Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 18


W A S T E W A T E R - W A S T E

ATV A 203E

Wastewater Filtration Using Space following

Biological Treatment

April 1995
ISBN 3-934984-34-7

Gesellschaft zur Förderung der
Abwassertechnik e.V. (GFA)
Theodor-Heuß-Allee 17
D-53773 Hennef
Postfach 11 65 . 53758 Hennef
ATV A 203E

These principles have been elaborated by ATV Specialist Committee 2.8 "Methods of
Advanced Wastewater Treatment following Biological Treatment" which has the following

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Hegemann, Berlin (Chairman)

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dohmann, Aachen
Dr.-Ing. Firk, Bergheim
Prof. Hahn, Ph.D., Karlsruhe
Dipl.-Ing. Jost, Zürich
Dr.-Ing. Mayer, Kaiserslauten
Dr.-Ing. Meyer, Bochum
Dipl.-Ing. Peter-Fröhlich, Berlin
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Pöpel, Darmstadt
Dr.-Ing. Roth, Stuttgart
BDir. Schleypen, München
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Sekoulov, Hamburg-Harburg
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Wolf, Kassel

The Standard presented here has been prepared within the

framework of the ATV committee work, taking into account the
ATV Standard A 400 "Principles for the Preparation of Rules and
Standards" in the Rules and Standards Wastewater/Wastes, in
the January. 1994 .version. With regard to the application of the
Rules and Standards, Para. 1 of Point 5 of A 400 includes the
following statement "The Rules and Standards are freely
available to everyone. An obligation to apply them can result for
reasons of legal regulations, contracts or other legal grounds.
Whosoever applies them is responsible for the correct application
in specific cases. Through the application of the Rules and
Standards no one avoids responsibility for his own actions.
However, for the user, prima facie evidence shows that he has
taken the necessary care.

All rights, in particular those of translation into other languages, are reserved. No part of this Standard may
be reproduced in any form by photocopy, microfilm or any other process or transferred or translated into a
language usable in machines, in particular data processing machines, without the written approval of the

 Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Abwassertechnik e.V. (GFA), Hennef 1995

Produced by: Carl Weyler KG, Bonn

April 1995
ATV A 203E


1. Introduction 4

2. Fundamentals of filtration 4

3. Procedures 5
3.1 Downwards throughflowed filters 7
3.2 Upwards throughflowed filters 8
3.3 Dry filters 9
3.4 Special procedures 9

4. Effect coverage of wastewater filters 9

4.1 Removal of filterable substances with space filters 10
4.2 Phosphorus elimination 10
4.3 Removal of dissolved substances 10

5. Dimensioning and operation of wastewater filters 11

5.1 Dimensioning 11
5.2 Filter flushing 12

6. Dimensioning example 14

7. Standard Specifications and Standards 17

April 1995
ATV A 203E

1. Introduction
This Standard is concerned with communal wastewater.

Essentially, the procedures for wastewater filtration aim at the elimination of particular
wastewater content substances ( filterable substances) following biological treatment in
accordance with the recognised rules of technology. With regard to their function the
following well tried methods can be differentiated:
- wastewater filtration which is limited exclusively to the elimination of filterable
substances present in the wastewater;
- flocculation filtration by which additional filterable substances are produced by means
of the addition of precipitation/flocculation agents and/or flocculation aid agents,
preferably with the aim of advanced phosphorus elimination, and
- biologically intensified filtration which, with the aid of suitable filter materials and
sufficient oxygen supply aims additionally at the reduction of the organic residual
loading of the wastewater and, in certain cases, at a residual nitrification.
The possibility of denitrification in filters following addition of electron donors such as, for
example, carbon, is to be assessed case by case with regard to costs, performance and
environmental compatibility.

The filters employed in wastewater filtration can be divided into:

- Space filters: normal filter bed height 1 - 2.5 m (suspension retention in the
complete filter bed), (Table 1),

- Surface filters: cloth filters or fine grain filters with a filter layer height of up to 30 cm
(suspension retention on the filter surface; no intensified biological effect), (Table 2).

The tested procedures of space filtration are dealt with in this Standard. The following
versions are based on this. Surface filtration is not part of this Standard.

Due to the multiplicity of the systems on offer no details on operation are given in this

2. Fundamentals of Filtration
The filtration effect is based on many different processes of a physical, chemical and
biological nature. To these belong:

- the retention of large particles through the sieve effect between the grains

- retention of small particles on the surface of the filter medium or on already deposited
particles as a result of, inter alia, sedimentation, capture, diffusion, van der Waal's
forces, sorption.

Particles and flocs already retained can, dependent on stability and adhesion, be again
redeposited deeper in the filter during the filtration process or, in unfavourable cases, can
be washed out due to the sheer forces exercised by the flow.

April 1995
ATV A 203E

With uniformly coarse filter grains and clean filters there are, at first, no or only few
particles retained through the sieve action. The total pressure loss (filter resistance)
increases while filtration increases at first slowly, linearly. If the pore channels have
narrowed sufficiently through the loading, individual and then more and more particles
are retained by the sieve effect and the pressure loss subsequently increases

With uniformly fine filter grains particles are removed mainly by sieving on the surface of
the filter bed. This effect represents a surface filtration.

The grading of the filter grain from coarse to fine in the direction of flow combines the
effects of the storage capacity of the coarse grains for the larger particles with the good
sieve effect of the fine grain for the fine particles. The flushing technique is also to be
taken into account with the selection of filter grain material in order to continue keeping
the desired grading (classification).

The biological effectiveness and with this, the removal of dissolved organic substances is
significantly influenced by the degree of oxygen supply of the total filter bed. With
downwards operated staged filtration aerobic conditions occur only in the upper filter
layer due to the small O2 concentration of the filter inlet and with this a slight elimination
of dissolved wastewater content substances. With appropriate boundary conditions NO3
oxygen can also slightly improve the biological effect. The desired O2 enrichment
improves the efficiency of the elimination of dissolved organic substances and
nitrification. With this there are the following possibilities for oxygen supply:

- enrichment of the inflow with the aid of a pre-aeration. Due to the unique O2
saturation of, for example, 10 mg/l only the nitrification of some 2 mg/l NH4+- N is

- overdam filtration with surface aeration of the filter body with the aid of an aeration
system in the filter bed;

- dry filtration, by which the wastewater trickles through the filter bed as in a biological
filter and is supplied with oxygen via an air flow, either in uniflow or contraflow.

3. Procedures
The procedures of filtration applied in practice for advanced wastewater treatment can be
differentiated in accordance with Tables 1 and 2 by filter medium, filter layers, filtration
direction, flushing technique and application purpose. Comprehensive commercial scale
experience with space filtration up until now exist only for the filters underlined in Table 1.

Table 1: Space filtration procedures

Design of Flow Flushing Flushing Elimination Designation
filter direction cycle medium effect*
FS Single layer filter

April 1995
ATV A 203E

Downwards Discontinuou Water FS, COD Biol. Intensified

s Air NH4+ filter
One filter FS Upwards filter
FS, COD, P Flocculation filter
Upwards Discontinuou Water FS, COD Biol. Intensified
s Air NH4+ filter
FS, COD, P Flocculation filter
NH4 Biol. intensified
FS Multilayer filter
FS, COD, P Flocculation filter
Two Downwards Discontinuou Water FS, COD Biol. Intensified
filter s Air NH4+ filter
layers FS, COD, P Flocculation filter
NH4+ Biol. intensified
Trickle Two Downwards Discontinuou Water FS, COD, Dry filter
film filter s Air NH4+
Flocculation filter
Special Single Horizontal Continuous Water FS, Radial or
procedur filter or Air (COD, NH4+, upwards
e layer upwards P)** thru'flowed filter
FS = filterable substance (determined using membrane filtration, pore width 0.45 µm
* **
Other than with FS concerned with residual elimination with appropriate equipping

Table 2: Surface filtration procedures

Flow Design of Flow Flushing Flushing Elimination Designation
regime filter direction cycle medium effect
Discontinuou Water FS Pulsed bed
One s Air filter
Overdam filter Downwards Quasi Water FS Cell filter
layer continuous
Back-up Cloth As desired Quasi Water FS Cloth filter
difference continuous

3.1 Downwards Throughflowed Filters

The overdammed, downwards throughflowed filter is set up as a space filter with one
layer (single layer filter) or better with two layers (two layer filter) over a filter bed. Figs. 1
and 2 show a schematic drawing of this filter. Multilayer filters with more than two layers
have, up until now, not been usual in Germany.

April 1995
ATV A 203E

Fig. 1: Basic principle of downwards throughflowed filter for throughflow


Fig. 2: Basic principle of downwards throughflowed filter for overdam flushing

Both with the single layer filter and with the multilayer filter the grain material of each
layer is to have a very close grain spectrum
U =  ≤ 1.5.

The smallest possible share of fine grain material is to be sought in order to avoid the
surface filtration effect.

With multilayer filters the upper layer, in comparison with the lower layers, is relatively
coarse, however, under operating conditions specifically lighter material (see Table 6 for
grain wet density) is selected so that the arrangement of layers is re-established after
flushing. Mainly anthracite, pumice stone, swelling shale or swelling clay are used as
upper layer materials, while the lower filter layer, as with single layer filters, is almost
always filter sand.

April 1995
ATV A 203E

The inflow in the overdam area is to be introduced gently so that the filter surface is not

3.2 Upwards Throughflowed Filters

With upwards throughflowed filters (see schematic diagram in Fig. 3) the space effect is
achieved by the decreasing grain size and pore cross-section in the direction of flow.
With flushing the filter material, even with equal density, is classified from coarse to fine
and thus kept in the desired position. Usually filter sand of grain size 1 to 3 mm is
employed as filter material.

Fig.3: Basic principle of upwards throughflowed filter for throughflow flushing

Fig.3: Basic principle of dry filter for throughflow flushing

3.3 Dry Filters

In the dry filter the wastewater trickles as film over the grain material. The pore space is
not filled with water. Fig. 4 shows a schematic cross-section through a two layer dry filter
in which the air flows in the direction of flow of the wastewater to ensure oxygen supply.

April 1995
ATV A 203E

Arrangement of grain and flushing of dry filters corresponds with those of overdam filters.
The inflow on to the filter is to be such that the filter material is not disturbed, e.g. through
a protective layer made from plastic elements.

3.4 Special Procedures

The following count as special procedures:
- continuously flushing calibration layer filter
- continuously functioning radially throughflowed filters.

4. Effect Coverage of Wastewater Filters

A qualitative assessment of different filtration procedures with regard to their effect is
contained in Table 3.

Table 3: Effect coverage of different filtration procedures

FS COD NH4+ P (dissolved)
Filtration ++ 0 0 0
Biologically intensified filtration ++ + + +
Flocculation filtration following ++ + 0 +
simultaneous precipitation
or increased biological P-elimination
(additional biological intensified) (++) (+) (+) (++)
0 = no or slight effect, + = good effect, ++ = very good effect

Table 4: Average values of BOD5, COD, nitrogen and phosphorus in filterable

BOD5 g BOD5 g COD gP gN
Sludge loading    
of pre-deposited g FS g FS g FS g FS
biological stage, BDS
without  with
simult. Precip./
Biol. P-elimination
< 0.15 kg/(kg.d) 0.5 1.0 0.01 0.03 < 0.01
0.15 - 0.3 kg/(kg.d) 1.0 1.50.01 0.01 0.03 <0.01

4.1 Removal of Filterable Substances by Space Filters

With the different filtration procedures filterable substances remaining in the outflow of
the secondary sedimentation system can be extensively held back. The discharge values
lie very often below 5 mg/l FS. Other wastewater content substances are also removed
with the filterable substances. Some information is provided by Table 4.

The removal of filterable substances can be impaired with wastewater filters with
deliberate biological effect using filter bed aeration. Here influencing variables are

April 1995
ATV A 203E

essentially the filter rate (impairment over 5 m/h), the air velocity (impairment over 2.5 - 5
m/h) and the grain size of the filter material employed as well as the filter layer height.

4.2 Phosphorus Elimination (comp. ATV Standard A 202)

Flocculation filtration should be employed for advanced phosphorus elimination only after
pre-precipitation or simultaneous precipitation in the previous mechanical-biological
wastewater treatment stage or following a biologically reinforced phosphorus elimination
with runoff values < 2 mg/l Ptot. In the main Fe3+ salts or aluminium compounds and, as
supplement, partially or continuously dosed flocculation aid agents, are employed as the
chemicals for flocculation filtration. As guidance value a mol ratio of Fe/P of 2 to 3 can be
assumed. Alternatives for the type of chemical, dosing quantities and dosing point should
be taken into account during planning. In every case, following the taking into operation
of the filtration filter, investigations for performance optimisation are required.

Most operational systems are dimensioned as multilayer filters for filtration rates of
maximum 15 m/h and between 6 to 8 m/h for dry weather. With an inflow of some 1.0
mg/l P such systems can achieve a mean Ptot runoff value of ca. 0.2 mg/l P. This does
not apply for wastewater with an increased non-filterable P component.

4.3 Removal of Dissolved Substances And Residual Nitrification

Normally wastewater content substances which are not held back by membrane filters
(0.45µm pore width) are designated as dissolved substances.

With biologically intensified filtration for residual nitrification and residual COD
elimination, the employment of porous or of at least slightly rough or slightly angular filter
material is, in addition to a sufficient oxygen supply, of significance. The material
structure ensures that the removal of the active biomass during one filter flushing
process remains within bounds. With residual nitrification with simultaneous flocculation
filtration a detrimental effect on the biological effect is possible due to the use of

In space filters and flocculation filters no elimination of AOX is to be expected. With the
aid of filter material with adsorptive effect or with the employment of adsorptive additives
there are, nevertheless, corresponding effects to be achieved.

5. Dimensioning and Flushing of Wastewater Filters

5.1 Dimensioning
The most important parameter with the dimensioning of filter plants is the filter rate. With
space filters, dependent on the selected filtration process, it can be assumed to be Qt =
7.5 m/h; with aerated filters, up to 5 m/h.

In cases of wet weather the following rate, taking into account the units being flushed, it
is to be limited to 15 or 10 m/h. For operational-technical and economical reasons it is
recommended to plan, with discontinuously flushed filters, at least 6 filter units with a
filter surface area per unit < 80 m2.

With smaller plants (100,000 IPE) and very large plants (> 1M IPE) values deviating from
this can be economical.

April 1995
ATV A 203E

With discontinuously flushed filters an overdam height of at least 2.0 m is selected which
serves to balance the operationally based increased filter resistance and, at the same
time, makes a sufficient volume for the flocculation reaction available with flocculation

Table 5 gives a summary of materials, grain sizes and layer heights which are employed
with space filtration (areas of employment and elimination effect see Table 1). With
downwards through-flowed multilayer filters the selection of material and the grading of
the grain must be oriented to the criteria of the filter flushing (see Sect. 5.2).

Table 5: Build-up of filter bed for normal space filters

Downwards through-flowed Upwards through- Dry filter downwards
One layer filter Two layer filter flowed two layer
Layer height Upper layer Layer height Upper layer
0.8 - 1.2 m layer height 0.8 - 1.0 m 1.2 - 3.0 layer height 1.0 - 1.2 m
Material Grain Material Grain Material Grain Material Grain
[mm] [mm] [mm] [mm]
Filter sand 1.0 - 1.6 Anthracite 1.4 - 2.5 Filter sand 2.0 - 3.15 Anthracite 2.5 - 4.0
1.0 - 2.0 Exp. slate 1.4 - 2.5 Exp. Clay 2.5 - 4.0
Exp. clay 1.4 - 2.5 Exp. slate 2.5 - 4.0
Pumice 2.5 - 3.5
Lower layer Lower layer
layer height 0.4 - 0.6 m layer height 0.4 - 0.6 m
Material Grain Material Grain
Filter sand 0.71 - 1.25 Filter sand 1.0 - 2.0
Basalt 1.0 - 2.0
Support Layer*
Material basalt, filter gravel
Layer height [m]: 0.2 - 0.3
Necessity and grain size to be selected dependent on filter bases and filter material
With the selection of filter materials account should also be taken, with regard to long-
term satisfactory operation of the filter plant, of Rules and Standard Specifications from
water processing engineering such as, for example, DVGW* Standards W 210, W 211, W
212 "Filtration in Water Processing, Parts 1-3".
With special boundary conditions and with the use of special procedures trials should be
carried out for the optimisation of the process.
5.2 Filter Flushing
Discontinuously operating filters must be regenerated by flushing (as a rule after 24 - 48
hrs.). With flushing the filter bed is loosened and the grain material freed of pollutants
which are removed from the filters. The flushing process with multilayer filters is
concluded by an intensive clean water flushing for a renewed classifying of the filter bed
layers. The flushing cycle is either according to a fixed, laiddown time, according to the
achievement of a certain maximum filter resistance or indications of break-up of the filter
bed (increased runoff concentration). In the case of wet weather a short-term flushing
can be applied which deviates from the normal.

April 1995
ATV A 203E

Flushing consists of several phases by which it is flushed, from the bottom upwards, with
filtered wastewater and/or air. Pure water flushing has, in practice, not proved successful
as with this conglomerations of organic masses and filter material cannot be removed.
The flushing programme of multilayer filters must take care of both the cleaning of the
filter bed as well as the classifying of the individual filter layers, as otherwise the space
filter effect is lost.
With classifying the flushing rate is so increased that the filter bed is expanded by 20 - 30
%. rates, which can be expected to give corresponding bed expansions, are given in
Table 6.

Table 6. Summary of material characteristic values and flushing rates for

classifying at 20° C water temperature and clean grain
Filter material Grain Solid density Corn mass Debris Flushing rate for a
[mm] [g/cm ] density [g/cm3] density satisfactory
* * [kg/m3] expansion [m/h]
Anthracite 1.4 - 2.5 1.4 1.4 720 55
2.5 - 4.0 1.4 1.4 720 90
Basalt 1.0 - 2.0 2.9 2.9 1700 110
Pumice 2.5 - 3.5 2.3 1.3 - 1.5 340 55
Exp. slate 1.4 - 2.5 2.5 1.2 - 1.7 650 60
2.5 - 4.0 2.5 1.2 - 1.7 600 90
Exp. clay 1.4 - 2.5 2.5 1.1 - 1.6 650 60
2.5 - 4.0 2.5 1.1 - 1.6 600 90
Filter sand 0.71 - 1.25 2.5 2.5 1500 55
1.0 - 1.6 2.5 2.5 1500 75
1.0 - 2.0 2.5 2.5 1500 90
2.0 - 3. 15 2.5 2.5 1500 130
Guidance values, relevant are the manufacturer's details
DVGW = German Association of Gas and Water Specialists

Correction factor of flushing rate for 5 ° < T < 30°C

Temperature [°C] 5 10 15 20 25 30
Correction factor [-] 0.87 0.92 0.96 1.0 1.04 1.12

The hydraulic material characteristic values such as loosening point (start of expansion)
and expansion ratio significantly determine the formation of the multilayer filters. It is only
with a good agreement of these characteristic values that it can be guaranteed that a
clean multilayer filter formation, even following a mixing of material using air flushing, can
be re-established with the subsequent flushing with clean water. Theoretically the
loosening rate of the upper filter material should be somewhat smaller than or equal to
the lower lying layer/material, whereby the expansion coefficient should be respectively
larger/the same.

Notes on flushing programmes are given in Table 7.

April 1995
ATV A 203E

If, with a smaller number of filter chambers, the resultant filtrate is insufficient for the
flushing of a filter chamber, a large filtrate reservoir is to be provided. To reduce a
hydraulic overload of the sewage treatment plant through recirculated sludge water, a
sludge water reservoir is also to be provided. Otherwise the sludge water flow is to be
taken into account with the hydraulic dimensioning of the sewage treatment plant.

Table 7: Example for the flushing programme of an overdammed multilayer filter

Phase Purpose Air flow rate Water flow rate Duratio
[m/h] [m/h] n
1 Interruption of inflow
2 Lowering of overdam water level
3 Opening up of filter bed covering 75 - 100 - 2.0 -
4. Mixture of media with high 75 - 100 12 - 20 1.5 -
turbulence 3.0
5. Removal of solids - 55 - 90 2.0 -
6. Classifying of filter media and - 60 - 100 1.5 -
separation of layers 2.0
7. Taking into service of filter - - -

The sludge water is fed back to the inflow of the grit chamber, to the pre-treatment
storage or to the aeration tank. With the dimensioning and design of sludge water
pipelines and reservoirs the possibility of sludge and sand deposits as well as their
clearance and possible separate treatment are to be taken into account.

April 1995
ATV A 203E

6. Dimensioning Example
Below is a dimensioning example for a downwards throughflowed filter with constant
overdam height, in which values experienced in communal filter plants are applied.

With certain boundary conditions (special requirements on filter runoff, employment of

new filter procedures), trials on a semi-commercial basis are necessary on the
wastewater filtration.

Qd = 54000 m3/d
Q1 = 3000 m3/d
Qm = 5500 m3/h

Monitoring values:

COD = 60 mg/l
BOD5 = 10 mg/l
NH4-N = 5 mg/l at T > 12° C
Ptot = 0.5 mg/l
Ntot = 18 mg/l

20 mg/l filterable substances are expected in the runoff of the secondary sedimentation
stage (see ATV Standard A 131).

A filtration plant is planned to meet the increased requirements on effluent quality, in

particular with regard to the phosphorus content. For P elimination it is proposed that a
biological pre-elimination in combination with simultaneous precipitation in the activated
sludge plant and a flocculation filtration is carried out.

It is assumed that there is a phosphorus content of 1 mg/l Ptot in the runoff of the
secondary sedimentation stage.

A downward throughflowed filtration plant with overdam is chosen.

Filter rates:
Dry weather: vf = 7.5 m/h
Combined wastewater inflow: vf = 15.0 m/h

Theoretically required filter surface and filter units:

3000 m 3 / h
A Filt = = 400 m 2 for Q t
7 .5 m / h

5500 m 3 / h
A Filt = = 367 m 2 forQ m
15 m / h
The following were taken into account with the selection of the number of filter units:
- minimum number of units: 6
- size of the filter surface according to the criteria Qflush ≈ Qt
- however, filter surface each unit < 80 m2.

April 1995
ATV A 203E

With regard to a free selection of filter material for the planning of the construction
maturity planning, a flushing rate of initially 80 m/h is laid down (see Tables 5 and 6).

3000 m 3 / h
Ai = = 37.5 m 2
80 m / h

400 m 2
Number of units: = 10.7
37.5 m 2

selected: 12 units each 34 m2

A prev = 12.34 m2 = 408 m2 > 400 m2

Verification of combined wastewater inflow, taking into account the concurrent flushing of
one filter unit.:

5500 m 3 / h
= 14.7 m / h < 15 m / h
(12 − 1) ⋅ 34 m 2

Filter materials and filter bed heights

The filters are conceived as two layer filters.

Upper layer Anthracite Grain 14 - 25 mm
Layer height 10 m
Lower layer Filter sand Grain 0.71 - 1.25
Layer height mm
Support layer* Filter Layer height 0.20 m
* Necessity and grain size dependent on formation of filter base and filter material


An overdam height of ca. 2 m is selected. The overdam is to be kept constant by opening

and closing a gate valve in the runoff of each filter unit. A filter flushing is undertaken if a
certain gate valve opening (e.g. 90 %) is reached.

Dosing of Precipitant

A dosing of iron chloride sulphate (FeClSO4) is foreseen. Should, for example, a mol
ratio ß = 2 be selected, there results an additional quantity of 3 - 4 mg/l Fe3+ with a
concentration in the wastewater of 1 mg/l P.

Precipitant is dosed into the input of the filter. An intensive mixing of the wastewater and
precipitant is ensured in the pipeline to the filter plant and in the feed pumps of the filter


April 1995
ATV A 203E

With Qt = 3000 m3/h (= 833 l/s)

and an Fe addition of

4 mg/l (diluted FeClSO4 solution with 184 g/l Fe3+)

the following are dosed

Fe = 3332 mg / s iron
4 mg / l


= 18.1 ml / s diluted FeClSO 4 solution
Determination of retained solids

Solids from the runoff of the secondary sedimentation stage:

20 g/m3 . 54000 m3/d = 1080 kg/d DS

Solids from precipitant addition:

54000ß m3/d . 4g Fe/m3 . 2.5 g DS = 540 kg/d DS

in total = 1620 kg/d DS

Less solids in the runoff of the filter:

54000 m3/d . 5 g/m3 = 270 kg/d DS

Retained in the filter = 1350 kg/d DS

Flushing programme

A programme, in accordance with Table 7, is used for filter flushing. The complete
flushing programme, including switching pauses, lasts 21 min.

Filtrate water is used for flushing the filters. According to Table 7 the filtrate requirement
during the flushing of one filter unit is:

2 min
Phase 4 : 20 m / h ⋅ 34 m 2 ⋅ = 23 m 3
60 min/ h

5 min
Phase 5 : 50 m / h ⋅ 34 m 2 ⋅ = 142 m 3
60 min/ h

2 min
Phase 6 : 80 m / h ⋅ 34 m 2 ⋅ = 91 m 3
60 min/ h

Total 256 m3

Verification of sufficient quantity of flushing water:

April 1995
ATV A 203E


Night inf low = 54000 ⋅ = 1286 m 3 / h = 21.4 m 3 / min

Maximum requirement (Phase 6):

1 min
80 m / h ⋅ 34 m 2 ⋅ = 45.5 m 3 / min > 21.4 m 3 / min
60 min/ h

Required filtrate reservoir volume:

Q ⋅ 2 min = ( 45.5 − 21.4) ⋅ 2 = 48.2 m 3

Taking into account Phase 5:

142 m 3
= 28.4 m 3
5 min

(28.4 − 21.4) m 3 / min ⋅ 5 min = 35 m 3

Sum of the reservoir volumes: 48.2 + 35 = 83.2 m3

If required, the reservoir volume is determined by the inlet chamber of the pump.

Sludge water reservoir:

With the dimensioning of the sewage treatment plant, without a sludge water reservoir, a
short-term additional hydraulic surge loading of 80 m/h . 34 m2 =2720 m3/h. would also
have to be taken into account. In wet weather such an additional loading is not justifiable.

Also, with regard to the sludge water return pump, a reservoir is necessary in which the
total sludge water quantity plus a filter overdam can be stored.

VRe s = 256 m 3 + 2 m ⋅ 34 m 2 = 324 m 3

The reservoir must, with this design, be emptied by the time of the next flushing of the

Extra loading of the sewage treatment plant

60 min/ h
⋅ 324 m 3 = 926 m 3 / h
21 min

Inter alia, with regard to the downstream series filtration, an enlargement of the
secondary sedimentation stage is not necessary. The possible short-term higher feeding
of the filter is acceptable.

April 1995
ATV A 203E

7. Standard Specifications and Standards

(Translator's note: if there is no known translation into English a courtesy translation is given in square brackets).

DIN 19605 Festbettfilter zur Wasseraufbereitung. Aufbau und Bestandteile (Entwurf) Oktober 1993
[Fixed Bed Filters for Water Processing. Design and Components (Draft) October 1993]

DIN 19623 Filtersande und Filterkiese für Wasserreinigungsanlagen. Technische

Lieferbedingungen, 1978
[Filter Sands and Filter Gravels for Water Treatment Plants. Technical Delivery
Conditions, 1978]

DVGW, Filtration in der Wasseraufbereitung, Teil 1, Grundlagen, 1983

Regelwerk, [DVGW Rules and Standards, Standard W 210, Filtration in Water
Arbeitsblatt Treatment Systems, Part 1, Fundamentals, 1983]
W 210

DVGW, Filtration in der Wasseraufbereitung, Teil 2, Plannung und Betrieb von

Regelwerk Filteranlagen, 1987
Arbeitsblatt [DVGW Rules and Standards, Standard W 211, Filtration in Water
W 211 Treatment Systems Part 2, Planning and Operation of Filter Plants, 1987]

DVGW Filtration in der Wasseraufbereitung, Teil 3, Beurteiling und Anwendung von

Regelwerk gekörnte Filtermaterialien (Entwurf 1992)
Arbeitsblatt [DVGW Rules and Standards, Standard W 211, Part 3, Assessment and
W 212 Application of Granulated Filtermaterials (Draft 1992)]

ATV Standard Dimensioning of Single Stage Activated Sludge Plants upwards from 5000
A131E Inhabitants and population equivalents, 1991

ATV- Verfahren zur Elimination von Phosphor aus Abwasser, 1992

Arbeitsblatt [ATV Standard A202. Procedures for the Elimination of Phosphorus from
A202 Wastewater, 1992]

April 1995