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Medical Aerosol Deposition in the Human Lung

Dr. Stefan Rief

Workshop on Microstructure Simulation and


Virtual Material Design

Kaiserslautern, January 26th to 27th, 2006


Overview

I. Introduction

II. Model of the Human Lung

III. Simulation of Respiration and


Hygroscopic Aerosols

IV. Current State and Outlook

Rief
Kaiserslautern, January 26th to 27th, 2006
I. Introduction

“Simulation of Aerosol Dynamics in the Human Lung”


originates from a joint project of

•Medical Background •Modeling and Simulation •Computer Tomography

Rief
Kaiserslautern, January 26th to 27th, 2006
I. Introduction

Aims of the Project


• Prediction of aerosol deposition in the lung
• Optimization of particle sizes -> Reduced amount
of applied medicine
• Knowledge of absorbed dose

New Challenges for ITWM‘s


Filter Simulation Technology
• Virtual model of a human lung
• Simulation of the respiration cycle
• Hygroscopic particle growth
Cask of a lung

Rief
Kaiserslautern, January 26th to 27th, 2006
Overview

I. Motivation

II. Model of the Human Lung

III. Simulation of Respiration and


Hygroscopic Aerosols

IV. Current State and Outlook

Rief
Kaiserslautern, January 26th to 27th, 2006
II. Model of the Human Lung

Model of a human airway tree (Kitaoka


(Kitaoka,
Kitaoka, 1999):

• Outer boundaries of the organ (heart, backbone,


diaphragm, …) are given by a set of algebraic equations

• Lung is based on a dichotomous tube model

• Branches are characterized by

- di – tube diameters

- Θi – branching angles

- r – flow dividing ratio

Rief
Kaiserslautern, January 26th to 27th, 2006
II. Model of the Human Lung

Model of a human airway tree (Kitaoka


(Kitaoka,
Kitaoka, 1999):

• 9 rules determine the branching, e.g.

- conservation of flow rates at branches

- tube length = 3 * tube diameter

- branching is planar

- successive branching planes are perpendicular

- flow-dividing ratio = volume-dividing ratio

- minimum flow rate terminates branching

• Morphometric characteristics are in good agreement to literature and lung casks

Rief
Kaiserslautern, January 26th to 27th, 2006
II. Model of the Human Lung

Rief
Kaiserslautern, January 26th to 27th, 2006
II. Model of the Human Lung

~1000 tubes ~7000 tubes

Rief
Kaiserslautern, January 26th to 27th, 2006
Overview

I. Motivation

II. Model of the Human Lung

III. Simulation of Respiration and


Hygroscopic Aerosols

IV. Current State and Outlook

Rief
Kaiserslautern, January 26th to 27th, 2006
III. Simulation of Respiration and Hygroscopic Aerosols

Model of the Respiration Cycle p=0

• instationary, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations

• constant pressure at the inlet (trachea)

• time-periodic pressure variations at the outlets

• no-slip conditions on the tube walls

p(t) = sin(w*t)

Rief
Kaiserslautern, January 26th to 27th, 2006
III. Simulation of Respiration and Hygroscopic Aerosols
Hygroscopic Aerosols
• due to large humidity, aerosol particles grow
significantly during the respiration cycle
• particle growth obeys a nonlinear ODE
parameterized by
- surface tension of water
- saturation rate of air
- temperature
- ‘mobility’ of water in air
- …
• diameter has to be updated in each time step
• additional collision check due to particle
growth

Rief
Kaiserslautern, January 26th to 27th, 2006
Overview

I. Motivation

II. Model of the Human Lung

III. Simulation of Respiration and


Hygroscopic Aerosols

IV. Current State and Outlook

Rief
Kaiserslautern, January 26th to 27th, 2006
IV. Current State and Outlook
Achievements
• Geometric model of a virtual human lung

• Growth of hygroscopic aerosols

• Respiration cycle

Still To Do
• detailed deposition study of aerosol particles of
different size providing

1) suggestion for an optimum aerosol particle size Validation


Existing
2) quantitative statement about absorbed dose Data

Rief
Kaiserslautern, January 26th to 27th, 2006