m ath thought. 15. Computing procedures are not all maths of
today. 16. There is nothing more practical than a sound fundamental theory.
17. M athem aticians do not deal with applications o f maths.

5. Disagree with the following negative statements and keep the conversation going where pos­
sible.

Model. Pure maths theory cannot be useful at all.


Yes, it can. (But it can.) N ot rarely mathematicians
find new interpretations and applications for theories
formerly considered as “pure science”.

1. Scientists do not think and reason in terms of abstractions. 2. The


abstract idea o f “num ber” was not the first grand step in maths. 3. Math
abstractions are not reflections o f material objects and their interrelations in
the real world. 4. Maths is not a free creation o f the human mind and rea­
soning. 5. Pure maths does not conceal its origin from the external worlfi.
6. To investigate the space forms and quantity relations of the real woijld
maths does not separate them entirely from their content. 7. In pure maths
theory the physical content o f the objects involved is not irrelevant. 8. The
laws abstracted from the real world are not usually divorced and set up
against the real world. 9* The world does not conform to these laws. 10. Pure
maths cannot be applied to the physical world. 11. Maths does not present
the forms o f interconnections o f objects in the physical world. 12. The sub­
ject m atter o f m aths is not borrowed from reality. 13. Mathematicians do not

63
seek useful applications of their theories. 14. Most pure maths theories do
not find any practical applications. 15. Pure maths theories are often not sig­
nificant and they are entirely forgotten in say, 50 years.

6. Correct the following statements:

Model. Modern maths is not sophisticated.


It is, in fact, sophisticated and claims good training.

1. The word “mathematics” is unambiguous. 2. To the short question “What


is maths?” there is a short answer. 3. Mathematicians perfect and refine every­
day language and apply it to scientific formalization. 4. Maths is dry, barren
and boring. 5. Mathematicians are high priests o f mysterious and powerful
mind of magic cult. 6. Math activity takes place in high spheres open only to
the few initiated. 7. Maths is a free creation of the mind unconditioned by any­
thing except the nature o f the mind itself. 8. There is nothing necessary in any
of the fundamental concepts, definitions and axioms o f any branch o f maths.
9. There is no interconnection and interrelation between maths and the real
world. 10. Mathematicians never care for the useful application o f their sci­
ence. 11. Lengthy and boring calculations give satisfaction and aesthetic em o­
tions. 12. Most mathematicians are men o f genius with extraordinary mental
abilities. 13. Maths deals with empty equations signifying nothing.
7. Discuss the given alternatives, choose the right one or complete the sentences with your o«w
version.•

• To bridge the gap between the math and non-m ath communities the
mathematicians o u g h t...
1) to popularize maths for the laymen; 2) to make maths more popular; 3)
not to use precisely accurate math terms; 4) to define every math concept; 5)
to speak straightforward, unpretentious language in the explanations; 6) to
apply techniques familiar to non-mathematical audiences; 7) to enlighten the
readers on different subjects o f today’s maths; 8) to co-author their math text­
books (manuals) with foremost scientific fiction (sci-fi) writers; 9) to teach
nonspecialists to reason in math terms and reach all the conclusions by the
deduction only; 10) to explicate the history o f every great discovery in maths.
• To establish a rigorous deductive proof o f a theorem the mathematician
should ...
1) get familiar with models o f math proofs; 2 ) master deductive reasoning
procedures; 3) develop a set o f definitions o f basic terms, axioms and postu-

64
lates; 4) collect new results available; 5) be systematic and use perfect logic;
6) apply the rule o f inference; 7) avoid vagueness, ambiguity, implicitness
and circularity; 8) prove its converse; 9) use his inspired intuition and insight
in a proper way; 10) reason deductively and rigorously.
• To develop a new fundamental and consistent math theory the m athe­
matician m u s t...
1) review the preceding material on the topic; 2) revise basic math con­
cepts; 3) introduce new signs and symbols; 4) invent novel math notions; 5)
deduce new theorem s; 6) create a new hypothesis (conjecture); 7) find the
applications o f the theory; 8) verify the results o f other mathematicians; 9)
reconstruct the old theory; 10) vary and modify old techniques and devices;
11) invent new sophisticated maths; 12) carry out complicated arguments
and demonstrations.

8. What is implied in the following assertions?

Models. I. Maths is an applied logic.


This assertion means that logic is an integral compo­
nent o f maths both pure and applied. It implies as well
that mathematicians must reason logically while
developing their theories and establishing their rigor­
ous proofs. But maths is not logic only, it has the sub­
ject matter o f its own. The assertion is an example of
unscientific definition o f maths.
2. Living maths involves new results and the work of
predecessors.
This assertion means to imply that maths is always in
the making. The work o f predecessors should be mas­
tered, developed further and corrected, if necessary.
N ot infrequently new results in maths appear when
the mathematician does not take the classical contri­
bution for granted.

1. There is no national prejudice in maths. 2. The assumptions from which


maths starts are simple; the rest is not. 3. We say that while the creative work
in maths is done by individuals, the results are the fruition o f centuries o f
thought and development. 4. Maths is something over and above mere devel­
opm ent o f axioms, theorems and proofs. 5. M aths is abstract and it is hard.
It is distinctive and effective and thus important. 6. Maths is a living plant
which flourishes and fades with the rise and fall o f civilizations, respectively.
7. We are all laymen outside the field o f our speciality. 8. An educated mind
is composed o f all the minds o f preceding ages. 9. Where there is pattern,

3 А н гл и й с к и й язык для студентов-математиков


65
there is significance. 10. The intuitive side of the basic concepts is m athe­
matically irrelevant. 11. Without maths it is impossible to gain any deep
insight into the essence o f space, time and matter. 12. All things in the whole
wide universe happen mathematically. 13. Math universe is an ideal universe.
14. Pure maths does not arise o f pure thought. 15. While mathematicians
produce formulas, no formula produces mathematicians. 16. M aths is a
body o f knowledge, but it contains no truths. 17. Wherever we have deduc­
tive reasoning, we have maths. 18. Much of the scientific knowledge is pro­
duced by deductive reasoning. 19. There is no absolute rigour. Rigorous
proof is a slow and torturous method. 20. Rigour in the proof is the enemy
o f simplicity.
9. Agree or disagree with the statements given below. Use the introductory phrases. la case of
agreement repeat the statement, and add some sentenced) to justify your choice.

That’s right. It’s O.K. Quite the contrary (the reverse).


Exactly. Quite so. You’re wrong there, I am afraid.
It’s correct to say. It’s unlikely.
I quite agree with you. Not at alL Not quite so.
I share this viewpoint. Just the other way round.

Models. 1. People communicate by means o f language.


That’s right ... Language is the foremost means of
communication.
2. Mathematicians speak only the formalized language
o f maths.
This is not the case. Nobody speaks the formalized
language o f maths. It is an unspoken language. It helps
codify scientific knowledge. Symbolism must be
avoided wherever it is not o f real help or a necessity

1. People make their thoughts known to one another by means o f speech


only. 2. Natural human languages exist in speech. 3. Speech is the onl>
means o f com m unication. 4. People use speech in preference to other
means o f intercourse. 5. N ational language is the product o f m anners and
customs o f a country. 6. Every generation o f people develops its own new
language. 7. The history o f every national language is indistinguishable
from the history of the particular nation. 8. Speech is the creation and for­
m ulation o f human thoughts in term s o f colloquial language. 9. Speech is
the essential means in hum an development. 10. The language o f m aths like
com m on language is natural. 11. Symbolism often leads to m isunderstand­
ing. 12. The language o f m aths is set up by distinguished linguists.
13. Scientific languages are designed and devised with the definite purpose

66
and ingenuity. 14. M ost m ath texts are written in everyday language.
15. Today’s math language is the same as the language set up by Newton
and Leibnitz in the 17th century. 16. There is nothing more horrible than
the current misapplication o f symbolism in maths. 17. Basic terms o f pres­
ent maths no longer have their usual intuitive meaning, they become
abstract concepts.

10. Suppose that the statement is incomplete. Repeat the statement and add your own reason­
ing, developing the idea further. Use the following phrases:

There is one more p o in t... One more remark seems reasonable, namely ...
I may as well add t h a t ... Exactly... Indeed ...
Moreover ... More than th a t ...

Models. 1. Writing is a powerful means in mastering a foreign


language.
Certainly, ... I may as well add that writing involves:
graphics, spelling and composition. So, writing is a
very difficult language skill, to my mind.
2. Maths is often termed the language of science.
Exactly. Maths is, indeed, the language o f science. But
I like to emphasize that maths is not only a language
but a science in its own right.

1. Written and spoken languages are different forms o f human com m uni­
cation. 2. Speech is spontaneous while writing allows time for thinking, rea­
soning and choosing the right word. 3. Speaking is many times faster than
writing. 4. Early verbal thinking was rough and confused. 5. Reasoning was
unfinished and words mistaken for the things they represent. 6. With speech
and writing came the beginnings o f science. 7. Numbers or the written fig­
ures called “ numerals” have a long history. 8. Number names were evident­
ly the first words used when people began to talk. 9. Numbers may have dif­
ferent representations. 10. Symbolism distinguishes the language o f science
from spoken everyday languages. 11. When maths is used in any science, it
brings precision, rigour and objectivity about. 12. Rigour in science depends
upon the language used. 13. Maths is the source for precise language for all
the sciences. 14. The function o f formalized languages is to codify and pres­
ent math theories. 15. Bare math formulas explain nothing; they simply
describe symbols and signs in precise language. 16. Yet, such formulas are
the most valuable knowledge man can acquire about nature.

11. Practise problem questions and answers. Work in pairs. Change over!

67
Model. Q. How many signs and symbols arc there in the lan­
guage of maths?
A. As far as I know, there are 50, not less, and of vari­
ous categories: symbols o f math objects, relations, and
operations.
Q. Which symbol or sign is the most important in the
language o f maths?
A. Certainly, it’s the little sign “= ” which is translat­
able as “is another name for”. Such basic math con­
cepts as an equality (e.g., aaa = a’), an identity (e.g.,
ab = ba), an equation (e.g., lx + 5 = 11) all involve
this sign. Most scientific laws are expressed in terms o f
equations.
Q. The equality sign is basic in maths, sure enough.
However, among numerous symbols and signs, one is
remarkable, with the big meaning: How should
we word it?
A. It is pronounced “ infinity” The math notation
must be worded “tends to infinity” .
Q. Is there any need to go out o f this world to locate
math infinity? Where is it exactly situated?
A. In the scientists' mind. It’s an abstract concept. In
the calculus “° ° ” means limit and nothing more.
Q. In algebra we must use the symbol for a variable.
How can you complete the definition, *Avariable is...”?
A. Men use variables readily and never tiy to define the
term precisely, \fery roughly speaking, a variable is a
placeholder symbol for the unspecified numbers.
Generally, literal symbols x, y, z, w are variables
regardless o f what happens to them.
Q. Is it enough to look at a symbol and say, “Ah, this is
a variable!”?
A. By no means, \feriables must be understood in their
context. Suppose, we have a formula x + у * 3, without
additional remarks, very little meaning is conveyed.

1. What do you feel looking at a book page sprinkled with x 's and j ’s. = 's
and other math symbols and signs? 2. Symbolism burdens the memory and
is a bar to understanding. Isn’t it the case? 3. Does the m athem atician write
in the language o f maths to hide his knowledge from the world at large? 4. Is
it possible to make math language-to-Russian dictionary o r a "translation
key”? 5. Does every branch o f m aths have its own “language”? 6. D o new
symbols often appear in maths? 7. When do mathematicians introduce new
symbols and signs into the language o f maths? 8. How old is the language o f
maths? 9. To whom is the language o f m aths “foreign"? Can it be mastered

68
overnight? What is the reason for this? 10. The purpose o f math symbolism
is to facilitate concise communication among scientists, isn’t it? How does
it work? 11. Does the language o f maths change from generation to genera­
tion as any common language does? 12. Are mathematicians always consis­
tent in the way they use their notations? Is the language o f maths perfect?
13. The words “variable” and “constant” sound like antonyms. Are they
used in this sense in maths? 14. The symbol x may have more than ten dif­
ferent interpretations. What does its signification depend on? 15. Are arith­
metic operations more convenient to perform in Arabic numeral notation or
in Roman numerals?

12. Repeat the statements and keep the conversation going adding the opening phrases.

It is not meant th a t ... The statement does not imply ...


I don’t mean to sa y ... Scientists do not claim ...
Mathematicians object and sa y ... It is too much to say th a t...

Model. The calculus is a brain-twisting subject.


Mathematicians object and claim that the calculus is
the most rational subject in maths. It is a razor-edge
algebra.

1. Ordinary languages are absolutely unreliable for science. 2. The language


o f maths is the language o f the brain. 3. Formalized texts need no explanatory
footnotes. 4. Unsophisticated readers can grasp the fundamental ideas o f a for­
malized text quite easily. 5. Math formulas are easy to understand. 6. The for­
mulas avoid vagueness and unwanted extra meanings. 7. Routine services of
maths for sciences include only computations. 8. Maths customarily performs
marvels in science and develops entirely new viewpoints.

13. Agree or disagree with the following negative statements and develop them further:

Models. 1. Scientists do not codify science in terms o f collo­


quial phrases.
No, they don’t. They use formalized languages for that
purpose.
2. Maths is not a tool for reshaping information.
But it is. It is like an automaton that operates with the
rules o f logical arguments instead o f wheels and pis­
tons.

1. The scientist building knowledge needs not express himself in clear lan­
guage. 2. Ordinary languages are not vague and they are reliable for science.

69
3. The language o f maths does not say what it means. 4. Math symbols do not
have any unwanted extra meanings. 5. The formula у = 16Д/2 does not tell
anything about mass or gravity. 6. There is no formula for uniformly accel­
erated motion. 7. Scientists do not amalgamate several relationships in their
arguments. 8. The compact shorthand o f algebra is not the main part o f the
language o f maths. 9. Maths is not a clever servant for science. 10. The
knowledge o f the math formulas does not represent knowledge about all the
situations encompassed by the formulas. 11. The person who looks at a math
formula and complains o f its abstractness, dryness and uselessness fails to
grasp its true value.

14. Express surprise, consent or disagreement with the statements given below. Try to prove
your viewpoint or advocate the opinion of others. Summarize the discussion.

Model. Maths is an art with a beauty o f its own.


1. Is it really? It is too much to say that maths is an art,
to my mind. It runs counter to common sense,
indeed. 1 prefer a conventional definition o f maths
as one of the oldest sciences.
2. Exactly. Maths has nothing to do (= nothing in com­
mon) with ait. There is no poetry and no beauty in
maths. From a math standpoint it's nonsense to daim it
3 . 1 share this viewpoint. Science is not the object for
art and beauty. It’s, in fact, a meaningless statement.
4. You’re all a bit wrong, I am afraid. To say that maths is
an art is not to say that it is a mere amusement The
highest compliment to a math work is to call it ele­
gant, though it is not easy at all to define elegant
maths.
5. Surely. The inclusion o f maths among arts is appar­
ently not illogical. Math creations haw design,
symmetry, harmony and inner beauty i.e., charac­
teristics o f art, in the long run.
6. One more remark seems reasonable, namely, in the
search for a method o f proof the mathematician
must use not only his creative ability and insight but
inspiration that we usually associate with the cre­
ation o f a piece o f art or music.
7. Certainly. I quite agree to it. 1 may as well add that
the role o f maths as an art is especially emphasized
when conjectures (hypotheses) are proved.
8. That’s right. It's common knowledge that a rigorous
and elegant proof is beautifbl to math eye. It’s a
poem and a delight for the mathematician.
9. There is one more point that I think is relevant. The
analogy between maths and art makes sense only to
a person who loves both.

70
10. Summing up the discussion it seems correct to say that there
may be different viewpoints, but ninths is more than only a
language or technique. It’s an art in the broad sense of the
word.

1. M ost m athem aticians are not insensitive to art and beauty.


2. M athematicians see beauty where others find only confusion of signs and
symbols. 3. M aths and art are intimately related. 4. Art is beyond the scope
o f a scientist’s interests. 5. Poetry is read only by artistic-minded people —
not by mathematicians. 6. M athematicians pay no attention tp the elegance
o f presentation. 7. M athematicians’ search for beauty and elegance likens
them to artists. 8. The beauty o f a theorem lies in its simplicity and general­
ity. 9. M athematical ability is often classed with artistic ability. 10. A beauti­
ful math result is always non-trivial. 11. Elegant and beautiful ideas enrich
maths. 12. The mathematician like an artist is a maker of patterns. The
m athem atician not rarely chooses his patterns for beauty’s sake. 13. In
m athem aticians’ view the formula c2 = a2 + b2 is elegant and beautiful.

15. Agree or disagree with the following statements:


1. From the time o f Pythagoras the study o f music is regarded as maths in
nature. 2. The relationship between maths and music is obvious. 3. Music —
the most abstract o f the arts —apparently appeals to mathematicians. 4. Not
few m athem aticians are excellent musicians. 5. Masters such as Bach con­
structed and advocated math theories for the composition of music. 6. In
such theories cold reason rather than spiritual feeling gives the creative pat­
tern. 7. Music lovers can enjoy beautiful music thanks as much to a m athe­
matician Fourier as to Beethoven. 8. Unlike the sciences but like the art o f
music, m aths is a free creation o f the mind.

C O N V E R SA TIO N A L P R A C T IC E
Practise questions and answers. Work in pairs. Add some more questions concerning the topic
“The Study of M aths”.

1. Why should anyone There are actually many different reasons.


study m aths, people may To some people it is an absolute necessity as
wonder? part of their professional training.
2. W hat about others — I To others maths can provide an introduction
mean not professionals, but to systematic and logical thinking,
ordinary people?

71
3. Maths university depart­ It’s the real fact, indeed. Besides, many other
ments have been training university departments and institutes require
experts in maths, and people that every student should take a year’s course
take it for granted, don’t they? in maths as part o f his general education.
4. When do freshm en Until the learners start with algebra with its
come across some difficul­ abstract symbols in place o f numbers, it is
ties in their studies? not difficult to answer the question posed
even for Humanities D epartm ent students.
5. D on’t people realize Yes, they do, sure enough. But once they
the practical advantages o f leave the practical phases o f m aths, the prob­
arithmetic — they learn to lem to present a reasonable and acceptable
count, add, subtract, divide motivation for its study becomes increasing­
and multiply? ly difficult.
6. How do m athem ati­ M athematicians claim that maths is universal
cians assess the m ath stud­ knowledge, the language o f science, a power­
ies? ful means o f exact reasoning in science and a
solid foundation for other fields o f learning.
7. Maths is a well-ordered W hen a man tries to reason mathematically,
and perfectly organized rea­ he shows how he thinks, argues, substanti­
soning. What does this ates and proves. It implies as well that every
statement mean to imply? statem ent should be proved logically and
verified in practice.
8. How do they manage to They cany on analysis o f both sets o f state­
do it? ments and seek interrelations and intercon­
nections between them.
9. Do there exist any rules The mathematician ought to know definite
to carry on such analysis? and reliable rules o f math deduction which
permit and validate the transition in reason­
ing from one set o f statements to another.
The only compass in reasoning is rigour in
logic and validity in proofs.
10. Scientists confirm the To my mind, it is a more general formulation
educational value o f maths o f the difficulty o f maths. For the apprecia­
studies if maths is taught in a tion o f maths studies actual contact is crucial
special way. Is this really the for every learner o f maths.
case?

72
C O M P O SITIO N

Reproduction Writing
Reproduction is a composition in which the ideas are stated explicitly and
the task is to remember correct English ways o f expressing them. The student
must listen attentively to the text, read by the teacher or recorded on the tape
and then write the gist (the essence, the main points) using some words and
expressions from the text either given by the teacher or memorized.
Listen several times to the recording and reproduce (in writing) any part of the text “Myths in
Mathematics”.

Dialogue Writing
A dialogue is a conversation or talk.
Reconstruct the text “Mathematics — the Language of Science” into a dialogue. Write ques­
tions and correct answers.

Paragraph Writing
A paragraph consists o f a number o f sentences which are closely related
and deal with the same topic.
Model. Scientific methods o f reasoning seem so different
from the reasoning used in our ordinary life,
because they are more refined, more elaborate and
sophisticated. Yet, essentially, they are the same.
The object o f our reasoning in life and in science is
the same: to order events; to choose the most
essential points of the events; to extract their rela­
tions and interconnections; to understand and
explain the world of our sense perceptions.

Write some paragraphs showing in what way you reason a) while trying to prove your viewpoint
in a scientific dispute; b) while developing a formal math theory. Your paragraph must not exceed
eight sentences.

Abstract (Precis) in Scientific Journals


The adjective “abstract” , e.g., “abstract concepts” must not be confused
(mixed up) with the noun “abstract”.
A precis (конспект, реферат) is any abbreviated and condensed restate­
m ent (reproduction) o f essential facts, the main ideas, points, details o f a

73
text given for collateral readings made by the student as an exercise in com ­
position. In scientific literature the term “abstract” is more preferable.
An abstract (реферат) is the expression (reproduction, representation) in
a condensed form of the content o f any piece o f scientific writing in a lim it­
ed number o f sentences. The student must briefly formulate the main ideas
in his own words excluding and omitting the unnecessary details. Facts must
become plain statements. An abstract consists o f a) an introduction, i.e.,
data (the printed source, the author's name, the title); b) the principal part;
c) the conclusion.

Abstract Reading*
1. Read, translate and analyze the given model of an abstract from Mathematical Reviews, Jane
1983, p. 2259. (Babbah, R.P. “ Mathematics and Society”.)

The author points out some discrete and indirect contributions o f maths to
the benefit and welfare o f society. Firstly, he mentions some o f the great
achievements o f maths during the last two decades, arguing that whenever
difficult and important problems are solved, “the whole hum an race shares in
the glory” As for the “indirect contributions, the relations between maths,
physics and chemistry are considered. The study of functions o f several vari­
ables is assumed to be one o f the most favoured research areas with respect to
these relations. Symmetry and qualitative analysis, leading to group theory,
and, respectively, to topology are general principles used in handling the cor­
responding problems. More “direct” contributions o f maths to society can be
seen in the applications in economics, planning, industry, management and
the author gives some examples, e.g., linear programming and input-output
analysis. He mentions some special relations o f maths to other areas, such as
maths and biology, maths and communications, etc. Finally the author con­
fesses his belief in the benefit o f math education for gifted young people.
The book shows the author’s view o f the beauty and usefulness o f maths.
It should be useful supplementary reading for students who seek an intro­
ductory overview to maths, its utility and beauty. The book encourages the
m aths students to be involved more deeply into the history o f current maths.

2. Look through some abstracts in scientific journals, e.g.. Mathematical Reviews of the cur­
rent year, choose one of them and study it carefully. Be ready: 1) to read and translate it in class;
2) to display its components structure; 3) to assess its subject n u tter; 4) to analyze its grammati­
cal and stylistic peculiarities; 5) to justify your choice.

* Abstract reading practice is compulsory for the students in every unit o f this textbook.

74
Abstract Writing
Read the text “ Mathematics and Art” carefully several times. When it is completely under­
stood, start writing an abstract, i.e., a brief condensation of the whole text.
a) Give your abstract a suitable title;
b) Begin the abstract with one of the introductory general phrases:

The text deals with ... (speaks about, says that, presents, shows, relates, points out, discusses,
describes, reviews, sketches, surveys, consists of, is devoted to, throws light on, gives some com­
ments on, traces the history of, outlines the development of, olTers an overview, etc.)...

c) The principle part must not exceed six plain statements generalizing the main ideas of the
text in a logical sequence; d) Conclude the abstract with your personal viewpoint (opinion, judge­
ment, critical comments, etc.) of both the content and the language of the text, using the given
phrases:

The text is (non)informative ... The information is up-to-date (out-of-date) ...


The language is quite (unm anageable... The style is formal (academic)...
There are practically no (many) unknown The meaning of the unfamiliar words can(not) be
words ... grasped from the context...
The text is dry, dull and boring ... It is (not) worth reading and abstracting...
The reading of the text (does not) gives The reading of the text increases (decreases) lan­
some satisfaction and pleasure ... guage skills.

Composition Writing
A composition is a creative literary work dealing with one problem or topic
in detail.
Write out from all the texts and exercises of Unit IWo the definitions of maths which, to your
mind, are correct. Arrange them up to your liking and add some more relevant and important
information. Make up a plan for the composition. Write a composition, using the active vocabu­
lary, on the topic “What Is Mathematics?”.

C O M P R E H E N SIO N E X E R C ISE S
Questions
Choose and answer some problem question(s) in writing and be ready to take part in the dis­
cussion.

1. Where does the word “m athem atics” come from, 1 wonder? 2. Does
math knowledge come as a consequence (result) o f studying and learning
alone? 3. How many subject-fields (branches, domains, divisions, compart- *

* N o personal viewpoint is wanted in a formal abstract meant for publication in a scientific jour­
nal, e.g., Mathematical Reviews, but for teaching purposes such a conclusion is desirable.

75
merits) o f maths do there exist nowadays? 4. What are the fundamental co m ­
ponents o f any branch of maths? 5. Can you name some new branches o f
modern maths? 6. What field o f maths is the most interesting (im portant,
essential, significant), to your mind? 7. Why are axioms necessary in a
deductive system? 8. Why ought the m athem atician to reason deductively?
9. Can we distinguish between whole numbers and irrational numbers from
the viewpoint o f their origin? 10. What are the factors that make possible the
growth o f maths? 11. What can research in m aths mean? 12. Is the use o f
abstractions peculiar to maths alone? 13. Are the concepts o f force, mass,
energy, wealth, liberty, justice, democracy, etc., mental creations? 14. What
is m eant by the phrases “pure m aths” “applied m aths”? 15. W hat is more
important: a math theory or practical applications? 16. Can a single person
be a specialist in many if not all the branches o f present-day maths?
17. Where is progress more rapid: in pure or applied maths? 18. W here do
math concepts come from? 19. Most abstract m ath concepts have their
physical counterparts, haven’t they? 20. Are math concepts discovered or
invented? 21. Do mathematicians mean the objective existence o f the objects
they study? 22. Although maths is a science, it is usually distinguished from
science by its relative independence from empirical considerations. How
does pure maths manage to conceal its origin from the real world? 23. Does
maths deal only with numbers and geometrical forms and the concepts built
upon these basic ideas? 24. What does the degree o f abstraction o f a math
notion depend on? 25. Why do m athem aticians not deal with abstractions of
other sciences? 26. Do mathematicians make an agreement with physicists,
economists, chemists, sociologists and others and divided abstract concepts
among themselves? 27 What is a math postulate (axiom, theorem, proof,
theory)? 28. How is maths created and developed? 29. What mathematicians
may be called distinguished (famous, prom inent, outstanding, o f genius,
etc.)? Who are the greatest Russian and Soviet mathematicians according to
your personal viewpoint and criterion? 30. D o modern young m athem ati­
cians advance more rapidly than the m athem aticians o f the previous (pre­
ceding) ages? 31. Do the phrases “ math language” , “ math notation” “ m ath
symbolism” mean the same thing? 32. What were the first math signs and
symbols, to your mind? 33. What is the distinction between natural language
and the language of maths? 34. What do they have in common? 35. Is there
any difference between the language o f algebra and the language o f the cal­
culus? 36. What language(s) do mathematicians speak? 37. How do m athe­
maticians prefer to express themselves in their m ath writing? 38. What lan ­
guage (Latin, French, English, native, formalized) do m athem aticians use

76
for their scientific publications? 39. What is the distinction between a strict
scientific presentation and a popular scientific presentation of a math theo­
ry? 40. Can every mathematician introduce any symbols he likes or prefers
into the language o f maths? 41. Can a common language render the subtle
art o f scientific reasoning, designing hypotheses and developing math theo­
ries? 42. If a speaker uses a word we are not familiar with, the context usu­
ally gives the clue (key) to its meaning. Can a scientist understand the
meaning o f the unfamiliar symbol in a formalized text? 43. How do m ath­
em aticians make transitions in reasoning? 44. What do we call reasoning
from particular and individual to general, and vice versa? 45. If we wish to
avoid “circular reasoning” , what must we do? 46. What method o f reason­
ing is the most reliable in science? 47. What is the difference between a dic­
tionary (encyclopaedic) and a rigorous m athem atical definition?
48. Implicit (explicit) definition. The range o f definition. What do these
phrases mean in maths? 49. While proving a theorem, what can the m athe­
matician rely on: intuition, instinct, imagination, a flash o f insight, logic,
the power o f deduction, inspiration, common sense, experience? 50. If
there is no ready-made solution for the problem involved, what must the
m athem atician do? 51. Is the inclusion o f maths among arts senseless?
52. W hat does the creative process in both maths and art involve? 53. Are
aesthetic requirem ents (beauty, elegance o f proof, etc.) subject to formal
and logical analyses? 54. What is meant by the phrase “revolutions in art
and m aths”? 55. D o mathematicians seek to understand the nature o f musi­
cal sounds? Why? 56. What are some o f the cultural bearings and hum anis­
tic implications of maths?

DISCUSSION
1. What do the given definitions emphasize? What do they have in com ­
mon?
a) Pure “mathematics may be defined as the subject in which we never
know what we are talking about, nor whether what we are saying is true.”
(B. Russell.)
b) “ M athematics is a meaningless game played with meaningless marks on
paper and shifting these marks about in accordance with certain tacitly
assumed or explicitly formulated rules o f play.” (D. Hilbert.)
2. Which image o f maths do you prefer? Give reasons for your preference.
a) “ M aths is general learnable knowledge.” (The Pythagoreans.)
b) “ M aths is great oaktree with deep roots and powerful trunk, and from

77
the trunk’s top numerous branches had issued and subdivided into smaller
branches.” (H. Eves, historian o f maths.)
c) “ Maths is the whole universe.” (Experts o f modem mathematical
logic.)
3. M athematicians - what are they? When (why) does a person make up
his mind to become a mathematician? What motivates and directs the activ­
ities of mathematicians? What mathem atician(s), to your mind, is (are) the
most distinguished and why?
4. What are the mathematicians and scientists who made contribution to
the development o f math language and introduced the basic signs and sym­
bols? Consult the articles: Знаки математические. БСЭ. Изд. 3-е. Том 9. М.,
1972, с. 548—550. Is m ath language no more than a system o f signs and
symbols? Has it any content o r is it above reality? Has it any roots in
some actuality o r are the truths o f math language independent o f all expe­
rience? If language is a means o f com m unication between hum an beings,
what is com m unicated by m ath language? How is this com m unication
effected?
5. How is an abstract m ath science constructed? Does the abstract sci­
ence consist o f abstract concepts alone? Is m odem m aths abstract or
empirical? W hat are the (dis)advantages o f m aths being abstract? Symbolic
language determ ines the true aspect o f m odern maths. What does this
statem ent imply? Is an abstract math theory o f use to any one but m athe­
maticians?
6. Strictly speaking, the careful m athem atician cannot say: “ It is tru e.”
He must instead make statem ents like this: “ If A is true, then В is true.” If
you wish to prove a statem ent in any subject o f m aths, why do you prove it
by deducing it from other statements? The truth o f m ath statem ents is rel­
ative and relevant only to maths and has no direct bearing on the physical
world. Why?
7. Most mathematicians object to the separation o f pure and applied
aspects of maths. Wiry? D o pure and applied maths have common language,
methods, applications?
8. Reasoning may be: true, false, (in)valid, rigorous, vague, (un)scientific.
What do all these phrases mean? W hat’s the distinction between everyday
reasoning in life and scientific reasoning?
9. The requirement o f rigour in reasoning is proverbial in maths. M ath
rigour - who needs it?
10. What is the role o f a) experience, b) com m on sense, c) intuition, d) tal­
ent, e) genius, 0 imagination, g) flashes o f insight in maths?

78
11. Language that is reliable for science. What characteristics must it
have? Its vocabulary and syntax. “ English cannot be taught, it must be
learnt.” (M . Wfest.) D o scientists learn formalized languages o r do they
master them w ithout learning? Your own experience. What other formal­
ized languages besides m aths do you know? How did you manage to master
them? .
12. There exist several types o f translation, viz., literal, word-for-word,
verbal, adequate, literary. Explain what all these terms mean. Which type o f
these translations is the best? Does the translation o f the verbal or wordy
statement o f a m ath problem into a symbolic language involve similar diffi­
culties as the translation from foreign languages?
13. G ram m ar is the study and analysis o f how the language is spoken and
written by most educated people. As language habits and customs change
with years, the “rules” o f grammar change, too. What about the “rules” o f
formalized languages? Do they change with time?
14. What is m eant by the phrase “mathematization o f science”? What are
its (dis)advantages and implications? In the present age, specialization
means isolation. Give the reasons and possible arguments. The use o f math
methods enlarges the objective value o f scientific theories. Why? Illustrate it
by some examples.
15. “The science o f pure mathematics in its modem development may claim
to be the foremost original creation o f the human mind. Another claimant for
this position is music.” (A. Whitehead.) Is maths the creation o f the human
mind alone? What about applied maths? Can we liken it to music? Why?
16. The professional mathematician has a strong poetic form in his own way
o f scientific presentation. Illustrate it by examples to show the compactness
and elegance o f m ath style. What’s the layman’s viewpoint on this question?
17. “ Music is the pleasure the human soul experiences from counting
without being aware that it is counting.” (G . Leibnitz.) Explain in your own
words the meaning (sense) o f this statement. Whs G. Leibnitz a mathemati­
cian or a musician?
18. J. Fourier’s theorem says that all sounds, vocal or instrumental, sim ­
ple or complex, are completely describable in m ath terms, i.e., by a for­
mula. Every musical sound, however complex, is merely a combination o f
simple sounds. Is this theorem o f pure m aths o r o f physics? What is its sig­
nificance in m aths? How can it help distinguish between musical sounds
and noise? C an the theorem explain the sweetness o f some sounds and
harshness o f others? Why does the same note given off by both violin and
piano sound different to the ear? The role o f m aths is music.

79
19. “ In the interest of clarity, I did not hesitate to repeat myself and did not pay
the slightest attention to the elegance o f presentation. I sincerely stuck to the
prescription of the great theoretician L. Boltzmann that the business o f elegance
should be left to the tailors and shoe-makers.” (A. Einstein.) Are Einstein’s cre­
ations elegant, to your mind? D o scientists like Einstein’s form o f scientific pres­
entation? How much information does mass-eneigy-relation ( £ = me2) encom­
pass? Why did Einstein have to repeat himself? Are Einstein’s creations easy to
understand? Why do you think Einstein made such a statement?
20. Wherein is the beauty o f maths? Beautiful maths is the greatest contri­
bution o f the m an’s mind to all the civilizations. Prove it.
21. It is convenient to keep the old classification o f m aths as one o f th e sci­
ences, but it is more just to call it an art. If maths is an art with cultural bear­
ings it must be a part o f the liberal education o f a doctor, lawyer o r average
educated person. Agree or disagree.

Unit Three (3 )

BASIC M ATHEM ATICAL C O N C E PT S

Grammar
1. Ing-Ending Forms in English.
2. Indefinite Pronouns, Adverbs and
Their Derivatives.

GRAMMAR

1. /ng-Ending Forms
N umerous ing-ending forms in English may have different meanings and
different functions in the sentence. The translation o f a particular ing-end­
ing depends on its part o f speech and its function in the sentence.

Noun Adjective Participle I Gerund


a morning interesting expressing in solving
a building following (выражающий; by measuring
a meaning misleading выражая) without findii^

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Verbal Noun Preposition Conjunction Adverb

The measuring o f concerning providing according


areas and volumes, regarding supposing notwithstanding
The understanding owing to seeing running
o f the article.

As an example let us take the word “ meeting” and analyze its meaning,
functions and possible translation. As a noun it may have the following
meanings: собрание, заседание, митинг, встреча, пересечение, схожде­
ние, слияние, соединение, разъезд, стык и т. д. It may have all the functions
o f a noun in the sentence (the subject, the predicative, the object, the attrib­
ute). As a Participle I or Gerund it may be translated as: удовлетворять
(-ющ ий, -ая), отвечать, соответствовать требованиям и т.д. So, be
careful while translating ing-ending forms!

Repeat the sentences after the speaker. Mind the m^-ending forms in it.

There is much thinking and reasoning in maths. Students master the sub­
ject m atter not only by reading and learning, but by proving theorems and
solving problems. The problems therefore are an important part of teaching,
because they make students to discuss and reason and polish up their own
knowledge. To understand how experimental knowledge is matched with
theory and new results extracted, the students need to do their own reason­
ing and thinking. O f course, it is quicker and easier, for both teacher and stu­
dent, if the text states all the results and outlines all the reasoning; but it is
hard to remember such teaching for long, and harder still to get a good
understanding o f science from it. So, in this textbook many o f the problems
ask you to do your own thinking; and for this reason they form a very impor­
tant part o f the teaching.
Som e problem s raise general questions whose discussion can do much
to advance your understanding concerning particular points o f the th e o ­
ry. Such general questions ask for opinions as well as reasoning; they
obviously do not have a single, unique o r com pletely right answer. More
th an th a t, the answers available are som etim es misleading, demanding
m ore reasoning and further proving. Yet, thinking your way through them
and making your own choice o f opinion and discussing oth er choices is
part o f a good education in science and a good m ethod o f teaching.

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2. Indefinite Pronouns, Adverbs and Their Derivatives

som e somebody som eone something somewhere whatever


every everybody everyone everything everywhere whoever
any anybody anyone anything anywhere whichever
no nobody none nothing nowhere wherever

Read and translate the following sentences into Russian:


1. Wfe know something about his work. 2. You can’t find this book any­
where, it is practically unavailable. 3. No mathematician confuses these basic
terms: 4. Whatever book you choose, it is good to begin with. 5. Everything
is ready for the experiment. 6. Whoever says it, he is wrong. 7. Whenever she
sees him, he is always in a hurry. 8. Everybody knows this familiar theorem.
9. Whichever of these problems you try to solve, you must use this method of
reasoning.

A C T IV E VOCABULARY
1. to achieve 12. to intersect
2. to appreciate 13. to investigate
3. to challenge 14. to originate
4. to conceal 15. to perform
5. to concern 16. to reduce
6. to emerge 17. to reveal
7. to estimate 18. to specify
8. to evaluate 19. to succeed
9. to except 20. to unify
10. to extend 21. to yield
11. to improve

TEXT ONE

COUNTING. NATURAL NUM BERS. NOTATIONS

Read and translate the text into Russian. Sum up the main ideas. Be ready to ask and answer
all topical questions. Work in pairs.

W hat are numbers, after all? In view of the fact that most four-year-olds are
able to manage finger-reckoning and can count at least to 10, the question
posed may seem meaningless and irrelevant. Nevertheless, to answer it is by
no means an easy task, as num ber is both an everyday word and a scientific
term. Ordinary people take numbers for granted as a means in counting and

82
measurements and never think about their origin and evolution. This is not
the case with mathematicians. Numbers for them are not only basic con­
cepts but the most mysterious math entities as well.
Generally, mathematicians try to clarify vague notions by means o f precise
definitions. The formal explicit (verbal) and rigorous definition o f the term
“num ber” has been unavailable so far. Even though we may know intuitive­
ly what natural or cardinal numbers —3 , —2 , — 1 , 0 , 1,2, 3, ... are, they are
not easy to define. The scientific definition demands a lot, indeed: the
knowledge o f maths, erudition, rich and productive imagination and lucky
insight. It is customary nowadays that mathematicians do not give a single
formal definition o f a number concept, possibly because numbers have so
many varied properties and interrelations which mathematicians fail to
compress into one explicit definition. There might be other reason, o f
course.
No mathematician knows the name o f the man who was the first to say 1,
2, 3, ... Unfortunately, the origin o f many fundamental math concepts is
wholly anonymous. Obviously, this still unidentified person was abstract-
minded, with number sense, had a lot of experience (practice) in counting
and creative insight. Maths owes a lot to this generator o f abstract mental
idea o f a num ber concept.
The existence o f abstract m ath entities lies in their math properties and
relations in terms o f which mathematicians interconnect and group them.
These relations and properties are the only possible aspects under which an
object can enter the realm o f math activity. As our primitive math objects we
may take natural numbers or their positive integers both in cardinal ( 1 , 2 ,
3, . . . ) and ordinal ( the first 1st, the second 2d, the third 3d, ...) sense. Their
practical uses are numerous. They are a concrete aspect of the physical uni­
verse in the form of the number of fingers and toes on the human hand and
leg. The positive integers are the numbers a child learns to count with and
the world nations symbolize them by different numerals and notations.
If we look at the names o f natural or cardinal numbers, it becomes clear
that the num ber 10 {ten) plays a very special role in numeration. When we
study the historical development o f maths, we find that even in the hiero­
glyphic symbols o f ancient Egypt (2000 B.C.) the number 10 was exception­
ally prom inent. With hieroglyphics, however, it is quite a difficult problem to
check up even the simplest operations o f arithmetic. Most people are more
familiar with the Roman numerals. We still use and see them on faces o f some
clocks, on official documents and for chapters o f the book. Their base is also
the num ber 10 and though they may seem simpler than hieroglyphics, their

83
arithmetic is just as bad. Their advantage lies in the fact that even in simple
calculations we must count how many times each symbol appears in the
number.
We cannot name and symbolize each natural num ber unless we use some
system to group them. Otherwise we ought to invent and remember infinite­
ly many different names for natural numbers which are abstractions from the
process o f counting finite collections o f objects. The dots in the ordered series
1, 2, 3, 4,... mean that there are infinitely many integers and that the set o f
positive integers is countable or denumerable. The dots interpret the meaning
o f math infinity visually and precisely.
In the Hindu-Arabic decimal positional notation there are ten digits to
express any number. W; group numbers into larger units or number orders by
10 in this num eration system. Wfe can group natural numbers by some num ­
ber other than (different from) 10 as well. The num ber 20 has had some
importance in number names and symbols. Even today the English use the
word score = 20 as a basic unit and they say, e.g., “two score” and “three
score” in place o f forty (40) and sixty (60). The advantages o f decimal nota­
tion are so great that arithmetic is no longer a subject for scientists alone,
with decimal numerals maths has become public property. The principal
characteristic o f this notation is that it comprises the use o f symbols (digits)
with the convention that the position o f each digit tells us whether it stands
for ones, tens, hundreds o r thousands.
In daily life we need not only to figure out (to get the result of counting) and
enumerate individual objects but also to measure quantities such as lengths,
weight, time, volume, etc. For such measurements we should employ the
other number systems. By further abstraction, generalization and construc­
tion, mathematicians had been progressing from the primitive positive inte­
gers to real and complex numbers and to transfmite numbers to render infini­
ty which are several levels o f abstraction higher than the positive integers.

T E X T TW O

NUMBER SYSTEMS OF MATHEMATICS

Read, translate and reproduce the text in detail. Illustrate the number systems of maths with
numerical examples.

M athematicians study numbers and develop new number systems in a spe­


cific field o f maths - number theory - which is the oldest and purest branch

84
of maths. The generators o f classical number theory — the ancient Greek
mathematicians - studied numbers with no immediate applications in
mind. The main value o f numbers for them was that “ numbers are amusing
and challenging to the human imagination” and they assigned all kinds of
mysterious meanings and interpretations to numbers: the number 2 for them
stood for fem ale, 3 stood for male, 4 —for justice, 5 —for marriage because it
is the union o f the first odd and the first even number, etc. Although applica­
tions were not the main objective (aim) o f the classical number theory, Greek
investigators discovered many curious and fascinating number properties
and gave birth to theoretical pure maths. They were the first to formulate the
abstract notion o f “ num ber” that constituted a grand advance of the human
intellect. The positive integers or natural numbers were the foundation o f all
classical m aths and the major ancient G reeks’ thesis was that “number is the
essence o f reality, that scientists should study nature quantitatively and
express the results in terms o f math laws (rules) and theories”. This thesis has
been dom inating modern times maths since its creation in the 19th century.
In m aths there exist various ways to study numbers — one way o f further
extension, generalization and synthesis when mathematicians build up num ­
ber concepts o f great complexity and generality. A nother method is analysis
when m athem aticians arrive at the essence o f numbers, when they break
down the complexities and study the original primitive positive integers and
their properties. Both ways are of great importance.
Nowadays mathematicians separate the num ber systems o f maths into five
principal stages. Each stage has got a long history of its development and
recognition. They are: 1. The system o f natural numbers or positive integers
only; 2. The next stage comprises positive as well as negative integers and zero;
3. The rational numbers which combine integers and fractions; 4. The real
numbers that include irrational numbers such as 71^5. The complex numbers
that contain the so-called “imaginary” num ber Vl. In modern maths there
are several new num ber systems. O f these modern systems three occupy an
exceptionally significant place within maths, viz. (namely), quaternions
(triplets), matrices and transfinite numbers.
Some com m ents are necessary, indeed. The word "rational” does not
mean “reasonable” — it comes from the word ratio or quotient of two inte­
gers. D on’t think that the word "imaginary ” means that these numbers are
mystical or unreal in the everyday sense o f the word, or that “complex”
means “com plicated” Imaginary numbers and complex numbers have had
very “ real” applications in many branches o f m aths and science. It is inter­

85
esting to mention that the number 0 (zero) originally had signified an empty
place only. Modern mathematicians recognize zero as any other num ber and
not just a symbol for an empty space. Zero is a meaningful m ath object with
the properties defined by a set o f rules. Zero is neither “ more real” or “less
real” than any other number.

TEXT TH REE

MATHEMATICAL PROOF

Read the text and point out the sentences with a) substitutes of the noon, b) emphatic con­
structions. Sum up orally the main ideas of the text.

A p ro o f is a dem onstration that some statem ent is true. Maths involves


proofs and it is even doubted by some people w hether “ proof” in the precise
and rigorous sense which the ancient G reek m athem aticians gave to this
word, is to be found outside maths. We may say that this sense did not change
because what constituted a proof for Euclid is still a proof for us. It is to the
Greeks that modem mathematicians turn again for models o f proof.
The G reeks were the first to apply the dedu ctive procedures developed by
the G reek philosophers in m aths. They are credited with the use o f deduc­
tive m ethods o f p ro o f in geom etry instead o f intuition, experim ent and
trial-and-error m ethods o f the Egyptians. Philosophers and m athem ati­
cians do not reason and prove as do scientists on the basis o f personally
conducted experiments. R ather their reasoning centres about abstract
concepts and broad generalization. Deduction as a m ethod o f obtaining
conclusion has many advantages over reasoning by induction and analo­
gy. Some historians claim that it was the discovery o f the incom m ensu­
rable line segments that forced the Pythagoreans to accept the axiom atic
and synthetic approach in m ath proofs (i.e., an approach w ithout using
numbers) and led to the m ethod o f deriving theorem s from axioms. The
G reeks insisted that all m ath conclusions should be established by ded u c­
tive reasoning only.
Math proof, thus, demands a specific kind o f reasoning. In a formal math
proof the mathematician cannot rely on his intuition, insight and imagination.
He must reason logically and start with (1) the definitions o f basic concepts for
the theory involved, (2) axioms (or postulates) and (3) deduce a conclusion
without making further assumptions. By analysis o f the mechanism and struc­

86
ture of proofs we can see that the main feature o f formal math proofs is that
every statement in the p iv o f must be justified by referring to (a) definition; (b)
axioms (or postulate); (c) chain substitution; (d) the theorem already proved.
An important property o f the equality is that o f substitution, e.g., i f a = b
and b = c, then a = c (a, b, c are natural numbers). We can express this in
words by saying that “ natural numbers equal to the same natural number are
equal to each other” (axiom). Generalizing this rule further, we may say that
if a = b and b = c, and d = e, then a = e. This can be justified by saying that
we can replace a by b, b by с, c by d, and d by e, and thus in fo u r steps, a by
e. This kind o f substitution is referred to as a chain substitution and this term
is used regardless o f how many steps (substitutions) are actually involved.
Most proofs o f fundamental theorems are much more complicated. One
question, which invariably arises in connection with a formal proof is: How
does one know what postulates to use and how does one know that they can
lead to the desired result? This question is reasonable, but, unfortunately, not
easy to answer. Most m ath proofs can be given in many different ways. One
proof is better than another only in as much as it may be easier to understand
and requires fewer steps. In order to avoid unnecessary steps and make a
proof elegant, it is usually best to survey the situation and outline what must
be done before actually writing anything down.
By analysis o f the mechanism o f proofs in suitably chosen math texts, it is
possible to disclose the structure underlying both vocabulary and syntax.
This analysis leads to ttfe conclusion that a sufficiently explicit math text can
be expressed in a conventional language containing only a small number of
fixed “words” assembled according to a syntax consisting o f a small number
of unbreakable rules. Such a text is referred to as “form alized”. The descrip­
tion o f a game o f chess, in the usual notation, a table o f logarithms, the for­
mulae o f ordinary algebraic calculation are examples o f formalized texts.
The correctness o f a m ath text is verified by comparing it more or less explic­
itly with the rules o f a formalized language.
A formal system has some analogy with a natural language. Its symbols
correspond to letters o f the alphabet, punctuation marks, numerals and so
forth. The form ation rules correspond to the grammatical rules o f a natural
language. The transformation rules correspond to various operations any
speaker can perform on the language, such as changing a sentence from
active into passive. The axioms have fewer identifiable corresponding items
in the natural language. They may be considered comparable to such sen­
tences as “whatever it is” o r “A is A ”, i.e., simple and obvious assumptions
or self-evident truth that we can take for granted.

87
There are of course important differences between natural languages and
formal systems but the analogy is close enough so that when formal systems
are interpreted, they are often called artificial m a th languages. When trans­
form ation rules are applied to the axioms, the result is a theorem. The exhi­
bition o f the application o f the transformation rules is a p ro o f More explicitly,
a p r o o f is a finite sequence o f formalized sentences such that each sentence
is an axiom or follows from an earlier formalized sentence by the application
o f a transformation rule. The last line o f the proof is a theorem. The trans­
formation rules must be such that it is merely a mechanical procedure to
determ ine whether or not a given sequence o f formalized sentences is a
proof. How is it possible to prove a thing im possible? Suppose we wish to
prove that Vi”is not a rational number. W i must first assume that Vi"is a
rational number and then dem onstrate that such an assumption leads logi­
cally to an absurdity. When we look at any isosceles right triangle — and
rem em ber that the size is unim portant, for the length o f one o f the equal
sides can always be considered the unit o f measure — it is clear that the
hypotenuse cannot be measured by a whole number. Wfe know by the
Pythagorean theorem that the hypotenuse must be equal to the square root
o f the sum o f the squares o f the other two sides. Since l 2 + l 2 = 2, the
hypotenuse must be equal to V2. Some num ber multiplied by itself m ust pro­
duce 2. W hat is this number? It cannot be a whole number, since 1 x 1 = 1
and 2 x 2 = 4. It must be a num ber between 1 and 2. The Pythagoreans
always assumed that it was a rational number.
Nowadays when we know that the rational numbers between 1 and 2 are so
numerous, that between any two o f them we can always find an infinite num ­
ber o f other rational numbers, we cannot blame the Pythagoreans for their
assuming that among such infinities upon infinities there must be some
rational number which when multiplied by itself produces 2. The closest
they came to such a number was 17/12, which when multiplied by itself pro­
duces 289/144.
But one o f the Pythagoreans, a man truly ahead o f his time, stopped com ­
puting and considered instead another possibility: perhaps there is no such
number. Merely considering such a possibility must be rated as an achieve­
ment. In some respect it was even a greater achievement than the discovery
and proof of the famous theorem that produced the dilemma!
Wfe can only imagine with what consternation this result was received by
the other Pythagoreans. But by the perfect math proof (proof per impossi­
ble, or, more commonly referred to as reduction a d absurdum ) one o f their

88
members showed that there could be no such number! The Pythagoreans
had to recognize that the diagonal o f so simple a figure as the unit square was
incommensurable with the unit itself. It is no wonder that they called л/2
irrational*. It was not a rational number, and it was contrary to all they
believed rational or reasonable. The worst o f the matter was that V2was not
by any means the only irrational number. They went on to prove individual­
ly that the square roots o f 3, 5 ,6 , 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 1 3 ,1 4 ,15and 17werealso
irrational. The general theorem states that the “square root o f any number
which is not a perfect square is an irrational num ber” . According to a more
general theorem , the mth root o f any num ber which is not a perfect mth
power is irrational.
The Pythagoreans and their successors from Euclid to Einstein, had to live
and work with the irrationals. “He is unworthy o f the name o f man who is
ignorant o f the fact that the diagonal o f the square is incommensurable with
the side,” said Plato. It was at this point that the Pythagoreans rather than
struggling arithmetically, took the way o f geometers. If they could not repre­
sent V2 exactly by a number, they could represent it precisely by a line seg­
ment. For the diagonal o f the unit square is VJ
The argum ent o f “ reduction a d absurdum ” is very powerful and frequently
used in maths. Euclid used it to prove that the set o f prime numbers (1, 3, 5,
7, 11, 13, 17,...) is infinite.

Translate the following sentences into Russian and use them while demonstrating some math
proofs.

1. An argum ent that established some property is called a p ro o f or dem on­


stration. 2. The property demonstrated is called a theorem. 3. In the proof o f
geometric theorem s mathematicians proceed from the earlier established
properties assumed to be true without proof. 4. Such properties, or self-evi­
dent truths, are called axioms. 5. N ot a single geometric property taken sep­
arately is an axiom, since it can be dem onstrated on the basis o f other prop­
erties. 6. Axioms are chosen from among the most elementary geometric
properties. 7. M athematicians apply dem onstrative reasoning in proofs,
which is reliable, incontrovertible and final. 8. Natural scientists use plau si­
ble reasoning based on induction, analogy, observations, hypotheses and
experiments. 9. Plausible reasoning is conditional, arguable and risky.
10. M aths is the sole avenue for learning how to reason via proof. 11. A com ­
plete and rigorous theory appears as a pure theory o f math proof. 12. Before

89
proving a math fact, the mathematician should discover it, guess it, conjec­
ture it. 13. The main problem is to be able to distinguish proof from conjec­
ture, justified and valid proof from unjustified proof. 14. M any m ath th eo ­
rems consist o f a set o f hypotheses and a conclusion o f the form i f P, then Q.
15. The proof consists o f a demonstration that P = > Q is a true statement.
16. The most commonly used words in proofs are the following: let, if... then,
suppose, than, hence, therefore, thus, contradiction, in fa c t, etc. 17. M odel th e­
orem: 1 is the largest natural number.
P roof Suppose that 1 is not the largest natural number. Let Wbe the largest
natural number. Now N + 1 is the largest natural number, which is a contra­
diction. (Is it?) Thus, 1 is not the largest natural number, in fact.
The proof establishes the truth.

TEXT FOUR

BASIC GEOMETRIC CONCEPTS


Read the text. Segment it into paragraphs. Express the main idea(s) of each paragraph. Write
out the main ideas of the text. Draw all the geometric figures mentioned in the text and discuss
their properties.

The practical value o f geometry lies in the fact that we can abstract and
illustrate physical objects by drawings and models. For example, a drawing o f
a circle is not a circle, it suggests the idea o f a circle. In our study o f geometry
we separate all geometric figures into two groups: plan cjigu res whose points
lie in one plane and space figures or solids. A point is л primary and starting
concept in geometry. Line segments, rays, triangles and circles are definite sets
o f points. A simple closed curve with line segments as its boundaries is a
polygon. The line segments are sides o f the polygon and the end points o f the
segments are vertices o f the polygon. A polygon with four sides is a qu adri­
lateral. We can name some important quadrilaterals. Remember, that in each
case we name a specific set o f points. A trapezoid is a quadrilatern’ with one
pair of parallel sides. A rectangle is a parallelogram with four right angles .4
square is a rectangle with all sides o f the same length. TV rcguia /v ,'.; -.7
are a part o f geometric study сһіеП\ in antiquity. Tlv\ lave a symmetric.-;
beauty that fascinates men of all ages. The first question in connection vrith
regular polyhedra is: How many different types are there? Thanks to the
ancient Greeks we know that there are exactly five types o f polyhedra. All

90
objects in their view are composed of four basic elements: earth, air, fire and
water. They believe that the fundamental particles o f fire have the shape of
tetrahedron , the air particles have the shape o f octahedron, o f water - the
icosahedron, and the earth — the cube. The fifth shape, the dodecahedron,
they reserve for the shape o f the universe itself- Plane geometry is the science
o f the fundam ental properties o f the sizes and shapes o f objects and treats
geometric properties o f figures. The first question is, upder what conditions
two objects are equal or congruent in size and shape. Next, if figures are not
equal, what significant relationship may they possess to each other and what
geometric properties can they have in common? The basic relationship is
shape. Figures o f unequal size but o f the same shape, that is, sim ilar figures
have m any geometric properties in common. If figures have neither shape
nor size in com m on, they may have the same area, or, in geometric terms,
they may be equivalent, or may have endless other possible relationships.
Geometry is the science o f the properties, measurement and construction o f
lines, planes, surfaces and different geometric figures. W hat do we call “con­
structions” in our study o f geometry? Ruler-compass constructions are sim ­
ply the drawings which we can make when we use only a straightedge and a
compass. A compass is a misleading word. It is not only «компас» in the
maths, it is usually «циркуль». We call such misleading words «ложные
друзья переводчика». For a ruler you ought to use an unmarked straight­
edge because measurement has no role in ruler-compass constructions. O f
course, you can use a marked straightedge if you don’t permit yourself to use
these marks for measurement. Later you ought to do some measurement to
“check” your constructions. We measure segments in terms o f other seg­
ments and angles in terms o f other angles. It seems only natural that we find
areas indirectly as well. How does a person find the area o f a floor? Does he
take little squares one foot on a side, lay them out over the entire floor and
thus decide that the area o f a floor is 100 square feet, for this is indeed the
meaning o f area? O f course, he does not. He measures the length and width,
quantities usually quite simple, and then multiplies the two numbers to
obtain the area. This is indirect measurement, for we find the area when we
measure lengths. The dimensions we take in the case o f volume are the area
and the length or the height. Greek mathematicians are the founders o f indi­
rect measurem ent methods. Their contribution to this subject are formulae
(-las) for areas and volumes o f particular geometric shapes, that we use
nowadays. Thus, thanks to the Greeks we can find the area o f any one single
triangle when we take the product o f its base and half its height. We also know
due to them , that the “areas o f two sim ilar triangles are to each other as the

91
squares o f corresponding sides” In other words, even the very com m on for­
mulae o f geometry which we owe to the Greeks permit us to measure areas
and volumes indirectly, when we express these quantities as lengths. We
ought not to undervalue this contribution o f the ancient G reek m athem ati­
cians. Their formulae for areas and volumes represent a great practical and
im portant result. But this type o f indirect measurement is not the only one
o f interest to the Greeks. They measure indirectly the radius o f the Earth, the
diameter o f the Sun and M oon, the distances to the M oon, the Sun, some
planets and stars.

GRAM M AR A N D VOCABULARY E X E R C IS E S

1. Write 12 sentences with the active vocabulary words and ask your pair-mate to translate
them. Change the roles over!

Models. 1. Such verbs as to think, to meditate, to ponder, to


speculate signify mental activities. 2. When people
count (calculate, compute), they work with numbers.
3. Wfe can picture or figure geometric objects quite
easily by means o f their physical counterparts. 4. Wfe
may imagine, e.g., two sun rays that meet in a point,
and thus we visualize a geometric point. 5. Wfe may
next idealize, generalize and summarize common
properties o f geometric points. Hence, geometric
concepts are abstractions from physical objects.

2. Ask and answer all possible questions.

1. The exact period in ancient history o f the epochal invention o f cardinal


numbers is unknown. 2. History teaches that civilizations develop at various
rates in different places. 3. In primitive civilizations “ num ber words” appear
with the creation o f a language, both spoken and written. 4. The oldest writ­
ten documents available show the simultaneous appearance o f the cardinal
number concept in ancient C hina, India, Mesopotamia and Egypt. 5. These
docum ents contain the question “ How many?” 6. People can answer this
question best in terms o f a cardinal number. 7. The ancients used both their
fingers and toes as the natural counting sequence. 8. The m odem funda­
mental concept o f a “set” is the m an’s abstraction. 9. Wi name the present
so-called Hindu-Arabic numeration system after the Hindus - its inventors,
and after the Arabs, its later transmitters to Europe. 10. The num ber o f
ancient numeration systems is about the same as the num ber o f ancient w nt-
ten languages. 11. The Hindu-Arabic base-ten-and-place-value system is

92
universal nowadays because it is unambiguous and easy to count with, but
people still use binary, four-, twelve-, twenty-, sixty-, etc., base numeration
systems as well.

3. Make the false statements negative. Paraphrase, if possible, the negative sentences in more
than one way.

Model. Mathematicians define this basic term.


Mathematicians do not define this basic term.
No mathematician defines this basic term. (Ни один... не)
Don’t mathematicians define this basic term? (Разве... не)

1. The classical G reeks’ (600-300 B.C.) numeration system is positional.


2. Zero plays an im portant role in nonpositional numeration systems, e.g.,
Romans’. 3. Nonpositional numeration follows positional numeration in
most civilized regions o f the ancient world. 4. Letters o f the ancient Greeks’
alphabet serve as letters only. 5. There is a special sign in Greek and Hebrew
numeration systems which helps interpret the composition o f letters as a
number. 6. There is a great need for a zero symbol in ancient Greeks’ system.
7. People can recognize the G reek letter numeral without difficulty.
8. M odern m athem aticians use the classical Greeks’ numeration system.
9. There can be only one way to represent numbers nowadays. 10. It is pos­
sible to describe precisely the development o f the Hindu-Arabic numeration
system.
4. Ask questions to which the following statements may serve as answers.

Model. Wfe are already familiar with the basic concepts of


geometiy through our high-school studies o f maths.
Why are you already familiar with the basic concepts of
geometry?

1. In geometry we study drawings and models that represent geometric


concepts. 2. Ruler and compass are the simplest instruments to make a
drawing. 3. With a ruler (straightedge) we may draw (construct) a line. With
a compass we may construct a circle. 4. Measurements have no role in ruler-
compass constructions. 5. The necessity for geometric drawings and models
is as old as geometry itself, 6. Visual method is especially important in geom­
etry. 7. The power to picture mentally a geometric object is a great, talent.
8. The figure is to the geometer what the numerical example is to the alge­
braist. 9. Plane geometry requires drawings, but solid geometry - models.

93
10. Models o f geometry are idealizations abstracted from physical objects.
11. All geometric models are inaccurate and misleading. 12. The points o f
geometry have no size and no dimensions. 13. Geom etric planes have no
boundaries, they are endless in both directions. 14. N o, there is nothing in
the physical world that illustrates these geometric concepts with complete
accuracy. 15. A point is a prim ary and starting concept in geometry. 16. W j
can define all other geometric figures in terms o f sets o f points. 17. Plane
geometry is the science o f the m etric properties and constructions o f geo­
metric figures. 18. Solid geometry studies the properties o f the figures in
space and the measurement o f areas, surfaces and volumes o f solids.

5. Write some problem questions that pertain to numeration systems and basic geometric con­
cepts. Ask your groupmates to answer them. Work in pairs.

CONVERSATIONAL PRACTICE
1. Read the given sentences, find some more information and dispute the advantages and dis­
advantages of certain numeration system.

1. The concept o f number does not appear all o f a sudden. 2. Scientists do


not have enough evidence to fix the period in history o f the invention o r dis­
covery o f cardinal numbers. 3. The origin o f number and counting is hidden
behind countless prehistoric ages. The earliest docum ents available show
that the num ber concept is equally present in many ancient civilizations.
4. Counting represents a very im portant milestone in the progress o f civi­
lization. The first requirement in com putation is a system o f numerals, i.e.,
a way to write numbers. 5. N um eration first evolves through the use o f spo­
ken and later on written languages. Some ancient tribes used a base o f 2 and
3 to count by (1 -2, 2-1,2-2) (1 -2-3, 3 -1 ,3 -3 ). 6. Historical records give evi­
dence o f the astronomical and arithm etical achievements o f the ancient
Babylonians, Sumerians and Chinese. Sometime before 2000 B.C. the
Babylonians developed a base-sixty or sexagesimal system o f num eration
with the positional principle which is still useful in astronomical calcula­
tions. The Babylonians o f 2000 B.C. were well-trained and skillful calcula­
tors. 7. The early Egyptian numeration system used a base o f ten with no more
than three symbols to express any number less than 100 - one for units, one
for tens, and one for hundreds. The zero symbol is unnecessary. 8. Vfery little
is known about the origin o f the Roman notation fo r numbers, which is still
important. 9. The ancient Greeks' nonpositional numeration system employs

94
twenty-four letters o f their alphabet to produce letter-numerals and special
symbols (M = myriad) for large numbers. To tell a number from a word the
ancient Greeks used an accent (stress) at the end of a number sign or a stroke
over it. 10. The traditional Chinese-Japanese numeration system is a basecten
system with nine numerals and symbols for the place value. Numbers go
from the top downward or from left to right. 11. The Mayan numeration sys­
tem (400 A. D.) uses the base twenty with positional notation and a special
symbol for zero. 12. The details of the exact formation of the Hindu-Arabic
symbolic system are missing. 13. Binary system is of recent origin and
extremely important in cybernetics. It needs only a sequence o f two digits, 0
and 1, to represent numbers o f any size. 14. The advantages of our present
positional numeration systems, based on place value, with the choice o f a cer­
tain num ber as a base are numerous and well known. 15. The British mone­
tary system with its farthings, pennies, threepence, sixpence, shillings, half
crown, crowns, pounds and guineas was a V4-*/2- 1-3-6-12-30-60-140-252
system — a mixture of several archaic systems that confounds foreigners so
much. It is different nowadays.

2. Practice problem and topical questions and answers. Work in pairs. Change over! In case you
disagree with the answer, give your version.

1. N um bers are m en­ Numbers may be both abstract and concrete, e.g.,
tal abstract concepts, <Sstudents is a concrete quantity of students, and
aren’t they? 8 is a discrete concept and generates no ambigui­
ty or misconception in this case. >
2. When do numbers Numbers become abstract when we begin to rea­
become abstract con­ son about their nature and enumerate their prop­
cepts? erties through arithmetical and logical operations.
3. How do numbers People abstract and generalize numbers from
originate and emerge? counting process. Abstract number concept is Of
much higher level than individual and discrete
numbers. There exists a hierarchy o f abstract
number concepts in modern maths.

4. How do m athem ati­ M athematicians do it by means of precise and rig­


cians disclose the con­ orous definitions or in terms of a set of axioms
tent o f abstract num ­ (postulates) that disclose their meaning.
ber concepts?

95
5. Aren’t numbers pri­ By no means. Numbers belong to all peoples and
vate property and per­ all the world civilizations since the dawn o f record­
sonal belongings of the ed history.
mathematicians alone?
6. What is the difference M athematicians differentiate “natural numbers”
(distinction) between (whole positive integers) from “cardinal numbers”
two math terms: “natu­ through the notions o f “order”, “sense "and “pow er”.
ral numbers” and “car­
dinal numbers”? Is the
number 5 natural or
cardinal?
7. What do you mean to The natural num ber 5 follows 4 in a series o f whole
imply by these notions? natural numbers. It orders and specifies a definite
o t,e ct in an ordinal sense.
8. It’s more or less clear. Wfe may interpret the num ber 5 in the cardinal or
But about “power” — quantitative sense as the num ber which represents
what can you say? the size o f the pow er o f a definite set o f objects with
5 members. Thus, the num ber 5 may be both “nat­
ural” and “cardinal” . Cardination is the matching
o f things in a set.
9. What are the main They are: O ne-m any (one to many), even (2, 4, 6,
categories o f natural 8, 10) and o d d (1, 3, 5, 7, 9)
numbers? 3

3. Translate the sentences into Russian and discuss the significance of negative numbers in
detail.

1. It is hard to grasp the idea o f - 2 . Negative num bers were not allowed
into m aths for a long tim e. 2. Some financial problem s can n o t be solved
except in term s o f a negative number. 3. The negative num ber was in ter­
preted as a financial loss o r debt. 4. The negative num bers had em erged in
maths and were interpreted in many different ways. 5. They m easure dis­
tances back along a road, tem peratures below zero, tim es before the pres­
ent, etc. 6. Negative num bers are simply useful abstractions and m ath e­
m aticians see and consider them as creations o f their own m ind. 7. This
insight emerged with the investigations o f higher degree algebraic eq u a ­
tions. 8. Negative num bers are not mere fantasies o f the m ath im agina­
tion only.

96
4. Characterize modern maths. Use the given sentences, if necessary:

1. Maths in the 20th century goes in growing without end. 2. Maths is in


the thick o f modern life. 3. "Art-for-art’s sake” outlook has resulted in a
prodigal inventiveness. 4. Today’s mathematicians have ridden off in all
directions at once. 5. They are conquering new fields of maths faster than
they can send messages home. 6. Some scholars (scientists) refer to this
expansion in maths that we are living in as to golden age of maths.
7. According to their estimate as much new maths had been created in the
last 100 years as in all previous centuries combined. 8. The emergence of new
number systems has proved it. 9. In both range and remoteness modern
maths defies easy description even by math experts.
5. Make the right choice and complete the sentences:

1. The set o f all points in geometry is a ... ( volume, plane, line, space, model,
surface). 2. Sets o f points which all lie in one plane are ... (circles, rays,
angles, solids, ellipses, plane figures, squares). 3. The regular polyhedra are a
part of geometric study in antiquity. How many different types are there?
{rhombus, trapezoid, square, cube, tetrahedron, octahedron, dodecahedron,
icosahedron). 4. A solid with opposite faces equal and parallel is a ... {cube,
cylinder, prism, pyramid, sphere). 5. The idea o f “betweenness” in m athe­
matics means t h a t ... {one point is between two other points, all the given points
lie on one line). 6. The set of 3 points not all on one line and all the points
between them on the segments is a ... {parallelepiped, triangle, rhombus, rec­
tangle, cone). 7. When we cut a cone at different angles we obtain a set o f
curves such as ... {circle, cycloid, catenary, ellipse, parabola, hyperbola, con­
choid, quadratrix, spiral, circumference). 8. It is convenient to have labels for
angles and we usually classify them according to ... {the measures of their
angles, the measures of their sides). 9. The angle o f 90° is ... {straight, right,
acute, obtuse, adjacent, complementary). 10. A triangle with its sides equal is
... {right, acute, isosceles, equilateral). 11. The distance around the circle is a
(an) ... {perimeter, parabola, hyperbola, circumference, ellipse). 12. We
describe the concept o f congruence in geometry by the phrase ... {“is the
same size as”, “has the same length as” “is equal to ” “has the same measure
as”). 13. The area o f a rectangle is the product o f two dim ensions:... {the side
and the base', the side and the altitude', the base and the height). 14. If we know
the three sides o f any triangle, we can find its area by Heron’s formula ...
{S = 6a2; V = a3; S = V p (p -a )(p -b )(p -c). 15. The area of a circle contains
the number n {mfi/A; V = nr2h; 2 nrh).

97
4 Английский язык для студентов-математиков
6. A gree o r disagree with th e following sta te m en ts:

Models. I. In geometry we study drawings that illustrate geo­


metric figures.
I t’s true. Geometric figures are graphic formulas and
no geometer can do without them.
2. Ancient mathematicians’ indirect measurements
formulas are out-of-date and useless nowadays.
Not at all. When we calculate the area, surface or vol­
ume, we make use of them. They are very valuable
though they seem trivial today.

1. Indirect measurement o f areas and volumes is an old-fashioned method.


2. The ancient Egyptians initiate the science o f measurement. 3. The ancient
Greek mathematicians base their maths on the results o f their predecessors
(Egyptians and Babylonians). 4. Archimedes’ way to find the area o f a circle
is well-known. 5. In scientific work we usually measure in units o f the metre
and the kilogram of the metric or decimal system. 6. The decimal system is
not the international system o f measures and weights nowadays. 7. The only
big countries that still use the imperial system o f feet and pounds are
America and Canada.

7. Try to define the given geometric objects, using the list of verbs and paymg attention to the
predicate of a definition.

A definition is a phrase that signifies a thing’s essence. A scientific definition


is both a description o f a scientific concept such as “ force” “distance’’
“energy” “velocity” “acceleration” “ m om entum ” etc., and the way to
measure it. The formula d - 16t2 tells us how a rock falls. define “accel­
eration” as w = Av/ДЛ

Model. A drawing is/stands Гог (означает, значат,


обозначает) a visual picture o f a geometric object.

an angle, a ray, a square, a circle, a cone, a triangle, a quadrilateral, a


prism, a polygon, a tetrahedron

Predicates o f definition: defines, signifies, means, implies, symbolizes,


assigns, marks, notifies, represents, illustrates, pictures, classifies, desig­
nates, denotes, fixes, points, describes, manifests, figures, formulates, dis­
plays, produces, establishes, is a sign of, gives a name of, models, refers to,
functions as, equals, suggests.

98
8. D isagree with the false sta te m e n ts. Begin your answ er with the opening phrases.

It’s not correct, Not at all.


It's not right, I am afraid. On the contrary.
It’s wrong, Quite the reverse.

1. A ray is a subset o f a point. 2. A straight line extends indefinitely only in


one direction. 3. A polygon with exactly four sides is a polyhedron. 4. Wfe call
decimals in which one digit or one group o f digits repeats over and over non­
terminating decimals. 5. Wfe find the area directly by laying out little squares
over the entire floor o f the room. 6. There is no formula to calculate the vol­
ume o f a cube. 7. Wfe undervalue the contribution o f the ancient Greek
mathematicians.

READING COMPREHENSION

1. Read the text, study carefully Feano's system of axioms and compare it with J . Freund’s
system of twelve postulates.

J.E. Freund’s System of Natural Numbers Postulates


M odern mathematicians are accustomed to derive properties o f natural
numbers from a set o f axioms or postulates, i.e. (that is), undefined and
unproved statements that disclose the meaning o f the abstract concepts.
Axioms acquire the status o f true statements. Wfe may begin with the well-
known system o f 5 axioms o f the Italian mathematician Peano that provides
the description o f natural numbers. These axioms are: First — 1 is a natural
number. Second — any num ber which is a successor (follower) of a natural
num ber is itself a natural number. Third — no two natural numbers have the
same follower. Fourth — the natural number 1 is not the follower o f any other
natural number. Fifth —if a series o f natural numbers includes both the num ­
ber 1 and the follower o f every natural number, then the series contains all
natural numbers. The fifth axiom is the principle (law) o f math induction.
From the axioms it follows that there must be infinitely many natural num­
bers since (as) the series cannot stop. It cannot circle back to its starting
point either, because 1 is not the imrfiediate follower o f any natural number.
In essence, Peano’s theory states that the series o f natural numbers is well-
ordered and presents a general problem o f quantification. It places the natu­
ral numbers in an ordinal relation and the commonest example o f ordination
is the counting o f things. The domain of applications of Peano’s theory is

99
much wider than the series o f natural numbers alone, e.g., the relational
fractions l, 1/2, 1/3, 1/4 and so on, satisfy the axioms similarly. From
Peano’s five rules we can state and enum erate all the familiar characteris­
tics and properties o f natural num bers. O ther m athem aticians define
these properties in terms o f 8 or even 12 axioms (J.E. Freund) and these
systems characterize properties o f natural num bers much m ore com pre­
hensively and they specify the notion o f operations both arithm etical and
logical.
Note that sums and products o f natural numbers are written as a+b and a-b
or ab, respectively.
Postulate No. 1: For every pair o f natural numbers, a and b, in that order,
there is a unique (one and only one) natural number called the sum o f a and b.
Postulate No. 2: If a and b are natural numbers, then a+b = b+a.
Postulate No. 3: If a, b and c are natural numbers, then (a+b)+c =
a+(b+c).
Postulate No. 4: For every pair o f natural numbers, a and b, in that order,
there is a unique (one and only one) natural num ber called the product.
Postulate No. 5: If a and b are natural numbers, then ab = ba
Postulate No. 6: If a, b and c are natural numbers, then (ab) c = a(bc).
Postulate No. 7: If a, b and c are natural numbers, then a(b+c) = ab+ac.
Postulate No. 8: There is a natural num ber called “one” and written I so
that if a is an arbitrary natural number, then a 1 = a.
Postulate No. 9: If a, b and c are natural numbers and if ac = be, then a = b.
Postulate No. 10: If a, b and c are natural numbers, and if a+c = b+c.
then a - b.
Postulate No. 11: Any set o f natural numbers which (1) includes the num ­
ber l, and which (2) includes a + 1 whenever it includes the natural number
a, includes every natural number.
Postulate No. 12: For any pair o f natural numbers, a and b, one and only one
o f the following alternatives must hold: either a = b, or there is a natural num ­
ber x such that a+x = b, or there is a natural num ber)1such that b+y = a.
Freund’s system o f 12 postulates provides the possibility to characterize
natural numbers when we explain how they beha\e and what math rules they
must obey. To conclude the definition o f “natural numbers" we can say that
they must be interpreted either as standing for the whole number от else for
math objects which share all their math properties. The arithm etic o f whole
numbers is based on 12 postulates. Using these postulates m athem aticians
are able to prove all other ntles about the natural numbers with which peo­
ple have long been familiar. Since m athem aticians are interested mainly in

100
the m ath properties o f number, they use the term “ natural numbers” in pref­
erence to “whole numbers”
2. Pronounce the sentences as you draw all geometric figures, illustrating each step of the solu­
tion of the problems given below.

1. For each case below try to determ ine if it is a plane geom etric figure:
a) Two lines which are not parallel and have no com m on points, b) Two
triangles with a com m on side, c) Two intersecting lines. 2. Draw illustra­
tions for each o f the plane geom etric figures and define them all. 3. Find
illustrations o f space geom etric figures in the physical world. 4. We can
define a sphere in m uch the same way as a circle. Give the definition o f a
sphere. 5. Draw a triangle with sides 3, 4 and 5 inches. Use a protractor
and m easure the angles o f this triangle. W hat kind o f a triangle do you
have? W hat is the area o f this triangle? 6. a) Two triangles are congruent.
D o they have the same area? b) Two triangles have the same area. Are
they congruent?
3. Determine whether the following statements are true or false. Draw figures to help with your
decision.

1. Every square is a rhombus. 2. Every trapezoid is a parallelogram.


3. T he “opposite sides” o f a parallelogram are congruent to each other.
4. A rectangle that is inscribed in a circle is a square. 5. N o parallelogram
is a trapezoid. 6. Some quadrilaterals are triangles. 7. Every rhombus with
one right angle is a square. 8. N o trapezoid has two right angles. 9. If a
rectangle has a pair o f congruent sides, then it is square. 10. If a trapezoid
has one right angle, then it has two right angles. 11. If a quadrilateral has
two pairs o f congruent sides, then it is a parallelogram. 12. If two diam e­
ters o f a circle are perpendicular to each other, then their end points
determ ine the vertices o f a square. 13. There is a square that is not a p ar­
allelogram . 14. N o rhombus is a trapezoid. 15. N o trapezoid has a pair o f
congruent sides.
4. Determine the fallacy in the given statem ents. M ake a drawing to help you find the
errors.

1. A right angle is equal to an angle w hich is greater than a right angle.


2. A part o f a line is equal to the whole line. 3. The sum o f the lengths o f
two sides o f any triangle is equal to the length o f the third side. 4. Every
triangle is isosceles. 5. я /4 is equal to n /3 . 6. If two opposite sides o f a
quadrilateral are equal, the o th er two sides must be parallel. 7. Every
ellipse is a circle.

101
U n it F our ( 4 )

UNSOLVED PROBLEMS
Grammar
1. Modal \ferbs and Their Equivalents.
2. Indefinite Pronouns, Adverbs
and Their Equivalents.

LABORA TOR Y PRACTICE


Repeat the sentences after the speaker.
1. In this lesson we are to get familiar with geometric constructions under
the conditions specified and the famous unsolved problems in maths.
2. Students are taught maths at school and college with the idea that all math
problems can be solved. Unfortunately, this is not the case. 3. In maths there
exist problems that can be readily solved as well as the problems that are
impossible and the ones demanding the right, often ingenious, technique for
their solution. 4. However, the conviction o f the solvability o f every math
problem is a powerful challenge and stimulus to the researcher. 5. The
Pythagoreans’ discovery that V2 is irrational was the first example o f a proof o f
impossibility in maths. 6. Every math problem must be settled either in the
form o f a direct answer to the question posed, or by the proof o f the impossi­
bility o f its solution. 7. Numerical evidence counts for very little, the only lux­
ury a reputable mathematician allows himself is proof. 8. Math rigour in rea­
soning demands that the solution o f the problem must be established by means o f
a finite number ofsteps based upon a finite number o f hypotheses preciselyformu­
lated. 9. This high standard of math rigour was formulated by the ancient
Greek mathematicians and philosophers in order to make maths finite, rigor­
ous and coherent. 10. The search for the construction problem solution is a
favourite subject in geometry. 11. The ancient Greeks are given credit for pos­
ing famous unsolved construction problems that challenge mathematicians
and amateurs alike even today. 12. The Greeks imposed severe restrictions
upon the instruments used for the construction. Ruler-compass constructions
are the drawings made by using only a straightedge (an unmarked ruler) and a
compass. The constructions must be performed with the highest degree of
accuracy and precision. 13. The Greeks gave special attention to geometric
constructions, as each construction served as a sort o f existence theorem for the
figure or concept involved. 14. To prove that a certain object exists means for

102
the Greeks to construct it. With a straightedge we may draw (construct) a line
determined by any two points. With a compass we may construct a circle.
15. The classical Greeks were able to carry out many constructions with these
two permissible tools. Nevertheless, despite the persistent efforts, the Greeks
failed to solve the three famous construction problems, viz., “squaring the cir­
cle” “doubling the cube” and “trisecting the-angle” 16. The Greek geome­
ters realized that the allowable instruments were inadequate for the solution
sought. 17. Though the construction was the main part of the solution, it was
not the whole task. The problems were of both practical and theoretical inter­
est. 18. The Greeks sought to prove that the constructions could be performed
in principle, that the solution could be found theoretically. 19. They tried to
devise a theory in terms o f which they could rely on the construction in place
o f the existence theorem, but they did not succeed in creating it, however.
20. The theory in question was developed successively by a Danish geometer
G. Mohr (1672), then by an Italian engineer L. Mascheroni (1797) and by a
Swiss scientist J. Steiner (1833). 21. In the 19th century it was finally proved
that the famous unsolved problems defy solution under the restrictions speci­
fied. 22. It should be emphasized that though the Greeks failed to find the
solution satisfying their criterion, they made great math discoveries on the way,
for in maths there is no futile search. 23. The failure with the classical unsolved
problems was the stimulus for many novel developments in maths. 24. Every
generation o f mathematicians ever since the Greek times on has to seek a proof
that certain problems are solvable or insoluble in principle. 25. The number of
problems in maths is inexhaustible and as soon as one problem is solved, oth­
ers come forth in its place. Maths offers an abundance of unsolved problems.

ACTIVE VOCABULARY
1. to achieve 15. to dwell (on) 29. to pursue
2. to appeal (to) 16. to estimate 30. to recur
3. to approach 17. to exist 31. to reduce
4. to approximate 18. to exhaust 32. to refer (to)
5. to attain 19. to extend 33. to refute
6. to attract 20. to Tail 34. to remind
7. to attribute 21. to generate 35. to restrict
8. to award 22. to guide 36. to reveal
9. to cease 23. to identify 37. to reverse
10. to challenge 24. to impose 38. to satisfy
11. to conclude 25. to intersect 39. to specify
12. to converge 26. to intrude 40. to succeed
13. to convince 27. to investigate 41. to suffice
14. to defy 28. to issue 42. to surmount

103
T E X T ONE

U N SO LV E D P R O B L E M S O F A N T IQ U IT Y

Read and translate the text into Russian. Practise “question-answer” type of reproduction of
the main ideas of the text. Work in pairs.

Greek maths is significant for the questions it raised and did not answer.
Among such questions are three famous construction problems known to
every am ateur in maths. They are referred to as “squaring the circle” “dou­
bling the cube” and “trisecting the angle” To square the circle means to con­
struct a square, the area o f which is equal to the area o f a given circle. To
double a cube means to construct the side o f a cube whose volume shall be
double that o f a given cube. To trisect an angle means to divide any angle into
three equal parts. These constructions are to be performed only with an
unmarked ruler and a compass. N o other instruments are to be used.
The reason for this restriction sheds light on the classic attitude towards
maths. A ruler and a compass are the physical counterparts suggesting the
concepts of a straight line and a circle. This restriction, self-imposed and
arbitrary, was motivated by the desire to keep geometry simple and harm o­
nious. The three construction problems were very popular in Greece. The
first historical reference to them states that the philosopher Anaxagoras
passed his time in prison trying to square the circle. Despite the repeated
efforts o f the best Greek m athem aticians the problems were not solved. N or
were they to be solved for the next two thousand years. It was finally proved
that the constructions cannot be performed under the conditions specified.

D uplication o f the C ube

One of the “three famous problems o f antiquity" was to find a geometrical


construction for the edge of a cube having twice the volume o f a given cube.
It probably dates back to the time of the Pythagoreans (c. 540 B.C.). The
Pythagorean theorem suggests a simple means for finding a square with
twice the area of a given square — it is the “square" on the diagonal If the
side o f the square is of unit length, we can thus solve the problem o f finding
a line segment of length V2. The corresponding problem o f finding a segment
o f length 42 was stated in a much more interesting form by the Greeks.
The Greek com m entator o f the period tells us o f a letter supposedly w rit­
ten to Ptolemy I (not to be confused with the mathematician o f the same
name) concerning King Minos, who had a cubical tomb constructed for his

104
son. The king was displeased with the size of the monument, however, and
so ordered it doubled in size — by doubling the side. The com m entator
points out that this was an error as the tomb would thereby be increased four­
fold in area and eightfold in volume; but he says, the geometers then tried to
solve the problem.
A second and better known story is also told o f the source o f the problem.
It is said that the gods sent a plague to the people of Athens. The people sent
a delegation to the oracle at Delos to ask what could be done to appease the
gods. They were told to double the size o f the cubical altar to Apollo, and the
plague would cease. They built a new altar, each edge o f which was twice as
long as each edge o f the old altar. But since the gods’ demand was not ful­
filled, the plague continued. The story fails to relate what was finally done to
appease the gods, but evidently the plague eventually left the city.
The search for solutions to this problem, to be carried out if possible with
the restriction o f using only a straightedge and a compass, was to lead the
Greeks to many math discoveries during the next several centuries. A com-
pass-and-straightedge construction for this problem was not one o f their dis­
coveries, however, it can be proven that this cannot be done under these
restrictions. Menaechmus (c. 350 B.C.) is given credit for discovering the
conic sections in the process o f trying to find a solution to this problem. He
gave two solutions, one involving the intersection of two parabolas, and the
other the intersection o f a hyperbola and parabola. (It can easily be seen by
analytic geometry, that when the equations у =x2 and xy= 2 are solved simul­
taneously, then x=V2.) It should be emphasized that these were perfectly
legitimate solutions, but they did not satisfy the Greek criterion o f restrict­
ing the tools used, to straightedge and compass. Plato (340 B.C.) discovered
a mechanical solution, and during the third century B.C. Nicomedes used the
curve called the conchoid. Diocles (c. 180 B.C.) used the cissoid to effect
duplication.
Viete in 1593 proved that every cubic equation not otherwise solvable leads
to either a duplication or a trisection problem. It remained for Descartes in
1637 to prove the impossibility of a solution by means o f lines and circles. He
showed that a parabola and a circle can be used to find the roots o f a cubic
equation, if the second-degree term is missing. Since every cubic may be
reduced to one with no second-degree term, every cubic may be solved by
means o f a circle and a parabola. But the parabola may not be constructed
with a straightedge and a compass, hence, neither the duplication o f the
cube nor the trisection o f the angle may be so performed.

105
But people still try and often claim success. They are either wrong o r they
misunderstand the problems. The problems are insoluble for the same sort o f
reason, viz., that the solution involves a kind o f irrational num ber which
cannot be constructed by Euclidean methods. A good approxim ation to the
solution is not what is wanted.
While it is customary to emphasize the futile search o f the G reeks for the
solutions (perhaps because am ateur mathem aticians at all periods o f time
eagerly exercised their ingenuity on these problems), a more accurate
appraisal must be made that even the early Greek geometers realized that the
allowable means were inadequate. They set to work to find other m eans to
solve these problems and here they did not fail. By making use o f certain
curves, not circles, supposedly already completely drawn, they were able to
solve many o f the construction problems.
The discovery o f the conic sections and the use o f such curves as the con­
choid and the quadratrix to effect solutions is an obvious evidence o f the
ingenuity o f the Greek geometers. The fact that they lacked the necessary
math tools o f analytic geometry and algebraic theory to describe the possi­
bilities o f various geometrical instruments (and thereby also to show what is
impossible) cannot be held against the Greeks. A valid and rigorous proof
that “squaring the circle” problem cannot be solved by compass and
straightedge alone was not given until 1882.
Nowadays it is well known that problems in construction can be solved by
various uses o f the basic geometrical tools, and in most cases in more than
one way with each (by straightedge and compass, by compass only, by com ­
pass with the same opening throughout the construction, i.e., “ fixed com ­
pass” and other limited means). A natural question is: “Which way is best?”
Possible criterion was established in 1907: the simplicity o f the construction
is the sum o f the numbers of the simple operations (steps) used in the co n ­
struction.
The early G reeks had to give special atten tio n to geom etric c o n stru c ­
tion because each served as a sort o f existence theorem for the figure o r
concept involved. The establishing o f the various equivalence theorem s
(e.g., that the compass alone is equivalent to straightedge and m odem
compass) reverses the approach - now a geom eter is interested in sh o w ­
ing that theoretically, at least, the results are attainable even w ithout c a r­
rying out the actual construction, i.e., that the construction can be p e r­
formed in principle.

106
T E X T TWO

UNSOLVED MATHEMATICAL PROBLEMS

Extracts from the lecture delivered by D. Hilbert before the International Congress
of Mathematicians in Paris, 1900

Read and translate the text into Russian. Write out all /л£-ending forms and arrange them into
groups according to their part of speech.

Who o f us cannot be glad to lift the veil behind which the future lies hid­
den; to cast a glance at the next advances o f our science and at the secrets o f
its development during future centuries? What particular goals can there be
which the leading math minds o f coming generations will strive? What new
methods and new facts in the wide and rich field o f math thought can the
new centuries disclose?
History teaches the continuity o f the development o f science. We know that
every age has its own problems, which the following either solves or casts
aside as worthless and replaces by new ones. If we could obtain an idea o f the
probable development of math knowledge in the immediate future, we must
let the unsettled questions pass in our minds and consider the problems
which the science o f today sets and whose solution we expect from the
future. To such a review o f present-day problems, raised at the meeting o f the
centuries, I wish to turn your attention. For the close o f a great epoch o f the
19th century not only invites us to look back into the past but also directs our
thought to the unknown future.
The deep significance of certain problems for the advance of math science,
in general, and the important role which they play in the work of the indi­
vidual investigator are not to be denied. As long as a branch o f science offers
an abundance o f problems, so long it is alive, a lack of problems foreshadows
extinction o r the cessation of independent development. Just as every
human undertaking seeks after certain objects, so also math research
requires its problems. It is by the solution o f problems that the researcher
tests the tem per o f his steel; he finds new methods and new outlooks, and
gains a wider and freer horizon.
It is difficult, often impossible, to judge the value o f a problem correctly in
advance, for the final award depends upon the gain which science obtains
from the problem. Nevertheless, we can ask whether there are general crite­
ria which m ark and label a good m ath problem. An old French m athem ati-

107
cian said: “A math theory is not to be considered completed until you made
it so clear that you can explain it to the first man whom you meet in the
street.” This clearness and ease o f understanding, here claimed for a math
theory, 1 should still more dem and for a math problem that it ought to be
perfect; for what is clear and easily understandable attracts, while the com ­
plicated repels us. Moreover, a math problem should be difficult in order to
appeal to us, yet not completely inaccessible, lest it mock at our efforts. It
should be to us a guide post on the mazy paths to hidden truths, and ulti­
mately a reminder o f our pleasure in the successful solution.
The mathematicians o f past centuries were accustomed to devoting them ­
selves to the solution o f difficult particular problems with passionate zeal.
They knew the value o f difficult problems. 1 remind you only o f the “prob­
lem of quickest descent” proposed by J. Bernoulli, o f Ferm at’s assertion
x n+yn=zn (x, y, z integers) which is unsolvable except in certain self-evident
cases. The calculus o f variations owes its origin to this problem o f Bernoulli
and to similar problems. The attem pt to prove the impossibility o f Ferm at’s
theorem offers a striking example o f the inspiring effect which such a very
special and apparently unim portant problem may have upon science. 1 can
remind you as well o f the problem o f three bodies. The fruitful m ethods and
the far-reaching principles which Poincare brought into celestial mechanics
and which are today recognized and applied in practical astronomy arc due
to the fact that he sought to treat anew that difficult problem and to come
nearer to its solution.
But it often happens also that the same special problem finds application
in the most diverse and unrelated branches o f maths. So for example, the
problem o f the shortest line plays a chief and historically im portant part in the
foundations o f geometry, in the theory o f curved lines and surfaces, in
mechanics and in the calculus o f variations. And F. Klein convincingly pic­
tured, in his work on the icosahedron, the significance which is attached to
the problem of the regular polyhedra in elementary geometry, in group th e­
ory, in the theory of equations and in the theory o f linear differential equa­
tions.
After referring to the general importance o f problems in maths, let us
return to the question from what sources this science derives its problems.
Surely, the first and oldest problems in every field o f maths spring from expe­
rience and are suggested by the world ofexterhal phenomena. Even the rules
of calculation with natural numbers were discovered in this fashion in a lower
stage of human civilization, just as the child o f today learns the application
of these laws by empirical methods. The same is true o f the first unsolved

108
problems o f antiquity, such as the duplication of the cube, the squaring of the
circle. Also the oldest problems in the theory o f the solution of numerical
equations, in the theory of curves and the differential and integral calculus,
in the calculus of variations, the theory of Fourier series and the theory of
potential, to say nothing of the abundance of problems properly belonging to
mechanics, astronomy and physics.
But, in the further development o f the special domain of maths, the
human mind, encouraged by the success of its solutions becomes convinced
o f its independence. It evolves from itself alone, often without appreciable
influence from outside by means of logical combination, generalization,
specialization, by separating and collecting ideas in elegant ways, by new and
fruitful problems, and the mind appears then as the real questioner and the
source o f the new problems. Thus arose the problem of prime numbers and
the other unsolved problems o f number theory, G alois’ theory of equations,
the theory o f algebraic invariants, the theory o f Abelian and automorphic
functions; indeed, almost all the nicer problems o f modern arithmetic and
function theory arose in this way.
In the meantime, while the creative power of pure reason is at work, the
outer world again comes into play, forces upon us new questions from actu­
al experience, opens up new divisions of maths and while we seek to conquer
these new fields o f knowledge for the realm o f pure thought, we often find
the answers to old unsolved problems and thus simultaneously advance most
successfully the old theories, thanks to this ever-recurring interplay between
pure thought and experience.
It remains to discuss briefly what general requirements may be proposed
and laid down for the solution of a math problem. I want first of all say this:
that it shall be possible to establish the correctness of the solution by means
o f a finite num ber o f steps based upon a finite number of hypotheses which
are implied in the statem ent of the problem and which must always be exact­
ly formulated. This demand for logical deduction by means of a finite number
of processes is simply the requirement of rigour in reasoning. Indeed, this
requirement o f rigour, which became proverbial in maths, corresponds to a
universal philosophical necessity of our understanding; and on the other
hand, only by satisfying this claim do the problems attain their full effect.
Besides, it is an error to believe that rigour in the proof is the enemy of
simplicity. On the contrary, we find it proved by numerous examples that the
rigorous method is at the same time the simplest and worthy in the long run
and easier to understand. The very effort for rigour helps us come across a
simpler method of proof. It also frequently leads the way to methods which

109
are more capable o f development than the old methods ofless rigour. Thus,
the theory o f algebraic curves experienced a considerable simplification and
attained greater unity by means o f a more rigorous function-theoretical
methods and the introduction o f transcendental curves.
To the new concepts correspond, necessarily, new signs. These we choose
in such a way that they remind us o f the phenom ena o f the external world.
Likewise, the geometric figures are signs or symbols o f space intrusion and
are used as such by all mathematicians. W ho does not always use along with
the double inequality a>b>c the picture or drawing o f three points following
one another on a straight line as the geometrical idea o f “betweenness”?
Who does not make use o f drawings o f segments and rectangles closed in one
another, when it is required to prove with perfect rigour a difficult theorem
on the continuity of functions o r the existence o f points o f condensation?
Who can do without the figure o f the triangle, the circle with its centre, or
with the cross o f three perpendicular axes? The arithmetical symbols are
written diagrams and the geometric figures are graphic formulas and no
mathematician can do without them or avoid them.
Some remarks upon the difficulties which math problems may offer and
the means o f overcoming and coping with them may be worth discussing. If
we do not manage and are not able to solve a math problem, the reason often
consists in our failure to recognize the more general standpoint from which
the problem under study appears only as a single link in a chain o f related
problems. After finding this standpoint, the problem becomes more accessi­
ble to our investigations and we possess then a method which is applicable
also to related problems. This way for finding general methods is certainly
the most fruitful and the most certain; for who seeks for m ethods without
having a definite problem in mind seeks for the most part in vain.
In dealing with math problems, specialization plays, to my mind, a still
more important part than generalization. Perhaps in most cases where we
seek in vain the answer to a question, the cause o f the failure lies in the fact
that problems simpler and easier than the one at issue were either not at all
or incompletely solved. All depends, then, on finding out these easier prob­
lems, and on solving them by means o f devices as perfect as possible and of
concepts capable o f generalization. This rule is one o f the most im portant
levers for overcoming math difficulties and I think, that it is used wherever it
is possible, though sometimes unconsciously.
Occasionally it happens that we seek the solution under insufficient
hypotheses or in an incorrect sense and for that reason do not surm ount the
difficulty. The problem then arises: to show the impossibility o f the solution

110
under the conditions specified. Such proofs of impossibility were effected by
the ancients, for instance, when they showed that the ratio o f the hypotenuse
to the side o f an isosceles right triangle is irrational. In later maths, the ques­
tion of the impossibility of certain solutions plays a great part and we realize
in this way that old and difficult problems, such as the proof of the axiom of
parallels, the squaring the circle, the solution o f equations of the fifth degree
by radicals found fully satisfactory and rigorous solutions, although in a dif­
ferent sense than that originally intended. It is probably this important fact
along with other philosophical reasons that gives rise to the conviction
(which every mathematician shares but which as yet no one supported by a
proof or refuted) that every definite math problem must necessarily be settled,
either in the form o f a direct answer to the question posed, or by the proof o f the
impossibility o f its solution and, hence, the necessary failure o f all attempts.
Is this axiom of the solvability o f every problem a peculiar characteristic of
math thought alone, or is it possibly a general law inherent in the nature of
the mind, that all questions which it asks must be answerable? For in other
sciences there exist also old problems which were handled in a m anner most
satisfactory and most useful to science by the proof of their impossibility, for
example, the problem of perpetual motion. The efforts to construct a per­
petual motion machine were not futile as the investigations led to the dis­
covery o f the law o f the conservation o f energy, which, in turn, explained the
impossibility o f the perpetual motion in the sense originally presupposed.
This conviction of the solvability o f every math problem is a powerful stim­
ulus and impetus to the researcher. Wfe hear within us the perpetual call:
There is the problem. Seek its solution. You can find it, for in maths there is
no futile search even if the problem defies solution. The number o f problems
in maths is inexhaustible and as soon as one problem is solved, others come
forth in its place. Permit me in the following to dwell on particular and def­
inite problems, drawn from various departments o f maths, whose discussion
and possible solution may result in the advancement and progress o f science.

Unsolved Problems
1. C antor’s problem o f the cardinal number o f the continuum.
2. The compatibility o f the arithmetical axioms.
3. The equality of the volumes o f two tetrahedra o f equal bases and equal
altitudes.
4. Problems o f the straight line as the shortest distance between two
points.
5. Lie’s concept of a continuous group o f transformations w ithout the
assumption o f the differentiability o f the functions defining the group.
6. Math treatm ent o f the axioms o f physics.
7. Irrationality and transcendence o f certain numbers.
8. Problems o f prime numbers.
9. Proof o f the most general law o f reciprocity in any number field.
10. Determ ination o f the solvability o f a Diophantine equation.
11. Quadratic forms with any algebraic numerical coefficients.
12. Extension o f Kronecker’s theorem on Abelian fields to any algebraic
realm o f rationality.
13. Impossibility of the solution o f the general equation o f the 7th degree
by means o f functions o f only two arguments.
14. Proof o f the finiteness of certain complete systems o f functions.
15. Rigorous foundations o f Schubert’s enumerative calculus.
16. Problem o f the topology o f algebraic curves and surfaces.
17. Representation o f definite forms by squares.
18. Building up o f space from congruent polyhedra.
19. Are the solutions of regular problems in the calculus o f variations
always necessarily analytic?
20. The general problem o f boundary values.
21. Proof of the existence o f linear differential equations having a pre­
scribed monodromic group.
22. Uniformization of analytic relations by means o f automorphic func­
tions.
23. Further development of the methods o f the calculus o f \-ariations.

The problems mentioned are merely samples o f problems yet they will suf­
fice to show how rich, how manifold and extensive the math science o f today
is, and the question is raised whether m aths can, like other sciences, split
into separate branches, whose representatives can hardly understand one
another and whose connection becomes ever more loose. 1 do not believe
this nor wish it. Math science is in m \ opinion, an indivisible whole, an
organism whose vitality is conditioned upon the ties o f its pans For with all
the variety o f math knowledge, we are still convinced o f the similarity o f the
logical devices, the relationship of the ideas in maths as a whole and the
numerous analogies in its different departments.
But, we ask, with the extension o f math knowledge cannot it finally
become impossible for a single person to embrace all the areas o f this know I-
edge? In answer let me point out, that it is quite possible for the individual

112
investigator to master and make all new sharper tools and methods his own
and find his way more easily in the various parts o f modern maths than it is
possible in any other science. The organic unity o f maths is inherent in the
nature o f this science, for maths is the foundation o f all exact knowledge o f
natural phenom ena. That it may completely fulfil this high mission, may
(let) the new century bring it gifted master and many enthusiastic disciples.

GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY EXERCISES


1. Translate the sentences (a) and word combinations (b) into Russian. Specify the ing-, ending
forms as parts of speech and define their function in the sentence. Consult the dictionary, if nec­
essary.

drawing — черчение, вычерчивание; рисование; чертеж; рисунок,


набросок, изображение; рисующий, чертежный; вычерчивающий

Model 1. The ruler is the simplest instrument for drawing.


Линейка - простейший инструмент для черчения.
(Какой инструмент?)

a) 1. The problem is drawing geometric figures with a high degree o f accu­


racy. 2. Ruler-compass constructions are simply the drawings made by using
only a straightedge and a compass. 3. We always refer to a drawing as a geo­
metric object. 4. Drawing a picture o f two intersecting lines helps the student
discuss the idea o f the interior and exterior o f the angles obtained.
5. Drawing is his favourite subject. 6. Let us represent geometric figures by
drawings.
b) drawing board, drawing compass, drawing knife, drawing master, draw­
ing paper, drawing pen, drawing press.

failing — ош ибка; слабость; недостаток; неудача, неуспех, провал;


недостающ ий, слабеющий; за неимением, ввиду отсутствия, из-за
отсутствия

Model2. Failing the solution, the Greeks sought to find other


means to effect the solution.
Ввиду отсутствия реш ения греки стремились
найти другие средства для его достижения.

1. Persistence o f the Greeks in their efforts to solve the three famous con­
struction problems can’t be considered as failing. 2. Failing to obtain the

113
solution sought, the Greeks did not stop raising some other im portant prob­
lems, e.g., o f constructing with a ruler and a compass a regular polygon o f /»
sides. 3. Failing to construct the regular heptagon {n—1) can be explained by
the same impossibility o f the solution. 4. The failing tools o f analytic geom­
etry and modern algebra were some o f the reasons o f the G reeks’ inability to
solve the problems. 5. Failing the understanding o f the theoretical character
of the problems under study, modern angle-trisectors, cube-duplicators and
circle-squares issue faulty solutions.
2. Consult the dictionary, if necessary, and give the Russian equivalents of the following English
words:

Nouns: meaning, reasoning, reading, writing, drawing, thinking.


Adjectives: striking, surprising, astonishing, tiring, exhausting, annoying,
missing, lacking, exciting, startling, intriguing, tempting, misleading, con­
vincing, encouraging, disappointing, running, appealing, inspiring, boring.
Adverbs', according, notwithstanding, running.
Prepositions', according to, concerning, regarding, respecting, relating to,
pertaining, considering, touching, excepting, saving, pending, during, fail­
ing, following, owing to, depending on.
Conjunctions', providing, granting, supposing.

3. Observe the multifunctional use of i/ig-ending forms and their possible translations.

prep in spite o f несмотря на


notwithstanding adv nevertheless тем не менее
conj in spite o f the fact несмотря на то что

in solving при решении задач; решая задачи; когда


adv mod
problems решаем задачи; ест решать задачи

4. Don’t mix these words up! Illustrate their meaning by the examples of your own.

plain value extend vain universe cause overestimated


plane volume extent vague space course overshadowed
lateral equation expansion completed unworthy unit
literal equality extension complicated worthless unit\
carry out ellipse ultimate result from describe
carry through eclipse eventual result in ascribe
5. Make up sentences following the models.

114
Models: 1. Wfc credit Mcnnchmus with discovering conic sec­
tions.
Menachmus is credited with discovering conic sec­
tions.
Menachmus is given credit for (with) discovering
conic sections.
2. V\fe attribute (ascribe) discovering conic sections to
Menachmus.
Discovering conic sections is attributed (ascribed) to
Menachmus.
3. Either Pythagoras or some of his pupils proved the
famous theorem.
Neither the duplication o f the cube nor the triscction
o f the angle can be performed under the conditions
specified.
4. It goes without saying that irrational number cannot
be constructed by Euclidean methods.
It goes without saying that proof must be valid, rigor­
ous and elegant.

6. Use the proper English verb or one of its derivatives equivalent to the verb in brackets. Try to
explain in your own words the difference in their meanings-

a) to define, to determine, to specify, to identify


1. You must (определить) this term in a more precise and formal way. Your
(определение) is too broad and unscientific. 2. Can you (определить) this
geometric figure? — Yes, 1 can, sure enough. It is a triangle. 3. She should
(уточнить) the conditions for the construction. 4. There exists a specific
formula to (определить) the volume o f a sphere. 5. (Если противное не
оговорено), the concept “congruence” is undefined in today’s maths. 6. We
may (определить) this ratio as constant as it is true and holds in all cases.
7. Their (решение) to solve this famous problem is definite and should be
encouraged.

b) to divide, to separate, to cut, to share, to split

1. W hen we bisect a line segm ent, we (делим) it at the mid point.


2. N ine (деленное) by three equals three. 3. 1 (разделяю) your views on
this point to some extent. 4. (Разделите) these numbers (раздельно) and
then add together the quotients. 5. Let us (разделим) the whole work so
that everyone should have an equal share o f it. 6. How can we (разделить)
all geom etric figures? 7. G reat distance (разделяет) us. 8. Does maths
(разделена) into (отдельные) fields with nothing in common?

115
c) to estimate, to evaluate, to appreciate, to appraise, to value, to assess
I. Scientists can (оценить, вычислить) the size and the altitude o f that
distant star only approximately. 2. (Оценить) the full significance o f this
work is difficult so far. 3. He can (оценить) this picture. He is a painter, after
all. 4. I (ценю) this book very much. It is a present o f my best friend. 5. Is it
difficult to (оценить) the ingenuity o f the G reek geometers? 6. You
(оцениваете, рассчитываете) that the work may take three months. 7. The
time and origin o f that problem is hard to (оценить).

d) to perform, to carry out, to fulfil, to execute


1. First (выполните) the operation o f division and th en m ultiply the
quotients. 2. You ought to (выполнить) the work and (выполнить) your
promise. It is your duty. 3. (Выполнить) the con stru ctio n o f that famous
unsolved problem proved hopeless o f (выполнения). 4. He is given cred ­
it for the (выполнение) o f the task so quickly and accurately. 5. The
G reeks failed to (выполнить) the constru ctio n u n d er the conditions
specified.

e) to offer, to suggest, to propose


1. She often (предлагает) to help me, but 1 prefer to do my work without
anybody's help. 2. Listen! He can (предложить) a good idea. It is worth dis­
cussing, to my mind. 3. The Greeks (предложили) a lot o f theoretical ques­
tions to be solved by later generations o f m athem aticians. 4. He
(предлагает) a new way o f settling this problem.7

7. Give one Russian equivalent of the following groups of words:


a) to draw - to picture — to portray — to depict —to paint / to get to —to
reach —to achieve —to gain —to attain —to accomplish / to finish —to end —
to stop —to cease - to terminate / to fix - to sign - to assign - to designate —
to denote / to bound —to limit —to restrict —to confine —to restrain / to dis­
cuss - to aigue — to debate - to dispute / to mislead — to deceive / to be
sure - to be certain — to be convinced / to fit — to suit — to match / to do
problems - to solve - to resolve - to settle - to handle / to select - to choose -
to single out / to raise a question - to pose - to state - to formulate / to carry
through - to realize —to put into practice
b) bound - limit - boundary - border - frontier - verge - margin / top -
peak - apex - vertex - summit / height - altitude - elevation - pitch - tall­
ness - highness / name - title - label / source - origin - spring / absence -

116
privation — lack —want —shortcoming / degree —power —extent / estima­
tion —evaluation — appreciation —appraisal —assessment / point of view —
viewpoint —standpoint / method —means —device —technique —procedure
c) futile — vain — fruitless / difficult — hard — complicated / strange —
peculiar — odd / valid — legal —lawful —legitimate —legislative / endless —
infinite — nonterm inating / countable — numerable / final — ultimate —
teminal / ardent — passionate / different — various / flawless — perfect /
rough - approximate
d) in the end —at last —finally —eventually / at the same time —simulta­
neously / really — in fact — indeed —actually
e) yet — however — nevertheless — nonetheless / likewise — in the similar
way / also — moreover

GRAMMAR

1. Modal Verbs and Their Equivalents

1. Change the sentences according to the models.

Model 1. can —» to be able to


I want to make a drawing оГ this figure.
1 can m ake... I am able to m ake...
A drawing o f this figure can be made.

1. He wants to define all possible types o f triangles. 2. Mathematicians


want to apply their theories in practice. 3. She wants to evaluate the area of
the floor. 4. Scientists want to solve this famous problem. 5. We want to per­
form the construction with compass alone.

Model 2. may —> to be allowed to


Possibly (perhaps), geometers use other tools Гог the
construction.
Geometers may u se ... Geometers are allowed to use...
Other tools may be used for the construction.

1. Possibly, they find a good approximation for the solution. 2. Perhaps,


scientists handle the problem completely. 3. Possibly, they misunderstand
the theoretical character o f the issue. 4. Perhaps, he specifies the restriction
on the instruments. 5. Possibly, mathematicians give perfectly legitimate
solutions.

117
ModeI3. must —> need, shall, should, to be to, to have to, ought
to, to have got to, to be obliged to
It is necessary (important) for you to make a drawing
with high degree o f accuracy.
You must (shall, should, ...) make a drawing with
high...

1. It is not necessary for him to pay so much attention to constructions.


2. It is important for us to seek the solution to this problem. 3. It is necessary
for them to fulfil the demand. 4. It is im portant for you to draw three arbi­
trary circles in the plane. 5. It is not necessary for her to construct a regular
polygon:

2. Change the following sentences, using the equivalents of the modal verbs:

Model. Vte can give a short “yes —no” answer only, (to be able)
Wfc are able to give a short “yes — no” answer only.

1. The Greeks agreed to use only a straightedge and a compass in the con­
struction. (to be able to) 2. She works too much at her problems, she must
have a rest, (should) 3. They may take a “ fixed” compass to perform the con­
struction. (to be allowed to) 4 . 1 failed to find the solution, I think I must try
again, (ought to) 5. The existence or nonexistence o f the proof must be devel­
oped. (have to)

3. Answer the questions using the words suggested in brackets.

Model. Do I have to make another drawing? (No, this one willdo.)


No, you needn't. This one will do.

1. Must she make her own choice? (No, discuss other choices.) 2. D o we
have to define conic sections? (No, they arefam iliar to ewryone.) 3. M ust you
measure the perimeter? (No, it is not necessary.) 4. Does he have to refer to
this issue again? (No, it is worthless.) 5. Do they have to reverse their
approach to the problem? (No, tty the old method.)4

4. Choose the proper equivalents of the modal verbs.

Model. You (должны) construct a square with the area equal


to the area o f the given circle.
You have to construct a square...

118
1. She (ей придется) to give a reason and possible justification for the
restriction. 2. We (нам предстоит) to find a good approximation to the
num ber я value. 3. He (ему следует) specify the conditions o f the experi­
ment. 4. They (им разрешают) to use a dictionary if necessary. 5. I (в
состоянии) to solve this difficult problem myself. 6. You (ваш долг) to exer­
cise all your ingenuity and fulfil the task. 7. They (им нужно) to check all the
calculations again. 8. Wfe (нам следует) to satisfy the requirements for the
solution. 9. She (ей не надо) to refer to her failure with the task now. 10, The
students (должны) to appreciate the ancient maths in a proper way.

2. Indefinite Pronouns, Adverbs and Their Derivatives

1. Substitute ло-forms Гог some-forms using the given suggestions.

Model. They know something about that famous problem (/).


I know nothing about that famous problem.

1. Somebody can perform the drawing in a better way. (the work) 2. The
teacher asks someone to find the area directly, (the volume) 3. Refer to this
issue somewhere in your report, (if not asked) 4. There is something unfamil­
iar in his description, (o f a procedure)

2. Ask questions substituting ллу-forms for яо-forms adding the words in bracket;.

Model. There are no equations in this text, (really?)


Are there really any equations in this text?

1. There is nobody to help you find the proof o f the theorem, (right now?)
2. None o f us underestimates his contribution to science, (o f the Greeks)
3. There is nothing in the text to justify the choice, (the failure?) 4. We can
seek the solution nowhere. It is impossible, (the proof?)

3. Change the following sentences using the word else and the derivatives of some, any, no, body, one.

Model. Make a drawing o f a quadrilateral on some other piece


o f paper, (somewhere)
Make a drawing o f a quadrilateral somewhere else.

1. Give that task to some other person, (someone) 2. They want to measure
some other surface, (something) 3. There is no other figure to define, (noth­

in
ing) 4. They needn’t perform any other construction. (anything)
5. Somebody can draw figures with such a high degree o f accuracy. (no one)

CONVERSATIONAL PRACTICE

L. Make the following sentences more emphatic by using the interrogative pronouns:

Models. 1. We have deductive reasoning, we have maths.


( Wherever)
Wherever we have deductive reasoning, we have
maths.
2. He suggests this idea, he is wrong. (Whoever)
Whoever suggests this idea, he is wrong.

1. The famous unsolved problem s o f antiquity we seek to solve, we fail


to obtain the solution. ( Whichever) 2. The measures o f areas and volumes
you take, they are indirect m easurem ents. (Whatever) 3. He seeks the
solution otherwise, his trials may not be futile. (Whoever) 4. The efforts
they apply to handle the problem , they are in vain. (W hatever) 5. W hen he
bisects an angle, the angles obtained are congruent. (W henever) 6. The
higher curves the ancient geom eters discovered to effect the solution, the
solutions were not valid according to the criterion. ( Whichever) 7. He dis­
covered conic sections, he is credited with great contribution to maths.
(Whoever) 8. We refer to the three famous unsolved problem s, we em pha­
size the ingenuity of the G reen geometers. ( Wherever) 9. W hen we employ
the formulae for areas and volumes, we give credit to the G reek m athe­
maticians. (Whenever) 10. M odern circle-squares, angle-trisectors, cube-
duplicators issue their solutions, the solutions involve some fallacies.
( Wit enever)

2. Convince or refute.

I am convinced that... I can't but refute it.


This is a convincing argument. The statement must be refitted.
The statement is convincing by itself. 1 have a counter-argument that nuqr
serve as a refutation.
The assertion convincingly represents... One can refute fc by..
Although no conviction serves as a proof... Although no refutation is offered...

1. Construction problems are favourite now only with puzzle enthusiasts,


not mathematicians. 2. Due to their seeming simplicity and recreational

120
nature, the construction problems do not appeal to em inent m athem ati­
cians. 3. The theoretical proof is unnecessary, only precise drawing is
required for their solution. 4. A more severe restriction o f the tools (e.g., with
a compass alone) limit the num ber o f possible constructions. 5. It is always
possible to improve on earlier constructions by performing them in fewer
steps. 6. The solution for the construction problems can be found by pure
reason. 7. The ancient Greeks proved the impossibility o f the solutions under
the conditions specified. 8. The solution should be obtained by means of a
finite number of steps. 9. The answers to famous unsolved problems are still
not found. 10. There are no unsolved problems in modern maths. 11. People
should not confuse the G reek letter я [pat] with the math symbol я (pi:).
12. The history of the num ber я is associated with the oldest o f unsolved
construction problems “quadrature of the circle” .

3. Suppose that the statement is insufficient. Repeat the statement and add your own reason­
ing. Use the opening phrases. Summarize the whole topic.

I may as well add that... More than that... Moreover...

Model. To trisect any angle means to divide any angle into


three equal parts.
That’s right... But I may as well add that many special
angles, e.g„ an angle of 90°, can, of course, be easily
trisected.

1. Using only a straightedge and a compass the Greeks could easily divide
any line segment into any num ber o f equal parts. 2. The ease with which any
angle can be bisected was the motivation to attempt the multisection o f any
angle under similar restrictions. 3. The problem o f constructing a regular
polygon o f nine sides which requires the trisection o f a 60° angle was the sec­
o nd source o f the famous problem. 4. The Greeks could not solve the prob­
lem not because they were not clever enough, but because the problem is
insoluble under the specified conditions. 5. The Greeks added “ the trisec­
tion problem ” to their three famous unsolved problems. 6. It is customary to
emphasize the futile search o f the Greeks for the solution. 7. However, a very
important fact should not be pverlooked. 8. The ancient Greek geometers
realized that the allowable instruments were inadequate for trisecting any
arbitrary angle. 9. They tried to find other means to solve the trisection prob­
lem. 10. They devised various methods by means o f special geometric curves
11. Nicomedes invented a special curve, the conchoid, with which he could
trisect any angle. 12. Papus trisected an angle with the aid o f a hyperbola.

121
13. Hippias used quadratrix to divide an angle in any given ratio. 14. O ther
Greek mathematicians used various тесһалісаі solutions. 15. All these con­
structions produced good approximations to the trisection o f an angle.
16. The solutions were not theoretically exact and didn’t satisfy the criteri­
on. 17. The search for the solution under the imposed restrictions led the
Greeks to many great math discoveries. 18. Math discoveries and the use of
higher geometric curves to effect the solution o f the problem show th e great
ingenuity o f the Greek geometers. 19. To give a valid proof they lacked the
necessary tools o f analytic geometry and algebraic theory. 20. Over a period
o f two thousand years mathematicians were sure that it is impossible to per­
form the construction under the conditions stated. 21. The first rigorous
proof o f the impossibility o f the trisection o f any given angle by compass and
straightedge was given by P. WantzeI in 1837. 22. The proof is algebraic in
nature and involves such concepts as domain o f rationality, algebraic num ­
bers and group theory. 23. The solution o f the problem can be found by
means o f higher algebraic and transcendental curves. Otherwise no solu­
tion is possible. 24. This century geometers amuse themselves by imposing
even more severe restrictions on instrum ents uses in construction prob­
lems. 25. Nowadays it is proved that trisection problem can be solved by
various uses o f even more limited means, e.g., by compass alone. 26. In
most cases the construction can be perform ed in more than one way.
27. The criterion is the simplicity and a small num ber o f operations used
in the construction.

4. Dispute the following statements. The hints may prove helpful.


1. Not all math problems can be solved right away.
(There are some problems that are impossible to solve (insoluble)
because... Such problems challenge mathematicians o f all periods as... The
conviction o f the solvability o f every problem is a powerful stimulus to the
researcher because...)
2. Higher algebraic curves were invented by the G reeks to effect the solu­
tion o f the famous construction problems.
(The wonderful curves invented are... They have valuable properties such
as... and they are still applied in...)
3. The search for the solutions led the Greeks to the novel developments in
maths.
(The Greeks sought to devise a theory which... M enachm us’ discowry of
conic sections provided the foundations for...)
4. Maths offers an abundance o f unsolved problems.

122
(A number o f unsolved problems can be settled if one invents the right and
often sophisticated technique or...)

READING COMPREHENSION

5. Read the text and discuss its main ideas.


To solve a m ath problem originally meant to find its complete numerical
solution. Gradually it became clear that such explicit solutions are possible
only in exceptional cases, that in general one must be satisfied with a scheme
by which the solution may be determined approximately, though with any
desired accuracy. Something quite different is very frequently offered as the
solution o f a m ath problem, namely, a representation o f the solution in terms
o f the data o f the problem; although it is in principle possible to devise a
scheme for numerical calculation from such a representation, the question
remains: What actually is the solution? M athematicians, in their search for
representations o f solutions, often modified th e meaning o f “solution” even
further: to solve a problem is simply to prove the unique existence o f a solution.
Clearly, if a math problem is the correct expression o f a physical one, it has
a unique solution, for the physical situation to be determined from given
data does actually occur. Thus, to know that certain math problems have
unique solutions may have no significance in maths. The statement that a
unique solution exists may then serve as a partial verification o f the correct­
ness o f the m ath expression o f the problem. If the solution is not unique, the
data given are not sufficient; if the solution does not exist, the data are
incompatible.
A math problem which possesses a unique solution is referred to as correct­
ly posed or formulated. For a large class o f math problems, the way in
which they are posed is never questioned, just because o f their physical
significance. These problem s are mostly o f a standard, rttther regular,
type. D oubts arise, however, when, for simplicity, the actual physical
problem is replaced by an idealized problem . Such idealized problems
may be considered as limiting cases o f actual problems, arising when, for
example, the dom ain is extended to infinity, forces are concentrated on
surfaces, lines o r points, or terms in the equations are simply om itted as
insignificantly small. To the understanding o f such idealized problems,
purely m ath existence and uniqueness, considerations may still make
Valuable contributions.

123
As it is often emphasized, not only existence and uniqueness, but also a
third abstract property of the solution should be required o f the problem if it
is to be called correctly posed: the property o f continuous dependence on
the data. Since physical data are not given with absolute precision, the math
problem is certainly not the appropriate expression o f an actual physical sit­
uation if an arbitrarily small variation o f the data may have a finite effect on
the solution, or even destroy its existence o r uniqueness. If the solution does
not depend continuously on the data, it may be called unstable. It should,
however, be noted that in the customary sense the term “ instability” refers to
the problems in which the continuous dependence on the data breaks down
only for exceptional values o f the data. There are important problems, prob­
lems in transonic flow, for example, which possess solutions only for excep­
tional values o f the data; thus the solutions do not depend continuously on
the data even when they exist.

C O M P O SIT IO N

Abstract (Precis) Writing

1. Compress and transform the following abstract into a) eight-sentences-; b) three-senteoces-


long abstracts.

Compass and Straightedge Constructions


A “construction” is drawing geometric figures with a high degree o f accu­
racy. The construction performed constitutes both a proof o f the existence of
a geometric object and the solution o f the problem. The ancient G reeks were
convinced that all plane figures can be constructed with a compass and a
straightedge alone. Their methods o f bisecting a line segment and an angle
are ingenious and hard to improve on. They worked with all numbers geo­
metrically. A length was chosen to represent the number l, and all other
numbers were expressed in terms o f this length. They solved equations with
unknowns by series o f geometric constructions. The answers were line seg­
ments whose lengths were the unknown value sought. The Greeks imposed
the restrictions o f straightedge and compass for the construction o f the prob­
lems. It is supposed that this tradition was started by Plato, G reece’s great­
est philosopher. He claimed that more complicated instruments called for

124
manual skill unworthy of a thinker. The Greeks failed to obtain the solution
o f the famous problems under the restrictions specified not due to the lack
o f ingenuity o f the geometers. (The famous problems are insoluble because
they involve irrational numbers that cannot be constructed by Euclidean
methods.) The Greeks’ persistent efforts to find compass-and-straightedge
ways o f trisecting an angle, squaring the circle and duplicating the cube were
not futile for almost 2000 years. The Greeks made great math discoveries on
the way. The desire to gain full understanding o f the theoretical character o f
the problems inspired many great mathematicians - among them Descartes,
Gauss, Poncelet, Lindemann - to mention but a few. The long years o f
labour on these “ impractical” , “worthless” problems indicate the care,
patience, persistence and rigour o f mathematicians in their attempts to per­
form the constructions and justify them theoretically. The problems did not
exhaust themselves. Even nowadays some authors o f the scientific papers
issued “solutions” containing some fallacies. The search for the rigorous
solution resulted in great discoveries and novel developments in maths. It
introduced new geometric concepts (e.g., conic sections), raised a number
o f im portant theoretical questions (e.g., to prove the impossibility o f the
solution) and suggested an entirely new direction for scientific research (e.g.,
the extension and further generalization o f number concept).
2. Write a generalizing sentence to characterize the stylistic peculiarities ofTcxt Two or choose
one of those given below.

D. H ilbert’s report is:


1) dull, uninteresting prose; 2) dry, formal, boring, academic; 3) clear and
vivid, notwithstanding scientific; 4) popular, pulsating with life and em o­
tions; 5) quite within the grasp o f even a layman; 6) pathetic, un co m rr n for
the m athem atician; 7) too involved, only specialists can appreciate it.

3. Study the text carefully and answer (in writing) the following questions:

1. Why does D. Hilbert think th at the International Congress o f


M athem aticians is the appropriate and right place for a) the review and
appraisal o f the development and achievements o f maths, and b) for formu­
lating and posing the “open” “unsolved” or “challenging” questions and
problems? 2. For how long can a particular field o f maths be considered
“alive” ? 3. Specify in which paragraph D. Hilbert speaks about a) a good
m ath problem , b) the requirements for the solution o f the problem, c) the
sources m aths derives its problems from, d) the unity o f all fields o f maths
and the reasons justifying this unity, e) the interrelations of maths and the

125
external world, 0 the problems that are the product o f the hum an mind
alone.

Paragraph Writing

Study the problems thoroughly and write a paragraph (seven sentences) while answering the
questions.

1. What do the following groups of Hilbert’s problems deal with? (1—6],


(7—15], [16—23).
2. Wfere the problems formulated and stated in a good way? VNferc all the
problems formulated by D. Hilbert alone? W ire the problems really the most
vital and significant for that time? Are the problems in question easy to
solve?
3. Did D. Hilbert reveal great insight in selecting the problems? Does the
20th-century maths justify his choice?
4. Is there any problem in the list having anything to do with the unsolved
problems o f antiquity, with algebra, with num ber theory? W hich o f them
consists, in fact, o f several problems?
5. What directions and tendencies in the 19th-century m aths gave impli­
cations and led D. Hilbert to formulating those particular problems? How is
the then level of maths reflected in the problems?
6. Do modern mathematicians give a short “y es-n o " answer to the (3-7)
problems?
7. Which problems are solved? For which o f them the impossibility o f the
solution is proved?
8. How and to what extent did the problems listed make for the solution of
more general and complicated problems o f today’s maths? Could they dis­
close the future development o f maths?
9. How do the 20th-century mathematicians estimate the solution o f any
problem in D. Hilbert’s list?
10. Does the a priori and exciting conviction o f solvability o r impossibili­
ty o f the solution add anything appealing and reassuring to the m athem ati­
cian?
11. What is the contribution o f the Russian and Soviet m athem aticians to
the solution o f the problems understudy?
12. Are the unsolved problems the very essence o f maths?

126
Composition Writing
Write a composition “Unsolved Math Problems of D. Hilbert” Try to give convincing argu­
ments оГ the signiGcancc of both the Second Congress of Mathematicians in 1900 and the report
of D. Hilbert for the further development of maths. Your answers to the above-given questions, and
your paragraphs should be included. Your composition must be two pages long. Consult the fol­
lowing books, if necessary:

Проблемы Гильберта. M., 1969; Демидов С. С. К истории проблем


Гильберта. - Историко-математические исследования. Вып. XVIІ. М.,
1966.

COMPREHENSION EXERCISES

Questions

1. W hat curves can be draw n in a single stroke, w ithout retracing


any line o r lifting the pencil from the paiper? 2. W hat is the triangle o f
th e sh o rte st p erim eter th a t can be inscribed in a given triangle?
3. W hat is the sm allest circle th at encloses a finite set o f points?
4. U n d e r w hat co n d itio n s are two objects equal (o r co n g ru en t) in size
an d shape? 5. If figures are not equal,* w hat significant relationship
may they possess to each o th e r and w hat geom etric pro p erties can
th ey have in com m on?

DISCUSSION
1. In maths the conviction that a definite math problem can necessarily be
solved must be supported by a proof either in the form o f a direct answer to
the question posed or by the proof o f the impossibility o f the solution. What
about other sciences?
2. Among professional mathematicians asking questions rates almost as
high as answering them. Why?
3. There are two kinds o f math problems: one is so easy that it is not worth
doing and the other so difficult that it can’t be done. Give some examples.
4. It is one thing to say that a problem is not solved yet and another thing
to say that it is impossible to solve it. How is it possible to prove a thing
impossible?

127
5. Wlmt is more difficult to prove: the possibility (the existence) o f a solu­
tion of some problem or the impossibility (the nonexistence) o f the solution
sought?
6. How is it possible to prove that certain problem cannot be solved?
7. What other branches of maths, besides geometry, have unsolved prob­
lems with seemingly simple nature failing the solution since antiquity?
8. How can we estimate the new and novel developments in maths raised
by the Greeks’ famous unsolved problems?
9. What do the three famous problems have in common?
10. Your appreciation of “squaring the circle” “doubling the cube” “tri­
secting the angle” problems.
11. Unsolved problems formulated by D. Hilbert in 1900. W hich of them
are solved? Choose one o f them and explain why it is so difficult to solve it.
12. Unsolved problems of m odem maths.
ESSENTIAL COURSE

U n it F ive (5 )

INTRODUCTION TO GEOMETRY
Grammar:
1. Substitutes o f the Noun: it, one, that of, those of, the
former, the latter.
2. Emphatic Constructions.
3. Impersonal Sentences.

LA B O R A T O R Y PR A C TIC E

Repeat the sentences after the speaker.


1. honour ancient Greece as the cradle of modern science; it was in
ancient Greece that the first math, astronomical and physical theories origi­
nated and developed. 2. The Greeks’ contributions to philosophy, art, liter­
ature and architecture are as significant today as they were in antiquity.
3. Nevertheless, the contribution o f the Greeks that determines most the
character of the present-day civilization was their maths. 4. The Greeks must
be credited with the founding o f maths as scientific discipline; even among
the Greeks themselves maths was set up as the standard for all the sciences.
5. The Greeks were the first people to pursue maths as an art for its own sake.
Pure maths emerged when the Greeks began to think o f numbers as numbers
and o f shapes as shapes. 6. The Greeks were the first to formulate the two
m ental processes vital to all m ath progress: abstraction and proof.
7. Abstraction is the art o f perceiving common qualities in different things
and forming a general idea therefrom. 8. Proof is the art o f arguing from
premises to a conclusion in such a way that no flaws can be picked in any
step o f the argument. 9. Using the information of the premises the Greeks
proved by a reasoning process, known as deduction, the inescapable conclu­
sion. 10. There are two main forms of thinking — deduction and induction.
For the former we are chiefly indebted to the Greeks. They first saw clearly
revealed the great power o f announcing general axioms or assumptions and

129
5 Английский язык для студентов-математиков
deducing from these a useful array o f implied propositions. 11. Inductive
thinking proceeds in the opposite direction from deduction. Starting from
the facts o f experience, it leads us to infer general conclusions. Inductive
reasoning produces in most cases an uncertain inference. 12. Deductive rea­
soning is flawless, definite and absolute. Its specific inferences follow
inescapably from the general assumptions. 13. The Greeks converted maths
from empirical science into a deductive system o f thought. Greece is the
mother o f logic. A logical deductive system must start somewhere and
according to the Greeks’ criterion it must start with a list o f definitions,
axioms and postulates. 14. It is always better in pure science — the Greeks
claimed —to assume as little as possible at the start and from a few assum p­
tions to deduce as much as one can. 15. The Greeks created the theory o f the
logical discourse and they embodied it in the first model o f material
axiomatic system —Euclidean geometry. 16. Euclid was genius for system; his
work Elements is a m onum ent o f the classical age maths. There were many
“elements” before Euclid; there was none after him. 17. Right up to and
including the present time, Euclid’s masterpiece serves as the highest stan­
dard o f logic, rigour and perfect reasoning for all scientific treatments.
18. The Greeks had only one space and only one geometry ; these were
absolute concepts. 19. For more than twenty centuries mathematicians did
not doubt the absolute truth o f Euclidean geometry. Euclidean geometry was
all o f geometry; it is no more. 20. The challenging idea o f a non-Euclidean
geometry originated in the 19th century', simultaneously and independently
in different countries. 21. Lobachevsky —one o f the greatest Russian m ath­
ematicians — revolutionized the science o f space and objects in space.
22. With the discovery o f non-Euclidean geometry, mathematicians realized
that there is more than one conceivable space and hence more than one
geometry. 23. In the twentieth century geometry lost its former intimate con­
nection with physical space and the study o f “abstract spaces' was inaugu­
rated. 24. The creators o f non-E uclidean geometry did not think o f its
practical applications. It was pure science. 25. Hilbert built a model o f
non-Euclidean geometry, thereby the pure science received its theoretical
justification. 26. After the days of Lobachevsky it became the fashion to
challenge axioms. 21. There developed the concept ofform al axiomatics and
postulate sets for a large variety o f geometries were investigated. Axiomatics
as a science came into being. 28. Whereas the axiomatic method was for­
merly used for explaining the foundations o f maths, nowadays it is a tool for
concrete math research. 29. Einstein applied Ricmann s and Minkovsky s
non-Euclidean geometries in his relativity theory. Thus, pure science

130
obtained its practical justification. 30. Einstein’s geometry is four-dimen­
sional. Space-time is its fourth dimension. Contemporary mathematicians
speak o f nth dimensional geometries. 31. Euclidean geometry nowadays is
only one applied science furnishing an interpretation of Hilbert’s pure sci­
ence. There are an infinite number of others besides. 32. Today mathem ati­
cians claim that geometry is not a separate math discipline, but a particular
point of view - a particular way of looking at a subject.

GRAM M AR R E V IS IO N *

Present and Past Indefinite Tense Forms

1. Give the forms of the past indefinite and the Participle II of the following irregular verbs.

to speak to be to lie to grow to draw


to break to do to take to know to bear
to choose to give to write to show to tear

to deal to keep to lead to make to say


to feel to hear to leave to mean to seek
to find to learn to light to read to stand

to beset to cost to hurt to reset to slit


to bet to cut to let to set to split
to cast to hit to put to shut to upset

2. Put the verb in brackets in the proper tense form and translate the text into Russian. Sum up
the main ideas of the text.

Greek Schools of Mathematics


G reat minds o f Greece such as Thales, Pythagoras, Euclid, Archimedes,
Apollonius, Eudoxus, etc. (to produce) an amazing amount of first-class
maths. The fame o f these mathematicians (to spread) to all corners o f the
M editerranean world and (to attract) numerous pupils. Masters and pupils

* Revision of all the grammar rules studied should be done at the end of each term.

131
(to gather) in schools which though they had few buildings and no campus
(to be) truly centres of learning. The teaching o f these schools (to dominate)
the entire life of the Greeks.
Despite the unquestioned influence o f Egypt and Babylonia on Greek
mathematicians, the maths produced by the Greeks (to differ) fundam ental­
ly from that which (to precede) it. It (to be) the Greeks who (to found) maths
as a scientific discipline. The Pythagorean school (to be) the most influential
in determining both the nature and content o f Greek maths. Its leader
Pythagoras (to found) a com m unity which (to embrace) both mystical and
rational doctrines.
The original Pythagorean brotherhood (c. 550-300 B.C.) (to be) a secret
aristocratic society whose members (to prefer) to operate from behind the
scenes and, from there, to rule social and intellectual affairs with an iron
hand. Their noble bom initiates (to be taught) entirely by word o f mouth.
Written documentation (not to be permitted), since anything written (may)
give away the secrets largely responsible for their power. Among these early
Pythagoreans (to be) the men who (to know) more about maths then avail­
able than most other people o f their time. They (to recognize) th at vastly
superior in design and manageability Babylonian base-ten positional
num eration system (may) make com putational skills available to people in
all walks o f life and rapidly democratize maths and diminish their power over
the masses. They (to use) their own non-positional num eration system
(=standard Greek alphabet supplem ented by special symbols). Although
there (to be) no difficulty in determ ining when the symbols (to represent) a
num ber instead of a word, for com putation the people o f the lower classes
had to consult an exclusive group o f experts or to use complicated tables —
and both o f these sources o f help (to be controlled) by the brotherhood. The
Pythagorean (can) tell the tradesmen how such tables and devices (e.g..
Abaci) were to be used but never how to make them or what the hidden p at­
terns (to be) which (to make) them possible.
For Pythagoras and his followers the fundamental studies (to be) geometry,
arithm etic, music, and astronomy. The basic element o f all these studies (to
be) number not in its practical com putational aspects, but as the very essence
o f their being; they (to mean) that the nature o f numbers should (to be con­
ceived) with the mind only. In spite o f the mystical nature o f much o f the
Pythagorean study the members o f community (to contribute) during the two
hundred or so years following the founding o f their organization, a good deal
o f sound maths. Thus, in geometry they (to develop) the properties o f paral-

132
lei lines and (to use) them to prove that “the sum of the angles o f any trian­
gle is equal to two right angles” . They (to contribute) in a noteworthy m an­
ner to Greek geometrical algebra, and they (to develop) a fairly complete the­
ory o f proportion though it (to be limited) to commensurable maghitudes,
and (to use) it to deduce properties o f similar figures. They (to be aware) o f
the existence o f at least three o f the regular polyhedral solids, and they (to
discover) the incommensurability o f a side and a diagonal o f a square.
Details concerning the discovery o f the existence o f incommensurable
quantities (to be) lacking, but it is apparent that the Pythagoreans (to find) it
as difficult to accept incommensurable quantities as to discover them. Two
segments (to be) commensurable if there (to be) a segment that “measures”
each o f them —that is, (to be contained) exactly a whole number o f times in
each o f the segments. The fact that there (to reveal) pairs o f segments for
which such a measure (not to exist) provides the incommensurable case. It (to
be) possible that the first pair o f segments found to be incommensurable (to
be) the side and diagonal o f a regular pentagon, the favourite figure o f the
Pythagoreans because its diagonals (to form) the star pentagon, the distinc­
tive mark o f their society. This same geometric procedure (can) also (to be
adapted) to the side and diagonal o f a square. Here there (to exist) an associ­
ation with the so-called Pythagoreans’ side and diagonal numbers. The ratio
o f associated pairs of these numbers (to give) successively closer and closer
rational approximations to V2; in fact, they (to be) the approximations
obtained by computing successive convergents o f the continued fraction
from This (to be reflected) in modern maths in the concept o f irrational
number, a num ber that (can) (not to be expressed) as the ratio o f two integers,
e.g., n, e, Ц2. This devastating discovery (to be ascribed) to Pythagoras him ­
self, but more probably it (to be made) by some Pythagorean. Since the phi­
losophy o f the Pythagorean school (to be) that whole numbers or whole
numbers in ratio (to be) the essence o f all existing things, the followers o f that
school (to regard) the emergence o f irrationals as a “logical scandal”. As the
revelation o f geometrical magnitudes whose ratio (can) (not to be represent­
ed) by pairs o f integers (to lead) to the “crisis” in the foundations o f their
m aths, the Pythagoreans (to try) to conceal their greatest discovery. A
Pythagorean Hippasus (c. 400 B.C.) who first (to bring out) the irrationals
from concealm ent into the open supposedly (to perish) in a shipwreck at sea.
But great discoveries (can) (not to be suppressed)! The discovery o f incom -
mensurables (to be) a turning-point, a landmark in the history o f maths and
its significance (can) hardly (to be overappreciated). It (to result in) a need to

133
establish a new theory o f proportions independent o f commensurability.
This (to be accomplished) by Eudoxus (c. 370 B.C.). The details o f the grad­
ual transition from a theory of proportions which {to include) incom m ensu­
rable quantities to a clear realization o f the concept o f an irrational number
{to cover) a wide range o f sophisticated math topics and this concept {to be
fully clarified) only in the 19th century by R. Dedekind and G . Cantor. In
maths o f today the irrationals {to form ) an important subset o f real numbers,
the basis of both algebra and analysis.
The Pythagorean theorem {to be) one o f the most im portant propositions
in the entire realm o f geometry. There {to be) no doubt, however, that the
“ Pythagorean property”: {to be known) prior to the time o f Pythagoras;
there {to exist) clay tablet texts which {to contain) columns o f figures related
to Pythagorean triples. The frequent textbook reference to Egyptian “ rope-
stretchers” and their knotted surveying ropes is proof that these ancients (to
know) the theorem (to be) erroneous. While it (to be known) that the
Egyptians (to realize) as early as 2000 B.C. that 42+ 32= 5 2, there (to be) no
evidence that the Egyptians (to know) or (to be able) to prove the right angle
property o f the figure involved. Pythagoras (to be credited) with the proof of
this property which {to be) true for all right triangles, and for all natural num ­
bers. Although much o f this information (to be known) already to the
ancients o f earlier times, the deductive aspect o f geometry (to be exploited
and advanced) considerably in the work o f the Pythagoreans.
The mysticism o f this celebrated school (to arouse) the suspicion and dis­
like of the people who finally (to drive) the Pythagoreans out o f Crotone, a
G reek seaport in Southern Italy and (to bum) their buildings. Pythagoras (to
be murdered) but his followers (to scatter) to other Greek centres and (to con­
tinue) his teachings. The Pythagoreans (to be credited) with giving the subject
of maths special and independent status. They (to be) the first group to treat
math concepts as abstractions and they (to distinguish) math theory from
practices or calculations. They (to prove) the fundamental theorem s o f plane
and solid geometry and of “arithm etica” - the theory o f numbers.
More widely known than the Pythagoreans (to be) the Academy o f Plato
which (to have) Aristotle as its most distinguished student. The latter then (to
found) his own school at the time o f Plato’s death. Plato's pupils (to be) the
most famous philosophers, mathematicians and astronomers o f their age.
U nder Plato’s influence they {to emphasize) pure maths to the extent o f
ignoring all practical applications and they (to add) immensely to the range
o f maths.

134
GRAMMAR

1. Substitutes of the Noun

it one
It is necessaiy to do it. One can define this term rigorously.
It appears that there is a I can’t solve this problem, let me try another
new meaning o f this term. one.
that of those of
Your proof is more elegant His results are much better than those o f his
than that of the rest o f the friends.
students.
the former the latter
O f those two properties the O f the Greek mathematicians people know
former is far more impor­ Pythagoras and Euclid best o f all, the latter
tant. is the author o f the Elements.

2. Emphatic Constructions

a) it is (w as)... that (who)... b) do + Predicate


Именно, как раз. Действительно, в самом деле, ведь, же.

3. TVanslate the emphatic constructions into Russian.

1. The N ear Eastern civilizations from which maths arose were the Egyp­
tian and the Babylonian ones. Yet, it was the Greeks who formed maths as a
scientific discipline. 2. It was with the Greeks o f the classical period that our
m odern maths began. 3. It was from about 600 to 300 B.C. that the classical
period lasted. 4. It was by deductive reasoning that the Greeks derived all
m ath conclusions. 5. It was Euclid who gave the summation o f the maths of
the classical period in his Elements. 6. Although the Greeks did regard a
straight line as being infinite in extent and defined parallel lines as lines
which do not meet however far extended, they did not carry far enough the
idea o f geometrical infinity. 7. The Greeks.did perform many constructions
using only a straightedge and a compass.

135
3. Impersonal Sentences

(не) говорят можно сказать нельзя сказать


(говорится, говорим)
It is said. can cannot
It be said. It be said,
It is not said. may may not

One says. can cannot


One say. One say.
One does not say. may may not

We We Wfe
say. can cannot
You You say. You say.
do not say. may may not
They They They

People say. cannot


can
People do not say. People say. People say.
may may not
1 am (we are)
told. (coll.)
Wfe (they) hear.

нужно (надо) не надо (не следует) едва ли (вряд ли)


сказать говорить можно сказать

must must not


It be said. It be said. It can ^ar<^ y be said.
should should not scarcely

must must not


One say. One say. One can hardly say.
should should not

We Wfe Wfe
,, must _, must not
say. You can hardly s
0U should S!,y- should nol
They They They

People musl say. People must ,10t People can hardly


should should say.
4. Translate the following impersonal sentences into Russian:

1. One must distinguish between math objects (e.g., numbers, sets of


num bers, functions, mappings, transform ations, etc.) and the math
method. 2. It should be said that a proof constitutes the principal part o f the
math m ethod. 3. One may not know that it was Thales of Miletus who
introduced the concept of a rigorous math proof. 4. It is conjectured that
the crisis in G reek m aths resulted from the discovery o f irrational numbers
led to the m ethod o f deriving theorems from axioms. 5. You ought not to
define axioms today as self-evident or universally recognized truths,
accepted w ithout proof. 6. People say now that some terms must be taken
as undefined and axioms are mere assumptions about these undefined
term s (or variables). 7. It can hardly be denied that the choice of axioms for
a logical system is a creative act. 8. When the axioms are selected, one must
then determine w hether or not the axioms chosen satisfy certain properties
among themselves. 9. We can say that axioms and their properties are
im portant enough. Yet, this is only the beginning. 10. One should deter­
mine next w hat the relationship between the axioms and other statements
called “theorem s” is. 11. They assert that if such and such statements are
granted as axioms, then such and such statem ents follow. 12. It is known
that the process o f reaching conclusions from axioms is called deduction.
13. One says that the relationship that holds between the statements cho­
sen as axioms and those which are deduced from them is called implica­
tion. 14. We can state therefore that the axioms imply theorems. 15. In
fact, one can in theory prove any theorem directly from the axioms; how­
ever, the theorem s in turn, are usually a convenient short-cut to proofs.
16. One should not confuse the postulate with the definition.
5. Read the text in class. Find emphatic constructions and impersonal sentences. Practise
questions and answers on the text.

The Alexandrian School of Mathematics


Most people think o f ancient Greece in terms o f the 3rd, 4th and 5th cen­
tury B.C. The “golden age” when the empire was at its height and the great­
est artists, poets and writers lived, was the 5th century B.C. But the giants in
maths came later, Eudoxus about 350 B.C., and Euclid, Archimedes and
Apollonius between 300 and 200 B.C. The greatest math centre o f ancient
world was neither Crotone nor Athens but Alexandria. It is with Alexandria
that the names o f Euclid, Archimedes, Apollonius, Ptolemy, Heron, Pappus,
Hypatia, D iophantus, Hipparchus, etc. are connected.

137
For at least four thousand years the civilization o f Egypt followed a rigid
pattern. In religion, maths, philosophy, commerce, and aigiculture each
man imitated his forefathers. No external influence disrupted the calm life
and fixed ways. Then, about 325 B.C. Alexander the Great conquered this
vast land as well as Greece and the Near. East. He founded the city o f
Alexandria and moved the capital of the ancient world from Athens to this
new city. From a fusion of cultures, centered at Alexandria, a new civiliza­
tion appeared and made its very significant and distinctive contribution to
maths and to Western civilization. Two factors vitally influenced the charac­
ter o f the culture o f Alexandria: the commercial interests o f the Alexandrians
with their geographical and navigational problems and the fact that the
scholars became involved in the problems facing the people at large.
Alexandria became the center o f the entire ancient world, for it was ideally
located at the junction o f Asia, Africa and Europe. On the streets o f the city
native Egyptians met and traded with Greeks, Persians, Syrians, Romans
and Arabs. N o city in the world ever embraced such a variety o f peoples. It
was to this im portant center that traders and businessmen from all com ers of
the world directed their routes.
One must not foiget that credit for making Alexandria the intellectual cen­
tre o f the new world does not go to the founder o f the city, who died while
still engaged in conquests, but to the very capable Ptolemy the First, the gen­
eral who took over control o f Egypt on the death o f Alexander. Aware o f the
cultural importance o f the great G reek schools such as those founded by
Pythagoras, Plato and Aristotle, Ptolemy decided that Alexandria should
have such a school and that it should become the center o f Greek culture in
this new world. He built a home for the Muses and adjacent to this museum
Ptolemy erected a library not only for the preservation o f important m anu­
scripts but also for the use by the general public. This famous library at one
time contained 750,000 volumes. Together with the museum, the library
resembled a modern university, though no university o f today can boast of
possessing as many great intellects as were assembled there. Today, however,
not the slightest trace remains of the famous library and museum and even
their exact locations are merely conjectural.
Scholars o f all countries were invited to Alexandria by Ptolemy and were
supported by grants from him. Consequently, there gathered at this m use­
um poets, philosophers, philologists, astronom ers, geographers, physi­
cians, historians, artists, and the most famous m athem aticians o f the
Alexandrian age. The principal group o f the scholars gathered at the m use­

138
um was G reek, but distinguished members o f many other nations also set­
tled there. Among the non-G reeks the most celebrated was the learned
Egyptian astronomer, Claudius Ptolemy. One can hardly doubt, of course,
that m aths had a most important place in the Alexandrian world, but it was
not the m aths that the classical G reek scholars knew. The civilization o f
Alexandria developed a kind of maths almost opposite in character to that
produced by the classical Greek age. The new maths was practical', while
the form er was entirely unrelated to application, the latter measured the
distance to the farthest stars, enabled men to travel over land and sea, etc.
T he great A lexandrian m athem aticians A rchim edes, H ipparchus,
Ptolemy, H eron, Menelaus, D iophantus, etc. though they did display
almost w ithout exception the G reek genius for theoretical abstractions,
nevertheless, they were quite willing to apply their talents to the practical
problems necessarily im portant in their civilization. The man whose work
best epitom izes the character of the Alexandrian age is Archimedes, one of
the greatest intellects of antiquity.
In the field o f maths proper the Alexandrians created and applied methods
o f indirect measurement. One ought not to underestimate this contribution
o f the Alexandrians. Their formulas for areas and volumes surprisingly are
not in Euclid’s Elements for though Euclid lived at the beginning o f the
Alexandrian age, his goal and the subject m atter was really the summation
and culm ination of the maths of the classical period. Euclid’s work is a m on­
ument both in original or in any epitome. As far as the Alexandrian age is
concerned, the supreme achievement of the Alexandrians was the creation
o f the most accurate and most influential astronomical theory of ancient
times developed by Hipparchus and Claudius Ptolemy.
Unfortunately, the intellectual life o f the Greeks was cut short by political
events beyond the control of m athem aticians and philosophers. The
Romans rolled over the Italian peninsula and then began to attack other
lands bordering the Mediterranean. The fire swept in from the sea destroyed
the great library (47 B.C.) at Alexandria. Two and a half centuries of book
collecting and half a million manuscripts were wiped out. The fire at
Alexandria was symbolic of the Roman contem pt for abstract knowledge.
The Romans were practical people and they boasted o f their practicality.
They left no worthy imprint in the history o f maths. Though the museum of
Alexandria and the great library were destroyed and the scholars dispersed,
Greek science eventually re-emerged, Greek culture did survive, and Europe
did learn a lot from the Greeks.

139
INTRODUCTORY TEXT

THE HISTORY OF GEOMETRY


The story o f the history o f geometry, like that o f many other growing and
changing subjects, is composed o f two intertwined strands. One strand nar­
rates the growing content o f the subject and the other the changing nature of
the subject. The following is a brief outline o f the birth and the development
o f geometry.

Subconscious Geometry
The first geometrical considerations o f man are unquestionably very
ancient. They had their origin in simple observation stemming from human
ability to recognize physical form and to compare shapes and sizes. The
notion o f distance was undoubtedly one of the first geometric concepts
developed. Many observations in the daily life o f early man led to the notion
o f simple geometric concepts such as rectangles, squares, triangles, curves,
surfaces and solids. Such geometry may, for want o f a better name, be called
“subconscious geometry”

Scientific Geometry
In the beginning, “ man considered only concrete geometrical problems,
which present themselves individually and with no observed interconnec­
tions. Later (but still before the dawn o f recorded history), human intelli­
gence evolved to the point where it was able to extract from a number of
observations certain general properties and relationships. This introduced
the advantage of ordering practical geometrical problems into sets such that
the problems in a set can be solved by the same general procedure. One thus
arrives at the notion o f a geometrical law or rule. This higher stage o f geom­
etry may be called “scientific geometry” in view o f the fact that induction,
trial and error, and empirical procedures were the tools o f discovery.
Geom etry became a collection o f general rule-of-thum b and laboratory
results, concerning areas, volumes, and relationships o f various figures sug­
gested by physical objects. N o evidence permits us to estimate the num ber of
centuries that passed before man was able to raise geometry to the status of
a science, but the writers o f antiquity unanimously agree upon the Nile
Valley o f ancient Egypt and Babylonia as the place where subconscious
geometry first became scientific geometry. Geometry rem ained o f this type
until the great Greek period o f antiquity.

140
Demonstrative Geometry (Early Greek Geometry)
The econom ic and political changes o f the last centuries o f the second
millennium B.C. caused the power o f Egypt and Babylonia to wane. New
peoples came to the fore, and it happened that the further development of
geometry passed over to the Greeks, who transformed the subject into
something vastly different from the set o f empirical conclusions worked
out by their predecessors. The Greeks insisted that geometric fact must be
established not by empirical procedures, but by deductive reasoning; geo­
metrical truth was to be attained in the classroom rather than in laborato­
ry. In short, the Greeks transformed the empirical or scientific geometry of
the ancient Egyptians and Babylonians into what we may call “systematic”
or “dem onstrative” geometry. G reek geometry started in an essential way
with the work o f Thales o f Miletus in the first half o f the sixth century B.C.
This versatile genius, one o f the “seven wise m en” o f antiquity was a wor­
thy founder o f demonstrative geometry. He is the first known individual
with whom the use o f deductive methods in geometry is associated. He is
credited with a num ber o f very elem entary geometrical results the value of
which is not to be measured by their content but rather by the belief that
he supplied them with a certain am ount o f logical reasoning instead of
intuition and experim ent. The next outstanding G reek geom eter is
Pythagoras who continued the systematization o f geometry begun some
fifty years earlier by Thales.

Later Greek Geometry


The three most outstanding Greek geometers of antiquity are Euclid (c.
300 B.C.), Archimedes (287-212 B.C.) and Apollonius (c. 225 B.C.) and it is
no exaggeration to say that almost every subsequent significant geometrical
development, right up to and including the present time, finds its seeds of
origin in some work o f these three great scholars.
With the passing o f Apollonius the golden age o f Greek geometry came to
an end. The geometers who followed did little more than fill in details and
perhaps independently develop certain theories the germs o f which were
already contained in the works o f the three great predecessors. Among these
later geometers special m ention should be made o f Heron (or Hero) of
Alexandria (c. A.D. 75), Menelaus (c. 100) and Claudius Ptolemy (c. 85-c.
165). In ancient G reek geometry both in its form and its content, we find the
fountainhead o f the subject.

141
Middle Ages
The closing period o f ancient times comes when in 146 B.C. Greece
became a province o f the Roman Empire and a gradual decline in creative
thinking set in. The period starting with the fall o f the Roman Empire in the
middle of the fifth century and extending into the eleventh century is known
as Europe’s Dark Ages, for during this period civilization in western Europe
reached a very low ebb. Schooling became almost nonexistent, G reek learn­
ing all but disappeared, and many o f the arts and crafts were forgotten.
During this period o f learning, the peoples o f the East, especially the Hindus
and the Arabs, became the major custodians o f maths. Although the Hindus
excelled in com putation, contributed to the devices o f algebra, and played an
important role in the development o f our present positional numeral system,
they produced almost nothing o f importance in geometry or in basic math
methodology.
It was not until the latter part o f the eleventh century that G reek classics
in science and maths began once again to filter into Europe. The fifteenth
century, the early period o f the Renaissance, witnessed the rebirth o f art and
learning in Europe. M any G reek classics, known up to that time only
through Arabic translations, often quite inadequate, could now be studied
from original sources. M ath activity in this century was largely centered in
the Italian cities and in the central European cities o f Nuremberg, Vienna
and Prague. It concentrated on arithmetic, algebra, and trigonometry, under
the practical influence o f trade, navigation, astronomy, and surveying.

Projective Geometry
In an effort to produce more realistic pictures, many o f the Renaissance
artists and architects became deeply interested in discovering the formal laws
controlling the constructions o f objects on a screen, and as early as the fif­
teenth century a num ber o f these men created the elem ents o f an underlying
geometrical theory o f perspective... Some aspects o f this subject which con­
cerns a way o f representing and analyzing three-dim ensional objects by
means of their projections on certain planes had their origin in the design of
fortifications.

Analytic Geometry
Projective geometry was overshadowed by the more supple analytic geom­
etry introduced by Rene Descartes and Pierre de Fermat. There is a funda­
mental distinction between the two studies, for the former is a branch of

142
geometry whereas the latter is a method of geometry. Analytic geometry is
often described as the “ royal road” in geometry that Euclid thought did not
exist.

Differential Geometry
Many new and extensive fields of math investigation were opened up in the
seventeenth century, making that era an outstandingly productive one in the
development o f maths. Unquestionably, the most remarkable math achieve­
ment of the period was the invention of the calculus by Isaac Newton and
Gottfried Wilhelm von.Leibnitz. A fair share of its remarkable applicability lies
in the field o f geometry and there is an exceedingly vast body of geometry
wherein one studies properties of curves and surfaces, and their generaliza­
tions, by means o f the calculus. This body of geometry is known as “differ­
ential geometry” For the most part, differential geometry investigates curves
and surfaces only in the immediate neighbourhood of any one of their
points. This aspect o f differential geometry is known as “local differential
geometry” or “differential geometry in the small” However, sometimes
properties o f the total structure o f a geometric figure are implied by certain
local properties o f the figure that hold at every point of the figure. This leads
to what is known as “ integral geometry” or “global differential geometry”
or “differential geometry in the large” It is probably quite correct to say that
differential geometry, at least in its modern dress, started in the early part o f
the eighteenth century with the interapplications o f the calculus and analyt­
ic geometry. Karl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855) introduced the fruitful
method o f studying the differential geometry o f curves and surfaces by
means of param etric representation o f these objects. Bernhard Riemann
introduced an improved notation and a procedure independent of any par­
ticular coordinate system employed. The tensor calculus was accordingly
devised and developed. Here we find an assertion o f the tendency of maths
in recent times to strive for the greatest possible generalization.
Generalized differential geometries, known as Riemannian geometries were
explored intensively, and this in turn led to non-Riem annian, and other,
geometries. M uch o f this material finds significant application in relativity
theory and other parts of modern physics.

Non-Euclidean Geometry
There is evidence that a logical development o f the theory o f parallels gave
the early Greeks a lot o f trouble. Euclid met the difficulties by defining par­
allel lines as coplanar straight lines that do not meet one another however far

143
they may be produced in either direction, and by adopting as an initial
assumption his now famous parallel postulate: “ If a straight line intersects
two straight lines so as to make the interior angles on one side o f it together
less than two right angles, the two straight lines will intersect, if indefinitely
produced, on the side on which are the angles which are together less than
two right angles” . Actually, the postulate is the converse o f Proposition 17 of
Euclid’s Book II and it seemed more like a proposition than a postulate. It
was natural to ask if the postulate was really needed at all, or perhaps it could
be derived as a theorem, or, at least, it could be replaced by a more accept­
able equivalent. The attempts to devise substitutes and to derive it as a theo­
rem from the rest of Euclid’s postulates occupied geometers for over two
thousand years and culminated in the most far-reaching development o f
modern maths —non-Euclidean geometry.
Topology started as a branch o f geometry, but during the second quarter o f
the twentieth century it underwent such generalization and became involved
with so many other branches o f maths that it is now more properly consid­
ered, along with geometry, algebra, and analysis, a fundamental division of
maths. Today topology may roughly be defined as the math study o f contin­
uity, though it still reflects its geometric origin. Topology is the study o f those
properties of geometric figures which remain invariant under so-called topo­
logical transformations, that is, under single-valued continuous mapping
possessing single-valued continuous inverses.

The Erlanger Program


In the middle o f the nineteenth century a number of different geometries
came into existence, and the time was ripe for some sort o f codification, syn­
thesis and classification to give a sense o f order to these geometries. Such a
scheme was announced in 1871 by Felix Klein, in his inaugural address upon
appointm ent to the Philosophical Faculty and the Senate o f the University
o f Erlanger. This address, based on work he and Sophus Lie did in group th e­
ory, set forth a remarkable definition o f “a geometry" one that served to
codify essentially all the existing geometries of the time and pointed the way
to new fields o f research in geometry. This address with the program o f geo­
metrical study advocated by it is known as Erlanger Program Somewhat
oversimply stated, the Erlanger Program claims that geometry is the investi­
gation o f those properties o f figures which remain unchanged when the fig­
ures are subjected to a group of transformations. It advocates the classifica­
tion o f existing geometries and the creation and study o f new geometries,
according to this scheme. In particular one should study the geometries

144
characterized by the various proper subgroups of the transformation group of
a given geometry, thereby obtaining geometries that embrace others.
For plane Euclidean metric geometry, the group of transformations is the
set o f all rotations and translations in the plane; for plane projective geome­
try, the group of transformations is the set of all so-called planar projective
transformations; for topology, the group o f transformations is the set o f all
topological transformations. Each geometry has its underlying controlling
transformation group. In building up a geometry, then, one is at liberty to
choose, first of all, the fundamental elements (point, line, e tc .), next the m an­
ifold o f these elements (plane of points, ordinary space of points, spherical
surface o f points, plane o f lines, pencil o f circles, e tc .), and, finally, the group
o f transformations to which the manifold o f elements is to be subjected.

Abstract Spaces
In the twentieth century the study of “abstract spaces” was inaugurated and
some very general geometries came into being. A “space” became merely a
set o f objects, for convenience called “points” together with a set o f relations
in which these points are involved, and a geometry becomes simply the th e­
ory o f such a space. The set o f relations to which the points are subjected is
called the “structure” o f the space, and this structure may or may not be
explainable in terms o f the invariant theory of a transformation group.
Through set theory geometry received a further generalization or m etam or­
phosis. These new geometries find invaluable application in the modem
development o f analysis. Im portant among abstract spaces are the so-called
metric spaces, H ausdorf spaces, topological spaces, Hilbert’s spaces, and
vector spaces.

Hilbert’s Formal Axiomatics


The discovery by Lobachevsky, Bolyai and Gauss of a self-consistent
geometry different from the geometry of Euclid liberated geometry from its
traditionarm old. A deep-rooted and centuries-old conviction that there can
be only one possible geometry is shattered and the way is opened for the cre­
ation o f many different systems o f geometry. With the possibility of creating
such purely “artificial” geometries, it becomes apparent that geometry is not
necessarily tied to actual physical space. The postulates of geometry become,
for the mathematician, mere hypotheses whose physical truth or falsity need
not concern him. The mathematician may take his postulates a suit he pleas­
es, рю -ided they are consistent with one another. W hereasit is customary, in
Euclidean geometry, to think o f the objects that represent the primitive terms

145
o f an axiomatic discourse as being'known prior to the postulates, now the
postulates become regarded as prior to the specification o f primitive terms.
This new point of the axiomatic method is known as “formal axiomatics” in
contrast to the earlier “ material axiomatics” In a formal axiomatic treatment
the primitive terms have no meaning whatever except that implied by the pctu-
lates, and the postulates have nothing to do with “self-evidence” or “truth” —
they are merely assumed statements about the undefined primitive terms.
Many mathematicians now regard any discourse conduc ed by formal
axiomatics as a “branch o f pure maths” If for the primitive terms in such a
postulation discourse we substitute terms of definite meaning which convert
the postulates into true statements about those terms, then we have an “inter­
pretation” of the postulate system. Such an interpretation may also, if the
reasoning is valid, convert the derived statements o f the discourse into true
statements. Such an evaluation o f a branch Of pure maths is called a “branch
o f applied maths” Clearly, a given branch of pure maths may possess many
interpretations and may thus lead to many branches o f applied maths. From
this point of view, we see that material axiomatics is the independent axiomat­
ic development o f some branch o f applied axiomatics. In a formal axiomatic
treatment one strips the discourse of all concrete content and goes to the
abstract development that lies behind any specific application.
Formal axiomatics was first systematically developed by David Hilbert in
his famous book The Foundations o f Geometry in 1899. Thisjittle work, which
ran through nine editions, is today a classic in its field. Next to Euclid's
Elements it may be regarded as perhaps the most influential work so far writ­
ten in the field of geometry. Backed by the author’s great math authority, the
work firmly implants the postulation method o f formal axiomatics not only
in the field of geometry but also in nearly every branch o f nlaths of the twen­
tieth century. The book offers a completely acceptable postulate set for
Euclidean geometry, and it can be read by any intelligent person.

ACTIVE VOCABULARY
1. to accomplish 10. to convert 19. to propose
2. to approach 11. to deserve 20. to realize
3. to assert 12. to display 21. to substitute
4. to assume 13. to doubt 22. to survey
5. to conceive 14. to emerge 23. to survive
6. to concern 15. to furnish 24. to trace
7. to confide 16. to inaugurate 25. to unify
8. to confine 17. to infer 26. to yield
9. to contradict 18. to proceed
TEXT ONE

EUCLID’S ELEMENTS
Analyze A. Einstein’s quotation with the teacher in class. Sura up the main ideas in it. Read the
text and 1) find some evidence or proof of Einstein’s statements, 2) some disproofs or refutations.

“Wfe honour ancient Greece «Мы почитаем древнюю Грецию как


as the cradle o f western sci­ колыбель западной науки. Там была
ence. She for the first time cre­ впервые создана геометрия Евклида —
ated the intellectual miracle of это чудо мысли, логическая система,
a logical system, the assertions выводы которой с такой точностью вы­
o f which followed one from текают один из другого, что ни один из
another with such rigour that них не был подвергнут какому-либо со­
not one o f the demonstrated мнению.
propositions admitted o f the
slightest doubt — Euclid's geo­
metry.
This marvellous accom ­ Это удивительнейшее произведение
plishment o f reason gave to мысли дало человеческому разуму ту
the mind the confidence it уверенность в себе, которая была необ­
needed for its future achieve­ ходима для его последующей деятель­
ments. The man who was not ности. Не рожден для теоретических
enthralled in youth by this исследований тот, кто в молодости не
work was not bom to be a sci­ восхищался этим творением». (А. Эйн­
entific theorist.” (A. Einstein) штейн)

* * *
When most people describe the Greeks’ contribution to modem civiliza­
tion, they talk in terms o f art, literature and philosophy. N o doubt the
Greeks deserve the highest praise in all these fields. Nevertheless, the con­
tribution o f the Greeks that determines most the character o f present-day
civilization was their mathsl
In a relatively brief period (from about 600 till 300 B.C.) great intellects
such as Thales, Pythagoras, Euclid, Eudoxus, Archimedes and Apollonius cre­
ated an amazing am ount o f first-class maths. It is disappointing that unlike
the situation with the ancient Egyptian and Babylonian geometry, there exist
virtually no primary sources for the study o f very early.Greek geometry. Wfe

147
are forced to rely on manuscripts and accounts that are dated several hun­
dred years after the birth o f the original treatment.
O ur principal source of information concerning very early G reek geome­
try is the so-called Eudemian Summary o f Proclus. This sum m ary constitutes
several pages of Proclus’ Commentary on Euclid, Book / and is a brief outline
o f the development o f G reek geometry from the earliest times up to Euclid.
Although Proclus lived in the fifth century A.D., a good thousand years after
the inception of Greek geometry, he still had access to a num ber o f histori­
cal and critical works that are now lost to us except for the fragments and
allusions preserved by him and others.
Although much o f the information on plane geometry was known to the
Babylonians o f earlier times, the deductive aspect o f geometry was introduced
for the first time by the Pythagoreans. Chains o f propositions in which suc­
cessive propositions are derived from earlier ones began to emerge in the
works o f Thales. As the chains lengthen and some are tied to others, the bold
idea o f developing all o f geometry in one long chain suggests itself.
During the first three hundred years o f Greek maths, there developed the
G reek notion of a logical discourse as a sequence o f statements obtained by
deductive reasoning from the accepted set o f initial statements. Now, both
the initial and the derived statem ents o f the discourse were statem ents about
the technical matter o f the discourse and hence involved special o r technical
terms. The meanings o f these terms must be clear to the reader, and so, for
the Greeks the discourse must start with a list of explanations and definitions
o f these technical terms. After these explanations and definitions the initial
statements, called “axioms” or “postulates” o f the discourse, were to be list­
ed. These initial statements, according to the Greeks, should be so carefully
chosen that their truths were quite acceptable to the reader in the light o f the
explanations and definitions already cited. Certainly, the most outstanding
contribution of the early Greeks to maths was the formulation o f the math
method (400 B.C.), for this m ethod is the very core o f m odem maths.
Unfortunately, we do not know with whom the math method originated per­
sonally, but it evolved with the Pythagoreans as a natural outgrowth and
refinement o f the early application o f deductive procedures to maths.
It is claimed in Proclus’ Summary that a Pythagorean, Hippocrates o f
Chios, attempted, with at least partial success, a logical presentation o f
geometry in the form o f a single chain o f propositions based on a few initial
definitions and assumptions. There followed other writers’ attem pts and
then, about 300 B.C., Euclid produced his epoch-m aking effort, the
Elements, a single deductive chain o f 465 propositions neatly and beautiful-

148
Vy comprising plane and solid geometry, number theory, and Greek geomet­
rical algebra.
From its very first appearance this work was accorded the highest respect,
and it so quickly and so completely superseded all previous efforts o f the
same nature that now no trace remained o f the earlier systems. The work of
many schools and isolated individuals was unified by Euclid in this most
famous textbook on geometry. Euclid deduced all the most important results
o f the G reek masters o f the classical period and therefore the Elements con­
stituted the math history o f the age as well as the logical presentation of
geometry. The effect o f this single book on the future development o f geom­
etry was enormous and is difficult to overstate.
The plan of Euclid’s Elements is as follows. It begins with a list o f defini­
tions o f such notions as point and line; for example, a line is defined as
“length without breadth” Next appear various statements some o f which are
labelled axioms and others postulates. It appears that the axioms are intend­
ed to be principles o f reasoning which are valid in any science (for example,
one axiom asserts that “equals to the same thing are equal to each other”),
while the postulates are intended to.be assertions about the subject matter,
that is, geometry (for example, one postulate asserts that “it is possible to
draw a line joining any two distinct points”).
From a m odem viewpoint it may be said that Euclid treats point and line
essentially as primitive or undefined notions, subject only to the restrictions
stated in the postulates, and that his definitions o f these notions offer m ere­
ly an intuitive description which helps one in thinking about formal proper­
ties o f points and lines. Concerning the postulates, he probably believed that
they were true statements on the basis of the meaning suggested by his defi­
nitions o f the terms involved and the proofs acquired status o f “self-evident
truths”
The axioms chosen by Euclid state properties o f points, lines and other
geometric figures that are possessed by their physical counterparts. The
properties in question are so obviously true o f these physical objects that all
mathem aticians agreed on them as a basis for further reasoning. In the selec­
tion o f axioms Euclid displayed great insight and judgement. Euclid chose a
very limited number o f axioms, twelve in all (later generations reduced this
num ber to ten), and constructed the whole system o f geometry.
From this starting point o f definitions, axioms and postulates, Euclid pro­
ceeds to derive propositions (theorems) and at appropriate places to introduce
further definitions (for example, an obtuse angle is defined as an angle which
is greater than a right angle). His metnod o f p r o f is strictly deductive, that is,

149
his theorems are proved by several deductive arguments, each employs
unquestionable premises and yields an unquestionable conclusion.
A discourse developed according to the above plan is referred to as “mate­
rial axiomatics”. Certainly, the most outstanding contribution o f the early
Greeks to maths was the formulation o f the pattern o f material axiomatics
and the insistence that geometry should be systematized according to this
pattern. Euclid’s Elements is the earliest extensively developed example o f
this use o f the pattern available to us. In recent years, this pattern was signif­
icantly generalized to yield a more abstract form o f discourse known as “fo r­
mal axiomatics”.
The creation o f Euclidean geometry is more than the contribution of
numerous useful theorems. It reveals the power o f reason. N o other human
creation demonstrates how much knowledge can be derived by reasoning
alone as have the hundreds o f proofs in Euclid’s Elements: The necessity for
accurate and exact definitions, for clearly stated assumptions and for rigor­
ous proof became evident in Euclid’s Elements.
We know much of the material o f Euclid’s Elements through our high-
school studies. By studying Euclid, hundreds o f generations from Greek
times learned how to reason, how perfect logical reasoning must proceed,
how to master the procedure, how to distinguish exact reasoning from vague
pretence o f proof. Even nowadays this masterpiece of Euclid serves as a log­
ical exercise and as a model o f reasoning and the art o f the mind.

T E X T TW O

NON-EUCUDEAN GEOMETRIES
Read the text in class. Analyze and translate the sentences (or paragraphs) that may present
some difficulty for understanding. Collect the information concerning N. Lobachevsky. Add your
own comments and speak about his bold and great discovery.
The man, who deserves the honour for the creation o f non-Euclidean
geometry, is the distinguished Russian mathematician N. Lobachevsky.
Lobachevsky challenged the parallel axiom and substituted a n o th e r
“Through a point outside a line L there are an infinite number o f lines par­
allel to L .” He built a new geometry on the basis o f a parallel axiom contra­
dicting Euclid’s, it is a logically consistent geometry, the one in which there
are no contradictions. The most unbelievable theorems to which he was led
did not discourage him and he came to the conclusion: “There are geom e­
tries different from Euclid’s and equally valid.”

150
Lobachevsky succeeded in creating a new geometry with many surprising
theorems. The most unexpected is the theorem that the sum of the angles o f
any triangle is always less than 180° Moreover, o f two triangles the one with
a larger area has a smaller angle sum, i.e., two similar triangles must be also
congruent. As a final example is the following: the distance between two
parallel lines approaches zero in one direction along the lines and
becomes infinite in the other direction.
Which then is correct geometry? Which is the correct theory o f the uni­
verse? Which is the most convenient theory? Which fits the observed data
best and involves the least computation and the simplest maths? We may
think that the new geometry cannot be applied to the physical world
because, for example, it asserts that similar triangles must be congruent. The
surprising revelation that emerged from all the attempts to decide which o f
the two geometries fits physical space is that both fit equally well.
The creation o f non-Euclidean geometry brought into clear light a dis­
tinction between math space and physical space. The axioms of Euclidean
geometry are true o f physical space. With the creation of non-Euclidean
geometry mathematicians appreciated the fact that systems of thought based
on statem ents about physical space might be different from that physical
space.
If both Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometry can represent physical
space equally well, which one is the truth about space and figures in space?
One cannot say. In fact, the choice may not be limited to just these two.
G eom etry is not the truth about physical space but the study o f possible
spaces. Several o f these mathematically constructed spaces, differing sharply
from one another, can fit physical space equally well as far as experience can
decide.
We m ust give due credit also to other mathematicians who contributed
m uch to the creation o f non-Euclidean geometry. J. Bolyai, a Hungarian
m athem atician, worked out the notion o f a non-Euclidean geometry simul­
taneously with Lobachevsky, but independently. Since Lobachevsky’s publi­
cations precede Bolyai’s, it is customary to name Lobachevsky as the dis­
coverer o f the concept o f non-Euclidean geometry.
K. F. Gauss, the math giant o f the nineteenth century, discovered the same
results as Lobachevsky and Bolyai before either and lacked the courage to
publish facts so startling. After carefully considering the parallel axiom,
Gauss gave a criterion for determining the truth o f Euclidean geometry:
measuring the angles o f a triangle must decide which geometry fits the phys­
ical world in the particular case.

151
These radical departures from Euclid followed by Riemann’s geometry
with many striking theorems. The G erm an mathematician Riemann (1826-
1866) postulated no parallels. In other words, he substituted for Euclid’s par­
allel postulate the assumption that: “Through a point P outside a line L there
is no line parallel to it; that is, every pair o f lines in a plane must intersect.”
In his geometry all the perpendiculars to a straight line meet in a point, the
sum o f the angles of any triangle is greater than 180“ etc.
To test the “truth” o f all these theorems revealed in G auss’ criterion,
mathematicians once tried to measure a huge triangle with vertices on three
peaks in Germany. But all experiments failed to bring about a decisive con­
clusion. The sum of the angles found was always so close to 180* that the
excess or deficit in each case could be made by the unavoidable imperfection
in the measuring techniques. Even if the three theories fit experimental facts
equally well, they are not equal in convenience o f computation. For ordinary
everyday purposes, the Euclidean system is the simplest and hence we use it
not because o f the “absolute” and only truth, but because it makes our work
easier. Riem ann’s system is the simplest for use in Einstein’s theory.
When the term "non-EucIidean geometry” is used in math literature, the
geometries o f Lobachevsky and Riemann are always meant, although the
term may well be applied generically to any geometry that denies one or
more axioms o f Euclid. After the days o f Lobachevsky and Riemann it
became the fashion to challenge axioms. To correct the defects in Euclid’s
Elements many axiom (postulate) systems were suggested and developed.
Among these systems are those o f Pasch (1882), Peano (1889). Veblen
(1904), Hilbert (1909) and BirkhoJJ and Beatley (1940). Each is different;
some have certain advantages over the others. Hilbert’s system, perhaps
because he is known as one o f the outstanding mathematicians o f the twen­
tieth century, had the most profound effect. Perhaps too, this is because his
system, as compared to the others, is most similar to Euclid’s. Whatever the
reasons, Hilbert’s system was so widely used, revised, and refined over the
years that many variations o f his system - changes in statements and phrase­
ology —arc now in existence.
Euclidean geometry is only one applied science furnishing an interpreta­
tion o f Hilbert’s pure science; spherical geometry is another. There are an
infinite number o f others besides —some vital, many trivial, but all possible
interpretations. It took unusual imagination to entertain the possibility o f a
geometry different from Euclid’s, for the human mind was for two millennia
bound by the prejudice o f tradition to the firm belief that Euclid's system was
most certainly the only way geometrically to describe physical space, and

152
that any contrary geometric system simply could not be consistent. One may
ask today whether a geometry is based on a set o f consistent postulates,
whether these postulates are independent o f one another, or whether this
geometry serves better than another geometry for a given application. But
the question o f whether a geometry is “true” has no place in pure science.

TEXT THREE

A MODERN VIEW OF GEOMETRY


Read and translate the text in class. Practise questions and answers. Find the paragraph or the
sentence which may be used as a short answer to the question: What is a modern view of geomeiry?

For a long time geometry was intimately tied to physical space, actually
beginning as a gradual accumulation of subconscious notions about physical
space and about forms, content, and spatial relations o f specific objects in
that space. We call this very early geometry “subconscious geometry”. Later,
human intelligence evolved to the point where it became possible to consoli­
date some o f the early geometrical notions into a collection of somewhat gen­
eral laws or rules. We call this laboratory phase in the development of geome­
try “scientific geometry” About 600 B .C the Greeks began to inject
deduction into geometry giving rise to what we call “demonstrative geometry”
In time demonstrative geometry becomes a material-axiomatic study of
idealized physical space and o f the shapes, sizes, and relations of idealized
physical objects in that space. The Greeks had only one space and one
geometry; these were absolute concepts. The space was not thought of as a
collection o f points but rather as a realm or locus, in which objects could be
freely moved about and compared with one another. From this point of view,
the basic relation in geometry was that o f congruence or superppsability.
With the elaboration o f analytic geometry in the first half o f the seven­
teenth century, space came to be regarded as a collection o f points; and with
the invention, about two hundred years later, o f the classical non-Euclidean
geometries, m athem aticians accepted the situation that there is more than
one conceivable space and hence more than one geometry. But space was
still regarded as a locus in which figures could be compared with one anoth­
er. The central idea became o f a group o f congruent transformations o f a
space into itself and geometry came to be regarded as the study o f those
properties o f configurations of points which remain unchanged when the

153
enclosing space is subjected to these transformations, and geometry is defined
as the invariant theory o f a transformation group. Geometry came to be rather
far removed from its former intimate connection with physical space, and it
became a relatively simple matter to invent new and even bizzare geometries.
At the end o f the last century, Hilbert and others formulated the concept
offormal axiomatics, and there developed the idea o f branch o f m aths as an
abstract body of theorems deduced from a set o f postulates. Each geometry
became, from this point o f view, a particular branch o f maths. Postulate sets
for a large variety o f geometries were studied.
In the twentieth century the study o f abstract spaces was inaugurated and
some very general studies came into being. A space became merely a set of
objects together with a set o f relations in which the objects are involved, and
geometry became the theory o f such a space. It must be confessed that this
latter notion o f geometry is so embracive that the boundary lines between
geometry and other areas o f m aths became very blurred, if not entirely oblit­
erated. It is essentially only the terminology and the mode o f thinking
involved that makes the subject “geom etric”
There are many areas o f maths where the introduction o f geometrical ter­
minology and procedure greatly simplifies both the understanding, and the
presentation of some concept or development. This becomes increasingly
evident in so much o f maths that some mathematicians o f the second half of
the twentieth century feel that perhaps the best way to describe geometry
today is not as some separate and prescribed body o f knowledge but as a point
o f view —a particular way o f looking at a subject. Not only is the language of
geometry often much simpler and more elegant than the language o f algebra
and analysis, but it is at times possible to carry through rigorous trains o f rea­
soning in geometrical terms without translating them into algebra or analy­
sis. There results a considerable economy both in thought and in com m uni­
cation o f thought. Moreover, and perhaps most important, the suggested
geometrical imagery frequently leads to further results and studies, thus fur­
nishing us with a powerful tool o f inductive o r creative reasoning. A great
deal o f modern analysis becomes singularly compact and unified through the
employment o f geometrical language and imagery.

VOCABULAR Y EXERCISES

1. Consult the dictionary and translate the following phrases into Russian:
1. derivative o f an elem ent, absolute derivative, approximate derivative.

154
directional derivative, left-hand (right-hand) derivative, total derivative;
2. emergency control, emergency signal, in case o f emergency, the state of
emergency, emergency door, emergency landing, emergency measures, emer­
gency boat, emergency service, emergency work, on an emergency basis,
emergence probability;
3. a succession of, in succession, by succession, successive carriers, succes­
sive derivatives, method o f successive approximations, a successor, a worthy
successor, succeeding ages, the succeeding period, to be a success, to turn out
a success, among successes, success is never blamed, successful results, to be
successful in doing smth, to be successful in everything (nothing), to deal suc­
cessfully with a task, to undergo a test successfully;
4. (in)consistent, (in)consistency, (in)consistently, simple consistency,
consistency o f an estimation, consistent system, consistent policy;
5. conscience, conscious, consciousness, consciousless, subconscious, sub­
consciously, self-conscious, conscientious, conscientiously;
6. convert, converse, conversely, conversion, conversion factor, conversion
frequency, conversion table, code conversion, digital conversion, analog-to-
digital converter, binary-to-digital converter, data converter, pulse convert­
er, radix converter

2. Fill in the blanks with one of the words given below:

deductive, to precede, physical counterparts, to be concerned, to reveal, to serve, reasoning, to


derive, to deserve, to give rise, to proceed, to trace, to distinguish, to fail

1. ... by induction is the fundamental method o f... in experimental sci­


ence, but sometimes it does not guarantee the certainty of the conclusions.
The Greeks ... all the math conclusions only by ... 2. Despite the unques­
tioned influence o f Egypt and Babylonia on Greek minds, the maths pro­
duced by the Greeks differs radically from that which ... it. 3. He ... highest
praise for this work. N o doubt, it’s his masteipiece. 4. Apparently, one may
find ... that ... to these m ath abstractions. 5. The creation o f Euclidean
geometry ... the power o f reason. 6. The deductive reasoning ... as follows:
“All good people are honest and if I am good then 1 must be honest. And if I
am not honest, I am not then g o o d /’ 7. Geometry, philosophy, logic and art
are all expressions o f one type of mind, one outlook on the universe, and it
is reasonable ... the existence o f common characteristics in all these phases
o f the classic Greek culture. 8. One m u s t... a rigorous proof from vague pre­
tence o f proof. 9. The trial and error m ethod s... during ages o f experience to
arrive at the simple math formulae. 10. Elementary maths ... with the prop­
erties o f numbers and o f space, in other words, with algebi a and geometry.

155
3. T ra n sla te the sentences and analyze th e w ords in bold type.

to concern, to be concerned with (v); concern (n); concerned, concerning (participles)\ con­
cerning (prep)
1. In the m odern approach to elem entary m aths, we distinguish from
the outset between num erals and num bers. O ne aspect o f the num ber
study is concerned with w hat is called “ properties o f num bers” , the
o th er deals with “ num ber system ” G eom etry — the study o f form s —
was the special concern o f the classical G reeks. 2. Concerning n u m era­
tion and num ber, it may be conjectured th at the classical G reeks were
hardly concerned with num eration - if, indeed, they were interested in
it at all. T h eir minds apparently were not inclined toward the m ech an i­
cal aspect o f elem entary m aths but rath er were fascinated by the p ro p e r­
ties o f num bers; th eir m ain concern were positive integers. F or the
m ath em atician the postulates o f geom etry today are mere hypotheses
whose physical truth o r falsity need n o t concern him. 3. Historically,
concern w ith com putation preceded by m any centuries’ concern w ith
properties o f num bers. In tu rn , the latter preceded concern w ith num ber
system s by alm ost two thousand years. 4. W riters o f antiquity w ho con­
cerned them selves with geom etry unanim ously agreed upon the Nile
Valley o f ancient Egypt as the place where subconscious geom etry
becam e scientific geometry. 5. O ur c h ie f sources o f inform ation con­
cerning ancient Egyptian geom etry are the M oscow and R hind papiri,
m ath texts containing 25 and 85 problem s, respectively, and dating from
approxim ately 1850 B.C. and 1650 B.C. 6. G reek m aths concerning
m ostly w ith plane geom etry buried algebra in geom etry and developed
the so-called “geom etrical algebra” 7. Early G reek geom eters devel­
oped no tio n s concerning infinitesim als and lim it and su m m atio n
processes. 8. G aspard M onge’s projective geom etry concerning a way o f
representing and analyzing three-dim ension al projects by m eans o f th eir
projections on certain planes, had its origin in the design o f fortifica­
tions. 9. Q uestions concerning E uclid’s fifth postulate brought about
startling developm ent in m aths. 10. Euclid did not consider the possibil
ity concerning other postulates to define o th er geom etries. 11. W here
m aths is concerned, no doubt I am only a layman. 12. As far as the m em ­
bership was concerned, the Pythagoreans’ brotherhood had only male
m em bers, despite a doubtful anecdote concerning Pythagoras' beautiful
girlfriend adm itted as a member.
G RAM M AR A N D VOCABULAR Y E X E R C IS E S
1. Refer the following sentences to the past. Mind the passive voice.

M odel. The Greeks apply deduction as a principal means of


scientific reasoning.
The Greeks applied deduction as a principal means of
scientific reasoning.

1. The primary purpose o f the lesson is to deal with geometry as a science.


2. The students conceive the concept o f geometry as a logical system based
upon postulation thinking. 3. The lesson introduces students to a modern
rigorous approach to the foundations o f geometry. 4. The students trace and
appreciate the historical evolution o f geometrical concepts. 5. The subject
m atter o f the lesson reveals the relation o f Euclidean geometry to the space
we live in. 6. The lesson provides an understanding of a formal and valid
proof. 7. One can say that geometry in fact consists of several geometries.
8. The students infer how Euclidean geometry is related to many other
geometries. 9. M athematicians claim that it becomes a relatively simple m at­
ter to invent new geometries. 10. The students do not fail to discover the hier­
archy o f geometries and abstract spaces. 11. There is no logical reason why
one geometry should be preferred to another. 12. Mathematicians do not
arrive at any contradictions and inconsistencies in the alternative geome­
tries. 13. The study yields a good understanding of a modern view o f geom­
etry. 14. Geometrical language, imagery and the mode ofthinking makes any
subject under study “geometric”. 15. Geometry as a science never exhausts
itself.

2. Give short answers.1*4

M odel. Did the Greeks’ predecessors create the theory of a


logical system structure? (N o , ...)
No, they did not. But the Greeks did.

1. D id the Greeks’ predecessors develop the theory of definition? (N o ,...)


(the Greeks) 2. Was a definition for the Babylonians a phrase revealing a
thing’s essence? (N o ,...) (the Greeks) 3. Did the definitions enable Egyptians
to associate names with elements and relations? (No, ...) (the Greeks)
4. Should definitions be concisely stated? (Yes, ...) (according to the Greeks’
demand) 5. Must definitions give distinguishing characteristics o f the ele­
m ent o r relation involved? (Y es,...) 6. Did the definition of the Greeks con-

157
tain any new element? (N o ,...) 7. 'Nas a definition o f a new term accepted if
it comprised undefined terms? (No, ...) 8. Did the G reeks’ definitions assert
the existence o f the thing defined? (Y es,...) 9. D id the Babylonians develop
a rigorous mathematical (as opposed to the dictionary) type o f definitions?
(No, ...) (the Greeks) 10. Did Euclid preface his Elements with a list o f defi­
nitions? (Yes, ...) 11. Did Euclid actually use the definitions further in his
work? (No, ...) 12. Wfere Euclid’s definitions criticized? (Yes, ...) 13. Did
mathematicians manage to improve Euclid’s definitions? ( N o ,...) 14. Can
any mathematician give an explicit definition o f every basic term o f a logical
system? (No, ...) 15. Do continual definitions lead to a “vicious circle”?
(Y es,...) 16. Do mathematicians nowadays accept basic terms as undefined?
(Yes, ...) 17. Do axioms specify basic terms in m odem treatment? (Y e s ,...)
18. Do scientists interpret the undefined term s in any concrete way they
please? (Yes, ...) 19. Did the Greeks avoid the circularity o f definitions by
accepting undefined basic terms? (No, ...) (modem scientists) 20. Did the
Babylonians’ empirical procedures have anything in common with the Greeks’
material axiomatic method? (No, ...) (contemporaryformal axiomatics)

3. Give Tull answers.

M odel. Where did modem maths begin? (in ancient Greece)


M odem maths began in ancient Greece.1*7

1. What mathematicians were the most distinguished in early Greek


maths? (undoubtedly Pythagoras and his followers) 2. Whose pupil was
Pythagoras? ( Thales’, thefounder o f deductive methods) 3. What doctrines did
the Pythagoreans teach? (a mixture o f morality, astrology, music and genuine
maths) 4. What ancient cultures did the Pythagoreans inherit math knowl­
edge from? (Babylonians, Egyptians and Indians) 5. What contribution did
the Pythagoreans make to maths? (abstracted the concepts o f number, geomet­
ric form and figure; developed and applied deductive reasoning) 6. What were
their profoundest discoveries? (Pythagorean theorem, incommensurabies)
7. Who proved the general theorem? (Pythagoras is credited with; the proof is
attributed to) 8. How did the Pythagoreans prove their great theorem? (under
the unchallenged assumption that "Numbers rule the universe ”) 9. What was
the Pythagoreans’ contribution to number theory? (the creation o f the classi­
cal theory o f natural numbers) 10. How did the Pythagoreans treat natural
numbers? (the essence o f all the existing things) 11. How did the Pythagoreans
come to recognize incommensurable quantities? (failed to fin d a rational
numberfor \2 ) 12. How did they regard the discovery o f incommensurables?

158
(logical scandal-crisis in the foundations o f maths) 13. What did they call
numbers v 2 , \ 3 , etc.? ( irrationals) 14. How did they deal with irrationals?
(by approximating them by means o f ratios) 15. What did the discovery o f
incommensurables result in? (a need to establish a new theory o f proportions
independent o f commensurability) 16. Who developed a theory o f incommen­
surables? (Eudoxus) 17. Who made this theory popular? (Euclid) 18. How
did mathematicians learn about the theory? (Euclidpresented it in geometrical
form in his Elements) 19. How can Eudoxus’ theory be estimated? (a master­
piece o f Greek maths) 20. When did Eudoxus’ theory become fully appreciat­
ed? (in the late nineteenth century) 21. Who constructed the first truly rigofoUs
theory o f irrational numbers? (Dedekind, Cantor, Weierstrass) 22. How did
Greek maths benefit from its first classical crisis in the foundations o f maths?
(ultimate influence was beneficial and considerable) 23. What did the
Pythagoreans’ discovery o f “incommensurable” quantities bring about?
(ultimately dispelled the belief that the universe was built on natural numbers)

4. Ask questions as in the model using the question words suggested in brackets.

M odel. The word “geometry” was derived from the Greek


words for “earth measure”. ( Where ...from ?)
Where was the word “geometry” derived from?

1. The ancients believed that the Earth was flat. (What?) 2. The early
geometers dealt with measurements o f line segments, angles, and other fig­
ures in a plane. ( W hat... with ?) 3. Gradually the meaning o f “geometry” was
extended to the ordinary space of solids. (How?) 4. Greek mathematicians
considered geometry as a logical system. (Who?) 5. They assumed certain
properties and try to deduce other properties from these assumptions.
(How?) 6. During the last century geometry was still further extended to
include the study o f abstract spaces. ( Why?) 7. Nowadays geometry has to be
defined in an entirely new way. (How?) 8. In contemporary science geomet­
rical imagery (points, lines, planes, etc.) may be represented in many ways.
(What?) 9. Any modern geometric discourse starts with a list o f undefined
terms and relations. (W h a t... with?) 10. The set o f relations to which the
points are subjected is called the structure o f the space. (What?)
11. G eom etry today is the theory o f any space structure. (What?)
12. G eom etry multiplied from one to many. (How?) 13. Some very general
geometries came into being. (What?) 14. Each geometry has its own under­
lying controlling transformation group. (What?) 15. New geometries find
invaluable application in the modern development o f analysis. (Where?)

159
S. C hange the sen ten c es, m ake them negative using th e w ords in b rac k ets.

Model. The early Greeks dealt with numeration systems and


counting, (practically)
The early Greeks did not practically deal with numera­
tion systems and counting.

1. The Pythagoreans inherited more superior Babylonian positional


numeration system, (in spite o f infinite contact) 2. Their minds were inclined
toward the elementary mechanical aspect o f maths, (apparently) 3. The
Greeks’ system of counting was simple, (obviously) 4. It was positional sys­
tem based on 10. (non-positional, without place value or symbol fo r zero)
5. They used special symbols for numbers, (letters o f their alphabet fo r num­
bers) 6. The Pythagoreans investigated and discovered many operations on
real numbers, (properties o f natural numbers) 7. They represented numbers as
algebraic structures, (geometric patterns) 8. They developed algebra, (buried
algebra in geometry) 9. They created a grand structure o f num ber systems
similar to that for geometry, (since their general outlook was geometric rather
than arithmetical) 10. The principal G reek contributions were num ber sys­
tems. (since they were fascinated by the properties and not the operations on
numbers)

6. Make the sentences impersonal using the noun-substitutes and modal verbs.

Model /. Mathematicians claim that maths is m an's greatest


intellectual achievement (accomplishment).
One can ctaim that maths is man’s greatest intellectu­
al achievement (accomplishment).1*367

1. Historians assert that geometry — the study o f forms —was the special
concern o f the classical Greeks. 2. The scientists failed to trace the exact date
o f the emergence of abstract notions of number and geometric figure.
3. Tradition credits the Pythagoreans with this greatest contribution. 4. It is
necessary to emphasize that the appreciation o f number as an abstract idea
was one of the major advances in the history o f thought. 5. It is true to say
that pure abstract geometric form is the common property o f all solids.
6. Scientists do not perforin any experim ents w ith pure forms.
7. Mathematicians deal exclusively with abstract pure forms in maths. 8. The
Greeks introduced and applied extensively the pure deductive reasoning w ith
abstract forms. 9. By means o f deductive reasoning geometers reveal the
essential properties and the relationships o f geometric forms. 10. By

160
abstracting the concept o f a geometric figure the Greeks achieved the great­
est level o f generalization then known. 11. Nowadays mathematicians gain a
new understanding of the abstract foundations of maths.

Model 2. the former, the latter


Objects have both essential and accidental properties.
According to the Greeks only the former should enter
into definition of an object.

1. The classical G reeks neglected experimentation and practical applica­


tions. According to their principles ... was mechanical, and ... was vulgar.
2. C urrent m aths is a m ethod o f inquiry known as postulation thinking and
a field for creative endeavour. ...constitutes responses to purely intellectual
challenges. 3. The G reeks had only one space and one geometry; these were
absolute concepts. T oday... is the set o f objects together with a set o f rela­
tions in which the objects are involved, and ... is the theory of such a space.
4. The m odern concept o f geometry is so embracive that the boundary lines
between ... and the other areas o f mathematics became very obliterated.
5. Some m athem aticians claim that geometry is not a separate math disci­
pline but a point of view. ... implies a particular way o f looking at a subject.
6. The concept of axiomatic method originated in ancient Greece in the
fifth century B.C. The modern form of axiomatic method was in a stage o f
evolution for more than half o f the 19th century. The application o f... was
em bodied in Euclid’s Elements, while ... was exemplified by H ilbert’s
geometry. 7. Without doubt the most outstanding contribution o f the early
G reeks was the formulation of the pattern of axiomatics. Unlike Hilbert’s
pattern o f “ formal axiomatics” ... is usually referred to as “material
axiom atics” 8. The modern form of axiomatic method and a very high level
of abstraction characterize today’s m a th s.... is the unifying principle for all
the branches o f m aths, ... implies a higher order o f abstraction compared
to E uclid’s as the objects, relations and operations are already themselves
abstractions. 9. From the axiomatic point o f view maths is a storehouse of
abstract forms and m ath structures. Most o f ... had originally a very defi­
nite intuitive content. 10. The interdependence in maths and the interna­
tionalism of its appeal are displayed by simultaneous discoveries in maths.
The evidence o f ... is the discovery o f non-Euclidean geometry by a
G erm an, a Russian and a H ungarian, who had no connections with or
knowledge o f each other.7

7. Make the sentences more emphatic. Turn active into passive, if necessary.

161
6 Английский язык для студентов-математиков
Model 1. The only numbers accepted by the Greeks were the
natural numbers.
is ...that It was the natural numbers that were the
was...who only numbers accepted by the Greeks.

1. The Greeks first appreciated the power o f math reasoning. 2. The


Greeks gave maths a major place in their civilization. 3. The Greeks initiat­
ed patterns of thought that are still basic in our civilization. 4. The Greeks
converted maths into abstract, deductive and axiomatic system of thought.
5. In constructing methods o f proof, mathematicians employ a high order of
intuition, imagination and ingenuity. 6. Though Thales o f M iletus proved
some geometric theorems deductively, the Pythagoreans applied this process
o f reasoning exclusively and developed it further. 7. M ath theory emerged
and evolved first in the maths of the early Greeks. 8. Euclid's Elements were
the first successful attempt to build all geometry based on postulation think­
ing. 9. Euclid based his development o f geometry on a logical system.
10. D espite some shortcom ings the Elem ents are a work o f genius.
11. Ancient Greece created the intellectual miracle o f a logical system.
12. Euclid's masterpiece was the first magnificent and epoch-m aking appli­
cation o f the axiomatic method. 13. M athematicians study Euclid’s Elements
to master the art o f rigorous geometric reasoning. 14. The subject o f geome­
try was once almost synonymous with the name of Euclid. 15. Euclidean
geometry was the only geometry for more than two thousand years. It is not
any more. 16. The Elements are no longer all geometry, but this masterwork
is the logical ideal o f all science. 17. The Elements is the most durable and
influential textbook in the history o f maths.

Model 2. M odem maths ignores the distinction between postu­


lates and axioms.
Modem maths does ignore this distinction.1*45

1. G auss conceived the idea o f non-E uclidean geometry long before


other creators o f the subject. The term is due to him. 2. Gauss claimed that
there exists a closed and consistent geom etry in which the Euclidean 5th
postulate does not hold. 3. Euclid him self realized the impossibility of
deriving the parallel postulate from the rest o f the axioms and postulates.
4. M any m athem aticians after Euclid attem pted to prove the parallel pos­
tu late by an indirect m ethod (i.e., reductio ad absurdum ).
5. M athem aticians tried to construct a geom etry in which the negation (the

162
converse) x>f the parallel postulate holds. 6. The futile and fruitless efforts
to produce a proof o f the parallel postulate led to the idea o f a geometry
with m ore than one parallel. 7. The discoverers o f non-Euclidean geom e­
try wanted to show that the 5th postulate is, in fact, deducible. 8. In this
they failed. But they succeeded in finding a new world, a new consistent
geom etry with infinitely many parallel lines. 9. N. Lobachevsky published
the first account dealing with non-Euclidean geometry and created the
subject concerned. 10. Priority arguments are very important in science
and that is why we honour N. Lobachevsky as the creator o f non-Euclidean
geometry. 11. G auss and Bolyai independently drew the same conclusions
from the impossibility o f proving the parallel postulate. 12. Their contem ­
poraries paid almost no attention at first to their novel and grand ideas.
13. New non-E uclidean geometry lacked intuitive appeal and so was
alm ost ignored. 14. Euclidean geometry rooted so firmly in thought that
th eir contem poraries hardly recognized and appreciated the latter. 15. A
few decades passed before m athem aticians took notice o f this grand dis­
covery. 16. T he new geometry gained intuitive appeal as a result o f the
“m odels” for non-Euclidean geometry constructed by E Klein, Poincare
and Hilbert.

8. Translate the sentences into Russian paying attention to the grammar patterns involved.
1. One knows that geometry started far back in antiquity from some very
modest beginnings and gradually grew to its present enormous size. 2. People
are aware that the nature, or inherent character o f the subject had different
connotations at different periods o f its development. 3. Many observations
in the daily life o f early man did lead to the geometric concepts o f curves,
surfaces and solids. 4. It was the construction o f houses that suggested the
notion o f vertical, o f parallel, and o f perpendicular. One can multiply such
examples almost indefinitely. 5. While we must not be certain, it does seem
safe to assume that scientific geometry arose from practical necessity. 6. It
was the Greeks who transformed geometry into something vastly different
from the set o f empirical conclusions worked out by the ancient Egyptians
and Babylonians. 7. Induction and deduction are different ways o f reason­
ing. The former is mainly used in experimental science, while the latter is the
major m ethod o f reasoning in maths. 8. People can hardly overemphasize the
im portance o f Euclid’s Elements. 9. The theory o f parallels did occupy
geometers for over two thousand years. 10. Euclidean and non-Euclidean
geometries are alternative ways geometrically to describe physical space,
both the former and the latter are consistent.

163
G RAM M AR R E V IS IO N

Summarize all the grammar rules and the verb to do functions so far studied.

1. Im perative Sentences.
E.g. Suppose (Let us suppose) we have a theorem. Prove it deductively. Let
her (him, them ) do it.

2. Indefinite Tense-Aspect Forms.


E. g. M athematicians prove (must prove) theorems deductively
Present and rigorously. Theorems are proved (must be proved) deduc­
tively and rigorously.

r E. g. M athematicians proved (were to prove, had to prove) the­


orems deductively. Theorems were proved (were to be proved,
Past had to be proved) deductively. A deductive proof is (was) much
spoken and written about. A rigorous and elegant deductive
k proof is (was) looked at with admiration.

3 . Questions.
E.g. Who proves (must prove) theorem s? Who proved (was to prove, had
to prove) theorem s? W hat do (did) m athem aticians do? How do (did)
m athem aticians prove theorem s? M athem aticians prove(d) theorem s,
don’t (didn’t) they? Do (Did) m athem aticians prove theorem s deductively
or inductively? W hat is a deductive proof? Is it difficult to prove theorems
deductively? 4

4 . N egations.
E.g. Don’t prove theorems that way. Don’t let him (her, them) prove theo­
rems that way. Let us not prove theorems that way. M athematicians do not
(did not) prove theorems that way. No mathematician proves theorems that
way. Don’t (D idn’t) m athem aticians prove theorem s deductively?
M athematicians prove(d) no theorem that way. M athematicians prove(d)
nothing that way. M athematicians prove(d) theorems that way nowhere.
There is m uch thinking, reasoning, proving and justifying in maths. Is
there? There is no arguing (not any argum ent) in this theory. There exists
(emerged) a new proof o f this theorem. Does there exist...? There does not
exist... Did there emerge...? There did not emerge a new proof o f this th e­
orem.

164
5. Im p erso n a l Sentences.
E.g. It is (presupposed that mathematicians prove(d) theorems that way.
One (does not) suppose(s) (can hardly suppose)... We (you, they) must (not)
suppose... People should (not) suppose...

6 . E m phatic Sentences.
E.g. It is (was) mathematicians who prove(d) theorems. It is (was) deduc­
tively that mathematicians prove(d) theorems. Do prove theorems deductive­
ly! M athem aticians do (did) prove theorem s deductively. Whatever
(Whichever) Euclid’s proof you take, it is deductive. The earlier you master
the procedure o f a deductive proof, the sooner you appreciate math rigour.

7. N oun Substitu tio n .


E.g. The p ro o fs) by deduction is (are) m uch more rigorous than that of
(those of) by induction. Deduction and rigour are essentials o f a math proof.
The former and the latter are essentials o f a math proof. These proofs are
valid but try to establish more rigorous ones.

8. Verb Substitu tio n .


E.g. M athem aticians prove theorems inductively rather rarely but physi­
cists do it regularly. M athematicians prove what they do (= prove) deductive­
ly and rigorously.

9. The Verb To D o Functions.


E.g. 1. These students do maths. 2. What do these students do? 3. They do
prove theorems. Do prove this theorem deductively! 4. They do not prove th e­
orems but we do. They prove what they do deductively.

C O N V E R SA TIO N A L P R A C TIC E

1. Use the following sentences in your oral description of ancient practical (empirical, experi­
mental) geometry.
1. The word “geometry” refers to the branch o f maths. 2. Geometry arose
from practical necessities and appeared several thousand years before our
era. 3. The need to bound land led to the notion o f simple geometric con­
cepts. 4. The notions o f vertical, o f parallel, and o f perpendicular were sug­
gested by the construction o f buildings. 5. M any observations o f the physical
forms and shapes in the daily life led to the conception o f curves, surfaces,
and solids. 6. Empirical geometry was developed in certain areas o f the

165
ancient Orient — Egypt, Mesopotamia, India, China. 7. G eom etry appeared
as a science to assist surveying, agricultural and engineering pursuits. 8. The
river basins (the Nile, the Tigris and Euphrates, the Indus and Ganges, the
Yangtze) cradled advanced forms o f society known for their engineering
skill. 9. Surveying and engineering projects required the creation o f much
practical geometry. 10. Trial and error methods and empirical procedures
were the tools and means o f discovery. 11. Geometry was a collection o f lab­
oratory results, some correct, others only approximate, concerning areas
and volumes. 12. The earliest existing records o f m an's geometrical activity
were found in Mesopotamia (= Babylonia once situated on the territoiy o f
modern Iraq) and dated from Sumerian times about 3000 B.C. 13. The
ancient Babylonians used the imperishable baked-clay tablets to record their
results. 14. The Babylonians o f 2000-1600 B.C. were familiar with the gen­
eral rules for com puting land areas and volumes o f solids. 15. The
Pythagorean theorem was also known to them (without any proof, o f course)
as far back as 2000 B.C.

2. Express your appreciation of the ancient Egyptian maths.


Our chief sources of information concerning ancient Egyptian geometry
are the Moscow (1850 B.C.) and Rhind (1650 B.C.) papiri. A Scottish schol­
ar and antiquary, A.M . Rhind discovered in 1858 in Egypt and bought an
ancient Egyptian papyrus found in some ruins in Thebes. The Rhind papyrus
is a collection of arithmetical, geometrical and miscellaneous problems,
including some area and volume applications. The papyrus is a copy o f 1650
B.C. o f much earlier writings o f the latter part o f the 1900 B.C. The entire
work emphasizes the two concepts that particularly characterize the maths of
the early Egyptians: 1) the consistent use o f additive procedures and 2) com­
putations with fractions. Most problems are o f practical nature. Some prob­
lem may present a challenge even to the modern student; e.g., “ Find the vol­
ume o f a cylindrical granary of diam eter 9 and height 10 cubits.”
The Moscow papyrus also referred to as the Golenishchev papyrus for the
man who owned it before its acquisition by the Moscow M useum o f Fine
Arts, was probably written about 1850 B.C. Although it contains only 25
problems, it is similar to the Rhind papyrus. This work shows that the
Egyptians were familiar with the formula for the area o f a hemisphere and
the correct form ula for the volume o f a truncated square pyramid
y - ^ ± a j b The solution is expressed only in terms o f the necessary com ­
putational steps for the given numerical values: height o f 6 and the bases of

166
sides 4 and 2. There are various conjectures about how the Egyptians could
develop this procedure, but the papyrus offers no help. This formula is often
referred to as the Egyptians’ “greatest pyramid” . A challenging and exciting
discovery of more than a century ago o f these two math texts gives fascinat­
ing exercise to the student o f maths, both m odem and ancient. O f the 110
problems in the papiri 26 concern the computation o f land areas and vol­
umes. The ancient Egyptians recorded their work on stone and papyrus
resisting the ages because o f Egypt’s dry climate. There is no documentary
evidence that the ancient Egyptians were aware o f the Pythagorean theorem.
Nevertheless, early Egyptian surveyors realized that a triangle with sides of
lengths 3, 4 and 5 units is a right triangle. Egyptian geometry arose from
necessity. The annual inundation o f the Nile Valley forced the Egyptians to
develop some systems for redetermining land markings; in fact, the word
“surveying” means “ measurement o f the earth” The Babylonians likewise
faced an urgent need for maths in the construction o f the great engineering
structures (marsh drainage, irrigation and flood control) for which they were
famous. Similar undertakings and geometrical accomplishments occurred in
India and China. The ancient Indians and Chinese, however, used very per­
ishable writing materials (bark bast and bamboo) and due to the lack o f pri­
mary sources we know next to nothing about maths in ancient India and
China. To a great extent the earliest geometries were little more than a prac­
tically workable empiricism —a collection o f rule-of-thum b procedures and
trial-and-error methods that gave results o f sufficient acceptability for the
simple needs of those early civilizations. In spite o f the empirical nature o f
ancient oriental geometry, with its complete neglect o f proof and the lack of
difference between exact and approximate truth, mathematicians are never­
theless struck by the extent and the diversity o f the problems so successfully
attacked. One ought not to underestimate the contributions o f these ancient
civilizations to the development o f geometry.
3. Substantiate the main ideas (claims) in the text with your examples and proofs.
The ability to think out answers to new problems is a defining characteris­
tic o f hum an beings. People are not always reasonable, that’s for sure. But
people do reason. They do try to figure things out. Reasoning is thinking in
which one step leads to the next step and the whole process draws finally to
a conclusion. Human reasoning is, in fact, a step-by-step process o f reaching
conclusions by a connected logical train o f thought. Reasoning can follow
many routes among which the most commonly used are: reasoning by anal­
ogy, induction and deduction. Deductive reasoning has many advantages, and

167
it is this kind of thinking that reaches a particularly refined level in maths. Its
precision in maths depends upon several things — the unambiguous way in
which terms are defined, the restraint with which the definitions are obeyed,
and the care with which all the rules o f procedure are set out and made clear.
This kind o f thinking is logical thinking; and logic itself can be defined as the
systematic study o f the conditions and procedures which permit valid infer­
ence — that is to say, which permit one to start with one or more statements
(or propositions) and derive from these or infer from these, one o r more new
statements which are valid in the sense that they are justified by, and are in
strict fact consequences o f the starting (initial) statements. Thus, what is
im portant about a logical inference is not its truth but rather its validity. A
logical conclusion can properly merit the adjectives correct, sound, or accu­
rate but not true.
The type o f reasoning used in geometry and algebra was developed in clas­
sical (Aristotelian) logic. It involves three steps. First, you start out with a set
o f premises (statements of postulates) which are to be accepted without ques­
tion. In modern maths these initial premises are recognized as pure assump­
tions without further discussion. The second step involves the application, to
the starting premises, o f rules o f logic. The core o f deductive logic is the so-
called syllogism, which consists o f a major premise, a minor premise and a
conclusion. In m ath terms a syllogism runs like:
Every M is P Either A or В or C
S is M N ot A, not В
Therefore S is P Therefore C
But the most important aspect —the third and culminating step o f the classi­
cal procedure that one first learns in geometry - is precisely that there is a
definite conclusion and one can be sure that the conclusion is, under the given
premises, completely valid, and that its opposite is completely false. This type
o f reasoning produces nothing more than an “ if-then" kind o f result. That
is, i f the assumption holds, then the result is valid. Indeed it is then unques­
tionably valid, and its opposite is unquestionably false. This process enables
one confidently to decide that certain statements, on the basis o f the given
start, are true or false. To certain questions one can confidently respond
“yes” or “ no” But this process in its classical form has an absolutely d e f ­
lating limitation. The trouble is that there arc so very many interesting and
im portant questions to which this logical method does not apply at all. There
are many questions which cannot possibly be answered with either “yes" or
“n o ” There are so very many cases in which our starting knowledge is sim ­

168
ply not sufficiently extensive, or sufficiently reliable, to lead to completely
negative “ no” The answer should be “a definite may be”
There are other limitations of classical logic. One of the most fundam en­
tal and exciting intellectual feats o f the 20th century is the discovery by Kurt
Godel that logic has some built-in limitations which were previously unsus­
pected. When one wishes to develop any logical system (say, the logical basis
for arithm etic, or the logical basis for some field o f physics), he has to start
with a set of assumptions or postulates. It is naturally a matter o f the great­
est concern to be sure that the set o f postulates chosen is internally consistent
so that they do not in some complicated and concealed way contradict each
other. Godel proved the absolutely stunning result (stunning in all senses)
that it is impossible —actually impossible, not just unreasonably difficult —to
prove the consistency o f any set o f postulates which is rich enough in con­
tent, that is, in the sense o f leading to a useful body o f results. The question,
“ Is there an inner flaw in this logical system?” is a question which is unan­
swerable'. The business of classical logic is to put all statements into only two
categories: true (1) and false (0). A third, and embarrassingly large, category
contains all the statements which classical logic cannot handle at all, i.e.,
statem ents that are presumably neither completely true nor completely false.
Godel also proved that this is not so! He demonstrated that it is always pos­
sible with a logical system, to ask questions which are undecidablel The lim­
itation to only two truth values (true or false) does in fact keep most o f us,
the most o f the time, from getting a great deal o f practical help from logic. It
is at just this point that logic o f probability comes to our rescue.

4. Retell the text.

The Pythagorean Theorem


“The Pythagorean” theorem is one o f the most important propositions in
the entire realm o f geometry. Despite the strong Greek tradition that associ­
ates the name o f Pythagoras with the statement that “the square on the
hypothenuse o f the right-angled triangle is equal to the square on the sides
containing the right angle” there is no doubt that this result was known prior
to the time o f Pythagoras.
It is ppssible that Pythagoras gave the proof o f the theorem based on the
proportionality o f similar figures. With the later realization that all lines are
not necessarily commensurable, this proof became invalid. Thus, at the time
o f Euclid’s Elements there was no need for a more adequate proof. Euclid’s

169
Proposition 147 is the Pythagorean theorem, with a proof universally cred­
ited to Euclid himself. Proclus’ speculation was simply that Euclid rewrote
the proof in order that he might put the proposition in his first book to com ­
plete it. There is also considerable evidence that the first book was written to
lead to the climax o f this theorem and its converse.
In 1907 L.S. Loomis published his book The Pythagorean Proposition, a
work that contained 370proofs o f this theorem. Probably no other theorem
in maths can be demonstrated by such a wide variety o f algebraic and geo­
metric proofs. The Pythagorean theorem and the proof are so important in
maths that Loomis writes in his book: “ I noticed two or three American texts
on geometry in which Euclid’s proof o f the Pythagorean theorem does not
appear. I suppose the author wishes to show his originality or independence
- possibly up-to-dateness. He shows something else. The leaving out o f
Euclid’s proof is like the play of Hamlet with Hamlet left o u t.”

5. Choose the proper answer or give your own version.


Is the Pythagorean theorem general or special?
1. General. 2. Special. 3. Fundamental.

What role do fundam ental theorems play in math reasoning, in proofs, justi­
fication and in science?
1) Every fundamental theorem is a landmark in the history o f maths. 2)
They are precise and concise arguments. 3) They are convenient shortcuts to
proofs. 4) T heir application is the best justification. 5) They serve as points
o f reference in maths. 6) They are the main guiding threads in scientific the­
ories.

Why do m athem aticians re-prove fundam ental theorems (e g ., the


Pythagorean theorem)?
1) They enjoy doing it. 2) It’s their hobby. 3) Re-proving theorems is m en­
tal gymnastics. 4) It is the “ food” for the mind. 5) Euclid gave the proof o f a
special case o f the Pythagorean property. 6) It’s simple to give a proof o f this
theorem. 7) The first proof is, as a rule, not rigorous and elegant. 8) They
want to become more famous. 9) ...to display their ingenuity. 10) ...to broad­
en the range and scope o f the theory, where it was originally proved.

Every high-school leaver remembers the Pythagorean theorem fo r the rest o f


his life. Why is it unforgettable?

170
1) Because o f the legendary fame of its creator — Pythagoras. 2) Because
according to the legend for the proof Pythagoras sacrificed 100 oxen to the
Gods. 3) Due to the mastery o f high-school teachers’ presentation o f the
theorem. 4) Thanks to the simplicity o f its proof. 5) Because there exist too
many proofs. 6) Geometry begins with this theorem. 7) The theorem runs
“like golden thread” throughout math history. 8) Because o f the beauty and
elegance o f its proof. 9) The theorem is an obvious consequent o f lots o f
other theorems. 10) It holds for all right triangles and for all Pythagorean
triples (= a set o f three positive whole numbers x , у and z such that x*+yl=zl,
e.g., 3, 4, 5 and 5, 12, 13). 11) The theorem leads directly to the famous
Fermat’s theorem xr + у = z*.
6. Suppose you are to prove the Pythagorean theorem. What proof (geometric, algebraic, etc.)
do you prefer? Study the models of proofs in books devoted to the Pythagorean theorem available
in the library, choose the one up to your liking and demonstrate it in class, expressing all the for­
malized statements of the proof in words.

7. Ask questions for which the following statements may serve as answers. Work in pairs.

1. Precise definitions o f the logical system concepts are all important foun­
dation for the whole structure. 2. In giving verbal definitions one has to begin
somewhere; it is impossible to define every single term. 3. Axioms are asser­
tions about the undefined and defined terms accepted without proof.
4. Axioms are the sole basis for any conclusion that may be drawn about the
concepts under discussion. 5. M athematicians accepted Euclid’s axioms
because experience with similar physical figures guaranteed and supported
these axioms. 6. The axioms of any branch o f maths must be consistent with
each other, or else only confusion results. 7. Consistency means also that the
axioms must not give rise to theorems contradicting each other. 8. Any inter­
pretation o f nature may not only be wrong, but it may also be inconsistent.
9. The axioms should be simple and independent o f each other. 10. There are
many sources o f possible theorems. The subject m atter o f maths itself, expe­
rience and scientific problems are by far the most fruitful. 11. Pure chance,
guesswork, imagination, intuition and insight o f creative genius are valuable
sources o f possible theorems as well.
8. Dispute the following statements:

1. Knowing what to prove precedes knowing how to prove it. 2. The m ath­
ematician may be convinced o f the possibility to prove a certain theorem.
3. But until he can give a deductive proof o f this theorem he cannot assert or
apply it. 4. The distinction between conviction that a theorem should hold

171
and the proof o f the theorem is exemplified by classical unsolved problems.
5. Mathematicians literally work thousands o f years to obtain such proofs.
6. What goes on in the m athem atician’s mind while he works on the prob­
lem, we do not know. 7. Wfe can say only that creative ability in maths calls
for mental qualities o f unusual excellence. 8. M aths advances by the inter­
play o f many devices and approaches. 9. The proof should be valid, rigorous
and elegant. 10. It is easy to establish rigorous proofs in m odem mechanics.

9. Agree with the following statements and develop the ideas further where possible. Use the fol­
lowing phrases:

It’s right. Quite so. I cannot agree more.


I quite agree to it. I share this viewpoint Absolutely correct

1. Design is not merely accidental in maths; it is necessarily present in any


logical structure. 2. Euclid produced his geometry only through conscious
design. 3. Euclid’s Elements ranks with the greatest works o f all times. 4. It
sets the pattern for characterizing abstract math objects by means o f axioms
and postulates. 5. Euclid’s postulates have intuitive appeal because they
apply, at least approximately, to the physical objects identified with points,
lines, triangles, circles, etc. 6. Euclid formulated a set o f basic postulates and
proceeds to use them in giving the proofs o f hundreds o f im portant theo­
rems. 7. It is probable that the Elements is, for the most part, a highly suc­
cessful compilation and systematic arrangement o f earlier writers’ works.
8. N o doubt, Euclid had to supply a number o f the proofs and to perfect
many others. 9. The chief merit o f Euclid’s work lies in the skilful selection
o f the propositions and in their arrangem ent into a logical system.
10. Euclid’s masterpiece serves as a model for all pure m ath theories.10

10. Confirm or deny the statements.


1. The parallel postulate is difficult to justify on intuitive grounds. 2. For
many centuries mathematicians tried to derive it from other postulates and
convert it into a theorem. 3. They never accomplished this goal; as by-prod­
ucts they proved many interesting results. 4. It was not until the 19th centu­
ry that it became apparent why all these attempts had to fail. S. Their failures
did not result from a lack o f ingenuity on the part o f the mathematicians.
6. The parallel postulate cannot be derived as a consequence o f the other
postulates. 7. This was dem onstrated dramatically with the construction of
non-Euclidean geometries in which Euclid’s parallel postulate does not
hold. 8. The most significant fact is that by substituting alternative postulates
the mathematicians did not arrive at any contradictions o r inconsistencies.

172
9. The other departure from the parallel postulate by Riemann led ultimate­
ly to the theory of relativity.
11. Agree or disagree with the given statements. Add whatever you like, it you think that the
information is insufficient.
1. The Elements consist o f nothing but propositions and proofs. 2. To learn
the Elements is to learn the art o f geometry. 3. The Greeks were the first
mathematicians who are still “ real” to us today. 4. Synthetic approach to
geometry was first employed by Euclid. Metric approach is o f ancient origin
as well. 5. G reek mathem aticians spoke the language which one cannot
understand today. 6. One can still believe Plato’s statement that “geometry
draws soul towards truth” M aths is a body of knowledge, but it contains no
truths. 7. The method o f moving figures and putting one on top o f the other
to see whether or not they coincide is called superposition. Intuition tells us
that it is simple to compare sizes of geometric figures by superposability.
8. Congruence, similarity and equivalence are major themes o f Euclidean
geometry. 9. N on-E uclidean geom etry creators challenged Euclid.
Euclidean geometry is useless today. 10. Language habits change and die.
Basic geometric ideas are always up-to-date.
12. Express consent, doubt or disagreement in response to the statements describing Euclid’s
errors (flaws, defects, omissions). Use the following phrases:
I quite agree th a t ... I can’t agree th a t...
I doubt th a t ... Not quite so.
It’s too much to say th a t ... It’s not a defect, in my opinion.

Tacit or unstated assumptions which Euclid introduces in his work by


means o f diagrams or otherwise:
1. The existence o f points and lines. 2. Uniqueness o f certain points and
lines. 3. The infinitude o f a straight line. 4. The continuity o f his figures.
5. The existence of order relations on a line. 6. The concepts “inside” , “out­
side” , “between” “ interior” “exterior” 7. Controversial method o f super­
position. 8. The lack o f axiom justifying superposability. 9. Euclid’s geome­
try is 1) closed and finite, 2) static.
13. Summarize the topic “ Euclid’s Elements Is a Work of Genius”. The following statements
may prove helpful:
Euclid’s Elements are the first remarkable attempt to build all geometry.
Euclid succeeded in basing his development of geometry on a system. A log­
ical self-sufficient system must start somewhere. To be precise about what his
abstract terms include Euclid begins his logical system with the first princi-

173
pies o f definitions, axioms and postulates. Euclid’s definitions were rightly
criticized. “A point is that which has no part” is the definition we are not told
what a point is but rather what it is not. After centuries o f vain effort it was
realized that one must give up definitions o f the kind attem pted by Euclid.
These must be a foundation on which to build, i.e., undefined terms.
Euclid’s fundamental propositions from which further statem ents follow
logically are divided into “postulates” and “axioms” . M odem m aths ignores
the distinction between these terms. A derivation o f a theorem involves a
proof. The precise and rigorous sense which the Greeks gave to this word may
be understood by studying Euclid’s Elements. This sense is not changed
because what constituted a proof for Euclid is still a proof for us. It is to
Euclid’s Elements that mathematicians turn for models o f proof. However,
intensive and sufficiently exhaustive study o f the Elements revealed some
tacit assumptions that converted some o f his proofs into invalid dem onstra­
tions. Besides, Euclid’s first principles are insufficient for the derivation of
all the 465 propositions. The fact o f the impossibility o f deriving the propo­
sition on parallels from the rest o f postulates and axioms was clearly recog­
nized by Euclid himself. Despite some shortcomings and the inadequacy of
Euclid’s definitions, the Elements are a work o f genius. There is no textbook
in the history o f mankind which retained a position o f prominence for as
long time as this work o f Euclid. Nowadays high-school geometry is based
principally on Euclid’s accomplishment. Even the emergence o f non-
Euclidean geometries did not spoil the “image" o f Euclid or o f his Elements.

R E A D IN G C O M P R E H E N SIO N

1. Read the text making notes. Enlarge upon topology and significance of topological transfor­
mations.

Tbpology
Topology is that branch of geometry, which deals with those properties of
figures which are unchanged by continual deformations. Topology is often
called “rubber-sheet geometry"t and this metaphorical appellation helps us
understand the nature o f this interesting and difficult branch o f maths.
Suppose a figure is drawn on a rubber sheet and that the sheet is thereupon
stretched, twisted and distorted in every conceivable way except by being cut
or tom . What happens to the figure? Obviously, distances, directions and sizes

174
are changed. At first blush (glance) it may appear that no similarities remain.
Yet, they are present. A point, which was between two other points con­
tinues to be between them.
W ; know that modern maths is composed o f many different divisions.
Despite its rigorousness topology is one o f the most appealing. Its study is
today one o f the largest and most important o f math activities. Although the
study o f polyhedra held a central place in Greek geometry, it remained for
Descartes and Euler to discover the following fact: In a simple polyhedron let
V denote the number o f vertices, E —the number o f edges, and F — the num ­
ber o ffaces; then always
V+F-E=2.
By a polyhedron is meant a solid, whose face consists o f a number o f polyg­
onal faces. In the case o f the regular solids all the polygons are congruent and
all the angles at vertices are equal. A polyhedron is simple if there are no
“holes” in it, so that its surface can be deformed continuously into the sur­
face o f a sphere. There are o f course, simple polyhedra which are not regu­
lar and polyhedra which are not simple. It is not difficult to check the fact
that Euler’s formula holds for simple polyhedra, but does not hold for non­
simple polyhedra.
Wfe must recall that elementary geometry deals with magnitudes (lengths,
angles and areas) that are unchanged by the rigid motions, while projective
geometry deals with the concepts (point, line, incidence, and cross-ratio),
which are unchanged by the still laiger group o f projective transformations.
But the rigid motions and the projections are both very special cases o f what are
called topological transformation: a topological transformation of one geo­
metrical figure A into another figure A ' is given by any correspondence P++P'
between the points P o f A and the points P ' o f A ', which has the following
two properties: (1) The correspondence is biunique. This means to imply that
to each point P of A corresponds just one point P ' of A ' and conversely. (2)
The correspondence is continuous in both directions. This means that if we take
any two points P, q o f A and move P so that the distance between it and q
approaches zero (0), then the distance between the corresponding points P,
q o f A ' will also approach zero, and conversely.
The most intuitive examples o f general topological transformations are
deformations. Imagine, a figure such as a sphere or a triangle to be made
from, or drawn upon, a thin sheet of rubber, which is then stretched and
twisted in any m anner without tearing it and without bringing distinct points
into actual coincidence. The final position o f the figure will then be a topo­

175
logical image o f the original. A triangle can be deformed into any other trian­
gle or into a circle or an ellipse, and hence these figures have exactly the
same topological properties. But one cannot deform a circle into a line seg­
ment, nor the surface o f a sphere into the surface o f an inner tube. The gen­
eral concept o f topological transformation is wider than the concept of
deformation. For example, if a figure is cut during a deformation and the
edges of the cut sewn together after the deform ation in exactly the same
way as before, the process still defines a topological transform ation o f the
original figure although it is not a deform ation. Topological properties
(such as are given by Euler’s theorem ) are o f the greatest interest and
im portance in many m ath investigations. They are, in a sense, the deep­
est and most fundam ental o f all geom etrical properties, since they persist
(continue to hold) under the most drastic changes o f shape. O n the basis
o f Euler’s formula it is easy to show that there are no m ore than fiv e reg­
ular polyhedra.
The science — topology - examines not only spheres that we can flatten
out but even an astronomical universe which may be closed in on itself. It is
an amazing universe in which we, nevertheless, can preserve a logical math
system. It deals with the fantastic world, a kind o f math puzzles, as that o f
the seven bridges of Konigsbeig - whether one could travel over all seven
without repeating any part of the journey —which Euler was able to answer
in the negative.

2. Correct the following:


1. Euclid’s geometry can be mastered in ten easy lessons. 2. Every concept
or a term can be defined explicitly without entering upon an endless succes­
sion o f definitions. 3. Axioms are assertions about undefined terms which we
cannot accept without a proof and construction. 4. The use o f logic adds new
information to the statements of Euclid’s postulates. 5 Euclid's system is,
most certainly, the only way geometrically to describe physical space.
6. Lobachevsky, Gauss and Bolyai drew different conclusions from the
impossibility o f proving the parallel postulate. 7. The projections o f three-
dimensional objects and the “principle o f duality" are the main concern of
Euclidean geometry.

3. Illustrate Euclid's procedure by proving one of his theorems.


The plan o f Euclid’s Elements proceeds as follows: definitions, axioms,
postulates, propositions, construction, proof, conclusion. Euclid's method
of proof is strictly deductive, that is, his theorems are proved by several

176
deductive arguments, each employs unquestionable premises and yields an
unquestionable conclusion.

4. Suppose you are asked to explain the sense and meaning of a certain approach in maths or
in science. Read the explanations given below. If they seem insufficient to you, develop the infor­
mation available and emphasize the difference (distinction), advantages and disadvantages of each
approach.

Formal synthetic approach. This phrase is used to name (to describe) the
approach to geometry first employed by Euclid and later used by many oth ­
ers. The phrase does not refer to a deductive system as such but rather to
such a pure system when it is developed without the use o f numbers. The for­
mer adjective “formal” means official, i.e., the then accepted in science.
Contrasted to this approach are “analytic” and “m etric”
Empirical approach means the form ulation o f conclusions based upon
experience or observation o f special cases, coincidences, good guessing
and flashes o f intuition. N o real understanding is involved, and the logi­
cal elem ent does not appear. The rule-of-thum b procedures and trial-
an d -error m ethods are employed. The results may be faulty; guessing
supersedes deductive logic; patience replaces brilliance. Empirical con­
clusions are generalizations based upon lim ited num ber o f observations
and experiments.
Metric approach is that in which one does employ numbers and uses them to
define real-value functions (distance and angular measures) in terms o f
which the concept o f congruence and “betweenness” can then be defined. It
is o f comparatively recent origin (the 19th century). The word “metric” may
have other uses in today’s maths when the numbers are not employed at all.
Formal axiomatic approach is embodied in a discourse conducted by form al
axiomatics methods. In a formal axiomatic treatm ent primitive or basic terms
are undefined and postulates have nothing to do with “truth” or “self-evi­
dence” This approach implies that one strips the discourse o f all concrete
content and goes to the abstract development that lies behind any specific
application.

Comment on the following approaches:

analytic; genetic; historical; pragmatic; geometrical; topological; algebraic;


scientific; popular.5

5. Discuss the problems trying to prove your point of view. Use the following phrases:

177
1 have to admit th a t... My point is th a t...
1 have reason to believe th a t... It seems reasonable to assert th a t...

1. Every line is a set o f points. Is it an axiom or a definition? Does it imply


that points exist? Does the statement say anything about the existence of
points? Compare: Any line is determined by two points.
2. There exist at least three points on a line. There exist at least one pair o f
non intersecting lines. Are these the statements o f the existence theorems?
Make a drawing to help with your reasoning.

6. Express your personal view on the statements given below and speak on the topic “The
Discovery of Г«Іоп-Euclidean Geometry”. Use the following phrases:

As for m e ... As concerns ... Summing np the discussion ...


As far as I am concerned... In conclusion, I may say ...
What I mean to say i s ... To summarize the topic ...

1. Fundamental propositions accepted without proof are called postulates


and axioms. 2. M athematicians for years thought o f Euclidean geometry as
the true and ideal system abstracted from physical points and lines. 3. Its
axioms were viewed as necessary and self-evident, probably on the basis of
observations o f the physical world and geometric diagrams. 4. The source
and the role o f axioms are viewed differently today. 5. Such phrases as “ It is
axiomatic that” , “ It is a fundamental postulate o f ...” are often used to sig­
nify statements beyond all logical opposition. 6. Within maths this viewpoint
concerning the nature o f axioms and postulates altered radically. 7. The
change was gradual and it accompanied the full understanding o f the dis­
covery o f non-Euclidean geometry 8. The parallel postulate is the most
famous postulate in math history. 9. For more than twenty centuries m athe­
maticians struggled for proofs o f the parallel postulate. 10. The problem of
finding the proof furnished the same challenge to m athem aticians as the
famous unsolved problems o f antiquity. 11. M athematicians sought to
deduce the postulate concerned from the rest o f Euclid’s postulates. In this
they failed; their efforts, however, were not in vain. 12. Many “proofs” o f the
postulate were offered, but each was sooner or later shown to rest upon a
tacit assumption equivalent to the postulate itself. 13. It is reasonable to say
that Gauss, Lobachevsky and Bolyai independently drew the same conclu­
sion because the time was ripe for the idea o f non-Euclidean geometry.
14. Nevertheless, priority arguments are very important in maths and we
honour Lobachevsky as the discoverer o f non-Euclidean geometry. 15. Their

178
contemporaries paid almost no attention to the new challenging ideas.
16. The new geometry lacked intuitive appeal and so was almost inconceiv­
able. 17. A few decades passed before mathematicians took notice o f their
work. 18. The new geometry gained recognition due to the “ models” con­
structed by F. Klein and Poincare. 19. The “model” concept itself is quite
m odem , but it has an extensive historical background. 20. With the creation
ofpurely “artificial” geometry, it became apparent that geometry is not nec­
essarily tied to physical space. 21. Non-Euclidean geometry can be present­
ed in various ways. 22. It became a relatively simple m atter to invent new and
even bizzare geometries. 23. Non-Euclidean geometry is o f great importance
in the study o f the foundations o f maths. 24. Lobachevsky was the father o f
the most famous revolution in maths, but the tsarist government erected no
m onum ent to commemorate the revolution for which Lobachevsky was
responsible. 25. Instead the government relieved him o f his job as head o f the
University o f Kazan at the age o f fifty-four —this with no explanation what­
soever, to a mathematician so great and well-known throughout the world.
Lobachevsky survived this disgrace but his health failed and he became
blind.

7. What is meant by the following statements?


1. In maths all roads lead to Greece, “the morning-land o f civilization”
2. Num ber rules the universe. (The Pythagoreans.) 3. The math theory results
from the interplay o f the two things: a set of postulates and a logic. 4. Men
accepted the axioms of Euclidean geometry because experience with physical
figures vouched for those axioms. 5. Certainly Euclid’s geometry was a grand
abstraction from physical world but the current math abstractions are o f even
higher order. 6. With the creation of non-Euclidean geometries mathemati­
cians inaugurated the interpretation of nature. 7. Nature is consistent, maths
also has to be consistent. 8. Absolute consistency is unattainable. 9. In a m od­
em deductive proof from explicitly stated axioms the meaning o f the unde­
fined terms is irrelevant. 10. Mathematics does not deal with objects, rela­
tions and phenomena o f the external world, but, strictly speaking, only with
objects and relations of its own imagery. 11. A maths absolutely divorced from
reality soon becomes sterile. 12. The question o f whether a geometry is “true”
has no place in pure science. 13. Pure geometry is far richer in meaning,
vaster in scope, and more fruitful in application than it was suspected before.
14. Hyperbolic geometry is one o f many non-Euclidean geometries. It is par­
ticularly important. 15. The best way to describe geometry today is to display
a geometrical way o f looking at any subject.

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C O M P O SIT IO N

1. Write a dialogue based on the given questions.


1. What was the cradle o f maths? 2. How can the maths preceding Greek
times be characterized? 3. How did the Egyptians and the Babylonians pro­
duce their best math results? 4. W hat are the contributions o f the Greeks to
maths? 5. What is the advantage o f maths being abstract? 6. W hat is usually
meant by a deductive system? 7. W hat are the basic means o f geometry?
8. Why did the Greeks turn toward geometry and did not create num ber sys­
tems or algebra? 9. How did m ath theories originate in G reek maths?
10. What was the result o f the G reeks’ discovery that the num ber >/2 is irra­
tional? 11. What are the earliest math theories o f antiquity? 12. What is the
most outstanding contribution o f the early Greeks? 13. What do you mean
by “ material axiomatics”? 14. W ho o f the Greek mathematicians created the
best example o f material axiomatics? IS. What do Euclid’s Elements deal
with? 16. What is the origin o f the creation o f non-Euclidean geometry?
17. Euclid recognized that a postulate (an assumption, undemonstrable
statem ent) was needed to specify the nature of parallel lines, didn’t he?
18. Was parallel postulate Euclid’s great contribution or a blemish in his the­
ory? 19. Why did parallel postulate give so much trouble? 20. When did dis­
satisfaction with Euclid’s parallel postulate appear? How long did geome­
ters’ attempts last to find a better statem ent o f this postulate or to prove it as
a theorem dependent on other postulates? 21. What geometry may be called
non-Euclidean? 22. Who created non-Euclidean geometry? 23. Did the cre­
ators o f non-Euclidean geometry have any real understanding o f the results
obtained? 24. What developed out o f their invention?

2. Write a two-pages-long composition “ Modern Geometry”.

C O M P R E H E N SIO N E X E R C ISE S

Questions
1. Why is it customary to refer to Thales o f Miletus as a) one o f the “seven
wise men o f antiquity’’, b) a worthy founder o f demonstrative geometry?
What do you know about the rest six “wise men o f antiquity”? W hat were
Thales’ great innovations and contribution to maths and science?
2. Did the residents of Crotone appreciate the Pythagoreans’ activities and
their maths'? Can you characterize Pythagoras as a person (leader, m athe­
matician, teacher, athlete, speculative natural philosopher)? What legends

180
abqut Pythagoras do you know? Why are the Pythagoreans’ works unavail­
able in the libraries nowadays? W ho(m) do we owe the preservation o f the
Pythagoreans’ maths to?
3. What is Euclid's definition? What types o f definition do you know? What
is the distinction between explicit and implicit definitions? How can one dis­
tinguish between an implicit definition and a tacit assumption?
4. What is an axiom? How did Euclid himself differentiate between the
axioms which referred to general math ideas and those which referred specif­
ically to geometric objects? C an you give a simple noncircular and uniquely
characterizing definition o f an axiom? Why does one choose the axioms one
does? Is there any technique, mechanical process or algorithm to help us
select out o f infinite variety o f statements those that should be used for
axioms? O r is it an art that demands genius?
5. What is a deduction? How does Euclid draw all his conclusions? Is
deduction o f any value in actual practice? Can one deduce a cure for cancer
from some definitions and axioms? Deductive reasoning is carried on as fol­
lows: “All good people are honest and if I am good then I must be honest.
And if I am not honest I am not then good.” Illustrate deductive reasoning
in maths. Prove a theorem or solve some problem applying math deduction.
6. What is a theorem? How does one discover what theorems one can prove
from a particular set of axioms? Is proving theorems difficult? Can a theo­
rem once proved be disproved? Does a proved theorem ever become old,
old-fashioned or out-of-date? When does a proved theorem become a par­
ticular case o f a more general principle? Can you give some examples?
7. W hat is a proof? W hat constituted a proof for Euclid is still a proof for
us. Why? When do mathematicians call a proof rigorous, valid, elegant?
Priority arguments concerning proof are not very important (Euclid), are
they? Are there any proofs in applied mathematics?
8. Geometric knowledge. What does this phrase mean? D o geometric ideas
die? V&s geometric knowledge submitted to re-examination and re-evalua-
tion? Can geometric knowledge be decreased, reduced or diminished?
9. W hat is an axiomatic approach? W hat is the role o f the axiomatic
approach in current maths? What properties must an axiomatic system
possess? Is the ordering o f theorem s o f any importance in the axiomatic
system?
10. Why do we call D. H ilbert’s geometry form al? Do there exist different
view points (standpoint) concerning geometry today? Does geometry
exhaust itself? What is the distinction between abstract and formal geo­
m etry?

181
DISCU SSIO N
1. It is customary to speak about the ancient Egyptians’, Babylonians’ and
Greeks’ geometry. Does there exist any national geometry today? Why?
2. The empirical nature (rule-of-thum b procedures, trial-and-error m eth­
ods) o f pre-Hellenistic maths and its accomplishments.
3. The Pythagoreans’ maths.
4. The first genuine stride o f maths as a science was taken by geometry and
not by num ber o r algebra. Why?
5. The importance and formal nature o f Euclid’s Elements. Deduction ver­
sus induction.
6. In Euclid’s Elements each proposition stands by itself; its connection
with others is never indicated; the leading ideas contained in his proofs are
not stated explicitly; general principles do not exist. M odem tendency is
toward generalization. What does it mean?
7. Professional mathematicians admire Euclid’s work, nevertheless, none
o f them likens him to, say, Archimedes. Why? Historians display extensive
testimonials to the greatness o f Archimedes. There is nothing like this in the
case o f Euclid. Why?
8. The best math proofs are usually short, direct and penetrating. Give
some examples.
9. Every proof o f Euclid calls for some new, often ingenious approach. Is
this lack o f a general procedure a merit or shortcoming o f Euclid?
Advantages and disadvantages.
10. There are no motivations, explanations or justifications in Euclid’s
Elements. He never mentions the name o f a person, he never makes a state­
ment about or even an allusion to genetic development o f maths. He has a
fixed pattern for the enunciation o f a proposition and never deviates from or
reverses the procedure. In short, Euclid’s Elements is the work o f a dull
unsufferable pedant and martinet. Your viewpoint?
11. G reek maths is “perm anent” more perm anent than Greek literature
or art. Some historians o f maths assert that maths was created by the ancient
Greeks and very little was added since their time. Prove it or disagree.
12. The parallel postulate is rich in implications. Its implications are dras­
tic. What do these statements mean? What may happen if one discards or
neglects the parallel postulate? Can a geometry be consistent w ithout it?
13. The essence o f Euclid’s, Lobachevsky’s, Riem ann’s parallel postu­
lates. How many non-Euclidean geometries do there exist (are studied and
developed) today? Was non-Euclidean geometry invented o r discovered?

182
14. The creation o f non-Euclidean geometry brought about momentous
innovations and novel developments in maths. What are they?
15. Geom etry that is 1) true, 2) worthy o f investigation, 3) the most con­
venient, 4) the most up-to-date.
16. There are unexpected reverse movements in maths in which a special­
ized theory (such as the theory o f real numbers) lends indispensable aid in
the construction o f a more general theory (like topology or integration).
Sortie examples o f reverse movements (approaches) in geometry.
17. M aterial and formal axiomatics. The meaningfulness o f axiomatic
approach in maths. There are three im portant concepts, usually associated
with any axiomatic system: consistency, independence and completeness.
W hat do they all mean?
18. D. H ilbert’s famous book The Foundation o f Geometry. Its role in the
development o f m odem mathematics.
19. Throughout the history, in fact, improvements in notation always suc­
ceed and parallel the progress in maths. Did there appear any improvements
in geometrical notation?
20. A m odem view of geometry as 1) a branch o f maths which is the invari­
ant theory o f a transformation group (the Erlanger program), 2) a point o f
view, a particular way of looking at a subject (abstract spaces). M odem
geometry is the royal road that Euclid thought did not exist.
21. G eom etry is the only field o f maths in which two-thousand-year-old
traditions and theories are still valid and there is always a flood o f fresh ideas.
Today the fastest growing and most radically changing of all the branches o f
maths is geometry. What are some o f the new aspects (parts, divisions) o f
geometry that claim the attention o f contem porary researchers?
22. The sense o f beauty is very personal and subjective. Nevertheless m ath­
ematicians unanimously agree that a certain math result is elegant and beau­
tiful. D o validity and truth alone suffice to make a math theorem beautiful?
How can one recognize “beauty” in a m ath theorem? Some examples o f
beautiful theorem s in geometry.
23. “A geometry is the study o f those properties o f a set S which remains
invariant when the elements o f the set S are subjected to the transformations
o f some transformation group.” (F. Klein.) Does there exist a still more gen­
eral concept o f geometry nowadays?
U n it S ix ( 6 )

INTRODUCTION TO ANALYTIC GEOMETRY

Grammar:
1. Indefinite Tense Forms.
2. Different Means of Expressing Future Actions.
3. Nouns of Latin and Greek Origin.

LABORATORY PRACTICE

Repeat the sentences after the speaker.

By the seventeenth century m aths was still essentially a body o f


geom etry and th e h e art o f th is body was E u c lid ’s co n trib u tio n .
2. Euclidean geom etry confines itself to figures form ed by straight lines
and circles. 3. In the seventeenth century the advances o f sciences and
technology produced a need to work with many new configurations and
new curves. 4. The great m athem aticians o f the Age o f G enii (the seven­
te en th century) were m uch co n cern ed w ith the study o f curves.
5. Ellipses, parabolas and hyperbolas becam e im portant because they
have a host o f practical applications. 6. The classical works and methods
on conic sections becam e inadequate when dealing with practical prob­
lems. 7. Euclidean synthetic m ethods were too lim ited to deal with the
problem s o f projectile paths, m ap-m aking and the study o f lenses. 8. All
these problem s not only increased the need for knowledge o f properties
o f fam iliar curves but also introduced new curves. 9. O f two great thinkers
R. Descartes (the Latin version o f his name is Renatus Cartesius) and
P. Fermat who founded analytic geometry, the form er was a profound
philosopher, the latter was a scientist in the realm o f ideas. 10. Analytic
geom etry is a general m ethod o f geom etry and the basis o f all m odem
applied maths. 11. Analytic geom etry is often appreciated as the logical
basis for m echanics and physics. Such appraisals are wholly verified.
12. D escartes saw as the objective o f his work the cooperation o f algebra
and geometry so that m aths might have the best aspects o f both b ranch­
es. 13. In the end it turned out that geometry lost popularity in the p a rt­
nership. 14. G eom etry was arithm etized and the beautiful geom etrical

184
reasoning was abandoned. 15. G eom etry was submerged in a sea o f for­
mulas. The spirit o f geom etry was banished for more than 150 years.
16. G eom eters rem ained in the shadow. In the 19th century, however,
projective geom etry revived spirit and vitality o f pure geometry. 17. The
idea o f identifying num bers with points originated in antiquity. 18. The
discovery o f incom m ensurables led to the definition o f the real numbers
with which we assign a num ber to each point o f a line. 19. Logically
speaking, this is the basis o f analytic geometry because it enables one to
identify points (the most basic objects o f geometry) with numbers (the
most basic objects o f arithm etic and algebra). 20. A system with which
one coordinates num bers and points is referred to as coordinate system
o r frame o f reference. 21. Thanks to Descartes and Fermat points
becam e pairs o f num bers, and curves becam e collection o f pairs o f num ­
bers expressed in equations. 22. The properties o f curves can be deduced
by algebraic processes applied to the equations. 23. Analytic geometry
replaced curves by equations through the device o f a coordinate system.
24. C oordinate system locates points in a plane or in space by numbers.
25. The association o f equation and curve, the com bination o f the best o f
algebra and the best o f geom etry was a revolutionary new thought.
26. D escartes and Ferm at created a new m ethod for studying geometric
figures and curves, both fam iliar and new. 27. The heart o f D escartes’ and
F erm at’s idea is the following: To each curve there belongs an equation,
that uniquely describes the points o f that curve and no other points.
28. Conversely, each equation involving x and у can be pictured as a curve
by interpreting x and у as coordinates o f points. 29. The equation o f any
curve is an algebraic equality which is satisfied by the coordinates o f all
points on the curve but not the coordinates o f any other points. 30. In
analytic geom etry o f a three-dim ensional space a plane is characterized
by a linear equation. 31. A quadratic surface, e.g., a sphere or an ellip­
soid, is characterized by a quadratic equation. 32. A quadratic equation
is the one in w hich the highest power o f an unknown is its square. 33. It
is not difficult to generalize the basic ideas to include also points in
space. 34. To coordinate numbers to points in space we shall employ a
coordinate system consisting o f three m utually perpendicular axes -
x , y , z axes. 35. The algebraization o f geometry permits one to speak o f a
space o f more than three dimensions, say, л -dimensions.

185
GRAMMAR

1. Indefinite Tense Forms

Active Voice Passive Voice


Present M athem aticians com m only This frame o f reference is
use this frame o f reference to commonly used to locate a
locate a point in the plane. point in the plane.
Past M athem aticians used this This frame o f reference was
frame o f reference to solve used to solve that problem.
that problem.
Future M athematicians will use this This frame o f reference will be
frame o f reference to locate a used to locate a point in space.
point in space.

№1151816 the following sentences into Russian, analyzing die predicates:


1. As far as three centuries ago the main fabric o f math thought was sup­
plied by geometry, inherited from the ancients and only perfected during the
intervening 20 centuries. 2. Then began a radical and rapid transformation of
maths. 3. It is true that the deductive m ethod starting from axioms provides
a shortcut for covering a large territory and general theories. 4. But the con­
structive method, that proceeds from the particular to the general, leads the
way more surely to independent productive thinking. 5. The rigorous
axiomatic, deductive style o f geometry yielded to inductive, intuitive insights
and pure geometric notions gave way to concepts o f num ber and algebraic
operations which are embodied in analytic geometry and calculus. 6. Few
academ ic experiences will be more thrilling to the students o f m aths than an
introduction to this new and powerful method o f attacking geometrical
problems - analytic geometry. 7. The task o f establishing a theorem in
geometry will be cleverly shifted to that o f establishing a corresponding the­
orem in algebra. 8. Since many students arc considerably more able as alge­
braists than as geometers, analytic geometry can be described as the “royal
road” in geometry that Euclid thought did not exist. 9. R. D escartes’ claim
to the invention o f analytic geometry rests on one o f the three appendices to
his famous philosophical treatise on universal science: “ Discourse on the
M ethod o f Rightly Conducting Reason and Seeking Truth in the Sciences"
which was published in 1637. 10. R Ferm at's claim to priority rests on a let­

186
ter written in 1636 in which it is stated that the ideas of the writer were even
then seven years old. 11. Although solid analytic geometry was mentioned by
R. Descartes, it was not elaborated thoroughly and exhaustively by him.
12. A century later the whole subject matter o f analytic geometry was well
advanced beyond its elementary stages by L. Euler.

2. Different Means of Expressing Future Actions


1. M eans o f expressing ability, capability and permission in the future:

can —> shall/will be able to may shall/will be allowed to

E.g. The students will be able to solve geometrical problems in terms of


algebra in analytic geometry. They will be allowed to apply this coordinate
system in the following problems.

2. M eans o f expressing obligation or necessity in the future:

must —» shall/will have to

E.g. Wfe shall have to plot the graph more accurately. They will have to ver­
ily their results once more.

3. M eans o f expressing intention, willingness, readiness, expectation in the


future:

to be + Infinitive to be going + infinitive to be about + Infinitive

E.g. Vfe are to consider one-to-one correspondence as the main principle


o f analytic geometry. Are you going to use this method of reasoning again?
He was about to perform the construction and then changed his mind.4

4. M eans o f expressing future actions in subordinate clauses o f time, con­


dition and concession.

Future Indefinite —» Present Indefinite

C onjunctions that may introduce such clauses:


when, while, till, until, before, after, as soon as, once, if, unless, on condi-

187
tion (that), provided (providing) that, in case, even if, even though, no matter
how, whenever, whatever, however.
E. g. When the student studies calculus, he will find that radian measure­
ment of angles is the natural and convenient system for use in theoretical
developments. Providing the angle is measured in radians there will be sever­
al useful geometric relations. Whenever we turn to general methods of graph­
ing functions, we shall discuss in detail the most common two-dimensional
representation of a plane.
3. Nouns of Latin and Greek Origin
Singular Plural Singular Plural
a) -on (-am ) -» -а [э]
continuum continua maximum maxima
континуум максимум
criterion criteria medium media
критерий среда
curriculum curricula minimum minima
учебный план минимум
datum data momentum momenta
данная количество
величина движения
equilibrium equilibria phenomenon phenomena
равновесие явление
infinitum infinite polyhedron polyhedra
бесконечность многогранник
latus rectum latcra recta quantum quanta
фокальный квант
параметр
symposium symposia vacuum vacua
симпозиум вакуум
spectrum spectra stratum strata
спектр слой

b) -is (is) |
- » - « [i:z]
-ix|iks) J
analysis analyses emphasis emphases
анализ эмфаза
axis axes hypothesis hypotheses
ось гипотеза
basis bases index indices
базис указатель
crisis crises matrix matrices
кризис матрица
directrix directrices parenthesis parentheses
директриса скобка

188
vertex vertices phasis phases
вершина фаза
thesis theses synthesis syntheses
тезис, синтез
диссертация
с) -us [as] -> -i [at]

calculus calculi modulus moduli


исчисление. модуль
математический анализ
focus foci nucleus nuclei
фокус ядро
genius genii radius radii
гений радиус
locus loci rhombus rhombi
геометрическое место ромб
точек

d) Similar Forms

an apparatus apparatus a means means


аппарат, прибор средство
a headquarters headquarters a series series
штаб ряд
news news a speeds species
новость вид

e )-a [э] —> -ae [i:]

Modem Forms
abscissa abscissae abscissas criterions
абсцисса formulas hyperbolas
hyperbola hyperbolae geniuses indices
гипербола radiuses terminuses
formula formulae mediums nucleuses
формула indexes spectrums
corona coronae rhombuses vacuums
корона lacunas maximums
lacuna lacunae
пустота
nebula nebulae
туманность

Translate the following sentences into Russian:

1. The area o f an ellipse equals я /4 times the product o f the long and the
short diam eters or n times the product o f the long and the short radii. 2. If a

189
curve is symmetric with respect to both axes, is it symmetric with respect to
the origin? 3. Analytic methods give us a means o f finding the equations o f
/ос/; all these loci (a circle, an ellipse, a hyperbola, a parabola) are called
conic sections or simply conics. 4. The notion o f a four-dimensional geom­
etry is a very helpful one in studying physical phenomena. 5. A chord drawn
through either focus of the ellipse and perpendicular to the principal axis is
called a latus rectum. Find the equation o f the ellipse with fo ci at the points
(0 ,4 ), if the length of its minor axis is 6. Find the end points o f its latera recta
and sketch the ellipse. 6. In each o f the following hyperbolae, locate the ver­
tices, foci, and end o f the latera recta', draw the asymptotes and the curves.
7. All these facts may serve as reference data. 8. Complete surfaces formed
with regular polygons such as a complete surface o f cube built up by joining
six squares along their edges are called regular polyhedra.

INTRODUCTORY TEXT

DESCARTES’ AND FERMAT’S COORDINATE GEOMETRY

Every student o f maths meets the remarkable subject called analytic geom­
etry, and he can hardly fail to be impressed by the powerful idea behind it.
The essence o f the idea as applied to the plane, it will be recalled, is the
establishment o f a correspondence between pairs o f real numbers and points
in the plane, thereby making possible a correspondence between curves in
the plane and equations in two variables, so that for each curve in the plane
there is a definite equation f ( x , y) = 0, and for each such equation there is a
definite curve in the plane. A correspondence is similarly established
between the algebraic and analytic properties o f the equation f ( x , y) = 0, and
the geometric properties o f the associated curve. The task o f proving a theo­
rem in geometry will cleverly be shifted to that o f proving a corresponding
theorem in algebra and analysis.
There is no unanimity o f opinion among historians o f maths concerning
who invented analytic geometry, nor even concerning what age should be
credited with the invention. M uch o f this difference o f opinion is caused by
a lack of agreement regarding just what constitutes analytic geometry. There
are those who, favouring antiquity as the era o f the invention, point out the
well-known fact that the concept o f fixing the position o f a point by means
o f suitable coordinates, was employed in the ancient world by the Egyptians
and the Romans in surveying, and by the Greeks in map-making. And, if

190
analytic geometry implies not only the use o f coordinates but also the geo­
metric interpretation o f relations among coordinates, then a particularly
strong argument in favour of crediting the Greeks is the fact that Apollonius
(c. 225 B.C.) derived the bulk of his geometry o f the conic sections from the
geometrical equivalents of certain Cartesian equations o f these curves, the
idea which originated with Menaechmus about 350 B.C.
Others claim that the invention o f analytic geometry should be credited to
Nicole Oresme, who was born in Normandy about 1323 and died in 1382
after a career that carried him from a maths professorship to a bishopric.
Nicole Oresme in one of his math tracts anticipated another aspect of ana­
lytic geometry, when he represented certain laws by graphing the dependent
variable against the independent one, as the latter variable was permitted to
take on small increments. Advocates for N. Oresme as the inventor o f ana­
lytic geometry see in his work such accomplishments as the first explicit
introduction o f the equation o f a straight line and the extension of some o f
the notions o f the subject from two-dimensional space to three-, and even
four-dimensional spaces. A century after N. Oresme’s tract was written, it
enjoyed several printings and in this way it may possibly exert some influence
on the succeeding mathematicians.

However, before analytic geometry could assume its present highly practi­
cal form, it had to wait the development o f algebraic symbolism, and,
accordingly, it may be more correct to agree with the majority o f historians,
who regard the decisive contributions made in the seventeenth century by
the two French mathematicians, R. Descartes (1596-1650) and P. Fermat
(1601-1663), as the essential origin of at least the modern spirit of the sub­
ject. After the great impetus given to the subject by these two men, we find
analytic geometry in a form with which we are familiar today. In the history
o f maths a good deal o f space will be devoted to R. Descartes and R Fermat,
for these men left very deep imprints on many subjects. Also, in the history
o f maths, much will be said about the importance o f analytic geometry, not
only for the development o f geometry and for the theory o f curves and sur­
faces in particular, but as an indispensable force in the development o f the
calculus, as the influential power in molding our ideas o f such far-reaching
concepts as those o f “function” and “dimension”.
Thus, applied maths in the modern sense o f the term was not the creation
o f the engineer or the engineering-minded mathematician. O f the two great
thinkers who founded this subject one was a profound philosopher, the other
was a scientist in the realm o f ideas. The former, Rene Descartes, devoted

191
him self to critical and profound thinking about the nature o f truth, and the
physical structure o f the universe. The latter, P. Fermat, lived an ordinary life
as a lawyer and civil servant, but in his spare time he was busy creating and
offering to the world his famous theorems. The work o f both men in many
fields will be immortal. Descartes proposed to generalize and extend the
methods used by mathematicians in order to make them applicable to all
investigations. In essence, the m ethod will be an axiomatic deductive con­
struction for all thought. The conclusions will be theorems derived from
axioms. Guided by the methods o f the geometers Descartes carefully formu­
lated the rules that would direct him in his search for truth. His story o f the
search for method and the application o f the method to problems o f philos­
ophy was presented in his famous Discourse on Method. The method
Descartes abstracted from maths and generalized, he then reapplied to
maths; with it he succeeded in creating a new way o f representing and ana­
lyzing curves. This creation, now known as coordinate geometry, is the basis
o f all modern applied maths.
P. Fermat, despite the brief am ount o f time he was able to spend on maths
and the pleasure-seeking attitude with which he approached it, established
himself as one of the truly great mathematicians o f all times. His contribu­
tions to the calculus were first-rate though somewhat overshadowed by those
o f Newton and Leibnitz. He shared with Pascal the honour o f creating the
m ath theory o f probability, and shared with Descartes the creation o f coor­
dinate geometry, and founded the theory o f numbers. In all these fields this
“am ateur” produced brilliant results. Though not concerned with a univer­
sal method in philosophy, Fermat did seek a general method o f working with
curves and here his thoughts joined company with those o f Descartes'
One must understand why it was that the great mathematicians o f the time
were so much concerned with the study o f curves. In the early part o f the sev­
enteenth century maths was still essentially a body o f geometry and the heart
o f this body was Euclid’s contribution. Euclidean geometry confines itself to
figures formed by straight lines and circles, but by the seventeenth century
the advances o f science and technology produced a need to work with many
new configurations. Ellipses, parabolas and hyperbolas became important
because they described the paths o f the planets and projectiles such as can­
non balls.
Both Descartes and Fermat recognized that geometry supplied informa­
tion and truth about the real world. They also appreciated the fact that alge­
bra could be employed to reason about abstract and unknown quantities;
and it could be used to mechanize the reasoning process and minimize the

192
effort needed to solve problems. Therefore they proposed to borrow all that
was best in geometry and algebra and correct the defects o f one with the help
o f the other. In Descartes’ general study o f method he decided to solve all
problems by proceeding from the simple to the complex. Now, the simplest
figure in geometry is the straight line. He therefore sought to approach the
study o f curves through straight lines and he found the way to do this.
To discuss the equation o f a curve he introduced a horizontal line called
the A^axis, a point О on the line called the origin, and a vertical line through
О called У-axis. If Я is any point on a curve, there are two numbers that
describe its position. The first is the distance from О to the foot o f the per­
pendicular, from P to the Af-axis. This number, called A'-value, is the abscis­
sa o f P. The second num ber is the distance from P to the У-axis, called Y-
value or ordinate o f P. These two numbers are called the coordinates o f P and
are generally written as P (x , y). The curve itself is then described alge­
braically by stating some equation which holds forx and у values o f points on
that curve and only for those points.
The heart o f Descartes’ and Ferm at’s idea is the following. To each curve
there belongs an equation that uniquely describes the points o f that curve
and no other points. Conversely, each equation involving x and у can be pic­
tured as a curve by interpreting x and у as coordinates of points.
Thus formally stated: the equation o f any curve is an algebraic equality
which is satisfied by the coordinates o f all points on the curve but not the
coordinates o f any other point.
Since each o f these pairs o f coordinates represents a point on the curve, we
can plot these points and join them by a smooth curve. The more coordi­
nates we calculate, the more points can be plotted and the more accurately
the curve can be drawn.
Beyond the analysis o f properties o f individual curve, the association of
equation and curve makes possible a host o f scientific applications o f maths.
Among the practical applications o f maths we shall merely mention that all
the conic sections possess the properties that make these curves effectively
employed in lenses, telescopes, microscopes, A'-ray machines, radio anten­
nas, searchlights and hundreds o f other major devices. When Kepler intro­
duced the conic sections in astronomy, they became basic in all astronomi­
cal calculations including those o f eclipses and paths of comets.
To summarize, it was not so m uch the use o f coordinates that made the
work o f Descartes and Fermat so important; coordinates were used effec­
tively in antiquity, especially in the geometry o f Apollonius, and again in the
fourteenth century in a more primitive form in the latitude o f forms of

7 Английский язык для студентов-мате мат иков


193
Oresme. Descartes saw as the objective o f his work the cooperation o f alge­
bra and geometry to the end that maths might have the best aspects o f both
branches. In the end, however, it turned out that geometry lost popularity in
the partnership. Pure geometry was so overshadowed that it made little
progress during the next century and a half, during which time infinitesimal
analysis went through a progress o f arithm etization that am ounted almost to
a revolution.

Analysis Incarnate —Leonard Euler


Though P. Fermat and R. Descartes founded analytic geometry, they did
not advance the subject far enough and did not elaborate it purely analyti­
cally, either. A century later L. Euler (1707-1783), a Swiss mathematician
who lived the greater part o f his life in Russia, engaged in scientific
research, lecturing and textbook writing in St. Petersburg Academy, devel­
oped the subject m atter o f both plane and solid analytic geometry far
beyond its elementary stages. Euler’s m ath career opened when analytic
geometry (made public in 1637) was ninety years old, the calculus about
fifty. In each o f these fields a vast num ber o f isolated problems were solved,
but no systematic unification o f the whole o f the then maths, pure and
applied, was made. In particular, the powerful analytic methods o f Fermat,
Descartes, Newton and Leibnitz were not exploited to the limit o f what
they were capable, especially in calculus, geometry and mechanics, where
Euler proved him self the master.
In the 18th century the universities were not the principal centers o f sci­
ence in Europe. The lead in scientific research was taken by the various
royal academies. In Euler’s case St. Petersburg and Berlin furnished the
sinews o f m ath creation. Both o f these foci o f creativity owed their inspi­
ration to the restless ambition o f Leibnitz. These academies were like some
o f these today: they were research organizations which paid their leading
members to produce scientific research. Euler became famous for his great
output o f original maths and for the wide range o f subjects he covered. He
contributed new ideas to calculus, geometry, algebra, num ber theory, cal­
culus o f variations, probability and topology. He also worked in many areas
o f applied maths, such as acoustics, optics, m echanics, astronomy, ballis­
tics, navigation, statistics and finance. His industry was as remarkable as
his genius. Euler was the most prolific m athem atician in history; his scien­
tific heritage is vast, a list of some 850 works, o f which 550 were published
in his lifetime. Euler wrote his great memoirs quite easily and even total
blindness during the last seventeen years o f his life did not retard his unpar­

194
alleled productivity. He overcame the difficulty o f blindness chiefly by
means o f his remarkable memory. Indeed, if anything, the loss o f his
eyesight sharpened Euler’s perception o f the inner world o f his imagina­
tion.
Euler first gave the examples o f those long analytic procedures in which
conditions o f the problem are first expressed by algebraic symbols and then
pure calculation resolves the difficulties. He skillfully applied his analytic
m ethod to geometry and mechanics. W here the synthetic methods o f
Euclidean geometry required elaborate and complicated constructions and
furnished lengths that could be measured only approximately, algebraic
equation o f analytic geometry is a much simpler tool and furnishes answers
to as m any decim al places as individual cases require. Euler improved the
basic concepts o f math analysis, prom oted differential and integral calcu­
lus, fathered the theory of linear differential equations and devised m eth­
ods for their approximate solution. His treatises Introduction to the Analysis
o f Infinities, Differential Calculus and Integral Calculus which for the most
part present E uler’s own results served as an encyclopedia in math analysis
o f the period. Euler’s contem poraries called him “Analysis Incarnate”
One o f the most remarkable features o f Euler’s universal genius was its
equal strength in both o f the main currents o f maths, the continuous and
the discrete. “Read Euler, he is teacher o f us a ll...” Laplace so amptly
assessed his worth. But Euler was far more than a textbook writer. He
enriched m aths with beautiful new results. Differential geometry got its
first real start in Euler’s study o f lines o f curvature (1760) and the calculus
o f variations took an independent status, when Euler (1736) gave his dif­
ferential equation expressing a necessary condition for a minimizing curve.
Curiously enough, in arriving at his theoretical conclusions, by working
on practical tasks in different fields, Euler sought to “ rid” math analysis o f
geom etrical, mechanical and physical interpretation and couch it in purely
analytic form. Thus, he wrote, “Here the entire exposition is limited to pure
analysis and, hence, not a single drawing was needed to set out the rules o f this
calculus.” In an effort to replace synthetic methods by analytic, Euler was
succeeded by Lagrange, who dealt not with special concrete cases and tasks,
but sought for abstract generality. Nevertheless, Euler was never excelled
either in productivity or in the skillful and imaginative use o f algorithmic
devices for the solution of problems.
T he co n trib u tio n that this illustrious scientist made to m aths is truly
enorm ous. We have every right to entitle him the 18th-century M athe­
m atician Num ber One whose works left th eir im print on alm ost all

195
branches o f maths. Leonard Euler was buried in 1783 near Lom onosov’s
grave in the old cem etery o f the A lexandro-N evsky M onastery in St.
Petersburg necropolis. Even when he was com pelled to em igrate to
Germany, Russia ever rem ained in Euler’s heart and m ind and he never
ruptured ties with the St. Petersburg Academy. To this day the great m ath­
em atician’s descendants live in this country, whose people will always
revere his name. In 1983 scientists around the world extensively com m em ­
orated the 275th birthday and death bicentennial o f this great scientist.

Nomography
The use o f graphic techniques for computation and solution o f equations
goes back thus to antiquity. In the time o f Hipparchus (150 B.C.) graphic
solution o f spherical triangles was very popular. During the Middle Ages,
Arab mathematicians used geometric means to solve quadratic equations,
and in the seventeenth century W. Oughtred used graphic methods for solv­
ing spherical triangles. However, the key to general application o f graphic
methods to the solution o f algebraic problems was analytic geometry, intro­
duced by R. Descartes and P. Fermat. The theory o f nomograms rests large­
ly on analytic geometry.
In 1842 L. Lalanne pointed out that by altering the scales along the
Cartesian axes it is often possible to simplify graphs o f equations in two vari­
ables. Furthermore, he noted that if these changes are subject to certain
minimal restrictions, the new graph is essentially equivalent to its Cartesian
counterpart. Lalanne called his new theory “geometrical anamorphosis”
and further advances were made in this theory by J. Massau and
C. Lallemand during the 1880’s. Those and other developments were fore­
shadowings. The real creator o f nomography was the French mathematician
M. d ’Ocagne (1862-1938). D ’Ocagne was the first to describe the “alignment
chart” (1884), and he applied this chart to many engineering formulas. In
1899 he published Traite de Nomographie, in which he brought together both
the general theories and many applications o f the subject. Since that time
numerous texts on the subject were issued and many nomograms appeared
in technical journals.
It is interesting th a t the original im petus for study o f nom ography
cam e from problem s th a t arose during the co n stru ctio n o f railroads in
France. T hus, m ost n in e te en th -ce n tu ry c o n trib u to rs to the subject
were engineers. In fact, nom ography rem ains essentially a b ranch o f
applied m aths w ith uses in engineering, industry, physical and natural
sciences.

196
A C TIV E VOCABULARY
1. to abandon 10. to embody 19. to perceive
2. to align 11. to exceed 20. to preclude
3. to anticipate 12. to facilitate 21. to publish
4. to assign 13. to favour 22. to scale
5. to associate 14. to fit 23. to submerge
6. to coordinate 15. to frame 24. to unite
7. to correspond 16. to handle 25. to urge
8. to designate 17. to innovate 26. to utilize
9. to elaborate 18. to locate

TEXT ONE

HISTORY OF THE TERMS “ELLIPSE”, “HYPERBOLA”,


AND “PARABOLA”
Read and translate the text jn class. I ty to guess the meaning of all the italicized words; para­
phrase them or give definitions, synonyms or explanations of their meaning in English.

The evolution o f our present-day meanings o f the terms “ellipse” , “hyper­


bola” , and “parabola” may be understood by studying the discoveries o f his­
tory’s great mathematicians. As with many other words now in use, the orig­
inal application was very different from the modem.
Pythagoras (c. 540 B.C.), or members o f his society, first used these terms
in connection with a method called the “application o f areas”. In the course
o f the solution (often a geometric solution o f what is equivalent to a quad­
ratic equation) one o f three things happens: the base o f the constructed fig­
ure either falls short of, exceeds, or fits the length o f a given segment.
(Actually, additional restrictions were imposed on certain o f the geometric
figures involved.) These three conditions were designated as ellipsis
( “defect”), hyperbola (“excess”) and parabola (“a placing beside”). It
should be noted that the Pythagoreans were not using these terms in refer­
ence to the conic sections.
In the history o f the conic sections M enaechmus (350 B.C.), a pupil o f
Eudoxus, is credited with the first treatm ent o f the conic sections.
M enaechmus was led to the discovery o f the curves o f the conic sections by
a consideration o f sections o f geometrical solids. Proclus in his Summary
reported that the three curves were discovered by Menaechmus; consequent­
ly, they were called the “ M enaechm ian triads” . It is thought that
M enaechmus discovered the curves now known as the ellipse, parabola and
hyperbola by cutting cones with planes perpendicular to an element and with
the vertex angle o f the cone being acute, right, obtuse, respectively.

197
The fame o f Apollonius (c. 225 B.C.) rests mainly on his extraordinary Conk
Sections. This work was written in eight books, seven o f which are preserved.
The work of Apollonius on the conic sections differed from that o f his prede­
cessors in that he obtained all o f the conic sections from one right double cone
by varying the angle at which the intersecting plane cuts the element.
All o f Apollonius’ work was presented in regular geometric form, without
the aid o f the algebraic notation o f the present-day analytic geometry.
However, his work can be described more easily by using m odem term inol­
ogy and symbolism. If the conic is referred to a rectangular coordinate system
in the usual manner with point A as the origin and with (x , y) as coordinates
o f any point P on the conic, the standard equation o f the parabola y 2=px
(where p is the length o f the latus rectum, i.e., the length o f the chord that
passes through a focus o f the conic perpendicular to the principal axis) is
immediately verified. Similarly, if the ellipse or hyperbola is referred to a
coordinate system with vertex at the origin, it can be shown that y 2<px or
y 2>px, respectively. The three adjectives “hyperbolic” “parabolic” and
“elliptic” are encountered in many places in maths, including projective
geometry and non-Euclidean geometries. Often they are associated with the
existence o f exactly two, one, or none o f something o f particular relevance.
The relationship arises from the fact that the number o f points in common
with the so-called line at infinity in the plane for the hyperbola, parabola and
ellipse is two, one and zero, respectively.

T E X T TW O

ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
Read the text in class. Make drawings of conic sections and supply them with their equations
of analytic geometry. Discuss their properties and the roles they play in modem maths and engi­
neering.

The rectangular coordinate system provides a one-to-one correspondence


between number pairs and points; that is, corresponding to a number pair
(Aj, K[) there is always one and only one point P,; and corresponding to a
point P2 there is one and only one num ber pair (Af2, ) 2). This one-to-one
correspondence is the starting point o f the plane analytic geometry.
The notion of a correspondence between a point in the plane and a pair of
numbers can be extended to a more general kind o f correspondence, nam e­
ly, between a geometric locus and an equation. The graph o f an equation is
the locus of the points whose coordinates satisfy the equation. Conversely,

198
the equation of a given curve is an equation satisfied by the coordinates of
every point on the curve and by the coordinates o f no other points.
This correspondence between equations and geometric loci will, indeed,
form the central subject o f our study. That is to say, our main investigation
will take the form o f one or the other o f the problems:
1. Given an equation, to obtain the corresponding geometric locus (the
graph of the equation) along with its properties.
2. Given a geometric locus whose points possess some common property
(shared by no other points), to find the corresponding equation.
In the latter case the equation, in turn, will help us in studying other prop­
erties o f the locus.
T hus, we define a curve as com posed o f points whose coordinates sat­
isfy a certain equation. We may think o f a curve as a locus o r a path traced
by a moving point according to certain specified conditions. From these
conditions it is possible to derive the equation o f its curve and then dis­
cuss the curve in detail from the equation. The locus o f an equation in X
and Y is defined as the totality o f points whose coordinates satisfy the
equation. There exists no definite rule for finding the equation o f the
locus. As a m atter o f fact the problem is to translate the geom etric defi­
nition o f the locus into an algebraic form with a suitable choice o f a co o r­
dinate system.
We shall proceed to the discussion o f particular species o f loci — namely,
the straight line, a circle, a parabola, an ellipse, and a hyperbola.
The problem o f finding the equation o f the straight line is the simplest case
o f the general problem o f finding the equation o f a curve. The equation o f a
straight line is determined by two points P (X b Y{) and P2 (X2, Y2). This
equation will be obtained from the fact that the point P (X , Y) is on the
straight line, if and only if, the slopes o f the segments PXP and P XP2 are equal.
This condition is ( Y - Yl) / ( X - X l) = ( Y2- Үх)/{Хг~ Х {), X x * X2 We shall refer
to this as the two-point form o f the equation o f the straight line. Thus any
straight line may be represented by an equation o f the first degree in X and
Y. Conversely, every equation o f first degree Ax + By + C = 0 represents a
straight line.
The following loci lead to particular type o f second degree equations, in
two variables.
The circle is the locus o f a point, which moves so that its distance from a
fixed point, called a centre, is constant. The distances from its centre to the
locus are radii o f the circle. Thus, x 2 + y 2 = r2 is the equation o f the circle
with the centre at the origin and a radius r.

199
The parabola is the locus o f points which are equidistant from a fixed point
and a fixed straight line.
T he fixed point is the focus, the fixed line is the directrix. The line per­
pendicular to the directrix and passing through the focus is the axis o f the
parabola. The axis o f the parabola is, obviously, a line o f symmetry. The
point on the axis halfway between the focus and the directrix on the
parabola is the vertex o f the parabola. The parabola is fixed when the focus
and the directrix are fixed. The equation o f the parabola, however,
depends on the choice o f the coordinate system. If the vertex o f the
parabola is at the origin and the focus is at the point (О, P), its equation
i s * 2 = 2 P Y or Y1 = IPX.
The ellipse is the locus o f a point which moves so that the sum o f its dis­
tances from two fixed points called the foci is constant. This constant will be
denoted by 2a, which is necessarily greater than the distance between the
foci (the focal distance). The line through the foci is the principal axis o f the
ellipse; the points in which the ellipse cuts the principal axis are called the
vertices o f the ellipse. If the centre o f the ellipse is at the origin but the foci
are on the у -axis its equation is
£ 2
62 = 1,
w here a and b represent the lengths o f its sem im ajor and sem im inor
axes.
The hyperbola is the locus o f a point which moves so that the difference of
its distances from two fixed points is a constant 2a. Its equation is

= 1.

This equation shows that the hyperbola is symmetric with respect to both
coordinate axes and also the origin. It intersects the A'-axis but does not cut
the К-axis. Hence, the curve is not contained in a bounded portion o f a
plane. The curve consists of two branches. The line segment joining the ver­
tices is called the transverse axis o f the hyperbola; its length is 2a. The point
midway between the vertices is a geometrical centre and is called the centre
o f the hyperbola.
T E X T TH REE

HIGHER DIMENSIONS

Read and translate the text in class. Discuss the problems involved.

One advantage of treating geometrical problems with analytic methods is


that it becomes easier to generalize concepts beyond those dealing with three
dimensions. In other words, the methods of analytic geometry make it easi­
er to study geometric objects for which our power o f visualization fails.
To illustrate this, let us show how the notion of a distance can be general­
ized from one and two dimensions to three, four, five and even higher
dimensions. One knows that the distance between (xi, yi) and (x2, у 2),
namely, the distance between two points in a plane is d—\(x 2—X j^+ O ^—Ух)2
In order to generalize this formula to three dimensions we have only to con­
sider a coordinate system consisting o f three mutually perpendicular axes.
With the use of this system we can locate any point in space by starting at the
origin, going a certain distance to the right or left, then to the front or back,
and finally, a certain distance up or down. With perpendicular axes like these
we can identify each point with three coordinates x, у and z, and one can
show that the distance between points (xh y \, and (x2, y 2, Z2) is
d='J(x2—X |)2+ (y 2—У\)г + {Zj—Zx)1. As in the two-dimensional case, the der­
ivation o f this formula is based on the Pythagorean theorem. If one wants to
express these two distance formulas in words, one can say that “the distance
between two points is given by the square root o f the sum of the squares o f
the differences o f the respective coordinates” Since this rule applies to one,
two and three dimensions, it is tempting to let it apply also in the case where
there are more than three.
In order to make such a generalization it will be necessary to explain first
what a m athem atician means when he speaks o f four-dimensional, five­
dim ensional, o r /і-dimensional space. Evidently, the word “space” can no
longer be interpreted in its colloquial sense standing for “physical space”
or “the space we live in” Taking this term in its colloquial sense one can
hardly go beyond the customary three dimensions of “left and right” ,
“ front and back” and “up and dow n” Indeed, when a m athem atician
talks about a space, he is referring to a collection o f math objects which (for
the sake o f convenience) may be referred to as points. He then defines the
dim ension o f such a space as the num ber o f coordinates needed to d eter­
m ine each point.

201
A line or a curve constitutes a one-dimenslonal space since each point can
be identified with one real number. Similarly, a plane or a surface constitutes
a two-dimensional space since each point can be identified with two real
numbers, namely, its two coordinates. Since three numbers are needed to
locate a point in ordinary space, one says that these points constitute a three-
dimensional space. So far the m ath concept o f a dimension agrees with the
intuitive notion which one ordinarily associates with this term. However, the
analogy breaks down the mom ent, one says that a collection o f points con­
stitutes a four-dimensional space because four numbers are needed to deter­
mine each point or if one says that a collection o f points constitutes an
n-dimensionalspace because n numbers are needed to determine each point.
It must be understood, therefore, that when a mathematician speaks o f a
four-dimensional space, he does not refer to some mysterious generalization
o f the intuitive notion o f a three-dimensional space. He refers to a set of
math objects which are individually determ ined by means o ffour numbers.
To give an example o f such a four-dimensional space, let us consider the
position o f an airplane at two different times: at 1:15 p.m. and 1:17 p.m. One
says that the position o f the airplane is in each case given by a point in a
three-dimensional space. Although the position o f airplane is given by three
coordinates x, y, z, it cannot be found unless one also knows the time, i.e.,
unless one knows a fourth variable t. In other words, to specify the location
o f the airplane one has to give four numbers x, y , z, t. It is in this sense, that
one says that the location o f the airplane is a point in a four-dimensional
space. Naturally, it will be unreasonable to expect that one can visualize this
in the same way in which one can visualize a point in one-, two-, or three-
dimensional space. As a second example o f a higher dimensional space, let
us consider five rolls o f a die which yielded the numbers 3, 6, 1,2, 5. When
taken individually, these rolls o f a die are given as single numbers, i.e., they
are points in a one-dim ensional space, when taken together they can be
looked upon as a single point in a five-dimensional space. In other words, the
experiment as a whole is characterized by five numbers, and it is therefore a
point in a five-dimensional space. In the given example the rolls o f the die
correspond to the point (3, 6 ,1 ,2 , 5). If the rolls are all 2's, they will corre­
spond to the point (2, 2, 2, 2, 2).
Statisticians often refer to a sample o f five measurements as a point in a
five-dimensional sample space, and more generally, they refer to a sample o f
n measurements as a point in an n-dimensional sample space. This is just
another way o f saying that the sample as a whole consisted of n numbers.
Physicists often consider systems o f molecules in which the position o f each

202
molecule is determined by three coordinates x, y, z. If a gas consists of
Г,000,000 molecules, we shall need 3,000,000 numbers to describe the gas as
a whole and we therefore refer to the state o f this gas as a point in a
3,000,000-dimensional space. If we also want to describe the motion o f each
particle, three more numbers will be needed for each molecule and the state
o f the gas will be a point in a 6,000,000-dimensional space.
Let us now return to the problem which originally motivated this brief
excursion into higher dimensions, namely the problem o f generalizing the
formula which measures the distance between two given points. Applying the
rule that the distance between two points is the square root o f the sum o f the
squares o f the differences o f the respective coordinates to four dimensions,
one can write the distance between points (хь у і, Z\, U\) and (x2, y2, *2> ul)
as a formula d = V(x2—X|)2+(y2- y |) 2 + (z2—Z\)2 + (w2- « i ) 2. It is important to
note that this formula actually defines what one means by the distance
between two points in a four-dimensional space. Proceeding in the same
way, one can also define the distance between two points in a five-dimen-
sional space as d = V(x2—X|)2+(y2- y i ) 2 + (Z2~z{)2 + (u2- u l)2 +(v2-V j)2 and
if one introduces a suitable notation, one will be able similarly to define the
distance between two points in an л -dimensional space. In the same way, in
which we generalized the distance formula, we are able to generalize many
o f the other formulas and equations o f analytic geometry. For example,
where in two dimensions ax + by + c = 0 is the equation o f a line, we shall
say that in three dimensions ax + by + cz + d = 0 is the equation o f a plane,
and that in four dimensions ax + by + cz + du + e = 0 is the equation o f a
hyperplane.
In analytic geometry one insists that it takes two numbers to locate a point
in the plane, i.e., it takes two coordinates to identify a point in a two-dimen­
sional space. This is correct only as long as we restrict ourselves to real num­
bers, there is a way in which one can identify each point o f plane by means
o f a single complex number. This is done simply by identifying the point
whose coordinates are (x, y) with the complex number x + iy. This means
that one can identify the points (1 ,4 ), (- 2 , 5) and (3, - 7 ) with the complex
numbers 1 + 4/, - 2 + 5/, 3 — 7/ and that one can vice versa plot the points 2 + 3/
and 4 — 2/. (They are the points whose coordinates are (2,3) and (4, -2 ).) One
can thus identify the x- and у -coordinates o f a point with the real and the
imaginary parts o f a complex number and represent each point by means o f
a unique complex number. Incidentally, this provides a “concrete” interpre­
tation o f the complex numbers. Complex numbers, thus, represent the
points o f a plane.

203
VOCAB ULAR Y E X E R C IS E S

1. Translate the following phrases into Russian, consulting the dictionary of mathematical
terms:

alignment error, aligned sample, anticipatory control, each element is


assigned two indices, assignable causes, assignment problem, associate ele­
ments, associated prime ideal, coefficient of association, associative algebra,
associative law for multiplication, associativity relation, coordinate curve,
coordinate paper, incidence correspondence, excess o f nine, excess o f trian­
gle, excess-six code, coefficient o f excess, favourable event, goodness o f fit,
least square fitting, guidance computer, hold circuit, hold rele, data han­
dling, influence function, influence line, domain o f influence, local param­
eter field/stability, localized vector, localization theorem, locally compact
group, measure of location, storage location, locus o f an equation, preserva­
tion o f angles, norm-preserving mapping, providing bank, character recog­
nition, pattern recognition, survey design, pilot survey, unified field theory,
unique solution, unique factorization theorem , to vary directly, to vary indi­
rectly, calculus o f variations, function o f bounded variation, reducible vari­
ety, minimal variety
2. Give the corresponding plural form of the following nouns and their Russian eqaivaleats:
a) continuum —» continua
datum , medium, vacuum, spectrum , quantum, infinitum, stratum, mini­
mum, extremum, maximum, m om entum , polyhedron, criterion, phenom ­
enon, equilibrium, latus rectum , trustrum , circum

b) axis axes
thesis, emphasis, analysis, basis, appendix, crisis, phasis, synthesis,
hypothesis, parenthesis, index, matrix, vertex, radix, directrix, bisectrix, tri-
sectrix, tractrix, separatrix, indicatorix

c) focus -» foci
calculus, genius, locus, modulus, nucleus, stimulus, radius, rhombus, aba­
cus, regulus, torus, syllabus

d) formula -> formulae


abscissa, hyperbola, nebula, corona, lacuna, coma, tessera

e) a means -> means


a series, a species, news, an apparatus, л headquarters

20 4
3. Give the Russian equivalent of the following groups of words:

a) to fix —to plot —to locate a point / to encounter —to come across / to
draw —to sketch —to produce a line / to fix —to denote —to assign an axis /
the relation is satisfied —is true —holds / to elaborate —to work out / to stem
from —to arise from / to coordinate —to arrange —to range — to align / to
create —to produce —to set up —to establish / to understand —to compre­
hend - to perceive / to give —to provide - to supply - to furnish - to yield
b) task —assignment / alignment chart — nomogram / scale — rule / scale
—balance / scale — numbering / correspondence — mail / impetus —stim­
ulus / survey —inspection / survey —summary / change —alteration —m od­
ification —variation / variable —unknown / locus —graph / looking glass —
m irror
c) cartesian — rectangular coordinates / deep —profound / chief —main —
principal / huge —grand — immense / visual —visible / gifted —talented —
able
4. TVanslate the following antonyms into Russian:

clockwise — counterclockwise / dependent — independent / positive —


negative / to differ —to liken / mortal —immortal / rectangular —oblique /
initial — terminal / coincident — intersecting / to land — to borrow / to
exceed —to fall short / to generate —to degenerate / equality —inequality /
preceding —subsequent / to be aware —to be ignorant / minimize —maxi­
mize / civil — military / truth —falsity

5. Explain the use of one of the synonyms in the following sentences:

to recognize, to acknowledge, to admit, to confess


1. R. Descartes did recognize some values o f studying traditional philoso­
phy, nevertheless he acknowledged that it could not serve as the foundation
for the precise sciences as “ real or veritable truth was noticeable in it by its
absence” . 2. “The long chains o f simple and easy reasonings by means o f
which geometers are accustomed to reach the conclusions o f their most dif­
ficult dem onstrations” , he admitted, led him to believe that “all things to the
knowledge o f which man is com petent are mutually connected in the same
way” . 3. He claimed that a sound body o f philosophy could be deduced only
by the methods o f geometers, for only they, he acknowledged, were able to
reason clearly and to arrive at indubitable truths. 4. He confessed that the
m ethod o f establishing new truths came to him in a dream while he was on
one o f his military campaigns.

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6. Practise (back) translations of the following sentences:

1. The equivalent equations have the same loci. 2. The points that are
common to two loci form their intersection. 3. The graph o f an equation in
X and Tis a drawing that pictures the corresponding locus. 4. The construc­
tion o f a graph is called curve plotting. 5. The locus o f every equation o f the
first degree in X and К is a straight line. 6. Any point P which satisfies the
geometric conditions must sausfy the algebraic equation and conversely.
7. When a right circular cone (including both its upper and lower nappes) is
cut by a plane, a conic section will result. 8. If the plane does not pass
through the vertex o f the cone, the section is a parabola, an ellipse, o r a
hyperbola. 9. If the plane does pass through the vertex, the section may be 1)
a single point, 2) a straight line, 3) two intersecting lines, 4) two coincident
lines. 10. All these loci are called conic sections or simply conics. 11. Wfe may
use the term regular conics to designate sections cut by the planes, that do not
pass through the vertex. 12. Wfe may use the term degenerate conics to denote
those cut by the planes through the vertex. 13. The conic sections will be
defined with reference to a focus and a directrix. 14. If the cutting plane is
perpendicular to the axis o f the cone, the section will be a circle.
15. Coordinate systems are used to locate points in the plane or in space.
16. There are two systems o f plane coordinates in general use, rectangular
and polar. 17. The coordinates o f a point are numbers that determine the
position o f a point in reference to a fixed figure (the frame o f reference).
18. The projection o f a point upon a straight line is the foot o f the perpendi­
cular dropped from the point to the line. 19. If the point lies on the fine, it is
its own projection. 20. A point will be plotted when it is located by means of
its coordinates. 21. A pair o f coordinates determines one and only one point
P o f the plane and conversely. 22. This correspondence between number
pairs and points o f the plane is called one-to-one correspondence. 23. It
provides a means o f passing from the analytic form o f an expression to the
geometric, and vice versa. 24. The graph o f an equation is the locus o f the
points whose coordinates satisfy the equation. 25. Conversely, the equation
o f a given curve is satisfied by the coordinates o f every point on the curve and
by the coordinates of no other points. 26. A line segment is a part o f a line
which is terminated by the two points given on it. 27. A directed line segment
is a line segment to which either a positive or negative direction is assigned.
28. By the inclination o f a line in the plane o f a rectangular coordinate sys­
tem is meant the smallest angle, positive or zero, measured from the positive
A'-axis to the line. 29. The tangent of the inclination is called the slope o f the

206
line. 30. Analytic geometry is a branch of mathematics in which one studies
geometry by means o f algebra. 31. The first systematic treatment of the sub­
ject was published by Rene Descartes in 1637.

G RAM M AR A N D VOCABULAR Y E X E R C IS E S

1. Say the following sentences using future indefinite tense forms (active or passive voice).

Model. Analytic geometry unifies geometry and algebra.


Analytic geometry will unify both sciences.

1. Analytic geometry creates an algebraic approach to geometry. 2. Many


problems o f geometry are solved with the methods of algebra. 3. Scientists
had to study the properties o f curves referred to as conic sections. 4. The path
o f heavenly bodies and projectiles directed and guided the research and appli­
cations o f conics. 5. Advances o f science and technology influence the inves­
tigation and introduction o f new curves. 6. Scientists sought for a general
method to represent curves algebraically. 7. The devices of analytic geome­
try replace curves by equations through a coordinate system. 8. A coordinate
system locates points in a plane by means o f numbers. 9. In a plane the coor­
dinate system assigns two numbers to a point, viz., an abscissa and an ordi­
nate. 10. The abscissa denotes the distance o f the point from a fixed vertical
reference line, called the T-axis. 11. The ordinate fixes the distance o f the
point from a horizontal reference line, called the X-axis. 12. Distances to the
right o f the T-axis, or above the X-axis are designated as positive; distances
in the opposite directions are denoted as negative. 13. In analytic geometry
points become pairs o f numbers and curves become collections o f number
pairs expressed in equations. 14. Coordinates o f the points that lie on the
curve satisfy the equation. 15. The properties o f curves are deduced by alge­
braic processes applied to the equations. 16. The properties common to all
the curves and special characteristics wherein they differ from each other are
discussed. 17. The continuity with which the curves pass into each other
appear from the definition o f a conic section as a locus. 18. Analytic m eth­
ods hold good in problems dealing with more than three dimensions. 19. In
such problems there exists the difficulty in visualizing geometric objects.
20. Euclidean synthetic m ethods fail to cope with such problems.
21. Analytic geometry is appreciated as the basis o f all modern applied
maths.

207
2. Use the proper (present, past, future) indefinite tense form according to the time indicator.

1. Analytic methods o f proof (to replace) classical geometrical reasoning.


(in this problem, last century, with the creation o f analytic geometry, in future,
at present). 2. Three-dimensional coordinate system (to relate) algebraic
equations and geometric figures in space, (in three-dimensional geometry, in
the next problem, in the theory o f relativity, with the inauguration o f abstract
spaces, in the nineteenth century) 3. Pure geometry (to be arithmetiied)
through the devices o f coordinate geometry, (nowadays, next decade, in the
seventeenth century)

3. Change active into passive.

1. Analytic geom etry founded an algebraic approach to geometry.


2. Analytic geometry replaced curves by equations through the device o f a
coordinate system. 3. The coordinate system will locate points in a plane or
in space by numbers: an abscissa and an ordinate. 4. Kepler introduced
effective methods o f working with the conic sections in astronomy. 5. The
coordinates o f any point that lies on the curve will satisfy the equation.
6. The mathematicians can deduce the properties o f the curves involved by
algebraic processes applied to the equations. 7. The classical Greeks em bod­
ied algebra in geometry. 8. As solid analytic geometry fails to cope with slope
and curvature —the fundamental properties o f the curves —mathem aticians
must employ the differential calculus to deal with curves and surfaces.
9. M athematicians created a new term to designate the study o f calculating
the rates o f change o f slope and curvature. 10. Wfe refer to the study which
yields such rates as differential geometry.

4. Join the sentences. Express the action in the clause by using present indefinite tense forms
after the conjunctions: if, when, after, before, till, until, unless, as soon as, providing.

Model. Wfe shall take two reference lines intersecting at right


angles.
Wfc shall obtain a Cartesian coordinate s^ tem . (pro­
viding)
Providing we take two reference lines, we shall obtain...

1. You’ll find the pair o f values (x. >) - the abscissa and the ordinate o f the
point. You’ll obtain the rectangular coordinates o f the point, (as soon as)
2. They’ll not indicate the position o f the point. They’ll plot the point, (untit)
3. The coordinates of the point will be plotted. The point in the plane will be
located by a pair o f numbers, (when) 4. A pair o f coordinates will not deter­

208
mine one and only one point of the plane. A given point o f the plane will not
be determined by one and only one pair of coordinates. ( unless) 5. We’ll
apply the polar coordinate system. The system will locate a point by means
of a pair o f values (p, Ө). (provided) 6. You’ll take the polar axis, the pole, and
the radius vector. A more convenient and useful frame of reference will
result, (as soon as) 7. Any collections of points and lines will not be used to
set up a coordinate system. A frame of reference will not be obtained, (until)
8. Wfe’ll introduce a still more general frame of reference for the plane called
a triangle o f reference. Rectangular and oblique axes will be only special
cases of it. (if) 9. Just as in a plane or in space we shall assign coordinates to
a point. Wfe’ll use a frame of reference, (when) 10. An equation will be given.
The corresponding geom etric locus along with its properties will be
obtained, (before) 11. A geometric locus will be given whose points possess
some common property. The corresponding equation will be found, (after)
12. The rectangular coordinate system in a plane will be established. It will
provide a one-to-one correspondence between number pairs and points of
the curve, (as soon as) 13. We’ll write the equation of a certain line as
у = mx + b. We shall refer to m and b as constants and to x and у as variables.
(providing) 14. The correspondence pairing off values ofx and у will be called
a functional relationship. An equation in two variables x and у will establish
a certain correspondence between the numerical values, (if)

5. Translate the sentences into English.

1. К ак только мы определим кривую, мы сможем найти уравнение


геометрического места. 2. Когда будет необходимо, они выберут
подходящую систему координат. 3. Пока это не будет сделано, точка
на плоскости не будет определяться парой чисел. 4. В случае, если
значение одной тригонометрической функции угла А будет дано,
остальные функции будут однозначно определены.

6. Paraphrase the following sentences using the constructions to b e g o in g to , to b e to to express


the near future actions and obligation resulting from some instruction.

M o d e l 1. The problem will be difficult.


The problem is going to be difficult.

1. Will they start a new series o f experiments? 2. Will the work be very com ­
plicated? 3. They will not take this frame of reference for the problem.
4. What subject will she specialize in? 5. He will make a report on analytical

209
methods. 6. We’ll finish the article concerning the study o f the phenomenon.
7. The professor will present his viewpoint at the conference. 8. The authois
will not publish the results o f the experiment. 9. The study o f such complex
problems will involve exceeding difficulty. 10. They will explain the methods
by which such results were obtained.

M odel 2. Wfc’ll coordinate numbers with points.


Wfc are to coordinate numbers with points.

1. They’ll establish a correspondence between numbers and the points o f a


given line. 2. We’ll choose the point which’ll correspond to zero and indicate
the unit o f length. 3. There will be only one specific point corresponding to
each positive and negative real number. 4. The directions in which measure­
ments will be made may be clockwise or counterclockwise. 5. A system with
which we’ll coordinate numbers and points depends on the type o f the prob­
lem concerned. 6. In most cases they’ll employ either rectangular or polar
system. 7. Following the usual convention we’ll first choose the point from
which to start —the origin. 8. Then we’ll indicate the directions in which the
distances will be measured by means o f coordinate axes. 9. The numbers
which will correspond to a point will be called its coordinates. 10. These coor­
dinates will tell us how far we must go in the direction o f the x - and y-axes
until the point is reached. 11. The adding o f a third number will specify the
location o f a point in space. 12. To coordinate numbers to points in space we ll
employ a coordinate system consisting of three mutually perpendicular axes.

CONVERSATIONAL PRACTICE

1. Emphasize the revolutionary character and innovations ot analytic geometry. The given
statements may prove helpful.1*5

1. The Greeks’ invention o f pure forms and abstract shapes (e.g.. cubic
curves are often .S-shaped) laid the basis for Euclid’s geometry. 2. The
Greeks thought of curves as tracings made by moving points. 3. Analytic
geometry merged all the arithm etic, algebra and geometry o f ages past in a
single technique. 4. Analytic method is a means o f visualizing numbers as
points on a graph, equation as geometric shapes and shapes as equations.
5. Thanks to analytic geometry every equation can be converted into a geo­
metric shape and conversely. 6. Some shapes can be represented only by
indefinitely long equations and some equations represent shapes hard to
visualize. But every equation has its equivalent in algebraic form. 7. Out o f

210
Cartesian system emerged concepts fundamental to all higher maths: the
ideas o f “variables” and "functions” 8. If an x and у can be related through
an equation or graph, they are called “variables” i.e., one changes in value
as the other changes in value. The two have a functional relationship. 9. In
an ordinary algebraic equation у is a function o f x if y's value changes when
the value o f x changes. 10. Cartesian system’s basic contribution to maths
was essentially a philosophical one. 11. By allowing a broad interchangeabil­
ity o f viewpoints, it gave rise to analysis which encompasses much o f higher
maths. 12. Analytic geometry was to grow far beyond Descartes’ original
brief presentation and was to touch nothing in maths without transforming
it. 13. Descartes’ association o f equation and curve uncovered a new world
o f curves. 14. Since the num ber and the variety o f equations is unlimited, so
is the range o f curves useful in various applications. 15. Descartes’ associa­
tion held forth prospects o f new higher-dimensional spaces. 16. Nowadays
G reek and Cartesian geometries are special cases in generalized geometries
o f л -dimensions.

2. Answer the questions, using the words and phrases suggested. Work in pairs.

Model. How did analytic geometry originate? (as a new way o f


representing and analyzing curves)
Analytic geometry originated as a new way of repre­
senting and analyzing curves.

1. Where did the words “ellipse” , “hyperbola” and “parabola” first


appear? (in the Pythagorean school) 2. What did these words mean at the out­
set? (three different conditions resulted from a method o f geometric solution)
3. What did these terms designate? (defect, excess, a placing beside, respec­
tively) 4. Who invented conic sections? (Menaechmus, 350 B.C.) 5. How was
M enaechm us led to discover conic sections? (trying to fin d a solution o f the
“duplication o f the cube”problem) 6. What did Menaechmus do to obtain the
curves? (cut cones with planes at different angles) 7. What were the curves dis­
covered by M enaechmus called? (Menaechmian triads) 8. What was the main
innovation introduced by Apollonius in his extraordinary Conic Sections?
(obtained all the conics from one double cone or conical surface) 9. Who sup­
plied the terms “ellipse” , “parabola” and “hyperbola” referring to conic
sections? (Apollonius) 10. Whs Apollonius the only geometer in antiquity
who fixed the position o f a point in a plane by means o f suitable coordinates?
(the Egyptians and the Romans used them in surveying and the Greeks in map­
making) 11. D o we have to cut cones with planes to obtain conic sections

211
nowadays? (by no means) 12. What is the simplest coordinate system or
frames o f reference we can obtain conic sections with? (a fixed straight line,
a fixed point and a generator will do) 13. When were coordinate systems used
in Middle Ages? (in the fourteenth century by Oresme in his "Latitude o f
Forms”) 14. What did Oresme represent by means o f a coordinate system?
(certain laws by graphing both dependent and independent variables) 15. When
did treatm ent o f the conic sections once again claim the attention o f
researchers? (in the seventeenth century) 16. Why was the time ripe for pres­
ent-day analytic geometry only in the seventeenth century? (it had to await
the development o f algebraic symbolism) 17. Who devised the method o f plot­
ting graphs with x and у coordinates? (the French mathematicians R.
Descartes and P. Fermat) 18. What will the adjective o f the name R.
Descartes be? (Cartesian) 19. How did the creators o f analytic geometry
approach the study o f curves? (through plotting points and straight lines)
20.. Why are the graphs so useful and helpful? (give a way o f revealing a rela­
tionship between the measured things) 21. Why did Kepler introduce and
apply conic sections in astronomy? (the curves describe the paths o f celestial
bodies better than the circle) 22. Which conic assumed the role o f guide in
math astronomy? (the ellipse) 23. What motivated the engineering applica­
tions of the conics? (problems o f projectile paths, the study o f lenses fo r tele­
scope, microscope, X-ray machines and other devices) 24. What was the objec­
tive the creators o f analytic geometry set for themselves? (the cooperation o f
the best aspects o f both algebra and geometry) 25. Why did they apply algebra
for solving geometric problems? (algebra enables to reason about abstract and
unknown quantities) 26. Whs it the only gain available? (it mechanizes the rea­
soning process and minimizes the effort needed to solve problems)

3. Agree or disagree with the following statements. Use the opening phrases suggested. Repeat
the statement and develop it further.

That’s right. Not quite so, I am afraid.


Exactly. Certainly. I don’t think this is jest the case.
This is the case. I doubt it. Far from that.
I fully agree to it. Just the other way round.
I accept it fully. Not at all. Quite the reverse.

1. The association o f curve and equation was the brand new thought. 2.
Descartes and Fermat created a new method o f solving geometric problems.
3. One does not generally distinguish between science and engineering.
4. Practically all applications o f maths to the physical world depend on the
coordinate geometry. 5. The theory o f nomograms rests largely on analytic

212
geometry. 6. Analytic geometry accomplishes everything Descartes envi­
sioned and expected. 7. Modern analytic geometry solves all geometric prob­
lems whatever. 8. Through analytic geometry the importance o f m athem at­
ics was considerably decreased and diminished. 9. Drawings are the subject
matter o f analytic geometry. 10. Graphical methods are hardly known to the
public at large. 11. G raphs have more visual appeal than formulas and tables.
12. Visual pictures permit mathematicians to reason from them and prove.
13. Analytic geometry presents the basic ideas in a straightforward, colour­
less and m atter-of-fact manner. 14. In higher dimensional geometry visual­
ization is o f great help. 15. There exists a frame o f reference for an n-dim en-
sional space. 16. The notion of a four-dimensional geometry is very helpful
in studying physical phenomena. 17. The physical world should be regarded
as four-dimensional. 18. The four numbers x , y , z and t, sometimes more
than four, specify any physical event. 19. The notions o f dimension and o f a
higher-dimensional geometry are fascinating branches o f maths. 20. They
are the basis o f the most sophisticated o f m odern scientific developments,
including the theory o f relativity.

4. Agree with the following negative statements, develop your answer further and keep the con­
versation going where possible.

M odel. P. Fermat was not concerned with a universal method


in philosophy.
No, he wasn’t. Nevertheless, he sought general meth­
ods in maths, and he did establish a general procedure
o f working with curves. But it’s only one o f his great
accomplishments in maths.

1. P. Ferm at’s life was not adventurous. 2. P. Fermat was not a professor o f
maths at the University o f Toulouse. 3. P. Fermat did not practise teaching
maths. 4. P. Ferm at’s leisure was not devoted to jurisprudence. 5. P. Fermat
did not possess broad knowledge o f medicine or military art. 6. P. Fermat
enjoyed classical literature and even wrote verse himself but literary studies
were not his real love and passion, 7. P. Fermat did not publish anything per­
sonally. 8. M any o f P. Fermat’s correspondents were not like he himselt, but
professional mathematicians. 9. P. Ferm at’s books, notes and his volumi­
nous correspondence were not lost after his death. 10. P. Fermat did not
acknowledge, due to his modesty, the outstanding value o f his math achieve­
ments. 11. There is no doubt that P. Ferm at was the inventor and codiscov­
erer o f coordinate geometry. 12. P. Ferm at’s challenging problems are not
foigotten or abandoned. 13. One cannot overestimate the influence o f

213
P. Fermat’s famous theorems in the development o f modern maths. 14. The
solutions of many difficult P. Ferm at’s problems are not established. 15. The
proofs of his famous theorems are not obtained. 16. One cannot say that
modern mathematicians reject and abandon P. Ferm at’s challenges as their
goal and a constant source o f new efforts.

5. Explain in your own words the meaning оГ the statements or answer the questions posed.

M odel. Descartes was not the original creator o f rectangular


coordinates, was he? No, he was not. Why are they,
then, usually referred to as “Cartesian”?
They bear this name because o f many innovations and
improved algebraic notation introduced by Descartes
into his coordinate geometry.

1. In the third appendix to his book Discourse o f the Method Descartes


deals with many basic ideas for solving equations that arise in connection
with geometric problems —primarily the study o f conic section by algebraic
methods. He was the first to introduce the concepts o f a variable and a fu n c ­
tion. Explain why Descartes had to introduce these concepts.
2. Descartes’ variable possesses dual nature: it presents a) a line segment o f
varying length and constant direction or a continuous curve traced by a mov­
ing point coordinate; b) a continuous numerical variable that involves the set
ol all numbers expressing the line segment. Explain how this dual image o f a
variable helped Descartes unite and interrelate geometry and algebra.
3. Though the appendix is entitled “Geom etry” Descartes made in it his •
greatest contribution to algebra and the whole o f maths. It was celebrated
Descartes’ rule o f signs “Wfe can determine the num ber o f true (positive) and
false (negative) roots that the equation can have as follows: An equation can
have as many true roots as it contains changes o f sign from + to —, or from
- to +; and as many false roots as the number o f times two + signs or
two —signs are found in succession” When applied to Cartesian coordinates
this rule enables one to determine the sign (plus or minus) o f coordinates
How? Explain.
4. As is often the case with the promulgation o f a significant math result,
this first statement o f the relation between changes in signs o f the successive
terms o f the polynomial and the nature o f roots was not complete. Explain
what Descartes’ statem ent o f the rule lacks.
5. Analytic geometry was brought to bear on num ber theory. Negative
numbers were not readily accepted by mathematicians. Thanks to Descartes'

214
coordinate geometry and his rule o f signs negative numbers became legiti­
mate in maths as directed ordinates. Explain.
6. Descartes anticipated many successive im portant discoveries and proofs
in maths. Gauss gave (1797) the first proof o f the fundamental theorem o f
algebra: Every algebraic equation o f degree n has n roots. The insights o f
Descartes on this m atter are o f special interest because they are related to his
famous rule of signs: “ Every equation can have as many distinct roots (val­
ues of the unknown quantity) as the number o f dimensions (i.e., degree) o f
the unknown quantity in the equation. It often happens, however, that some
o f the roots are false, or less than nothing” Explain the importance o f this
statement to Descartes’ geometric study o f curves, tangents, normals to a
curve, etc.
7. The term “area” as it is understood in modern maths, refers to real
numbers. From Descartes the study o f geometry is reduced to the study o f
real numbers. Explain.
8. By means of Cartesian coordinates Gauss gave geometric interpretation
of complex numbers. What does this phrase mean? Explain.
9. P. Fermat and R. Descartes came to develop analytic geometry almost
simultaneously. Why was the time ripe for the creation o f the synthesis o f
geometry and algebra in the mid o f the seventeenth century? Explain.
10. Much terminology, like our classification o f curves (and surfaces) into
linear, quadratic, cubic and so forth, stems from our use o f Cartesian coor­
dinate systems. Some curves, however, such as many spirals, have intractable
equations when referred to a Cartesian frame whereas they enjoy relatively
simple equations when referred to some other skilfully designed coordinate
system. What system? Explain.

6. Reproduce the topic “ Leonard Euler”, using the given sentences.

1. Euler — a mathematician, physicist, astronomer, worker of mechanics,


engineer, teacher, concurrently — was a true 18th-century scientist. 2. Euler
was a great geometer though there are no drawings and constructions in his
works. 3. Mathematicians like Euler are bom, not made. 4. Euler calculated
without apparent effort: he was never bored with lengthy computations which
were his passion and hobby. 5. Euler loved beautiful formulas for their own
sake. 6. G eom etry was lost among countless formulas due to Euler.
7. Geometry became a precise science due to Euler. 8. Euler was never sur­
passed in devising algorithms for the solution o f difficult problems. 9. Wfork at
the St. Petersburg Academy comprised the most productive chapter in Euler’s

215
life. 10. While in Berlin (1741-1766) Euler carried out many commissions for
the St. Petersburg Academy and gave expert advice. ! 1. Euler dealt with ana­
lytic functions only. 12. “A function o f a variable is any analytic expression
whatsoever composed of that variable quantity and numbers or constant quan­
tities.” (Euler.) 13. “A curve is specified by analytic expression.” (Euler.)
14. Euler classified all the curves according to their order. 15. Euler’s theory o f
all algebraic curves is distinguished by its generality and clarity o f presentation.
16. Euler was the first to solve the equation in three variables corresponding to
the surface o f the second order (ellipsoid, hyperboloid, paraboloid). 17. Euler
developed the notion o f geometric and conformal transformations. 18. “The
knowledge of analytic geometry and the theory o f functions is necessary to
master math analysis.” (Euler.) 19. All modem topological theories stem from
Euler’s work. 20. Euler’s notation for “e”, “я ” and “/” received universal
acceptance. 21. Euler can be compared to Euclid. 22. “ Euler’s works are the
best possible school for mathematicians.” (Gauss.) 23. One is still amazed by
Euler’s prolific writings. It seemed as if age had no effect.

7. What do we mean when we say:

Eulerian a) analytic method, b) straight line, c) angles, d) integrals, e) vari­


ables, 0 coordinates, g) spherical geometry, h) theorem o f polyhedra. i) con­
formal transformations.

READING COMPREHENSION

Four-Dimensional Geometry

Read the text and discuss the problem involved. Sam up the discussion. Use the following phrases:

My point is that... Summarizing the discussion...


It seems reasonable to say.. On the whole... In the long run.
I can start by saying... In conclusion I must say..

Until almost the beginning o f the 20th century the attitude o f m athem ati­
cians and laymen alike toward geometries o f more than three dimensions —
if notice was given to them at all — was one o f scepticism. It was generally
thought that reference to physical considerations alone was sufficient to pre­
clude the existence of more than three dimensions.
Aristotle said that a solid has magnitude “ in three ways, and beyond these
there is no other magnitude because the three are all” Ptolemy, as quoted by

216
Simplicius, said, “ It is possible to take only three lines that are mutually per­
pendicular; two by which the plane is defined and a third measuring depth.”
To the Greeks no further explanation was necessary.
In the fourteenth century N. Oresme sought a graphic representation of
Aristotelian forms as heat, velocity, sweetness and so on by laying down a line
as a basis, called a longitude, and taking one of the forms to be represented by
lines perpendicular to this as a latitude. The form was then represented by a
surface. Taking a surface as a basis, with latitude perpendicular at each point,
a solid was formed. He even went on to take a solid as a basis and at each point
considered an increment. But he rejected a fourth-dimensional figure out of
hand and considered instead the solid as consisting of infinitely many planes.
Taking perpendiculars at each point o f each plane, the result was an infinite
set o f intersecting solids. However, he did use the phrase “fourth dimension”
Girolamo Cardano in his Ars Magna (G reat Art) o f 1545 referred to power
o f numbers in geometric terms, saying, “The first power o f a number refers
to a line, the square to a surface, the cube to a solid, and it would be fatuous
indeed for us to progress beyond for the reason that it is contrary to nature.”
Rene Descartes tried to find a graphic representation o f the motion of freely
falling bodies. He said that if a body is acted on by one accelerating force,
motion is represented by a triangle. If it is affected by two forces, it is represent­
ed by an angular pyramid. But if acted on by three forces, it is represented “by
other figures” What these figures are Descartes did not attempt to point out.
John Wallis' Algebra o f 1685 includes the passage: “A line drawn into a line
shall make a plane or surface; this (line) drawn into a line shall make a solid;
but if this solid be drawn into a line, or this plane into a plane, what shall it
make? A plane-plane? That is a monster in nature, and less possible than a
centaur. For length, breadth and thickness take up the whole o f space. Nor can
we imagine how there should be a fourth local dimension beyond those three.”
Some progress is noted in the eighteenth century. A more modern note was
struck by Jean Le Rond D’A lembert in 1754. “I stated above, that it is impos­
sible to conceive o f more than three dimensions. A man o f parts, o f my
acquaintance, holds that one may, however, look upon duration as a fourth
dimension. This idea may be challenged but it seems to me to have some
merit other than that o f mere novelty.”
Joseph Louis Lagrange, in 1787, said, “ Since the position o f a point in
space depends upon three rectangular coordinates, these coordinates in the
problems o f mechanics are conceived as being functions o f t. Thus, we may
regard mechanics as a geometry o f four dimensions, and mechanical analy­
sis as an extension o f geometrical analysis.”

217
Most scientists rejected four dimensions because in nature we do not know
o f any quantity which has more than three dimensions. There are, however,
several references in the nineteenth century to four dimensions in occult,
mystical and theological writing. With the advent o f Einstein’s theory o f rel­
ativity and subsequent discussions o f time-space and the possible curvature
o f our three-dimensional in a four-dimensional space, four-dimensional
concepts are spoken o f calmly, and we now realize that the physical existence
or nonexistence o f a four-dimensional body has nothing to do with its exis­
tence as a math entity.
W hat is four-dim ensional geom etry? A pproached pictorially the c o n ­
cept has no m eaning. But we can think about four m utually p erp en d icu ­
la r lines, i.e., fo u r lines each p e rp e n d icu la r to the o th e r th ree.
A point in a four-dim ensional space may also be regarded as rep resen t­
ed by four num bers o r coordinates (the distance one must proceed along
the four axes to reach that point). T hus, these coordinates are w ritten (x,
У, Z, w).
How can one think o f geom etric figures in a four-dim ensional space?
The m ost convenient way is through the language o f analytic geometry,
i.e., equations. The figures o f four-dim ensional geom etry exist in the
same sense as do the figures in two and three dim ensions. The hyperplane
is as “ real” as the straight line and plane; and the hypersphere as “ real" as
the circle and sphere. The same applies to all other objects o f higher­
dim ensional geometry. T he difficulty most people experience in accepting
four-dim ensional geometry and the corresponding equations is due to the
fact th at they confuse mental constructions and visualization. All o f
geom etry deals with ideas that exist in the hum an mind only Fortunately,
people can visualize o r picture two- and three-dim ensional ideas by
m eans o f drawings on paper. N o one can visualize four-dim ensional
structures, unfortunately; one must rely on the mind alone. One can study
four-dim ensional figures in term s o f two- and three-dim ensional sections
o f these figures. As a m atter o f fact, it is possible to visualize sections o f
figures in a four-dim ensional space. O ne finds the equation o f the section
first and obtains its shape with the knowledge o f ordinary two- o r three-
dim ensional coordinate geometry. T hus the problem o f studying a figure
in a four-dim ensional space is reduced to that o f studying figures in th ree-
and tw ordim ensional spaces.
COMPOSITION
Read and translate the text. Write an objective description of the structure of a thing or con­
cept. Some type of coordinate systems in common use should be described (e.g., oblique, alTine,
cylindrical, etc.).

Frames of Reference
M uch terminology, like our classification o f curves (and surfaces) into lin­
ear, quadratic, cubic and so forth, stems from our use of Cartesian coordinate
system. Some curves, however, such as many spirals, have intractable equa­
tions when referred to a Cartesian frame, whereas they enjoy relatively sim­
ple equations when referred to some other skilfully designed coordinate sys­
tem. Particularly useful in the case o f spirals is the polar coordinate system.
Polar Coordinates. Points are most commonly described today by ordered
pairs (x, y) in the Cartesian system, where x is the directed distance from the
vertical axis and у is the directed distance from the horizontal axis. For cer­
tain kinds o f curves, however, a more convenient and useful form o f repre­
sentation is that o f polar coordinates. The polar ordered pair is (r, Ө), where
Ө is the angle the vector makes with the reference line or polar axis and r is
the length o f the vector.
Isaac Newton was the first to think o f using polar coordinates. In a treatise
Method o f Fluxions (written about 1671) which dealt with curves defined
analytically, Newton showed ten types o f coordinate systems that could be
used; one o f these ten was the system o f polar coordinates. However, this
work o f Newton was not published until 1736; in 1661 Jakob Bernoulli
derived and made public the concept o f polar coordinates; his polar system
used for reference a point on a line rather than two intersecting lines. The
line was called the “polar axis” and the point on the line was called the
“pole” The position o f any point in a plane was then described, first, by the
length o f a vector from the pole to the point and, second, by the angle the
vector made with the polar axis. After Bernoulli, Jakob Hermann, in a paper
o f 1729, asserted that polar coordinates were just as useful for studying geo­
metric loci as were the Cartesian coordinates. However, H erm ann's work
was not well known, and it remained for Euler, about twenty years later, to
make the polar coordinates system really popular.
Further coordinate systems were not investigated until toward the close o f
the nineteenth century, when geometers were led to break away from the
Cartesian systems in situations where the peculiar necessities o f a problem
indicated that some other algebraic apparatus is more suitable. An interest -

219
ing development in coordinate systems was inaugurated by J. Pliicker in
1829, when he noted that our fundamental elem ent need not be the point
but can be any geometric entity. This, in turn, led Plucker to the concept o f
the dimension o f a manifold o f geometric entities as simply the essential
number o f coordinates needed to determine one o f the entities in the m ani­
fold. The first nebulous and vague notions o f a hyperspace which is
w-dimensional (/i>3) in points are lost in the dimness o f the past and were
confused by metaphysical considerations. Aristotle, for example, in his
Physics talked o f six dimensions, but these were up and down, before and
behind and right and left.
Nowadays any collection o f points, lines, curves or any geometric entities
whatever that are used to set up a system o f coordinates for the points o f a
plane is called a fram e o f reference for this plane. It is customary, that a pair
o f rectangular or oblique axes, their point o f intersection (0, 0) and the two
so-called unit points on the axes, namely (0, 1) and (1 ,0 ) constitute such a
frame o f reference for coordinates in the plane. One designates as the ordi­
nary frame o f reference in a plane the frame consisting o f a pair o f rectangu­
lar axes with the same-sized unit on each axis. The formulas for the distance
between two points, for the angle between two lines, for the area o f a trian­
gle, the equations o f conics and many other formulas and equations in ana­
lytic geometry presuppose the use of this com m on frame o f reference.
Later on, a still more general frame o f reference for the plane called a tri­
angle o f reference can be introduced. It is obvious that any triangle ABC can
be used as a triangle o f reference and if we join any point P in the plane to
the vertices A and В of this triangle, the lines AP and BPmW cut the sides CB
and CA, respectively, in points whose coordinates are assigned to P
Rectangular and oblique axes are only special cases o f a triangle o f reference.
Just as in a plane, so on a line and in space whenever we assign coordinates
to a point, we shall use a frame o f reference. For example, when we attach to
the points /*1, P2, P2 ... o f a line L the coordinates Xy, X2, X2 ..., respectively,
we shall employ a frame o f reference composed o f any two distinct points on
L to which we give the coordinates 0 and 1.

COMPREHENSION EXERCISES

Questions
I. What is your favourite subject: algebra or geometry and why? 2. Can
analytic geometry be described as the “royal road” in geometry that Euclid

220
thought did not exist? 3. Why is Cartesian geometry the essential base for
modern applied sciences? 4. How can one set up a two-, three-, four-,
л -dimensional coordinate system? 5. What is meant by Cartesian coordi­
nates? 6. What do we call the point 0 in different frames of reference?
7. What is m eant by the axis of abscissas? 8. What is meant by the axis of
ordinates? 9. In what order are the four quadrants formed by the axes o f
coordinates designated? 10. What directions are considered positive (nega­
tive)? 11. How are points located in Cartesian coordinates? 12. What is
meant by the distance? 13. What are polar coordinates? 14. What is the prin­
cipal value o f polar coordinates? 15. What other types o f frames of reference
are worthy o f investigation? 16. Which is the most convenient coordinate
system and why? 17. Why were both Descartes and Fermat dissatisfied with
the limited methods o f Euclidean geometry? 18. Is algebra really a universal
science for an analytic method? 19. What was Descartes’ point of view con­
cerning algebra? 20. Was Descartes alone in the history o f maths to interpret
algebra as a universal language? 21. What can you say about Leibnitz’s objec­
tive to set up such a language? 22. Actually, both Descartes and Fermat were
very much interested in optics, weren’t they? 23. Descartes published an
essay on the passage o f light through lenses. Was he concerned with light
rays, the structure o f lenses or conic sections in this research? 24. Fermat
contributed several fundamental laws to optics. What are they? 25. How can
one approach four-dimensional geometry? 26. If a curve o f a four-dimen­
sional space lies in a plane, can it be visualized despite the fact that it is part
o f four-dimensional world? 27. Do mathematicians actually believe in the
real existence o f a world o f four spatial dimensions and hope some day to
train our visual apparatus to perceive this world?

DISCUSSION

1. “As long as algebra and geometry proceeded along separate paths, their
advance was slow and their applications limited. But when these sciences
joined company, they drew from each other fresh vitality and thence forward
marched on at a rapid pace toward perfection.” (J.L. Lagrange.) Prove it or
disagree.
2. Descartes claimed that he ought to find the simple, clear and distinct
truths that could play the same part in his philosophy that axioms play in
maths proper. The results o f his search are famous. From the one reliable
source — his consciousness o f self — he extracted the building blocks o f his
philosophy: a) I think, therefore I am; b) each phenom enon must have a

221
cause; c) an effect cannot be greater than the cause, and d) the ideas o f per­
fection, sp<tce, time and motion are innate to the m ind and could be
obtained only from the existence o f a perfect being, who is G od. Therefore
God exists. With Descartes, theology and philosophy parted company.
Characterize Descartes’ philosophy (mystical, methaphysical, theological,
rational, mathematized, etc.). Is it tied only to a particular tim e o f Descartes
or is it up-to-date? What produced co-ordinate geometry: D escartes’ philo­
sophical interest in method or his intellectual delight in m ath activity?
3. In contrast to D escartes’ adventurous, rom antic and purposive
life, Ferm at’s was dull, highly conventional, and m atter-of-fact. He lived
quietly, ignored problems involving G od, man, and the nature o f the uni­
verse and devoted his spare tim e to maths. Whereas to Descartes maths
served to solve philosophical and scientific problems and to m aster nature,
to Fermat the subject offered beauty, harmony and the pleasures o f contem ­
plation. Characterize Ferm at as a mathematician —the greatest “ am ateur”
in the history o f maths. His accomplishments and anticipations, his famous
theorems, his method o f proof.
4. Scale, chart, drawing, picture, graph, diagram, nomogram, fram e o f refer­
ence. Their characteristics, distinctions and applications.
5. Conic sections. Their math properties and applications.
6. Advantages and disadvantages o f the algebraic language o f analytic
geometry. Consider the equation representing a circle. Where is the round­
ed figure, the path that knows no end, the beauty o f the most perfect shape?
Does this formula represent all the properties o f the geometric circle?
Algebra replaced geometry, the mind replaced the eye. Is it a convenient way,
after all?
7. The word “focus” ( F) means “a hearth” or “burning-place” in Latin.
Why? Suppose that the parabola is a cross-section of a reflecting surface and
it is held so that its axis points to a distant star. The light rays will come in
practically parallel to the axis o f the parabola, will strike the parabola, and
will be reflected to the point /•'(focusl. Hence there will be a great concen­
tration of light at F enabling scientists to view the distant star more clearly.
What will happen to an object placed at F i f the sun is viewed instead o f a
star?
8. yV-dimensional geometry. Illustrate it by some problems.
Unit Seven (7)

INTRODUCTION TO MECHANICS

Grammar:
Continuous Tense Forms.

LABORATORY PRACTICE

Repeat the sentences after the speaker.


1. M echanics is a classical subject which deals with the motion o f bodies
and construction o f machines and various mechanical devices. 2. Mechanics
is closely identified with physics and engineering. 3. There exist many extensive
branches o f general or theoretical mechanics which have their own princi­
ples and independent significance. 4. All the fields and subjects o f m echan­
ics apply the methods and equations o f theoretical mechanics. 5. The prim ­
itive elements o f mechanics are bodies, forces, motion. These basic elements
are governed by assumptions, principles or laws which describe mechanics as
a whole. 6. Mechanical laws abstract, codify and record the common fea­
tures o f all mechanical phenom ena. 7. Scientists are seeking for laws because
laws are theory and experimental knowledge combined. 8. Extracting and
deducing laws is one o f the great activities o f a scientist. 9. Most laws in sci­
ence state the relationships between measurements of two (three) quantities.
10. Almost all scientific laws can be reworded with the word “constant” as
their essential characteristic. 11. Most mechanical laws were derived induc­
tively from experiments. 12. In some cases, however, scientists deduce laws
or rules from some theoretical scheme. 13. The general principles in
mechanics are illustrated by constitutive equations which abstract the differ­
ences among bodies. 14. The fundamental entity in mechanics is the materi­
al particle and bodies are considered as aggregates o f such particles. 15. The
general laws o f mechanics apply to all bodies and all motions. 16. The ele­
m ents in terms o f which motion is described are position in space and time. 17.
Space that is used in m echanics is Euclidean three-dimensional; time is
absolute. 18. The assumption o f absolute time did not lead to contradictions
when applied to facts known up to the nineteenth century. 19. With the
advent o f Einstein’s theory o f relativity, mechanics came to be regarded as a
geometry o f four dimensions and space became finite but unbounded. 20.

223
The concept o f time was changed: there is no absolute time according to the
relativistic viewpoint. 21. It was in the concept o f time that the classical and
relativistic developments diverged. 22. M echanics is seeking the simplest
possible description o f how bodies actually move, it makes no pretence o f
explaining why bodies move. 23. The description o f motion involves general
principles stated in math terms embracing all particular motions as special
cases. 24. The natural philosophers o f ancient Greece liked to do experi­
ments in their heads. 25. Centuries later Galileo developed the “ thought
experiment” intended for the imagination only, into a fruitful m ethod o f
inquiry o f free fall. 26. In our time “thought experiments” appealed strong­
ly to such scientists as Einstein and Fermi. 27. O f all the forces playing part
in mechanics (contact, i.e., pushes and pulls, frictional, electrical, nuclear,
etc.) the most important is the force o f gravity. 28. The force o f gravity acts
on any object vertically downward and it is proportional to its mass or iner­
tia. 29. U nder the influence o f gravity all objects fall with the same acceler­
ation. 30. Throughout recorded history the speculations o f civilized men on
the nature o f gravitation ranged from the naive (Aristotle: objects fall to the
earth, because that is their natural place) to the sophisticated (Einstein). 31.
Newton was the first to recognize that the force o f gravity is only a special
case o f a general attraction between any two masses. 3 2 . This general attrac­
tion is responsible for keeping the Earth and other planets on their courses
around the Sun. 33. Every scientific theory, though speculative in its charac­
ter, is meaningful only if it can be tested and verified by experiment. It dies if
it fails such tests. 34. A genuine understanding of theory and its relationship
with experiment is essential if one wishes to know science. 35. Einstein pre­
sented a new concept of gravitation. There is, he claimed, no absolute force
o f gravity pulling objects down. 36. On the contrary, every mass has within it
a force in proportion to its mass which attracts objects to it. 37. This attrac­
tion force o f masses is also responsible for the curvature of the universe and
for variations in orbits o f celestial bodies. 38. Today many scientists firmly
believe that Einstein’s general theory o f relativity which explains gravity as a
curvature or warping o f space and tim e, is the correct theory o f gravitation.
39. They praise its beauty and agreement with observation and experiment.
40. O ther workers, however, are openly dubious o f the general relativity and
suggest that alternative theories provide a better description o f grav ity. 41.
The general theory of relativity nowadays has many competing successors.
42. For such new theories to be viable they have to meet observational and
theoretical criteria that are steadily becoming more rigorous. 43. The gener­
al theory o f relativity predicts that accelerated masses radiate gravitational

224
waves, i.e., gravitational fields propagating with the speed o f light. 44. Such
waves resemble electromagnetic waves as they carry energy, momentum and
information. 45. Whereas electromagnetic waves interact only with electric
charges and currents, however, gravitational waves interact with all forms o f
m atter energy. 46. Experiments designed to detect gravitational waves record
evidence that they are being emitted in bursts from the direction o f the cen­
tre o f all galaxy. 47. The origin o f the observed gravitational radiation is not
determ ined, only the direction o f its arrival. 48. These findings are stimulat­
ing much theorizing (conjecturing) and a good deal o f disagreement among
astrophysicists and gravitationalists. 49. It is conjectured that the source
might be an unusual object such as a pulsating neutron star very much clos­
er than the galactic centre. 50. It is conceivable that the mass at the galactic
centre is acting as a giant lens, focussing gravitational radiation from an ear­
lier epoch o f the universe. 51. Since gravitational radiation is not apprecia­
bly absorbed by matter, the authors o f this hypothesis maintain, it should
have been accumulating since, perhaps, the beginning o f time. 52. The rela­
tively large radiation intensity apparently observed may be telling us when
the time began. 53. In the past few years several versions of Einstein's
“thought experiments” were carried out with real apparatus to verify some of
the new hypotheses. 54. The current existing mechanical theory is the quan­
tum theory. Q uantum mechanics domain begins in the nucleus and extends
as far as the solar system.

GRAMMAR

Continuous Tense Forms

Tense Active Passive

am am
Present is asking is being asked
are are

Past was asking was being asked


were were

Future shall
be asking
will

8 Английский язык для студентов-математиков 225


Continuous tense forms are used to express an action which is going on (=is
in progress) at a definite moment o f present, past o r future. Time indicators
are not always necessary and such adverbial modifiers as now, at present,
always, constantly, all day, all that year, the whole morning, at this time
tomorrow, etc. are found. As a rule, the precise time limits o f the action are
not specified.
It should be borne in mind that though most English verbs can be used in
the continuous aspect, some o f them , however, do not adm it it. This refers
to verbs denoting actions o f unlimited duration, o f physical perception, o f
emotions, mental processes, etc. such as to hear, to notice, to watch, to see,
to hate, to like, to love, to desire, to want, to wish, to appreciate, to assume,
to imagine, to know, to mind, to think, to recognize, to understand, to agree,
to be, to feel, to find, to seem, to satisfy, to succeed, to suffice, to value, etc.
However, in spoken English some o f the verbs listed may be occasionally
used in the continuous aspect; in this case the continuous aspect gives them
emotional colouring. Thus, the division o f verbs into those which admit the
continuous form and those which do not, as a rule, admit it, cannot be
explained by any grammatical reasons but is purely semantically coloured
and traditional.
Translate the following sentences into Russian ami try to explain the use o f the coatinaons
tense forms of the predicates.

1. Forces are pushes and pulls, i.e., the things you feel (= y o u ’re feeling)
when they are acting on you; things that are stretching springs; things that
arc making moving bodies accelerate. 2. \Nfe can com pare the results that
are being predicted theoretically with those observed experimentally.
3. Since dynam ics is the science o f m otion, the question at once arises:
what is moving (=m oves) and what are the simplest elem ents in terms o f
which its m otion may be described? 4. All forces are always occurring
(= occur) in pairs which may be conveniently spoken o f as action and
reaction. 5. Large heavenly bodies are moving (=m ove) in regular orbits.
6. Som ething is being interfered (in te rf e r e s ) with their straight-line
motion. 7. They are being attracted (= are attracted) to some centre o f
force around which th eir circular m otion occurs. 8. G alileo was experi­
menting and thinking and teaching new scientific knowledge o f m echan­
ics. 9. The Moon must be revolving around the Earth because the Earth is
attracting it (= attracts it). 10. Whatever speed a spaceship o f the future
attains, it will be going in a straight line forever, unless it enters the gravi­
tational field o f another celestial body.

226
INTRODUCTORY T E X T

THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD

Ancient scientists sought to learn what happens and how things happen
and for many centuries wanted to explain why things happen. Greek thinkers
founded new methods in science — they began to look for general schemes,
which could account for and predict separate facts. About 2500 years ago
there appeared scientists or natural philosophers trying to describe nature.
They collected facts and combined them into distinct groups seeking to
reveal properties common to the behaviour o f the whole group and develop
a theory. Thus, from the Greeks to Galileo, science was being built by col­
lectors, accurate observers, makers o f schemes, authoritarian philosophers.
The collectors gathered a lot of knowledge which by itself was too diverse to
be called science. The scheme-makers organized this knowledge and extract­
ed rules that were good working prescriptions, able to summarize the facts and
often to make predictions. Rules and knowledge together with techniques for
gaining more knowledge made the beginning o f the genuine science.
The Greeks deduced their explanations and schemes for nature from a few
genera! ideas which they just assumed, e.g., from “circles are perfect” they
deduced epicycloids. In the course of the 17th century this kind of deductive
reasoning fell into disfavour as it was really philosophical speculation flour­
ishing with authority rather than science. By the middle of that century
experiment came to be regarded as the real source and test of science.
Scientists were concerned and occupied with extracting rules or laws by
inductive reasoning from experiment. In doing this, they too were making
assumptions: that nature is simple and uniform, i.e., that in the same condi­
tions the same behaviour occurs again and again. They still assumed that
there are causes for things, but the meaning of causality remained as difficult
a problem as ever. As general working rules emerged, e.g., Copernicus’ sun-
in-centre scheme, H ooke’s law, Kepler’s laws, the sense o f security and
comfort increased and the early belief that nature is definite and reasonable
gained ground as a basic belief in science.
Though this inductive method was an honest one leading to good rules, it
lacked the general tying-together and mental,satisfaction that a grand theo­
ry can give. Newton, with greater insight and judgement, was the first to look
at experiment, then reversed to theory and worked back deductively from
theory, predicting results that could be tested and verified. This brought the-

227
ory back into science as a framework o f thought, but in a more respectable
and responsible form. Theory was again considered valuable but this tim e as
a servant to science rather than as master.
Later still, say, in the last century, theory was subjected more and more to
the test o f productiveness. Scientists were asking: “Can this theory make
(further) predictions?” If not, it was to be modified. In the 20th century this
seems too harsh a treatm ent for theory. Its use may lie not only in its ability
to make predictions but also in the frame o f thinking that it offers us.
Nowadays scientists are following Galileo and Newton in one scheme o f sci­
entific method: scientists plan and frame their experimenting carefully and
treat it by a formal system o f inductive reasoning and testify, i.e., they collect
information, extract rules, frame hypothesis, deduce consequences, test
deductions, verify the results, etc.
Scientists are setting forth ideal schemes (models) for science, but if you
watch scientists at work, you will see that there is no one scientific method.
Science does not develop as a simple rigid chess game; nor is the progress just
a series o f forward leaps. A first round o f thinking and experimenting may
even lead back to the starting point, but, as with seeing a movie over again,
we have a richer knowledge with which to pursue the second round. In the
real development o f science we approach our problems and build our knowl­
edge by many methods: sometimes we start by guessing freely, sometimes we
build a model for math investigation, and then make experimental tests.
Sometimes we just gather experimental information with an eye open for the
unexpected; sometimes we plan and perform one great experiment and
obtain an important result directly or by statistical sorting o f a wealth of
measurements. Sometimes a progressive series of experiments carries us
from stage to stage of knowledge - the results o f each experiment guiding
both our reasoning and our planning of the next experiment. Sometimes we
carry out a grand analysis thinking from stage to stage with a gorgeous mix­
ture o f information, rules, guesses and logic, with only an occasional exper­
imental test.
Yet, experiment is the ultimate touch-stone throughout good science,
w hether it comes at the beginning as a gathering o f empirical facts o r at the
end in the final tests of a grand conceptional scheme. How far scientists’ the­
oretical thinking will be developing at a given time depends on the state of
knowledge and interest - on w hether the time is ripe. When the time is ripe,
the same problem is often attacked by many scientists simultaneously and
the same solution may be discovered by several. Yet, one scientist may get the
credit for reaping the harvest - quite right if he is the only man with enough

228
insight or skill to carry the innovation through. In Newton’s day new inter­
est in motion, general thinking about the planets, Kepler’s discoveries, new
studies o f magnetism and light phenomena, new attitudes towards experi­
menting and scientific knowledge — all made contributions o f facts and
approaches — the time was ripe for the great development. Hooke, Wren,
Halley, Huygens and many others were all seeking to reach a unified theory
for celestial and earthly motions. Each succeeded in grasping some parts of
the solution, but it was Newton who gave the complete solution in one grand
theory, making “ not a leap but a flight” .

ACTIVE VOCABULARY
1. to account (for) 13. to disturb 25. to predict
2. to annihilate 14. to diverge 26. to predominate
3. to attach 15. to exert 27. to prejudice
4. to behave 16. to experience 28. to propagate
5. to cancel 17. to guess 29. to repel
6. to clarify 18. to induce 30. to resist
7. to coincide 19. to insulate 31. to revise
8. to collide 20. to interfere 32. to scrutinize
9. to conduct 21. to modify 33. to speculate
10. to conserve 22. to obey 34. to spread
11. to discard 23. to occur 35. to transfer
12. to distribute 24. to penetrate 36. to transverse

TEXT ONE

SCIENTIFIC LAWS
Read and translate the text in class. Sum up the main ideas of the text, following the outline
given below.
1. Scientific law is not a legislation or a decree.
2. Alexandrian mathematicians - the forerunners o f modem science.
3. Archimedes’ discoveries.
4. The usefulness of scientific laws.
What is a scientific law? Who makes it, who obeys? Who uses it, the great
thinker or the engineer? The use o f the word “ law” in scientific literature is
not fortunate. We know o f no legislation or decree that established the rules
we describe; it is probably more accurate to think of laws as invented rather
than discovered. Historical records reveal the origin of some laws; others are

229
concealed, because the man who first proposed them did not let us know
how they had occurred to him first.
Scientific knowledge grew up with the early civilizations from simple
noticing natural phenomena to systematic observing. The observations were
not real science but they set the pattern o f a speculative scheme to “explain”
the facts. When Greek civilization formed, the wisest thinkers brought a new
attitude to observations: their aim was to make a scheme that could account
for facts. This was a grander business than either collecting facts or telling a
new tale for each fact. This was an intellectual advance, the beginning o f
great scientific theory. The scientists o f Alexandria made more accurate
observations, devising new methods and new mechanical devices, producing
better and more sophisticated m ath and astronomical theories.
The man whose work best epitomizes the character o f the Alexandrian age
is Archimedes whose fame was based for many centuries not upon the
immortal achievements explained in his own works, but upon the legends
around his name. These legends had a core o f truth: he did invent machines,
such as com pound pulleys, burning mirrors, etc., but these activities were
secondary, he was primarily a mathematician, the greatest o f antiquity and
one o f the very greatest of all times. Archimedes lacked the encyclopedic
tendencies of Euclid who tried to cover the whole field o f geometry; he was,
on the contrary, a writer o f a num ber o f works limited in their scope, but his
treatm ent o f any subject was masterly in its order and clarity.
The ingenuity o f the mechanical devices invented by the Alexandrians in
response to the new interests is astonishing even by m odem standards. Most
spectacular o f those was Archimedes’ huge mirror which concentrated the
sun’s rays on Roman ships besieging his native city o f Syracuse. The ships
were burnt under the intense heat. Perhaps the most famous o f Archimedes'
scientific discoveries is the hydrostatic principle now named after him. A story
preserved in history tells how Archimedes was led to make his great discov­
ery. The king o f Syracuse ordered a crown made o f gold. When the crown
was delivered, the king suspected that it contained some baser metals; so he
sent it to Archimedes and asked him to devise a method o f testing the co n ­
tents without, o f course, destroying the workmanship. Archimedes pondered
the problem and one day while bathing, suddenly grasped the principle that
enabled him to handle the problem. Archimedes discovered that a body
immersed in water is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight o f the water dis­
placed. Since the weight of the displaced water as well as the weight o f a body
in air can be measured, the ratio o f the weights is known. This ratio is con­
stant for a given metal no m atter what its shape and differs from metal to

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metal. Hence Archimedes had to determine this ratio for a piece of metal
known as gold and compare it with the corresponding ratio for the crown.
Unfortunately, history does not record his decision.
The principle that Archimedes discovered is one o f the first universal laws
o f science; he incorporated it among others in his book On Floating Bodies.
Two branches o f mechanics — statics and hydrostatics — were founded on
math bases by Archimedes who must be called the first rational scientist o f
mechanics. Archimedes’ creation o f those two branches of theoretical
m echanics is perhaps even more remarkable than his math investigations.
Two o f his mechanical treatises came down to us. They both begin with def­
initions and postulates on the bases o f which a number of propositions are
geometrically proved. There was no other scientist comparable to him until
the time o f Galileo who was bom more than eighteen centuries later.
Possessed o f a lofty intellect, great breadth o f interests both theoretical and
practical, extraordinary mechanical skill, fertile imagination and the inquir­
ing mind, Archimedes was greatly respected and admired by his contem po­
raries.
The history o f science is not simply the history o f great scientists. When
one investigates carefully the genesis o f any discovery of a universal law, one
finds that it was gradually prepared by a number o f smaller ones, and the
deeper o n e’s investigation, the more intermediary stages are found. The
word “ law” is misleading, in fact. It is used in science for a relationship or
description o f behaviour discovered and which seems very general and
appeals to us as simple and important. Most scientific laws are first derived
inductively from experience; others are first deduced from some theoretical
scheme. Sometimes a different title is awarded: “principle” or “ rule” or even
the honest word “relation” for example, “the principle of conservation o f
energy” , “the quantum rules” , “the mass-energy relation £=m c2” Thus,
the words “law” —“principle” —“rule” , at present you may regard them as
all much the same, all are summaries o f what we find or think does happen
in nature. There is a tendency to use the word “law” for great simple ou t­
comes o f experiment, “ principle” — for general beliefs which are built into
theory and “ rule” — for more working statements. Nevertheless, one can’t
appreciate the value o f the discovery by the label alone.
Wfe take it for granted that there are simple laws to be found and they are
true descriptions o f nature when we do find them. But the modem philoso­
phy o f science warns us that we are being overconfident. It reminds us that
our whole behaviour in seeking laws is artificial. The nature we codify is just
our idea o f nature. O ur laws are m an-m ade, because we make assumptions

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to suit our hopes. The equations scientists write seem to contain in them ­
selves the working o f the world; by their manipulation, it seems, one can
manipulate nature itself. The most remarkable aspect is psychological. When
a relation such as the rule of vector addition was first suggested as the rule for
the combination o f forces, the suggestion was tentative, but when buildings
and bridges were being constructed for years following the rule, it became a
law o f nature. And we often hear “ forces are vectors” O f course, forces are
not vectors — they are forces; but the association o f forces with vectors is so
successful that the distinction becomes blurred and obliterated.
In codifying our knowledge o f nature in simple laws, scientists are looking
first for constancy; the mass of a body remains constant; total electric charge
remains constant; momentum is conserved; all electrons are the same, etc.
Almost as simple and equally fruitful is direct proportionality when two meas­
ured quantities increase together in the same proportion: stretch o f a spring
with its load; force and acceleration; gas pressure and gas density, etc.
Extracting laws is one o f the great activities o f a scientist, but there is imagi­
native thinking, too, and above all much scheming to combine laws togeth­
er, hoping to find a common key or to reveal new predictions. The diverse
motions may be linked together by a common characteristic. Without the
help of combined laws, the common behaviour may remain unknown and
some o f the motions never put to use or fully understood.
So it is unfortunate that scientists say, “ ...obey ... law” Scientific laws do
not command nature like policemen. N or should we use them to “explain”
the observations that suggested them —though they can throw light on other
experiments. Laws are, rather, simple guiding threads which we draw from the
tangled web (nature) we study, the main threads o f experimental knowledge
which we weave into the fabric of science. Science gets nowhere if knowledge
is just a vast tangle o f facts or random observations. Thus, scientists are trying
to organize facts into groups and extract common pieces o f behaviour. They
call the extracted statements or relation a “ rule" a “law” occasionally a
“principle” Hence “law” is a generalized record o f nature. not a command
that compels nature.

TEXT TWO

CELESTIAL MECHANICS

Read the text. Be ready to speak in detail on the scientists mentioned in the text, their discov­
eries and contribution to science.

232
Astronomy is almost as old as man himself, it is older than mechanics or
physics. Astronomy is that part of science which provides a clear example of
the growth and use o f theory in science. In fact, it got science started by
showing the beautiful simplicity o f the motion o f the planets and stars, the
understanding o f which was the beginning of science. It deals with the histo­
ry o f our knowledge o f the solar system from early watching and observa­
tions, simple fables to the magnificent success o f N ew ton’s gravitational the­
ory and Einstein’s relativity theory. Every scientist is aware of this important
and historical continuity in science. Discoveries in science are made only
when time is ripe for them. Discoveries are followed by the development o f
more sophisticated theories. The growth o f celestial mechanics is largely
cyclic in nature. T he first period was that o f the ancient Greek scientists.
All the G reek scientists were trying to build a picture and a theory o f the
universe founded on observed facts and speculation. The earliest o f the
Greek “ natural philosophers” ( Thales — 600 B.C., Pythagoras — 530 B.C.,
Eudoxus — 370 B.C.) tried to start with a few simple assumptions or general
principles and draw from them as logically as possible a complete “explana­
tion” o f the observed natural behaviour. This explanation served to coordi­
nate the information available and to make predictions, but above all, to give
a feeling that there is a pattern that holds diverse behaviour together, that
nature makes sense. Although some o f the search for a good scheme was
prompted by practical needs such as, e.g., calendar-making, this delight in a
unified clear explanation went far beyond that. Driven by an urge to ask
“why” , the G reek philosophers were seeking and making scientific theory.
Though our m odern tradition o f experimenting and our modern wealth of
scientific tools made great changes, we still hold the G reek delight in a the­
ory that can account for the natural phenomena.
Aristotle (340 B.C.), the great philosopher, teacher and encyclopedic sci­
entist was the “ last speculative philosopher” in ancient astronomy. The
Pythagoreans began the great debate concerning the E arth’s place in the
world which continued for over 2000 years. The Earth was the centre o f
Aristotle’s universe which was closed, bounded at its outer edge by the celes­
tial sphere, populated with air, earth, fire, water and celestial substance or
the staff out o f which the planets and stars were made. Each planet was fol­
lowing its natural circular motion about the Earth in contrast to material
bodies whose natural motions were up and down, as light things rose and
heavy things fall to the earth. In supporting the scheme o f concentric spin­
ning spheres Aristotle gave a dogmatic reason: the sphere is the perfect solid
shape and it prejudiced astronomical thinking about orbits for centuries. For

233
ages Aristotle’s writings were the only attem pt to systematize the whole o f
nature. They were translated from language to language, printed and studied
and quoted as authority.
In the course o f these translations and retranslations errors were made
resulting in a great deal of confusion and in a new profession: that o f a schol­
ar v/ho spent his time trying to decide what was actually contained in these
ancient texts. Aristotle’s conception o f the universe —his own research, crit­
icism, his repetition of hearsay and the ideas o f others — became part of
Christian religion and an attack thereafter on Aristotle was an attack on the
church itself. In mechanics proper Aristotle discovered the law o f the lever
for vertical forces and proposed incorrect theory on moving bodies. His
importance in the history o f science is due to the fact that he was investigat­
ing in over twenty-five different fields o f knowledge and that until the
Renaissance no comparable systematic survey o f knowledge was made. His
works are an encyclopedia o f the learning o f the ancient world and in every
field he contributed something o f value. He was probably the first to con­
ceive the idea of organized and systematized research. The science of
Aristotle was purely speculative and dogmatic not compared with and con­
trolled by observation and experiment.
The astronom ers o f A lexandrian school Aristarchus (240 B.C.),
Hipparchus (140 B.C.) and Ptolemy (120 A.D.), made more accurate obser­
vations and produced better theories. Claudius Ptolemy compiled the sum ­
mary o f the Greek effort to order the motion o f the stars and planets in his
book Almagest meaning “The Greatest of Books” , w hich survived until m od­
ern times, exerting a great influence on all astronomical thought. The
Ptolemaic picture of the universe dominated astronomy for the next fourteen
centuries. Ptolemy set forth the general picture: the heaven o f the stars is a
sphere turning steadily round a fixed axis in 24 hours; the Earth is a sphere
at rest at the centre o f the heavens. The Sun moves round the Earth. The
Ptolemaic system was believed and hardly questioned. Corrected, amended,
revised with circles added to circles, it passed from generation to generation
until the fifteenth century, when it lost its ethics appeal it once claimed.
Medieval world of dogmas and printed authorities created an unbearable
pressure and there appeared scientists who were building that rational world
which was to dominate science thereafter.
In Nicolaus Copernicus ( 1 4 7 t-1543) the dissatisfaction with the Ptolemaic
picture was so great that he was led finally to challenge the hypothesis o f the
ancient cosmology and to change the picture o f the universe. He suggested
Sun-at-centre (heliocentric) picture which was a revolutionary advance in

234
science. He wrote a great book setting forth the details o f his system, show­
ing calculations o f its size and predicting tests. After his death this view
spread, though it was not universally accepted for a long time.
Giordano Bruno (1548-1600) burst the starry immobile sphere, he made
the universe endless, space infinite, Earth and Sun lost among countless
other planets and suns. He was burned for his heresy. So, the universe, no
longer, according to G. Bruno, centred about a unique fixed point, was no
longer filled or finite; objects were moving through this space uniformly from
point to point, because the space on all sides is the same.
Rene Descartes (1596-1650) rejected all philosophical doctrines and dog­
mas putting aside all authorities, Aristotle in particular, doubted everything.
His new method was to analyze complex notions into their constituents until
the irreducible elements are simple, clear, distinct ideas. He described a world
system as mechanical, i.e., in terms o f general principles o f mechanics. He
opposed the idea of vacuum and filled space with whirling vortices to carry
the planets. G od, Descartes claimed, created matter and endowed it with
motion; after that the world is evolving by the laws o f mechanics without
interference.
Tycho Brahe (1546-1601), a Danish nobleman and astronomer, who, fired
with curiosity about the planets, became a brilliant observer, a genius at
devising and using precise instruments. He built the first great observatory.
He did not challenge the simplicity o f the Copernican system; but simplici­
ty was not a sufficient reason for him to accept the notion that the Earth is
moving. This refusal did not prevent him in his great work o f mapping the
position o f the stars and the planets over a long period o f time. It was soon
clear from his observations that the Copernican orbits o f the planets were
only roughly correct. He constructed far more accurate planetary tables than
anybody before him and left his pupil Kepler to complete their publication.
Johann Kepler (1571-1630), a G erm an, was a striking contrast to T. Brahe,
his former teacher, to brilliant observer who gathered data and recorded what
he saw. Kepler —the theoretician —was fascinated by the power o f maths and
was seeking for a numerical scheme underlying the planetary system. Using
Tycho Brahe’s observations and data, he extracted three general laws for the
motion o f the planets without finding any explanation o f these laws. After
Kepler ( “ Legislator o f the Heavens”) the main question became: “What the­
ory will give Kepler’s laws?” And the planets —what o f them? According to
Kepler they were no longer moving uniformly, no longer in circles, no longer
in harm onic proportion. Kepler used an imaginary spoke connecting the
Sun to the planet and driving the planets in their orbits. He found simple

235
curves —ellipses —along which the planets are moving, sweeping ou t equal
areas in equal times.
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) advocated Copernicus’ picture. With a tele­
scope o f his own design he gained evidence supporting Copernicus’ theory.
To the dismay of the classical philosophers, and at his own peril, he preached
the need to abide by experiment. He was experimenting and teaching new
scientific knowledge o f astronomy and mechanics. The scope o f G alileo’s
interests and activities was unbelievably broad even fo ra great intellect o f the
Age o f G enii (the seventeenth century). He was always keenly interested in
mechanical devices. At home, he kept a workshop in which he spent a great
deal o f his time. There he produced so many new and ingenious devices that
he can be called the father o f m odem invention. The most fruitful creation
o f the myriad-m inded Galileo was a grand plan for reading the book o f
nature. The key o f the success o f m odem science was the selection o f a new
goal for scientific activity set by Galileo and pursued by his successors. This
new goal was that o f obtaining quantitative description o f scientific phenom ­
ena independently o f any physical explanation instead o f unsuccessful qual­
itative and causal inquiries into nature. G alileo was the first to formulate
explicitly this new plan and put it into effect by establishing a number o ffu n ­
damental laws and the scientific theory, the connective tissue and a body of
math laws.
Math deduction, Galileo proved, produces knowledge o f the physical
world. While studying the motion o f projectiles (e.g., cannon balls) Galileo
observed that an object’s motion can result from two independent simultane­
ous motions. The meaning o f this discovery can be clarified by an example.
An object dropped from an airplane flying horizontally possesses two
motions. In accordance with Galileo’s third law o f motion - i f one body is
carried by another, the first shares the motion o f the second — one m otion is
straight out in the same direction as the plane is going, the other motion is
straight down. The combination o f these two simultaneous m otions causes
the object to travel downward along a curve, which, as Galileo pointed out,
is path o f a parabola. However, the horizontal and vertical motions o f the
falling object are independent o f each other. The now famous rule - paral­
lelogram rule (also called the triangle for the composition o f forces, velocities,
etc.) - was introduced first by Simon Stevin (1548-1620), an engineer with
an immediate practical need for this knowledge. Just as different things
(apples, stones, and people) can be counted with numbers, different physi­
cal quantities (e.g., forces, velocities) can be associated with vector?. The
parallelogram addition o f forces, velocities, etc. essentially implies that one

236
vector does not disturb another: they act independently and just add geo­
metrically. All through his experiments Galileo insisted that motions (forces,
etc.) are independent of each other. For example, a constant horizontal
motion and a vertical accelerated motion simply add by vectors — one
motion does not modify the other but each has its full effect. Galileo
preached this independence of vectors again and again in his problems and
“thought experiments” and showed that a steady motion o f the laboratory
does not affect experiments on statics, free fall, or projectiles. A laboratory
steady motion cannot be detected by any mechanical experiments inside.
This is Galilean relativity - one of his greatest discoveries. The potential
value o f this relativistic principle of motion is obvious enough and it was
A. Einstein - the creator o f relativistic theory - who capitalized on it.
Isaac Newton (1642-1727) with the tools, the insights, the knowledge set
by the seventeenth-century scientists and his own investigations and experi­
ments created the first great mechanical theory which “explains” the whole
Copernicus-Kepler system. He restated and generalized Galileo’s discover­
ies concerning mass, motion and force into clearly-worded “laws of m otion”
and proposed further that bodies attract one another according to universal
inverse-square law o f gravitation F=gMxM1/ d 2 Newton achieved one of the
major objectives in G alileo’s plan by showing that l) the laws of motion and
gravitation are fundamental; 2) they apply equally well to so many varied sit­
uations on heaven and Earth; 3) all three Kepler’s laws follow from the basic
laws o f m otion and the law of gravitation. N ew ton’s theory was world-wide
success, it impressed educated people not only as the brilliant ordering of
celestial nature, but as a model for other grand explanations to come. During
the next two centuries further perfection o f Newton's theory was made and
consequences were worked out by other mathematicians and astronomers
including the French mathematicians J.L. Lagrange and P.S. Laplace. One
remarkable deduction from the general astronomical theory of Lagrange and
Laplace is especially worth mentioning. This was the purely theoretical pre­
diction o f the existence and the location o f the planet Neptune by two
astronomers: J.C. Adams in England and U.J. Leverrier in France by its
minute gravitational effects on the known planet. This discovery o f a new
planet was regarded as a great trium ph o f theory and the universal applica­
tion o f N ew ton’s law o f gravitation.
Early in this century, Albert Einstein (1879-1955) suggested modifications
and reinterpretation o f the laws o f mechanics. These did not destroy
N ew ton’s work but enabled scientists to explain many phenomena then
unaccounted for. In addition to much modification of the “working rules” of

237
mechanics, the great value o f relativity lies in the light it throws on the rela­
tion between experiment and theory, ruling out unobservable things from
even the speculation o f wise scientists. It makes the model o f the physical
world more susceptible to proof by experiments. The major difference in
point o f view between N ewton’s and Einstein’s theory o f gravitation (gener­
al theory o f relativity) lies in their convention concerning geometry o f space
and time. In the Newtonian theory (mechanical theory) space is Euclidean
and particles that move on curved paths do so because o f forces. In general
relativity (field) theory space-time is not Euclidean and particles always
move in such a way that they traverse the shortest distance between any two
points, given the constraints o f space. These two points o f view (mechanical
and field theory), although there are important differences, lead in most
cases o f practical experience to almost identical results.

TE X T TH REE

GRAVITATION

Read the text. Which theory (hypothesis) do you favour? Why are you “Гог'* or “agamst” a par­
ticular theory? Are the advanced hypotheses presented in the text building a bridge from the M i-
verse to the microcosm or vice versa?

Gravity is a force that holds together the hundred billion stars o f the Milky
Way. It makes the Earth revolve around the Sun and the M oon around the
Earth. There are three great names in the history o f man s understanding o f
gravity: Galileo who was the first to study in detail the process o f free and
accelerated fall; Newton, the first to have the idea o f gravity as a universal
force. However, Newton admitted that he did not know its ultimate cause
( “ I will not feign hypothesis”) but he offered many a keen guess at the nature
and mechanism o f gravitation; and Einstein, who said that gravity is nothing
but the curvature o f the four-dimensional space-tim e continuum .
In specifying gravitation on the new geometrical view Einstein did not
prove “ Newton’s law o f gravitation” wrong but offered a refining modifica­
tion - though this involved a radical change in viewpoint. Wfe must not think
o f either *aw as right (or wrong) because it is suggested by a great man or
because it is embodied by beautiful maths; we are offered it as a brilliant
guess from the real universe. The changes from N ew ton's predictions to
Einstein’s, though fundamental in nature, are usually too small in effect to
make any difference in laboratory experiments or even in most astronomical

238
measurements. By reducing gravity to geometrical properties of a space-time
continuum , Einstein concluded that the electromagnetic field must also
have some purely geometrical interpretation. The unified field theory, which
grew from this conclusion had rough going and Einstein died without com­
pleting it. Some scientists claim that it is very odd indeed that the theory o f
gravitation originated by Newton and developed further by Einstein should
stand now in majestic isolation, having nothing to do with the rapid devel­
opment o f other branches of science. This is not the case, however. The
progress in quantum mechanics, modem cosmology and astrophysics makes
this claim unjustified.

The World of Hypotheses


The universal law o f gravitation is claiming more and more attention from
scientists. When Newton described gravitation for the first time, he gave sci­
ence the law o f universal gravitation. Einstein “exploded” traditional classi­
cal notions about it, linking gravitation with the curvature of space with his
general theory o f relativity. In both cases gravitation was seen as a phenom ­
enon o f a cosmic scale, since gravitational fields are “perceptible” only with
the existence o f huge masses. Now scientists hope that it may provide a key
to understanding processes in a microcosm, at the quantum level. It is at the
junction o f quantum and gravitational ideas that science can expect to make
the most sensational discoveries. This expectation characterized gravitation-
alists’ discussions at the 6th All-Union Gravitational Conference and at
symposiums in Moscow and Leningrad (1984). What ideas do scientists have
who are trying to connect the gravitational processes o f the universe with the
world o f elementary particles? Here are just three o f them.

Wis Einstein Right?


The general theory o f relativity, which is being brilliantly confirmed by
experiments, the equations o f which are used by astrophysicists to compute
the gravitational fields o f space objects, possesses fundamental difficulties
which are not clarified to this day. The chief one is the problem o f deter­
mining the energy of the gravitational field. In the framework o f Einstein’s
theory this question remains a veritable “ headache” for scientists. Opinions
on how exactly to com pute this energy invariably differ. Recently
Academician A. Logunov and Professor M. Mestvirishvili advanced a new
theory o f gravitation, in which the energy o f the gravitational field can
always be determined. Unlike Einstein, Logunov and Mestvirishvili m ain­
tain that our world is homogeneous, while gravitational attractions in it are

239
conditioned not by the curvature of space but by some physical force neld
like the electromagnetic field. They draw on the methods used in the field
theory of elementary particles.
What is to be done with the equations of the general theory o f relativity
which faithfully serve science? Are they not in antagonistic contradiction
with Logunov and Mestvirishvili’s theory? In fact, they are not. They are
perfectly consistent with it if another four equations are added. Moreover,
the curvature of space, which is the main element for Einstein, plays only a
secondary part in the new theory. It is interesting to note that all the experi­
ments, which hitherto corroborated the general theory o f relativity, also con­
firm Logunov and Mestvirishvili’s theory.
So, what does the universe look like according to the new theory?
Einstein’s theory allows for the exisience of different models o f the un.ven .*■
— “open”, “closed” , etc. — but Logunov and Mestvirishvili allow for only
one model. Their universe can only be “flat” This, in turn, presupposes the
existence in it of some concealed, unobserved,e ma^s. Surpassing the mass of
all galaxies taken together many times over, this invisible mass ensures the
evolution of the universe as a flat world. As often happens with new theories.
Logunov and Mestvirishvili’s theory is hostile!}' being received by many
gravitationalists. However, it is mtuiieiuaticaliy correct, not open to doubt.
N or is it at variance with known experimental data. To solve the question of
which is correct — Einstein’s general theory o f relativity or the theory'
advanced by Logunov and Mestvirishvili - there will have to be more exper­
iments.

... The Incredible Kerr Disc!


Most people invariably tend to associate U FO ’s - one o f the enigmas of
our civilization — with antigravitation; it is mankind’s cherished dream to
master antigravitation. But however splendid this dream may be, neither th e­
ories nor experiments of m odem science provided any grounds for opti­
mism. However, there is already a distant glimmer o f hope. The physicist
A. Burmsky o f Moscow forwarded a hypothesis suggesting that some quan­
tum phenomena indicate a path to achieving an antigrav itational effect.
Scientists considered a vacuum not to be a void but an intricate structure
filled, as it were, with photon “gas” with the minimum am ount o f energy.
What is known as the Casimir effect became highly popular in today’s search­
es for a connection between quantum and gravitational theories. Long
known to scientists, it makes it possible to tangibly “ perceive" the existence
o f this “gas” This leads to a very unexpected conclusion: a certain body

24 0
(conductor) placed in the vacuum, obstructs the penetration into it of the
photon “gas” , ousts it, with a resulting loss in energy, and mass (in exactly
the same way as a body submerged in a liquid loses weight). This is nothing
short o f antigravitation.
However, for known bodies from ordinary materials this effect is so
insignificant that it does not give us a chance to “feel” or see antigravita­
tion. But isn’t there a condition under which this effect will become pal­
pable. According to Burinsky the antigravitational effect becomes more
acute with the increase in density o f objects. For materials where the par­
ticles are “ packed” with extreme density, the antigravitational effect
becomes so strong that its quantity can be compared with mass o f the
object itself.
“ It may be supposed that in objects o f extreme density such as the neu­
tron stars, for instance, the antigravitational effect ‘eats u p ’ a large part
o f their m ass,” said Burinsky. “ In the process of a star’s compression (col­
lapse) its density increases and reaches a state o f extreme density. In this
case a large part of the star’s mass sort o f converts to a concealed form
while the collapsing star itself assumes the form of a swiftly rotating disc.
This follows from the famous solution of Einstein’s equations, discovered
by Roy Kerr in 1963. Scientists found that the material of this ‘Kerr disc’
possesses highly unusual properties: it is superconductive and weighs
nothing!”
The hypothetical K err disc is o f interest to scientists not only for the
purpose o f describing the processes taking place in space. Burinsky, in
particular, believes that the rotating Kerr disc (like the disc o f the neu­
tro n star, but “ m ade” not o f neutrons but o f densely packed “ quarks” )
constitutes the basic structure o f ... elem entary particles! But then the
masses “ eaten up” by the antigravitational effect must be present in a
concealed form in the elem entary particles. If so, the physical picture o f
the world, as we know it today, must owe its com pleteness to the exis­
tence o f both gravitation and antigravitation. To what extent does this
conception (if Burinsky’s hypothesis is correct) bring us nearer to the
m astering o f this force? “T he m ain condition for this would be the c re ­
ation, at lea^t in laboratory conditions, o f a material with the superdense
packing o f extreme density particles,” says Burinsky. Evidently today
this is an extremely com plicated problem , even for om n ip o ten t physics.
B ut the history and logic o f the developm ent o f science show, that the
“ im possible” simply requires a little more time. And som etim es - more
chance.

241
Does the Universe Rotate?
Does the whole o f the universe rotate? This is the central question today
for scientists in relativist cosmology and gravitation theory. The supposition
on the possible rotation o f the m eta-galaxy was engendered by the
announcem ent o f British astrophysicists in the global unevenness they dis­
covered in the radiation o f space radiosources. Moscow University Professor
D. Ivanenko believes that the universe does have a general rotation at a slow
speed. This fact can be explained and mathematically described from posi­
tions o f Einstein’s general theory o f relativity. This is being done by
Ivanenko’s co-author V Krechet. The solution obtained by Ivanenko and
Krechet link the speed o f the universe rotation and its angular momentum
(spin) with the average density o f the matter contained in it. Thus, the rotation
o f the universe can serve as one more observable phenomenon corroborating the
correctness o f the general theory o f relativity (along with the already known
expansion o f the universe, the deflection o f star light near the Sun, etc.).
The formula o f the dependence o f the spin and mass found by Ivanenko
and Krechet for the universe coincides with the dependence known for ele­
mentary particles. This coincidence points to the existence o f a profound
analogy between the universe and the microcosm which is an additional
argument in the so-called hierarchic concept o f the structure o f the physical
world, developed by Ivanenko and Krechet. It regards the universe and
microparticles as two elements o f a single system possessing a num ber of
com m on properties but differing in level: in exactly the same way as, say, a
giant matryoshka doll differs from the tiniest one fitted into it. Will science
ever be able to encompass the universe as a whole, to comprehend the single
laws connecting the macro- and microcosm, to confirm the correctness o f
Academician Markov’s hypothesis that our entire universe is nothing more
than an elementary particle and that every elementary particle is a vast, infi­
nite world like ours? Evidently, not. Knowledge is boundless. But it is the
only path o f Reason.

T E X T FOUR

REVISITING THE BIG BANG


Read and translate the text at home (paragraphs I, 9 and 10 in writing). Write an abstract of
the text taking into account the following questions:

Why did all the preceding cosmological theories collapse in 1989?


What does the phrase “the big bang” in cosmology mean?

242
Has a “black body” been already detected or located in space?
How do cosmologists picture nowadays the location of most galaxies?
Is the manned mission into the orbit aboard the space shuttle possible?

COSMOLOGY DATA ARE TOPPLING THEORIES


OF THE UNIVERSE

1. One o f the most perplexing — and intriguing —questions in astronomy


is just how all the stars and galaxies visible in the night sky came to be there.
Theories explaining this mysterious process abound, each more exotic than
the next. But not long ago, many of them collapsed as astrophysicist flashed
one simple graph summarizing the first results from NASA’s Cosmic
Background Explorer (СОВЕ) satellite, launched in November 18, 1989.
2. C O B E’s instruments show that the primordial fireball that spawned the
universe — popularly known as the big bang — apparently was a completely
smooth explosion, sending radiation evenly into the nascent universe. This
is not what most cosmological theorists expected to find. They anticipated
perturbations, disturbances and “lum ps” that would somehow metastasize
later into galaxies and other great heavenly structures. “The important con­
clusion is, there isn’t anything else there,” said astronomers.“ N othing.”
3. “Zone o f Mystery.” That fundamental finding, along with other new dis­
coveries, poses an enormous conundrum for cosmologists studying the ori­
gin, evolution and structure o f the universe. C O BE’s remarkable instrument
looked back to within a year after the big bang, farther back in time than any
astronomical instrument has ever gazed before, and found nothing but
smoothness (СОВЕ looks back in time by measuring faint radiation from the
big bang that pervades the universe). Yet in November, California Institute o f
Technology astronomers reported that they had discovered the oldest quasar
— an extremely bright object in a distant galaxy — ever seen, dating from a
mere one billion years after the big bang. Something obviously happened
during that tim e —a mere blink o f the eye in cosmological terms - to cause
the formation o f the enormous celestial structures detectable from Earth.
Theoreticians at this point simply cannot explain what occurred. “ It’s a zone
o f mystery,” they claimed.
4. Previous models of the universe’ evolution assumed the existence o f sev­
eral so-far-unseen phenomena: ancient black holes, “cosmic strings,” “dark
m atter” and pregalactic explosions. But these phenomena require some
lumpiness in the earliest radiation, which СОВЕ failed to detect. “We’re

243
careering to'^ar i a:, absolutely contradictory situation,” says Harvard cos-
mologists. Observations show that the universe is more lumpy than believed
before, but the surprising smoothness of the early radiation does not lead
logically to such observations. Five years ago, theoretical cosmologists had a
lot o f theories and no way to prove them right or wrong. Now, there are lots
and lots of data and no viable theories.
5. Significantly, however, СОВЕ did not knock out the big-bang theory
itself; indeed, it confirmed it in its simplest formulation. The big-bang the­
ory holds that the universe began 10 to 20 billion years ago as a superbot,,
dense fireball that rapidly expanded and then cooled to form the complex
heavenly structures now seen. In 1965, this idea advanced by detecting tne
first direct evidence. They found weak background radiation that pervades
the universe in ail directions —radiation, that must have come from the orig­
inal explosion has since cooled to about 3 degrees above absolute zero, and,
like a fossil, it can reveal pioctsses ;hat shaped the explosion and its after-
math. Since the radiation is disturbed by the E arth’s atmosphere, СОВЕ was
designed to fly above the atmosphere and measure the cosmic background
radiation far more precisely than ever before.
6. The experiment is straightforward. A m ajor instrum ent aboard СОВЕ,
called the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, looks to see how the
cosmic background radiation compares with that o f a “black body” a
hypothetically perfect radiator that emits a completely sm ooth spectrum of
energy. Before the satellite flew, Space Flight C enter said that if deviations
from a perfect black-body spectrum were found, that would indicate explo­
sions or other phenom ena took place in the early universe. Last year, in fact,
a team o f scientists from the University o f California at Berkeley and Japan
reported that they had seen substantial deviations using another instrum ent,
touching off a flurry o f scientific papers that attem pted to account for it.
7. No Missing Link. Surprisingly, the data received so far from СОВЕ “tell
you the universe didn’t even burp after it exploded", says John Bachall, a
theoretical astrophysicist at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton,
who found the results so “clear and beautiful that I had chills going up and
down the back o f my neck”
8. A second СОВЕ experiment, mapping minute differences in the bright­
ness o f the background radiation across the sky, failed to detect any hint o f
galactic progenitors or other stellar objects even 300,000 years further on in
the universe’s evolution. The scientists were looking for “the missing link"
that might explain what we know appeared later. But again nothing. Project
scientists concede now that even if СОВЕ reveals some cosmic ripple in the

244
next year and a half, it will probably not be significant enough to explain the
existing universe.
9. More Mysteries. C O BE’s remarkable new findings are not the only ones
causing cosmologists theoretical difficulty. They have to contend also with
recent discoveries o f bigger, more massive structure than any previously
known. These, too, are important to the understanding of the evolution o f the
universe. Most galaxies, it now appears, are on the walls o f enormous bubble­
like voids. Scientists have identified a sheet of galaxies 500-million-light years
long, dubbed the “Great WfoU” , which is too big to fit into some theories of the
universe’s evolution. Astronomers confirmed the existence o f an enormous
gravitation source only 150 million light years from the Earth, called the
“Great Attractor” . With a mass equivalent to tens o f thousands of galaxies, it
appears to be pulling other galaxies, including the Milky Why, toward it. They
suggest that the existence o f such large structures — others are likely to be
found —could be fatal to the notions o f how matter clustered during the uni­
verse’s development.
10. Ironically, the spectacular CO BE’s mission that promises to keep cos­
mologists busy for years to come almost didn’t take place. It was conceived
in 1974 as NASA’s first probe o f the dawn of the universe and designed to fly
into orbit aboard the space shuttle. But the Challenger tragedy scratched
СОВЕ from the shuttle schedule, even though the satellite had already been
constructed. Scientists and engineers at Goddard persuaded NASA head­
quarters that they could change its design so it could fly on an expendable
rocket. They managed the neat technical trick o f preserving COBE’s scien­
tific capabilities while sweating the satellite’s weight from 10,000 pounds to
half o f that. Then a series o f nagging technical glitches delayed the launch.
Now СОВЕ is safely in orbit 560 miles above the Earth. But the data all may
bb sucked into a terrestrial black hole.

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

1. Make use of the following word combinations, synonyms and antonyms in sentences of your own:

Word combinations:
to deduce law invented
to derive rule estimated
law is
to extract relation discovered
to infer principle manufactured

245
to obey holds
to observe is valid
law law
to break is obeyed
to violate is satisfied

to gather general
facts
to collect common
data behaviour
to process specific
information
to accumulate erratic

(un)steady to change dogmatic


(non)uniform motion to alter a view- scholastic philo­
(ir)regular move­ to modify point Aristotelian sopher
ment speculative
(in)violent to revolu­
tionize
to solve applied
covered
to settle exerted
a problem the distance travelled force
to tackle impressed
traversed
to handle transferred

single
elapsed solid
regular
the time passed rigid body observation
random
taken heavenly
routine

time to take into account


mean
speed to take into consideration
average
velocity to take for granted

action to be responsible (for)


mutual attraction to be prejudiced (in)
repulsion to be destined (to)

Synonyms:

speed rate order clock void


velocity frequency com m and timepiece vacuum

246
speculation core stop ray wave
meditation kernel halt beam billow
thought nucleus cease bundle surge

inquiry shrinking to become less to speculate


research reduction to decrease to ponder
quest contraction to diminish to meditate

Antonym s:

to attract to accept to reveal safe light


to repel to discard to conceal risky heavy

wide regular natural upwards internal


narrow random artificial downwards external

real fall to emit (light) susceptible


assumed rise to consume uncapable o f

2. Don’t mix np the following words:

low peace fast random particle lawyer


law piece vast routine particular legislator

vertices futile course pressure experiment


vortices fertile curse precision experience

technique geocentric physicist to refute supernational


engineering geliocentric physician to refuse supernatural

3. Explain in your own words the difference between:

to push to emit to shift to bend to account for


to pull to radiate to move to curve to explain

to destroy to eliminate to refute to follow


to destruct to annihilate to prove wrong to pursue

4. Give one Russian equivalent of the following groups of words:

247
a) law — act — bill — decree — legislation / pulse — impulse — impetus /
order — com m and / search — quest — inquiry / speed — velocity — rate —
frequency / fault — blame — fallacy / resistance — opposition / surge — bil­
low / superstition — prejudice / quotation — citation — excerpt
b) to turn about — to move around — to revolve — to rotate — to orbit —
to whirl — to circle — to career — to spin / to consider carefully — to reflect
— to meditate — to speculate — to cogitate / to draw — to pull — to attract
/ to repel — to push — to rebound / to meet — to come across — to
encounter — to blunder — to collide / to happen — to occur / to interfere —
to disturb — to bother — to hinder / to predict — to foretell — to forecast /
to ponder — to speculate — to reflect / to inhabit — to populate — to peo­
ple / to unlock — to uncover — to discover
c) legal — lawful — legitimate — valid / suitable — appropriate / heavenly
— celestial / thoughtful — speculative / erroneous — fallacious — mislead­
ing / strange — curious — problematic — doubtful / void — empty / m an­
made — false — artificial / viable — vital — fruitful — productive — useful /
fundamental — basic — essential

5. Find illustrative examples of the following synonyms in the texts of L'nit Six.

1. to make smb. do smth. b) Somebody was led to do smth.


2. to have — " — Somebody came to do smth.
3. to force smb. to do smth. c) to explain — to account for
4. to cause — — d) to take into account —
5. to get — " — to take into consideration
6. to urge — — e) on no account — by no means
7. to compel — — 0 a refutation — a disproof
8. to impel — — g) experienced — skillful
9. to challenge — — h) continuity — succession
10. to bring (oneself) — —
6. Translate the following text at sight, giving synonyms, antonyms and definitions of the itali­
cized words.

Inertial FVanie
One o f the great contributions o f maths to physics is relativity which is
both maths and physics; you need good knowledge o f both, m aths and
physics, to understand it. The theory o f relativity, which modified our
mechanics and clarified scientific thinking, arose from a simple question:

248
“ H q w fast are we moving through space?’*Attempts to answer that by exper­
iment led to a conflict that forced scientists to think out their system o f
knowledge afresh. Out of that reappraisal came relativity—a brilliant appli­
cation o f m aths and philosophy to our treatm ent of space, time and motion.
Since relativity is a piece o f maths, popular accounts that try to explain it
without maths almost all fail. To understand relativity you should either fol­
low its algebra through in standard texts, or examine the origins and final
results, taking the m ath machine-work on trust.
What can we fin d out about space? Where is its fixed framework and how
fast are we moving through it? Nowadays we find the Copernican view com ­
fortable, and picture the spinning Earth moving around the Sun with an
orbital speed o f about 70,000 miles/hour. The whole solar system is moving
towards the constellation Hercules at some 100,000 miles/hour, while our
whole galaxy...
Wfe must be careering along a huge epicycloid through space without
knowing it. Without knowing it, because, as Galileo pointed out, the
mechanics o f m otion — projectiles, collisions, etc. — is the same in a steadi­
ly moving laboratory as in a stationary one; as though the Earth’s velocity
changes around its orbit, we think o f it as steady enough during any short
experiment. Galileo quoted thought experiments o f men walking across the
cabin o f a sailing ship or dropping stones from the top o f its mast. Review
thought experiments in moving trains. Suppose one train is passing another
in constant velocity without bumps, and in a fog that conceals the country­
side. Can the passengers really say which is moving? Can mechanical exper­
iments in either train tell them? They can only observe their relative motion.
In fact, we developed the rules o f vectors and laws of motion in earthly labs
that are moving; yet those statements show no effect o f that motion.
We give the name inertial frame to any frame o f reference o f laboratory in
which N ew ton’s laws describe nature truly; objects left alone without force
pursue straight lines with constant speed, or stay at rest; forces produce p ro ­
portional accelerations. We find that any frame moving at constant velocity
relative to an inertial frame is also an inertial frame. Newton's laws hold
here, too. In the discussions that concern Galilean relativity and Einstein’s
special relativity, we assume that every laboratory we discuss is an inertial
frame — as a laboratory at rest on the Earth is, to a close approximation.
Wfe are not supplied by nature with an obvious inertial frame. The spinning
Earth is not a perfect inertial frame (because its spin imposes certain accel­
erations), but in case we ever find a perfect one, then our relativity view o f
nature assures us we could find any num ber o f other inertial frames. Every

249
frame moving with constant velocity relative to our first inertial frame is an
equally good inertial frame — N ew ton’s laws o f m otion, which apply by def­
inition in the original frame, apply in all the others. When we do experiments
on force and motion and find that Newton’s laws hold, we are, from the
point o f view o f relativity, simply showing that our earthly lab, does provide
a practically perfect inertial frame.

READING CO M PREH EN SIO N

Read the text and express your opinion concerning the number of dimensions. Are yon in favoar
o f the three or o f more number dimensional space?

How Many Dimensions Exist?

It is usually taken fo r granted th at there are three dim ensions o f space


and a single dim ension o f tim e. T hat is, any event th a t occurs anywhere
in the universe can be assigned a location in space using three coordinates
and a location in tim e using one. But physicists and m athem aticians have
studied hypothetical worlds in which more o r fewer dim ensions exist, and
so questions arise as to w hether the usual belief about o u r world is strict­
ly correct, and if so, w hether we can find any reason for it being true. For
exam ple, we might consider the possibility th a t there are really four
dim ensions o f space, but th at for some reason, all o f the phenom ena that
we usually observe have the same value for one o f the space coordinates.
It has been known for a century that if the dim ensionality o f space were
other than three, and if free m otion were possible in all o f the dimensions
in the same way, then some o f the known laws o f physics would not be
obtained. N ew ton’s inverse square law for the force o f gravity is one such.
This argument gives additional evidence that space is in fact th ree-d im en ­
sional, but does not explain why this is so. Furtherm ore, it does not rule out
the possibility that our world has more than the expected num ber of
dimensions, but that most phenom ena are restricted in how they can \ary
in the extra dimension.
O ur approach to the question is to consider how spaces and tim es with
different num bers o f dim ensions might behave. For exam ple, one might
find that the dim ensionality o f space and time can itself undergo evolu­
tion, and that the values fam iliar to us are the present result o f that evo­
lution. Such an approach would involve relations between the num ber o f

•250
dim ensions and o th e r physical quantities such as the tem perature o f the
universe. Through these relations, the dim ensionality would be deter­
m ined by these o th er quantities. Since dim ensionality is usually taken to
be a whole number, it m ight not be possible for a dim ension to disappear
through evolution. Instead, what might happen through evolution is that
some extra dim ensions could become suppressed in com parisons with
others. O ur present picture o f the expansion o f the universe makes this
idea much more plausible than it was once. Since everything was once
m uch closer together, than it is now, we can imagine that there are,
indeed, m ore dim ensions than we think. The expansion o f the universe
may have taken place asymmetrically, so that in one o f the dimensions
there has been little o r no expansion, and the scale o f distances in that
dim ension would still be as small as it was at the beginning o f the u n i­
verse.
If this idea is correct, it would m ean that there really are more than the
fam iliar num ber o f dim ensions. It is intriguing to think that it might be
possible to find some technological m eans to find and study the usually
inaccessible dim ensions. Very likely some phenom ena would be different
in a universe w ith m ore than four dim ensions, even if there were no sym­
m etry between the different dim ensions. It would be o f great interest to
identify such phenom ena and to see if they can be observed.
T heoretical investigations have shown that if the general theory o f rel­
ativity is set up in a space-tim e o f more than four dim ensions, and if the
extents o f the extra dim ensions are made small and connected like a
cylinder, then the resulting theory describes no t only gravity, but also
electrom agnetism and o th er fields that have been introduced to describe
subatom ic particles. The extra dimensions in this case are associated not
w ith space and tim e, but with the internal symmetries. Physicists are
actively trying to unite space-tim e sym m etries and internal symmetries
in this way.
If other dim ensions do exist, we would still want to account for the prer
cise number, through som e m ore basic principles. In the type o f theory
just described, the total num ber o f dim ensions would be related through
an internal sym m etry to the num ber o f quantum fields that exist. But we
should still need to understand why precisely four dim ensions have
expanded while the others rem ained small. The question o f the dim en­
sionality o f space-tim e is ripe for more serious investigation. Scientists
expect that some new insights into it will em erge in the com ing years.

251
GRAM MAR AN D VOCABULARY EXERCISES

1. In the following statements use present continuous tense forms.

Models. 1. Laige heavenly bodies {to move) in regular orbits.


Large heavenly bodies are moving in regular orbits.
2. Something (to be interfered with) their straight-line
motion.
Something is being interfered with their straight-line
motion.

1. Astronomy (to provide) a d e a r example o f the growth and use o f theory.


2. \Afe (to honour) the great G reek scientists — the founders o f astronomy. 3.
The Earth (to spin) about its axis while it (to move) in an orbit about the Sun.
4. The planets (to rotate) on elliptical orbits with the Sun at one focus o f the
ellipse. 5. Celestial bodies (to be attracted) to some centre o f force around
which their circular motion takes place. 6. All the planets (to whirl) at
tremendous speeds around the Sun and (to rotate) at the same time. 7. A sys­
tem o f orbits along which the planets (to move) (to be constructed). 8. The
M oon (to circle) around the Earth because the Earth (to attract) it. 9. All
forces (to occur) always in pairs which are always referred to as action and
reaction. 10. The planetary laws (to be verified) in today’s cosmic flights.

2. In the following statements use past continuous tense forms, active or passive voice.

Models. 1. Astronomical knowledge grew with early civiliza­


tions.
Astronomical knowledge was growing with early civi­
lizations.
2. Ancient astronomers were supplied with the materi­
al for calendar-making by observations and collecting
facts.
Ancient astronomers were being supplied with the
material for calendar-making by observations and col­
lecting facts.

1. Astronomical knowledge originated from simple noticing facts to sys­


tematic observing. 2. Ancient astronomers sought to learn what happens and
how things occur. 3. With the accum ulated knowledge there evolved stories
and myths describing the nature. 4. The stories and myths were not real sci­
ence but they set the pattern o f a scheme to “explain” the facts. 5. For many
centuries ancient astronomers tried to explain “why" phenom ena occur. 6.
New attitude and methods were brought and founded by the G reek thinkers.

252
7. They sought general schemes and principles to account for and predict
separate facts. 8. They were awarded the title “ natural philosophers” 9.
G reek speculative philosophers gave simple pictures o f the universe. 10.
They started with a few general principles, drew logically a complete “expla­
nation” o f the observed behaviour and produced theory.

3. In the following statements use the future continuous tense forms.

Model. “ Mr. Experiment” enters science as the only reliable


test for a true theory.
“ Mr. Experiment” will be entering science as the only
reliable test for a true theory.

1. Scientists object to be ruled by dogmas and authorities. 2. Wfe deal with


unprejudiced scientists who make astronomy and mechanics inductive-deduc­
tive sciences. 3. They devise their theories with the help of guesses from exper­
iments. 4. They base their theories on assumptions that are consistent with
experiment. 5. From their theories they draw many predictions which in turn
they verify again by experiments. 6. Scientists devise new astronomical instru­
ments and methods o f indirect measurements. 7. Scientists distinguish scien­
tific sophisticated methods of reasoning from those used in our ordinary life.
8. They order facts, deduce laws and predict events to understand the world of
our sense impressions. 9. Scientists o f mechanics develop mechanics as a
rational structure. 10. They clarify and modify scientific concepts.

4. Use the proper indefinite or continuous tense forms.


1. He observes the motion o f heavenly bodies.
now, all night through, tomorrow, at midnight, the day before yesterday, regularly
2. Great progress is made in maths.
last century, next year, at Cambridge University, at present, not long ago,
at that time, soon, nowadays
3. We discuss this important law.
the other day, at this time in a week, the whole lesson, next Monday, now,
while they were away
5. Use the present continuous tense forms to express actions in the near future due to a previ­
ous arrangement.

Model. Wfe shall connect mechanical world view with the


name o f Newton.
Wfe are connecting mechanical world view with the
name o f Newton.

253
1. Similarly, we shall connect the field theory with the names o f Maxwell
and Einstein. 2. Nowadays scientists will distinguish between the mechanical
and field views. 3. A mechanist will characterize the principal features o f
Newtonian view as particles and simple forces acting between them . 4. A
mechanist will assume the universe forms a complicated machine that obeys
Newtonian laws. 5. A mechanist will claim that mechanical view is most suc­
cessful in mechanics and astronomy. 6. Maxwell’s field theory will deal with
the description o f changes that spread continuously through space in time.
7. Maxwell’s theory will describe electromagnetic waves and the laws o f their
propagation. 8. The field view will prove successful in the dom ain o f electri­
cal and optical phenom ena. 9. According to the Newtonian theory o f gravi­
tation we shall assume that time and space are absolute and that there exists
an inertial system. 10. G eneral relativity theory will attack the problem o f
gravitation in an entirely new way. 11. In relativity theory we shall consider
space and time as a four-dimensional background o f all events. 12. W i shall
assume further that field theory laws are valid in any system.
6. Use the future continuous tense forms to express an action to take place in the fntnre in the
normal, natural course of events. Mind that this is the main application of the future continuous
tense in modem English.

Model. The scientist (to comment) on the evolution o f the


problem o f gravity.
The scientist will be commenting on the evolution o f
the problem o f gravity.

1. To explain the phenom ena o f heat, light and flowing fluids the scientist
of mechanics (to invent) an appropriate m echanical picture or a model. 2.
Mechanical waves (to spread) only in a material medium. 3. According to
Galileo’s relativity principle we (not to detect) uniform motion in two systems
in uniform relative motion. 4. Wfe (to describe) as an achievement Einstein's
destroying once and for all the concept o f ether. 5. Wfe (to assume) that the
speed o f light is always the same irrespective o f what system we (to measure)
it in. 6. In relativity theory we (to change) the most basic concepts o f space
and time. 7. When we are considering bodies moving with speeds small com ­
pared to that o f light, we (to employ) the principles o f classical mechanics. 8.
If the velocities o f moving bodies are approaching that o f light (electron
motion), we (to use) the Einstein’s relativistic mechanics. 9. Mechanists (to
claim) that perhaps the greatest triumph o f Newtonian mechanics was its
solution o f the gravitational problem. 10. M odem physicists (to object) that

254
the Newtonian gravitational law is the law o f a gravitational field changing
in time and space; so this law is invalid.

7. Change active into passive.

Models. I. Scientists are seeking for laws describing nature.


Laws describing nature are being sought for.
2. Scientists were codifying the knowledge of nature in
simple laws.
The knowledge o f nature was being codified in simple
laws.

1. A ncient scientists were discovering laws by collecting facts and specu­


lating. 2. M odern physical science is deriving most scientific laws induc­
tively from experim ent. 3. N atural scientists are using deduction to extract
com m on behaviour from a few laws. 4. Physicists are testing the deduc­
tions by experiments. 5. While experimenting the scientists are looking for
constancy. 6. Scientists were gradually discovering the conservation o f
mass, m om entum and charge. 7. Scientists are considering conservation
laws as a basis o f mechanics. 8. Hooke was experimenting with springs and
loads. 9. He was observing direct proportionality between a stretch o f a
spring and the force applied. 10. Engineers are estimating Hooke’s law as
accurate over a wide range o f stretches. 11. Engineers are encountering
similar H ooke’s law behaviour in all varieties o f elastic deformations. 12.
Scientists are claiming constancy as the most essential characteristic o f all
scientific laws.8

8. Compose sentences using continuous tense forms according to the models.

Model 1. This is the research ... (/, to carry on now).


This is the research 1 am carrying on now.

theory of classical mechanics ... (we, to try to appreciate)


mechanical picture ... {mechanics experts, to apply at that time)
light phenomenon ... (physicists, to explain in a new way then)
This is the hypothesis o f absolute time and space {Einstein, to discard
early in the century)
general relativity theory ... (Einstein, to develop, to revise the
gravitation problems)
field view point... (physicists, to spread and deepen)

255
Model 2. What arc you going to do with this speculative the­
ory? (to put it to experimental verification)
Wfe’ll be putting it to experimental verification.

1) the results o f the experiments performed? (to check them up


once more)
What 2) the data collected? (to devise a general scheme or principle)
are you 3) the model o f inertial system? (to apply Einstein's principle)
going to 4) the small disagreements between two theories? (to confirm
do with that they lie beyond experimental error)
5) the time worlds o f observers moving relative to each other?
(to show that they are different)
6) the light ray? (to show that the light ray is curved in a gravita­
tionalfield)

9. Explain the use ot indefinite and continuous tense forms.


1. The modern existing mechanical theory is the quantum theory. 2. Its
domain begins in the nucleus and extends to the solar system. 3. Quantum
theory is becoming the classical theory. 4. There is a transition between the
classical and quantum domains. 5. Scientists are tracing and locating subtle
penetration o f quantum effects into a completely classical domain. 6.
Q uantum mechanics was developing the undeterministic idea in the specifi­
cation o f position and velocity o f a particle. 7. Q uantum mechanics is the
m ath theory o f particles. 8. Q uantum rules obey in any system. 9.
Gravitation is extending over enormous distances. 10. All bodies are inter­
acting gravitationally. 11. The gravitational field is being created and annihi­
lated in small regions by the process of transformation. 12 . To solve the prob­
lem o f gravitation scientists are considering the tim e-space geometry in a
new way.

CONVERSATIONAL PRACTICE

1. Express your views on the following statements trying to prove your point. The given phras­
es may come in handy.

What is missing (lacking) in the state- In view of the idea ...


ment is t h a t... I have reason to believe th a t...
1. It is characteristic o f the scientific laws that they have abstract charac­
ter. 2. If law does not work even in one place where it ought to, it must be

256
wrong. 3. One can claim for scientific laws a universal validity. 4. Any great
discovery o f a new law is useful only if we can take more out than we put in.
5. The fundamental hypothesis of science is: the sole test o f the validity of
any idea is experiment. 6. Experiments help produce laws; they can give one
hints and clues. 7. Scientists need curiosity, imagination, insight, persist­
ence to guess and create from the hints and clues the great and broad gen­
eralizations. 8. This imagining process is so difficult that there is a division
o f labour in science. 9. There are theoreticians, who imagine, deduce and
guess at new laws, but do not experiment. 10. There are experimentators,
who experiment, imagine, deduce and guess. 11. Observations, reasoning
and experim ent make up w hat we call the scientific m ethod. 12.
Fundamental scientific ideas arose from the application o f the scientific
method. 13. The basic theoretical problem is to find laws behind experi­
m ent that can amalgamate different phenomena. 14. We make conservation
laws o f energy, mass and m om entum a great basis o f mechanics. 15.
Im portant conclusions are drawn from simple idealized “thought experi­
m ents” 16. There are no absolute laws in the sense o f laws independent o f
observers. 17. A law must be framed in terms o f the measurements o f a par­
ticular observer. Laws are tied to observers. 18. One should not speak about
things one cannot measure.

2. Characterize the problems the fundamental fields of mechanics deal with. If you are the
mechanics student, what field are you going to specialize in? Give your reasons.

Model. It is easy to show that forces are vectors, i.e., that they
obey geometrical addition. The vector treatment of
balanced forces is called statics. The geometrical prop­
erties of the motion o f rigid bodies constitute the sub­
ject m atter of kinematics. The study o f motion subject
to external forces is dynamics. There arc two basic
problems in dynamics: to find the forces exerted that
cause the motion and determine the motion of the
body when the forces applied are specified.

1. Theoretical Mechanics. It is as old as mechanics itself. It makes research


in various trends. The theories o f stable motion, o f automatic and optimal
operations, the dynamics o f flight, etc. are treated. The problems concern­
ing the behaviour o f mass-points, motion, density, liquids, gases, plasma and
their states are dealt with. Ideal physical and mechanical models are intro­
duced to make formulation o f mechanics possible with the aid o f differential
and integral calculus.9

9 А н гл и й ски м язык для студентов- математиков


257
2. Analytical Mechanics formulated at least 200 years ago studies systems o f
mass-points or rigid bodies, finite in number. Analytic methods and the
methods of differential equations are used.
3. Applied Mechanics. The theory o f machines and mechanical devices, the
theories of vibrations, regulations, gyroscope, automatic control, etc. are
developed. Most problems are o f engineering and manufacturing aspect.
4. Electromechanics commonly implies the interaction o f currents with flu­
ids and the construction of practical electromechanical energy-converting
devices. The theory covers topics regarding the nature o f the m echanical and
electrical properties o f the interacting medium. It makes a great difference
whether the fluid is a gas, a liquid, or a plasma to say nothing o f the diversi­
ty o f properties associated with each o f these media.
5. Hydrodynamics. Aerodynamics. Magnetohydrodynamics. Electrohydro­
dynamics. They are all based on classical N ewton’s mechanics and the model
o f material continuum. The theories o f perfect fluid and viscous fluid, the
perfectly flexible line, the membrane, gas and wave dynamics, the perfectly
elastic solid, the infinitesimally visco-elastic material and plastic material, the
phenomena in the Earth’s interior and in its atmosphere are created.
6. Celestial Mechanics. Stellar Astronomy. Astrophysics. The investigations
o f the gravitational fields, celestial bodies with various configurations, the
evolution of planetary and satellite systems and their stability, the motion of
cosmic dust, topological peculiarities o f the rotation o f celestial bodies, stel­
lar atmosphere, cosmic gas dynamics, the structure and evolution o f stars,
etc. are being performed in all these fields.
7. Continuum Mechanics. The theories of elasticity, plasticity, creep and relax­
ation in solids, the theory o f motion of plasma constitute the subject matter of the
field. The problems of the elastic limit, the origin o f a residual plastic deforma­
tion, the motion of highly compressed liquids and gases, or conversely, rarefied
gases, mechanical models for polymeric plastic materials, etc. are dealt with.

3. Suppose that information in the given statement is insufficient. Repeat the statement and add
your own comments thus extending and developing the idea. Use the opening phrases.

Model. Archimedes was the greatest scientist o f mechanics in


antiquity.
In fact, Archimedes was by common consent the
founder of mechanics in antiquity Moreover,
Archimedes was a natural philosopher, an engineer
and n physicist. His works in both maths and mechan­
ics are masterpieces. Archimedes is, indeed, one o f the
greatest scientists o f all li mes.

258
1. Archimedes was interested in and concerned with both pure and applied
science. 2. He originated two branches o f theoretical mechanics: statics and
hydrodynamics. 3. Archimedes was thoroughly schooled in the Euclidean
tradition. 4. He employed the math method in his works on theoretical
mechanics. 5. In his treatise On Plane Equilibrium Archimedes established
25 theorems on mechanics on the basis o f three simple postulates. 6. In his
treatise On Floating Bodies he establishes 19 propositions on the two funda­
mental postulates. 7. This treatise is the first recorded application o f maths
to hydrostatics. 8. It begins with the developing o f the laws which are the
base o f m odem hydrostatics. 9. It culminates with a remarkable investigation
o f paraboloid o f revolution floating in a fluid. 10. In his work On the Sphere
and Cylinder Archimedes explicitly stated the postulate introducing the con­
cept o f continuity that bears his name. 11. Archimedes was renowned for his
mechanical inventions, some o f them were put to use in the defense o f
Syracuse against the Romans. 12. The ingenuity o f the mechanical devices
invented by Archimedes are astonishing even by modern standards. 13. He
designed waterclocks, sun dials, pumps, pulleys, wedges, tackles, geared
devices, mileage measuring device. 14. The principles underlying water- arid
steam-driven devices were explained in his treatises on pneumatics and
hydrostatics. 15. M ath prescriptions for the construction o f vaults, catapults
and digging tunnels in a mountain were explained by him in detail. 16.
Distinguished in the classical pursuits o f maths Archimedes also displayed
profound genius in mechanics. 17. There was a gap o f eighteen hundred
years between Archimedes and Simon Stevin (1548-1620), the next major
contributor to the knowledge o f hydrostatics and the statics of solids. 18. The
work o f S. Stevin appreciably advanced statics and hydrodynamics beyond
the points reached by Archimedes. 19. Stevin was developing the principles
o f statics while Galileo was working on dynamics. 20. Stevin and Galileo laid
the foundations o f applied mechanics.

4. Listen to the tape or read the text. Reproduce it orally and speak on some other important
laws of mechanics based on observation of mechanical behaviour and discovered through experi­
ment.

Hooke's Law
In 1676 Robert Hooke announced his discovery concerning springs. He
discovered that when a spring is stretched by an increasing force, the stretch
varies directly as the force. It was a simple law, accurate over a wide range,

259
destined to play an important part in science and engineering. As you know
from your own work, this relation holds for a steel spring with remarkable
accuracy over a wide range o f stretches. It holds for springs o f other m ateri­
als, perhaps best o f all for a spiral o f quartz (pure melted sand). The law is
surprising and useful for the relation holds until the spring's stretch is sever­
al times its original length. The law is remarkable not just for its simplicity
but for its wide range.
Wfe meet similar Hooke’s law—behaviour in many cases o f stretching, com­
pression, twisting, bending — all varieties o f elastic deformations. The gener­
al form of Hooke’s law “stress / strain is constant” or “deformation varies
directly as the deforming force” applies to all materials (within limits) and to
many types o f distortion. A wooden beam may be bent, or a hair-spring coiled
up, through a large angle and still fit with H ooke’s law. Even a simple metal
wire when stretched fits Hooke’s law over a surprising range o f stretches — far
beyond the tiny expansion caused by heating. Its atoms dragged apart against
electrical attractions experience individual H ooke’s law forces. This general
rule is called “ Hooke’s law” in honour o f H ooke’s discovery.
Once extracted, may scientific laws be discredited by the discovery of
exceptions or limitations? Some scientists idealize laws. They take each law
as simple and exact and award them much more perm anent privilege. They
take the view that the law is there, a clear statem ent o f possible simple
behaviour, with no question o f its being wrong or untrue, it just states what
it states. When we are trying to extract a law, we usually restrict our attention
to particular aspects o f nature. When we are finding Hooke’s law, our spring
may be twisting, the loads may be painted different colours, the loads may
even be evaporating, but we ignore those distractions. O r our spring may be
growing hotter in an overheated laboratory; and then we find the stretch
changing less simply.
In discussing H ooke’s law, “stretch varies as load” we should not ask: “ Is
that statement true?” but rather, “ How closely do the facts fit the statement?
Do many substances in many shapes 'obey’ it? Does it apply over a small
range o f stretch or a large one?” When we find that most springs and wires
obey it over a large range o f stretching, we consider it a useful law, worth
naming. Wfe may picture the law itself as going on forever, right out towards
infinite stretches and back into compressions, but we have no illusion that
real materials obey it over such a range. Instead we pride ourselves on a cun­
ning knowledge (drawn, o f course, from experience) o f its limitations. Wfe
consider we know within what range o f stretches it applies to, say, a steel
wire, and in that range how closely experimental measurements fit it. And

260
we keep track o f special substances, such as glass and clay, that we suspect of
serious deviations from the law.

5. Summarize orally the topic “ Laws of Motion”.

1. Aristotle approached nature in terms o f concepts such as origins,


essences, form , quality, causality and ends that do not lend themselves to
quantization. 2. By the end o f the sixteenth century there were available
alternatives to the universe as conceived by Aristotle. 3. Rather than closed,
the universe was open; rather than filled, it was empty. 4. Spate, rather than
having a unique point, was the same in all directions. Space was pebpled
with particles that do not fall or rise but remain in uniform motion unless they
collide. 5. Galileo, unlike Aristotle, approached the problem as a m athe­
matician and emphasized and fixed on matter moving in space and time as the
fundamental phenom enon o f nature. 6. Galileo concentrated his study on
such concepts as space, time, weight, velocity, acceleration, inertia, force and
momentum. 7. Galileo offered a totally new concept o f scientific goals and
the role o f m aths in achieving them. He claimed that science was to be pat­
terned on the math model. 8. Galileo sought math formulas that can
describe the motion o f bodies and nature’s behaviour. 9. Bare math formulas
explain nothing; they simply describe in precise language. Yet, such formu­
las are the most valuable knowledge man can acquire about nature. 10.
Science is not a series of experiments regardless o f how skilfully they are exe­
cuted. The value lies in the theory that unifies experiments and facts deduced
from them . 11. Galileo created a structure o f bodies in motion very much
like Euclid developed a structure o f relations o f objects in space. 12.
Newton, born the year that Galileo died, created the first great mechanical
theory which dom inated scientific thought for two centuries. 13. Newton
restated and generalized Galileo’s findings in the form o f two laws o f motion
and added a third. 14. Newton tested and verified, in a way, the laws, while
investigating motions o f planets and the Moon. 15. Newton’s successors
extended them to molecules, atoms and even parts o f atoms. 16. Newton’s
laws o f m otion are clear, powerful working rules based on experiment, the
clarification o f terms and deduction. 17. Right down to this day scientists
disagree over the status o f Newton’s laws o f motion. 18. Some scientists
claim that the laws are wholly definitions and conventions and contain no
experimental ties to the natural world. 19. Some arguers see Law One as
chiefly a description o f force, and Law Two as a definition o f force-measure­
ment. 20. Such appraisals are misleading. N ew ton’s laws o f motion and grav­

261
itation are fundamental and apply equally well on heaven and Earth. 21. Like
the axioms o f Euclid, N ewton’s formulas serve as a logical basis for other
valuable laws in mechanics and physics.

6. Starting from general assumptions, Newton tied together in a single scheme many diverse
and disconnected things. Explain what enabled him to make his great guess, concerning each and
all taken together.

M oon’s circular motion. Л


Disturbances o f M oon’s simple motion.
Planetary motions (K epler’s laws).
Planetary perturbations. All related by inverse-
Motion o f comets. Tides. ► square-law o f gravitation
Bulge o f the Earth. and a spinning Earth.
Differences o f gravity.
Precision o f equinoxes.
The motion o f a gyroscope.

7. What law can be deduced from the following statements?

1. A spinning top has the same weight as a still one. 2. Mass is constant,
independent o f speed. 3. Mass increases with velocity, but appreciable
increases require velocities near that o f light. 4. If an object moves with a
speed o f less than one hundred miles a second, the mass is constant to with­
in one part o f a million.

8. Speak on the topic “How Much of Science Became Mathematized in the Form of
Geometry” extending each statement into a paragraph, adding some illustrations, proofs, evi­
dence, your own viewpoint, etc. (You must do it in writing first.)

Models. 1. The classical Greeks believed that reality could be


best understood in terms of geometrical properties.
I think, they were right, after all. They sought knowl­
edge o f what is univetsal and eternal, rather than indi­
vidual and fleeting. Geometry, the study o f forms, was
the special concern o f the Greeks and their greatest
accomplishment. Their astronomical inquiries, too,
led the Greeks to favour geometry. The Pythagoreans
observed the fact that natural phenomena which are
physically most diverse exhibit identical geometrical
properties, c.g., size, shape, volume, dimensions, etc.,
and they claimed that math relations underlie diversi­
ty and must be essence o f phenomena.

262
2. One should distinguish between geometry as a branch
of maths and geometry as a branch of physics.
Quite right. As a branch of maths geometry is an
abstract body o f theorems deduced from a set o f pos­
tulates. Postulates are perfectly arbitrary subject to the
requirements that they should be consistent and
mutually independent. Postulates and theorems of
geometry have nothing to do with observations, exper­
iments and verifications. As a branch of physics geom­
etry is the description o f the results of a vast body of
observations and experiments. It tells us what will
happen if you do certain things. It is the main concern
and objective o f the physicist to verify the validity of
postulates and theorems. Thus, we postulate the exis­
tence o f certain idealized objects (point, line, circle,
sphere or manifold o f these elements — plane o f
points, ordinary space o f points, pencil o f circles,
etc.). The theory (geometry) o f these idealized objects
with the assigned and explicitly stated properties is a
branch o f maths. Geometry as the body o f experi­
ments and observations in which this maths is used is
a branch o f physics.

1. From the days o f Euclid the laws o f physical space were no more than
theorems o f geometry. 2. Hipparchus, Ptolemy, Copernicus and Kepler
summarized the motion o f the heavenly bodies in geometrical terms. 3. With
his telescope Galileo extended the application o f geometry to infinite space
and to many millions o f heavenly bodies. 4. Descartes’ doctrine is that the
phenomena o f m atter and motion can be explained in terms o f the geome­
try df space. 5. Lobachevsky, Bolyai, and Riemann showed how to construct
different geometrical worlds. 6. The study of the properties o f the points of a
plane which remain invariant under the group o f transformations is known
as a (special) Lorentz geometry. 7. Minkowski insisted that the universe was
naturally a four-dim ensional space-tim e unity. 8. Einstein seized
Minkowski’s idea to fit our physical world into a four-dimensional math
world. 9. The Lorentz transformation is always valid as it recognizes the rel­
ative character not only o f space geometry but also o f time. 10. Gravity, time
and m atter became, along with space, merely part o f the structure o f geom­
etry. 11. The tw entieth-century science is being mathematized in the form of
geometry. 12. The science o f the vast universe and the infinitesimal realms
was both geometrized by quantum theory.9

9. Disagree with the following negative statements. Give your reasons or possible justification.

263
1. The basis of science is not built through scientific laws. 2. The laws o f
nature must not be valid in any system. 3. O ur inability to detect absolute
motion is not a result o f experiments. 4. The classical concepts o f absolute
space, light path (distance) and time interval were not to be revised. 5. The
idea of absolute frame o f reference must not be abandoned. 6. Vvfe d o n ’t give
mass the relativistic property o f increasing with motion. 7. Riem annian
and Minkowski’s geometries found no application in relativity theory. 8.
Time, distance and simultaneity are not different for the people in the un i­
verse. 9. Relativity theory did not enlarge the framework o f classical
m echanics. 10. General relativity theory did not clarify the connection
between mechanics and geometry. 11. Einstein did not revise the problem
o f gravitation. 12. G ravitation does not go out inversely as the square o f the
distance. 13. Gravity does not exist at bigger dimensions. 14. Einstein did
not predict the deflection (bending) o f a lightray in the gravitational field
o f the Sun. 15. The gravitational field is not annihilated by the process o f
transform ation. 16. The work done in going around any path in a gravita­
tional field is never zero. 17. Einstein did not discover the existence o f
gravitational waves. 18. G eneral relativity theory does not explain the
abnorm al behaviour o f M ercury’s orbit. 19. There exist no experimental
verification and confirm ation o f general relativity theory predictions. 20.
Relativity theory did not clarify scientific thinking and modify laws o f clas­
sical mechanics. 10*

10. Discuss the significance of the great discoveries in mechanics and physics.
(1807) J. Fourier presented to the French Academy a theorem o f unprece­
dented importance for the progress of science, which advanced the math
mastery o f the motion of waves: Any wave, whatever its form, can be treated
as a sum o f a set o f simple harmonic waves.
(1864) J. Maxwell published a paper synthesizing notions about electrici­
ty, magnetism and light. According to Maxwell’s theory o f electromagnetic
radiation visible light, ultraviolet light and any possible radiations o f still
higher frequencies must be em itted by oscillating electric charges within
atoms. Accelerated charges produce the electromagnetic waves that we
observe as light when they strike our eyes.
(1900) M. Planck introduced rather startling hypothesis that light is em it­
ted in bundles in the black body enclosure and that the amount o f energy in
each bundle is related to the frequency o f light by E = hy2. In this way A,
Planck’s constant (A = 6.6 x 10~27 erg/sec)—the quantum o f action was first
introduced.

26 4
(1905) A. Einstein picking up the theme introduced by Planck proposed
that light is not only emitted in units o f energy E = hy2, but it is also absorbed
in such bundles which he called photons. The photon theory did not aban­
don the wave concept completely but stated that the energy o f light is not
distributed over the whole wave front (Maxwell), but rather is concentrated
or localized in tiny bundles — “ photons”
One must not think that the photon theory is a revision o f corpuscular the­
ory. Corpuscules were thought o f as actual particles o f matter, whereas pho­
tons represent bundles o f energy that have no rest mass. This means, once
the photon stops, it ceases to exist and its energy is transferred to whatever
stoppe'd it.
(1909) H. Lorentz’s investigations showed that if the material bodies are
made up o f chained particles and if the forces between them behave as
Maxwell’s equations indicate, then, because o f the change in forces between
charged particles when they are in motion, one can conclude that a body
should contract (shrink) in the direction o f its motion, e.g., the mass of the
electron changes when it is in motion. In modern atomic physics, where
nature provides us with velocities close to that o f light, Galileo’s transforma­
tion fails and it has to be replaced by the Lorentz transformation — a means
o f finding the space and time coordinates o f events in one system if they are
known in the other, and if the relative speed o f these two systems is known.
The structure o f Maxwell’s equations does not change under the Lorentz
transformation.
(1911) A. Einstein. General Relativity. The light is curved in the gravita­
tional field. (1915) Accelerated mass should radiate energy in the form o f
gravitational waves.
(1924) De Broglie Duality. Any moving particle (electron, atom, neutron,
a quantum o f light) is an extensive wave in some o f its behaviour, and a com ­
pact particle in some o f its behaviour. All objects should have with them a
wavelength related to their m om entum , e.g., an electron must have a wave­
length associated with it.
(1926) E. Schmdinger’s Equation: the law o f motion fo r quantum system.
Shortly after De Broglie introduced the idea o f the associated wave o f an
electron, E. Schro dinger gave the answer to the question o f what happens to
the associated wave if a force acts on it. Schro dinger’s equation — the heart
o f quantum mechanics — gives the possible waves associated with a particle
designated by the wave function у (jc, y, z, t), i.e., given a particle and given
the force system that acts, it yields the wave function solutions for all possi­
ble energies. The wave function satisfies the most fundamental properties o f

265
waves — e. g., the property o f superposition, i.e., that a trough and a crest can
be added to cancel one another.
(1927) Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle. There is some uncertainty in the
specification o f position and velocity o f a quantum particle. W; can say, at
least, that there is certain probability that any particle will have a position
near some coordinate x. The most precise description o f nature must be in
terms of probabilities.

11. Discuss the problem concerned. The following phrases may be helpful:

I am confirmed in my opinion that... 1 deny that this is the case.


The statement may be confirmed by... I deny that the statement is true.
One can confirm it by further... It can(not) be denied that...
Although no confirmation is available... There is no denying the tact that...

Are There Gravitational Wives?


The possible existence o f gravitational waves, similar to electromagnetic
ones but possessing unusual properties, was first predicted by Einstein’s gen­
eral theory o f relativity at the beginning o f the century. But their rather frac­
tional energy and very weak absorption by substances account for the fact
that the existence o f gravitational waves is up to this day a subject o f very
heated discussion. An active search for them was on in the USSR, the USA,
Italy, Japan, Wfest G erm any and in China. It is not coincidental that ques­
tions pertaining to the study, irradiation and reception o f gravitational waves
were high on the agenda o f the 6th A ll-Union Conference o f Gravitationists
among the problems of the general theory o f relativity and gravitation. The
problem is so im portant that it is not easy even to assess the revolution in
physics, if the waves are to be discovered. Russian gravitationists have
designed several types of antennae which are currently being used in con­
junction with their foreign colleagues in probing for gravitational waves that
are supposed to come from outer space.
There are two elements in Einstein’s theory — one, that light from a dis­
tant star will be bent by the gravitational pull o f the Sun and the other, that
the Sun s gravitational pull will have a distinctly measurable effect on the
way the innermost planet Mercury revolves around the Sun. Einstein’s 1916
extraordinary prediction that the accelerated mass should radiate energy in the
form o f gravitational waves is supported nowadays by evidence that a pulsar’s
orbit around a companion star is slowly shrinking. Yet, the waves are so weak
and their interaction with m atter is so feeble that Einstein himself wondered

266
whether they would ever be detected. In 1974 nevertheless, an object (a pul­
sar) suitable for testing the prediction was found.
The num erous experiments conducted in the last years (since 1970) to
see if starlight is bent by the Sun’s pull all verified Einstein. Two experi­
ments showed that light from distant quasars was bent by the Sun's gravity
in just the way Einstein predicted, another that pulsar light did the same
thing. A fourth experiment showed that radio signals from the Viking
spacecraft th at landed on Mars in 1976 were bent in the same way by the
Sun’s gravity w hen Mars was on the other side o f the Sun from the Earth.
M ore recent experim ents bouncing radar signals off the planet Mercury
back to radio antennae in California, M assachusetts and Puerto Rico also
verified th at M ercury moves around the Sun in just the way that Einstein
said it would. Is Einstein’s general theory o f relativity being challenged? It
is. Three astronom ers from the University o f Arizona recently found that
the Sun is not a perfect sphere as Einstein assumed it was when he devel­
oped his theory in 1916. There are fluctuations in the way the Sun’s edge
darkens at the equator that strongly suggest the Sun’s equator is bulging
and its north and south poles are flat. If true, this means the Sun is more
oblate than it is spherical. They found that the Sun’s interior spins once
every 3.5 earth days, a brand new discovery that means the Sun is spinnihg
seven tim es faster in its interior than it is on the surface. The solar exteri­
o r’s spin rate is once every 25.4 earth days, a fact known already for some
time.
There is still enough uncertainty w ith planetary orbits that nobody
could m easure M ercury’s orbit with enough precision to say what it real­
ly is. I f the interior o f the Sun is rotating as rapidly as the three
astronom ers o f Arizona say it is, it makes an im portant contribution to the
way M ercury is orbiting the Sun. E instein’s theory o f how Mercury orbits
the Sun is based on the assumption that the Sun is a perfect sphere, which
they do not believe it is. They claim that there is a 95-percent chance that
there is a problem with E instein’s theory. It is a true and fresh challenge
to E instein’s theory o f relativity. W hat will happen if Einstein is dis­
proved? N ot m uch. O ur atom ic clocks might be off by an infinitesimal
fraction o f a second.

12. Agree or disagree with the following statements. Use the introductory phrases and develop
the idea further.

That’s right. It’s O.K. This is not the case.


I quite agree to it. Quite the reverse.

267
Exactly. Quite so. Far from that.
I doubt it. It's hardly likely that...

Models. 1. The precise form o f the wave function for all future
time is determined by the Schrodinger equation.
That’s right. Given the wave function for a system at
some time and the forces to which the system is sub­
jected, the precise form of the wave function for all
future time is determined by the Schrodinger equa­
tion.
2. W: can’t understand what is going on inside a star.
This is not the case, because what is going on inside a
star is well-understood since we can calculate what the
atoms in the star should most likely do in various cir­
cumstances.
3. There is no probability that a "quantum ” particle
will have a position near some coordinate x.
But there is. According to Heisenberg uncertainty
principle there is certain probability that a "quantum ”
particle will have a position near some coordinate x.

1. A wave is a disturbance th at propagates through a medium.


2. Interference is not characteristic wave phenom enon. 3. N either the wave
viewpoint nor the particle viewpoint is correct. 4. Both theories were
approximate and both will change. 5. The wave function from the quantum
viewpoint contains all the information. 6. All energies, all momenta, all
wave-lengths are allowed for a quantum particle by the Schrodinger equa­
tion. 7. Light or electrom agnetic waves are abstract entities propagating
through nothing. 8. A photon is never moving. 9. Any large num ber o f pho­
tons can occupy the same place at the same time and can be described by
identical wave function. 10. The precise quantum description o f nature
must not be in terms o f probabilities. 11. Logically consistent formulation
o f m echanics should be explainable on a purely relativistic basis.
12. Science is able to locate unequivocally absolute inertial frame. 13. The
centre o f the system o f the world is immovable. 14. Wfe understand the dis­
tribution o f m atter in the interior o f the Sun far better than that o f the
Earth. 15. The m om entum o f quantum particle is always zero. 16. Outside
nucleus scientists know all; inside it — quantum m echanics is valid.
17. The principles o f quantum mechanics never fail. 18. N uclear reactions
must be going on in the stars to make them shine. 19. The quantum view is
not consistent as it fails to specify precisely the position o f the quantum
particle. 20. The rules o f quantum m echanics can be employed to calculate
the results o f the experiments.

268
13. What do we mean when we say:

1. Four-dim ensional geometry gained validity and theoretical justifica­


tion. 2. The classical concept o f the “state o f rest” is being modified into
the concept o f the “zero oscillations state” 3. In m echanics a “field” is a
continuous set o f points. 4. There exists the unity o f all natural forces
interactions. 5. Q uarks (never visualized) always ap p ear in pairs.
6. Vacuum is full o f particles and antiparticles; gravitation and antigravita­
tion. 7. A wave function is not a physically existing entity, it is an informa­
tion containing wave. 8. A wave function changes by jum ps depending upon
the conditions specified. 9. Conditional probability is determinative in
quantum mechanics. 10. The significance and scientific contributions o f
1910-1930 years to m echanics and physics cannot be overassessed. 11. A
scientific bloodless revolution occurs whenever lots enough facts and
experimentally verified proofs are accumulated to produce a new theory.
12. A scientific revolution is a big breakthrough and advance in an under­
standing o f nature.

14. Translate the text into Russian and give your definition and assessment of quantum mechan­
ics as a science.

The Quantum Theory and Reality


One expects that any successful theory in the physical sciences makes
accurate predictions. Given some well-defined experiment, this theory
should correctly specify the outcome or should at least assign the correct
probabilities to all possible outcomes. From this point o f view, quantum
mechanics must be judged highly successful. As the fundamental modern
theory o f atoms, o f molecules, o f elementary particles, o f electromagnetic
radiation and o f the solid state, it supplies methods for calculating the results
o f experiments in all these realms.
Apart from experim ental confirm ation, however, som ething more is
generally dem anded o f a theory. It is expected that it not only determ ines
the results o f an experim ent but also provides some understanding o f the
physical events th at underlie the observed results. It oth er words, the th e­
ory should not only give the position o f a pointer on a dial but also explain
why the pointer takes up that position. When one seeks inform ation of
this kind in the quantum theory, certain conceptual difficulties arise. For
exam ple, in quantum m echanics an elem entary particle such as an elec­
tron is represented by the m ath expression called a wave function, which

269
often describes the electron as if it were smeared out over a large region of
space.
This representation is not in conflict with experiment; on the contrary,
the wave function yields an accurate estim ate o f the probability th at the
electron will be found in any given place. When the electron is actually
detected, however, it is never sm eared out but always has a definite posi­
tion. H ence, it is not entirely clear what physical interpretation should be
given to the wave function or what picture o f the electron one should keep
in mind. Because o f the ambiguities such as this, many scientists find it
most sensible to regard quantum m echanics as merely a set o f rules that
prescribe the outcome o f experim ents. According to this view, quantum
m echanics is concerned only with observable phenom ena (the observed
position o f the pointer) and not w ith any underlying physical state (the real
position o f the electron).
It now turns out that even this renumeration is not entirely satisfactory.
Even if quantum mechanics is no more than a set o f rules, it is still in con­
flict with a view o f the world that many people consider obvious or natural.
This world view is based on three assumptions, o r premises that must be
accepted without proof. One is realism, the doctrine that regularities in
observed phenom ena are caused by some physical reality whose existence is
independent o f human observers. The second premise holds that inductive
inference is a valid mode o f reasoning and can be applied freely, so that legit­
imate conclusions can be drawn from consistent observations. The third
premise is called Einstein’s separability or Einstein’s locality, and it states that
no influence o f any kind can propagate faster than the speed o f light. O f the
three premises realism is the most fundamental. The three premises, which
often have the status of well-established truths, form the basis o f what is
called local realistic theories o f nature.

15. Discuss the laws of quantum mechanics.


1. A wave transfers energy. 2. Wavelike objects show particle properties.
3. N o two electrons can be found in exactly the same state (including
spin). 4. The relations between the fields and the charges retain the same
form in the moving system as they had in the fixed system. 5. The energy
o f a body always equals me2 6. Light always propagates in em pty space
with a constant speed c, independent o f the state o f m otion o f the e m it­
ting body.

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COMPOSITION

1. Write an abstract of the text “Gravitation”. Your abstract must not exceed fifteen sentences.
2. Write a composition on “Theoretical and Engineering Aspects of Modern Mechanics’’

COMPREHENSION EXERCISES

Questions
1. Where do laws which are to be tested and verified come from? 2. What
is the source o f scientific knowledge? 3. Why was Pythagoras awarded the
title “ philosopher”? 4. Why should philosophers be concerned with science?
5. W hat do we mean by “ understanding” and “explanation” in science?
6. W hat is the criterion for choosing and employing one theory or the other?
(classical, relativistic, quantum?) 7. Did Galileo guess his famous times-
squared (odd-num ber) law o f free fall by pure reasoning? 8. What common
features do different motions have? 9. Does the inertia of a body depend on
its energy? 10. What causes a body to accelerate uniformly near the surface
o f the Earth? 11. What is acceleration? Does a greater speed imply a greater
acceleration? What is the relation between the force and the acceleration?
12. Why do planets remain in their orbits? 13. How can one calculate the
motion o f planets? 14. Does light travel at a finite or infinite speed? 15. Can
there be velocity greater than that o f light? 16. How can the two theories o f
light (corpuscular and wave) both be true? 17. Newton's laws o f motion do
not m ention the size, the shape or colour o f the body. Can you give an exam­
ple o f a m otion that depends on the size o f the body? Will Newton’s laws be
saved in such a case? 18. What is the speed o f the Earth in its orbit? 19. What
is the force that the Sun exerts on the Earth to keep it in a circular orbit?
20. Does N ew ton’s law o f gravitation imply that there is only one kind o f
force acting between two bodies — gravity? 21. Do Newton’s laws give any
inform ation about the cause o f the gravitational force and its origin? 22. Ts
the theory o f gravitation now a completed theory? 23. What is the magnitude
o f the gravitational force that the Earth (the Sun, the Moon) exerts on the
body? 24. W hat happens to mass, velocity and momentum if a constant force
is exerted on a particle for a long time? 25. What happens to the relativistic
modifications o f N ewton’s equations if the speed o f light becomes infinite?
26. From N ew ton’s viewpoint can one understand why light bends as it pass­

271
es near the Sun? 27. Do we have an idea about the overall curvature o f our
universe on a large scale? 28. Where is it most convenient to stand if we want
to describe the motion o f the solar system? 29. What is the picture o f an
atom? What is the machinery o f interaction between atoms? Is it gravita­
tional or electrical? 30. How much is electricity stronger than gravitation?
3 1. What happens while the electrons in the wire are being accelerated first
positively, and then negatively? 32. How can we force particles to move with
a speed only slightly smaller than that o f light? 33. How can one explain
interference and diffraction with the quantum theory? 34. What laws of
quantum m echanics are worth discussing and why? 35. What Russian scien­
tists contributed to the developments o f mechanics?

DISCUSSION

1. “The scientist must order. One makes science with facts as a house with
stones; but an accumulation o f facts is no more science than a pile o f stones
is a house.” (Poincare.) Prove it or disagree.
2. “ If science is more than an accumulation o f facts; if it is not simply pos­
itive knowledge, but systematized positive knowledge; if it is not simply
unguided analysis and haphazard empiricism, but synthesis; if it is not sim­
ply a passive recording, but constructive activity then, undoubtedly, ancient
Greece was its cradle.” (G. Sarton.) Extract from the above quotation the
main features o f ancient Greek science, add some more comments o f your
own and characterize it.
3. Aristotle’s Mechanics — the only significant system o f mechanics which
Renaissance world possessed. Describe its merits and fallacies.
4. Copernicus put the Sun at the centre o f the universe, leaving for the
Earth the reduced status o f one among the other planets. Compare this sys­
tem with that of Ptolemy. Dispute Copernicus’ contribution to science.
5. G. Bruno — apostle o f infinite space — burst the starry sphere and made
the universe endless, the Earth and the Sun lost among countless other plan­
ets and suns. Why was the church so violently opposed to his theory?
G. Bruno: “Thus, let this surface be what it will, 1 must always put a question,
what is beyond?. If space ends, what is beyond?” Explain in your own words
the meaning o f the quotation. Wasn’t G. Bruno’s question challenging?
6. “ It is R. Descartes who gave us the new m ethod o f reasoning much more
admirable than his philosophy itself, in which a large part is false, or very
doubtful according to the very rules that he is teaching us. (Fbntenellc.)
Characterize Descartes’ philosophy and his mechanics.

272
7. Galileo was teaching new science o f mechanics, advocating Copernicus’
picture o f the world. How did the church manage to stop him? Did he yield
earnestly? One o f G alileo’s early discoveries was the remarkable property o f
pendulums: that (for small amplitude) the time o f swing is independent of
amplitude. Discuss the significance o f this discovery and its application.
8. J. Kepler affirmed: “The reality o f the world consists of its math rela­
tions. M ath laws are the true cause o f phenom ena.” What made Kepler
believe that way? Did his belief help him discover his famous laws o f plane­
tary motions? What do math models represent and reflect? Why must the
ideal math universe in your mind be the same as in mine?
9. /. Newton said, “ I don’t know what I may appear to the world; but to
myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the seashore, and
diverting myself now and then by finding a smoother pebble or a prettier
shell than ordinary; whilst the great ocean o f truth lay all undiscovered
before m e. I f I saw a little farther than others, it is because / stood on the shoul­
ders o f g ia n ts” W ho, to your mind, of his predecessors did Newton call
“giants” and why? How did Newton estimate his creations?
10. “Newton was not only the greatest but the most fortunate among sci­
entists, because the science o f the world can be created only once, and it was
Newton who created it.” (Lagrange.) Your viewpoint.
11. N ew ton’s scientific thought rested ultim ately on metaphysical
assumption involving G od, absolute space, absolute time, absolute laws o f
motion and gravity, that rule the universe. Are N ewton’s laws absolutely
right in our solar system? Do they extend beyond the relatively small dis­
tances o f the nearest planets? Do stars attract each other as well as planets?
The two stars are going around each other. Do they rotate according to
N ew ton’s laws?
12. “ No one must think that Newton’s great creation can be overthrown
by relativity or any other theory. His clear and wide ideas will forever retain
their significance as the foundation on which our modern conceptions of
physics were built.” (Einstein.) What is the modern view o f Newton’s
mechanics?
13. The new relativistic frame became one o f the most important guides in
m odem mechanics and physics. Why? Dispute Einstein’s theory as a ration ­
al structure: in part philosophical and speculative, yet capable o f experimen­
tal verification.
14. Einstein showed that the assumptions o f absolute length, time and
simultaneity were unjustified. A true scientist refuses to accept an empirical
formula until he (or someone else) developed a theory to justify it, e.g.,

273
Planck had to find some theoretical justification for his radiation formula.
Give some more examples.
15. The general theory of relativity has numerous successors and com peti­
tors. Enumerate some alternative theories. How are they tested?
16. There are a few wise scientists who decline to favour one theory' of
gravitation over another. They attempt to study all the theories as a class,
hoping thereby to unlock some o f the secrets o f gravitation in an unbiased
m anner independent of any one particular theory'. Are they right? Your view­
point.
17. “What goes up must come dow n” is a classical saying which is not true
any longer. Some o f the rockets launched in recent times from the surface o f
the Earth became artificial satellites o f the Earth, with indefinitely long life­
times, while others are lost in the vast expanse o f interplanetary space.
Explain the reason and possible justification.
18. The Quantum Mechanics Founders: Einstein, Dirac, Rutherford, Bohr,
Planck, De Broglie, Schr6dinger, Heisenberg, Swinger, Fermi, Fok, Tamm,
Landau.
19. According to quantum mechanics — the math theory o f particles — our
most precise description o f nature must be in terms o f probabilities. For the
description of the small-scale phenom ena o f atomic and nuclear physics,
classical mechanics was superseded by quantum mechanics. For phenome­
na involving speeds approaching that o f light — by relativity. Characterize
modern mechanics as a science. The interrelation and interconnection o f all
branches of modern mechanics.
Unit Eight (8 )

INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRA
Grammar
1. Perfect Non-Continuous Tense Forms.
2. Perfect Continuous Tense Forms.
3. Modal Compound Predicate.
4. Adjectives, Adverbs and Their Russian Equivalents.

LABORA TOR Y PRACTICE

Repeat the sentences after the speaker.


1. The origin o f the title “Algebra” is rather exotic. 2. We owe the word
“algebra” to the Arab mathematician al-Khowarismi. 3. Although original­
ly algebra referred only to equations and their solution, the word today has
acquired a new connotation. 4. Algebra in its development passed succes­
sively through three stages: the rhetorical (or verbal), the syncopated, and the
symbolic. 5. Rhetorical algebra is characterized by the complete absence of
any symbols and the words were used in their symbolic sense. 6. In synco­
pated algebra certain words of common and frequent use were gradually
abbreviated. 7. Eventually these abbreviations have become symbols.
Modern algebra is symbolic. 8. One of the most interesting problems o f alge­
bra is that o f the algebraic solution of equations. 9. Elementary algebra (from
1700 B.C. until about 1700 A.D.) dealt exclusively with the general proper­
ties of numbers and the solution of algebraic equations. 10. Nearly all math­
ematicians of distinguished rank have treated this subject. 11. They arrived
(the 16th century) at the general expression o f the roots of equations o f the
first four degrees. 12. However, these solutions were achieved by ingenious
devices rather than advances in insight and theory. 13. It was believed that a
uniform method of solving equations should be applicable to an equation of
any degree. 14. The m athem atician’s failure to reach the objective led to the
presumption that the solution o f general equations was impossible alge­
braically. 15. Early in the 19th century a new view of maths began to emerge.
16. Maths came not to restrict itself to numbers and shapes. 17. Algebra
nowadays deals effectively with anything (although “anything” often contin­
ues to be related in some way to numbers). 18. The mainstream in the devel­
opment o f algebra followed a parallel and concurrent stream in the develop­

275
ment o f the complex number system. 19. The introduction and acceptance
o f negative, imaginary, complex and hypercomplex numbers contributed to
the development o f m odem algebraic notation. 20. M odern higher algebra
can deal effectively with anything and occasionally it is pursued without ref­
erence to anything in particular. 21. The word “algebra” was gradually being
expanded to include any system o f handling symbols according to prescribed
rules. 22. Anyone is free now to invent his own algebra. 23. It is known that
there are only three algebras over the real field: a) the real number system,
b) the complex number system, c) the system o f quaternions. 24. M odem
abstract algebra is the study o f math structures such as groups, rings, fields,
integral domains, etc. 25. It has many distinct departm ents but each separate
branch cannot be treated in isolation: all o f them constitute the subject m at­
ter o f algebra.

G RAM M AR

1. Perfect Non-Continuous Tense Forms

Active Passive
to have + done to have been + done
Present I have just done my work. The work has just been done.
Past I had done my work before he came. The work had been done
before he came.
Future 1 shall have done my work by (at) The work will have been done
5 o ’clock tomorrow. by 5 o ’clock tomorrow.

2. Perfect Continuous Tense Forms

Active Time Indicators


to have been + doing r R>r a month (week, term, etc.).
Present 1 have been doing my work Lately. For quite a while.
since early morning. Since morning (5 o’clock, etc).
Past I had been doing my work for 1 How long?
two hours when he came. Since when?
Future I shall have been doing my work for Up to now.
two hours before the lecture begins ^ So far.
tomorrow.

276
Read and translate the following text. Comment on the perfect tense forms used.

Mathematics and Modern Civilization


Mathematics is the queen of natural knowledge.
K. F. Gauss

There are two ways in which maths has become so effective in our age.
The first is through its relationships with science, the second is through its
connection with human reasoning. Math method is reasoning o f the highest
level known to man, and every field o f investigation — be it law, politics, psy­
chology, medicine or anthropology — has felt its influence and had modelled
itself on maths to some extent ever since its creation. In order to gain a more
comprehensive view o f the relation o f maths to the sciences, let us analyze
the various ways in which maths has been serving scientific investigations.
1. Maths has been supplying a language for the treatm ent o f the quantita­
tive problems o f the physical and social sciences. Much o f this language has
taken the form o f m ath symbols. Symbols also permit concise, clear (unam ­
biguous) representation o f ideas which are sometimes very complex.
Scientists have learned to use m ath symbols whenever possible.
2. Maths has been supplying science with numerous methods and con­
clusions. Among the important conclusions are its formulas, which scientists
have accepted and used in solving problems. The use o f such formulas is so
common that the contribution o f maths in this direction has not been fully
appreciated.
3. Maths has been enabling the sciences to make predictions. This is per­
haps the most valuable contribution of maths to the sciences. The ability to
make predictions by math means was exemplified in the most remarkable
way in 1846 by the two astronomers Leverrier and Adams. As a result o f cal­
culations, they predicted, working independently, that there must exist
another planet beyond those known at the time. A search for it in the sky at
the predicted place and time revealed the planet Neptune. Prediction has
played a part in every m ath solution of a quantitative problem arising in the
physical and social sciences.
4. Maths has been furnishing science with ideas to describe phenomena.
Among such ideas may be mentioned the idea for functional relation; the
graphical representation o f functional relations by means o f coordinate
geometry; the notion o f a limit; the notion o f infinite classes which helps us
to understand motion. O f special importance are the statistical methods and

277
theories which have led to the idea o f a statistical law. The description is not
complete without mentioning the fact that for many physical phenom ena no
exact concepts exist other than math ones.
Maths has been o f use to science in preparing m en’s mind for new ways
o f thinking. The concepts o f importance in science had been coming to men
with great difficulty. The concepts o f gravity, o f energy and o f limitless space
took years to develop and men o f genius were required to express them pre­
cisely. G reat as is the genius o f Einstein, it is almost certain that he was able
to achieve some o f his results only because the maths o f preceding decades
had suggested new ways o f thinking about space and time.
To summarize: Maths has been supplying a* language, methods and con­
clusions for science; enabling scientists to predict results; furnishing science
with ideas to describe phenom ena and preparing the minds o f scientists for
new ways o f thinking.
It would be quite wrong to think that maths had been giving so much to
the sciences and receiving nothing in return. Physical objects and observed
facts had often served as a source o f the elements and postulates o f maths.
Actually, the fundamental concepts o f many branches o f maths are the ones
that had been suggested by physical experiences. Scientific theories have fre­
quently suggested directions for pursuing math investigations, thus furnishing
a starting point for math discoveries. For example, Copemican astronomy had
suggested many new problems involving the effects o f gravitational attraction
between heavenly bodies in motion. These problems had stimulated the further
activities o f many scientists in the field o f differential equations.

3. Modal Compound Predicate

A modal verb in combination with any form o f the infinitive (active or


passive) forms a modal compound predicate.

Must expresses obligation, necessity, duty.


1. He must solve the problem himself. ... должен ...

2. He must be solving the problem at present.


3. He must have solved the problem. должно быть ...
4. He must have been solving the problem for
a long time.
Can, may, could, might express more uncertainty, doubt, improbability:

278
1. Не can (may) make the research all alone. ... может ...
2. He can (may) be making the research all alone.
3. He can (may) have made the research all alone. возмож но...
4. He can (may) have been making the research all alone.

IVanslate the following sentences into Russian:

1. Algebraic formulas for finding the volumes o f cylinders and spheres


may have been used in Ancient Egypt to com pute the am ount o f grain co n ­
tained in them . 2. Babylonians must have been the first to solve the cubic
equations by substitution. 3. The discovery o f the theorem o f Pythagoras
can hardly have been made by Pythagoras himself; but it was certainly made
in his school. 4. The Pythagoreans may have been the first to give a rigor­
ous proof to the famous theorem. 5. Regardless o f what mystical reasons
may have motivated the early Pythagorean investigators, they discovered
many curious and fascinating num ber properties. 6. Before Archimedes
there might have been no systematic way o f expressing large numbers.
7. The oath must have been galling to Cardano. 8. Viete’s inability to accept
negative num bers (not to mention imaginary numbers) must have prevent­
ed him from attaining the generality he sought and partly comprehended in
giving, for example, relations between the roots and the coefficients o f a
polynomial equation. 9. Descartes’ geometric representation o f negative
num bers could have been helping m athem aticians to make negative num ­
bers m ore acceptable. 10. N ewton’s earliest manifestations of the higher
m ath talent may well have passed unnoticed. 11. Imaginary numbers must
have been looking like higher magic to many eighteenth-century m athe­
maticians. 12. Euler can have been using imaginary numbers quite success­
fully as it is to him that we owe the formula e2ni= l. 13. Gauss must have been
the first to introduce the special sign = for the concept o f congruence —
although, o f course, the concept itself was not original with Gauss. 14. In
ordinary algebra, in which the letters represent real numbers, the field
axioms must be assumed. 15. One must be arriving at nothing significant by
adding telephone numbers. 16. The symbol V ” may have been used in the
sixteenth century and it resembled a m anuscript form o f the small r
(radix), o r it might have been invented arbitrarily. By the seventeenth cen­
tury the use o f the symbol V for square root had become quite standard.

279
4. Adjectives, Adverbs and Their
Russian Equivalents
Mind the difference:
Adjective Adverb I Adverb II
bad bad(ly) badly — очень, весьма
close close closely — внимательно
fair — fairly — весьма, совершенно, справедливо
hard hard hardly — едва, почти не
high high highly — очень, весьма
late late lately — недавно, за последнее время
like — likely — вероятно
large — largely — главным образом
near near nearly — почти
present — presently — сейчас, скоро
ready — readily — легко, охотно
short — shortly — вскоре
sure — surely — конечно
most most mostly — главным образом, обычно
mere — merely — только, просто, единственно

Translate the sentences into Russian.

1. The word “al-jabr” may be likely translated as “the transposition of


subtracted terms to the other side o f an equation” and “the cancellation of
like (equal) term s on opposite sides o f the equation” 2. Nearly all m athe­
m aticians o f distinguished rank have treated the subject o f the algebraic
solution o f equations. 3. The Arabs acquired most readily the G reek and
Hindu scientific writings which they translated into Arabic and preserved
through the Dark Ages o f Europe. 4. Powerful com m ercial cities arose first
in Italy and surely it was here that the algebraic renaissance in Europe
began. 5. D escartes’ La Geometrie consists mostly o f what we now call the
“theory o f equations” and it contains his famous rule o f signs for deter­
mining the num ber of positive and negative roots o f an equation. 6. In the
symbolic stage algebraic notation went through many m odifications and
changes until it became fairly stable by the time o f Newton. 7. A great
many persons have been involved in developing the foundations o f m odern
algebra, largely the m em bers o f the British school o f algebraists.
8. Considering closely the algebraic aspects o f the real numbers, m athe­
m aticians came to broad generalizations such as those o f rings and fields,

280
which not only contributed to an expansion o f algebra but gave a penetrat­
ing perspective to elem entary arithm etic. 9. More than two hundred alge­
braic structures have been studied lately. 10. In 1826 the twenty-four-year-
old Abel, poverty-stricken and suffering from tuberculosis, wanting badly
some recognition, published the first general proof o f the binomial theo­
rem for arbitrary complex exponents. 11. Abel died when he was only 27
leaving behind a wealth o f highly original work which stimulated research
for many years after. 12. Shortly after Galois was killed in a duel in 1832,
the development o f group theory was substantially advanced by Cauchy.
13. The contributions o f Abel and G alois to modern algebra can hardly be
overestimated. 14. In collaboration with Sylvester, Cayley (1846) began the
work on the theory o f algebraic invariants, which had been merely in the air
for some time and which, like matrices, received some o f its motivation
from determ inants.

INTRODUCTORY TEXT

T H E H ISTO RY O F ALGEBRA

Exotic and intriguing is the origin of the word “algebra” It does not sub­
mit to a neat etymology as does, for example, the word “arithm etic” which
is derived from the Greek arithmos ( “ num ber”). Algebra is a Latin variant o f
the Arabic word al-jabr (sometimes translated al-jebr) as employed in the
title o f a book Hisab al-jabr w’a l mugabalah, written in Baghdad about 825
A.D. by the Arab mathematician Mohammed ibn-M usa al-Khowarismi. This
treatise on algebra is commonly referred to, in shortened form, as Al-jabr. A
literal translation o f the book’s full title is “science o f restoration (or
reunion) and opposition” , but a more math phrasing is “science o f transpo­
sition and cancellation” Perhaps the best translation is simply “the science
o f equations”
A lthough originally “algebra” referred to equations, the word today
has a m uch broader m eaning, and a satisfactory definition requires a
tw o-phase approach: 1. Early (elem entary) algebra is the study o f equa­
tions and m ethods o f solving them . 2. M odern (abstract) algebra is the
study o f m ath structures such as groups, rings, and fields — to m ention
only a few. Indeed, it is convenient to trace the developm ent o f algebra in
term s o f these two phases, since the division is both chronological and
conceptual.

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The Early Algebra
Babylonian Algebra — Rhetorical Style
Since algebra might have probably originated in Babylonia, it seems
appropriate to credit the country with the origin o f the rhetorical style o f
algebra, illustrated by the problems found in clay tablets dating back to
c. 1700 B.C. The problems show the relatively sophisticated level o f their
algebra. Nowadays, such problems are solved by the method o f elimination.
The Babylonians also knew how to solve systems by elim ination but pre­
ferred often to use their parametric method. The Babylonians were able to
solve a rather surprising variety o f equations, including certain special types
o f cubics and quarries — all with numerical coefficients, o f course.

Algebra in Egypt
Algebra in Egypt must have appeared almost as soon as in Babylonia; but
Egyptian algebra lacked the sophistication in method shown by Babylonian
algebra, as well as its variety in types o f equations solved. For linear equa­
tions the Egyptians used a method o f solution consisting o f an initial esti­
mate followed by a final correction, a method now known as the Urule o f false
position” The algebra o f Egypt, like that o f Babylonia, was rhetorical.
The numeration system o f the Egyptians, relatively primitive in compar­
ison with that o f the Babylonians, helps to explain the lack o f sophistication
in Egyptian algebra. European mathematicians o f the sixteenth century had
to extend the Hindu-Arabic notion o f number before they could progress
significantly beyond the Babylonian results in solving equations.

Early Greek Algebra


The algebra o f the early Greeks (o f the Pythagoreans and Euclid,
Archimedes, and Apollonius, 500-200 B.C.) was geometric because o f their
logical difficulties with irrational and even fractional numbers and theirprac-
tical difficulties with G reek numerals, which were somewhat similar to
Roman numerals and just as clumsy. It was natural for the G reek mathe­
maticians of this period to use a geometric style for which they had both taste
and skill.
The Greeks o f Euclid’s day thought of the product ab (as we write it
nowadays) as a rectangle o f base b and height a and they referred to it as
“a rectangle contained by CD and D F \ Some centuries later, another
Greek, Diophantus, made a start toward modem symbolism in his work
Diophantine Equations by introducing abbreviated words and avoiding the

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rather cumbersome style o f geometric algebra. D iophantus introduced the
syncopated style o f writing equations.

Hindu and Arabic Algebra


Little is known about Hindu maths before the fourth or fifth century
A.D. because few records of the ancient period have been found. India was
subjected to numerous invasions, which facilitated the exchange of ideas.
Babylonian and G reek accomplishments, in particular, were apparently
known to Hindu mathematicians. The Hindus solved quadratic equations by
“completing the square’' and they accepted negative and irrational roots;'they
also realized that a quadratic equation (with real roots) has two ropts. Hindu
work on indeterminate equations was superior to that o f Diophantus; the
Hindus attem pted to find all possible integral solutions and were perhaps the
first to give general methods o f solution. One o f their most outstanding
achievements was the system o f Hindu (often called Arabic) numerals.

Algebra in Europe
In the eleventh century many Greek and Arabic texts on maths were
translated into Latin and became available in Europe. However, even more
im portant for Europe, especially Italy, was the Liber Abaci (1202) o f
Fibonacci (Leonardo o f Pisa) in which he solved equations in the rhetorical
and general style and strongly advocated the use o f Hindu-Arabic numerals,
which he discovered on his journeys to many lands as a merchant and trades­
man. It is not surprising that at first the local chambers o f commerce (in Pisa
and neighbouring city-states o f Italy) resisted the adoption o f the “ new”
Hindu-Arabic numerals and, in fact, viewed them with suspicion; but they
were gradually adopted, and the old abacus was stored in the attic.
The algebra that entered Europe (via Fibonacci’s “Liber abaci” and
translations) had retrogressed both in style and in content. The semisymbol­
ism o f D iophantus and relatively advanced accomplishments o f the Hindus
were not destined to contribute to the eventual breakthrough in European
algebra.
t

Symbolic Algebraic Notation


M odem symbolism began to emerge around 1500. A banner year was
1545: in that year G. Cardano, an Italian scholar, published his Ars Magna
(G reat Art) containing the solution o f the cubic and the quartic. These solu­
tions represented the first really new material since antiquity, even though
these essentially general solutions were achieved by “ingenious devices”

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rather than advances in insight and theory. The watershed o f algebraic
thought (separating the early shallow flow o f “ manipulative solution o f
equations” from the deeper m odem stream which began with the theoreti­
cal properties o f equations) is personified in the Frenchm an F. Viete, who in
1573 was the first to introduce letters as general (positive) coefficients and to
put some other finishing touches to symbolism. Later R. Descartes systemat­
ically used the first letters o f the alphabet for the given quantities, and the last
letters for the unknowns and made algebraic notation finally up-to-date by
the time of 1. Newton. Just as the discovery o f zero created the arithmetic o f
today, so did the literal notation ushered in a new era in the history o f alge­
bra. Wherein lies the power o f this symbolism? First o f all, the letter liberat­
ed algebra from the slavery o f the word. This is important enough; but what
is still more important is that the letter is free from the taboos which have
been attached to words through centuries o f use. In the second place, the let­
ter is susceptible o f operations which enable one to transform literal expres­
sions and thus to paraphrase any statem ent into a number o f equivalent
forms. But the most important contribution o f symbolism is the role it has
been playing in the formation o f the generalized number concept.
Algebra is not only a part o f m aths; it also plays within maths the role
which m aths itself had been playing for a long time with respect to
physics. What does the algebraist have to offer to other m athem aticians?
Occasionally, the solution o f a specific problem; but mostly a language in
which to express m ath facts and a variety o f patterns o f reasoning, put in
a standard form. Algebra is not an end in itself; it has to listen to outside
dem ands issued from various parts o f maths. This situation is o f great b en ­
efit to algebra; for, a science, or a part o f science, which exists to solve its
own problem s only, is always in danger o f falling into peaceful slum ber
and from there into a quiet death. But in order to take full advantage of
this state o f affairs, the algebraist must have the ability to derive profit
from what he perceives is going on outside his own dom ain. Algebra, like
every other modern branch o f m aths and science, continues to proliferate
with the vitality and expansiveness o f a tropical forest and every particu­
lar part o f algebra has much new m ath knowledge that is being discovered,
so that the algebraist should keep his eyes open for the small piece that
may be o f great value to him. M aths is changing constantly, and algebra
must reflect these changes if it wants to stay alive. This explains the fact
that algebra is one o f the most rapidly changing areas o f maths; it is sen ­
sitive not only to what happens inside its own boundaries; but also to the
trends which originated in all other branches o f maths. The most im por­

284
tant new dem ands on algebra come from topology, analysis and algebraic
geometry.
The mainstream in the development o f algebraic structure followed a
parallel and concurrent stream in the development o f the complex-number
system. The introduction and acceptance o f negative, imaginary and com ­
plex numbers contributed to the development o f modern algebraic notation.
The foundations begun by Viete for the m odern structural formulation of
algebra had to wait some two hundred years before Niels Henrik Abel (1824)
and especially Evariste Galois (1831) introduced the idea o f a group, in their
independent proofs that a polynomial equation o f degree greater than fo u r has
no general algebraic solution. During the two hundred years from Viete to
Abel and Galois, mathematicians were not idle; the group concept, o f
course, did not emerge suddenly with Abel and Galois. In the works o f the
best mathematicians o f the time an implicit grasp o f the group concept was
already to be found.

A C T IV E VO CABU LARY
1. to adopt 14. to endeavo(u)r 27. to remedy
2. to appoint 15. to expand 28. to revive
3. to appropriate 16. to evoke 29. to revoke
4. to approve 17. to forbid 30. to submit
5. to bailie 18. to foredoom 31. to surrender
6. to benefit 19. to govern 32. to surround
7. to betray 20. to haunt 33. to survive
8. to comprehend 21. to permute 34. to suspect
9. to confer 22. to pervade 35. to swear
10. to dawn 23. to presume 36. to unfold
11. to divulge 24. to prevail 37. to unravel
12. to eliminate 25. to proliferate 38. to vanish
13. to encounter 26. to release 39. to vindicate
TEXT ONE

SOLUTION O F POLYNOMIAL EQUATIONS


O F TH IRD AND H IG H ER DEGREE

Read the text. Give some more details and your own comments concerning all the algebraists
mentioned in the text. Practise questions and answers.

The first records o f m an’s interest in cubic equations date from the time
o f the old Babylonian civilization, about 1800-1600 B.C. Among the math
materials that survive, are tables o f cubes and cube roots, as well as tables of
values o f n2 + л3. Such tables could have been used to solve cubics o f special
types. For example, to solve the equation 2x3 + 3x2 = 540, the Babylonians
might have first multiplied by 4 and made the substitution у = 2x, giving
y 3 + 3y2 = 2,160. Letting у = 3z, this becomes z3 + Z2 — 80. From the tables,
one solution is z = 4, and hence 6 is a root o f the original equation.
In the Greek period concern with volumes o f geometrical solids led eas­
ily to problems that in modern form involve cubic equations. The well-
known problem o f duplicating the cube is essentially one o f solving the equa­
tion x3 = 2. This problem, impossible o f solution by ruler and compasses
alone, was solved in an ingenious m anner by Archytas o f Tarentum (c. 400
B.C.), using the intersections o f a cone, a cylinder, and a degenerate toms
(obtained by revolving a circle about its tangent).
The well-known Persian poet and mathematician Omar Khayyam (1100
A.D.) advanced the study o f the cubic by essentially G reek methods. He
found solutions through the use o f conics. It is typical o f the state o f algebra
in his day that he distinguished thirteen special types o f cubics that have pos­
itive roots. For example, he solved equations o f the type x 2 + №x = bik
(where b and c are positive numbers) by finding intersections o f the parabo­
la x 2 = by and the circle y2 = x(c—x), where the circle is tangent to the axis
o f the parabola at its vertex. The positive root o f Om ar Khayydm’s equation
is represented by the distance from the axis o f the parabola to a point of
intersection o f the curves.
The next major advance was the algebraic solution o f the cubic. This dis­
covery, a product ofthe Italian Renaissance, is surrounded by an atmosphere
o f mystery; the story is still not entirely clear. The method appeared in print
in 1545 in the Ars Magna o f Girolamo Cardano o f Milan, a physician,
astrologer, mathematician, prolific writer, and suspected heretic, altogether
one o fth e most colourful figures o f his time. The method gained currency as

286
“C ardan’s formula” (Cardan is the English form o f his name). According to
Cardano himself, however, the credit is due to Scipione del Ferro, a professor
o f maths at the University o f Bologna, who in 1515 discovered how to solve
cubics o f the type x 3 + bx = c. As was customary among mathematicians o f
that time, he kept his methods secret in order to use them for personal
advantage in math duels and tournaments. When he died in 1526, the only
persons familiar with his work were a son-in-law and one o f his students,
Antonio Maria Fior o f Nfenice.
In 1535 Fior challenged the prominent mathematician Niccolo Tartaglia
o f Brescia (then teaching in Vfenice) to a contest because Fior did not believe
Tartaglia’s claim o f having found a solution for cubics o f the type
x 3 + bx2 = c. A few days before the contest Tartaglia managed to discover also
how to solve cubics o f the type jc3 + ax = c, a discovery (so. he relates) that
came to him in a flash during the night o f February 12/13, 1535. Needless to
say, since Tartaglia could solve two types o f cubics whereas Fior could solve
only one type, Tartaglia won the contest. Cardano, hearing o f Tartaglia’s vic­
tory, was eager to learn his method. Tartaglia kept putting him off, however,
and it was not until four years later that a meeting was arranged between
them. At this meeting Tartaglia divulged his methods, swearing Cardano to
secrecy and particularly forbidding him to publish it. This oath must have
been galling to Cardano. On a visit to Bologna several years later he met
Ferro’s son-in-law and learned o f Ferro’s prior solution. Feeling, perhaps,
that this knowledge released him from his oath to Tartaglia, C ardano pub­
lished a version o f the m ethod in Ars Magna. This action evoked bitter attack
from Tartaglia, who claimed that he had been betrayed.
Although couched in geometrical language the method itself is algebraic
and the style syncopated. Cardano gives as an example the equation
x 3 + 6x = 20 and seeks two unknown quantities, p and q, whose difference is
the constant term 20 and whose product is the cube o f 1/3 the coefficient o f
x , 8. A solution is then furnished by the difference o f the cube roots o f p and
q. For this example the solution is

The procedure easily applies to the general cubic after being transformed to
remove the term in x 2. This discovery left unanswered such questions as these:
What should be done with negative and imaginary roots, and (a related question)
do three roots always exist? What should be done (in the so-called irreducible
case) when Cardano’s method produced apparently imaginary expression like

287
481 + 3 0 ^ + 4 8 1 - 30V^3

for the real root, - 6 , o f the cubic x 3 - 63x - 162 = 0? These questions were
not fully settled until 1732, when Leonard Euler found a solution.
The general quartic equation yielded to methods o f similar character; and
its solution, also, appeared in Ars Magna. C ardano’s pupil Ludovico Ferrari
was responsible for this result. Ferrari, while still in his teens (1540), solved
a challenging problem that his teacher could not solve. His solution can be
described as follows: First reduce the general quartic to one in which the x3
term is missing, then rearrange the terms and add a suitable quantity (with
undetermined coefficient) to both sides so that the left-hand mem ber is a
perfect square. The undeterm ined coefficients are then determined so that
the right-hand member is also a square, by requiring that its determ inant be
zero. This condition leads to a cubic, which can now be solved — the quar­
tic can then be easily handled.
Later efforts to solve the quintic and other equations were foredoomed to
failure, but not until the nineteenth century was this finally recognized. Karl
Friedrich Gauss proved in 1799 that every algebraic equation o f degree n over
the real field has a root (and hence n roots) in the complex field. The prob­
lem was to express these roots in terms o f the coefficients by radicals. Paolo
RuJJini, an Italian teacher o f maths and medicine at M odena, gave (in 1813)
an essentially satisfactory proof o f the impossibility o f doing this for equa­
tions of degree higher than four, but this proof was not well-known at the
time and produced practically no effect.

T E X T TW O

TH E THEORY OF EQUATIONS

Read the text. Sum it up expressing the main ideas оГthe text and reproduce it in class.
History shows the necessity for the invention o f neu numbers in the
orderly progress o f civilization and in the evolution o f maths. Wfe must
review briefly the growth o f the number system in the light o f the theory o f
equations and see why the complex number system need not be enlarged fur­
ther. Suppose we decide that we want all polynomial equations to have roots.
Now let us imagine that we have no numbers in our possession except the
natural numbers. Then a simple linear equation like 2x = 3 has no root. In

288
order to remedy this condition, we invent fractions. But a simple linear equa­
tion, like x + 5 = 2 has no root even among the fractions. Hence we invent
negative numbers. A simple quadratic equation like x 2 = 2 has no root among
all the (positive and negative) rational numbers, therefore we invent the irra­
tional numbers which together with the rational numbers complete the sys­
tem of real numbers.
However, a simple quadratic equation like x2 = —1 has no root among all
the real numbers, hence, we invent the pure imaginary numbers. But a simple
quadratic equation like x2 + 2x + 4 = 0 has no roots among either the real or
pure imaginary numbers; therefore we invent the complex numbers. The story
of y p l , the imaginary unit, and o f x + yi, the complex number, originated
in the logical development of algebraic theory. The word “ imaginary”
reflects the elusive nature o f the concept for distinguished mathematicians
who lived centuries ago. Early consideration o f the square root o f a negative
num ber brought unvarying rejection. It seemed obvious that a negative num ­
ber is not a square, and hence it was concluded that such square roots had no
meaning. This attitude prevailed for a long time.
G. Cardano (1545) is credited with some progress in introducing complex
numbers in his solution of the cubic equation, even though he regarded them
as “fictitious” He is credited also with the first use of the square root o f a
negative num ber in solving the now-famous problem, “ Divide 10 into two
parts such that the p ro d u c t... is 40” which Cardano first says is “ manifest­
ly impossible” ; but then he goes on to say, in a properly,adventurous spirit,
“ Nevertheless, we will operate.” Thus he found 5 + V l5 and 5 —"\Pl5 and
showed that they did, indeed, have the sum o f 10 and a product of
40. Cardano concludes by saying that these quantities are “truly sophisticat­
e d ” and that to continue working with them is “as subtle as it is useless”
Cardano did not use the symbol V - 15, his designation was “Rx-m” , that is,
“radix m inus” , for the square root of a negative number. R. Descartes (1637)
contributed the terms “ real” and “imaginary”. L. Euler (1748) used “i” for
V—I and K. F. Gauss (1832) introduced the term “complex number” He
made significant contributions to the understanding o f complex numbers
through graphical representation and defined complex numbers as ordered
pairs o f real numbers for which (a, b) (c, d) = (oc — bd, ad + be), and so
forth.
Now, we may well expect that there may be some equation o f degree 3
o r higher which has no roots even in the entire system o f complex num ­
bers. That this is not the case was known to K. F. Gauss, who proved in
1799 the following theorem , the truth o f which had long been expected:

289
10 Английский язык для студентов-математиков
Every algebraic equation o f degree n with coefficient in the complex number
system has a root (and hence n roots) among the complex numbers. Later
Gauss published three more proofs o f the theorem . It was he who called it
“fundam ental theorem o f algebra” M uch o f the work on complex num ber
theory is G auss’ He was one o f the first to represent complex num bers as
points in a plane. Actually, Gauss gave four proofs for the theorem , the last
when he was seventy; in the first three proofs, he assumes, the coefficients
o f the polynomial equation are real, but in the fourth proof the coefficients
are any complex numbers. W: can be sure now that for the purpose o f solv­
ing polynomial equations we do not need to extend the num ber system any
further.

Algebraic Formulas for the Roots


The general linear equation can be written in the form ax + b = 0 (a * 0),
hence, the formula for its roots is x = The m athem atician’s desire for
several results makes it natural to ask the following question: Can we get sim ­
ilar formulas giving the roots as algebraic expressions in terms o f the coeffi­
cients for the general equation o f any degree? For the general quadratic and
cubic equations and the equation o f degree four, such formulas, as we have
already seen, were obtained in the 16th century. The next task was n at­
urally to obtain sim ilar form ulas for the general equation o f degree five:
ax5 + bx* + cx3 + dx2 + ex +/ = 0. Attempts to find such formulas were made
from the 16th century until early in the 19th century without success. The
reason for this failure became evident (in 1824) when N. H. Abe! and
E. Galois (in 1831) proved that it is not possible to write the roots o f the gen­
eral equation o f degree higher than four as algebraic expressions in terms of
the coefficients. You may be tempted to ask: “ How can you boldly assert that
it is impossible to find such formulas? Perhaps some day some genius will
discover them. All things are possible. Are you sure you d o n ’t mean simply
that no one has found them yet?” The answer is that we do not merely mean
that no one has found them yet; we mean that no one will ever find them
because it is impossible for such formulas to exist. Notice that we have not
said that the general equation o f degree five cannot be solved. In fact, it can
be solved by other means, but its roots cannot be given as algebraic expres­
sions in the coefficients. However, the roots o f some particular equations o f
degree five or more can be obtained. For example, if in the fifth-degree
equation above we restrict ourselves to the particular case where
6 = с = г / = е = 0 < ;* 0 , that is, to equations o f the form ax5 + f - 0. then we

290
can clearly express one root as x = V—f / a which is an algebraic expression.
Therefore, a natural question to raise is: Given a definite polynomial equation
o f degree five or more, how can we tell whether or not its roots are expressible as
algebraic expressions in its coefficients'? This question was settled by E. Galois.
Before describing the momentous work o f Abel and Galois, we must note
some o f the events immediately preceding and directly influencing the
remarkable achievements o f these gifted young mathematicians both o f
whom died in their twenties. In 1770 Euler devised a new method for solving
the quartic equation but his optimistic hope that some similar method could
solve the general polynomial equation was ill-fated. In the same year
Lagrange considered the problem o f solving the general polynomial equation
by comparing the known solutions o f quadratic, cubic and quartic equations
and noting that in each o f these three cases a certain reduction transformed
the equation to one o f the lower degree; but, unhappily, when Lagrange tried
this “ reduction” on a quintic equation, the degree o f the resulting equation
was increased rather than decreased. Although Lagrange did not succeed in
his main objective, his attack on the problem made use o f permutations o f the
roots o f the equations-, and he discovered the key to the theory o f permutation
groups, including the property mentioned earlier and now called Lagrange’s
theorem.
Both Abel and Galois built on Lagrange’s work. It is not surprising that
Abel approached the general problem o f trying to solve the polynomial equa­
tion o f degree n by trying to solve the general quintic equation. In fact, he
thought he had succeeded and the “solution” was sent to a leading m athe­
matician, but while waiting for a reply, Abel fortunately discovered his m is­
take and this misadventure caused him to wonder whether a general algebra­
ic solution н ш indeed possible. Although Abel succeeded in showing that for
n greater than four the general polynomial equation could not be solved alge­
braically, he did not claim to have completely achieved the objective he set
for himself: 1) to find all the equations o f any degree which are solvable alge­
braically; 2) to determine whether a given equation is or is not solvable alge­
braically.
It was fortunate that Abel’s proof, in which he used permutation groups
to some extent, received early publication. This proof caught the imagina­
tion o f Galois who gave complete answers to the questions proposed by Abel.
Galois showed that every equation could be associated with a characteristic
group and that the properties o f this group could be used to determine
w hether the equation could be solved by radicals. In 1831 Galois stated his

291
criterion: A polynomial equation is solvable if, and only if, its group, over the
coefficient field, is solvable. The concept associated with this result was usu­
ally characterized as Galois’ theory. In his work he used the idea o f isomor­
phic groups, and was the first to demonstrate the importance o f invariant (or
normal) subgroups and factor groups. The term “group” is due to Galois. The
work o f Galois was quite original in character and was not well understood
at the time because o f the sketchy expositions which he presented. Galois’
math abilities were not appreciated by his teachers, and in fact he received
no recognition for his work while he lived. Although G alois’ accomplish­
ments were math landmarks o f the greatest significance and originality, they
did not immediately make their full impact on his contem poraries because
these men were slow to understand, appreciate, and publish G alois’ work.
However, what is now called the Galois' theory o f equations is studied every­
where by advanced students o f maths.
Abel was not yet 27 when he died leaving behind a wealth o f highly orig­
inal work which stimulated math research for many years after. Galois was
killed in a duel at the age of less than 21. Abel and Galois proved in entirely
different ways that there cannot be any general formulas fo r solving polynomi­
al equations o f degree higher than four. At least there can be no formulas
which give the solutions in terms o f the coefficients and which involve only
addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and the extraction o f roots.

TE X T TH REE

FIELD S, RINGS, GROUPS


Read the text. Speak on the historical development of algebraic structures and explain why
many different branches of modern maths are all interrelated by virtue of the “group” structures.

The concept of a “ field” was used by both Abel and Galois at an intuitive,
subformal level in their work on polynomial equations. In algebra the word
“ field” is used to describe a structure that closely resembles ordinary arith­
metic. The operations o f addition, subtraction, multiplication and division
occur in a field and are much like the corresponding operations in arith­
metic. The set o f real numbers, under ordinary addition and multiplication, is
the most fam iliar example o f a field. There exists a large variety o f fields in
algebra. In ordinary algebra in which the letters represent real numbers, the
field axioms are assumed. One o f the most interesting field properties usual­
ly assumed in ordinary algebra (actually it is not an axiom but a theorem ) is

292
the “nonexistence o f zero dividors” This is used in solving quadratic equa­
tion by the factoring method and guarantees that if a product like (x - 2)
(x — 3) is zero, at least one o f the factors must be zero. In 1871 R. Dedekind
gave a concrete formulation and the earliest expositions o f the theory o f
fields. One o f the greatest accomplishments of the 19th century' in maths is
expressed in the statem ent that the real number system is a "complete ordered
fie ld ”
More formally the word “ field” means a math system in which addition
and multiplication can be carried out in a way that satisfies the familiar rules,
namely, (1) the commutative law of addition and multiplication, (2) the
associative law o f addition and multiplication, (3) the distributive law.
Furtherm ore, a field must contain a zero element 0, characterized by the
property, th a tx + 0 = x for any elem ent x. It contains a unit element, 1, that
has the property that 1 x x = x. For any given element x there exists another
elem ent —x such that —x + x = 0. Finally, for any elements x (x * 0) a field
must contai n an element 1/x such that x( 1/x) = l . Thus, a field is a structure
(exemplified by, e.g., the rational numbers) whose elements can be added, sub­
tracted, multiplied and divided under the familiar rules o f arithmetic.
Considering now the second word, a field is “ordered” if the sizes o f its
elements can be compared. The shorthand symbol used to denote this prop­
erty is the sign >, meaning “greater than” This symbol must obey its own set
o f rules, (1) the trichotomy law: for any two elements x and y , exactly one of
the following three relations is true, x > y, x —y, or у > x; (2) the transitivity
law: if x > у and y > z, then x > z\ (3) the law o f addition: if x > y, then x + z
> у + z; (4) the law o f multiplication: if x > у and z > 0, then xz > yz.
Finally, what do we mean by the word “complete” in describing the sys­
tem o f real numbers as a “complete ordered field”? This has to do with the
problem raised by a num ber such as ^2 . Practically speaking, ^ 2 is given by
a sequence of rational numbers such as 1,1.4, 1.41,1.414... that provide bet­
ter and better approximation to it. Squaring these numbers yields a sequence
o f numbers that are getting closer and closer to 2. So, we think o f v2 as a
“limiting value” o f such a sequence o f approximation. An ordered field is
called “complete” if, corresponding to any regular sequence o f elements,
there is an elem ent o f the field that the sequence approaches as a limiting
value. This is “the law o f completeness” the final axiomatic requirement for
the real-num ber system.
In a field as we have just seen, we can add, subtract, multiply and divide
(except that division by 0 is barred). N ot all algebraic structures have as com ­
prehensive a list o f operations. In a ring, for example, we can add, subtract

293
and multiply but not necessarily divide. A familiar example o f a ring is the
whole numbers, both positive and negative. Even more restricted than a ring is
the concept o f a group, with the existence in it o f only one operation, which
can be thought o f as a kind o f generalized multiplication. The idea o f a group
is one which pervades the whole of modern m aths both pure and applied.
The theory o f groups, a central concern o f contem porary maths, has evolved
through a progression of abstractions. A group is one o f the simplest and the
most important algebraic structures o f consequence. G roup theory traces its
origin back to a problem that has fascinated mathematicians since the
Middle Ages: the solution of algebraic equations o f degree greater than two
by algebraic processes. In the particular form o f the study o f symmetry,
group theory can claim to have its origin in prehistoric times. Nowadays,
group theory is developed in an abstract way so that it can be applied in many
different circumstances but many o f those applications still concern symme­
try.
Some o f the com ponents o f the group concept (i.e., those essential prop­
erties that were later abstracted and formulated as axioms) and also o f the
field concept, were recognized as early as 1650 B.C. when the Egyptians
showed a curious awareness that something was involved in assuming that
ab = ba. The Egyptians also freely used the distributive law, namely.
a(b + c) = ab + ac, but without any com m ent. The Babylonians (c. 1700
B.C.) also used the commutative and distributive laws. These laws were tac­
itly assumed in their rhetorical algebra when, in effect, they used such for­
mulas as (a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2. Looking at Greek maths, we see that
Euclid was more aware o f the explicit nature o f the distributive law, declar­
ing in his proposition 1: a(b + c + d) = ab + ac + ad. Somewhat later
Diophantus exhibited interesting insights regarding multiplicative inverses
and the unity element. One may, perhaps, claim that the concept o f a cyclic
group is prehistoric in the sense that the ancients measured a circle by using
equal divisions o f its circumference, or that the 24-hour clocks o f the
Babylonians and Egyptians were (implicitly) examples o f finite additive
groups with 24 used as a zero element, and Euclid’s work contains at the
implicit level what is classified now as algebraic num ber theory and group
theory.
The group concept was not recognized as explicitly as were some o f its
axioms, but even so it was implicitly sensed and used before Abel and Galois
brought it into focus and before Cayley (1854) defined a general abstract
group. During the two hundred years from Victc to Abel and Galois, in the

294
work o f some great mathematicians an implicit grasp o f the group concept
was already to be found. During the seventeenth century it was clear to those
working with the /ith roots o f unity that these n elements formed a multi­
plicative cyclic group and that the primitive nth roots could be used as gen­
erators o f the group. The use o f group theory at the subformal level — and a
striking one — is found in Euler’s proof (1760-1761) o f a generalization of
Fermat’s “little theorem ” Euler was actually using an idea later formulated
by Lagrange (1770) and now known as Lagrange’s theorem, which says that
the number of elements in the first-column subgroup divides the number o f
elements in the whole table. Lagrange gave the idea an explicit and general
formulation and showed that the number o f elements in a symmetric group
is divisible by the num ber o f elements in any subgroup (which is, of course,
a permutation group). H ence his result was valid for non-Abelian permuta­
tion groups as well as for Abelian groups.
In 1779 Paolo Ruffini showed that the converse o f Lagrange’s theorem is
not true; that is, a group o f order n does not necessarily have a subgroup of
order s just because s divides n. Just preceding Abel and Galois, Cauchy
(1815) published his first article on group theory, dealing with the permuta­
tion groups, and Gauss formalized the modular system (which are additive
cyclic groups) and in his work on the theory o f the composition of quadrat­
ic forms derived a complete set o f properties, which, taken axiomatically,
define an Abelian group. In 1854 Cayley published an article entitled “On the
Theory o f Groups as Depending on the Symbolic Equation Ө" = 1” which is
noteworthy because it gives what is probably the earliest definition o f a finite
abstract group. It also gives the result now known as Cayley’s theorem, that
“every finite group is isomorphic to a regular permutation group” In 1870
D.S. Jordan published his Trade des Substitutions — a masterly presentation
o f permutation groups — covering the results of Lagrange, Abel, Galois,
Cauchy as well as his own contributions to the subject. In the same year
L. Kronecker gave a set o f axioms defining finite Abelian groups. Out o f this
complete axiomatic system for finite Abelian groups, Kronecker, working
with a completely arbitrary abstract set of elements, derived the customary
group properties.
It will be convenient at this point to give a formal definition o f a group,
and we shall illustrate the definition by giving an example o f a permutation
group, since perm utation groups were historically important in developing
the group concept. Consider the set G = {1, a, b, c, d, e) where the six ele­
ments o f C are, respectively, the six permutations 1) 123, a) 132, b) 213, c)
231, d) 312, e) 321. The “product” ab is defined to mean that the first per­

295
mutation a is performed and then perm utation b is performed on the result
o f a. Thus, a produces (1 ,3 ,2 ) and, applying b to (1 ,3 , 2), we get the result
(2, 3, 1), which is c. So we say that ab = c. Notice that ba = d, and so our
multiplication in this example is not commutative. All possible products are
given in the figure below. (To find the product ab from the table, use the left
and top margins, in their order, for a and b\ the entry is c, indicated by the
dotted lines.) By referring to the table the following defining properties
(axioms) o f a group are easily checked:
1. The set G is closed with respect to the defined multiplication; that is,
the product o f any two elements o f G is
1 a bj c d e again an element o f G. Thus, be=e, and e is
an elem ent o f G.
1 1 a bI c d e 2. The associative law holds for any three
a a 1 c! b d e elem ents o f G. Thus, (ab)c=a(bc);
(c)c=a(e); d=d.
b b d 1 e a c
3. T he set G has an id en tity elem en t
c c e a d 1 b (in th is exam ple, l) w ith the property
th a t a \ = \a = a , b[ = \b= b, etc.
d d b e 1 c a
4. Each element o f G has an inverse; for
e a c d a b 1 example, we can find,

an x so that ax= 1
(in fact, x=a, since aa= 1).
A y so that by= 1 (in fact, y=b, since bb=1).
А г so that cz= 1 (in fact, z=d, since cd= 1).

The set G is called a group if, and only if, the above four properties hold.
Some groups have the additional property o f commutativity, and they are
called Abelian (от commutative) groups. Part o f the fascination that group
theory exercises on many m athem aticians lies in the fact that the whole
structure is created on the logical foundation o f these four simple axioms.
The relation o f the group concept to that o f a field may be briefly indicated
by noting that the set F o f real numbers is an example o f a field because the
elements of F satisfy the five axioms for a commutative group with respect to
addition (where the identity elem ent is represented by 0); the nonzero ele­
ments o f Fsatisfy five more axioms for a commutative group with respect to
multiplication (where the identity elem ent is represented by 1); and the ele­
ments o f F satisfy a final axiom called the distributive law, namely,
a(b+c)=a b+a c, which “distributes” the multiplication "over” the addition.

296
Pure group theory is not usually the most fruitful part o f the theory. The
reason for this is that it is not the symmetry as such which is of prime impor­
tance but rather the way in which the symmetry governs and simplifies the
discussion of the quantitative properties of the system. This quantitative
aspect is known as group representation theory since the abstract groups or
symmetry groups are represented by groups of matrices.

Group Algebra
In order to be able to investigate the structure of a group more p ro ­
foundly it is necessary to introduce addition as a second operation
between group elements. This addition has to be considered as a formal
operation in the sense that the coefficients o f the various group elem ents
are added separately just as algebraic expressions in different unknowns x,
y, z, etc., are added. By introducing addition as a second operation into
the group, a more elaborate algebraic entity has been created whose ele­
m ents are the linear com binations o f group elements. This entity in the
group algebra is one example o f the more general concept of a linear asso­
ciative algebra.

The Significance of Groups in Algebra and Geometry


G roups and semigroups have considerable significance in the founda­
tions o f maths. The im portance o f groups and semigroups in algebra lies
largely in the fact that many algebraic systems are actually groups o r sem i­
groups with respect to one or more o f the binary operations o f the sys­
tem s. In other words, many algebraic structures contain the group structure
or the semigroup structure within them as a substructure. G roups and sem i­
groups are like algebraic atoms from which many algebraic systems can be
constructed. These ideas are illustrated by the following alternative defi­
nitions o f ring, commutative ring, ring with identity, integral dom ain,
division ring and field.
1. A ring is a set S o f elem ents for which two binary operations, ad d i­
tion and m ultiplication, are defined such that (1) S is an Abelian group
under addition with identity elem ent called zero, (2) S is a semigroup
under m ultiplication, (3) the two distributive laws of m ultiplication over
addition hold.
2. A commutative ring is a ring in which the multiplicative semigroup is
Abelian.

297
3. A ring with identity is a ring in which the multiplicative semigroup has
an identity element.
4. An integral domain is a ring in which the nonzero elem ents constitute
a subsemigroup o f the multiplicative semigroup.
5. A division ring (or a field) is a ring o f more than one elem ent in which
the nonzero elements constitute a subgroup o f the multiplicative semigroup.
6. A field is a division ring in which the multiplicative semigroup is
Abelian. Two very im portant examples o f ordered fields are the set o f all
rational numbers and the set of all real numbers, with the operations o f addi­
tion and multiplication performed on these numbers.

T E X T FOUR

INTRODUCTION AND INFLUENCE OF QUATERNIONS


Read the text. Speak on the extensions of the number concept and its generalizations.

After I. Newton, the greatest mathematician o f the English-speaking


peoples is W. R. Hamilton, who was bom in Dublin in 1805 and died in
1865. His fame has had curious and regular changes. During his lifetime he
was celebrated but not understood; after his death his reputation declined
and he came to be counted in the second rank; in the twentieth century he
has become the subject o f an extraordinary revival o f interest and apprecia­
tion. H am ilton’s scientific career is astonishing. When he was only 21 years
old, he submitted to the Royal Irish Academy a paper entitled A Theory o f
Systems o f Rays, which in effect made a new science o f math optics. The
communication of the paper was soon followed by a great change in
H am ilton’s circumstances. The chair o f Professor o f Astronomy at Trinity
College was vacated in 1826 and H am ilton was appointed to the chair which
conferred to its occupant the title o f Royal Astronomer o f Ireland. The elec­
tion o f an undergraduate to a professorial chair was an astonishing event.
In 1832 Hamilton announced to the Royal Irish Academy a remarkable
discovery in optics which followed up his theory o f systems o f rays. In 1835
Hamilton received the honour o f knighthood, and two years after he was
elected President o f the Royal Irish Academy. In 1837, six years after Gauss
invented his treatment o f complex numbers, Hamilton arrived at his own
independent discovery o f the same ideas, which he applied to rotations and
vectors in the plane, as others had done. In the second paper on this subject

298
he generalized from ordered pairs to «-tuples with emphasis on quadruples
(or “quaternions”), which extended the algebra o f vectors in the plane to
vectors in space. Thus, the concept of a complex number, a+bi was extend­
ed to the form a + Ы + cj + dk (a, b, c, d real) where i2 = J2 = k 2= — 1= ijk.
Thus, in 1843 Hamilton made his greatest scientific discovery — the calculus
o f quaternions.
Hamilton was led to this discovery by long thought o f the problem of
finding a general rule for computing the fourth proportional to three
straight-line segments when the directions o f those lines were taken into
account. The roots o f vector algebra go back to the geometric concept of
directed line segments in space. The composition o f forces by the parallelo­
gram law led to the idea o f addition o f vectors. Their representation as
ordered sets o f real numbers could occur only after the extension o f number
systems beyond the complex numbers. It had taken fifteen years to work
before it dawned on Hamilton that it was possible to create a consistent and
useful m ath system that contradicted the tim e-honoured law that AB=BA.
This flash o f insight occurred one October day when he was out strolling with
his wife along the Royal Canal in Dublin, and he carved the basic formulas
on a stone in Brougham Bridge. Hamilton suddenly realized the answer: the
geometrical operation o f three-dim ensional spaces required for their
description not triplets but quadruplets. To specify the operation needed to
convert one vector into another in space, one had to know four numbers: 1)
the ratio o f the length o f one vector to the other; 2) the angle between them;
3) the node; 4) the inclinations o f the plane in which they lie. Hamilton
named the set of four numbers a quaternion, and found that he could multi­
ply quaternions as if they were single numbers. But he discovered that the
algebra o f quaternions differed from ordinary algebra in a crucial respect: it
was noncommutative. The surrender o f the commutative law was a trem en­
dous break with tradition. It marked the beginning o f a new era.
From this time (1843) until his death, H am ilton’s chief interest (for 22
years!) was to develop the new calculus. H am ilton’s discovery was quickly
followed by other new algebras, such as the theory o f matrices, which is like­
wise noncommutative. Thus, Hamilton started a glorious school o f maths,
though it was not to come into full flower for another half century. The dis­
covery o f special relativity brought quaternions to the fore because quater­
nions could be applied to the representation o f rotations in four-dimension­
al space. H am ilton’s work stirred up considerable disputation throughout
the Wfestern world on the question whether quaternions should replace vec­
tors as an everyday tool in physics and maths and it resulted in the formula­

299
tion of an international association to study the question. As it turned out,
quaternions were not as practical as Hamilton had believed, and they were
soon eclipsed by later inventions that were easier to apply; but they began to
do for algebra what non-Euclidean concepts were doing for geometry. Once
it was realized that BA=AB was not an irrevocable axiom, mathematicians
began to experiment with new systems in which other axioms were also
changed.
As a standard device for everyday use in physics, quaternions disappeared
entirely. They are, however, very much alive now with a different “ raison
d ’etre”. Today mathematicians are interested in studying number systems in
their entirety, in learning their properties and in learning how to construct
new ones. One prom inent type is called an associative division algebra over
a field. It is known that there are only three such algebras over the real field:
1) the real num ber system, 2) the complex num ber system, and 3) the sys­
tem o f quaternions. Thus, the system o f quaternions may be designated as
the only noncommutative associative division algebra over the real field.
It is only fair to mention in passing that in 1844 Hermann Grassmann
simultaneously and independently created an even more general theory of
л -tuples than Hamilton. Instead o f considering ordered sets o f quadruples of
real numbers, Grassmann dealt with ordered sets o f n real numbers. To
establish such a set (X|, x 2, ..., x„) Grassmann associated a hypercomplex
number o f the form x le l+x2e2+.. -xnen, where e t, e2,..., e„ are the fundamen­
tal units o f his algebra. Two such hypercomplex numbers are added and mul­
tiplied like polynomials in e b e2, ..., en. The addition o f two such numbers
yields, then, a num ber o f the same kind. To make the product o f two such
numbers a number o f the same kind requires the construction o f a multipli­
cation table for the units е 1г..., e„ similar to H am ilton’s multiplication table
for his quaternions. Here one has considerable freedom and different alge­
bras can be created by making different multiplication tables. H am ilton’s
quaternions and to some extent G rassm ann’s calculus o f extension were
devised by their creators as math tools for the exploration o f physical space.
These tools proved to be too complicated for quick mastery and easy appli­
cation, but from them emerged the much more easily learned and applied
the subject o f vector analysis. This work was due to, principally, the Arne rican
physicist J.W. Gibbs (1838-1903) and is encountered by every student of
maths and physics.
TEX T F IV E

LINEAR ALGEBRA
Read the text. Sum it up expressing its main ideas and illustrate them with some problems in
linear algebra.
Linear algebra like several other math disciplines may be considered from
two different points o f view: 1) as a branch o f maths o f independent interest
with a development and with problems o f its own; 2) as a tool for other math
disciplines and for math physics. A large class o f math problems is generally
called “ linear” the simplest problem is the following: Let a and b be two
given (real or complex) numbers —to find a number x that satisfies the equa­
tion ax=b. The problem has a unique solution x, if, and only if, a*0; no solu­
tion at all if a—0, b*0) an infinity o f solutions, viz., all real (or complex) x if
a=0 and b=0. This statem ent comprises the whole theory o f the problem.
One o f the main technical devices o f linear algebra is the theory o f deter­
minants and for a long time it has been the only part o f linear algebra which
was studied systematically. This is the more surprising as the notion o f matrix
— the main object o f modern linear algebra — is evidently more fundamen­
tal than that o f a determ inant because a determinant is only a certain number
associated with a given square matrix. Whilst the notion of determinant was
discovered by Leibnitz (c. 1690), the notion o f matrix appeared only much
later in 1854 in a paper by Cayley and independently in 1867 in a paper by
Laguerre. Since then linear algebra and matrix calculus have developed into
a vast domain o f maths closely connected with a good many other math
branches, such as the theory o f groups, the theory of invariants, tensor cal­
culus, the theory o f systems o f differential equations, etc. Linear algebra
provides the methods o f proof as well as the adequate algebraic formalism for
a considerable part o f analytic geometry. It has served as a model in recent
developments o f analysis (theory o f integral equations and of linear transfor­
mation in infinite-dimensional spaces) which have considerably advanced
this branch o f maths and proved importan* -.n m odem physics.

Discriminant, Determinants and Matrices.


As a result o f the historical developm ent o f ideas leading to the term
“discrim inant” there is today a slight inconsistency in the use o f the
word. Texts dealing w ith the equation A x2 + Bx + C=0 call B2 — 4AC the
discriminant o f the equation. O ther texts discussing the binary quadratic

301
form Q(x, y)= Ax2 + 2Bxy + Cy2 call AC—B2 the discriminant o f Q. Sim ilar
though these expressions are, it is n o t im m ediately obvious that we are
justified in using the same name — th at we have the same m ath entity. By
the middle o f the eighteenth century it was well known that a necessary
and sufficient condition for the equation /4x2+filx+C=0 to have two iden­
tical roots was B2—4AC=0. The expression was known; m athem aticians
knew w hat it signified and how to4work w ith it; but it was not yet recog­
nized as a m ath entity.
D uring the next hundred years m ath em atician s studied several
expressions related to the quadratic form. In 1748 L. Euler used co n d i­
tions involving expressions like those above to determ ine w hether a
quadratic surface is contained in finite space; but Euler did not give a
nam e to these expressions. The expression th at was not yet an entity
reappeared in 1773. J.L. Lagrange was studying the binary quadratic form
given above. H e proved that if x+A.y were substituted fo rx , leading to a
new form А {х + \у )2+2В(х+'ку)у+Су2у then if the new expression is sim ­
plified to A 'x 2+ 2B 'xy+ C 'y2, we must have A ' C B ' 2=AC—B2. O ther
m athem aticians turned to the study o f such invariants, and similar
expressions kept reappearing. K.F. Gauss called such an expression a
“determinant” o f the function. It rem ains for the J.J. Sylvester, who called
him self the “ m athem atical A dam ” because o f his habit o f giving names to
m ath creatures, to name this one. In 1851 he was studying invariants in
reducing certain sixth-degree functions o f two variables to sim pler forms.
What he found was what he called (and what we now recognize as) the
“discrim inant o f a cube” The discriminant is a combination o f constants
which vanishes i f at least two factors o f a function are the same.
The Japanese m athem atician S eki Kowa (1683) system atized an old
C hinese m ethod o f solving sim ultaneous lin ear equations whose coeffi­
cients were represented by calculating sticks — bam boo rods placed in
squares on a table, with the positions o f the different squares correspon­
ding to the coefficients. In the process o f working out his system , Kowa
rearranged the rods in a way sim ilar to that used in our sim plification of
determ inants; thus, it is thought that he had the idea o f a determinant.
Ten years later G. Leibnitz formally originated determ inants and gave a
w ritten notation for them . In a letter to M. de L’Hospital Leibnitz gave
a discussion o f a system o f three linear equations in two unknow ns: “ l
suppose that*
*
in modern notation

302
a xo+ axxx+ a x2y = О
a20+a2Xx+a22y=0 (1)
азо+азіх+азіУ=0-

...Eliminating у first from the first and the second equations and then from
the first and third and eliminating the letter x... as a result we shall have

a \o a \\ a n

a 20 a 2l a 22
= 0. ( 2)
°30 a 3 \ a 32

The reader may recall, or easily verify, that (2) is the condition for the three
straight lines represented by (1) to pass through a common point. The now-
standard “vertical line notation” used in (2) right-hand column above was
given by A. Cayley. Determinants were invented independently by G. Cramer,
whose now well-known rule for solving linear systems was published in 1750,
although not in present-day notation. Many other mathematicians also
made contributions to determinant theory—among them A. T. Vandermonde,
P.S. Laplace, J.M. Wronski, and A.L. Cauchy. It is Cauchy who applied the
word “determinant” to the subject; in 1812 he introduced the multiplication
theorem. The fundamental importance o f determinants as working tools in
maths has come to be widely recognized.
Suppose there are two homogeneous linear equations in three variablesx,
У, z:

a xx+ bxy+ cxz=0,


02X+ Һ-2У+ c2z=0.
Then in general they have a solution

X ______ у ______ z
b xc2 - b 2c x c xa2 - c2a x a xb2 —a2bx

These denom inators are called determinants o f the second order, they can be
written in various ways, all o f which have a great value.

303
A more familiar notation for the determinant b xc2— bycx is the well-
known square array b l c,
introduced by Cayley in 1841 long after deter­
b2 c2
minants were first invented. Determinants provide an efficient com putation­
al tool for various purposes, notably to determine when vectors are linearly
independent and it is consequently useful to have them for such com puta­
tions. In spite of the great intrinsic interest o f the subject, and the wonderful
flexibility of determinants as practical working tools in many branches of
pure and applied maths, there is still a considerable absence o f systematic
knowledge o f even the main results in the theory.
Although the idea o f a matrix was implicit in the quaternions (4-tuples)
o f W. Hamilton and also in the “extended magnitudes’’ (л-tuples) of
H. G rassm ann, the credit for inventing matrices is usually given to Cayley
with a date of 1857, even though H am ilton obtained one or two isolated
results in 1852. Cayley says that he got the idea o f a matrix “either directly
from that of a determ inant, or as a convenient mode o f expression o f the
equations x'=ax+by, y'= cx+ dy”. He represented this transformation and
developed an algebra o f matrices by observing properties o f transformations
on linear equations:

X' = ax+by a b
—>
y ' = cx+dy c d.

Cayley also showed (1885) that a quaternion could be represented in matrix


form as shown above where o, b, c, d are suitable complex numbers. For
example, if we let the quaternion units 1, i j , к be represented by

'1 0" 7 o" ‘ o f '0 /"


» У and
0 1 0 /_ —1 0 / 0

the quaternion 4+5/+6/+7A can be written as shown below:

4 + 5/ 6 + 71
- 6 + 7/ 4 - 5/

304
This led P.G. Tait, a disciple of Hamilton, to conclude erroneously that
Cayley had used quaternions as his motivation for matrices. It was shown by
Hamilton in his theory o f quaternions that one could have a logical system
in which the multiplication is not commutative. This result was undoubted­
ly o f great help to Cayley in working out his matrix calculus because matrix
multiplication also is noncommutative. In 1925 Heisenberg discovered that
the algebra o f matrices is just right for the noncommutative maths describ­
ing phenomena in quantum mechanics.
Cayley’s theory o f matrices grew out of his interest in linear transforma­
tions and algebraic invariants, an interest he shared with J.J. Sylvester. In
collaboration with J.J. Sylvester, Cayley (с. 1846) began the work on the the­
ory o f algebraic invariants which had been in the air for some time and
which, like matrices, received some o f its motivation from determinants.
They investigated algebraic expressions that remained invariant (unchanged
except, possibly, for a constant factor) when the variables were transformed
by substitutions representing translations, rotations, dilatations (“stretch­
ings” from the origin), reflections about an axis, and so forth.
. There are three fundamental operations in matrix algebra: addition, mul­
tiplication and transposition, the last does not occur in ordinary algebra. The
law o f multiplication of matrices which Cayley invented and his successors
have approved, takes its rise in the theory of linear transformations. Linear
combinations o f matrices with scalar coefficients obey the rules o f ordinary
algebra. A transposition is a perm utation which interchanges two numbers
and leaves the others fixed, or in other words: the formal operation leading
from x to x ' and also that leading from x 'to x is called transposition. A matrix
o f m rows and n columns has rank r, when not all its minor determ inants o f
order г vanish, while o f order r+ 1 do so. A matrix and its transposed have the
same rank. The rank o f a square matrix is the greatest number o f its rows or
columns which are linearly independent.
Today, matrix theory is usually considered as the main subject o f linear
algebra, and it is a mathematical tool o f the social scientist, geneticist, stat­
istician, engineer, and physical scientist.

VOCAB U LA R Y E X E R C I S E S

1. Check up the meaning of the following words and word combinations in the dictionary.
current — undercurrent / current o f air / the current of events / alterna­
tive current / the current year / current prices / current opinions / in current

305
use / to gain (to obtain) currency / words in com m on currency / paper cur­
rency / foreign currency
reciprocal correspondence / reciprocal differences / reciprocal equation /
reciprocal matrix / reciprocal ratio / reciprocal theorems / reciprocity law
homogeneous coordinates / homogeneous equation / homogeneous
function / homogeneous integral equation / homogeneous process / homo­
geneous space / homogeneous substance
ill-fated / ill-advised / ill-affected / ill-favoured / ill-judged / ill-timed /
ill-used
misfortunate — misadvantage — misunderstanding — misusage — mis­
information — miscalculation — misconception
falsehood — likelihood — neighbourhood — knighthood — brotherhood
— childhood — m otherhood — manhood
irrational — irreconcilable — irreducible — irrefutable — irrevocable —
irregular — irrelevant — irresistible — irrespective — irresponsible

2. Give Russian equivalents оГthe following phrases:


to put smb off / to use smth for personal advantage / efforts were fore­
doomed to failure / to catch the imagination / to receive no recognition / to
receive the honour o f knighthood / to bring smth to the fore / to delete pos­
tulates / to show a curious awareness

3. Give one Russian equivalent of the following groups of words:


a) name — title — heading — headline / field — sphere — domain —
province / landmark — watershed — boundary line symbol — turning point /
contest — competition — tournam ent — duel / oath — swear word — solemn
statement — solemn promise / assertion — declaration — claim / permuta­
tion — combination — arrangement in orders / answer — reply — response /
connection — relation — tie / impact — collision / effect — results — influ­
ence — impression / presumption — presupposition / cancellation — reduc­
tion / proliferation — abundancy / disciple — follower / array — table — map /
row — line / promulgation — announcement — proclamation
b) current — modern — today’s -- contem porary / ill-fated — unlucky —
fatal — misfortunate — unsuccessful / galling — annoying / remarkable —
out of ordinary — notable — worthy o f notice / irrevocable — final — unal­
terable / appropriate — fit — suitable / understandable — comprehensible /
erroneous — mistaken / infallible — unmistaken / inverse — reciprocal /
tempestuous — violent — stormy / simultaneous — happening at the same
time / rectangular — square

306
c) to forbid — to prohibit — to ban — to outlaw / to delete — to bar / to
word — to put (express) in words — to phrase — to couch / to make a secret
known — to reveal a secret — to divulge a secret / to be eager — to long —
to be anxious / to cause — to produce — to bring out — to evoke / to be false —
to be unfaithful — to give away — to betray / to recall — to remember — to call
back to mind / to have — to have got — to possess / to remedy — to cure — to
put right / to reject — to refuse / to assert — to declare — to claim / to stem
from — to originate / to surrender — to give up — to abandon — to sacrifice /
to eclipse — to surpass — to outshine — to darken / to pervade — to pene­
trate — to spread through / to preclude — to prevent / to embrace — to include
— to involve / to signify — to mean — to make known / to approve — to be
satisfied with / to overcome — to vanquish / in search o f — in quest o f / to
perfect — to improve — to refine — to purify

4. Read and translate the text into Russian. Give synonyms, antonyms, definitions of all the
words in bold type.

Descartes’ Rule of Signs


In 1637 Rene Descartes published a book with a lengthy title Discourse on
the Method o f Rightly Conducting One’s Reason and Seeking Truth in the
Sciences. Three appendixes were included: Optics, Meteorology, Geometry.
The third part o f the third appendix is entitled in translation On the
Construction o f Solid and Supersolid Problems. It deals with many basic ideas
for solving equations that arise in connection with geometric problems (pri­
marily the study o f conic sections by algebraic methods).
After posing some problems on mean proportions, Descartes proceeds to
construct a fourth-degree polynomial equation by multiplying together the
linear factors (x — 2), (x — 3), (x —4) and (x + 5) to obtain x4 —4x3 — I9x2
+ 106x - 120 = 0. He remarks that the polynomial is divisible by no other
binomial factors and that the equation has “only the four roots 2, 3, 4 and
5” The fact that the fourth root is —5 rather than 5 is recognized by speak­
ing o f 5 as a “false” root, in contrast to the positive numbers which are called
“true” roots. (The minus sign is not used by Descartes to designate negative
numbers.) Then comes the statement o f the celebrated rule o f signs:
“W; can determine also the number o f true and false roots that any equa­
tion can have, as follows: An equation can have as many true roots as it con­
tains changes o f sign, from + to - or from - to + ; and as many false roots
as the number o f times two “ + ” signs or two “—” signs are found in succes­
sion.”

307
Following this general com m ent, Descartes points out the three changes
o f sign and the one succession (permanence) o f sign in his example and con­
cludes, “Wfe know there are three true roots and one false root.”
As is often the case with the promulgation o f a significant math result, this
first statem ent of the relation between changes in signs o f the successive
terms o f the polynomial and the nature o f the roots was not complete.
N either was any attempt made at proof, other than the illustrative example
that accompanied it.
The process o f refining the rule o f signs continued over a period o f two
centuries. In this process two points, specifically, were clarified: (1) the fact
that variations in sign determine only upper bounds for the number o f posi­
tive roots because o f the possibility o f imaginary roots and (2) the fact that
the perm anence o f sign determine bounds for the number o f negative roots
only for a complete polynomial — that is, one with no coefficients equal to
zero.
I. N ew ton in his work Arithmetica Universalis (published in 1707 but
w ritten some thirty years earlier) gave an accurate statem ent o f the rule o f
signs and presented w ithout proof a procedure for determ ining the num ­
ber o f im aginary roots. At about the same tim e, G. Leibnitz pointed out a
line o f proof, although he did not give it in detail. Several proofs were
given in the period from 1745 to 1828, some o f them quite insufficient.
K. G auss added the significant contribution to the statem ent o f the rule
that if the num ber o f positive roots falls short o f the num ber o f variations,
it does so by an even integer. The com plete statem ent o f Descartes’ rule o f
signs is as follows:
“Let Pn(x) = OqX" + +... + a n, where the coefficients Oq, a x, ........ .
an are real numbers, n0*0. Then, the number of positive real roots of the equa­
tion Pn(x)=0 [a root of multiplicity m being counted m times] is either equal
to the number of variations in signs or less than that number by a positive even
integer.”
The m atter o f negative roots o f / >n(x)=0 is handled simply by considering
the positive roots o f Pn(- x )= 0. Thus, the m atter o f permanence o f sign is
avoided. The crux o f the proof stems from the work o f Gua de Malves and
Segner. It consists in showing that if Pn( x ) - ( x - r ) Pn_x{x), where Pn_,(x) has
real coefficients and r is positive, then Pn(x) has at least one more variation
in sign than does /^„((x) — for the general case, an odd number more.
GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY EX ER C ISES

1. Compare Russian and English tense forms.

I solve problems. (Present Indefinite)


Я решаю задачи. I am solving problems. (Present Continuous)
I have been solving problems for an hour. (Pres-
_ ent Perfect Continuous)

r I solved the problems yesterday. (Past Indefi­


nite)
I was solving the problems when he came. (Past
Continuous)
I have solved the problems. (Present Perfect)
Я решал (решил) I had solved the problems before he came. (Past
задачи. Perfect)
I had been solving the problems for an hour
V when he came. (Past Perfect Continuous)

r I shall solve the problems tomorrow. (Future


Indefinite)
I shall be solving the problems when he comes
Я буду решать (решу) tomorrow. (Future Continuous)
задачи. I shall have been solving the problems for an
hour when he comes tomorrow. (Future Perfect
Continuous)
I shall have solved the problems when he comes.
^ (Future Perfect)

2. Write all the tense forms of the predicate in the following sentences. Consult the above­
given patterns, if necessary.
1. T he knowledge o f algebra does not grow steadily. 2. We talk about
the way in w hich vectors are added. 3. M athem aticians encounter im ag­
inary num bers as roots o f polynom ial equations. 4. In elem entary alge­
bra sym bols stand for number. 5. Thanks to the fundam ental theorem o f
algebra the solution o f polynom ial equations requires no new kinds o f
num bers.
3. Use the proper tense form (indefinite, continuous, perfect or perfect continuous) in the
sentences.

1. The scientists express this number as a terminating decimal.


(by the end o f the last century, in future, since the birth o f modem civi­
lization, usually, nowadays, fo r a long time, i f necessary, in this particu­
lar problem)
2. Axiomatic inquiry brings forth new concepts in algebra.
(still, from the outset, in 1873, eventually, this year, already, next decade)

4. Compare Russian and English tense forms of the passive voice.

Такие задачи решаются Such problems are usually solved


в алгебре. in algebra.
Such problems are being solved in algebra
k nowadays.
r Such problems were usually solved in al­
gebra.
Такие задачи решались Such problems were being solved in a l­
(решены) в алгебре. gebra at that time.
Such problems have already been solved in
algebra.
Such problems had been solved by the end
o f the past century.

Такие задачи будут решаться Such problems will be solved in algebra.


(решены) в алгебре. Such problems will have been solved in
algebra when the necessity comes.

5. Write all the English tense forms of the passive voice.


1. Contemporary algebra is considered as a mixture o f m uch that is vers
old and still important, e.g., counting and newer concepts such as structures.
2. The beginnings o f the development o f numbers are lost in prehistory.
3. Complex numbers arc expressed in the form o f a number-couple. 4. The
sign “ + ” is used in modem algebra only for commutative systems.

6. Thinslate the following sentences paying special attention to the way the predicate shoald
be rendered in Russian:

3 10
1. We are so accustomed to expressing relations by m eans o f com pact
symbols that it is tempting to identify the symbols with algebra itself.
2. However, for a long time the subject m atter o f algebra was written out
in com m on language. 3. The m ajor task o f historian seeking to under­
stand ancient algebra has always been to express it, if possible, in m odern
symbols and thus to disclose its abstract form. 4. Any developm ent
toward a more com pact way o f displaying complex relationships has been
regarded as a fundam ental advance. 5. Such an advance in the field o f
algebra was made by the French m athem aticians R. Descartes and
F. Viete. 6. The concern for unam biguous terminology and symbolism
had preceded by two centuries the concern with structures. 7. It was not
until the end o f the fifteenth century that algebra was assuming a som e­
w hat m odern form. 8. A general theory o f structure (beginning w ith the
solution o f polynomial equations and the relations between their roots
and coefficients) has led to the “com pletion” o f the com plex-num ber
system. 9. Due to the extension of the complex numbers by hyperconv
plex num bers, new algebraic structures have been created. 10. The
dom ain of algebra has been profoundly expanded thanks to the change of
the whole nature o f algebra. 11. Early in the nineteenth century algebra
has become a science th a t could deal effectively w ith anything.
12. M odern algebra is being made to apply to situations, which at first
sight in no way related to algebra.

7. Translate the sentences with the prepositional passive constructions.


1. Algebraic symbolism is frequently thought of as the hallm ark o f
algebra itself. 2. A bel’s first im portant paper on the quintic equation
was sneered at by his contem porary m athem aticians. 3. G alois was
looked upon as a lazy and queer boy by his schoolteachers. 4. The work
o f genii o f m aths is m uch commented on and accounted fo r by the his­
to rian s o f m aths. 5. T heir great discoveries and contributions have been
a good deal written about. 6. G rassm an n ’s work was disapproved o f by
his contem poraries so its true significance had to wait for the passage o f
tim e. 7 The general expressions o f the roots o f equations o f the first
four degrees are arrived at w ithout difficulty. 8. D iscrim inants, and
m atrices are dealt with in linear algebra. 9. This p ro o f cannot be relied
on — a more rigorous one is still being looked for by the m ath em ati­
cians 10. Such results must not be wondered a t — they are approved o f
by practice.

311
8. Change active into passive.

M o d e l. Descartes introduced (c. 1637) the use of Hindu-Arabic


numerals as exponents on a given base.
The use of Hindu-Arabic numerals as exponents on a
given base was introduced in c. 1637.

1. The Greeks were expressing the numbers only in sexagesimal system,


not decimally. 2. D iophantus developed “syncopated algebra” , the use o f the
abbreviated words (c. 250 A.D.). 3. At least three thousand years ago people
were employing implicitly the notion o f a function. 4. The Italian Luca
Picioli applied (1494) the rule o f false position. 5. Natural scientists had often
used the parallelogram as a means o f addition. 6. A. G irard (1629)
approached both negative and imaginary numbers with great boldness. 7. Ail
the distinguished nineteenth-century mathematicians have treated the alge­
braic solution o f equations. 8. People generally associate adding in arith­
metic with the idea o f “putting together” . 9. Algebraists refer to this class o f
equations as “differential equation^” 10. M odem mathematicians are
attaching several different meanings to the expression A+B.

9. Express probability, certainty and strong likelihood in the following statements using mmy
or m u st with the proper form of the infinitive (indefinite, continuous, perfect, perfect continuous).

M o d els. 1. Algebra probably originated in Babylonia.


Algebra may have originated in Babylonia.
2. The historians claim that the rhetorical style of
algebra is an accomplishment of that country.
The historians claim that the rhetorical style of alge­
bra must be an accomplishment of that country.

1. Scientists do not have enough evidence to fix the date when the
epochal discovery o f cardinal number was made: the concept was equally
present in Egypt, China, India, Mesopotamia. 2. Certainly, algebra appeared
in Egypt as soon as in Babylonia. 3. In both the Babylonian and the Egyptian
civilizations com putations were handled mostly by the priests. 4. Babylonian
and G reek accomplishments in maths were apparently known to Hindu
mathematicians. 5. One of the Hindu famous achievements is obviously the
system o f Hindu (often called Arabic) numerals. 6. Arabic algebra probably
came from both the Greeks and the Hindus. 7. Throughout the Dark Ages
the Arabs preserved the Greek and Hindu works in algebra for posterity —
evidently without their translations most o f the prior work could have been
lost. 8. O f course, the ease and facility in handling Hindu-Arabic numerals

312
contributed to the growth o f algebra in Europe. 9. It is likely that the inven­
tion o f printing and the expansion o f trade and travel facilitated the exchange
o f ideas. 10. The symbols “ + ” and ” (as it seems) occurred in the fifteenth
century in problems solved by false position to indicate excess and deficien­
cy. 11. In modern algebra the sign “ + ” does not always signify addition in any
real sense. 12. Surely, the V~~ sign is a modification o f r for radix or root.
13. At present different branches o f maths are evidently interacting to a sur­
prising degree through algebra.

C O N V E R S A T IO N A L P R A C T IC E

1. Read the given statements adding your own comments, examples, characteristics, view­
points, historic evidence, etc., thus developing the idea further.

M o d e l. The early (elementary) phase of algebra spanned the


period from about 1700 B.C. to 1700 A.D.
There is a lot of historical evidence that as long ago as
Babylonian times elementary algebra and number the­
ory were being originally developed. The first general
treatment of polynomial equations was given by
F. Victe in 1603. The statement may be thusjustified, to
my mind.

1. The elementary algebra was characterized by the gradual invention of


symbolism and the solving o f equations. 2. The development o f algebraic
notation progressed through three stages: the rhetorical (verbal), the synco­
pated and the symbolic. 3. In the symbolic stage, algebraic notation went
through many modifications and changes. 4. Algebraic notation became
fairly stable by the time o f Newton. 5. Egyptian algebra lacked the sophisti­
cation in m ethod shown by Babylonian algebra. 6. Most o f the standard
Babylonian problems were phrased in geometric terminology by the early
Greeks. 7. They solved, e.g., quadratic equation by giving a “prooF’, i.e., a
construction o f the positive root of the equation, followed by a verification.
8. The early Greeks gave their algebra geometric formulation because of
their conceptual difficulties with irrational numbers. 9. Perhaps it is not
entirely joking to say that their linear continuum was literally linear.
10. Diophantus made a fresh start in algebra by introducing the syncopated
style o f writing equations. 11. Diophantus gave an ingenious treatment of
indeterminate equations often called Diophantine equations. 12. These are

313
usually two or more equations in several variables that have an infinite num ­
ber o f rational solutions.

2. Read the sentences and characterize the algebraic activities during the Dark Ages of
Europe.
1. It was the Arabs who preserved the G reek and Hindu scientific w rit­
ings through the Dark Ages o f Europe. 2. O ur main interest during the
Arabic period centres on al-Khowarismi and Omar Khayyam. 3. Al-
Khowarismi’s books — the Al-jabr and the Liber Algorismi — greatly influ­
enced European maths. 4. Al-Khowarismi’s aim was to write a practical
textbook on solving equations, his algebra seems prosaic. 5. O m ar
Khayyam’s greatest contribution to algebra was a geometric solution o f cubic
equations. 6. Brahmangupta (c. 628) and Bhaskara (c. 1150) were the most
prom inent o f the Hindu algebraists. 7. H indu work on indeterminate equa­
tions was superior to that o f Diophantus. 8. The Hindus solved quadratic
equations by completing the square and they accepted negative and irra­
tional roots. 9. One o f their greatest accomplishments was the system of
Hindu (often called Arabic) numerals. 10. It was Italy that produced the
greatest algebraists during 1200-1620 period. 11. Fibonacci (1202) did a great
deal to popularize Hindu-Arabic numerals in his book on arithmetic and
algebra. 12. Tartaglia (1535) solved two types o f cubic equations. 13. Cardano
(“gambling scholar”) published (1545) the complete solution o f all varieties
o f the cubic equations. 14. C ardano’s Лг