Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 4



The four charts each map part of the

circle to an open interval, and
together cover the whole circle.

A •  is an abstract mathematical space in which every point has a neighborhood which
resembles Euclidean space, but in which the global structure may be more complicated. In
discussing manifolds, the idea of dimension is important. For example, lines are one-
dimensional, and planes two-dimensional.

In a one dimensional manifold (or one-manifold), every point has a neighborhood that looks like
a segment of a line. Examples of one-manifolds include a line, a circle, and two separate circles.
In a two-manifold, every point has a neighborhood that looks like a disk. Examples include a
plane, the surface of a sphere, and the surface of a torus.

Manifolds are important objects in mathematics and physics because they allow more
complicated structures to be expressed and understood in terms of the relatively well-understood
properties of simpler spaces.

 Image credit: User:KSmrq  • 
Illustration for the paradoxical decomposition of F2 used in the proof of the G 


Algebra | Arithmetic | Analysis | Complex analysis | Applied mathematics | Calculus | Category

theory | Chaos theory | Combinatorics | Dynamic systems | Fractals | Game theory | Geometry |
Algebraic geometry | Graph theory | Group theory | Linear algebra | Mathematical logic | Model
Theory | Multi-dimensional geometry | Number theory | Numerical analysis | Optimization |
Order theory | Probability and statistics | Set theory | Statistics | Topology | Algebraic topology |
Trigonometry |

Mathematics (books) | History of mathematics | Mathematicians | Awards | Education | Institutes

and societies | Literature | Notation | Theorems | Proofs | Unsolved problems
a •  • 


’ ...properties of Pascal's triangle have application in many fields of mathematics including

combinatorics, algebra, calculus and geometry?
’ ...work in artificial intelligence makes use of Swarm intelligence, which has foundations
in the behavorial examples found in nature of ants, birds, bees, and fish among others?
’ ...that statistical properties dictated by Benford's Law are used in auditing of financial
accounts as one means of detecting fraud?
’ ...that Modular arithmetic has application in at least ten different fields of study,
including the arts, computer science, and chemistry in addition to mathematics?
’ ...that outstanding mathematician Grigori Perelman was offered a Fields Medal in 2006,
in part for his proof of the Poincaré conjecture, which he declined?
’ ...that a regular heptagon is the regular polygon with the fewest number of sides which is
not constructible with a compass and straightedge?
’ ...that the Gudermannian function relates the regular trigonometric functions and the
hyperbolic trigonometric functions without the use of complex numbers?
’ ...that the Catalan numbers solve a number of problems in combinatorics such as the
number of ways to completely parenthesize an algebraic expression with Ã+1 factors?
’ ...that a ball can be cut up and reassembled into two balls the same size as the original
(Banach-Tarski paradox)?


The a  • 
 is the center for mathematics-related editing on Wikipedia. Join
the discussion on the project's    .


’ Participants
’ Current activity
’ Manual of style
’ Conventions


’ Advice on using Wikipedia for mathematics self-study

’ Proofs


’ PlanetMath Exchange (Talk)

’ Graphics (Talk)
’ Article assessment (Talk)


’ Collaboration of the month:


’ ëequested articles
’ ëequested images
’ Pages needing attention (Category)
’ Mathematics stubs

£     •   

’ Mathematicians ’ Foundations of mathematics ’ Number theory (portal)

’ History of mathematics ’ Mathematical logic ’ Algebraic number theory
’ Philosophy of mathematics ’ Set theory (portal) ’ Analytic number theory
’ Mathematical notation P Naive set theory ’ Arithmetic
’ Mathematical beauty P Axiomatic set theory ’ Numbers
’ Mathematics education ’ Proof theory P Natural numbers
’ Areas of mathematics ’ Model theory P Prime numbers
’ List of basic mathematics topics ’ ëecursion theory P ëational numbers
’ Wikipedia Books: Mathematics ’ Category theory (portal) P Algebraic numbers
P Topos theory ’ Fundamental theorem of
’ Gödel's incompleteness theorems arithmetic

     £ •   

’ Analysis (portal) ’ Algebra (portal) ’ Geometry (portal)

’ Calculus ’ Elementary algebra ’ Topology (portal)
P ‰ector calculus ’ Abstract algebra P General topology
P Differential equations P Group theory P Algebraic topology
P Calculus of variations P ëing theory P Geometric topolog
’ ëeal analysis P Field theory ’ Euclidean geometry
’ Complex analysis P Commutative algebra ’ Non-Euclidean geometry
’ Functional analysis ’ Geometric algebra ’ Affine geometry
’ Measure theory ’ Linear algebra ’ Projective geometry
’ Harmonic analysis P Matrix theory ’ Differential geometry
’ Special functions P Multilinear algebra P ëiemannian geome
’ Fundamental theorem of calculus ’ Universal algebra P Lie groups
’ Order theory ’ Algebraic geometry
’ Fundamental theorem of algebra ’ Trigonometry