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Lab 12

Position Control System

1. OBJECTIVES

 To understand the operating principles of LVDT


 To develop a basic understanding of automatic controls
 Use software to send the appropriate output to control a variable

2. LIST OF COMPONENTS AND EQUIPMENT REQUIRED

The main components of your feedback control station:


 LVDT
 G320 RED Gecko DC Motor Controller
 DC Motor
 AMT 103 quadrature encoder
 NI ELVIS
 Labview program

The datasheets/application note for the devices can be found in the on black board.

3. LVDT SYSTEM EXPLAINATION

The labview program is to read the cam position through the LVDT (terminals ACH0+
and ACH0- on NI ELVIS), feed it into a low pass filter to cancel the sensor noise, and
use a PID controller to provide a feedback correction to the system. The output of PID
block could be given as follows

where:
 e=Set point-Process Variable
 Kc, Ki, Kd are PID proportional, integral, and derivative parameters
The range of PID output is set between -120 and 120.

The output from PID controller is fed into the red Gecko to control the DC motor to
follow the set point or tracking trajectories set by the operator in the labview program.

4. POSTION CONTROL AND TRACKING

Making the connections:

1
Open LVDT_ver2.vi. Please read the prelab reading 12 to know how to use the
labview program.

4.1 PROPORTIONAL CONTROL

a. Regulator
Make setting as follows:
Signal Reference -> Square wave, Amp=0.5 cm, Freq=0.05 Hz, Offset=1.7 cm, Duty
cycle= 60%. Keep Ki=0, and Kd=0. Change Kp.

Press Run (arrow). Look at the simulation for a while. Press Sim.Stop to measure the
step response characteristics as percentage overshoot (%OS), rise time, steady
state error and stability (band of the signal oscillation). Copy the plot on the window

2
“Displacement (for Measurements)” to a word document and label each case. Press
Meas.Stop to stop the simulation.

b. Ramp Tracker
Make setting as follows:
Signal Reference -> Ramp wave, Amp=0.5 cm, Freq=0.05 Hz, Offset=1.7 cm, Duty
cycle= 60%. Keep Ki=0, and Kd=0. Change Kp.

Press Run (arrow). Look at the simulation for a while. Press Sim.Stop to measure the
step response characteristics as percentage overshoot (%OS), steady state error
and stability (band of the signal oscillation). Copy the plot on the window
“Displacement (for Measurements)” to a word document and label each case. Press
Meas.Stop to stop the simulation.

c. Sine Tracker
Make setting as follows:
Signal Reference -> Sine wave, Amp=0.5 cm, Freq=0.05 Hz, Offset=1.7 cm, Duty
cycle= 60%. Keep Ki=0, and Kd=0. Change Kp.

Press Run (arrow). Look at the simulation for a while. Press Sim.Stop to measure the
step response characteristics as steady state error, and stability (band of the signal
oscillation). Copy the plot on the window “Displacement (for Measurements)” to a
word document and label each case. Press Meas.Stop to stop the simulation.

4.2 PI CONTROL

a. Regulator
Make setting as follows:
Signal Reference -> Square wave, Amp=0.5 cm, Freq=0.05 Hz, Offset=1.7 cm, Duty
cycle= 80%. Keep Kp=400, and Kd=0. Change Ki.

Press Run (arrow). Look at the simulation for a while. Press Sim.Stop to measure the
step response characteristics as percentage overshoot (%OS), rise time, settling
time, steady state error, and stability (band of the signal oscillation). Copy the plot on
the window “Displacement (for Measurements)” to a word document and label each
case. Press Meas.Stop to stop the simulation.

b. Ramp Tracker
Make setting as follows:
Signal Reference -> Ramp wave, Amp=0.5 cm, Freq=0.05 Hz, Offset=1.7 cm, Duty
cycle= 80%. Keep Kp=400, and Kd=0. Change Ki.

3
Press Run (arrow). Look at the simulation for a while. Press Sim.Stop to measure the
step response characteristics as percentage overshoot (%OS), steady state error
and stability (band of the signal oscillation). Copy the plot on the window
“Displacement (for Measurements)” to a word document and label each case. Press
Meas.Stop to stop the simulation.

c. Sine Tracker
Make setting as follows:
Signal Reference -> Sine wave, Amp=0.5 cm, Freq=0.05 Hz, Offset=1.7 cm, Duty
cycle= 80%. Keep Kp=400, and Kd=0. Change Ki.

Press Run (arrow). Look at the simulation for a while. Press Sim.Stop to measure the
step response characteristics as steady state error, and stability (band of the signal
oscillation). Copy the plot on the window “Displacement (for Measurements)” to a
word document and label each case. Press Meas.Stop to stop the simulation.

4.3 PD CONTROL

a. Regulator
Make setting as follows:
Signal Reference -> Square wave, Amp=0.5 cm, Freq=0.05 Hz, Offset=1.7 cm, Duty
cycle= 60%. Keep Kp=400, and Ki=0. Change Kd.

Press Run (arrow). Look at the simulation for a while. Press Sim.Stop to measure the
step response characteristics as percentage overshoot (%OS), rise time, steady
state error, and stability (band of the signal oscillation). Copy the plot on the window
“Displacement (for Measurements)” to a word document and label each case. Press
Meas.Stop to stop the simulation.

b. Ramp Tracker
Make setting as follows:
Signal Reference -> Ramp wave, Amp=0.5 cm, Freq=0.05 Hz, Offset=1.7 cm, Duty
cycle= 60%. Keep Kp=400, and Ki=0. Change Kd.

Press Run (arrow). Look at the simulation for a while. Press Sim.Stop to measure the
step response characteristics as percentage overshoot (%OS), steady state error
and stability (band of the signal oscillation). Copy the plot on the window
“Displacement (for Measurements)” to a word document and label each case. Press
Meas.Stop to stop the simulation.

c. Sine Tracker
Make setting as follows:
Signal Reference -> Sine wave, Amp=0.5 cm, Freq=0.05 Hz, Offset=1.7 cm, Duty
cycle= 60%. Keep Kp=400, and Ki=0. Change Kd.

4
Press Run (arrow). Look at the simulation for a while. Press Sim.Stop to measure the
step response characteristics as steady state error, and stability (band of the signal
oscillation). Copy the plot on the window “Displacement (for Measurements)” to a
word document and label each case. Press Meas.Stop to stop the simulation.

5
LAB 12 REPORT

NAME: _______________________________ SECTION:__________ COMPUTER NO: __________

4.1 PROPORTIONAL CONTROL

You need to copy all the responses in each case to a word file and print it out and
attach it to the report
a. Regulator

Kp Rise time %OS Steady state error Instability


400
800

b. Ramp tracker

Kp %OS Steady state error Instability


400
800

c. Sine tracker

Kp Steady state error Instability


400
800

d. Conclusion

Rise Time %OS Steady state error Instability


Increase
Kp

Which reference signal has a better steady state error control (with same Kp value)?

Explain why (extra credit)? (Hint: based on the system types)

6
4.2 PI CONTROL

You need to copy all the responses in each case to a word file and print it out and
attach it to the report

a. Regulator

Ki Rise time Settling %OS Steady state error Instability


Time
1
50

b. Ramp tracker

Ki %OS Steady state error Instability


1
50

c. Sine tracker

Ki Steady state error Instability


1
50

d. Conclusion

Rise Time Settling %OS Steady state Instability


Time error
Increase
Ki

How the PI control affect the steady state error (especially for regulator case)?

Explain? (extra credit)

7
4.3 PD CONTROL

You need to copy all the responses in each case to a word file and print it out and
attach it to the report

a. Regulator

Kd Rise time (Ts) %OS Steady state error (e) Instability


0.5
5

b. Ramp tracker

Kd %OS Steady state error (e) Instability


0.5
5

c. Sine tracker

Kd Steady state error (e) Instability


0.5
5

d. Conclusion

Rise Time %OS Steady state error Instability


Increase
Kd

How the PD controller affect the steady state error?

Explain? (extra credit)