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#1 Translation of the text


(1) A new excitement has been added to the (1) Вновь поднялся ажиотаж вокруг
queer race that Man has run against himself необычного марафона, в котором человек
through the ages, testing whether he can состязался с самим собой на протяжении
produce food fast enough to feed his fast- веков в попытке выяснить, сумеет ли он
growing family. производить достаточно пищи для своего
(2) In the past the race has never been a быстрорастущего потомства.
contest. (2) В прошлом это никогда не было
(3) Never, in all the yesterdays since he настоящим состязанием.
clambered out of the primeval ooze, has Man (3) Никогда раньше, с тех пор как он
the Provider caught up with Man the Pro- выбрался из первобытного болота, человек-
creator: there has been famine somewhere in кормилец не мог угнаться за человеком-
the world in nearly every year of recorded продолжателем рода: каждый год на
history. протяжении всей истории человечества где-
(4) Even today, after twenty centuries of нибудь в мире зверствовал голод.
Christian Enlightment, half man's family goes (4) Даже сегодня, после двадцати столетий
hungry and vast numbers of them are actually христианского просвещения, половина
starving to death. человеческого рода голодает, а большое
(5) Nevertheless, the race has suddenly grown число из них буквально умирает от голода.
close enough to be charged with suspense. (5) Однако расстояние между соперниками
(6) For the Provider has latterly been getting внезапно сократилось настолько, что теперь
expert coaching from the sidelines and, despite за этим состязанием наблюдают, затаив
the fact that the Procreator is adding to his дыхание.
family at the unprecedented rate of nearly fifty (6) Всё дело в том, что кормилец с недавних
million a year, the gap is steadily closing. пор получает консультацию у опытного
(7) The coach responsible for this remarkable тренера со стороны, и, несмотря на то, что
turn of events is the Food and Agricultural продолжатель рода не отстаёт и ежегодный
Organization, more familiarly known as FAO, прирост к его семье составляет небывалую
a specialized Agency of the United Nations. цифру в пятьдесят миллионов человек,
(8) As its name suggests, FAO worries more расстояние между ними уверенно
about the eater than about the farmer. сокращается.
(9) The emphasis is natural enough, for farmers (7) Тренер, которого мы должны
(and fishermen and producers of food поблагодарить за такой замечательный
generally) comprise only about three-fifths of поворот событий, – это «Продовольственная
the world's gainfully employed, but we all eat и сельскохозяйственная организация»,
and, to hear FAO tell it, most of us eat wrong. более известная как ФАО –
(10) It was, indeed, out of concern for the well- специализированное учреждение ООН.
being of eaters the world over that FAO was (8) Как и предполагает само название, ФАО
born. больше заботится о едоке, нежели о
(9) Такой акцент вполне понятен, потому
что фермеры (и рыбаки, и производители
продуктов питания в принципе) составляют
лишь около трёх пятых всего
самодеятельного населения в мире, но едим
ведь мы все, и к тому же, как утверждает
ФАО, большинство из нас питается
(10) Но ФАО как раз была создана из-за
заботы о благополучии едоков всего мира.

#2 Text Analysis
1. How can Man run a race against himself? Does this figure of speech represent
Man's efforts to produce enough food as a kind of a sport event? Does the added
excitement to the race mean that the struggle between the competitors has
become unpredictable and more interesting to watch?
In fact, a person’s life is always an endless struggle, or in another way we can
say a race. We always strive to be the best version of ourselves, which means being
in a race with ourselves. But from the point of view of this text, here we mean two
spheres of human life – food production and procreation. A person is responsible for
all this, therefore, a metaphor with a race is used here.
Yes, it does represent this. As I said before, our lives are always a struggle and
always a race against ourselves. And here, the author used this metaphor to describe
actually terribly ailment of human race that is famine.

Yes, it also does mean this, but I think, interesting is not quite right word here,
because our life depends on the results of this strange race. But yes, we cannot know
if we have enough natural resources and human resources to produce enough food, so
this is a rather unpredictable phenomenon.
2. How can a race not be a contest? Does a contest imply that each of the
participants has a chance to win? that there is no overwhelming superiority of
one of them?

Since this text talks about us, humans, such a race definitely cannot be a
contest. Because yes, in the usual sense of this word, race, always means a contest,
where there always should be a winner and a loser. But we can’t lose our race, so that
it's not a contest for us.
Does a contest imply that each of the participants has a chance to win? that
there is no overwhelming superiority of one of them? Actually, yes, in a contest you
will always has a chance to win. But our life is unfair, so that sometimes, there would
be someone with an overwhelming superiority, and there you won't have a chance to
win. Or, for example, you will not spend enough time preparing, deciding that you
are already the best in this field. But sometimes this is far from that. It is common for
a human to overestimate himself in some moments, and preparation for something
serious will never be superfluous.
3. Did Man really clamber out of the primeval ooze? Does the phrase refer to an
actual period in Man's evolution or is it just a figure of speech? If the Provider
catches up with the Procreator, does it mean that there will be enough food for
the earth's growing population? Is recorded history the same as written history
or is it the history we knew something about?

Well, yes, but the whole image of this phrase denotes not some real stage
in human history, but a general idea of the beginning of this story. So that it's just a
figure of speech here.
No, I think the fact that "recorded history" often perceived as a "written history" or
"летопись" is not quite right, because in fact we can also talk about unwritten sources
of information. So that recorded history here means more the whole history, not only
written one.
4. In what sense can the last twenty centuries be called the years of Christian
5. Is the distance between the participants in a close race great or small? What is
a book full of suspense? How can a race be charged with suspense? Does it mean
that it has become more thrilling for the on-lookers?
The distance here is small, because we are talking about a close race which
means that the race participants catch up with each other, reduce the distance between
A book, or something else, full of suspense means that you open this book, and
you cannot predict what she will tell you about, what will be the development of
events, what ending.
The race can also be suspense, when the participants catch up with each other,
overtake, then fall behind again. Everyone has an equal chance of winning, so the
final of this race is unknown.
Yes, it does mean it has become more thrilling because the on-lookers are
interested in watching the development of events and they are interested in what will
be the result, who will win and who will lose.
6. Does "to get expert coaching" mean to get good advice from a coach? Is a
coach a man who supervises a sportsman's training? When one runner is
gaining on the other, is the gap between them widening or closing?
Yes, since an expert coach is the one who is both skillful and knowledgeable,
he can share his knowledge and resources to help you achieve your most important
goals in life, it means to get good advice from a coach.
I think it used to be like supervisor of sportsmen. But today many different
coaches have appeared: business coach, relationship coach, self-development coach,
healthy lifestyle coach and many others. So today the word coach has a broader
Of course, the distance between them closing.
7. If a man is responsible for something does it always mean that he is guilty of
something? What is a UN specialized agency?
No, this word can also be used in a positive sense like it was in our text about
FAO. You are responsible not only for something bad so that you are guilty of it, but
for something good too. You responsible for it because you've done this, you helped
this something good happen, so you are responsible for it.
The UN Specialized Agencies are independent international organizations
associated with the United Nations by a special cooperation agreement. Specialized
agencies are created on the basis of intergovernmental agreements. Specialized
agencies may or may not have been originally created by the United Nations, but they
are incorporated into the UN System. At present the UN has in total 15 specialized
agencies that carry out various functions on behalf of the UN.
8. Is the eater a common name for a food consumer? In what respect can the
eater be contrasted to the farmer?
Yes, an eater is one who consume a food. The eater can be contrasted to the
farmer in the respect that the farmer is producing food, for example, grows
vegetables, fruits, crops, and then the eater just eat these products.
9. Are gainfully employed people those who earn their living by their own
efforts? If we say that a person eats wrong, do we refer to his table manners or
to the quality of food?
Yes, gainfully employed means that a person earn his living by his own efforts,
like it was mentioned in our text. Farmers grow vegetables, fruits, crops; fishermen
take fish, they do it on their own without anyone's help, like no one gives them a
place or conditions for work. They themselves are responsible for their work and its
availability. It is more about to the quality of food. Moreover, the text is about an
organization that is directly responsible for food consumption. It makes sense that
they don't care how we eat our food, whether we follow manners and all that. But
what kind of food we eat, healthy or not, is important to them.
10. How can emphasis be expressed syntactically? What is the meaning of the
preposition "out of in combinations with such words as 'love, hate,
consideration, affection", etc.? In what sense can an organization be born?

Transformation is any change of the Source text (ST) at any level (syntactic,
semantic, lexical) of the language during translation. 

TRANSCRIPTION: a way of translating a lexical unit from the SL into the TL by

expressing its sound form in the TL. Oaklend - Окленд.

TRANSLITERATION: a way of translating a lexical unit from the SL into the TL by

expressing its graphic form in the TL. London - Лондон.

CALQUING: the translation of a word or a phrase by parts.

CONCRETIZATION: lies in replacing a word or a word-combination of the SL

having a wider meaning with a words or a word-combination in a TL having a
narrower meaning.

GENERALIZATION: is defined as process of replacing a word or a word-

combination of the SL having a narrower meaning with a words or a word-
combination in a TL having a wider meaning, modulation is a process of replacing a
word or a word combination of the SL with such a unit of the TL whose meaning is
logically developed from the SL unit.

MODULATION: a logical development of the notion expressed by the word.

Grammar substitutions: when a grammar category, parts of speech of the translated

unit is changed.
Sentence partitioning: involves splitting one complex or compound sentence into 2
or more simpler sentences. 

Sentence integration: involves combining 2 sentences or more into one.

COMPENSATION: a deliberate change of the word or structure by another one

because the exact equivalent of the target language word or phrase is unable to
produce the same impact upon the receptor as does the source language word or

ANTONYMIC TRANSLATION: describing the situation by the target language

from the contrary angle.

EXPLICATION: rewording the meaning into another structure so that the receptor
will have a better understanding of the phrase.

ADDITION: to give the meaning with the use of another word adding to a context. 
TRANSPOSITION: the process where parts of speech change their sequence when
they are translated.

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