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Translation of the text

The precise meaning of emotion words is Значения слов, выражающих чувства


different around the world эмоции, во всех уголках мира разнятся

Is the experience we call "love" felt the same in Одинаково ли выражается на всех языках
every language? то, что мы называем "любовью"?

When you can't quite put your finger on how Если у вас не получается правильно понять
you're feeling, don't worry — there may be a свои чувства, не переживайте, – возможно, в
non-English word that can help you out. другом языке существует такое слово,
которое вам поможет в этом.
There are hundreds of words across the world
for emotional states and concepts, from the По всему миру существуют сотни слов,
Spanish word for the desire to eat simply for описывающих эмоциональные состояния и
the taste (gula) to the Sanskrit for revelling in концепции, начиная с испанского слова,
someone else's joy (mudita). которое обозначает желание есть просто
ради вкусовых ощущений (гула), и
But what about those words that exist across заканчивая санскритом, в котором
many languages — "anger", for example, or существует слово, обозначающее
"happiness"? Do they mean the same thing in наслаждение чужой радостью (мудита).
every language, or do we experience emotions
differently based on the culture we are brought А что мы можем сказать про слова, которые
up in? Is the experience we call "love" in существуют во многих языках – к примеру,
English emotionally analogous with its direct "гнев" или "счастье"? Означают ли они одно
translation into Hungarian, "szerelem", for и то же во всех языках, или же мы
example? испытываем эмоции по-разному в
зависимости от культуры, в которой мы
In a new paper in Science, Joshua Conrad выросли? А те чувства, которые мы
Jackson from the University of North Carolina называем "любовью" в английском, такие
at Chapel Hill and colleagues looked at 2,439 же эмоции ли передаются в их прямом
distinct concepts (including 24 relating to переводе, например, на венгерский язык –
emotion) from 2,474 languages. The team "серелем"?
analysed the similarities and differences
between languages based on patterns of В новой статье в журнале "Science",
"colexification": instances in which multiple Джошуа Конрад Джексон из Университета
concepts are expressed by the same word form. Северной Каролины в Чапел-Хилл и его
коллеги рассмотрели 2439 различных
In Persian, to use the team's example, the word концепций (24 из них относились к
ænduh can be used to express both grief and эмоциям) на 2474 языках. Команда
regret; in the Dargwa dialect, spoken in разобрала сходства и различия между
Dagestan in Russia, dard means grief and языками, основываясь на
anxiety. It follows, therefore, that Persian "колексификации": случаев, когда
speakers may understand grief as closer to несколько концепций выражаются
regret, and Dargwa speakers closer to anxiety. одинаковой словоформой.
The analysis allowed the researchers to create
В персидском, как выяснила команда, слово
networks of concepts that showed, for each
ænduh может обозначать как горе, так и
language family, how closely different
сожаление; в даргинском диалекте, на
emotional concepts related to each other. These
котором говорят в Дагестане, слово dard
revealed wide variation between language
обозначает горе и тревогу. Так мы можем
families. For instance, in Tad-Kadai languages, сказать, что носители персидского языка
which can be found in Southeast Asia, southern ощущают горе сравнимо с сожалением, а
China, and Northeast India, "anxiety" was для носителей даргинского оно ближе к
related to "fear"; in Austroasiatic languages, тревоге.
anxiety was closer to "grief" or "regret". In Анализ позволил исследователям создать
Nakh Daghestanian languages spoken mainly целые сети концептов, которые показали,
in parts of Russia, on the other hand, "anger" насколько связаны друг с другом различные
was related to "envy", but in Austronesian эмоциональные концепты в каждой
languages it was related to "hate", "bad", and языковой семье в частности. Благодаря
"proud". этому, были выявлены широкие различия
между языковыми семьями. К примеру, в
But there were some similarities. Words with языках Тад-Кадай, на которых говорят
the same emotional valence — i.e. that were уроженцы Юго-Восточный Азии, Южного
positive or negative — tended to be associated Китая и Северо-Восточной Индии, тревога
only with other words of the same valence, in была связана со страхом. В австроазиатских
all language families across the world. языках, напротив, её связывают с горем или
Happiness, for example, was linked to other сожалением. В накских дагенстанских
positive emotions, even if the specific языках, распространённых в некоторых
associations were slightly different depending частях России, наоборот, гнев связывают с
on the language family. (This wasn't always the завистью, а в австронезийских языках – с
case though: in some Austronesian languages, ненавистью, злом и гордостью.
"pity" and "love" were associated, suggesting
pity may be more positive or love more Но были и некоторые сходства. Слова с
negative than in other languages). Similarly, одинаковым эмоциональным значением -
low-arousal emotions like sadness were also позитивным или негативным - во всех
unlikely to be compared to high-arousal языковых семьях повсеместно связаны со
emotions like anger. словами с таким же эмоциональным
значением. Счастье, например, было
And geography also seemed to matter: связано со многими позитивными
language families that were geographically эмоциями, хотя какие-либо конкретные
closer tended to share more similar associations ассоциации немного различались в
than those that were far away. зависимости от языковой семьи. (Но
бывают и исключения: в некоторых
The study's findings suggest that emotional австронезийских языках были связаны
concepts do vary between languages up to a жалость и любовь, так как предполагалось,
point, raising the question of just how similar что жалость может быть более позитивной,
supposedly universal experiences are. Of или наоборот, любовь может иметь больше
course, it's impossible to know exactly how негативного в сравнении с другими
somebody else is experiencing the world, and языками). Схожим образом эмоции с
language can often be woefully inadequate меньшим уровнем возбудимости, грусть, к
when it comes to expressing our internal life. примеру, не могут сравниться с эмоциями с
And while the research suggests that those высоким уровнем возбудимости, например,
emotional experiences may vary in subtle ways гневом.
across the world, deep down it seems we're not
so dissimilar at all. Оказалось, территориальное расположение
также имело значение: чем ближе
располагались языковые семьи, тем больше
они имели схожих ассоциаций, чего нельзя
сказать о тех, что находились дальше от
них.

Результаты исследования дают основание


предположить, что эмоциональные
концепции в какой-то мере действительно
различаются от языка к языку, тем самым
поднимая вопрос о том, как сильно похожи
вроде бы универсальные эмоции. Конечно,
невозможно узнать, каким видит мир
другой человек, и чаще всего, языка
недостаточно, чтобы выразить свои
личностные переживания. Хоть
исследования и показывают, что эти самые
эмоциональные переживания имеют между
собой тонкую грань различий повсеместно,
всё-таки глубоко внутри кажется, что мы не
такие уж и разные.

HT – a translation method which is used when it is necessary to understand the


meaning of what have to be translated and retell it in TT with words sometimes
very different from the original ones.

Transformations:
1. non-English word – слово в другом языке. Generalization
Since the TT is directed to the Russian recipient, it is obvious that he will be
looking for a non-Russian word, not a non-English one. But I thought that it is better
not to specify any language, since the text can also be read by a person whose first
language is any other.
2. to use the team’s example – как выяснила команда. Grammar substitution +
modulation
The phrase of the ST sounds ordinary for an English reader, but if you translate
it into Russian literally (используя пример команды), in this context it will not
sound quite right for the Russian recipient.
3. in languages, which can be found in ... – в языках, на которых говорят
уроженцы ... / Holistic transformation
The phrase of the ST here also sounds ordinary for an English reader, but in
Russian there is no such expressions. Thus, I completely changed this phrase, leaving
only a meaning of the ST, so that now it perfectly fits the context of the listing of
countries.
4. This wasn’t always the case though – Но бывают и исключения. Modulation

5. language families that were geographically closer tended to share more similar
associations than those that were far away – чем ближе располагались языковые
семьи, тем больше они имели схожих ассоциаций, чего нельзя сказать о тех, что
находились дальше от них. Grammar substitution + addition
I conveyed the meaning of the original text with the help of another
grammatical construction of the Russian language, most often used for this type of
sentences, adding the link word-combination «чего нельзя сказать о тех» in order to
get an adequate TT.

3. Reflect on how much inter-culturally competent your knowledge is:


1. Can I describe my own cultural conditioning? Can I make a list of my cultural
values? How do they affect my behavior and communication with others?
2. What are some of my core beliefs, and how have they been culturally influenced?
3. How would I describe my worldview?

1. What other skills and competences should you develop to become an Effective
Translator? Make a list of all the competences that are not included in the
lecture.
Lecture: Language expertise+eloquent, computer-assisted translation (CAT), desktop
publishing expert, knowledge of the cultures, research skills, Specialization in a
subject, system of knowledge needed to translate by PACTE:
subcompetences: (1) bilingual; (2) extra-linguistic; (3) strategic; (4) instrumental; (5) knowledge
about translation sub-competence as well as the so-called psycho-physiological components.
The psycho-physiological components are defined as different types of cognitive and attitudinal
components and psycho-motor mechanisms.
They include:
(1) cognitive components such as memory, perception, attention and emotion;
(2) attitudinal (оценочное) aspects such as intellectual curiosity, perseverance
(усидчивость/упорство), rigour (точность/твердость), critical spirit, knowledge of and
confidence in one’s own abilities, the ability to measure one’s own abilities, motivation, etc.;
3) abilities such as creativity, logical reasoning, analysis and synthesis, etc.

List: 1. Knowledge of the main types of translation transformations. I think this is


obvious here, because if the translator doesn't know how to transform the text so that
it would be understandable to his readers, then he can forget about the successful
completion of his work.
2. Intuition. Yes, a translator must have some kind of intuition, especially an
interpreter. For example, if he did not hear or forgot any word of the speaker, then he
will be able to think it out logically, therefore not stopping his work. It is just as
important for a translator to have this skill, because if he sees an unfamiliar word, he
will be able to think out its meaning in context.
3. And also, according to Komissarov's list of translator's competencies, he defined
text-forming competence, that is, the ability to create various texts, taking into
account the rules of the translating language.
4. Competence in the provision of translation services: know how to negotiate
with clients, follow market requirements, access information, plan personal time,
work in a team, fulfill the instructions, agreements and professional ethics.

2. Say which of the competences:


a) you have already developed well (give a few examples);
b) you are still developing and formulating (support your answer with
examples)
c) you are struggling to develop (point at the reasons that challenge you)
d) you do not possess at all (why, may be you plan to acquire it in the nearest future).

4. Explore your identity:


1. Name the details of your personal identity.
2. What kind of roles does your gender identity attribute to you?
3. Describe your social identity and roles you take in everyday life.
4. Identify the details of your cultural identity.
6. What roles does the status of student of our University attribute to you?

5. Choose your favorite (famous) translator/interpreter (literary or informative


texts | works)
• Identify his/her identities by referring to their biography.
Personal identity: age, social class, religion
Social identity: gender, social
Cultural identity: ethnic and national

Unfortunately, I'm not particularly familiar with translators of literary and


informative texts, but I really interested in translating movies and TV series. And my
favorite dub and translation studio is Кубик в кубе. I think someone here definitely
knows them. They are known in this amateur translations market for their, so to say,
modern translation that doesn't spare the subtle human organization of the soul. They
translate everything just as it is stated and shown in the original.
So, the creators of this translation studio are Ольга Кравцова and Руслан
Габидуллин. At first, they did all this huge amount of work themselves, and later
they took to their team a professional translator, Татьяну Омельченко. And by the
way, Татьяна is our fellow countrywoman, she was born in Astana, but now lives in
St. Petersburg. These people did the translation to one of my favorite TV shows -
Misfits, and in fact, I believe that their translation is even superior to the original.
Their studio is famous for that they are not afraid of obscene vocabulary or some
words, expressions that are very fond of censoring on our screens today. And here, I
think, their translation personality, their identity shows itself.
Speaking about, for example, personal identity, especially this social class one,
Ольга and Руслан started with that they were destitute, there wasn’t enough money
even for bread. In a word, they learned this Russian cruelty known to us. Of course,
this could not but affect them as individuals, and this was reflected in their
translations. And especially obscene language, as I said before. They have always
considered this a kind of hypocrisy - to pretend that no one is swearing, while on our
screens they freely show scenes of violence, and at the same time avoid the words
that everyone says in everyday life.
And their translator, Татьяна, gave us the translation of the well-known film
"Deadpool", and I think we all remember that it had an age limit of 18+ precisely
because nothing was hidden there that was shown and said in the film itself.
Thus, I think it is fair to say that their translation activity was influenced by the
social factor and the cultural one. That is, the fact that they grew up in Russian
culture, communicated throughout their lives with representatives of this culture ...
Like, they are immersed in this environment, so their translations certainly reflect
specifically the Russian environment, the way Russian people speak, how they
behave and so on, they image it onto the characters of another culture.

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