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#2 Translation of the text


(1) The process of change was set in motion (1) Процесс перемен был начат
everywhere from Land's End to John O'Groats. повсеместно, от Лендс-Энда до Джон-
(2) But it was in northern cities that our modern О'Гротса.
world was born. (2) Но наш современный мир зародился
(3) These stocky, taciturn people were the first именно в северных городах.
to live by steam, cogs, iron, and engine grease, (3) Эти коренастые, малоразговорчивые
and the first in modern times to demonstrate люди стали первыми, кто жил силой пара,
the dynamism of the human condition. винтиков, железа и машинного масла, и
(4) This is where, by all the rules of heredity, послужили доказательством динамизма
the artificial satellite and the computer were человеческого существования в наши дни.
conceived. (4) Именно здесь, по всем правилам
(5) Baedeker may not recognize it, but it is one наследственности, были придуманы
of history's crucibles. искусственный спутник Земли и компьютер.
(6) Until the start of the technical revolution, in (5) Путеводитель по историческим местам,
the second half of the eighteenth century, возможно, не расскажет вам об этом, но это
England was an agricultural country, only одно из исключительно важных испытаний
slightly invigorated by the primitive industries истории.
of the day. (6) До начала технической революции, во
(7) She was impelled, for the most part, by второй половине восемнадцатого века,
muscular energies — the strong arms of her Англия была аграрной страной, лишь с
islanders, the immense legs of her noble horses. небольшими внедрениями примитивной
(8) But she was already mining coal and промышленности того времени.
smelting iron, digging canals and negotiating (7) В основном она была движима
bills of exchange. физическим трудом – сильными руками её
(9) Agriculture itself had changed under the островитян, непомерными ногами её
impact of new ideas: the boundless open fields величавых лошадей.
of England had almost all been enclosed, and (8) Однако в Англии уже добывали уголь и
lively farmers were experimenting with crop плавили чёрные металлы, прокладывали
rotation, breeding methods and winter feed. каналы и пускали векселя в обращение.
(10) There was a substantial merchant class (9) Под воздействием новых идей
already, fostered by trade and adventure, and a изменилось и сельское хозяйство как
solid stratum of literate yeomen. таковое: безграничные поля Англии почти
все были огорожены, и оживлённые
фермеры экспериментировали с
культурооборотом, методами селекции и
зимними кормами.
(10) Уже существовало зажиточное
купеческое сословие, воспитанное на
торговле и приключениях, а также прочный
слой образованных йоменов (фермеров).

#4 Problem-Solving Exercises
A. Pragmatic Aspects of Translation
I. Will the geographical names if preserved in the translation of sentence (1)
convey the implied sense to the Russian reader or should it be made more
explicit in TT?
Perhaps these geographical names will not convey the Russian reader anything, but it
would be strange to adapt them in any way. Many foreigners do not know about the
existence of Kazakhstan, but this does not mean that the name of our country needs to
be somehow replaced so that they understand. It's just the name of a place. There can
be made a reference or footnote with an explanation of any features, why these places
were named in the text, but nothing more.

II. Describe the emotional effect of the Russian adjectives низкорослый,

приземистый, коренастый. Which of them will be a good pragmatic equivalent
to the word "stocky" in sentence (3)?
For me, they have a negative emotional effect because I visually don’t like
низкорослых, коренастых people. But I think that the best pragmatic equivalent
here would be "приземистый", since it describes not only the appearance of people,
but also their inner qualities like responsiveness, because in Russian the word
"приземистый" literally means "ближе к земле". So that we can understand it not
only in term of short stature, but also in their closeness to the other people that also
walk on the ground.

III. Will the word-for-word translation of sentence (4) be correctly understood

by the Russian reader: Именно здесь, по всем законам наследственности,
были задуманы искусственные спутники и компьютеры? Give a better
wording which will make clear that the English sentence does not imply that
satellites and computers were actually designed in the 18th century.

IV. Translate the word "Baedeker" in sentence (5) in such a way as to make its
meaning clear to the Russian reader.
Путеводитель по историческим местам

V. What Russian figure of speech will be a pragmatic substitute for the

English "history's crucible" in sentence (5)?
A pragmatic substitute for the English "history's crucible" here is "горнило
истории" which means a place where were the most important historical moments.

VI. What associations has the Russian word островитянин? Can you use it as a
substitute for the English "islanders" in sentence (7)?
One of the associations the Russian word “островитянин” has is “житель
острова”. Since Britain is comprised of thousands of islands, people who live there
can be called islanders, then we can use it as a substitute.

VII. Which of the following Russian substitutes is pragmatically closer to the

meaning of the English adjective "immense" in sentence (7): огромный,
толстый, могучий?
The word “могучий” is pragmatically closer because in our context we have
immense legs of horses, so that "могучие ноги" means those legs that can withstand
heavy load and weight.
VIII. Give different translations of the phrase "negotiating bills of exchange" in
sentence (8) meant for the expert and for the layman.
For the expert: переговоры по траттам, and for the layman: пускать векселя в
обращение, переговоры по переводным векселям

IX. The term "enclosed" in sentence (9) implies some well-known economic
processes in Britain's history. What Russian term has the same implication?
The Russian term «огораживание» has the same implication as the

X. The word "adventure" in sentence (10) has historical associations absent

in its usual Russian equivalents: приключение, авантюра, рискованное
предприятие. Suggest a translation which will have similar associations.
Похождение, странствие, поиски

B. Other Translation Problems

XI. Is it good Russian to say процесс изменений был приведен в движение? If
not, what will your suggest to render the meaning of sentence (1)?
I translated it as “был начат процесс перемен”
XII. Compare the following Russian phrases as possible substitutes for the
English "was born" in sentence (2): был рожден, возник, было положено
начало, зародился.
In my translation, I used the word "зародился", as it seems to me that it is the
most suitable for our text. The sentence speaks of the world, so "был рожден" or
"возник" is definitely not appropriate, since we are talking about the redivision of the
world by people; "было положено начало" - this is how it usually spoke of
something that has a possible end.

XIII. Enumerate the most common ways of rendering into Russian the meaning
of the English emphatic structure "it is ... that". (Cf. sentence (2)
"-то ... и", "именно ...", как раз ...".

XIV. Which of the following Russian substitutes, if any, would you prefer for the
English "to live by" in sentence (3): стали широко использовать, стали жить
при помощи, в чьей жизни главную роль стали играть?
I translated it as "стали жить силой ..." because the whole text is evaluative in
nature and is not any scientific or historical text; this is definitely a literary text, so
this translation seemed to me the most successful

XV. Compare the following Russian substitutes for the word "cogs" in sentence
(3): шестерни, зубчатые колеса, зубчатые передачи. Make your choice and
give your reasons.
I prefer "шестерни" because it sounds more simply than others, but all three
words sharing the same meaning of some mechanism doing the rotation motions.
XVI. Compare the following Russian phrases as possible substitutes for "by all
the rules of heredity" in sentence (4): сюда уходят корнями, отсюда берут
свое начало, отсюда ведут свою родословную.
Since we are talking about satellites and computers, I think the best option here
is "отсюда берут свое начало" because it is most suitable for describing inanimate

XVII. Would you use the regular Russian equivalent to the English word
"recognize" in sentence (5), that is, признавать or will you prefer упоминать,
умалчивать or something else?
No, I think that "признавать" is not quite suitable for translation, since we are
talking about a guidebook – no matter what the author thinks about it. The average
user wouldn't know the story of the author's attitude to Britain. So the best option
here is to упоминать", "рассказать" или "предоставить".

XVIII. Your dictionary suggests two possible translations of the word

"crucible": плавильный тигель and суровое испытание. Can either of them
be used in translating sentence (5). If not, why?
No, the "плавильный тигель" option does not fit the context, since the text is
about the history of Britain, and not about the casting of metals or the mixing of
peoples in America. So "суровое испытание" is the only correct option, as it
provides the meaning of the source sentence.

XIX. Would you use a blue-print translation of "the technical revolution" in

sentence (6) or opt for a more common term промышленная революция?
The best translation would be "промышленная революция". Despite the fact
that this is a general term, it more accurately conveys the meaning of what was said.
The revolution took place not only thanks to technical inventions, it was influenced
by both social and economic factors.

XX. Choose a good substitute for the phrase "of the day" in sentence (6) among
the following: того дня, того времени, современный.
"Того дня" means one some specific day; "современный" means the time
when a person is reading the TT. And according to the context of the "primitive
industries", the only substitute we can use is "того времени".

XXI. Does "industries" in sentence (6) mean промышленность or отрасли

I think that "отрасли промышленности" is already make up the whole
промышленность. Besides, the context doesn't tell us about some specific types of
industries, then we can translate it as "промышленность". Here, I think, both options
have the same meaning.
XXII. It is obvious that the phrase Она (страна) приводилась в движение is
no good. (Cf. "She was impelled" in sentence (7).) Suggest another Russian
wording as a good substitute.
Она была движима

XXIII. Can the Russian word энергия ever be used in the plural? Would you
use it in the plural in the translation of sentence (7)?
The word "энергия" in Russian can be used in the plural only in the context of
physics, when we are talking about several types of different energy (механическая
и кинетическая энергии, for example). In other cases, this word is used only in the

XXIV. What would you suggest as a good substitute for the pronoun "she" in
sentence (8): она, Англия, англичане, в Англии?
I think the best option would be "в Англии", as it complies with the rules of
the Russian language. In addition, when translating the previous sentences, I have
already used the options "Англия" and "она" and in order to get rid of recurrences, I
used the option "в Англии".

XXV. Would you use the regular equivalents to the English "digging" in
sentence (8), that is, the Russian verbs копать, рыть or would you opt for
прокладывать, строить and the like?
I used the verb "прокладывать" as it is most often used in a word-group with a

XXVI. Try to list some Russian words which denote various operations with bills
of exchange such as выдать, учесть (вексель).
Пускать в обращение, передавать

XXVII. Have you heard the phrase овцы съели людей? What historical facts
does it refer to?
In those days England began to produce good wool, which was readily and in
large quantities bought all over Europe. Demand led to supply, England needed more
and more sheep, and sheep needed pasture. Landowners began to take land from the
peasants, which they leased to them for plowing. Thus, the peasants had nowhere else
to go, and hence this expression appeared in the work "Utopia" by Thomas More.
XXVIII. Is the English word "feed" in sentence (9) closer in its meaning to the
Russian корм or откорм?
In terms of its meaning, it is closer to the Russian "откорм", since winter feed
is needed in order to satisfy the animal's need for nutrients, and the more fatted the
animal is, then it is better.

XXIX. What would you prefer as a substitute for the term "merchant class" in
sentence (10): класс купцов, класс торговцев or something else?
I prefer "класс купцов" or "купеческое сословие" because I think these
options are most appropriate in our context.

XXX. Make your choice between the Russian words грамотный and
образованный as substitutes for the English 'literate" in sentence (10).
Since the text deals with the 18th centuries, we know from history that from
the 15th century, yeomens were called all peasants leading an independent economy.
These were no longer just free peasants, many of them were involved in service in the
royal army. William Shakespeare and Isaac Newton, who had a good education, were
from the yeomens. So here we can translate it not just as грамотные, but as

Translation Strategy is a way or method of rendering a certain linguistic unit from

one language to another.
Generally speaking, a translator uses a strategy when s/he encounters a problem while
translating a text;
Therefore, problem-solving is the most important function of the strategies.
According to Dr. Miremadi (1991), translation problems are divided into two main
categories: lexical problems and syntactic problems.
These include: lexical-semantic problems; grammar; syntax; rhetoric;
and pragmatic and cultural problems. 
 Bergen's classification of the strategies includes three categorizations:
1. Comprehension strategies,
2. Transfer strategies,
3. Production strategies
Lorscher (1996: 28) identifies nine basic elements, or as he called, building blocks of
translation strategies:
1. Realizing a translational Problem RP
2. Verbalizing a translational Problem VP
3. Searching for a possible solution to a translational Problem SP
4. Solution to a translational Problem SP
5. Preliminary Solution to a translational Problem
6. Parts of a Solution to a translational Problem …
7. Solution to a translational Problem is still to be found
8. Negative Solution to a translational Problem
9. positive and adequate solution of the problem

Other translation strategies: Domestication and Foreignization

Linguistically speaking, the term «foreignization» comes from the adjective foreign,
meaning something that is strange and different.
According to Outi Paloposki «foreignization often refers to the preserving of the
original cultural context, in terms of setting, names… etc. in order to create a sense of
strangeness and cultural distance from the target audience; that is, to keep some
linguistic and cultural aspects of the source text when translating »
Foreignization is the strategy of retaining information from the source text, and
involves deliberately breaking the conventions of the target language to preserve its
it is a translation strategy in which the translator preserves the cultural and linguistic
aspects and values of the source text and transform them into the target text retaining
in the meantime the ST constituents’ flavour. (изюминка)
It is called visible translation. The purpose of the strategy is to remind the reader, that
he is reading a foreign text, belonging to a foreign culture.
He's also bought himself a blueberry muffin. - Он взял себе черничный маффин.
I start gathering the makings of a sandwich so she can't see my face. - Я начинаю
резать сэндвичи, чтобы она не видела моего лица. («Сэндвичи» также является
чужеродным для читателей, данное слово можно заменить словом


Literally «to domesticate» means «to make a wild animal used to living with or
working for humans»

In translation studies, Wenfen Yang defines Domestication as the strategy that

“designates (обозначать/указывать) the type of translation in which a transparent
(прозрачный), fluent style is adopted to minimize the strangeness of the foreign text
for target language readers.
Lawrence Venuti presents domestication as “an ethnocentric reduction of the foreign
text to target- language cultural values, bring the author back home”

So domestication is the strategy adopted in order to produce a transparent, fluent and

easy translation that conforms to the norms and rules of the target audience’s culture
and language without any traces or existence of any aspect of the ST in the TT.

It is also called invisible translation.

“He plied her with scones and jam” (J. Galsworthy) –

«Он угощал ее оладьями с вареньем» (перевод Н. Вольпин).

“She said maybe she'd eat a cheeseburger later on. Just what is this cheeseburger
business? From what I gather, she's practically been living on cheeseburgers and
Cokes all semester so far...” (J. Salinger, "Zooey") –

«Она сказала, что попозже, может, съест сырник. Но при чем тут сырники?
Насколько я понимаю, она и так весь семестр питалась сырниками и кока-
колой. ... (перевод М. Ковалевой).

Neville Longbottom – Невилл Долгопупс/ Bathilda Bagshot – Батильда Жукпук

The best distinguished difference between these two main translation strategies
was made by Lawrence Venuti, who explained that “you can bring the author back
home” or just “sending the reader abroad”. Generally speaking, foreignizaition is
based on retaining the culture-specific items of the original, like: personal names,
national cuisine, historical figures, streets or local institutions whereas domestication
focuses on minimizing the strangeness if the foreign text for the target readers by
introducing the common words used in the target language instead of providing
readers with foreign terms.

Identify the strategies used to translate:


 - Алло! Считаю долгом сообщить, что наш председатель жилтоварищества

дома номер триста два-бис по Садовой, Никанор Иванович Босой, спекулирует

. – ‘Hullo! I consider it my duty to report that the chairman of our tenants’ association
at No 302A Sadovaya Street, Nikanor Ivanovitch Bosoi, is dealing in black-market
foreign currency’ - domestication
– ‘Hello! I consider it my duty to inform you that the Chairman of our Housing
Association at No. 302 bis on Sadovaya, Nikanor Ivanovitch Bosoi, is speculating in
foreign currency’ – foreignization

"A limited partnership is a form of partnership similar to a general partnership,


Товарищество на вере -- это форма товарищества, схожая с полным

товариществом, однако... " domestication
Ограниченное партнерство -- это форма партнерства, схожая с генеральным
партнерством, однако... " foreignization

высшее образование было у 8 тысяч, из них - 42 кандидата и 11 докторов наук.

8,000 had higher education and those included 42 candidates of science and 11
people with doctorates» domestication
«8,000 had higher education and those included 42 candidates of science, that is, the
equivalent of a Ph.D, and 11 people with doctorates, that is, with advanced degrees»

My inner goddess jumps up and down with cheerleading pom-poms shouting yes at
me. –
Моя внутренняя богиня подпрыгивает, машет чирлидерскими помпонами и
кричит «да». foreignization

He's got his Ray-Bans on so I can't see what he's thinking. –

Кристиан надел Рей-Бен, поэтому я не вижу, о чем он думает. foreignization

Christian heads over to the kitchen and picks up his BlackBerry, scrolling through
some emails, I assume. –

Он идет на кухню, берет «блэкберри» и, как я понимаю, просматривает почту.



• We live in a small community of duplex apartments in Vancouver,

Washington, close to the Vancouver campus of WSU. –

• Мы живем в Ванкувере, штат Вашингтон, в небольшом таунхаусном

поселке недалеко от университетского кампуса… foreignization

#6 from Everybody hates Cris (comedy TV-serial)

Son, I know things are rough for you here. But just because you don’t have a father...
– But I do have a father. – Well, when your mother is on drugs... – My mom’s not on
drugs. – I understand, but being born a crack baby is no excuse. – I wasn’t born a
crack baby. – Look, son. I’m trying to help you,

- Сынок, я понимаю, что все тут для тебя непросто, потому что у тебя нет отца.
– Командир, у меня есть батька. – Тем более твоя мамаша сидит на крэке. –
Матрена не употребляет, начальник. – Да-да, я понимаю, что ты родился крэк-
ребенком, но это мало, что меняет. – Да нормальным я родился, вы че, товарищ
начальник? – Я пытаюсь помочь тебе. domestication

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