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Министерство культуры Российской Федерации

Российская академия музыки имени Гнесиных


Государственный институт искусствознания

ОПЕРА
В МУЗЫКАЛЬНОМ ТЕАТРЕ:
ИСТОРИЯ
И СОВРЕМЕННОСТЬ

Сборник статей по материалам


Четвертой Международной научной конференции
11–15 ноября 2019 года

Том 1

МОСКВА
2019
УДК 792. 54
ББК 88. 335. 41
О60

Издание осуществлено при при поддержке Российского фонда фундамен-


тальных исследований (РФФИ), проект № 19-012-20019

Редактор-составитель
доктор искусствоведения И.П. Сусидко

Редакционная коллегия
доктор искусствоведения П.В. Луцкер
доктор искусствоведения Т.И. Науменко
доктор искусствоведения Н.В. Пилипенко
доктор искусствоведения А.С. Рыжинский
доктор искусствоведения Т.В. Цареградская

Рецензенты
Левон Оганесович Акопян, доктор искусствоведения, заведующий
сектором теории музыки Государственного института искусствознания
Инна Народицкая, PhD, профессор Северо-Западного
университета, Эванстон, Иллинойс, США

Печатается в соответствии с решением


Редакционно-издательского совета
Российской академии музыки им. Гнесиных

О60 Опера в музыкальном театре: история и современность. Материалы Четвер-


той Международной научной конференции, 11–15 ноября 2019 г. / ред-сост. И.П.
Сусидко / Рос. акад. музыки. — Том 1. — М.: РАМ имени Гнесиных, 2019. —
516 с., илл. Иллюстрация на обложке: О.Ч. Пьюджин, Т. Ролендсон. Театр Сад-
лерс-Уэллз (1810).

ISBN 978-5-8269-0251-6 ISBN 978-5-8269-0259-2 (eBook)


ISBN 978-5-8269-0252-3 (Т. 1) ISBN 978-5-8269-0260-8 (eBook, Т. 1)
© РАМ имени Гнесиных, 2019
© И.П. Сусидко, 2019
Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation
Gnessins Russian Academy of Music
State Institute for Art Studies

OPERA
IN MUSICAL THEATER:
HISTORY
AND PRESENT TIME

Proceedings
of the 4 International Academic Conference
th

November 11–15, 2019

Volume 1

MOSCOW
2019
УДК 792. 54
ББК 88. 335. 41
О60

The edition is supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR),
Project 19-012-20019

Edited by:
Irina Susidko, Dr. Habil. (Doctor of Art Studies)

Editorial Board
Pavel Lutsker, Dr. Habil. (Doctor of Art Studies)
Tatiana Naumenko, Dr. Habil. (Doctor of Art Studies)
Nina Pilipenko, Dr. Habil. (Doctor of Art Studies)
Aleksandr Ryzhinskii, Dr. Habil. (Doctor of Art Studies)
Tatiana Tsaregradskaya, Dr. Habil. (Doctor of Art Studies)

Academic Reviewers
Levon Hakobian, Dr. Habil. (Doctor of Art Studies), Head of
Music Theory Department, State Institute for Art Studies
Inna Naroditskaya, PhD, Full Professor, Musicology,
Northwestern University, Evanston, USA

Printed according to the solution


Editorial and Publishing Council of
Gnessins Russian Academy of Music

О60 Opera in Musical Theater: History and Present Time. Proceedings of the 4th
International Academic Conference, November 11–15, 2019, ed. by Irina Susidko,
Gnessins Russian Academy of Music. Volume 1. Moscow: Gnessins Russian Academy
of Music, 2019. 516 p., ill. Front cover illustration: Augustus Charles Pugin, Thomas
Rowlandson. Sadler’s Wells Thearte (1810).

ISBN 978-5-8269-0251-6 ISBN 978-5-8269-0259-2 (eBook)


ISBN 978-5-8269-0252-3 (Vol. 1) ISBN 978-5-8269-0260-8 (eBook, Vol. 1)

© Gnessins Russian Academy of Music, 2019


© Irina Susidko, 2019
© Authors, 2019
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СОДЕРЖАНИЕ | CONTENTS

От редактора-составителя | Preface............................................................ 15
Благодарности | Acknowledgements ........................................................... 19
Приветствия | Greetings ............................................................................... 21

I. ОПЕРА КАК СИНТЕТИЧЕСКИЙ ЖАНР


OPERA AS A SYNTHETIC GENRE

Театр, музыка, катарсис: классическая система координат


Theatre, Music, Catharsis: Classical System of Coorditates
Дмитрий Трубочкин / Dmitriy Trubochkin................................................. 29

К вопросу о зарождении клипового мышления в оперной режиссуре


On the Issue for the Clip Thinking Origin in the Opera Directing
Александр Лободанов / Alexander Lobodanov............................................ 41

Опера и миф: условность безусловного


Opera and Myth: The Conditionality of the Unconditional
Адиля Мизитова / Adilya Mizitova............................................................. 51

Карл Дальхауз о русской классической опере в контексте музыкального


искусства XIX века
Carl Dahlhaus on the Russian Classic Opera in the Context on the Nineteenth-
Century Music
Михаил Пылаев / Mikhail Pylaev................................................................ 61

Поэтика либретто итальянской комической оперы XVIII века: постанов-


ка проблемы
Poetics of Libretto in the Eighteenth-Century Italian Comic Opera: Formulation
of a Problem
Павел Луцкер / Pavel Lutsker....................................................................... 71

Оперный (-ые) перевод(ы): документируя конфликты «музыкальных культур»


Opera Translation(s) Documenting Conflicts of ‘Musical Cultures’
Юрий Джаннини / Juri Giannini................................................................ 81
Пространство в опере: драматургический аспект
Space in Opera: Aspect of Dramaturgy
Владимир Горячих / Vladimir Goryachih................................................... 91

Опера и «поздний модернизм» конца ХХ – начала ХХI века


Opera and ‘Late modernism’ at the Turn of the 21st Century
Татьяна Цареградская / Tatiana Tsaregradskaya................................... 101

Оперное искусство в истории и современности:


дидактический вызов
Opera in History and Modernity: A Didactic Challenge
Лоренцо Бьянкони, Джузеппина Ла Фаче Бьянкони /
Lorenzo Bianconi, Giuseppina La Face Bianconi...................................... 111

II. СТАРИННАЯ ОПЕРА:


ЖАНРЫ, СТИЛЬ, КУЛЬТУРНЫЙ КОНТЕКСТ
BAROQUE AND CLASSICAL OPERA:
GENRES, STYLE, CULTURAL CONTEXT

Парадигма Dame di Ferrara: от Il Concerto delle Donne до современной пе-


вицы и женского персонажа на оперной сцене
The Paradigm of the Dame di Ferrara: From Il Concerto delle Donne to the
Contemporary Woman Singer and Female Character on the Operatic Stage
Сусана Эгеа Руис / Susana Egea Ruiz..................................................... 123

Создание dramma per musica как попытка элитаризации искусства


Dramma per Musica as an Impetus for Art Gentrification
Саида Исхакова / Saida Iskhakova......................................................... 131

Опера Пёрселла «Дидона и Эней» как политическая аллегория


Purcell’s Dido and Aeneas as a Political Allegory
Роман Насонов / Roman Nasonov........................................................... 139

Danse chantée в спектаклях французского музыкального театра XVII – на-


чала XVIII века
Danse chantée in the French Musical Theatre Performances (17th and Early
18th Century)
Лариса Пылаева / Larisa Pylaeva........................................................... 147
Испанская опера в Новом свете: «Пурпур розы» П. Кальдерона и Т. Тор-
рехона-и-Веласко (1701)
Spanish Opera in the New World: La púrpura de la rosa by P. Calderón and
T.Torrejón y Velasco (1701)
Ирина Кряжева / Irina Kryazheva......................................................... 157

Оперы об американских индейцах А. Вивальди и Г. Пёрселла в контексте


диалога культур Старого и Нового Света в XVII – XVIII веках
Operas about American Indians by A. Vivaldi and H. Purcell in a Dialogue of
Old World and New World in 17th – 18th Centuries
Ангелина Алпатова, Владимир Лисовой /
Angelina Alpatova, Vladimir Lisovoi....................................................... 165

«Празднества Гименея и Амура»: Египет в музыке Жана-Филиппа Рамо


Les Fêtes de l’Hymen et de l’Amour: Egypt in the Music by Jean-Philippe
Rameau
Анна Булычёва / Anna Bulycheva.......................................................... 175

«Гений места»: о региональных традициях в опере seria 1720-х – 1730-х гг.


Genius loci: On Regional Traditions in the Opera seria of the 1720s – 1730s
Ирина Сусидко / Irina Susidko............................................................... 185

Хосе де Небра (1702–1768) и его сарсуэллы


José de Nebra (1702–1768) and his Zarzuelas
Мария Моисеева / Maria Moiseeva........................................................ 195

«Элиза» и «Британия» Томаса Августина Арна: два воплощения нацио-


нальной темы
Eliza and Britannia by Thomas Augustine Arne: Two Incarnations of the
National Theme
Анастасия Привалова / Anastasiya Privalova...................................... 203

Chinoiserie в западноевропейской опере XVIII века


Chinoiserie in the Eighteenth-Century European Opera
Юлия Медведева / Yulia Medvedeva ...................................................... 211

Призрак оперы: «Заида» Моцарта на сцене


The Phantom of the Opera: Mozart’s Zaide on Stage
Карина Зыбина / Karina Zybina............................................................. 221
Особенности хронотопа в ‘Così fan tutte’ Лоренцо да Понте
Chronotope Features in Lorenzo da Ponte’s Così fan tutte
Лариса Гервер / Larisa Gerver ................................................................ 229

Профессионалы и любители: о первых исполнителях «Волшебной флей-


ты» В.А. Моцарта
Professionals and Amateurs: About the First Performers of Mozart’s
Die Zauberflöte
Дана Нагина / Dana Nagina ..................................................................... 239

Драма духовная и светская. Австрийская оратория и опера 2-й половины


XVIII века: взаимовлияния и параллели
Sacred and Secular Drama: Parallels and Mutual Influences in Austrian Oratorio
and Opera in the Second Half of the Eighteenth Century
Лада Аристархова / Lada Aristarkhova .................................................. 249

Музыкальная комедия Андре Гретри на сцене Королевской академии му-


зыки
Andre Grétry’s comedie lyrique on the Stage of the Academie Royale de la
musique in Paris
Александра Сафонова / Alexandra Safonova.......................................... 257

III. ОТЕЧЕСТВЕННАЯ ОПЕРА:


ДИАЛОГИ И ПЕРЕСЕЧЕНИЯ
RUSSIAN OPERA:
DIALOGUES AND INTERSECTIONS

Жанровый синтез в отечественном музыкальном театре на примере опер-


ного творчества Д.С. Бортнянского
Genre Synthesis in Russian Musical Theatre (The Case of Bortniansky’s
Operas)
Ирина Полозова / Irina Polozova.............................................................. 271

«…Бывают странные сближенья…» Опера Глинки «Жизнь за царя» и зна-


ки ее времени
‘...Strange Rapprochements Occur…’ The Opera A Life for the Tsar and the
Signs of its Epoch
Светлана Лащенко / Svetlana Latschenko.............................................. 279
«Руслан и Людмила» А.С. Пушкина и М.И. Глинки в историко-культурном
контексте: к проблеме сценической постановки и восприятия
Ruslan and Ludmila by Pushkin and Glinka in a Historical and Cultural
Context: Concerning the Issue of Stage Production and Perception
Елена Алкон / Elena Alkon....................................................................... 287

«Русские большие оперы» А.Н. Серова в контексте патриотической темы


и «нового русского стиля»
‘Russian Grand Operas’ by A. Serov in the Frame of the Patriotic Theme and
the ‘New Russian Style’
Вадим Дулат-Алеев / Vadim Dulat-Aleev................................................ 297

Редакции и версии оперы «Евгений Онегин»: текстологические и эдици-


онные проблемы
Editions and Versions of Tchaikovsky’s Opera Eugene Onegin: Textual and
Editorial Problems
Ада Айнбиндер / Ada Aynbinder................................................................. 303

«Псковитянка» Н.А. Римского-Корсакова и «Борис Годунов» М.П. Му-


соргского: диалоги и пересечения
The Maid of Pskov by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov and Boris Godunov by
Modest Mussorgsky: Dialogues and Intersections
Мария Скуратовская / Maria Skuratovskaya.......................................... 313

Семиотическое пространство контрсферы в «Царской невесте»: текст в


тексте
The Semiotic Space of the Counter-Sphere in The Tsar Bride: The Text in the Text
Любовь Серебрякова / Lyubov’ Serebrjakova .......................................... 323

Стилизация в опере Н.А. Римского-Корсакова «Сказка о царе Салтане»


Stylization in The Tale of Tsar Saltan by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov
Екатерина Прокопьева / Ekaterina Prokopieva .................................. 333

Поздние оперы Римского-Корсакова: свое и чужое


Idioms in Rimsky-Korsakov’s Late Operas: Personal and Alien
Ольга Скрынникова / Olga Skrynnikova.................................................. 341

И.В. Самарин и С.И. Мамонтов: подходы к подготовки оперной партии


(по материалам биографии певицы Т.С. Любатович)
Ivan Samarin and Savva Mamontov: Preparing the Opera Part. Based on the
Biography of the singer Tatiana Lyubatovich
Анна Виноградова / Anna Vinogradova................................................... 351

«Пульчинелла» Перголези – Стравинского: «балет с пением» или «опе-


ра с танцами»?
Pulcinella by Pergolesi – Stravinsky: ‘Ballet with Singing’ or ‘Opera with
Dancing’?
Наталия Брагинская / Natalia Braginskaya........................................... 361

Фортепианные вариации и фантазии на оперные темы в петербургских


концертах 1830-х годов
Piano Variations and Fantasies Based on Opera Themes at St. Petersburg’s
Concerts in the 1830s
Дмитрий Шумилин / Dmitry Shumilin................................................... 371

IV. МУЗЫКАЛЬНЫЙ ТЕАТР XIX – НАЧАЛА ХХ ВЕКА:


ОБЩЕЕ И ОСОБЕННОЕ
MUSICAL THEATRE OF THE 19th – EARLY 20th CENTURY:
COMMON AND UNIQUE

Франц Шуберт: между песней и оперой


Franz Schubert: Between Lied and Opera
Нина Пилипенко / Nina Pilipenko............................................................ 381

Немые персонажи в музыкальном театре первой половины XIX столетия


The Mute Characters in the First Half of the Nineteenth-Century Musical
Theater
Светлана Петухова / Svetlana Petukhova.............................................. 395

Голубь и крест
The Dove and the Cross
Анна Порфирьева / Anna Porfirieva......................................................... 405

“MUSICA FICTA” Филиппа Лаку-Лабарта и Gesamtkunstwerk: оперы


Вагнера как источник концепции «национал-эстетизма»
‘MUSICA FICTA’ by Philipp Laku-Labart and Gesamtkunstwerk: Wagner’s
Operas as a Source of the Concept of ‘National Aesthetics’
Азамат Хасаншин / Asamat Khasanshin................................................ 413
Finali centrali в операх Верди: к вопросу об эволюции
The Finali Centrali in Verdi’s Operas: Concerning the Composer’s Evolution
Анастасия Логунова / Anastasia Logunova............................................. 423

Сигетварская битва как импульс для хорватской оперы


The Siege of Szigetvár as an Inspiration for Croatian Opera
Санья Майер-Бобетко / Sanja Majer-Bobetko....................................... 433

Исторические оперы «Генрих VIII» и «Этьен Марсель» Камиля Сен-Сан-


са: новый взгляд на основе литературного наследия композитора
The Historical Operas Henry VIII and Étienne Marcel by Camille Saint-Saëns:
New Perspectives Provided by the Composer’s Literary Heritage
Зоя Князь / Zoya Kniaz’............................................................................. 443

«Сказки Гофмана» Ж. Оффенбаха: семантические лабиринты сюжета


Les contes d’Hoffmann by Jacques Offenbach: The Semantic Labyrinths of
the Plot
Андрей Денисов / Andrei Denisov............................................................. 451

Процедура гражданского судопроизводства в зеркале комической оперы


конца XIX – начала ХХ века: некоторые наблюдения
Civil Legal Proceedings in the Mirror of Comic Opera in the Late 19th and
Early 20th Century: Some Observations
Натэла Енукидзе / Natela Enukidze......................................................... 461

Русский царь на сцене Монте-Карло: опера Р. Гюнсбурга «Иван Грозный»


Russian Tsar on the Stage of Monte Carlo: Raoul Gunsbourg’s Opera
Ivan the Terrible
Евгения Шигаева / Evgeniya Shigaeva.................................................... 469

Метаморфозы смыслов в судьбе «Отмеченных» („Die Gezeichneten”)


Франца Шрекера: от литературных истоков до сценической реализации
The Metamorphoses of Meanings in the History of Die Gezeichneten
(The Stigmatized) by Franz Schreker: From the Literary Sources to Stage
Interpretation
Наталья Дегтярева / Natalia Degtyareva............................................... 479

Р. Штраус „Die Frau ohne Schatten” («Женщина без тени»): Символиче-


ский контекст и образные метаморфозы
Richard Strauss Die Frau ohne Schatten. The Symbolic Context and
Metaphorical Transformations
Ирина Стогний / Irina Stogny................................................................ 489

Фильм в музыкальном театре. Filmmusik Альбана Берга в контексте сце-


нических экспериментов 1920-х годов
Film in the Musical Theater. Filmmusik by Alban Berg in the Context of Stage
Experiments in the 1920s
Юлия Векслер / Julia Weksler.................................................................. 497

Образ Венеции в оперном театре Дж.Фр. Малипьеро


The Image of Venice in Opera Theatre of Gian Francesco Malipiero
Мария Рудко / Mariya Rudko.................................................................... 507


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ɧɨɜɵɯɩɨɞɯɨɞɨɜɤɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɢ
ɋɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɝɨɢɡɞɚɧɢɹɨɬɪɚɠɚɟɬɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚɬɢɤɭɤɨɧɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɢɄ
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ɫɤɨɝɨɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹɨɩɟɪɵɜɫɨɰɢɨɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɨɦɢɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɦɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɚɯɨɱɢɳɟɧ
ɧɨɟɨɬɢɞɟɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɲɬɚɦɩɨɜɢɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɧɨɟɧɚɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɯɧɚɭɱɧɨɞɨɤɭ
ɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɯɢɡɵɫɤɚɧɢɹɯɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɝɨɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɬɟɚɬɪɚɤ

ɤɥɚɫɫɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɭɧɚɫɥɟɞɢɸɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɵɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɹɧɨɜɵɯɠɚɧɪɨɜɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶ
ɧɨɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɫɰɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɮɨɪɦɢɢɯɤɨɪɪɟɥɹɰɢɹɫɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɨɩɵ
ɬɨɦɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɚɢɚɩɪɨɛɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ©ɢɧɬɟɝɪɚɥɶɧɵɯªɦɟɬɨɞɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɩɨɞɯɨɞɨɜ
ɤɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɸɨɩɟɪɧɨɝɨɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚɜɟɞɢɧɫɬɜɟɜɫɟɯɟɝɨɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɢɯ ɦɭɡɵɤɢ
ɫɥɨɜɚɜɢɡɭɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɜɨɩɥɨɳɟɧɢɹ ɢɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɩɨɢɫɤɬɨɱɟɤɫɨɩɪɢɤɨɫ
ɧɨɜɟɧɢɹɦɟɠɞɭɫɦɟɠɧɵɦɢɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɨɜɟɞɱɟɫɤɢɦɢɢɝɭɦɚɧɢɬɚɪɧɵɦɢɧɚɭɤɚɦɢ
Ɉɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɣɬɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɛɥɨɤɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɥɢɞɨɤɥɚɞɵɜɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɡɚɬɪɨɧɭɬɵ
ɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟɚɫɩɟɤɬɵɜɡɚɢɦɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹɪɭɫɫɤɨɝɨɢɡɚɩɚɞɧɨɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɝɨɦɭɡɵ
ɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɬɟɚɬɪɚ²ɤɚɤɜɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɪɚɤɭɪɫɟɬɚɤɢɫɬɨɱɤɢɡɪɟɧɢɹɧɨɜɚɰɢɣ
ɜɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɫɤɨɦɬɜɨɪɱɟɫɬɜɟɨɩɟɪɧɨɣɪɟɠɢɫɫɭɪɟɢɢɫɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɫɤɨɦɢɫɤɭɫ
ɫɬɜɟȼɟɝɨɪɚɦɤɚɯɛɵɥɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɪɹɞɞɨɤɥɚɞɨɜɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɧɵɯɨɩɟɪɧɨɦɭɧɚɫɥɟ
ɞɢɸɇȺɊɢɦɫɤɨɝɨɄɨɪɫɚɤɨɜɚɢɩɪɢɭɪɨɱɟɧɧɵɯɫɸɛɢɥɟɣɧɨɣɞɚɬɟ²ɥɟ
ɬɢɸɫɨɞɧɹɪɨɠɞɟɧɢɹɆɧɨɝɨɫɬɨɪɨɧɧɹɹɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɚɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬ
ɡɚɨɫɬɪɢɬɶɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚɪɹɞɟɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɞɥɹɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹɪɨɫ
ɫɢɣɫɤɨɣɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɣɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɤɢ
Ʉɨɧɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɹɩɨɤɚɡɚɥɚɱɬɨɧɚɭɱɧɨɟɨɫɦɵɫɥɟɧɢɟɨɩɟɪɵɜɧɚɲɟɜɪɟɦɹɩɟ
ɪɟɠɢɜɚɟɬɨɞɢɧɢɡɫɜɨɢɯɫɚɦɵɯɩɥɨɞɨɬɜɨɪɧɵɯɩɟɪɢɨɞɨɜɬɨɥɶɤɨɩɨɬɨɦɭɱɬɨ
ɢɦɩɭɥɶɫɵɞɚɟɬɫɟɝɨɞɧɹɲɧɟɟɛɭɪɧɨɟɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟɨɩɟɪɧɨɝɨɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚɷɧɬɭɡɢɚɡɦ
ɢɫɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɟɣɪɟɠɢɫɫɟɪɨɜɢɩɪɨɞɸɫɟɪɨɜɠɚɞɧɵɣɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɩɭɛɥɢɤɢɌɨɱɬɨ
ɦɭɡɵɤɨɜɟɞɱɟɫɤɚɹɦɵɫɥɶɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɞɥɹɫɟɛɹɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɤɚɤɜɝɥɭɛɢɧɚɯɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ
ɬɚɤɢɜɨɛɥɚɫɬɢɧɨɜɟɣɲɢɯɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɯɷɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɨɜɬɨɧɚɫɤɨɥɶɤɨɩɪɢ
ɫɬɚɥɶɧɨɧɟɬɨɥɶɤɨɭɱɟɧɵɟɧɨɢɦɭɡɵɤɚɧɬɵɢɫɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɢɩɨɝɪɭɠɚɸɬɫɹɜɚɪ
ɯɢɜɧɵɟɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɵɢɨɬɤɪɵɜɚɸɬɞɥɹɫɟɛɹɧɨɜɵɟɢɦɟɧɚɬɨɤɚɤɬɳɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ
ɝɨɬɨɜɹɬɫɹɧɨɜɵɟɚɤɚɞɟɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɢɡɞɚɧɢɹɨɩɟɪɧɵɯɩɚɪɬɢɬɭɪɨɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɜɱɟ
ɪɚɦɨɠɧɨɛɵɥɨɬɨɥɶɤɨɦɟɱɬɚɬɶɤɚɤɨɫɬɪɨɢɫɤɚɤɢɦɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɦɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢɦɚ
ɸɬɫɹɬɨɥɶɤɨɱɬɨɧɚɩɢɫɚɧɧɵɟɨɩɟɪɧɵɟɫɨɱɢɧɟɧɢɹ²ɜɫɟɜɧɭɲɚɟɬɧɚɞɟɠɞɭɧɚ
ɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɭɸɠɢɡɧɶɢɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɬɟɚɬɪɚɢɧɚɭɱɧɵɯɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚ
ɧɢɣɟɦɭɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɧɵɯ

Ⱦɨɤɬɨɪɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɨɪ
ɂɉɋɭɫɢɞɤɨ
17

PREFACE

The articles included in this compilation are written based on the materials of
presentations made at the International Scholarly Conference “Opera in Musical
Theater: History and Present Time” (November 11–15, 2019) at the Russian
Gnessins’ Academy of Music and the State Institute for Art Studies. The event
was supported by the Russian Foundation for Fundamental Research (project No.
19-012-20019). The conference’s conception was defined by the attitude towards
opera as a synthetic, theatrical phenomenon. Such an approach has made it possible
to consolidate the efforts of scholars of various disciplines — musicologists,
theatre historians, specialists in the visual arts, and theoreticians and practitioners
of theatrical activities. The necessity of such a unification took shape a long time
ago, since the currently accepted thesis about the synthetic character of opera,
as a rule, is realized insufficiently in practice, and scholars seldom surpass the
frameworks of their scholarly specializations. The topicality of interdisciplinary
research of operatic art is felt especially acutely in our time, when opera became
an arena of avant-garde experiments of composers and producers, arousing sharp
debates and demanding new criteria of analysis and evaluation, new approaches
towards interpretation.
The structure of this edition reflects the problems of the conference. A number
of questions of special significance for contemporary scholarship was discussed at
the conference. The following may be related to the fundamental issues which have
defined the thematic directions of the scholarly forum: a new comprehension of
historical development of opera in the sociocultural and theatrical contexts cleansed
of ideological clichés and founded on relevant scholarly-documental research; the
relation of contemporary musical theatre to the classical heritage, the processes of
formation of new genres and musical-dramatic forms and their correlation with
historical experience; development and approbation of “integral” methodological
approaches to studying the art of opera in the unity of all their components (music,
the verbal text, visual manifestation) and, correspondingly, the search for points of
connection between contiguous humanitarian and art study disciplines.
A separate topical unit was formed by presentations which touched upon
various aspects of interaction between Russian and Western European musical

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ɉɊɂȼȿɌɋɌȼɂȿɈɌɉɊȿɁɂȾȿɇɌȺ
ɊɈɋɋɂɃɋɄɈɃȺɄȺȾȿɆɂɂɆɍɁɕɄɂ
ɂɆȿɇɂȽɇȿɋɂɇɕɏ

ɋɨɝɪɨɦɧɵɦɭɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɢɟɦɩɪɢɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɨɜɆɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞ
ɧɨɣɤɨɧɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɢ©Ɉɩɟɪɚɜɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɦɬɟɚɬɪɟɢɫɬɨɪɢɹɢɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧ
ɧɨɫɬɶªɤɨɬɨɪɚɹɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɬɫɹɜɝɨɞɥɟɬɢɹɊɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɣɚɤɚɞɟɦɢɢɦɭɡɵɤɢ
Ⱦɥɹɧɚɫɛɨɥɶɲɚɹɪɚɞɨɫɬɶɢɱɟɫɬɶɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɬɶɧɚɤɨɧɮɟɟɪɧɰɢɢɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɵɯ
ɭɱɟɧɵɯɢɡȺɜɫɬɪɢɢȼɟɥɢɤɨɛɪɢɬɚɧɢɢȽɟɪɦɚɧɢɢȽɪɟɰɢɢɂɫɩɚɧɢɢɂɬɚ
ɥɢɢɄɚɡɚɯɫɬɚɧɚɄɢɬɚɹɅɢɬɜɵɆɟɤɫɢɤɢɉɨɥɶɲɢɊɨɫɫɢɢɋɒȺɌɚɢ
ɥɚɧɞɚɍɤɪɚɢɧɵɏɨɪɜɚɬɢɢəɧɚɞɟɸɫɶɱɬɨɤɨɧɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɹɩɪɢɧɟɫɟɬɛɨɥɶ
ɲɭɸɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɭɸɩɨɥɶɡɭ²ɤɚɤɧɚɭɱɧɭɸɬɚɤɢɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɭɸ
ɀɟɥɚɸɜɫɟɦɭɫɩɟɯɚ

ȽɚɥɢɧɚɆɚɹɪɨɜɫɤɚɹ


ɉɊɂȼȿɌɋɌȼɂȿɈɌɊȿɄɌɈɊȺ
ɊɈɋɋɂɃɋɄɈɃȺɄȺȾȿɆɂɂɆɍɁɕɄɂ
ɂɆȿɇɂȽɇȿɋɂɇɕɏ

ɍɜɚɠɚɟɦɵɟɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɢɢɝɨɫɬɢɆɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɣɧɚɭɱɧɨɣɤɨɧɮɟɪɟɧ
ɰɢɢ©Ɉɩɟɪɚɜɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɦɬɟɚɬɪɟɢɫɬɨɪɢɹɢɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɫɬɶª
ɆɵɨɱɟɧɶɪɚɞɵɩɪɢɜɟɬɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɜɫɬɟɧɚɯɊɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɣɚɤɚɞɟɦɢɢɦɭ
ɡɵɤɢɢɦɟɧɢȽɧɟɫɢɧɵɯɧɚɲɢɯɞɨɪɨɝɢɯɞɪɭɡɟɣ²ɜɵɞɚɸɳɢɯɫɹɭɱɟɧɵɯ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɢɯɊɨɫɫɢɸɫɬɪɚɧɵȿɜɪɨɩɵȺɡɢɢɋɒȺ
Ɉɛɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɟɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹɨɞɧɨɝɨɢɡɫɚɦɵɯɡɧɚɱɢɦɵɯɠɚɧɪɨɜ
ɜɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɦɢɪɨɜɨɝɨɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚɩɨɪɚɠɚɟɬɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟɦ
ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚɬɢɤɢɢɧɨɜɢɡɧɨɣɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɫɤɢɯɪɚɤɭɪɫɨɜ±ɜɨɩɪɨɫɵɨɩɟɪ
ɧɨɣɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɰɢɢɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɢɢɪɟɠɢɫɫɭɪɵɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɦɟ
ɧɟɞɠɦɟɧɬɚɜɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɣɩɟɞɚɝɨɝɢɤɢɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵɜɲɢɪɨɤɨɦɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟ
ɫɤɨɦɢɝɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɟ
ɋɬɨɥɶɦɚɫɲɬɚɛɧɵɣɧɚɭɱɧɵɣɮɨɪɭɦ²ɡɚɦɟɱɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɩɨɞɚɪɨɤɊɨɫ
ɫɢɣɫɤɨɣɚɤɚɞɟɦɢɢɦɭɡɵɤɢɢɦɟɧɢȽɧɟɫɢɧɵɯɨɬɦɟɱɚɸɳɟɣɜɝɨɞɭ
ɥɟɬɧɸɸɝɨɞɨɜɳɢɧɭɫɨɞɧɹɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɹ

ȺɥɟɤɫɚɧɞɪɊɵɠɢɧɫɤɢɣ


ɉɊɂȼȿɌɋɌȼɂȿɈɌɊȿɀɂɋɋȿɊȺ
ȺɅȿɄɋȺɇȾɊȺɌɂɌȿɅə
əɪɚɞɩɪɢɜɟɬɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɤɨɧɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɸ©Ɉɩɟɪɚɜɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɦɬɟɚɬɪɟ
ɢɫɬɨɪɢɹɢɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɫɬɶªɤɨɬɨɪɚɹɛɭɞɟɬɩɪɨɯɨɞɢɬɶɜɫɬɟɧɚɯɊɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɣ
ɚɤɚɞɟɦɢɢɦɭɡɵɤɢɢɦɟɧɢȽɧɟɫɢɧɵɯɆɧɟɷɬɨɬɟɦɛɨɥɟɟɩɪɢɹɬɧɨɜɟɞɶ
ɦɨɣɞɢɩɥɨɦɧɵɣɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɶ©ɇɟɬɨɥɶɤɨɥɸɛɨɜɶªɩɨɨɩɟɪɟɊɄɓɟɞɪɢɧɚ
ɪɨɞɢɥɫɹɢɦɟɧɧɨɡɞɟɫɶɜɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɨɪɨɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣɢɬɟɩɥɨɣɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɟ
ȼɢɞɢɦɨɢɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɶɩɨɥɭɱɢɥɫɹɯɨɪɨɲɢɣɊɨɞɢɨɧɄɨɧɫɬɚɧɬɢɧɨɜɢɱɩɨ
ɬɨɦɦɧɨɝɨɪɚɡɨɧɟɦɜɫɩɨɦɢɧɚɥ«
Ɍɨɱɬɨɬɚɤɨɟɫɨɥɢɞɧɨɟɢɦɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɨɟɫɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɨɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨ
ɧɚɥɨɜɫɨɛɢɪɚɟɬɫɹɩɨɝɨɜɨɪɢɬɶɨɛɨɩɟɪɟɢɟɟɫɰɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɢɧɟɬɨɥɶɤɨ 
ɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɹɯ²ɷɬɨɨɱɟɧɶɜɚɠɧɨɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɧɨɢɡɧɚɱɢɦɨɗɬɨɝɨɜɨɪɢɬ
ɨɬɨɦɱɬɨɜɨɩɪɟɤɢɩɟɪɢɨɞɢɱɟɫɤɢɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɹɳɢɦɩɨɯɨɪɨɧɚɦɠɚɧɪɚɨɧ
ɟɳɟɧɟɩɪɢɤɚɡɚɥɞɨɥɝɨɠɢɬɶɨɧɩɨɤɚɫɚɦɞɨɥɝɨɠɢɜɟɬɢɭɦɢɪɚɬɶɧɟɫɨ
ɛɢɪɚɟɬɫɹɗɬɨɭɞɢɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɨȾɚɦɵɩɨɢɦɟɧɢɈɩɟɪɚ²ɠɚɥɨ
ɜɚɬɶɫɹɧɚɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟɡɞɨɪɨɜɶɹɢɩɪɢɷɬɨɦɦɧɨɠɢɬɶɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨɬɟɚɬɪɨɜ
ɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɟɣɩɟɜɰɨɜɞɢɪɢɠɟɪɨɜɪɟɠɢɫɫɟɪɨɜ
ȾɥɹɧɚɫɜɊɨɫɫɢɢɨɱɟɧɶɜɚɠɧɨɱɬɨɛɵɨɩɟɪɚɫɬɚɥɚɥɸɛɢɦɚɜɫɟɛɨ
ɥɟɟɲɢɪɨɤɢɦɢɦɚɫɫɚɦɢɱɬɨɛɵɨɧɚɫɬɚɥɚɞɥɹɧɢɯɱɟɦɬɨɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɦ
ɱɬɨɛɵɨɧɚɧɟɛɵɥɚɩɪɟɞɦɟɬɨɦɥɸɛɜɢɢɢɞɨɥɨɩɨɤɥɨɧɫɬɜɚɬɨɥɶɤɨɭɡɤɨɝɨ
ɤɪɭɝɚɦɟɥɨɦɚɧɨɜɧɨɛɵɥɚɞɨɫɬɭɩɧɚɜɫɟɦɤɬɨɥɸɛɢɬɦɭɡɵɤɭɢɬɟɚɬɪɍ
ɧɚɫɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɜɬɟɚɬɪɚɯɧɚɦɧɨɝɨɦɨɥɨɠɟɱɟɦɜɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɢɯɬɟɚɬɪɚɯɗɬɨ
ɨɬɪɚɞɧɨɇɨɤɚɤɫɞɟɥɚɬɶɬɚɤɱɬɨɛɵɨɧɢɧɟɭɲɥɢɢɩɪɢɲɥɨɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɟɟ
ɩɨɤɨɥɟɧɢɟ"ɑɬɨɞɥɹɷɬɨɝɨɧɭɠɧɨɫɞɟɥɚɬɶɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɚɦɬɟɚɬɪɚ"ɑɬɨɧɭɠɧɨ
ɫɞɟɥɚɬɶɜɚɦ²ɬɟɨɪɟɬɢɤɚɦ"ɑɬɨɧɭɠɧɨɫɞɟɥɚɬɶɧɚɦɜɫɟɦɱɬɨɛɵɭɠɚɧ
ɪɚɩɨɹɜɢɥɢɫɶɧɨɜɵɟɫɬɨɪɨɧɧɢɤɢɱɬɨɛɵɨɩɟɪɧɵɣɬɟɚɬɪɜɨɲɟɥɜɠɢɡɧɶ
ɦɢɥɥɢɨɧɨɜ"Ɉɩɟɪɚ²ɷɬɨɭɧɢɤɚɥɶɧɨɟɯɭɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟɹɜɥɟɧɢɟɫɩɨɫɨɛ
ɧɨɟɨɛɨɝɚɬɢɬɶɧɚɲɭɠɢɡɧɶɢɞɚɬɶɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɭɩɪɢɲɟɞɲɟɦɭɜɡɚɥɬɟɚɬɪɚɧɟ
ɬɨɥɶɤɨɦɨɳɧɵɣɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣɡɚɪɹɞɢɩɨɬɪɹɫɟɧɢɟɧɨɢɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɶ
ɤɚɤɭɸɬɨɢɧɭɸɬɨɱɤɭɡɪɟɧɢɹɧɚɬɨɱɬɨɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬɫɧɢɦɢɜɨɤɪɭɝɧɟɝɨ
əɠɟɥɚɸɜɚɦɭɫɩɟɯɚ

ȺɥɟɤɫɚɧɞɪɌɢɬɟɥɶ


ɉɊɂȼȿɌɋɌȼɂȿɈɌɄɈɆɉɈɁɂɌɈɊȺ
ȼɅȺȾɂɆɂɊȺɌȺɊɇɈɉɈɅɖɋɄɈȽɈ

ɋɪɚɞɨɫɬɶɸɢɭɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɢɟɦɩɪɢɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɨɜɤɨɧɮɟɪɟɧ
ɰɢɢ©Ɉɩɟɪɚɜɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɦɬɟɚɬɪɟª
Ɉɩɟɪɚ²ɧɚɜɟɪɧɨɟɫɚɦɵɣɩɚɪɚɞɨɤɫɚɥɶɧɵɣɠɚɧɪɜɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɦɭɡɵ
ɤɢɊɨɞɢɜɲɢɫɶɢɡɩɨɩɵɬɤɢɜɨɡɪɨɠɞɟɧɢɹɢɞɟɣɚɧɬɢɱɧɨɫɬɢɧɚɢɡɥɟɬɟɊɟ
ɧɟɫɫɚɧɫɚɦɨɠɧɨɫɤɚɡɚɬɶɜɸɧɨɲɟɫɤɭɸɩɨɪɭɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚɇɨɜɨɝɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ
ɨɩɟɪɚɤɚɤɠɚɧɪɧɟɩɪɟɪɵɜɧɨɨɛɧɨɜɥɹɥɚɫɶɪɟɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɥɚɫɶɡɚɤɨɫɧɟɜɚ
ɥɚɤɪɢɬɢɤɨɜɚɥɚɫɶɢɨɠɢɜɚɥɚɜɧɨɜɶɢɜɧɨɜɶɂɢɦɟɧɧɨɨɩɟɪɚɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɥɚɫɶ
ɫɢɦɜɨɥɨɦɡɪɟɥɨɫɬɢɟɞɜɚɥɢɧɟɤɚɠɞɨɣɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵɬɟɦɠɚɧ
ɪɨɦɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ©ɬɟɦɚɬɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɥªɢɫɬɨɪɢɸɫɬɪɚɧɵ©ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɥªɟɟɤɭɥɶɬɭ
ɪɭɢɞɚɠɟ©ɨɛɨɛɳɚɥªɟɟɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɢɞɟɢȼɟɱɧɚɹɛɨɪɶɛɚ©ɝɥɸɤɢɫɬɨɜª
ɢɩɢɱɱɢɧɢɫɬɨɜªɚɬɚɤɠɟɢɯɦɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɚɜɚɬɚɪɨɜɧɚ
ɩɪɨɬɹɠɟɧɢɢɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɯɜɟɤɨɜɛɵɥɚɡɧɚɤɨɦɱɪɟɡɜɵɱɚɣɧɨɣɜɚɠɧɨɫɬɢɢ
ɭɞɢɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣɠɢɡɧɟɫɬɨɣɤɨɫɬɢɷɬɨɝɨɠɚɧɪɚɄɥɚɫɫɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɨɩɟɪɚ²ɷɬɨ
ɤɥɚɞɟɡɶɞɪɚɝɨɰɟɧɧɵɯɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɯɤɪɚɫɨɬɡɨɥɨɬɨɣɡɚɩɚɫɜɟɱɧɨɠɢɜɨ
ɝɨɦɟɥɨɫɚɷɬɨɜɵɫɲɚɹɫɬɢɯɢɹɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹɬɚɤɨɝɨɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɨɝɨɮɟɧɨɦɟ
ɧɚɤɚɤɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɟɫɤɢɣɝɨɥɨɫ
ȼɤɚɤɨɣɬɨɦɨɦɟɧɬɜɩɨɫɥɟɜɨɟɧɧɵɟɝɨɞɵɏɏɜɟɤɚɠɚɧɪɨɩɟɪɵ
ɩɨɞɜɟɪɝɫɹɠɟɫɬɤɨɣɨɛɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɢɫɨɫɬɨɪɨɧɵɪɚɞɢɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɚɜɚɧɝɚɪɞɚɢɡ
ɡɚ©ɯɨɞɭɥɶɧɨɫɬɢªɛɟɫɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɣ©ɩɨɜɬɨɪɹɟɦɨɫɬɢɢɞɟɣªɢɯɭɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧ
ɧɵɯɩɪɢɟɦɨɜȼɟɝɨɞɵɤɚɡɚɥɨɫɶɱɬɨɢɫɬɨɪɢɹɨɩɟɪɵɤɚɤɠɚɧɪɚɡɚ
ɤɨɧɱɢɥɚɫɶɨɩɟɪɚ©ɭɬɨɧɭɥɚɜɪɭɬɢɧɟªȼɝɨɞɭɉɶɟɪȻɭɥɟɡɩɪɢɡɜɚɥ
©ɜɡɨɪɜɚɬɶɨɩɟɪɧɵɟɬɟɚɬɪɵªɈɞɧɚɤɨɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɟɦȻɭɥɟɡɜɨɲɟɥɜɢɫɬɨ
ɪɢɸɨɩɟɪɧɨɝɨɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚɤɚɤɨɞɢɧɢɡɫɚɦɵɯɹɪɤɢɯɞɢɪɢɠɟɪɨɜɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟ
ɬɚɬɨɪɨɜɨɩɟɪȾɟɛɸɫɫɢȻɟɪɝɚȼɚɝɧɟɪɚȻɚɪɬɨɤɚəɧɚɱɟɤɚɄɬɨɦɭɠɟɜ
ɤɨɧɰɟɠɢɡɧɢɨɧɫɚɦɩɥɚɧɢɪɨɜɚɥɧɚɩɢɫɚɬɶɨɩɟɪɭ©ȼɨɠɢɞɚɧɢɢȽɨɞɨªɞɥɹ
ɬɟɚɬɪɚɅɚɋɤɚɥɚ ɩɪɟɦɶɟɪɚɩɟɪɜɨɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɨɩɥɚɧɢɪɨɜɚɥɚɫɶɧɚɝɨɞ 
ɋɟɝɨɞɧɹɤɨɝɞɚɜɨɡɧɢɤɥɢɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɨɧɨɜɵɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢɪɚɫɲɢɪɟ
ɧɢɹɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɚɤɭɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɫɪɟɞɵɦɭɡɵɤɢɢɦɭɥɶɬɢɦɟɞɢɣɧɨɝɨ
ɫɢɧɬɟɡɚɟɞɜɚɥɢɧɟɤɚɠɞɵɣɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɥɢɛɨɩɢɲɟɬɧɨɜɭɸɨɩɟɪɭɥɢɛɨ
ɦɟɱɬɚɟɬɟɟɧɚɩɢɫɚɬɶɄɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɵɫɨɡɞɚɸɬɨɩɟɪɵ²ɨɩɟɪɚɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɟɬ

ɧɚɲɭɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɭɸɢɫɬɨɪɢɸȺɭɱɟɧɵɟɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɚɸɬɢɯɢɡɭɱɚɬɶɂɡɚɦɟ
ɱɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɱɬɨɪɨɞɢɥɚɫɶɫɚɦɚɢɞɟɹɬɚɤɨɝɨɦɚɫɲɬɚɛɧɨɝɨɢɪɚɡɧɨɫɬɨɪɨɧɧɟ
ɝɨ©ɦɨɡɝɨɜɨɝɨɲɬɭɪɦɚªɤɚɤɜɚɲɚɤɨɧɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɹɀɟɥɚɸɟɣɭɫɩɟɯɚɢɹɪ
ɤɢɯɧɚɭɱɧɵɯɨɬɤɪɵɬɢɣ

ȼɥɚɞɢɦɢɪɌɚɪɧɨɩɨɥɶɫɤɢɣ
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ඍඁൾൺඍൾඋආඎඌංർൺඇൽർൺඍඁൺඋඌංඌ
ඍඁൾർඅൺඌඌංർൺඅඌඒඌඍൾආඈൿർඈඈඋൽංඇൺඍൾඌ

ȺɧɧɨɬɚɰɢɹȺɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɶɜ©ɉɨɥɢɬɢɤɟªɜɫɤɨɥɶɡɶɝɨɜɨɪɢɬɨɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫɟɜɫɜɹɡɢ
ɫɦɭɡɵɤɨɣɢɨɛɟɳɚɟɬɫɤɚɡɚɬɶɨɧɟɦɹɫɧɟɟɜɫɜɨɟɣ©ɉɨɷɬɢɤɟªȼ©ɉɨɷɬɢɤɟªɜɱɚ
ɫɬɢɨɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɢɬɟɪɦɢɧ©ɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫªɜɨɩɪɟɤɢɨɛɟɳɚɧɢɸɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɹɟɬɫɹɛɟɡɨɜɫɹ
ɤɢɯɩɨɹɫɧɟɧɢɣɉɨɷɬɨɦɭɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɫɱɢɬɚɸɬɱɬɨȺɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɶɞɚɥɟɦɭɨɛɴɹɫɧɟ
ɧɢɹɜɭɬɪɚɱɟɧɧɨɣɜɬɨɪɨɣɤɧɢɝɟ©ɉɨɷɬɢɤɢªɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɧɨɣɤɨɦɟɞɢɢɉɨɡɞɧɟɣɲɚɹ
ɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɚɹɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɚɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɹɥɚɷɬɨɬɬɟɪɦɢɧɢɡɚɧɬɢɱɧɨɫɬɢɩɭɫɬɶɧɟɪɚɫɩɨɥɚ
ɝɚɹɟɝɨɬɨɱɧɵɦɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟɦɢɨɳɭɬɢɥɚɟɝɨɜɟɥɢɤɭɸɜɚɠɧɨɫɬɶɞɥɹɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚ
ɨɬɫɸɞɚɦɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɟɬɟɨɪɢɢɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫɚɩɨɹɜɥɹɜɲɢɟɫɹɪɟɝɭɥɹɪɧɨɫɷɩɨɯɢ
ȼɨɡɪɨɠɞɟɧɢɹɢɞɨɧɚɲɢɯɞɧɟɣɉɨɞɚɜɥɹɸɳɟɟɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɨɚɜɬɨɪɨɜɩɢɫɚɜɲɢɯ
ɨɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫɟɧɟɫɨɦɧɟɜɚɸɬɫɹɜɬɨɦɱɬɨȺɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɶɢɦɟɥɜɜɢɞɭɨɱɢɳɟɧɢɟɤɚɤ
ɞɭɲɟɜɧɵɣɨɩɵɬɡɪɢɬɟɥɟɣɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɢɄɬɨɬɨɜɢɞɢɬɜɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫɟɹɜɥɟɧɢɟɷɦɨɰɢɨ
ɧɚɥɶɧɨɣɩɪɢɪɨɞɵɬɨɥɤɭɹɟɝɨɤɚɤɫɩɨɫɨɛɭɦɢɪɨɬɜɨɪɟɧɢɹɡɪɢɬɟɥɶɫɤɢɯɫɬɪɚɫɬɟɣ
ɱɟɪɟɡɫɥɟɡɵɫɦɢɪɟɧɢɟɢɩɪȾɪɭɝɢɟɢɧɬɟɩɪɟɬɢɪɭɸɬɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫɤɚɤɹɜɥɟɧɢɟɭɦ
ɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣɩɪɢɪɨɞɵɢɭɬɜɟɪɠɞɚɸɬɱɬɨɫɭɬɶɟɝɨɜɹɫɧɨɦɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɢɢɫɬɢɧɧɨɝɨɩɨ
ɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɞɟɥɢɭɪɨɤɨɜɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɢɨɩɵɬɭɦɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣɱɢɫɬɨɬɵɬɚɤɠɟɭɦɢɪɨɬɜɨɪɹ
ɟɬɞɭɲɢɡɪɢɬɟɥɟɣȼɫɬɚɬɶɟɪɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɵɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟɚɫɩɟɤɬɵɫɭɳɧɨɫɬɧɨɣɫɜɹɡɢ
ɦɟɠɞɭɬɟɚɬɪɨɦɦɭɡɵɤɨɣɢɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫɨɦɭɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɧɨɣɧɚɡɚɪɟɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɝɨɬɟɚ
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ɟɥɶɷɬɨɣɫɬɚɬɶɢɜɬɨɦɱɬɨɛɵɟɳɟɪɚɡɩɪɨɱɟɪɬɢɬɶɫɢɫɬɟɦɭɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬ
ɢɥɢɮɢɥɨɫɨɮɫɤɢɯɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɞɚɟɬɧɚɦɚɧɬɢɱɧɚɹɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɚ²
ɜɩɟɪɜɭɸɨɱɟɪɟɞɶȺɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɶɫɜɹɡɚɜɲɢɣɜɨɟɞɢɧɨɩɨɧɹɬɢɹ©ɬɟɚɬɪª
©ɦɭɡɵɤɚª©ɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫª
Ɂɚɱɟɦɧɚɦɫɟɝɨɞɧɹɲɧɢɦɜɨɡɜɪɚɳɚɬɶɫɹɤɪɟɚɥɢɹɦɫɬɨɥɶɫɬɚɪɢɧɧɵɦ"ȼɟ
ɪɨɹɬɧɨɧɟɞɥɹɬɨɝɨɱɬɨɛɵɩɥɚɱɚɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɬɶɫɟɛɟɢɞɪɭɝɢɦɜɤɚɤɨɣɹɫɧɨɫɬɢ
ɱɢɫɬɨɬɟɢɝɚɪɦɨɧɢɢɥɸɞɢɠɢɥɢɪɚɧɶɲɟɚɫɟɣɱɚɫɭɠɟɧɟɠɢɜɭɬɌɨɫɤɚɩɨɭɬɪɚ
ɱɟɧɧɨɣɱɢɫɬɨɬɟɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵ±ɷɥɥɢɧɫɤɨɣɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵɤɨɬɨɪɚɹɞɥɹɧɚɫɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɨɛ
ɪɚɡɰɨɦɱɢɫɬɨɬɵ²ɜɨɡɧɢɤɥɚɪɚɧɶɲɟɱɟɦɛɵɥɚɧɚɩɢɫɚɧɚ©ɉɨɷɬɢɤɚªɂɫɬɨ
ɪɢɤɢɩɢɫɚɬɟɥɶȺɪɢɫɬɨɤɫɟɧɢɡɌɚɪɟɧɬɚɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɢɤȺɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɹɩɪɢɦɟɪɧɨ
ɡɚɱɟɬɜɟɪɬɶɜɟɤɚɞɨ©ɉɨɷɬɢɤɢªɭɠɟɫɪɚɜɧɢɜɚɥɫɟɛɹɢɫɜɨɢɯɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɢɤɨɜɫ
ɧɟɤɢɦɢɠɢɬɟɥɹɦɢɉɨɫɟɣɞɨɧɢɢɩɥɚɤɚɜɲɢɦɢɩɨɩɨɜɨɞɭɫɜɨɟɝɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ
ɷɥɥɢɧɫɬɜɚɡɚɝɭɛɥɟɧɧɨɝɨɢɭɬɪɚɱɟɧɧɨɝɨɜɯɨɞɟɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ
©Ɇɵ²ɤɚɤɠɢɬɟɥɢɉɨɫɟɣɞɨɧɢɢɨɛɢɬɚɸɳɢɟɧɚɛɟɪɟɝɚɯɌɢɪɪɟɧɫɤɨɝɨɡɚ
ɥɢɜɚȼɫɬɚɪɢɧɭɨɧɢɛɵɥɢɷɥɥɢɧɚɦɢɧɨɩɨɬɨɦɫɦɟɲɚɥɢɫɶɫɜɚɪɜɚɪɚɦɢɢɩɪɟ
ɜɪɚɬɢɥɢɫɶɜɬɢɪɪɟɧɨɜɢɪɢɦɥɹɧɩɟɪɟɦɟɧɢɥɢɹɡɵɤɢɩɪɨɱɢɟɨɛɵɱɚɢɨɞɧɚɤɨ
ɨɧɢɟɳɟɢɩɨɫɟɣɞɟɧɶɫɯɨɞɹɬɫɹɧɚɨɞɢɧɢɡɷɥɥɢɧɫɤɢɯɩɪɚɡɞɧɢɤɨɜɜɫɩɨɦɢɧɚɸɬ
ɫɬɚɪɢɧɧɵɟɫɥɨɜɚɢɩɨɪɹɞɤɢɝɨɪɸɸɬɩɨɧɢɦɩɥɚɱɭɬɢɪɚɫɯɨɞɹɬɫɹɩɨɞɨɦɚɦ
ȼɨɬɬɚɤɢɦɵɤɨɝɞɚɡɪɟɥɢɳɚɧɚɲɢɫɬɚɥɢɜɚɪɜɚɪɫɤɢɦɢɚɦɭɡɵɤɚɢɫɩɨɪɱɟɧɚ
ɨɛɳɟɞɨɫɬɭɩɧɵɦɜɤɭɫɨɦɦɵɧɟɦɧɨɝɢɟɨɫɬɚɜɲɢɟɫɹɧɚɟɞɢɧɟɫɫɨɛɨɣɜɫɩɨɦɢ
ɧɚɟɦɤɚɤɨɣɷɬɚɦɭɡɵɤɚɛɵɥɚɩɪɟɠɞɟª>@
Ɇɵɜɫɩɨɦɢɧɚɟɦɨɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫɟɫɟɝɨɞɧɹɜɫɜɹɡɢɫɤɥɚɫɫɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɬɟɚɬɪɨɦɢ
ɦɭɡɵɤɨɣɧɟɩɨɬɨɦɭɱɬɨɫɬɚɥɢɠɢɬɟɥɹɦɢɉɨɫɟɣɞɨɧɢɢ²ɷɥɥɢɧɚɦɢɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ
ɫɭɞɶɛɚɡɚɝɧɚɥɚɧɚɛɟɪɟɝɚɌɢɪɪɟɧɫɤɨɝɨɦɨɪɹɢɡɚɫɬɚɜɢɥɚɨɛɳɚɬɶɫɹɫɜɚɪɜɚɪɚɦɢ
ɭɱɚɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɜɜɨɣɧɚɯɫɪɢɦɥɹɧɚɦɢɫɦɟɲɢɜɚɬɶɫɹɫɞɪɭɝɢɦɢɧɚɪɨɞɚɦɢɢɬɟɦ
ɫɚɦɵɦɡɚɝɪɹɡɧɹɬɶɫɜɨɸɛɵɥɭɸɱɢɫɬɨɬɭɢɭɧɨɫɢɬɶɫɹɩɪɨɱɶɢɩɪɨɱɶɨɬɞɪɟɜɧɟ
ɝɨɡɨɥɨɬɨɝɨɜɟɤɚȾɟɥɨɜɢɞɢɦɨɜɞɪɭɝɨɦȺɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɶɞɚɜɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟɬɪɚɝɟ
ɞɢɢɨɬɤɪɵɥɛɟɫɤɨɧɟɱɧɵɣɧɚɭɱɧɵɣɫɸɠɟɬɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɛɥɚɝɨɞɚɪɹɢɫɜɨɟɣɡɚɝɚɞɤɟ
ɢɦɚɧɹɳɟɣɪɚɡɝɚɞɵɜɚɟɦɨɫɬɢɛɵɥɜɨɫɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɜɨɜɫɟɷɩɨɯɢɤɨɝɞɚɪɚɡɦɵɲɥɹ
ɥɢɨɫɭɳɧɨɫɬɢɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚ

ɉɟɪɟɜɨɞɇɌȽɨɥɢɧɤɟɜɢɱɚ
Ɍɟɚɬɪɦɭɡɵɤɚɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫ 
©Ʉɚɬɚɪɫɢɫɭªɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɚɡɧɚɦɟɧɢɬɚɹɤɥɚɭɡɭɥɚɢɥɢɤɨɧɰɨɜɤɚɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ
ɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɢɢɡ©ɉɨɷɬɢɤɢª ɞɚɥɟɟɜɰɢɬɚɬɟɨɧɚɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɚɤɭɪɫɢɜɨɦ ©Ɍɪɚɝɟɞɢɹɟɫɬɶ
ɩɨɞɪɚɠɚɧɢɟɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɸɞɨɫɬɨɣɧɨɦɭɢɡɚɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɨɦɭɢɦɟɸɳɟɦɭɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɣ
ɨɛɴɟɦɫɨɜɟɪɲɚɟɦɨɟɫɩɨɦɨɳɶɸ!ɪɟɱɢɭɫɥɚɳɟɧɧɨɣɩɨɪɚɡɧɨɦɭɜɪɚɡɧɵɯɟɟ
ɱɚɫɬɹɯɱɟɪɟɡɜɵɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ!ɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯɚɧɟɜɩɨɜɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɢɱɟɪɟɡɫɨɫɬɪɚ
ɞɚɧɢɟɢɫɬɪɚɯɫɨɜɟɪɲɚɸɳɟɟɨɱɢɳɟɧɢɟɩɨɞɨɛɧɵɯɚɮɮɟɤɬɨɜª>@
Ɏɢɥɨɥɨɝɢɡɚɦɟɬɢɥɢɱɬɨɤɥɚɭɡɭɥɚɨɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫɟɜɨɡɧɢɤɥɚɜ©ɉɨɷɬɢɤɟªɛɟɡ
ɩɨɞɝɨɬɨɜɤɢɢɨɛɴɹɫɧɟɧɢɹɜɩɪɟɞɵɞɭɳɢɯɩɹɬɢɝɥɚɜɚɯȽɗɥɫɩɢɲɟɬ©ɗɬɚɱɚɫɬɶ
ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹɧɢɤɨɢɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɦɧɟɩɨɞɝɨɬɨɜɥɟɧɚª>±@Ⱦɪɭɝɢɟɬɟɪɦɢ
ɧɵɩɪɹɦɨɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɧɵɟɢɥɢɩɨɞɪɚɡɭɦɟɜɚɟɦɵɟɜɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɢɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɢɬɚɤ
ɢɥɢɢɧɚɱɟɛɵɥɢɨɛɴɹɫɧɟɧɵȺɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɟɦ©ɩɨɞɪɚɠɚɧɢɟª©ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟªɫɤɥɨɧ
ɧɨɫɬɶɩɨɷɬɨɜɤɜɵɫɨɤɨɦɭ ɞɨɫɬɨɣɧɨɦɭ ɢɧɢɡɤɨɦɭɢɬɞ²ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɜɫɟ
ɤɪɨɦɟ©ɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫɚªɉɨɷɬɨɦɭɨɩɪɚɜɞɚɧɨɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟ ɞɨɤɚɡɚɬɶɟɝɨɪɚɡɭɦɟ
ɟɬɫɹɧɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ ɱɬɨɤɥɚɭɡɭɥɭɨɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫɟȺɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɶɞɨɛɚɜɢɥɤɭɠɟɝɨɬɨ
ɜɨɦɭɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɸɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɢɜɟɪɧɭɜɲɢɫɶɤɧɟɦɭɜɯɨɞɟɧɚɩɢɫɚɧɢɹ©ɉɨɷɬɢɤɢª
Ⱥɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɶɮɢɥɨɫɨɮɩɟɞɚɧɬɢɱɧɵɣɜɬɨɦɱɬɨɤɚɫɚɟɬɫɹɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɣɬɟɪ
ɦɢɧɨɜɧɟɞɚɟɬɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫɭȼɫɟɬɟɨɪɢɢɨɬ;9,ɜɟɤɚɞɨɧɚɲɢɯɞɧɟɣ
ɢɫɯɨɞɹɬɢɡɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɣɝɪɟɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɫɥɨɜɚ©ɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫªɭɤɨɬɨɪɨ
ɝɨɦɧɨɝɨɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɣɢɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɨɜ
Ʉɚɤɨɬɦɟɱɚɸɬɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɟɢɫɬɨɪɢɤɢɬɟɚɬɪɚ©ɬɟɨɪɢɹ³ɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫɚ´Ⱥɪɢ
ɫɬɨɬɟɥɹɞɨɫɢɯɩɨɪɧɟɬɨɥɶɤɨɧɟɩɪɟɞɚɧɚɡɚɛɜɟɧɢɸɧɨɢɩɨɥɭɱɚɟɬɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟ
ɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɢ«ª>@ȼȿɜɪɨɩɟȼɨɡɪɨɠɞɟɧɢɹɢɇɨɜɨɝɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɢɢɞɟɹɤɚ
ɬɚɪɫɢɫɚɩɨɥɭɱɢɥɚɲɢɪɨɤɨɟɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟɧɟɬɨɥɶɤɨɜɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɟɚɤɚɞɟɦɢɣ
ɩɪɹɦɨɡɚɧɢɦɚɜɲɢɯɫɹɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɟɦɚɧɬɢɱɧɨɫɬɢɧɨɢɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪɜɬɟɚɬɪɟɢɟɡɭɢ
ɬɨɜ;9,,ɜɟɤɚ©Ⱦɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɬɟɨɪɢɹɬɟɚɬɪɚɢɟɡɭɢɬɨɜ!ɢɡɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɨɨɪɢɟɧ
ɬɢɪɨɜɚɥɚɫɶɧɚɪɟɚɥɢɢɬɟɚɬɪɚɋɟɧɟɤɢɫɬɪɟɦɢɜɲɟɝɨɫɹɜɨɡɛɭɞɢɬɶɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫɱɟ
ɪɟɡɲɨɤɢɭɠɚɫɧɚɫɢɥɢɟɢɤɪɨɜɶª>@ɜɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɦɹɡɵɤɟ©³ɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫ´
ɩɨɱɬɢɫɬɚɥɫɢɧɨɧɢɦɨɦɤɫɥɨɜɭ³ɢɫɰɟɥɟɧɢɟ´ª>@ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɟɚɧɬɪɨɩɨ
ɥɨɝɢɜɢɞɹɬɤɧɟɦɭɚɧɚɥɨɝɢɢɜɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɯɬɟɪɚɩɟɜɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɚɯ©³Ʉɚ
ɬɚɪɫɢɫ´«ɛɥɢɡɨɤɤɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɦɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɚɦɢɫɰɟɥɟɧɢɹɱɟɪɟɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɨ²ɬɚ
ɤɢɦɤɚɤNRODPɜɒɪɢɅɚɧɤɟ!ª>@ȼɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɯɬɪɭɞɚɯɩɨɷɫɬɟɬɢɤɟ
ɡɚɩɢɫɚɧɨɱɬɨɜɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫɟȺɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɶɜɢɞɢɬ©ɰɟɥɶɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɢª>@ȼ;;
ɜɟɤɟɨɯɨɬɧɨɪɚɫɫɭɠɞɚɸɬɢɨɛɨɥɟɟɨɛɳɢɯɜɟɳɚɯɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪɨɬɨɦɱɬɨɜɤɚ
ɬɚɪɫɢɫɟɡɚɤɥɸɱɟɧɵɫɦɵɫɥɢɩɪɟɞɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɜɫɟɝɨɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚɩɨɬɨɦɭɱɬɨɤɚ
ɬɚɪɫɢɫɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ©ɫɭɬɶɷɫɬɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɩɟɪɟɠɢɜɚɧɢɹª>@
ɋɚɦȺɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɶɨɰɟɥɹɯɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɢɝɨɜɨɪɢɬɜɩɨɥɧɟɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɨɢɛɟɡ
ɫɥɨɜɚ©ɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫªȼɨɞɧɨɦɦɟɫɬɟɭɧɟɝɨɫɤɚɡɚɧɨɱɬɨ©ɰɟɥɶɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɢ²ɩɨ
ɤɚɡɚɬɶ!ɤɚɤɨɟɬɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɚɧɟɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɨ«ɰɟɥɶɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɢɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬɫɨɛɵ
ɬɢɹɫɤɚɡɚɧɢɹª>@Ⱦɚɥɟɟɪɚɫɫɭɠɞɚɹɨɬɨɦɤɚɤɚɹɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɹɧɚɢɥɭɱɲɚɹ
Ⱥɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɶɜɧɨɜɶɧɟɩɪɨɢɡɧɟɫɟɬɧɢɫɥɨɜɚɨɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫɟɯɨɬɹɛɭɞɟɬɝɨɜɨɪɢɬɶ

ɉɟɪɟɜɨɞɆɅȽɚɫɩɚɪɨɜɚɫɨɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹɦɢ
 ȾȼɌɪɭɛɨɱɤɢɧ

ɨ©ɫɨɫɬɪɚɞɚɧɢɢɢɫɬɪɚɯɟªɤɚɤɨɛɷɦɨɰɢɹɯɩɟɪɟɞɚɸɳɢɯɫɭɬɶ©ɬɪɚɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨª
>±@ɷɬɢɷɦɨɰɢɢɞɨɥɠɟɧɜɵɡɵɜɚɬɶɫɚɦɫɸɠɟɬ²ɫɤɥɚɞɫɨɛɵɬɢɣɚɧɟ
ɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɨɱɧɵɟɷɮɮɟɤɬɵȿɳɟɜɞɪɭɝɨɦɦɟɫɬɟɨɧɫɤɚɠɟɬɱɬɨɬɪɚɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɩɨ
ɷɬɵɞɨɛɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ©ɬɪɚɝɢɱɧɨɫɬɢªɢɥɢɯɨɬɹɛɵ©ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɨɥɸɛɢɹªɢɫɧɨɜɚɧɟɞɨ
ɛɚɜɢɬɧɢɫɥɨɜɚɨɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫɟ>@
Ʉɚɤɨɟɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟɤɬɟɚɬɪɭɜɞɚɧɧɨɣɫɢɫɬɟɦɟɢɞɟɣɢɦɟɟɬɦɭɡɵɤɚ"Ɇɭ
ɡɵɤɚ²ɨɞɢɧɢɡɲɟɫɬɢɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɜɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɢȺɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɶɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɟɟ©ɝɥɚɜ
ɧɟɣɲɢɦɢɡɭɫɥɚɳɟɧɢɣª>@ȼɨɬɤɚɤɨɧɜɵɫɬɪɚɢɜɚɟɬɲɟɫɬɶɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɜɜ
ɩɨɪɹɞɤɟɭɛɵɜɚɧɢɹɜɚɠɧɨɫɬɢ ɫɸɠɟɬ P\WKRV  ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɵ ɦɵɫɥɶ 
ɪɟɱɶ ɦɭɡɵɤɚ ɡɪɟɥɢɳɟ RSVLV ɂɧɬɟɪɟɫɧɨɱɬɨɟɫɥɢɩɟɪɟɜɟɪɧɭɬɶɷɬɭɢɟ
ɪɚɪɯɢɸɜɨɡɧɢɤɧɟɬɜɟɫɶɦɚɭɡɧɚɜɚɟɦɵɣɢɬɨɱɧɵɣɢɟɪɚɪɯɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɩɨɪɹɞɨɤɷɥɟ
ɦɟɧɬɨɜɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɝɨ©ɜɢɡɭɚɥɶɧɨɝɨªɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɹ ɡɪɟɥɢɳɟ ɦɭɡɵɤɚ ɪɟɱɶ
ɨɧɚɦɨɠɟɬɛɵɬɶɛɟɡɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɧɨɣɦɵɫɥɢ  ɦɵɫɥɶ ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɵ ɜɬɪɚɤɬɨɜ
ɤɟɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɟɣɨɧɢɦɨɝɭɬɛɵɬɶɧɚɜɬɨɪɨɦɩɥɚɧɟ  ɫɸɠɟɬ ɟɝɨɦɨɠɟɬɜɨɨɛ
ɳɟɧɟɛɵɬɶ Ⱦɚɥɟɟɜ©ɉɨɷɬɢɤɟªɩɨɫɥɟȽɥɚɜɵ9,ɧɟɬɩɪɹɦɵɯɪɚɫɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɣɨ
ɦɭɡɵɤɟɨɞɧɚɤɨɜɚɠɧɟɣɲɢɟɜɟɳɢɨɧɟɣȺɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɶɩɪɨɢɡɧɟɫɜɧɚɱɚɥɟɬɪɚɤ
ɬɚɬɚɢɜɞɪɭɝɢɯɫɨɱɢɧɟɧɢɹɯ
ȼɨɩɟɪɜɵɯɞɜɟɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟɩɪɢɱɢɧɵɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɹɩɨɷɡɢɢɩɨȺɪɢ
ɫɬɨɬɟɥɸ©ɝɚɪɦɨɧɢɹɢɪɢɬɦª>@ɜɦɟɫɬɟɫɦɟɥɨɫɨɦɨɧɢɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬɫɭɬɶ
ɦɭɡɵɤɢ
ȼɨɜɬɨɪɵɯɦɭɡɵɤɚ²ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟɪɚɡɜɢɬɨɟɢɡɜɫɟɯɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɨ
ɜɚɜɲɢɯɫɹɚɮɢɧɫɤɢɦɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɨɦɜɩɟɪɢɨɞɞɨɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹɬɟɚɬɪɚɚɦɭɡɵ
ɤɚɧɬɵ²ɩɟɪɜɵɟɢɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟɚɜɬɨɪɢɬɟɬɧɵɟɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɵɢɫɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɫɤɢɯ
ɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɇɟɭɞɢɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɱɬɨɢɦɟɧɧɨɜɫɪɟɞɟɦɭɡɵɤɚɧɬɨɜɛɵɥɢɬɟɤɬɨɩɨ
ɫɥɨɜɚɦȺɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɹɢɡɨɛɪɟɥɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɸ©ɡɚɩɟɜɚɥɵɞɢɮɢɪɚɦɛɚª ɛɭɤɜɚɥɶɧɨ
©ɡɚɱɢɧɚɬɟɥɢɞɢɮɢɪɚɦɛɚª ɉɨɷɬɨɦɭɝɥɚɜɧɵɣɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɣɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɞɢ
ɮɢɪɚɦɛɚɢɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯɠɟɪɬɜɨɩɪɢɧɨɲɟɧɢɣ²ɞɜɨɣɧɨɣɚɜɥɨɫ ɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶ
ɧɵɣɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬȾɢɨɧɢɫɚ ²ɩɟɪɟɲɟɥɢɡɞɢɮɢɪɚɦɛɚɜɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɸɚɢɡɩɪɚɡɞ
ɧɢɱɧɵɯɲɟɫɬɜɢɣɧɚɨɛɪɹɞɚɯɩɥɨɞɨɪɨɞɢɹɨɬ©ɡɚɩɟɜɚɥɮɚɥɥɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɩɟɫɟɧª
ɩɨȺɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɸ²ɜɤɨɦɟɞɢɸȾɜɨɣɧɨɣɚɜɥɨɫɨɫɬɚɜɚɥɫɹɢɜɩɨɡɞɧɟɣɚɧɬɢɱ
ɧɨɫɬɢɜɚɠɧɟɣɲɢɦɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɦɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɨɦɬɟɚɬɪɚ
ɂɬɚɤɜ©ɉɨɷɬɢɤɟªɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɚɫɜɹɡɶɦɟɠɞɭɬɟɚɬɪɨɦɢɦɭɡɵɤɨɣɬɟɚɬɪɨɦ
ɢɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫɨɦɋɜɹɡɶɦɟɠɞɭɦɭɡɵɤɨɣɢɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫɨɦɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɚɜ©ɉɨɥɢɬɢɤɟª
ȼɨɫɶɦɭɸɤɧɢɝɭ©ɉɨɥɢɬɢɤɢªȺɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɹɯɨɪɨɲɨɡɧɚɸɬɦɭɡɵɤɨɜɟɞɵɩɨ
ɬɨɦɭɱɬɨɪɟɱɶɜɧɟɣɢɞɟɬɨɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɦɜɨɫɩɢɬɚɧɢɢȺɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɶɪɚɡɞɟɥɹɟɬ
ɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɟ©ɝɚɪɦɨɧɢɢªɢɥɢɥɚɞɵɢɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɟɢɦ©ɦɟɥɨɫɵªɢɥɢ
ɩɟɫɧɢɧɚ©ɷɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟª ɨɧɢɜɨɫɩɢɬɵɜɚɸɬ ©ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟª ɞɚɸɬɭɫɩɨɤɨɟɧɢɟ
ɨɬɞɨɯɧɨɜɟɧɢɟɩɨɦɨɝɚɸɬɜɬɪɭɞɚɯ ɢ©ɷɧɬɭɡɢɚɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟª ɜɨɡɛɭɠɞɚɸɬɧɪɚɜ
ɫɬɜɟɧɧɭɸɱɚɫɬɶɞɭɲɢ ɇɚɞɨɱɬɨɛɵɷɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɩɟɫɧɢɩɟɥɢɫɚɦɢɫɜɨɛɨɞɧɵɟ
ɸɧɨɲɢɬɚɤɤɚɤɨɬɬɚɤɢɯɩɟɫɟɧɨɧɢɫɬɚɧɨɜɹɬɫɹɥɭɱɲɟɭɦɟɪɟɧɧɟɟɞɨɛɥɟɫɬ
ɧɟɟɉɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɢɷɧɬɭɡɢɚɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɩɟɫɧɢɧɚɞɨɧɟɫɚɦɢɦɩɟɬɶɚɫɥɭɲɚɬɶ
Ɍɟɚɬɪɦɭɡɵɤɚɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫ 
ɜɬɟɚɬɪɚɯɢɨɞɟɨɧɚɯɩɨɬɨɦɭɱɬɨɱɟɪɟɡɧɢɯɜɫɥɭɲɚɬɟɥɟ ɝɥɚɜɧɵɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɦɧɟ
ɭɦɟɪɟɧɧɨɦɨɬɤɥɨɧɟɧɧɨɦɨɬɞɭɲɟɜɧɨɝɨɪɚɜɧɨɜɟɫɢɹ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫ
ɄɚɤɷɬɨɨɛɴɹɫɧɹɟɬȺɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɶ"ȿɫɬɶɫɢɥɶɧɵɟɚɮɮɟɤɬɵɷɧɬɭɡɢɚɡɦɫɨ
ɫɬɪɚɞɚɧɢɟɫɬɪɚɯ ɜɞɪɭɝɢɯɩɚɫɫɚɠɚɯȺɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɶɞɨɛɚɜɢɬɤɧɢɦɟɳɟɬɨɥɶɤɨ
ɝɧɟɜ ɗɬɢɦɢɥɢɩɨɞɨɛɧɵɦɚɮɮɟɤɬɚɦɩɨɞɜɥɚɫɬɧɵɜɫɟɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɟɬɨɥɶɤɨɜɫɬɟ
ɩɟɧɢɇɚɩɪɢɦɟɪɞɭɲɚɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɥɸɞɟɣɩɨɞɜɟɪɠɟɧɚɷɧɬɭɡɢɚɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɭɜɨɡ
ɛɭɠɞɟɧɢɸɫɜɹɳɟɧɧɵɟɩɟɫɧɢ ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ©ɩɟɫɧɢɈɥɢɦɩɚª ɜɨɡɛɭɠɞɚɸɳɢɟ
ɞɭɲɭ©ɢɡɛɵɬɤɨɦɨɪɝɢɚɡɦɚª H[RUJLD]R\VDL ɩɪɢɧɨɫɹɬɬɚɤɢɦɥɸɞɹɦ©ɤɚɤɛɵ
ɭɜɪɚɱɟɜɚɧɢɟɢɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫª>@Ɍɨɠɟɫɚɦɨɟɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬɫɠɚɥɨɫɬɥɢɜɵɦɢ
ɢɛɨɹɡɥɢɜɵɦɢɥɸɞɶɦɢɫɧɢɦɢɬɨɠɟ©ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫɢɨɧɢ
ɢɫɩɵɬɵɜɚɸɬɨɛɥɟɝɱɟɧɢɟɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɨɟɫɭɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɢɟɦª²ɬɨɟɫɬɶɩɨɚɧɚɥɨ
ɝɢɢɫɷɧɬɭɡɢɚɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢɩɟɫɧɹɦɢɱɟɪɟɡɜɨɡɛɭɠɞɟɧɢɟɞɭɲɢ©ɢɡɛɵɬɤɨɦɨɪ
ɝɢɚɡɦɚªɫɩɨɦɨɳɶɸɦɭɡɵɤɢ
Ⱥɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɶɝɨɜɨɪɢɬɨɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɦɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫɟɜ©ɉɨɥɢɬɢɤɟªɜɫɜɹɡɢɫ
©ɷɧɬɭɡɢɚɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢªɩɟɫɧɨɩɟɧɢɹɦɢ©ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟªɩɟɫɧɢɩɨȺɪɢɫɬɨɬɟ
ɥɸɞɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬɛɟɡɜɪɟɞɧɭɸɪɚɞɨɫɬɶ NKDUDDEODEH ɢɬɨɠɟɯɨɪɨɲɢɜɬɟɚɬɪɟ
>±@©ɗɧɬɭɡɢɚɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹªɢ©ɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹªɦɭɡɵɤɚɧɭɠɧɚɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɚɦ
ɝɪɭɛɵɦɢɧɟɜɨɫɩɢɬɚɧɧɵɦ²ɪɟɦɟɫɥɟɧɧɢɤɚɦɞɚɩɨɞɟɧɳɢɤɚɦɢɦɧɚɞɨɭɫɬɪɚ
ɢɜɚɬɶɱɚɫɵɨɬɞɵɯɚɢɪɚɞɢɷɬɨɝɨɞɚɜɚɬɶɜɬɟɚɬɪɚɯɡɪɟɥɢɳɚɢɫɨɫɬɹɡɚɧɢɹȾɭɲɢ
ɥɸɞɟɣɧɟɜɨɡɞɟɪɠɧɵɯɨɬɤɥɨɧɹɸɬɫɹɨɬɫɟɪɟɞɢɧɵɬɚɤɢɜɩɟɫɧɹɯɢɦɩɨɞɯɨɞɹ
ɳɢɯɟɫɬɶɨɬɤɥɨɧɟɧɢɹɢɩɨɥɭɬɨɧɚɫɨɡɞɚɸɳɢɟɢɡɥɢɲɧɢɟɢɫɤɚɠɟɧɢɹɢɧɚɩɪɹ
ɠɟɧɢɹɢɩɪɢɧɨɫɹɳɢɟɭɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɢɹɫɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɨɢɯɞɭɲɟ>@ ȼɷɬɨɦɪɚɫ
ɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɢɡɚɤɥɸɱɟɧɚɬɚɠɟɦɵɫɥɶɱɬɨɢɜ©ɉɨɷɬɢɤɟªɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɜɨɫɩɢɬɚɧɧɵɣ
ɢɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɧɵɣɩɨɥɭɱɢɬɭɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɢɟɨɬɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɢɧɟɯɨɞɹɜɬɟɚɬɪɢɛɨɫɢɥɚ
ɟɟɫɨɯɪɚɧɹɟɬɫɹɢ©ɛɟɡɚɤɬɟɪɨɜɢɫɨɫɬɹɡɚɧɢɣª>@ 
Ⱦɥɹɦɧɨɝɢɯɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɯɤɨɦɦɟɧɬɚɬɨɪɨɜɷɬɢɩɚɫɫɚɠɢɫɥɭɠɚɬɪɚɡɝɚɞɤɨɣɡɚ
ɝɚɞɨɱɧɵɯɫɥɨɜ©ɉɨɷɬɢɤɢªɨɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫɟȺɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɶɹɜɧɨɬɚɤɧɟɫɱɢɬɚɥɢɩɨɬɨɦɭ
ɧɚɩɢɫɚɥ©ɑɬyɦɵɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɦɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫɨɦɷɬɨɝɨɬɟɩɟɪɶɦɵɨɛɴɹɫɧɹɬɶɧɟɛɭɞɟɦ
ɚɜɫɨɱɢɧɟɧɢɢ³Ɉɩɨɷɬɢɤɟ´ɫɤɚɠɟɦɨɛɷɬɨɦɹɫɧɟɟª>@ɇɨɬɚɤɢɧɟɫɤɚɡɚɥ
Ʉɚɤɩɢɲɟɬɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɣɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɚɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɟɜɫɤɢɟɩɚɫɫɚɠɢɜ©ɉɨɥɢɬɢ
ɤɟªɞɟɥɚɸɬɩɨɩɵɬɤɭɨɛɴɹɫɧɢɬɶɬɟɪɦɢɧ©ɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫªɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨ©ɢɛɨɥɟɟɩɪɢ
ɜɥɟɤɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣɢɜɬɨɠɟɜɪɟɦɹɩɨɥɧɨɣɪɚɡɨɱɚɪɨɜɚɧɢɣª>@
ȼɫɟɠɟɢɡ©ɉɨɥɢɬɢɤɢªɦɵɩɨɥɭɱɢɥɢɜɚɠɧɵɟɩɨɧɹɬɢɹɨɩɢɫɵɜɚɸɳɢɟɬɟ
ɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɣɡɪɢɬɟɥɶɫɤɢɣɨɩɵɬ©ɨɛɥɟɝɱɟɧɢɟɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɨɟɫɭɞɨɜɨɥɶ
ɫɬɜɢɟɦª NR\SKL]HVWKDLPHWK¶KHGRQHV ©ɨɬɞɨɯɧɨɜɟɧɢɟª DQDSD\VLV ©ɛɟɡɜɪɟɞ
ɧɚɹɪɚɞɨɫɬɶª NKDUDDEODEH Ʉɚɤɨɧɢɫɨɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹɫɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫɨɦɜɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɢ
²ɷɬɨɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɣɢɧɟɩɪɨɫɬɨɣɜɨɩɪɨɫ
Ɉɱɢɫɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟɜɪɚɱɭɸɳɟɟɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɦɭɡɵɤɢ²ɞɚɜɧɹɹɬɟɦɚɚɧɬɢɱ
ɧɨɣɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɜɲɚɹɫɹɜɧɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢɨɬȺɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɹɄɚɤɩɢɲɟɬ
ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɣɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶ©ɜɚɧɬɢɱɧɨɦɦɢɪɟɦɭɡɵɤɚɢɮɢɥɨɫɨɮɢɹɛɵɥɢ
ɩɪɟɞɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɵɞɥɹɢɫɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɞɭɲɢª>@Ⱦɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨɭɩɨɦɹɧɭɬɶɩɚɫ
 ȾȼɌɪɭɛɨɱɤɢɧ

ɫɚɠɢɢɡɣɤɧɢɝɢȺɮɢɧɟɹ©ɉɢɪɦɭɞɪɟɰɨɜªɜɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɫɨɞɟɪɠɢɬɫɹɤɪɚɬɤɢɣ
ɤɨɧɫɩɟɤɬɢɫɤɨɧɧɨɝɪɟɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɷɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɢɫɬɨɥɤɨɜɚɧɢɹɦɭɡɵɤɢɦɭɡɵɤɚɜɨɫ
ɩɢɬɵɜɚɟɬɧɪɚɜɭɫɦɢɪɹɟɬɩɵɥɤɢɯɫɦɹɝɱɚɟɬɫɩɨɪɹɳɢɯ>@
ȼɥɟɝɟɧɞɵɜɨɲɟɥɩɢɮɚɝɨɪɟɟɰɄɥɢɧɢɣ²ɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɨɛɪɚɡɰɨɜɨɝɨɩɨɜɟɞɟ
ɧɢɹɢɧɪɚɜɚɜɫɹɤɢɣɪɚɡɤɨɝɞɚɱɭɜɫɬɜɨɜɚɥɩɪɢɫɬɭɩɝɧɟɜɚɛɪɚɥɥɢɪɭɢɧɚɱɢ
ɧɚɥɢɝɪɚɬɶɟɝɨɫɩɪɚɲɢɜɚɥɢ©ɡɚɱɟɦ"ªɨɧɨɬɜɟɱɚɥ©ɭɫɩɨɤɚɢɜɚɸɫɟɛɹªɉɨȽɨ
ɦɟɪɭɨɞɧɚɬɨɥɶɤɨɥɢɪɚɦɨɝɥɚɭɫɦɢɪɢɬɶɩɵɥɤɢɣɧɪɚɜȺɯɢɥɥɚ Ʉɫɨɠɚɥɟɧɢɸ
ɧɢɨɞɢɧɢɡɚɧɬɢɱɧɵɯɚɜɬɨɪɨɜɧɟɫɤɚɡɚɥɱɬyɢɦɟɧɧɨɢɝɪɚɥȺɯɢɥɥɤɨɝɞɚɯɨɬɟɥ
ɭɫɦɢɪɢɬɶɫɟɛɹɢɭɫɥɚɞɢɬɶȽɪɭɫɬɧɵɟɥɢɩɚɫɬɨɪɚɥɶɧɵɟɦɟɥɨɞɢɢɨɩɚɫɬɛɢɳɚɯ
ɢɧɢɦɮɚɯɩɪɟɤɪɚɫɧɨɣɎɬɢɢɨɬɤɭɞɚɨɧɪɨɞɨɦ"ɂɝɪɢɜɭɸɡɚɫɬɨɥɶɧɭɸɜɞɭɯɟ
Ⱥɧɚɤɪɟɨɧɬɚ"ɂɥɢɠɟɫɥɟɞɭɹɚɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɟɜɫɤɨɣɬɟɨɪɢɢ©ɢɡɛɵɬɨɱɧɨɝɨɨɪɝɢɚɡ
ɦɚª²ɱɬɨɬɨɧɚɩɨɞɨɛɢɟɪɨɤɦɭɡɵɤɢɤɨɬɨɪɭɸɫɨɱɢɧɹɟɬɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɚɹɪɚɫɫɟɪ
ɠɟɧɧɚɹɦɨɥɨɞɟɠɶ" Ɋɚɡɜɢɜɚɹɬɟɨɪɢɸɤɚɬɚɪɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɷɧɬɭɡɢɚɡɦɚ
ɱɟɪɟɡɦɭɡɵɤɭɭɱɟɧɢɤȺɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɹɎɟɨɮɪɚɫɬɜɫɜɨɟɦɬɪɚɤɬɚɬɟ©Ɉɛɷɧɬɭɡɢɚɡ
ɦɟªɧɚɩɢɫɚɥɞɚɠɟɬɨɱɬɨɦɵɨɬɧɟɫɟɦɫɟɝɨɞɧɹɤɪɚɡɪɹɞɭɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɤɭɪɶɟ
ɡɨɜ©Ʉɬɨɫɬɪɚɞɚɟɬɫɟɞɚɥɢɳɧɵɦɧɟɪɜɨɦɭɬɟɯɩɪɨɯɨɞɢɬɛɨɥɶɟɫɥɢɧɚɞɷɬɢɦ
ɦɟɫɬɨɦɱɬɨɧɢɛɭɞɶɫɵɝɪɚɬɶɜɨɮɪɢɝɢɣɫɤɨɦɥɚɞɭªɗɬɭɰɢɬɚɬɭɬɨɠɟɫɨɯɪɚɧɢɥ
Ⱥɮɢɧɟɣ>@
ɋɜɟɫɬɢɜɨɟɞɢɧɨɤɥɚɫɫɢɱɟɫɤɭɸɫɟɦɚɧɬɢɤɭ©ɝɚɪɦɨɧɢɣª ɥɚɞɨɜ ɧɚɨɫɧɨɜɚ
ɧɢɢɫɨɱɢɧɟɧɢɣɉɥɚɬɨɧɚɢȺɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɹɦɨɠɧɨɜɜɢɞɟɬɚɛɥɢɰɵ
©ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɧɵɟªɝɚɪɦɨɧɢɢ ©ɜɹɥɵɟªɝɚɪɦɨɧɢɢ
Ⱦɨɪɢɣɫɤɚɹ Ɏɪɢɝɢɣɫɤɚɹ ɋɬɪɨɝɚɹɥɢɞɢɣɫɤɚɹ Ʌɢɞɢɣɫɤɚɹ ɂɨɧɢɣɫɤɚɹ
ɋɦɟɲɚɧɧɚɹɥɢɞɢɣɫɤɚɹ
ɯɨɪɨɜɵɟɩɟɫ ɞɢɮɢɪɚɦɛ ɩɨɝɪɟɛɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɩɟɫɧɢɞɥɹ ɡɚɫɬɨɥɶɧɵɟ
ɧɨɩɟɧɢɹ ɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɹ ɩɥɚɱɩɪɢɱɢɬɚɧɢɟ ɨɬɞɵɯɚ ɩɟɫɧɢ
ɞɟɬɫɤɢɟɩɟɫɧɢ ɤɨɦɟɞɢɹ
>ɫɚɬɢɪɨɜ
ɫɤɚɹɞɪɚɦɚ@
ɉɥɚɬɨɧ Ⱥɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɶ

ɫɩɨɤɨɣɫɬɜɢɟ ɷɧɬɭɡɢɚɡɦɤɚ ɫɤɨɪɛɧɵɣ ɪɚɫɫɥɚɛɥɟɧɢɟ ɪɚɫɫɥɚɛɥɟɧɢɟ


ɦɭɠɟɫɬɜɨ ɬɚɪɫɢɫ ɫɭɦɪɚɱɧɵɣ ɜɟɫɟɥɶɟɧɚ ɜɟɫɟɥɶɟɧɚ
ɫɟɪɟɞɢɧɚ ɜɚɤɯɢɱɟ ɨɬɞɵɯɟ ɨɬɞɵɯɟ
ɫɤɢɣɷɤɫɬɚɡ ɞɨɩɭɫɬɢɦɨ ɞɨɩɭɫɬɢɦɨ
ɨɪɝɢɚɡɦɢɫɬɪɚɫɬɶ ɞɥɹɞɟɬɟɣ ɞɥɹɜɡɪɨɫɥɵɯ
ɢɫɬɚɪɢɤɨɜ
ɜɨɢɧɫɬɜɨ ɭɛɟɠɞɟɧɢɟɛɨ ɛɟɡɨɛɢɞ ɨɩɶɹɧɟɧɢɟɢɡ
ɬɪɭɞ ɝɨɜ ɦɨɥɢɬɜɚɦɢ ɢ ɧɵɟɡɚɛɚɜɵ ɧɟɠɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ
ɩɪɟɨɞɨɥɟɧɢɟ ɥɸɞɟɣ ɞɨɜɨɞɚɦɢ ɩɪɢɫɬɨɣɧɵɟ ɩɪɚɡɞɧɢɱɧɚɹ
ɪɚɡɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɜɨɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɢ
ɝɪɭɛɨɫɬɶɨɛɪɚ
ɡɵɪɚɫɩɭɬɫɬɜɚ
ɥɢɪɚɤɢɮɚɪɚ ɞɜɨɣɧɨɣɚɜɥɨɫ
ɬɟɚɬɪ ɬɟɚɬɪ
Ɍɚɛɥɢɱɧɚɹɤɥɚɫɫɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɹɫɤɨɥɶɛɵɚɛɫɬɪɚɤɬɧɨɣɨɧɚɧɢɛɵɥɚɩɪɨɹɫɧɹɟɬ
ɫɟɦɚɧɬɢɤɭɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɯɠɚɧɪɨɜɜɚɧɬɢɱɧɨɣɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɟ9±,9ɜɟɤɨɜɞɨɧɷɇɚɩɪɢ
Ɍɟɚɬɪɦɭɡɵɤɚɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫ 
ɦɟɪɜɬɚɛɥɢɰɟɦɨɠɧɨɡɚɦɟɬɢɬɶɱɬɨɦɟɥɨɞɢɢɚɫɫɨɰɢɢɪɭɸɳɢɟɫɹɫɩɨɝɪɟɛɚɥɶ
ɧɵɦɩɥɚɱɟɦɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɥɢɫɶɜɧɟɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɚɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɢɤɚɤɠɚɧɪɚɱɬɨɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɹ
ɤɚɤɢɞɢɮɢɪɚɦɛɚɫɫɨɰɢɢɪɨɜɚɥɚɫɶɫɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɧɵɦ©ɜɨɡɛɭɠɞɟɧɧɵɦɢɫɬɪɚɫɬ
ɧɵɦªɮɪɢɝɢɣɫɤɢɦɥɚɞɨɦɱɬɨ©ɨɬɞɨɯɧɨɜɟɧɢɟªɜɬɟɚɬɪɟɛɵɥɨɫɜɹɡɚɧɨɜɩɟɪɜɭɸ
ɨɱɟɪɟɞɶɫɤɨɦɟɞɢɟɣɬɨɝɞɚɤɚɤ©ɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫªɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɥɫɹɜɧɟɫɜɹɡɢɫ©ɨɬɞɨɯ
ɧɨɜɟɧɢɟɦªɧɨɧɚɨɛɨɪɨɬɚɫɫɨɰɢɢɪɨɜɚɥɫɹɫɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɧɵɦɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟɦɞɭɲɢ
Ɍɟɩɟɪɶɨɛɪɚɬɢɦɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚ©ɭɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɢɟªɦɵɩɪɢɜɵɤɥɢɜɤɥɸɱɚɬɶɟɝɨ
ɜɨɩɵɬɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫɚȺɜɝɭɫɬɢɧɜɧɚɱɚɥɟɬɪɟɬɶɟɣɤɧɢɝɢ©ɂɫɩɨɜɟɞɢª
ɤɨɧɟɰ,9ɜɟɤɚɧɷ ɨɩɢɫɵɜɚɟɬɫɜɨɣɡɪɢɬɟɥɶɫɤɢɣɨɩɵɬɜɄɚɪɮɚɝɟɧɫɤɨɦɬɟɚɬɪɟ
ɢɪɚɫɫɭɠɞɚɟɬɨɬɨɦɦɨɝɭɬɥɢɩɟɱɚɥɢɛɵɬɶɥɸɛɟɡɧɵɢɞɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶɭɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɢɟ
©Ɍɨɝɞɚɹɧɟɫɱɚɫɬɧɵɣɥɸɛɢɥɩɟɱɚɥɢɬɶɫɹɢɢɫɤɚɥɩɨɜɨɞɨɜɞɥɹɩɟɱɚɥɢɢɝɪɚɚɤɬɟ
ɪɚɢɡɨɛɪɚɠɚɜɲɟɝɨɧɚɩɨɞɦɨɫɬɤɚɯɱɭɠɨɟɜɵɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɨɟɝɨɪɟɛɨɥɶɲɟɦɧɟɧɪɚ
ɜɢɥɚɫɶɢɫɢɥɶɧɟɟɦɟɧɹɡɚɯɜɚɬɵɜɚɥɚɟɫɥɢɜɵɡɵɜɚɥɚɫɥɟɡɵª>@
ɊɟɞɤɨɡɚɞɭɦɵɜɚɸɬɫɹɨɤɚɤɨɦɢɦɟɧɧɨɠɚɧɪɟɝɨɜɨɪɢɬɡɞɟɫɶȺɜɝɭɫɬɢɧɢ
ɩɨɞɪɚɡɭɦɟɜɚɸɬɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɸɈɞɧɚɤɨɞɪɭɝɨɣɩɚɫɫɚɠɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɨɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɭ
ɟɬɱɬɨɨɧɢɦɟɥɜɜɢɞɭɤɨɦɟɞɢɸɫɥɸɛɨɜɧɵɦɫɸɠɟɬɨɦ©Ɍɨɝɞɚɜɬɟɚɬɪɟɹɪɚ
ɞɨɜɚɥɫɹɜɦɟɫɬɟɫɜɥɸɛɥɟɧɧɵɦɢɤɨɝɞɚɨɧɢɧɚɫɥɚɠɞɚɥɢɫɶɜɩɨɡɨɪɟɯɨɬɹɜɫɟ
ɷɬɨɛɵɥɨɬɨɥɶɤɨɜɵɦɵɫɥɨɦɢɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɣɢɝɪɨɣɄɨɝɞɚɠɟɨɧɢɬɟɪɹɥɢɞɪɭɝ
ɞɪɭɝɚɹɨɝɨɪɱɚɥɫɹɜɦɟɫɬɟɫɧɢɦɢɤɚɤɛɵɫɨɫɬɪɚɞɚɹɢɦɢɜɨɛɨɢɯɫɥɭɱɚɹɯɧɚ
ɫɥɚɠɞɚɥɫɹɨɞɧɚɤɨ«ª>@ɄɨɦɟɞɢɹɤɨɬɨɪɭɸɩɪɢɩɨɦɧɢɥȺɜɝɭɫɬɢɧɢɦɟ
ɥɚɫɯɨɞɫɬɜɨɫɤɥɚɫɫɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɟɣɛɥɚɝɨɞɚɪɹɫɸɠɟɬɧɵɩɟɪɟɥɨɦɚɦɨɬɫɱɚ
ɫɬɶɹɤɧɟɫɱɚɫɬɶɸɢɜɧɟɲɧɟɧɟɫɨɦɧɟɧɧɨɦɚɫɤɚɦɢɢɛɨɦɚɫɤɢɜɥɸɛɥɟɧɧɵɯ
ɸɧɨɲɟɣɢɞɟɜɭɲɟɤɜɤɨɦɟɞɢɢɛɵɥɢɡɚɢɦɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɵɢɡɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɢ>±@
Ɍɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɟɭɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɢɹ²©ɭɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɢɹɨɬɩɟɱɚɥɢªȺɜɝɭɫɬɢɧɧɟɫɜɹ
ɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫɨɦɈɧɩɢɲɟɬ©ɑɟɥɨɜɟɤɬɟɦɛɨɥɶɲɟɜɨɥɧɭɟɬɫɹɜɬɟɚɬɪɟɱɟɦ
ɦɟɧɶɲɟɨɧɫɚɦɡɚɫɬɪɚɯɨɜɚɧɨɬɩɨɞɨɛɧɵɯɩɟɪɟɠɢɜɚɧɢɣ«ª>@ɋɬɚɥɨɛɵɬɶ
ɡɪɢɬɟɥɶɫɤɢɟɭɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɢɹɩɪɨɢɫɬɟɤɚɸɬɨɬɧɟɭɦɟɪɟɧɧɨɣɧɟɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɨɣɠɢɡɧɢ
ɩɨɥɧɨɣɥɸɛɨɜɧɵɯɩɨɬɪɹɫɟɧɢɣɫɬɪɚɫɬɟɣɢɨɬɤɥɨɧɟɧɢɣɨɬɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɨɝɨɩɭɬɢ
ɪɚɞɨɜɚɬɶɫɹɜɢɞɹɬɨɱɬɨɫɚɦɧɟɯɨɬɟɥɛɵɩɟɪɟɠɢɬɶɩɨɯɨɠɟɧɚɪɚɫɱɟɫɵɜɚɧɢɟ
ɧɨɝɬɹɦɢɤɨɠɢɤɨɬɨɪɨɟɩɪɢɧɨɫɢɬɧɟɢɫɰɟɥɟɧɢɟɚɧɚɨɛɨɪɨɬ©ɜɨɫɩɚɥɟɧɢɟɢɨɬ
ɜɪɚɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɭɸɝɧɨɣɧɭɸɨɩɭɯɨɥɶªɇɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟɫɨɫɬɪɚɞɚɧɢɟɩɪɨɢɫɬɟɤɚɸɳɟɟɢɡ
ɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɚɞɪɭɠɛɵɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɭɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɢɟɂɛɨɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɢɫɩɨɥɧɟɧɧɵɣ
ɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɝɨɫɨɫɬɪɚɞɚɧɢɹɧɟɦɨɠɟɬɩɨɠɟɥɚɬɶɱɬɨɛɵɛɵɥɢɫɬɪɚɞɚɥɶɰɵɤɨɬɨ
ɪɵɦɨɧɛɵɫɨɫɬɪɚɞɚɥ©Ȼɵɜɚɟɬɫɤɨɪɛɶɡɚɫɥɭɠɢɜɚɸɳɚɹɨɞɨɛɪɟɧɢɹɧɨɧɟɬɧɢ
ɨɞɧɨɣɡɚɫɥɭɠɢɜɚɸɳɟɣɥɸɛɜɢª>@
ɋɪɚɫɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɹɦɢȺɜɝɭɫɬɢɧɚɧɚɞɨɫɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɢɬɶɩɚɫɫɚɠɢɢɡ©ɇɢɤɨɦɚɯɨɜɨɣ
ɷɬɢɤɢªȺɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɹɨɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢɭɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɢɹɢɫɬɪɚɞɚɧɢɹ>@ɍɞɨ
ɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɢɹɦɨɝɭɬɞɟɣɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɤɚɤɫɢɥɶɧɨɟɥɟɤɚɪɫɬɜɨɢɛɨɧɚɜɪɟɦɹɜɵɬɟɫɧɹ
ɸɬɥɸɛɵɟɫɬɪɚɞɚɧɢɹɬɟɦɫɚɦɵɦɤɚɤɛɵɢɫɰɟɥɹɹɈɞɧɚɤɨɬɚɤɢɟɭɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɢɹ

ɉɟɪɟɜɨɞɆȿɋɟɪɝɟɟɧɤɨ

ɉɟɪɟɜɨɞɆȿɋɟɪɝɟɟɧɤɨ
 ȾȼɌɪɭɛɨɱɤɢɧ

ɫɥɭɱɚɣɧɵɢɢɦɟɸɬɩɨȺɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɸɞɨɜɨɥɶɧɨɧɢɡɤɢɣɫɬɚɬɭɫɨɧɢɩɪɢɧɨɫɹɬ
ɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɟɨɛɥɟɝɱɟɧɢɟɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɢɫɩɨɪɱɟɧɧɨɦɭɛɪɟɧɧɨɦɭ©ɭɬɥɨɦɭªɤɨɬɨɪɨ
ɦɭɧɚɞɨɢɫɰɟɥɢɬɶɫɹɛɨɥɟɟɨɫɧɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɦɢɫɩɪɚɜɢɜɫɜɨɸɩɪɢɪɨɞɭɚ
ɧɟɫɬɢɪɚɹɫɥɟɞɵɧɟɜɨɡɞɟɪɠɧɨɣɠɢɡɧɢɫɬɚɜɲɢɟɟɟɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟɦȿɫɥɢɩɪɢɜɟɫɬɢ
ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɭɸɚɧɚɥɨɝɢɸ©ɢɫɰɟɥɟɧɢɟɱɟɪɟɡɭɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɢɟªɩɨɯɨɠɟɧɚɬɚɛɥɟɬ
ɤɭɨɬɩɨɯɦɟɥɶɹɤɨɬɨɪɚɹɧɟɥɟɱɢɬɩɪɢɫɬɪɚɫɬɢɟɤɜɢɧɭ©ɍɹɡɜɢɦɵɟɨɬɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɚ
ɜɫɟɝɞɚɧɭɠɞɚɸɬɫɹɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɢª²ɝɨɜɨɪɢɬȺɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɶɧɨɤɷɬɨɦɭɥɟɱɟɧɢɸ
ɫɨɩɪɹɠɟɧɧɨɦɭɫɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɦɭɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɢɟɦɨɧɧɟɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɟɬɫɥɨɜɨ©ɤɚɬɚɪ
ɫɢɫªɈɬɚɤɨɦɠɟɭɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɢɢɨɬɩɟɱɚɥɢɜɬɨɦɠɟɞɭɯɟɱɬɨɢȺɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɶɢ
ɛɟɡɫɥɨɜɚ©ɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫªɝɨɜɨɪɢɬȺɜɝɭɫɬɢɧɜɫɩɨɦɢɧɚɹɫɟɛɹ ɧɟɛɟɡɫɬɵɞɚ ɦɨɥɨ
ɞɵɦɫɪɟɞɢɡɪɢɬɟɥɟɣɜɄɚɪɮɚɝɟɧɫɤɨɦɬɟɚɬɪɟ
ȼɪɚɧɧɟɯɪɢɫɬɢɚɧɫɤɨɣɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɢɫɥɨɜɨ©ɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫªɧɟɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɟɬɫɹɩɨɨɬ
ɧɨɲɟɧɢɸɤɬɟɚɬɪɭ©ɑɢɫɬɵɟªɜɯɪɢɫɬɢɚɧɫɤɨɦɫɦɵɫɥɟ²ɷɬɨ©ɱɢɫɬɵɟɫɟɪɞɰɟɦª
NDWKDURLWHNDUGLD ɤɚɤɫɤɚɡɚɧɨɜɡɚɩɨɜɟɞɹɯɛɥɚɠɟɧɫɬɜɚɢɡɇɚɝɨɪɧɨɣɩɪɨɩɨɜɟ
ɞɢɑɢɫɬɨɬɚɫɟɪɞɰɚɢɥɢ©ɜɡɵɫɤɭɟɦɚɹɱɢɫɬɨɬɚªɩɨȽɪɢɝɨɪɢɸȻɨɝɨɫɥɨɜɭɞɚ
ɟɬɫɹɱɟɪɟɡɩɨɤɚɹɧɢɟɢɩɪɢɱɚɫɬɢɟ
ȼɚɧɬɢɱɧɨɣɮɢɥɨɫɨɮɫɤɨɣɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɢɨɬȽɟɪɚɤɥɢɬɚɞɨɉɥɚɬɨɧɚɪɢɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɣ
ɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫɫɬɨɥɶɠɟɫɬɪɨɝɫɤɨɥɶɢɜɯɪɢɫɬɢɚɧɫɤɨɣɢɧɟɫɜɹɡɚɧɫɭɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɢɟɦɫɨ
ɩɭɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɦɨɛɥɟɝɱɟɧɢɸɢɢɡɛɚɜɥɟɧɢɸɨɬɫɬɪɚɞɚɧɢɹɍȽɟɪɚɤɥɢɬɚɜɨɮɪɚɝɦɟɧɬɟ
ɩɨȾɢɥɶɫɭɄɪɚɧɰɭɫɤɚɡɚɧɨ©ɂɧɵɟɨɱɢɳɚɸɬɫɹɤɪɨɜɶɸɤɪɨɜɶɸ!ɨɫɤɜɟɪɧɟɧ
ɧɵɟɤɚɤɟɫɥɢɛɵɤɬɨɜɝɪɹɡɶɜɨɣɞɹɝɪɹɡɶɸɨɬɦɵɜɚɥɫɹɟɝɨɛɵɫɨɱɥɢɫɭɦɚɫɲɟɞ
ɲɢɦɟɫɥɢɤɬɨɢɡɥɸɞɟɣɡɚɦɟɬɢɥɱɬɨɨɧɬɚɤɞɟɥɚɟɬɂɢɡɜɚɹɧɢɹɦɷɬɢɦɜɨɬɨɧɢ
ɦɨɥɹɬɫɹɤɚɤɟɫɥɢɛɵɤɬɨɛɟɫɟɞɨɜɚɥɫɞɨɦɚɦɢɧɟɡɧɚɹɛɨɝɨɜɢɝɟɪɨɟɜɤɚɤɨɜɵɨɧɢ
ɟɫɬɶª>@Ɉɱɢɳɚɟɬɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚɧɟɤɪɨɜɶɠɟɪɬɜɢɨɛɳɟɧɢɟɫɥɸɞɫɤɢɦɢɩɨɞɟɥ
ɤɚɦɢɧɨɡɧɚɧɢɟɛɨɝɨɜɢɝɟɪɨɟɜɤɚɤɨɜɵɨɧɢɟɫɬɶɛɟɡɥɸɞɫɤɢɯɦɧɟɧɢɣɈɬɤɭɞɚɷɬɨ
ɡɧɚɧɢɟɢɡɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɢ"ɢɥɢɢɡɦɢɫɬɟɪɢɣ"Ƚɟɪɚɤɥɢɬɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɨɝɨɜɨɪɢɬɨɦɢɫɬɟ
ɪɢɹɯɢɫɛɥɢɠɟɧɢɹɢɯɫɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɦɢɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚɦɢɭɧɟɝɨɧɟɬ
Ɉɛɪɚɡɧɟɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɧɨɝɨɜɦɢɫɬɟɪɢɢɤɚɤɥɟɠɚɳɟɝɨɜɝɪɹɡɢɟɫɬɶɢɭɉɥɚ
ɬɨɧɚɜ©ɎɟɞɨɧɟªɝɞɟɨɧɫɥɨɜɚɦɢɋɨɤɪɚɬɚɤɚɤɛɭɞɬɨɩɟɪɟɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬȽɟɪɚɤɥɢ
ɬɚ©ɋɨɲɟɞɲɢɣɜȺɢɞɧɟɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɧɵɦɛɭɞɟɬɥɟɠɚɬɶɜɝɪɹɡɢɚɨɱɢɫɬɢɜɲɢɟɫɹ
ɢɩɪɢɧɹɜɲɢɟɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɢɟɨɬɨɣɞɹɜȺɢɞɩɨɫɟɥɹɬɫɹɫɪɟɞɢɛɨɝɨɜªɇɟɫɟɬɥɢɫ
ɫɨɛɨɣɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɹɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫɩɨɞɨɛɧɵɣɬɨɦɭɱɬɨɞɚɟɬɫɹɜɦɢɫɬɟɪɢɹɯ"ɉɥɚɬɨɧɤɚ
ɠɟɬɫɹɞɚɟɬɧɚɦɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɨɬɜɟɬɢɬɟɦɧɟɦɟɧɟɟɤɚɤɛɭɞɬɨɩɪɟɞɜɨɫɯɢɳɚɟɬ
Ⱥɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɟɜɫɤɭɸɤɥɚɭɡɭɥɭɨɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫɟ ɜɵɞɟɥɟɧɨɤɭɪɫɢɜɨɦ ɥɸɞɢɧɟɫɦɨɝɭɬ
ɞɨɫɬɢɱɶɱɢɫɬɨɬɵ©ɫɞɚɜɚɹɫɶɧɚɦɢɥɨɫɬɶɨɞɧɢɯɭɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɢɣɢɬɟɦɫɚɦɵɦɩɨ
ɛɟɠɞɚɹɞɪɭɝɢɟ«Ɋɚɡɜɟɷɬɨɩɪɚɜɢɥɶɧɵɣɨɛɦɟɧ²ɦɟɧɹɬɶɭɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɢɟɧɚɭɞɨ
ɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɢɟɨɝɨɪɱɟɧɢɟɧɚɨɝɨɪɱɟɧɢɟɫɬɪɚɯɧɚɫɬɪɚɯ«"Ɇɟɠɞɭɬɟɦɢɫɬɢɧɧɨɟ²
ɷɬɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɨɱɢɳɟɧɢɟɜɫɟɯɩɨɞɨɛɧɵɯɚɮɮɟɤɬɨɜ!ɚɪɚɫɫɭɞɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ
ɫɩɪɚɜɟɞɥɢɜɨɫɬɶɦɭɠɟɫɬɜɨɢɫɚɦɪɚɡɭɦ²ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚɱɢɫɬɤɢª>@Ɍɚɤɚɹɱɢ

ɉɟɪɟɜɨɞȺȼɅɟɛɟɞɟɜɚɫɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹɦɢ

ɉɟɪɟɜɨɞɋɉɆɚɪɤɢɲɚ
Ɍɟɚɬɪɦɭɡɵɤɚɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫ 
ɫɬɨɬɚɨɱɟɧɶɩɨɯɨɠɚɧɚɯɪɢɫɬɢɚɧɫɤɭɸɱɢɫɬɨɬɭɫɟɪɞɰɚɩɨɫɥɨɜɚɦȺɧɬɨɧɢɹȼɟ
ɥɢɤɨɝɨ©ɱɢɫɬɨɬɚɫɟɪɞɰɚɛɵɜɚɟɬɤɨɝɞɚɢɦɩɪɚɜɢɬɭɦª>@
ȼɝɪɟɱɟɫɤɨɣɹɡɵɱɟɫɤɨɣɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɢɨ©ɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫɟªɩɪɢɦɟɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɤɤɨɦɟ
ɞɢɢɪɚɫɫɭɠɞɚɥɢɜɩɟɪɢɩɚɬɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɢɩɨɫɥɟȺɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɹɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɨ
ɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɨ,,ɜɟɤɚɞɨɧɷȼɬɧɄɨɣɫɥɢɧɢɚɧɫɤɨɦɬɪɚɤɬɚɬɟɫɨɯɪɚɧɢɜɲɟɦ
ɫɹɜɨɮɪɚɝɦɟɧɬɚɯɟɫɬɶɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟɤɨɦɟɞɢɢɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɧɨɟɜɬɨɱɧɨɫɬɢɩɨ
ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɟɚɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɟɜɫɤɨɝɨɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɢɢɢɦɟɸɳɟɟɫɜɨɸɤɥɚɭɡɭ
ɥɭɨɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫɟ©Ʉɨɦɟɞɢɹ«ɱɟɪɟɡɭɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɢɟɢɫɦɟɯɫɨɜɟɪɲɚɟɬɨɱɢɳɟɧɢɟ
ɩɨɞɨɛɧɵɯɚɮɮɟɤɬɨɜª>@ɗɬɨ²ɩɟɪɜɨɟɫɛɥɢɠɟɧɢɟɱɟɪɟɡɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫɞɜɭɯ
ɠɚɧɪɨɜɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ©Ⱥɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɶɦɵɫɥɢɥɤɚɤɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɩɨɥɨɠɧɵɟª>@Ƚɥɚɜ
ɧɨɟɧɟɭɞɨɛɫɬɜɨɷɬɨɝɨɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹɢɧɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶɨɬɧɟɫɬɢɟɝɨɤɚɪɢɫɬɨɬɟ
ɥɟɜɫɤɨɣɫɢɫɬɟɦɟɢɞɟɣɡɚɤɥɸɱɟɧɨɜɬɨɦɱɬɨ©ɫɦɟɯªɢ©ɭɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɢɟªȺɪɢɫɬɨ
ɬɟɥɶɧɢɤɨɝɞɚɛɵɧɟɧɚɡɜɚɥ©ɚɮɮɟɤɬɚɦɢª
ɉɨɡɞɧɢɣɤɨɦɦɟɧɬɚɬɨɪɉɥɚɬɨɧɚ²ɧɟɨɩɥɚɬɨɧɢɤɢɩɢɮɚɝɨɪɟɟɰəɦɜɥɢɯ
ɠɢɜɲɢɣɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɦɢɩɨɤɨɥɟɧɢɹɦɢɪɚɧɟɟȺɜɝɭɫɬɢɧɚɬɨɠɟɪɚɫɫɭɠɞɚɟɬɨɤɚ
ɬɚɪɫɢɫɟɜɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɢɢɤɨɦɟɞɢɢɧɨɫɛɥɢɠɚɟɬɦɢɫɬɟɪɢɚɥɶɧɵɣɢɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɣ
ɨɩɵɬ²ɯɨɬɶɧɟɩɨɬɨɠɞɟɫɬɜɭɚɩɨɫɯɨɞɫɬɜɭɉɟɪɟɠɢɜɚɧɢɟɱɭɠɢɯɫɬɪɚɫɬɟɣ
ɢɥɢɚɮɮɟɤɬɨɜɜɫɟɠɟɨɱɢɳɚɟɬɢɢɡɥɟɱɢɜɚɟɬɞɭɲɭɨɬɩɨɪɨɤɨɜɩɪɢɪɚɫɬɚɸ
ɳɢɯɤɧɟɣɜɦɢɪɟ©ɋɢɥɵɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɟɫɤɢɯɫɬɪɚɫɬɟɣɩɪɟɛɵɜɚɸɳɢɯɜɧɚɫɫɞɟɪ
ɠɢɜɚɟɦɵɟɫɨɜɫɟɯɫɬɨɪɨɧɫɬɚɧɨɜɹɬɫɹɫɢɥɶɧɟɟɉɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɧɵɟɜɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɧɚ
ɤɨɪɨɬɤɨɟɜɪɟɦɹɢɜɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɯɝɪɚɧɢɰɚɯɫɬɪɚɫɬɢ!ɜɞɨɥɠɧɨɣɦɟɪɟɢɫ
ɩɵɬɵɜɚɸɬɭɞɨɜɥɟɬɜɨɪɟɧɢɟɢɧɚɫɵɳɚɸɬɫɹɢɩɨɷɬɨɦɭɨɱɢɳɟɧɧɵɟɭɫɩɨɤɚɢ
ɜɚɸɬɫɹɭɛɟɠɞɟɧɢɟɦɚɧɟɫɢɥɨɣɂɦɟɧɧɨɩɨɷɬɨɦɭɜɢɞɹɜɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɹɯɢɤɨɦɟ
ɞɢɹɯɫɬɪɚɫɬɢɞɪɭɝɢɯɦɵɭɩɨɪɹɞɨɱɢɜɚɟɦɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟɫɬɪɚɫɬɢɭɦɟɪɹɟɦɢ
ɨɱɢɳɚɟɦɢɯª>@
əɦɜɥɢɯɩɪɹɦɨɫɫɵɥɚɟɬɫɹɧɚȽɟɪɚɤɥɢɬɚ²ɧɚɮɪɚɝɦɟɧɬɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɵɣɬɨɥɶ
ɤɨɜɟɝɨɩɟɪɟɫɤɚɡɟ ʋɩɨȾɢɥɶɫɭɄɪɚɧɰɭ Ƚɟɪɚɤɥɢɬɛɭɞɬɨɛɵɧɚɡɵɜɚɥ©ɥɟ
ɤɚɪɫɬɜɚɦɢªɫɨɡɟɪɰɚɧɢɟɢɜɵɫɥɭɲɢɜɚɧɢɟɧɟɩɪɢɫɬɨɣɧɨɝɨɜɨɜɪɟɦɹɦɢɫɬɟɪɢɣ
ɢɛɨɱɟɪɟɡɩɨɞɨɛɧɵɟɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɞɭɲɚɢɡɛɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɨɬɜɪɟɞɚɧɚɧɨɫɢɦɨɝɨɧɟɩɪɢ
ɫɬɨɣɧɵɦɜɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɗɬɨɪɚɫɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɟɜɧɨɜɶɧɟɥɢɲɟɧɨɧɟɹɫɧɨɫɬɟɣ
ɢɡɡɚɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɪɟɱɢɣɫɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɣɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɨɣɷɩɨɯɢəɦɜɥɢɯɚ ɤɨɧɟɰ,,,ɜɟɤɚ
ɧɷ ȼɫɚɦɨɦɞɟɥɟɩɨɱɟɦɭɠɟɥɚɹɨɩɪɚɜɞɚɬɶɧɟɩɪɢɫɬɨɣɧɵɟɢɡɨɛɪɚɠɟɧɢɹɢ
ɩɟɫɧɨɩɟɧɢɹɢɫɩɨɥɧɹɟɦɵɟɜɨɜɪɟɦɹɨɛɪɹɞɨɜɩɥɨɞɨɪɨɞɢɹəɦɜɥɢɯɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬɜ
ɩɪɢɦɟɪɤɨɦɟɞɢɸ ɜɤɨɬɨɪɨɣɜɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɚɊɢɦɫɤɨɣɢɦɩɟɪɢɢɭɠɟɧɟɛɵɥɨɮɚɥ
ɥɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɤɢ ɢɭɠɬɟɦɛɨɥɟɟɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɸ"ȿɝɨɪɚɫɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɟɹɜɧɨɢɦɟ
ɟɬɭɦɨɡɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɨɬɫɵɥɚɟɬɧɚɫɤɧɟɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɣɛɨɥɟɟɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɟ
9ɜɟɤɚɞɨɧɷɢɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɨɧɚɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɜɲɟɣɫɹɜɷɥɥɢɧɢɡɦɟɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɢɩɪɢɩɢ
ɫɵɜɚɜɲɟɣɤɚɬɚɪɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɜɫɟɦɭɬɟɚɬɪɭɚɧɟɬɨɥɶɤɨɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɢɊɚ
ɧɟɟɷɬɚɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɢɛɵɥɚɡɚɮɢɤɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɚɜɄɨɣɫɥɢɧɢɚɧɫɤɨɦɬɪɚɤɬɚɬɟȺɜɝɭɫɬɢɧ
ɜɢɞɢɦɨɡɧɚɥɨɧɟɣɧɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɶɟɣɨɬɤɚɡɵɜɚɥɫɹ

ɉɟɪɟɜɨɞɂɘɆɟɥɶɧɢɤɨɜɨɣ
 ȾȼɌɪɭɛɨɱɤɢɧ

ɂɬɚɤɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫɢɦɟɸɳɢɣɩɪɹɦɨɟɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟɤɦɭɡɵɤɟɢɤɬɟɚɬɪɭɜɤɥɚɫ
ɫɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɫɢɫɬɟɦɟɤɨɨɪɞɢɧɚɬɧɟɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɬɟɪɦɢɧɨɦɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɦɫɤɨɪɟɟ
ɪɚɡɜɟɪɧɭɬɵɦɜɜɢɞɟɲɢɪɨɱɚɣɲɟɝɨɫɩɟɤɬɪɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɣ²ɨɬɭɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɢɹɧɚ
ɜɪɟɦɹɜɵɬɟɫɧɹɸɳɟɝɨɫɬɪɚɞɚɧɢɟɞɨɦɢɫɬɟɪɢɚɥɶɧɨɣɱɢɫɬɨɬɵɫɟɪɞɰɚɢɭɦɚɨɬ
ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɩɚɝɭɛɧɵɯɚɮɮɟɤɬɨɜɇɟɹɫɧɨɫɬɶɜɬɪɚɤɬɨɜɤɟɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫɚɭȺɪɢɫɬɨ
ɬɟɥɹɜɨɡɧɢɤɥɚɧɟɢɡɡɚɨɛɢɥɢɹɩɨɡɞɧɟɣɲɢɯɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɣɚɫɪɚɡɭɠɟɩɪɢ
ɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɟɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵɜ©ɉɨɷɬɢɤɟªɢ©ɉɨɥɢɬɢɤɟªȺɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɶɬɚɤɢɧɟɞɚɥ
ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫɭɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɩɨɬɨɦɭɱɬɨɧɟɯɨɬɟɥ ɢɥɢɧɟɦɨɝ" ɫɜɟɪ
ɧɭɬɶɜɟɫɶɫɩɟɤɬɪɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɣɪɚɫɤɪɵɜɲɢɣɫɹɡɚɷɬɢɦɬɟɪɦɢɧɨɦɧɟɯɨɬɟɥɭɛɪɚɬɶ
ɫɜɨɢɦɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɟɦɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚɬɢɱɧɨɫɬɶɢɧɟɭɞɨɫɬɨɜɟɪɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɫɜɹɡɢɦɟɠɞɭ
ɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫɨɦɢɬɟɚɬɪɨɦ
Ⱥɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɶɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɯɨɬɟɥɛɵɨɱɢɫɬɢɬɶɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɸɤɚɤɫɚɦɵɣɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧ
ɧɵɣɩɨɷɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɠɚɧɪɨɬɜɫɟɝɨɩɪɢɜɯɨɞɹɳɟɝɨɧɚɟɝɨɜɡɝɥɹɞɧɟɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɱɬɨɛɵɧɚɫɥɚɠɞɚɬɶɫɹɟɟɫɢɥɨɣ©ɛɟɡɚɤɬɟɪɨɜɢɫɨɫɬɹɡɚɧɢɣªɇɨɤɚɤɬɨɝɞɚɛɵɬɶ
ɫɦɭɡɵɤɨɣ"Ɇɭɡɵɤɚɤɚɤ©ɝɥɚɜɧɟɣɲɟɟɢɡɭɫɥɚɳɟɧɢɣªɨɬɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɢɧɟɨɬɞɟɥɢ
ɦɚ ©ɭɫɥɚɳɟɧɢɹªɩɨɷɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɪɟɱɢȺɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɶɧɢɤɨɝɞɚɧɟɧɚɡɵɜɚɥɧɟɨɛɹɡɚ
ɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢ ɩɪɢɬɨɦɦɭɡɵɤɚɮɪɢɝɢɣɫɤɨɝɨɥɚɞɚ²©ɨɪɝɢɚɫɬɢɱɧɚɹɢɫɬɪɚɫɬɧɚɹª
ɧɟɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɚɹɩɪɢɜɟɫɬɢɞɭɲɭɤɭɦɟɪɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɚɫɤɨɪɟɟɭɜɥɟɤɚɸɳɚɹɟɟɜɫɬɨ
ɪɨɧɭɱɪɟɡɦɟɪɧɨɝɨɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɹɢɞɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɚɹɭɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɢɟɥɸɞɹɦɧɟɭɦɟ
ɪɟɧɧɵɦȾɥɹɦɭɡɵɤɢɧɭɠɧɵ©ɚɤɬɟɪɵɢɫɨɫɬɹɡɚɧɢɹªɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɢɬɭɬɦɵɜɧɨɜɶ
ɜɨɡɜɪɚɳɚɟɦɫɹɤɧɚɱɚɥɭ ɤɫɭɬɢɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɢɢɦɟɸɬɤɨɫɜɟɧɧɨɟɧɟɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟ
ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟɄɚɤɫɨɱɟɬɚɬɶɱɪɟɡɦɟɪɧɨɫɬɪɚɫɬɧɭɸɦɭɡɵɤɭɫɜɵɫɨɱɚɣɲɟɣɩɨɷɡɢ
ɟɣɜɟɞɭɳɟɣɤɩɨɡɧɚɧɢɸɛɨɝɨɜɢɝɟɪɨɟɜ"
ȼɷɬɨɦɤɪɭɝɟɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɣɩɪɟɛɵɜɚɟɬɜɦɟɫɬɟɫ©ɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫɨɦªɫɚɦɚ©ɬɪɚɝɟ
ɞɢɹªɫɜɨɛɨɞɧɨɩɢɬɚɸɳɚɹɤɚɤɩɪɨɫɬɨɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɟɭɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɢɟ ɩɨɞɨɛɧɨɬɚɛɥɟɬ
ɤɟɨɬɠɢɡɧɟɧɧɨɝɨɩɨɯɦɟɥɶɹɜɵɡɜɚɧɧɨɝɨ©ɭɬɥɨɫɬɶɸªɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɟɫɤɨɣɩɪɢɪɨɞɵ
ɢɞɚɪɭɸɳɟɣɥɢɲɶɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɟɨɛɥɟɝɱɟɧɢɟ ɬɚɤɢɭɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɢɟɭɬɨɧɱɟɧɧɵɯɢ
ɜɨɫɩɢɬɚɧɧɵɯɥɸɞɟɣȼ;;±;;,ɜɟɤɟɤɥɚɫɫɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚɬɢɤɚɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫɚ
ɢɭɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɢɹɨɬɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɹɛɵɥɚɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɚɜɨɜɫɟɣɟɟɩɨɥɧɨɬɟɢɜɨɥɧɭ
ɸɳɟɣɨɫɬɪɨɬɟɜɬɟɚɬɪɟɦɵɹɫɧɨɨɳɭɳɚɟɦɟɟɩɨɫɟɣɞɟɧɶ
Ʌา฼ฯฺส฼฽ฺส
 ȺɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɶɉɨɥɢɬɢɤɚɉɨɷɬɢɤɚɆȺɋɌ
 ȺɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɶɗɬɢɤɚɆȺɋɌ
 ȺɮɚɫɢɠɟɜɆɇɇɨɜɚɹɢɫɬɨɪɢɹɷɫɬɟɬɢɤɢȼɟɫɬɧɢɤɆɨɫɤɨɜɫɤɨɝɨɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬɚɋɟ
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 Ⱥɮɢɧɟɣɉɢɪɦɭɞɪɟɰɨɜȼɤɧɢɝɚɯ ɋɟɪɢɹ©Ʌɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɧɵɟɩɚɦɹɬɧɢɤɢª Ʉɧɢɝɢ
,;±;9ɩɟɪɢɩɪɢɦɇɌȽɨɥɢɧɤɟɜɢɱɆɇɚɭɤɚ
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ɋɉɛɇɚɭɤɚ
 Ȼɪɚɝɢɧɫɤɚɹɇȼ©ɇɟɤɢɟɞɜɟɩɪɢɱɢɧɵɢɩɪɢɬɨɦɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟª $ULVW3RHWE
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ɩɟɣɫɤɨɟɹɡɵɤɨɡɧɚɧɢɟɆɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɵɱɬɟɧɢɣɩɚɦɹɬɢɂɆɌɪɨɧɫɤɨɝɨ±ɋɉɛ
Ⱥɥɟɬɟɣɹɋ±
Ɍɟɚɬɪɦɭɡɵɤɚɤɚɬɚɪɫɢɫ 
 ȽɭɞɢɦɨɜɚɋȺɆɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɟɤɨɧɰɟɩɰɢɢɚɧɬɢɱɧɨɝɨɦɢɪɚɄɭɥɶɬɭɪɨɥɨɝɢɹɞɚɣɞ
ɠɟɫɬɊȺɇɂɇɂɈɇɐɟɧɬɪɝɭɦɚɧɢɬɚɪɧɵɯɧɚɭɱɧɨɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɯɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚ
ɧɢɣʋ   ɋɟɪɢɹɌɟɨɪɢɹɢɢɫɬɨɪɢɹɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵ ɋ±
 ȾɨɛɪɨɬɨɥɸɛɢɟFɛɨɪɧɢɤɜɬɆɋɢɛɢɪɫɤɚɹɛɥɚɝɨɡɜɨɧɧɢɰɚɌ
 ɅɨɫɟɜȺɎɒɟɫɬɚɤɨɜȼɉɂɫɬɨɪɢɹɷɫɬɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɣɆɂɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɨ
ɇɢɤɢɬɢɧɚɇɇɆɢɦɟɫɢɫɜɷɫɬɟɬɢɤɟȺɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɹɆɁɧɚɧɢɟ
ɉɥɚɬɨɧɋɨɱɢɧɟɧɢɹɜɱɟɬɵɪɟɯɬɨɦɚɯɩɨɞɨɛɳɟɣɪɟɞɚɤɰɢɟɣȺɎɅɨɫɟɜɚɢȼɎ
ȺɫɦɭɫɚɋɉɛɂɡɞɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨɋɚɧɤɬɉɟɬɟɪɛɭɪɝɫɤɨɝɨɍɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬɚɂɡɞɜɨɈɥɟɝɚ
ȺɛɵɲɤɨɌ
ɌɪɭɛɨɱɤɢɧȾȼȾɪɟɜɧɟɝɪɟɱɟɫɤɢɣɬɟɚɬɪɆɉɚɦɹɬɧɢɤɢɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɦɵɫɥɢ
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ิฬฺุูุ฻฽ุัสฺุะฮฯืาาิีาูุฬุอุึๅโีฯืา้
ฬุูฯฺืุำฺฯะา฻฻฽ฺฯ

ඈඇඍඁൾංඌඌඎൾൿඈඋඍඁൾർඅංඉඍඁංඇ඄ංඇ඀ඈඋං඀ංඇ
ංඇඈඉൾඋൺൽංඋൾർඍංඇ඀

Ⱥɧɧɨɬɚɰɢɹȼɫɬɚɬɶɟɢɫɫɥɟɞɭɸɬɫɹɩɪɢɱɢɧɵɡɚɪɨɠɞɟɧɢɹɤɥɢɩɨɜɨɝɨɦɵɲɥɟ
ɧɢɹɜɨɩɟɪɧɨɣɪɟɠɢɫɫɭɪɟ௅ɯɝɝɧɚɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɟɫɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨɚɧɚɥɢɡɚ
ɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɨɤ©ɉɢɤɨɜɨɣɞɚɦɵªɉɂɑɚɣɤɨɜɫɤɨɝɨɞɜɭɦɹɜɵɞɚɸɳɢɦɢɫɹɪɟɠɢɫɫɟ
ɪɚɦɢ;;ɫɬɨɥɟɬɢɹ²ɄɋɋɬɚɧɢɫɥɚɜɫɤɢɦɢȼɗɆɟɣɟɪɯɨɥɶɞɨɦȺɧɚɥɢɡɢɪɭ
ɸɬɫɹɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɰɟɥɟɩɨɥɚɝɚɧɢɣɨɛɨɢɯɦɚɫɬɟɪɨɜɢɯɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɢɚɥɶɧɵɟɪɚɫɯɨɠ
ɞɟɧɢɹɜɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɢɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɨɜɨɩɟɪɧɨɣɪɟɠɢɫɫɭɪɵɜɪɚɛɨɬɟɧɚɞɤɥɚɫɫɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ
ɪɟɩɟɪɬɭɚɪɨɦɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɹɜɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɢ©ɧɨɜɢɡɧɵª©ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɫɬɢªɜɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟ
Ʉɚɠɞɨɟɧɨɜɨɟɫɰɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɟɜɨɩɥɨɳɟɧɢɟ©ɉɢɤɨɜɨɣɞɚɦɵªɜɵɹɜɥɹɥɨɢɨɬɪɚɠɚɥɨ
ɫɩɟɤɬɪɢɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɯɭɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɬɜɨɪɱɟɫɤɢɯɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɣɜɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɤɚɠɞɨɝɨ
ɩɟɪɢɨɞɚɜɪɟɦɟɧɢɜɰɟɥɨɦɢɷɫɬɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɩɨɡɢɰɢɢɢɩɪɢɫɬɪɚɫɬɢɹɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɨɱɧɵɯ
ɤɨɥɥɟɤɬɢɜɨɜɜɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɜɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢɊɚɫɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ
ɋɬɚɧɢɫɥɚɜɫɤɨɝɨɢɆɟɣɟɪɯɨɥɶɞɚɛɵɥɢɩɨɫɭɬɢɫɜɨɟɣɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɢɚɥɶɧɵɦɢɩɟɪ
ɜɵɣɩɨɫɤɥɚɞɭɥɢɱɧɨɫɬɢɢɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨɫɬɚɜɚɥɫɹɜɧɟɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɫɨɜɨɤɭɩɧɨ
ɝɨɬɟɤɫɬɚɦɚɫɫɨɜɨɝɨɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɜɬɨɪɨɣɩɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɫɟɛɹɜɫɚɦɭɸɟɝɨɫɟɪɞɰɟɜɢɧɭ
ɩɨɥɚɝɚɹɱɬɨ©«ɧɨɜɵɟɮɨɪɦɵɧɟɛɨɥɟɟɱɟɦɫɥɨɝɚɧɵɢɦɢɬɢɪɭɸɳɢɟɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɨª
Ɉɛɟɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢɩɨɹɜɢɥɢɫɶɜɩɟɪɢɨɞɤɨɝɞɚɫɨɜɟɬɫɤɢɣɨɩɟɪɧɵɣɬɟɚɬɪɩɟɪɟɠɢɜɚɥ
ɜɪɟɦɹɛɭɪɧɵɯɪɟɠɢɫɫɟɪɫɤɢɯɢɫɤɚɧɢɣɜɵɪɚɡɢɜɲɢɯɫɹɜɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɢɡɚ
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ɬɟɤɫɬɚɯɨɩɟɪɵ ɋɬɚɧɢɫɥɚɜɫɤɢɣ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɚɦɧɚɪɨɠɞɚɜɲɟɝɨɫɹɜɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɦ
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ɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨªɤɥɢɩɨɜɨɝɨɯɭɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɢɹ
ȼɵɹɜɥɟɧɚɨɛɭɫɥɨɜɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹɜɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɨɩɟɪɧɨɦɯɨɪɟɨɝɪɚ
ɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚɯ௅ɯɝɝ;;ɜɤɥɢɩɨɜɨɝɨɯɭɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɢɹ
ɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟɦɫɨɜɨɤɭɩɧɨɝɨ©ɬɟɤɫɬɚªɦɚɫɫɨɜɨɣɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢɜɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢɤɢɧɟɦɚɬɨ
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ɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹɬɟɤɫɬɨɜɦɚɫɫɨɜɨɣɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ
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ɬɢɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɩɨɡɜɨɥɢɥɨɛɵɹɫɧɟɟɩɨɧɹɬɶɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɫɚɦɨɝɨɮɟɧɨ
ɦɟɧɚɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚɜɧɚɲɟɜɪɟɦɹɉɪɢɱɢɧɵɡɚɪɨɠɞɟɧɢɹɤɥɢɩɨɜɨɝɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɢɹɜ
ɨɩɟɪɧɨɣɪɟɠɢɫɫɭɪɟɜɫɬɚɬɶɟɪɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɵɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪɟɪɚɛɨɬɄɋɋɬɚɧɢɫɥɚɜ
ɫɤɨɝɨɢȼɗɆɟɣɟɪɯɨɥɶɞɚɧɚɞ©ɉɢɤɨɜɨɣɞɚɦɨɣªɉɂɑɚɣɤɨɜɫɤɨɝɨɩɨɩɨɜɟ
ɫɬɢȺɋɉɭɲɤɢɧɚ
௅ɟɝɨɞɵ;;ɜɟɤɚɨɤɚɡɚɥɢɫɶɜɟɫɶɦɚ©ɭɪɨɠɚɣɧɵɦɢªɧɚɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢ
©ɉɢɤɨɜɨɣɞɚɦɵªɜɨɛɟɢɯɫɬɨɥɢɰɚɯɡɧɚɦɟɧɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɱɬɨɤɚɠɞɨɟɧɨɜɨɟɟɟɫɰɟ
ɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɟɜɨɩɥɨɳɟɧɢɟɜɵɹɜɥɹɥɨɢɨɬɪɚɠɚɥɨɫɩɟɤɬɪɢɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɯɭɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧ
ɧɨɬɜɨɪɱɟɫɤɢɯɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɣɜɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɜɰɟɥɨɦɢɷɫɬɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɩɨɡɢɰɢɢɢɩɪɢ
ɫɬɪɚɫɬɢɹɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɨɱɧɵɯɤɨɥɥɟɤɬɢɜɨɜɜɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟ
ɜɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢɌɚɤɂɆɅɚɩɢɰɤɢɣɜɫɜɨɟɣɩɟɪɜɨɣɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɟ©ɉɢɤɨɜɨɣɞɚɦɵª

Ⱥɧɚɥɢɡɭɩɪɟɞɲɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɢɤɚɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɝɨɤɥɢɩɨɜɨɝɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɢɹɜɯɨɪɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟ௅
ɛɚɥɟɬɭɞɹɝɢɥɟɜɫɤɨɣɚɧɬɪɟɩɪɢɡɵ©Ɉɞɚª  ௅ɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɚɫɬɚɬɶɹɅɨɛɨɞɚɧɨɜȺɉɏɨɪɟɨɝɪɚɮɢ
ɱɟɫɤɨɟɜɨɩɥɨɳɟɧɢɟɨɞɧɨɝɨɫɬɢɯɨɬɜɨɪɟɧɢɹɅɨɦɨɧɨɫɨɜɚ>࣓@

Ɋɚɛɨɬɵɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɧɵɟɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɸɫɰɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɫɭɞɶɛɵ©ɉɢɤɨɜɨɣɞɚɦɵªɩɪɢɜɟɞɟɧɵɜɧɨɜɟɣɲɟɣ
ɚɧɧɨɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɣɛɢɛɥɢɨɝɪɚɮɢɢɨɠɢɡɧɢɢɬɜɨɪɱɟɫɬɜɟɑɚɣɤɨɜɫɤɨɝɨ>@ɇɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɟɟɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ
ɩɪɢɜɥɟɤɥɚɪɚɛɨɬɚɧɚɞɨɩɟɪɨɣȼɆɟɣɟɪɯɨɥɶɞɚɋɦʋʋɢɡɛɢɛɥɢɨ
ɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɫɩɢɫɤɚɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɨɝɨɛɪɢɬɚɧɫɤɢɦɭɱɟɧɵɦ
Ʉɜɨɩɪɨɫɭɨɡɚɪɨɠɞɟɧɢɢɤɥɢɩɨɜɨɝɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɢɹ 
©ɌɟɚɬɪɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɣɞɪɚɦɵªɞɢɪɢɠɟɪɆȺȻɢɯɬɟɪ ɨɛɪɚɬɢɥɫɹɤ©ɧɚɬɭ
ɪɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦªɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɚɦɫɰɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɪɟɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ©ɲɟɞɲɢɦɜɪɚɡɪɟɡɫɫɚ
ɦɢɦɫɬɢɥɟɦɦɭɡɵɤɢ«௅ɨɛɪɚɡɰɨɦ³ɩɫɢɯɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɪɟɚɥɢɡɦɚ´ɜɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟª
>@ɉɨɨɬɡɵɜɭȻȼȺɫɚɮɶɟɜɚɪɟɠɢɫɫɟɪɢɫɯɨɞɢɥ©ɧɟɨɬɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɬɟɤɫɬɚ
ɩɚɪɬɢɬɭɪɵªɚɨɬɜɡɝɥɹɞɨɜɧɚɨɩɟɪɭ©ɤɚɤɧɚɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɟɩɪɟɠɞɟɜɫɟɝɨɞɪɚɦɚ
ɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟªɨɬɦɟɱɚɥɨɫɶ©«ɧɟɨɛɵɱɚɣɧɨɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɥɶɧɨɟɨɛɪɚɳɟɧɢɟɫɡɚɦɵɫɥɚɦɢ
ɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɚɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟɱɭɬɶɹɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɣɮɨɪɦɵª>@
ȼɦɢɪɢɫɤɭɫɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɷɫɬɟɬɢɤɟ©ɉɢɤɨɜɚɹɞɚɦɚª ɞɢɪɢɠɟɪɗɄɭɩɟɪ
ɫɰɟɧɨɝɪɚɮȺɇȻɟɧɭɚ ɩɪɨɡɜɭɱɚɥɚɧɚɫɰɟɧɟɥɟɧɢɧɝɪɚɞɫɤɨɝɨɌɟɚɬɪɚɨɩɟɪɵɢ
ɛɚɥɟɬɚɤɚɤ©ɨɩɟɪɚɩɪɟɞɱɭɜɫɬɜɢɣªȼɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɟɫɧɨɜɢɞɟɧɢɣɢɝɚɥɥɸɰɢɧɚɰɢɣ
ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɯɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɦɭɦɢɪɭɜɷɤɫɩɪɟɫɫɢɨɧɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɞɟɤɨɪɚɰɢɹɯ
ɢɪɚɡɜɟɪɬɵɜɚɥɨɫɶɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɨɩɟɪɵɜɨɜɬɨɪɨɣɪɟɠɢɫɫɟɪɫɤɨɣɜɟɪɫɢɢɅɚɩɢɰɤɨ
ɝɨ ȻɌɞɢɪɢɠɟɪȼɂɋɭɤɯɭɞɨɠɧɢɤȺȼɏɜɨɫɬɨɜ ©ɉɪɟɫɫɚɨɬɦɟɱɚɥɚ
ɱɬɨɜɪɟɠɢɫɫɭɪɟɅɚɩɢɰɤɨɝɨ³ɧɚɪɭɲɟɧ«ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɣɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɹɜɫɟɣ
³ɉɢɤɨɜɨɣɞɚɦɵ´!Ɇɧɨɝɨɟɜɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɟɪɚɫɰɟɧɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɢɩɨɞɚɟɬɫɹɢɦɟɧɧɨ
ɫɬɨɱɤɢɡɪɟɧɢɹɪɚɫɫɬɪɨɟɧɧɨɝɨɜɨɨɛɪɚɠɟɧɢɹȽɟɪɦɚɧɚª>@ɉɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚɋɬɚ
ɧɢɫɥɚɜɫɤɨɝɨ ɆɨɫɤɜɚɞɢɪɢɠɟɪȻɗɏɚɣɤɢɧ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɨɜɚɥɚɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɚɧ
ɧɵɣɢɦɦɟɬɨɞɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɚɧɚɥɢɡɚɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɪɚɫɤɪɵɬɢɹɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶ
ɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɨɣɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵɨɩɟɪɵɦɚɹɝɨɞɚȻɨɥɶɲɨɣɬɟɚɬɪɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɥ
©ɪɟɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɩɪɚɜɞɢɜɭɸªɤɚɤɩɢɫɚɥɚɤɪɢɬɢɤɚɬɪɚɤɬɨɜɤɭ ɪɟɠɢɫɫɟɪɇȼ
ɋɦɨɥɢɱɞɢɪɢɠɟɪɇɋȽɨɥɨɜɚɧɨɜɯɭɞɨɠɧɢɤȼȼȾɦɢɬɪɢɟɜ ©ɜɟɪɧɭɜɲɭɸ
ɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɸɤɪɚɫɨɱɧɨɫɬɶɢɩɚɪɚɞɧɨɫɬɶɩɟɪɜɨɣɟɟɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢɧɚɩɟɬɟɪɛɭɪɝɫɤɨɣ
ɫɰɟɧɟª>±@ɹɧɜɚɪɹɝɨɞɚ²ɩɪɟɦɶɟɪɚɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɹɆɟɣɟɪɯɨɥɶɞɚ
ɞɢɪɢɠɟɪɋȺɋɚɦɨɫɭɞɚɜɬɨɪɧɨɜɨɝɨɬɟɤɫɬɚȼɂɋɬɟɧɢɱ ȼɩɨɥɟɦɢɤɟɫɷɬɨɣ
ɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɨɣɌɈɢȻɢɦɟɧɢɋɆɄɢɪɨɜɚɞɚɥɜɬɨɦɠɟɝɨɞɭɪɟɞɚɤɰɢɸ©ɉɢɤɨɜɨɣ
ɞɚɦɵªɜɧɨɜɨɣ©ɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɨɱɧɨɣªɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɢɊɟɠɢɫɫɟɪɇȼɋɦɨɥɢɱɞɢɪɢɠɟɪ
ȼȺȾɪɚɧɢɲɧɢɤɨɜɯɭɞɨɠɧɢɤȼȼȾɦɢɬɪɢɟɜ©ɡɚɹɜɥɹɥɢɨɫɜɨɟɦɧɚɦɟɪɟɧɢɢ
³ɧɟɩɨɫɬɭɩɢɬɶɫɹɧɢɨɞɧɨɣɧɨɬɨɣɝɟɧɢɚɥɶɧɨɣɩɚɪɬɢɬɭɪɵɑɚɣɤɨɜɫɤɨɝɨ´«!
ȼɷɬɨɦɫɦɵɫɥɟ²ɩɢɲɟɬȼɂȻɟɪɟɡɤɢɧ²ɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɶɋɦɨɥɢɱɚɢȾɦɢɬɪɢɟɜɚ
ɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɥɫɹɤɚɤɫɜɨɟɝɨɪɨɞɚ³ɪɟɜɚɧɲɚɤɚɞɟɦɢɡɦɚ´ª>@
ɉɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɱɬɨɫɰɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɟɜɨɩɥɨɳɟɧɢɟɢɦɟɧɧɨ©ɉɢɤɨɜɨɣɞɚɦɵªɜ
ɨɬɥɢɱɢɟɨɬɞɪɭɝɢɯɨɩɟɪɑɚɣɤɨɜɫɤɨɝɨɛɭɞɨɪɚɠɢɥɨɜɨɨɛɪɚɠɟɧɢɟɦɧɨɝɢɯɢɡɜɟɫɬ
ɧɵɯɪɟɠɢɫɫɟɪɨɜɩɟɪɜɨɣɩɨɥɨɜɢɧɵ;;ɜɟɤɚɩɨɛɭɠɞɚɥɨɢɯɤɩɟɪɟɫɦɨɬɪɭɥɢ
ɛɪɟɬɬɨɆɂɑɚɣɤɨɜɫɤɨɝɨɤɩɟɪɟɦɟɧɚɦɦɟɫɬɚɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɢɬɟɤɫɬɚɌɚɤȼɂɇɟ
ɦɢɪɨɜɢɱȾɚɧɱɟɧɤɨɜɩɥɚɧɢɪɭɟɦɨɣɢɦɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɟɨɩɟɪɵɜɬɟɚɬɪɟɟɝɨɢɦɟɧɢ
©«ɡɚɞɭɦɵɜɚɥɩɟɪɟɧɟɫɬɢɫɰɟɧɵɅɟɬɧɟɝɨɫɚɞɚɜȺɧɢɱɤɨɜɞɜɨɪɟɰɁɞɟɫɶɜɤɨɪ
ɞɟɝɚɪɞɢɢɞɨɥɠɧɚɛɵɥɚɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬɶɩɢɪɭɲɤɚɨɮɢɰɟɪɨɜɢɡɚɬɟɦɩɨɫɥɟɩɨɜɨ
ɪɨɬɚɤɪɭɝɚɫɰɟɧɵɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɩɨɟɝɨɡɚɦɵɫɥɭɩɟɪɟɧɨɫɢɥɨɫɶɛɵɜɡɚɥɵɫɚɦɨɝɨ
ɞɜɨɪɰɚɄɜɢɧɬɟɬ³Ɇɧɟɫɬɪɚɲɧɨ´ɨɧɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɥɦɟɠɞɭɞɪɭɝɢɦɢɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɚ

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Ɉ©ɉɢɤɨɜɨɣɞɚɦɟªɜɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɟɆɟɣɟɪɯɨɥɶɞɚɫɦ>@
 ȺɉɅɨɛɨɞɚɧɨɜ

ɦɢɧɟɠɟɥɢɭɑɚɣɤɨɜɫɤɨɝɨ ɢɫɞɪɭɝɢɦɬɟɤɫɬɨɦ ȼɜɟɞɟɧɚɭɧɟɝɨɛɵɥɚɉɨɥɢ


ɧɚɩɨɬɨɦɭɱɬɨɇɟɦɢɪɨɜɢɱȾɚɧɱɟɧɤɨɧɚɦɟɱɚɥɩɪɨɜɟɫɬɢɜɨɩɟɪɟɥɢɧɢɸɫɜɹɡɢ
ɉɨɥɢɧɵɢɌɨɦɫɤɨɝɨª>@
ɊɚɫɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɹɋɬɚɧɢɫɥɚɜɫɤɨɝɨɢɆɟɣɟɪɯɨɥɶɞɚɧɚɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɫɮɨɤɭɫɢɪɨɜɚ
ɧɨɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɜɦɨɟɣɫɬɚɬɶɟɛɵɥɢɩɨɫɭɬɢɫɜɨɟɣɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɢɚɥɶɧɵɦɢɋɬɚ
ɧɢɫɥɚɜɫɤɢɣɩɟɞɚɧɬɢɱɧɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɥɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨɆɂɑɚɣɤɨɜɫɤɨɝɨɆɟɣɟɪɯɨɥɶɞ
ɠɟɩɟɪɟɫɦɨɬɪɟɥɢɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɣɩɪɢɭɪɨɱɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɨɩɟɪɵ©ɩɟ
ɪɟɦɨɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɥªɢɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɨɪɤɟɫɬɪɨɜɵɯɧɨɦɟɪɨɜɢɬɟɤɫɬɥɢɛɪɟɬ
ɬɨɢɫɨɫɬɚɜɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯɥɢɰ
ɉɟɪɟɧɟɫɟɧɢɟɜɪɟɦɟɧɢɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɜɧɢɤɨɥɚɟɜɫɤɭɸɷɩɨɯɭɩɟɪɟɫɦɨɬɪɫɨɫɬɚɜɚ
ɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯɥɢɰɢɩɟɪɟɦɨɧɬɢɪɨɜɤɚɬɟɤɫɬɚɧɟɛɵɥɢɤɚɤɦɵɭɜɢɞɟɥɢɧɟɨɠɢ
ɞɚɧɧɵɦɢɞɥɹɬɨɝɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɢɢɢɫɤɥɸɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢɢɞɟɹɦɢɆɟɣɟɪɯɨɥɶɞɚɉɪɢɟɦ
ɪɚɡɞɟɥɟɧɢɹɰɟɥɨɫɬɧɨɝɨɫɸɠɟɬɧɚɦɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɟɦɢɤɪɨɫɰɟɧɵɬɚɤɠɟɛɵɥɢɡ
ɜɟɫɬɟɧɞɨɆɟɣɟɪɯɨɥɶɞɚɜɯɨɪɨɲɨɡɧɚɤɨɦɨɣɟɦɭɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɟɅɚɩɢɰɤɨɝɨ  
ɫɰɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɟɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɪɚɡɜɨɪɚɱɢɜɚɥɨɫɶɤɚɤɫɦɟɧɚɛɨɥɟɟɫɨɪɨɤɚɷɩɢɡɨɞɨɜɊɚ
ɛɨɬɚɆɟɣɟɪɯɨɥɶɞɚɧɚɞ©ɉɢɤɨɜɨɣɞɚɦɨɣªɫɨɬɤɚɧɚɢɡɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɪɟɱɢɣɊɟɠɢɫɫɟɪ
©ɦɟɱɬɚɥ²ɤɚɤɩɢɲɟɬȼȺɘɡɟɮɨɜɢɱ²ɨɬɟɚɬɪɟɜɤɨɬɨɪɨɦɫɢɧɬɟɡɢɪɨɜɚ
ɥɢɫɶɛɵɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɟɢɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟɧɚɱɚɥɚª>@ɬɨɝɞɚɤɚɤɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɵ
ɢɩɪɢɟɦɵɬɚɤɨɝɨ©ɫɢɧɬɟɡɚªɤɚɤɪɚɫɤɪɵɬɢɹɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɨɣɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ
ɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɭɠɟɛɵɥɢɧɟɬɨɥɶɤɨɧɚɣɞɟɧɵɧɨɢɜɨɩɥɨɳɟɧɵɜɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɨɦ
ɋɬɚɧɢɫɥɚɜɫɤɢɦɜɟɝɨɈɩɟɪɧɨɣɫɬɭɞɢɢ©ȿɜɝɟɧɢɢɈɧɟɝɢɧɟª  ²ɷɩɨɯɚɥɶ
ɧɨɦɪɭɛɟɠɟɜɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɪɭɫɫɤɨɝɨɨɩɟɪɧɨɝɨɬɟɚɬɪɚ
Ɇɟɣɟɪɯɨɥɶɞ©«ɪɚɛɨɬɭɧɚɞɨɩɟɪɧɵɦɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɟɦ«ɫɬɪɨɢɥɤɚɤɨɧɫɚɦɝɨ
ɜɨɪɢɥɢɫɯɨɞɹɢɡɩɚɪɬɢɬɭɪɵɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɚɧɚɨɫɧɨɜɟɤɨɬɨɪɨɣɢɫɨɡɞɚɜɚɥɜɫɸ
ɫɢɫɬɟɦɭɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɯɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɟɫɤɢɯɱɭɜɫɬɜɩɨɫɬɭɩɤɨɜª>@ɚ
ɜɦɟɫɬɟɫɬɟɦɨɬɞɟɥɹɥɦɭɡɵɤɭ©ɉɢɤɨɜɨɣɞɚɦɵªɨɬɬɨɣɮɨɪɦɵɜɤɨɬɨɪɨɣɨɧɚ
ɛɵɥɚɜɨɩɥɨɳɟɧɚɨɤɚɡɚɥɫɹɜɵɛɪɨɲɟɧɧɵɦɰɟɥɵɣɪɹɞɧɨɦɟɪɨɜɜɬɨɦɱɢɫɥɟ
ɤɜɢɧɬɟɬ©Ɇɧɟɫɬɪɚɲɧɨªɹɜɥɹɸɳɢɣɫɹɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɡɚɜɹɡɤɨɣɫɸɠɟɬɧɨɣ
ɢɧɬɪɢɝɢɨɩɟɪɵɢɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɦɹɞɪɨɦɢɡɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɸɬɫɹɜɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɟɦ
ɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɬɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢɟɝɨɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɨɜɭɨɩɟɪɵɑɚɣɤɨɜ
ɫɤɨɝɨɩɨɹɜɢɥɫɹɞɪɭɝɨɣɮɢɧɚɥ²ɦɭɡɵɤɚɢɡɫɰɟɧɵɜɤɚɡɚɪɦɟ
ɉɪɟɞɜɚɪɹɹɫɜɨɸɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɭɆɟɣɟɪɯɨɥɶɞɩɪɢɡɵɜɚɥɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɨɩɪɢ
ɛɥɢɡɢɬɶɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨɨɩɟɪɵɤɩɨɜɟɫɬɢɉɭɲɤɢɧɚȼɦɟɫɬɟɫɬɟɦɢɝɧɨɪɢɪɨɜɚɥɨɫɶ
ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɢɚɥɶɧɨɟɨɬɥɢɱɢɟɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɣɬɪɚɤɬɨɜɤɢɬɟɦɵɨɬɟɟɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɧɨɣ
ɩɟɪɜɨɨɫɧɨɜɵȼɜɟɞɟɧɢɟɜɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɭɬɪɚɜɟɫɬɢɝɭɫɚɪɚɋɱɚɫɬɥɢɜɨɝɨɢɝɪɨ
ɤɚ ɜɣɤɚɪɬɢɧɟ ɉɟɜɰɚɧɚɛɚɥɭ ɜɣɤɚɪɬɢɧɟ ɮɢɝɭɪɵɇɟɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɨɝɨ ɜ
ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɟɣɤɚɪɬɢɧɟ ɥɢɲɶɨɬɞɚɥɹɥɨɧɨɜɨɟɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨɨɬɩɨɜɟɫɬɢɢɧɚɨɛɨ
ɪɨɬɩɪɢɛɥɢɠɚɥɨɜɨɡɜɪɚɳɟɧɢɟɅɢɡɟɫɬɚɬɭɫɚɜɨɫɩɢɬɚɧɧɢɰɵ ɱɬɨɩɨɬɪɟɛɨɜɚ
ɥɨɭɩɪɚɡɞɧɟɧɢɹɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɚɤɧȿɥɟɰɤɨɝɨɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɧɟɮɢɝɭɪɢɪɭɟɬɢɭɉɭɲ

ȼɦɟɫɬɟɫɬɟɦɆɟɣɟɪɯɨɥɶɞɤɚɤɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɨɧɚɫɬɚɢɜɚɥɧɚɬɨɦɱɬɨɨɧɢɋɬɚɧɢɫɥɚɜɫɤɢɣɨɬɧɸɞɶɧɟɚɧ
ɬɢɩɨɞɵɚɥɢɲɶɞɨɩɨɥɧɹɸɬɞɪɭɝɞɪɭɝɚ>@
Ʉɜɨɩɪɨɫɭɨɡɚɪɨɠɞɟɧɢɢɤɥɢɩɨɜɨɝɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɢɹ 
ɤɢɧɚɚɬɨɥɶɤɨɭɩɨɦɢɧɚɟɬɫɹ ɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɟɟɣɢȽɟɪɦɚɧɭɠɢɡɧɢɢɩɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ
ɡɚɤɥɸɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣɫɰɟɧɵɜɩɚɥɚɬɟɫɭɦɚɫɲɟɞɲɟɝɨɞɨɦɚɧɚɪɭɲɢɜɲɟɣɩɨɫɥɟ
ɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɯɧɨɦɟɪɨɜɩɚɪɬɢɬɭɪɵɉɂɑɚɣɤɨɜɫɤɨɝɨɢɟɝɨɡɚ
ɦɵɫɟɥɮɢɧɚɥɚɨɩɟɪɵ
Ɇɟɣɟɪɯɨɥɶɞ©«ɢɫɩɨɜɟɞɨɜɚɥɤɨɧɬɪɚɩɭɧɤɬɢɡɦɤɚɤɝɥɚɜɧɵɣɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɫɰɟ
ɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɜɨɩɥɨɳɟɧɢɹɜɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɨɛɪɚɡɚɉɪɢɷɬɨɦɫɰɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɟɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟ
ɦɢɡɚɧɫɰɟɧɚ ɫɬɪɨɢɬɫɹɧɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɨɬɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɪɢɬɦɚɢɦɟɬɪɚ«!Ʉɚɤ
ɩɨɤɚɡɚɥɨɩɵɬɟɝɨɬɟɨɪɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɪɚɫɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɹɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɜɩɨɥɧɟɨɩɪɚɜɞɚɧ
ɧɵɟɜɞɚɧɧɨɦɫɥɭɱɚɟɩɨɲɥɢɜɪɚɡɪɟɡɫɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɣɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɢɟɣª>@
ɉɨɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɭɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɨɜɨɛɟɢɯɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɨɤ©ɉɢɤɨɜɨɣɞɚɦɵªɋɬɚɧɢɫ
ɥɚɜɫɤɢɣɫɬɪɟɦɢɥɫɹɤɪɚɫɤɪɵɬɢɸɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɣɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɢɢɨɩɟɪɵɤɚɤɫɥɨɠ
ɧɨɣɫɢɫɬɟɦɵɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɫɨɡɜɭɱɢɹɢɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɨɜɜɱɭɜɫɬɜɚɯɢɩɨɫɬɭɩɤɚɯ
ɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɟɣɢɫɯɨɞɹɢɡɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɫɥɨɠɢɜɲɢɯɫɹɮɨɪɦɡɚɤɨɧɱɟɧɧɨɝɨɦɭɡɵ
ɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɰɟɥɨɝɨɢɡɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɢɢɩɪɟɞɧɚɱɟɪɬɚɧɧɨɣɫɚɦɢɦɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɦɟɞɢɧ
ɫɬɜɨɦɆɟɣɟɪɯɨɥɶɞɫɬɪɨɢɥɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɭɸɞɪɚɦɭɤɚɤɩɨɤɚɡɫɰɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɞɟɣ
ɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɜɜɨɩɥɨɳɚɟɦɵɯɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚɦɢɜɧɟɲɧɟɝɨ
ɜɨɫɩɪɢɹɬɢɹɢɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɧɚɫɥɭɲɚɬɟɥɹɢɡɪɢɬɟɥɹ
©Ⱥɤɬɟɪɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɣɞɪɚɦɵɞɨɥɠɟɧɩɨɫɬɢɱɶɫɭɳɧɨɫɬɶɩɚɪɬɢɬɭɪɵɢɩɟ
ɪɟɜɟɫɬɢɜɫɟɬɨɧɤɨɫɬɢɨɪɤɟɫɬɪɨɜɨɝɨɪɢɫɭɧɤɚɧɚɹɡɵɤɩɥɚɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɪɢɫɭɧɤɚª
௅ɩɢɫɚɥɆɟɣɟɪɯɨɥɶɞ>@Ⱥɜɦɟɫɬɟɫɬɟɦɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɢɤɢɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢɭɜɢ
ɞɟɥɢɜɧɟɣɦɟɯɚɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɟɩɟɪɟɧɟɫɟɧɢɟɜɨɩɟɪɭɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɚɧɧɵɯɪɟɠɢɫɫɟɪɨɦɜ
ɩɪɟɞɵɞɭɳɢɯɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɹɯɩɪɢɟɦɨɜɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɚɤɬɟɪɚ
ɊɚɛɨɬɚɋɬɚɧɢɫɥɚɜɫɤɨɝɨɢɆɟɣɟɪɯɨɥɶɞɚɧɚɞɤɥɚɫɫɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɪɟɩɟɪɬɭɚɪɨɦ
ɜɵɫɜɟɬɢɥɚɢɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɟɜɢɯɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɢ©ɧɨɜɢɡɧɵª©ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɫɬɢªɜɢɫ
ɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɉɚɮɨɫɧɨɜɢɡɧɵɭɋɬɚɧɢɫɥɚɜɫɤɨɝɨ௅ɜɪɚɫɤɪɵɬɢɢɡɚɦɵɫɥɚɤɨɦɩɨ
ɡɢɬɨɪɚɜɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɢɢɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɨɣɢɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɜɩɨɤɚɡɟɬɨɝɨɯɭɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɹɤɨɬɨɪɨɟ
ɭɫɤɨɥɶɡɚɥɨɨɬɩɭɛɥɢɤɢɢɥɢɧɟɛɵɥɨɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɨɜɩɪɟɞɲɟɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜ
ɤɚɯɆɟɣɟɪɯɨɥɶɞɠɟ©ɫɬɪɟɦɢɥɫɹɤɡɚɨɫɬɪɟɧɧɨɦɭɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɨɛɥɢɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɭ
ɢɹɪɤɨɡɪɟɥɢɳɧɨɦɭɪɚɫɤɪɵɬɢɸɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɢɢɜɥɚɫɬɧɨɩɨɞɱɢɧɹɹɫɰɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ
ɜɨɩɥɨɳɟɧɢɟɫɜɨɟɦɭɪɟɠɢɫɫɟɪɫɤɨɦɭɜɢɞɟɧɢɸ«ª>@ɉɨɋɬɚɧɢɫɥɚɜɫɤɨɦɭ
ɠɟɪɟɠɢɫɫɟɪɫɤɨɟɜɢɞɟɧɢɟɷɬɨ௅ɩɪɨɡɪɟɧɢɟ ɭɜ࣊ɞɟɧɢɟ ɧɨɜɵɯɯɭɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧ
ɧɵɯɝɥɭɛɢɧɢɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɢɟɧɨɜɵɯɝɪɚɧɟɣɚɜɬɨɪɫɤɨɝɨɡɚɦɵɫɥɚɜɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟ
ɫɤɢɫɥɨɠɢɜɲɟɣɫɹɟɝɨɰɟɥɨɫɬɧɨɫɬɢɬɚɤɋɬɚɧɢɫɥɚɜɫɤɢɣɩɨɧɢɦɚɥ©ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧ
ɧɨɫɬɶªɜɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟ
ȼɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɨɩɟɪɧɵɯɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɨɤ௅ɯɝɝ;;ɜɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɢɅɚɩɢɰɤɨɝɨ
ɢɆɟɣɟɪɯɨɥɶɞɚ௅ɧɟɬɨɥɶɤɨɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨɫɦɟɧɵɯɭɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɷɫɬɟɬɢɱɟ
ɫɤɢɯɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɧɨɢɨɬɪɚɠɟɧɢɟɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɯɜɡɚɢɦɨɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɯɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɜ
Ɉɛɟɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢɩɨɹɜɢɥɢɫɶɤɨɝɞɚɫɨɜɟɬɫɤɢɣɨɩɟɪɧɵɣɬɟɚɬɪɩɟɪɟɠɢɜɚɥ
ɜɪɟɦɹɛɭɪɧɵɯɪɟɠɢɫɫɟɪɫɤɢɯɢɫɤɚɧɢɣɜɵɪɚɡɢɜɲɢɯɫɹɜɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ
ɡɚɤɨɧɨɜɨɫɜɨɟɧɢɹɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɟɣ©ɩɚɪɬɢɬɭɪɵɱɭɜɫɬɜɚªɜɫɥɨɜɟɫɧɨɦɢɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶ
 ȺɉɅɨɛɨɞɚɧɨɜ

ɧɨɦɬɟɤɫɬɚɯɨɩɟɪɵ ɋɬɚɧɢɫɥɚɜɫɤɢɣ ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɚɦɧɚɪɨɠɞɚɜɲɟɝɨɫɹɜɞɪɚɦɚɬɢ


ɱɟɫɤɨɦɨɩɟɪɧɨɦɯɨɪɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚɯ௅ɯɝɨɞɨɜ;;ɜɟɤɚ©ɤɢ
ɧɟɦɚɬɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨªɤɥɢɩɨɜɨɝɨɯɭɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɢɹ
ɗɬɨɨɛɴɹɫɧɹɟɬɫɹɬɟɦɱɬɨɜɧɨɜɭɸɷɩɨɯɭɜ±ɯɝɨɞɚɯɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɟ
ɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɣɯɭɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨɬɜɨɪɱɟɫɬɜɚɩɪɨɬɟɤɚɥɨɜɨɫɨɛɵɯɢɞɟɣɧɵɯɢ
ɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɝɨɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɧɨɝɨɬɟɤɫɬɚɦɚɫ
ɫɨɜɨɣɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ௅ɜɫɨɜɨɤɭɩɧɨɫɬɢɫɜɨɢɯɜɢɞɨɜɬɟɤɫɬɚɩɪɹɦɨɝɨɦɚɫɫɨɜɨ
ɝɨɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ
ɇɟɩɪɟɪɵɜɧɨɬɟɤɭɳɢɣɬɟɤɫɬɦɚɫɫɨɜɨɣɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɰɢɢɫɨɡɞɚɟɬɭɨɛɵɜɚɬɟ
ɥɹɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɟɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɵɜɬɟɤɭɳɢɯɫɨɛɵɬɢɹɯɜɫɢɥɭɱɟɝɨɟɝɨɰɟɥɟɩɨɥɚɝɚ
ɧɢɹɢɜɤɭɫɵɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨɢɡɦɟɧɹɸɬɫɹɤɚɤɢɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟɤɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣ
ɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢȼɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɢɫɷɬɢɦ©ɬɟɤɫɬɵªɯɭɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨɬɜɨɪɱɟɫɬɜɚ
ɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɬɚɸɬɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɣɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɟɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɚɧɧɵɣɧɚɜɟɱɧɨɟɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɟ
ɧɢɟɚɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɩɨɫɜɨɟɦɭɡɚɦɵɫɥɭɧɟɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɟɢɯɚɜɬɨɪɚ
ɦɢɧɚɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɭɗɬɨɢɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɜɝɥɚɜɧɨɦɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɟɬɜɨɪɱɟɫɤɢɯɤɨɧɰɟɩ
ɰɢɣɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɨɤ©ɉɢɤɨɜɨɣɞɚɦɵªɋɬɚɧɢɫɥɚɜɫɤɨɝɨɢɆɟɣɟɪɯɨɥɶɞɚɩɟɪɜɵɣ
ɩɨɫɤɥɚɞɭɥɢɱɧɨɫɬɢɢɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨɫɬɚɜɚɥɫɹɜɧɟɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɷɬɨɝɨɫɨ
ɜɨɤɭɩɧɨɝɨɬɟɤɫɬɚɦɚɫɫɨɜɨɝɨɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɜɬɨɪɨɣɩɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɫɟɛɹɜɫɚɦɭɸɟɝɨ
ɫɟɪɞɰɟɜɢɧɭɩɨɥɚɝɚɹɱɬɨ©ɧɨɜɵɟɮɨɪɦɵɧɟɛɨɥɟɟɱɟɦɫɥɨɝɚɧɵɢɦɢɬɢɪɭɸ
ɳɢɟɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɨª
ɉɨɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɦɭɫɨɫɬɚɜɭɢɩɫɢɯɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɚɦɩɭɛɥɢ
ɤɚɫɥɭɲɚɸɳɚɹɨɩɟɪɭɜɪɚɡɧɵɟɷɩɨɯɢ²ɪɚɡɧɚɹɄɚɪɞɢɧɚɥɶɧɚɹɫɦɟɧɚɫɨɰɢ
ɚɥɶɧɨɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɭɫɥɨɜɢɣɠɢɡɧɢɊɨɫɫɢɢɜ±ɯɝɨɞɚɯ;;ɜɟɤɚɫɮɨɪ
ɦɢɪɨɜɚɥɚɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɢɚɥɶɧɨɢɧɵɟɩɥɚɫɬɵɩɭɛɥɢɤɢɈɬɱɟɬɥɢɜɨɩɨɧɢɦɚɹɜɫɸ
ɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɨɩɟɪɵ©ɉɢɤɨɜɚɹɞɚɦɚªɞɥɹɪɭɫɫɤɨɣɢɦɢɪɨɜɨɣɯɭɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧ
ɧɨɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɣɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵɆɟɣɟɪɯɨɥɶɞɢɫɯɨɞɢɥɢɡɭɛɟɠɞɟɧɢɹɨɧɟɜɨɡɦɨɠ
ɧɨɫɬɢɨɬɪɵɜɚ©ɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚªɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɹɫɰɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɩɪɨɢɡɜɟ
ɞɟɧɢɹ©ɨɬɨɛɥɚɫɬɢɢɞɟɨɥɨɝɢɢª©ɉɪɟɠɞɟɜɫɟɝɨ±ɦɢɪɨɜɨɡɡɪɟɧɢɟ²ɩɢɫɚɥɨɧ
«!ȿɫɥɢɦɵɫɬɚɜɢɦɩɶɟɫɭɜɪɚɡɪɹɞɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɩɶɟɫɬɨɜɧɟɣɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶ
ɧɨɡɚɤɥɸɱɚɟɬɫɹɝɥɭɛɨɤɚɹɦɵɫɥɶɜɧɟɟɜɥɨɠɟɧɚɢɞɟɹɢɨɧɚɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹɬɟɧ
ɞɟɧɰɢɨɡɧɨɣɈɧɚɦɨɛɢɥɢɡɭɟɬɜɫɟɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚɱɬɨɛɵɡɚ
ɪɚɡɢɬɶɡɪɢɬɟɥɹɷɬɨɣɢɞɟɟɣ³ɨɛɪɚɛɨɬɚɬɶ´ɟɝɨ«!ª>±@
ɋɜɨɢɦɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɟɦɆɟɣɟɪɯɨɥɶɞɨɛɪɚɳɚɥɫɹɤɩɭɛɥɢɤɟɤɨɬɨɪɭɸɨɧɫɱɢ
ɬɚɥɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɦ©ɨɛɪɚɛɨɬɚɬɶªɜɞɭɯɟɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɨɡɧɨɣɢɞɟɢɌɨɱɧɭɸɯɚɪɚɤ
ɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɭɷɬɢɯɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɣɧɚɯɨɞɢɦɭɫɚɦɢɯɞɟɹɬɟɥɟɣɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚɌɚɤɜɩɢɫɶ
ɦɟɤȺɆȽɨɪɶɤɨɦɭɨɬɦɚɪɬɚɝɨɞɚɢɡȻɟɪɥɢɧɚɆɎȺɧɞɪɟɟɜɚɤɨɥɥɟɝɚ
ɆɟɣɟɪɯɨɥɶɞɚɩɨɫɰɟɧɟɆɏɌɩɢɲɟɬ©ɗɬɢɧɨɜɵɟɥɸɞɢ²ɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɨɨɫɨ
ɛɨɣɩɫɢɯɨɥɨɝɢɢ«!Ɉɧɢɜɟɪɭɸɬ ɧɟ³ɜɟɪɹɬ´ ɱɬɨɫɚɦɵɟɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɢɟɩɨɷɬɵ
²ɷɬɨɩɪɨɥɟɬɚɪɫɤɢɟɱɬɨɬɟɚɬɪȼɫɟɜɨɥɨɞɚɆɟɣɟɪɯɨɥɶɞɚ²ɪɟɜɨɥɸɰɢɨɧɟɧª
>±@ȺɋɬɚɧɢɫɥɚɜɫɤɢɣɤɚɤɨɬɦɟɱɚɟɬɈɋɋɨɛɨɥɟɜɫɤɚɹɜ©ɉɢɤɨɜɨɣ
ɞɚɦɟªɜɟɪɟɧɫɟɛɟɨɧ©ɧɢɝɞɟɧɢɜɱɟɦɫɬɚɪɚɥɫɹɧɟɢɡɦɟɧɹɬɶɚɜɬɨɪɭɩɶɟɫɵɜ
Ʉɜɨɩɪɨɫɭɨɡɚɪɨɠɞɟɧɢɢɤɥɢɩɨɜɨɝɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɢɹ 
ɞɚɧɧɨɦɫɥɭɱɚɟɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɭɧɢɜɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɢɧɢɜɩɫɢɯɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɢɞɟɣɧɨɣ
ɨɫɧɨɜɟɟɝɨɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɹª>@
ɏɭɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟɬɜɨɪɱɟɫɬɜɨɧɟɦɨɠɟɬɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɜɧɟɷɤɫɩɟɪɬ
ɧɨɣɨɰɟɧɤɢȼɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹɬɟɤɫɬɨɜɦɚɫɫɨɜɨɣɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢɷɤɫɩɟɪɬ
ɧɚɹɨɰɟɧɤɚɜɵɞɜɢɝɚɟɬɧɚɩɟɪɜɵɣɩɥɚɧɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɭɸɩɪɢɝɨɞɧɨɫɬɶɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɹ
ɢɮɨɪɦɵɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚɜɞɚɧɧɵɣɦɨɦɟɧɬɜɪɟɦɟɧɢɂɱɬɨɜɚɠɧɨ
௅ɨɧɚɚɞɪɟɫɨɜɚɧɚɧɟɫɬɨɥɶɤɨɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɧɨɣɩɭɛɥɢɤɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɫɤɨɦɭ
ɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɭɜɰɟɥɨɦɈɬɫɸɞɚɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢɥɢɨɬɪɢɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɤɪɢɬɟɪɢ
ɟɦɜɷɤɫɩɟɪɬɧɨɣɨɰɟɧɤɟɫɬɚɧɨɜɹɬɫɹɧɟɷɫɬɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɞɨɫɬɨɢɧɫɬɜɚɩɪɨɢɡɜɟ
ɞɟɧɢɹɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚɚɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɞɟɣɧɟɤɨɟ©ɚɤɬɭɚɥɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɟªɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟɯɭ
ɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɟɝɨɩɪɢɝɨɞɧɨɫɬɶɞɥɹɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹɜɞɚɧɧɨɟ
ɜɪɟɦɹɜɞɚɧɧɨɦɦɟɫɬɟ
ɍɠɟɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɢɤɢɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢɆɟɣɟɪɯɨɥɶɞɚɨɬɦɟɱɚɥɢɜɧɟɣ©ɤɢɧɟ
ɦɚɬɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɭɸɫɦɟɧɭɷɩɢɡɨɞɨɜªɩɪɢɤɨɬɨɪɨɣɦɭɡɵɤɚɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ©ɪɚɡɨ
ɪɜɚɧɧɨɣɜɤɥɨɱɶɹª>@©«ɪɚɡɛɢɜɤɚɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɧɚɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɟɦɟɥɤɢɟɷɩɢɡɨɞɵ
ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɪɟɱɢɥɚɦɚɫɲɬɚɛɚɦɪɚɡɜɟɪɧɭɬɨɝɨɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɩɨɥɨɬɧɚ«Ȼɵɫɬɪɚɹ
ɫɦɟɧɚɷɩɢɡɨɞɨɜɪɜɚɥɚɷɬɨɩɨɥɨɬɧɨɧɚɧɟɫɤɥɟɢɜɚɟɦɵɟɤɥɨɱɤɢª>@©Ɍɟɚ
ɬɪɚɥɶɧɚɹɬɟɯɧɢɤɚɧɟɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɹɦɢɤɢɧɨɬɟɦɛɨɥɟɟɬɟɯɧɢɤɚɩɪɨ
ɲɥɨɝɨɜɟɤɚɤɨɝɞɚɩɢɫɚɥɚɫɶ³ɉɢɤɨɜɚɹɞɚɦɚ´ȿɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɨɩɟɪɧɵɟɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨ
ɞɟɥɚɥɢɫɶɜɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɢɫɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɹɦɢɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɣɬɟɯɧɢɤɢ«!Ʉɨɧɟɱ
ɧɨɨɧ>Ɇɟɣɟɪɯɨɥɶɞ²ȺɅ@ɜɢɞɟɥɞɪɭɝɭɸ³ɉɢɤɨɜɭɸɞɚɦɭ´ɢɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɨɩɟ
ɪɭɮɢɥɶɦª>±@
Ʌา฼ฯฺส฼฽ฺส
 ȺɎ>ȺȼɎɟɜɪɚɥɶɫɤɢɣ@©ɉɢɤɨɜɚɹɞɚɦɚªɈɩɟɪɚɉɂɑɚɣɤɨɜɫɤɨɝɨɅɆɂɫɤɭɫ
ɫɬɜɨ
 ȺɧɞɪɟɟɜɚɆɎɉɟɪɟɩɢɫɤɚȼɨɫɩɨɦɢɧɚɧɢɹɋɬɚɬɶɢȾɨɤɭɦɟɧɬɵȼɨɫɩɨɦɢɧɚɧɢɹɨ
ɆɎȺɧɞɪɟɟɜɨɣɂɡɞ௅ɟɞɨɩɢɩɟɪɟɪɚɛɨɬɆɂɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɨ
 ȻɟɪɟɡɤɢɧȼɂȼȼȾɦɢɬɪɢɟɜɅɏɭɞɨɠɧɢɤɊɋɎɋɊ
 ȻɟɪɟɡɤɢɧȼɂɂɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɨɫɰɟɧɨɝɪɚɮɢɢɦɢɪɨɜɨɝɨɬɟɚɬɪɚɆɚɫɬɟɪɚ;9,௅;;ɜɜɆ
ɗɞɢɬɨɪɢɚɥɍɊɋɋ
 ȽɥɟɛɨɜɂȾɟɥɚɨɩɟɪɧɵɟ ©Ɇɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɚɹɞɪɚɦɚª ȺɫɚɮɶɟɜȻȼɈɛɨɩɟɪɟɂɡɛɪɚɧ
ɧɵɟɫɬɚɬɶɢɂɡɞɟɅɆɭɡɵɤɚɋ±
 Ƚɨɪɨɞɢɧɫɤɢɣȼ©ɉɢɤɨɜɚɹɞɚɦɚªɅɟɧɢɧɝɪɚɞɫɤɢɣɆɚɥɵɣɨɩɟɪɧɵɣɬɟɚɬɪȽɚɡɟɬɚ
©ɉɪɚɜɞɚªɦɚɪɬɚ
 ɂɜɚɧɨɜȺɉɇɚɫɰɟɧɟɢɜɠɢɡɧɢȺɜɬɨɛɢɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɡɚɩɢɫɤɢɩɢɫɶɦɚɆȽɨ
ɥɨɫɉɪɟɫɫ
 ɅɨɛɨɞɚɧɨɜȺɉɏɨɪɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɟɜɨɩɥɨɳɟɧɢɟɨɞɧɨɝɨɫɬɢɯɨɬɜɨɪɟɧɢɹɅɨɦɨɧɨɫɨɜɚ
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8QLYHUVLW\3UHVVɋ±
 Ɇɟɣɟɪɯɨɥɶɞȼɗɂɞɟɨɥɨɝɢɹɢɬɟɯɧɨɥɨɝɢɹɜɬɟɚɬɪɟ Ȼɟɫɟɞɚɫɪɭɤɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɹɦɢɫɚ
ɦɨɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɤɨɥɥɟɤɬɢɜɨɜɞɟɤɚɛɪɹɝ ȼɗɆɟɣɟɪɯɨɥɶɞɋɬɚɬɶɢɉɢɫɶ
ɦɚɊɟɱɢȻɟɫɟɞɵɜɱɑ,, ± Ɇɂɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɨ
 ɆɟɣɟɪɯɨɥɶɞȼɗɄɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɟ©ɌɪɢɫɬɚɧɚɢɂɡɨɥɶɞɵªɧɚɆɚɪɢɢɧɫɤɨɦɬɟɚɬɪɟ

ɋɦɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪɚɧɚɥɢɡɨɛɪɚɡɧɨɫɦɵɫɥɨɜɵɯɮɭɧɤɰɢɣɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɝɨɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚɜɨɩɟɪɟȽɥɢɧɤɢ
©ɀɢɡɧɶɡɚɰɚɪɹªɜɫɬɚɬɶɟɆɚɪɢɧɵɋɢɞɨɪɨɜɨɣ>@Ɋɟɤɚɩɨɥɟɥɟɫɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɸɬɫɹɚɜɬɨɪɨɦɢ
ɤɚɤɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɵɫɟɦɚɧɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚɫɸɠɟɬɚ>@
 ȺɉɅɨɛɨɞɚɧɨɜ
ɨɤɬɹɛɪɹɝɨɞɚȼɗɆɟɣɟɪɯɨɥɶɞɋɬɚɬɶɢɉɢɫɶɦɚɊɟɱɢȻɟɫɟɞɵɜɱɆɂɫ
ɤɭɫɫɬɜɨɑ, ± ɋ±
ɋɨɛɨɥɟɜɫɤɚɹɈɋɄɋɋɬɚɧɢɫɥɚɜɫɤɢɣɪɚɛɨɬɚɟɬɛɟɫɟɞɭɟɬɨɬɞɵɯɚɟɬɆɋɨɸɡɬɟ
ɚɬɪɞɟɹɬɟɥɟɣɊɋɎɋɊ
ɘɡɟɮɨɜɢɱȼȺɁɜɟɧɨɢɡɰɟɩɢɧɟɪɟɚɥɢɡɨɜɚɧɧɵɯɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɨɜɆɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɚɹɚɤɚɞɟ
ɦɢɹʋɋ±
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ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɢɟɦ²©ɨɩɟɪɚɤɚɤɦɢɮª>@Ʉɷɬɨɦɭɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬ©ɦɧɨɝɨɹɪɭɫɧɨɫɬɶª
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ɟɝɨɦɧɟɧɢɸ©ɨɩɟɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɦɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɢɮɨɜɫɬɚɥɚɫɚɦɚɦɢ
ɮɨɦɄɚɤɨɫɨɛɚɹɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɚɹɮɨɪɦɚɫɱɟɬɵɪɟɯɫɨɬɥɟɬɧɟɣɢɫɬɨɪɢɟɣɨɧɚɧɢɜɱɺɦ
ɧɟɭɫɬɭɩɚɥɚɞɢɨɧɢɫɢɣɫɤɨɦɭɤɭɥɶɬɭɬɚɤɤɚɤɨɩɟɪɚɤɚɤɜɫɹɤɢɣɬɟɚɬɪɢɦɟɟɬɪɨ
ɞɨɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɢɤɨɦɛɨɝɚɨɩɶɹɧɟɧɢɹɢɩɥɨɞɨɪɨɞɢɹª>@Ɇɭɡɵɤɨɜɟɞɚɤɰɟɧɬɢɪɭ
ɟɬɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚɬɚɤɢɯɪɨɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɚɯɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɨɜɤɚɤ©ɨɛɪɚɡɰɨɜɨɫɬɶª
©ɢɝɪɚª©ɫɦɟɪɬɶª©ɩɪɨɫɥɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɠɢɡɧɢªɈɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɟɦ©ɪɚɫɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɬɨɩɟɪɵ
ɥɟɬɈɧɨɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɫɦɵɫɥɨɦɦɢɮɨɜɜɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɫɦɟɪɬɶɦɢɪɢɬɫɹɫɠɢɡɧɶɸɢ
ɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɣɫɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɨɣª>@ɅɄɢɪɢɥɥɢɧɚɨɬɦɟɱɚɟɬɫɤɥɨɧɧɨɫɬɶɨɩɟɪɵ
©ɦɢɮɨɥɨɝɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɜɫɺɱɬɨɩɨɩɚɞɚɟɬɜɫɮɟɪɭɟɟɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹª>@ȼɩɪɢɦɟɪ
ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ©ɄɚɪɦɟɧªȻɢɡɟɜɤɨɬɨɪɨɣɜɵɞɟɥɹɸɬɫɹɞɜɚɭɪɨɜɧɹɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɹ²
ɧɨɜɟɥɥɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɡɚɯɜɚɬɵɜɚɸɳɢɣɥɸɛɨɜɧɵɦɢɫɬɪɚɫɬɹɦɢ ɜɧɟɲɧɢɣɪɟɚɥɢ
ɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɢɚɪɯɟɬɢɩɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɧɵɣɦɢɮɨɩɨɷɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ ȼɫɜɹɡɢɫɷɬɢɦ
ɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɟɬɜɨɩɪɨɫɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɥɢɷɬɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟɦɦɢɮɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɫɸɠɟɬɚɜɩɟɪ
ɜɨɦɫɥɭɱɚɟɢɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɣɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɧɨɝɨɫɬɢɥɹɆɟɪɢɦɟɜɨɜɬɨɪɨɦ"ɂɥɢɜɫɚ
ɦɨɦɨɩɟɪɧɨɦɠɚɧɪɟɫɤɪɵɬɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɫɛɥɢɠɚɸɳɢɣɟɝɨɫɦɢɮɨɦ"
Ɉɬɜɟɬɤɚɡɚɥɨɫɶɛɵɥɟɠɢɬɧɚɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢɉɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɧɨɫɬɶɨɩɟɪɵɦɢɪɭ
ɢɦɚɝɢɧɚɰɢɢɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬɩɨɫɬɚɜɢɬɶɡɧɚɤɪɚɜɟɧɫɬɜɚɦɟɠɞɭɧɟɸɢɦɢɮɨɦɩɨɫɤɨɥɶ
Ɉɩɟɪɚɢɦɢɮɭɫɥɨɜɧɨɫɬɶɛɟɡɭɫɥɨɜɧɨɝɨ 
ɤɭɦɵɲɥɟɧɢɟɨɛɪɚɡɚɦɢɫɦɵɫɥɚɦɢɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɫɩɨɫɨɛɨɦɩɨɡɧɚɧɢɹɦɢɪɚȼɨɡɦɨɠ
ɧɨɩɨɷɬɨɦɭɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟɨɩɟɪɵɢɦɢɮɚɜɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɧɨɦɚɫɩɟɤɬɟɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ
ɨɫɬɚɟɬɫɹɜɧɟɩɨɥɹɡɪɟɧɢɹɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɟɣɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɹɫɶɬɪɚɤɬɨɜɤɨɣɫɸɠɟ
ɬɚɜɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɨɦɫɨɱɢɧɟɧɢɢ>@ɋɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɟɧɚɭɱɧɨɟɡɧɚɧɢɟɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚ
ɟɬɫɜɨɸɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɸɞɚɧɧɨɣɩɚɪɵɩɨɧɹɬɢɣȼɄɨɬɧɢɤɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɬɨɩɟ
ɪɭɤɚɤɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɣɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɫɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɢɡɚɤɨɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɫɬɹɦɢɢɮɭɧɤɰɢɹɦɢ
ɜɫɨɰɢɨɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɨɦɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟ©«!ɹɧɟɩɪɢɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɸɫɶɤɥɚɫɫɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ
ɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹɦɢɮɨɥɨɝɢɢɤɚɤ³ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɚɦɢɮɨɜ´ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɺɧɧɨɣɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵ«!
Ɂɞɟɫɶɬɟɪɦɢɧ³ɦɢɮ´ɩɨɧɢɦɚɟɬɫɹɤɚɤɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɚɹɢɞɟɹª>@ȼɛɨɥɟɟɩɨɡɞ
ɧɟɦɬɪɭɞɟɚɜɬɨɪɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɬɩɚɪɚɥɥɟɥɢɦɟɠɞɭɮɭɧɤɰɢɹɦɢɢɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɨɣɦɢɮɚɢ
ɨɩɟɪɧɨɣɩɚɪɬɢɬɭɪɨɣɄɚɤɢɦɢɮɦɭɡɵɤɚɜɨɩɟɪɧɨɦɠɚɧɪɟɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɟɬɦɨɞɟɥɶɸ
©ɬɨɝɨɱɬɨɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɚɥɶɧɵɦɢɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɟɫɤɢɦªɨɪɤɟɫɬɪɨɜɚɹ
ɩɚɪɬɢɬɭɪɚɱɟɬɤɨɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɨɜɚɧɚɜɫɜɨɟɣɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɣɮɨɪɦɟɨɩɟɪɚɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɚ
ɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɶɢɡɚɬɨɪɦɨɡɢɬɶɜɪɟɦɹɬɨɟɫɬɶɨɛɥɚɞɚɟɬɫɜɟɪɯɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɣɫɬɪɭɤɬɭ
ɪɨɣ©ɨɩɟɪɧɚɹɩɚɪɬɢɬɭɪɚɚɜɬɨɪɟɮɟɪɟɧɬɧɚɨɛɴɹɫɧɢɦɚɫɚɦɚɢɡɫɟɛɹª>@
Ⱦɪɭɝɢɟɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɢɩɨɧɨɜɨɦɭɨɫɦɵɫɥɢɜɚɸɬɫɭɳɧɨɫɬɶɦɭɡɵɤɢɜɨɡ
ɧɢɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɟɟɟɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯɠɚɧɪɨɜɢɜɢɞɨɜɦɢɮɨɥɨɝɢɡɚɰɢɸɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯɹɜɥɟ
ɧɢɣɌɚɤɨɜɫɛɨɪɧɢɤɫɬɚɬɟɣɩɨɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɚɦɤɨɧɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɢɫɨɫɬɨɹɜɲɟɣɫɹɜɧɨ
ɹɛɪɟɝɨɞɚɜȻɟɪɧɫɤɨɦɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬɟɉɨɦɧɟɧɢɸɪɟɞɚɤɬɨɪɚɢɨɞɧɨɝɨɢɡ
ɚɜɬɨɪɨɜɢɡɞɚɧɢɹɋȼɟɝɧɟɪɚ©ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɨɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɢɜɧɨɜɶɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɸɬ
ɬɚɦɝɞɟ³ɧɨɜɨɟ´ɜɦɭɡɵɤɟɡɚɹɜɥɹɟɬɨɫɟɛɟɢɝɪɨɡɢɬɪɚɡɪɭɲɟɧɢɟɦɷɫɬɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ
ɧɨɪɦª>@ȿɳɟɨɞɢɧɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɣɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɬɤɚɬɟɝɨ
ɪɢɸɦɢɮɚɜɨɩɟɪɟɜɨɜɡɚɢɦɨɫɜɹɡɢɫɩɨɧɹɬɢɟɦ©ɧɚɪɪɚɬɢɜɚª>@ɋɪɟɞɢɪɚɛɨɬ
ɩɨɪɚɠɚɸɳɢɯɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟɦɬɟɦɚɬɢɤɢɢɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɦɞɢɚɩɚɡɨɧɨɦ ɨɬɨɬɪɚɠɟ
ɧɢɹɦɭɡɵɤɢɜɞɪɟɜɧɟɝɪɟɱɟɫɤɢɯɦɢɮɚɯɞɨɧɨɜɵɯɦɢɮɨɜɏɏɜɟɤɚɜɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ
ɨɛɚɧɬɢɪɨɦɚɧɬɢɡɦɟɢɜɟɧɫɤɨɣɲɤɨɥɟ ɥɢɲɶɢɦɹȼɚɝɧɟɪɚɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨ
ɫɜɹɡɚɧɨɫɦɢɮɨɬɜɨɪɱɟɫɬɜɨɦɜɨɩɟɪɧɨɦɠɚɧɪɟɉɪɢɷɬɨɦɆȽɚɪɞɚɪɚɡɜɨɪɚɱɢ
ɜɚɟɬɞɢɫɤɭɪɫɜɨɛɥɚɫɬɶɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɜɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ©ɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚɢɦɭɡɵɤɢɜɫɜɟɬɟ
ɜɚɝɧɟɪɨɜɫɤɨɝɨɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɧɨɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɹªɜɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ©Ɉɩɟ
ɪɵɢɞɪɚɦɵª>@ȼɦɟɫɬɟɫɬɟɦɪɟɚɥɶɧɚɹɬɜɨɪɱɟɫɤɚɹɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɚɧɚɤɨɩɢɜ
ɲɚɹɨɛɪɚɡɰɵɚɤɬɭɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɟɣɦɢɮɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɢɹɧɚɩɭɬɢ
ɪɚɫɤɪɵɬɢɹɦɧɨɝɨɫɦɵɫɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɹɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɫɰɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɨɩɭɫɚ
ɜɧɨɜɶɫɬɢɦɭɥɢɪɭɟɬɩɨɢɫɤɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɹɫɜɹɡɢɨɩɟɪɵɢɦɢɮɚ
Ʉɚɤɢɦɢɮɨɩɟɪɚɨɛɥɚɞɚɟɬɭɫɥɨɜɧɵɦɹɡɵɤɨɦɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɢɹɉɟɧɢɟɜɵɞɟɥɹ
ɟɬɟɟɫɪɟɞɢɢɧɵɯɮɨɪɦɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚȼɨɬɥɢɱɢɟɨɬɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ
ɬɟɚɬɪɚɝɞɟɫɥɨɜɨɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɤɥɸɱɟɜɵɦɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦɪɚɫɤɪɵɬɢɹɫɭɬɢɯɭɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧ
ɧɨɝɨɨɛɪɚɡɚɬɟɚɬɪ©ɥɢɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɣª Ȼəɪɭɫɬɨɜɫɤɢɣ ɨɩɟɪɢɪɭɟɬɢɧɬɨɧɢɪɭɟɦɵɦ
ɫɥɨɜɨɦɫɦɵɫɥɨɜɚɹɧɚɩɨɥɧɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹɟɝɨɮɭɧɤɰɢɟɣɜ
ɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɢɢɢɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɣɷɤɫɩɪɟɫɫɢɟɣɊɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɦɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹɦɟɬɚɮɨ
ɪɢɱɧɨɫɬɶɢɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɱɧɨɫɬɶɜɵɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɧɢɹɧɟɪɟɞɤɨɥɢɲɚɹɨɛɪɚɡɩɪɟɞɦɟɬɧɨɣ
ɜɟɳɧɨɫɬɢɗɬɢɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɚɬɚɤɠɟɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɬɧɚɪɨɞɫɬɜɨɨɛɨɢɯɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɨɜɩɨ
 ȺȺɆɢɡɢɬɨɜɚ

ɫɤɨɥɶɤɭɜɦɢɮɟɨɩɪɟɞɦɟɱɢɜɚɧɢɟɨɛɪɚɡɧɨɣɫɭɳɧɨɫɬɢɫɨɫɟɞɫɬɜɭɟɬɫɜɨɨɛɪɚɠɚ
ɟɦɵɦ©ɞɨɦɵɫɥɢɜɚɧɢɟɦªɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɹɳɟɝɨȾɨɛɚɜɢɦɤɷɬɨɦɭɬɢɩɢɱɧɵɟɫɸɠɟɬ
ɧɵɟɦɨɬɢɜɵɨɩɟɪɧɨɝɨɠɚɧɪɚɝɟɧɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɟɫɦɢɮɨɦ²ɥɸɛɨɜɧɨɝɨ
ɬɪɟɭɝɨɥɶɧɢɤɚɭɛɢɣɫɬɜɚɢɡɡɚɪɟɜɧɨɫɬɢɛɨɪɶɛɵɦɟɠɞɭɞɨɥɝɨɦɢɱɭɜɫɬɜɨɦ
ɛɨɪɶɛɵɡɚɜɥɚɫɬɶ²ɦɧɨɝɨɤɪɚɬɧɨɜɚɪɶɢɪɭɟɦɵɟɜɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɧɨɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɟ
ɫɤɢɯɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɯɢɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɬɚɸɳɢɟɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɥɟɜɭɸɨɤɪɚɫɤɭȼ
ɡɚɹɜɥɟɧɧɨɣɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɟɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɜɵɡɵɜɚɸɬɬɟɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɦɢɮɨɩɨɷɬɢɤɢɤɨɬɨ
ɪɵɟɜɭɚɥɢɪɭɸɬɫɹɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɤɨɣɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɫɰɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɢɨɩɟɪɧɨɝɨ
ɠɚɧɪɚɜɵɪɚɛɨɬɚɜɲɟɝɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟɡɚɤɨɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɫɬɢɜɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɟɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨ
ɝɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɹɢɫɚɦɨɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹɂɦɟɸɬɫɹɜɜɢɞɭɧɚɪɭɲɟɧɢɟɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧ
ɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɯɝɪɚɧɢɰɜɚɪɢɚɬɢɜɧɚɹɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɨɞɧɨɝɨɢɬɨɝɨɠɟ
ɫɦɵɫɥɨɨɛɪɚɡɚɡɚɦɵɤɚɧɢɟɤɪɢɜɨɣɫɦɵɫɥɚɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɥɨɝɢɤɢɚɥɨɝɢɢɩɪɢɺɦ
ɩɪɟɜɪɚɳɟɧɢɹɫɨɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɟɪɚɡɧɨɩɨɥɹɪɧɵɯɦɢɪɨɜɤɚɤɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɢɟɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɚɥɶ
ɧɨɣɤɚɪɬɢɧɵɦɢɪɨɡɞɚɧɢɹɨɛɥɚɫɬɶɢɦɚɝɢɧɚɰɢɢɢɢɝɪɵɋɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɹɩɪɚɫɬɪɭɤ
ɬɭɪɵɠɚɧɪɚɨɧɢɚɤɬɭɚɥɢɡɢɪɭɸɬɫɹɛɥɚɝɨɞɚɪɹɬɜɨɪɱɟɫɤɨɣɮɚɧɬɚɡɢɢɯɭɞɨɠɧɢɤɚ
ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɹɫɜɨɟɨɛɪɚɡɢɟɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɢɹ
ɇɚɬɚɤɢɟɪɚɫɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɹɧɚɬɨɥɤɧɭɥɨɡɧɚɤɨɦɫɬɜɨɫɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɦɢɨɛɪɚɡɰɚɦɢ
ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɝɨɨɩɟɪɧɨɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚɊɚɡɞɟɥɹɹɦɵɫɥɶɅɄɢɪɢɥɥɢ
ɧɨɣɨ©ɩɪɚɜɟªɫɜɨɛɨɞɧɨɬɪɚɤɬɨɜɚɬɶɥɸɛɨɟɨɩɟɪɧɨɟɫɨɱɢɧɟɧɢɟɩɪɢɟɝɨɪɟɚɥɢ
ɡɚɰɢɢ>@ɫɬɚɥɤɢɜɚɟɲɶɫɹɧɟɢɡɛɟɠɧɨɫɫɢɫɬɟɦɨɣɨɰɟɧɨɤɈɫɬɚɺɬɫɹɧɟɹɫɧɵɦ
ɱɟɦɨɛɴɹɫɧɹɟɬɫɹɜɵɯɨɞɡɚɩɪɟɞɟɥɵɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɨɩɪɨɩɢɫɚɧɧɨɝɨɨɩɭɫɚ²ɩɪɨɢɡ
ɜɨɥɨɦɪɟɠɢɫɫɟɪɚɩɨɞɦɢɧɚɸɳɟɝɨɩɨɞɫɜɨɢɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɵɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɫɤɢɣɡɚɦɵ
ɫɟɥɢɥɢɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɬɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɵɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢɩɪɟɜɵɫɢɬɶɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɟ
ɩɨɥɧɨɦɨɱɢɹɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɬɨɪɚ"Ɂɚɥɶɰɛɭɪɝɫɤɚɹ©Ⱥɪɢɚɞɧɚɧɚɇɚɤɫɨɫɟªɒɬɪɚɭ
ɫɚ  ɩɪɢɭɪɨɱɟɧɧɚɹɤɥɟɬɢɸɫɜɨɟɣɩɪɟɦɶɟɪɵɦɨɠɟɬɫɥɭɠɢɬɶ©ɩɭ
ɬɟɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɟɦªɩɨɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɧɨɣɡɨɧɟ©ɪɟɠɢɫɫɟɪɫɤɨɝɨɬɟɚɬɪɚªɪɚɫɤɪɵɜɚɹɨɞɧɨ
ɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɬɚɣɧɵɜɡɚɢɦɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɣɨɩɟɪɵɢɦɢɮɚɈɩɟɪɚɫɨɡɞɚɜɚɥɚɫɶɱɚɫɬɶɸ
ɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɹɫɦɟɲɚɧɧɨɝɨɬɢɩɚɏɨɮɦɚɧɫɬɚɥɶɯɨɬɟɥɫɨɟɞɢɧɢɬɶɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟɜɢɞɵ
ɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚɜɨɞɧɨɦɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɢɢɧɚɦɟɪɟɜɚɥɫɹɧɚɩɢɫɚɬɶɫɨɛ
ɫɬɜɟɧɧɭɸɩɶɟɫɭɡɚɜɟɪɲɟɧɢɟɦɤɨɬɨɪɨɣɫɬɚɥɚɛɵɨɩɟɪɚɒɬɪɚɭɫɚɉɶɟɫɚɬɚɤɢ
ɧɟɩɨɹɜɢɥɚɫɶɜɷɬɢɯɰɟɥɹɯɛɵɥɩɟɪɟɪɚɛɨɬɚɧ©ɆɟɳɚɧɢɧɜɨɞɜɨɪɹɧɫɬɜɟªɆɨ
ɥɶɟɪɚɉɪɨɟɤɬɨɤɚɡɚɥɫɹɩɪɨɜɚɥɶɧɵɦ
ɋɦɟɥɨɫɬɶɪɟɞɚɤɰɢɢɧɟɦɟɰɤɨɝɨɪɟɠɢɫɫɟɪɚɋɗȻɟɯɬɨɥɶɮɚɡɚɤɥɸɱɚɥɚɫɶɧɟ
ɬɨɥɶɤɨɜɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɢɨɪɢɝɢɧɚɥɶɧɨɣɜɟɪɫɢɢɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɨɝɨɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɧɨɢɜ
ɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɢɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣɫɰɟɧɵɩɪɟɞɜɚɪɹɸɳɟɣɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɣɬɟɤɫɬɏɨɮɦɚɧɫɬɚɥɹ
ɇɨɜɚɹɩɶɟɫɚɞɭɷɬɤɨɬɨɪɚɹɪɚɡɵɝɪɵɜɚɥɚɫɶɚɤɬɟɪɚɦɢɫɬɪɨɢɥɚɫɶɧɚɪɟɚɥɶɧɵɯɮɚɤ
ɬɚɯɡɚɩɟɱɚɬɥɟɧɧɵɯɜɩɢɫɶɦɚɯɏɨɮɦɚɧɫɬɚɥɹɢɈɬɬɨɧɢɢɮɨɧȾɟɝɟɧɮɟɥɶɞɒɨɧ
ɛɭɪɝɋɝɪɚɮɢɧɟɣɫɤɨɪɛɹɳɟɣɩɨɭɦɟɪɲɟɦɭɫɭɩɪɭɝɭɢɩɨɦɵɲɥɹɜɲɟɣɧɟɪɚɡɨ
ɫɚɦɨɭɛɢɣɫɬɜɟɩɢɫɚɬɟɥɶɩɨɡɧɚɤɨɦɢɥɫɹɜɩɟɪɢɨɞɪɚɛɨɬɵɧɚɞɡɚɦɵɫɥɨɦɨɩɟɪɵ
Ɇɟɠɞɭɧɢɦɢɫɥɨɠɢɥɢɫɶɞɨɜɟɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹɩɟɪɟɪɨɫɲɢɟɜɱɭɜɫɬɜɨɜɥɸ
ɛɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɋɬɪɟɦɥɟɧɢɟɜɟɪɧɭɬɶɈɬɬɨɧɢɢɨɳɭɳɟɧɢɟɪɚɞɨɫɬɢɢɩɨɥɧɨɬɵɠɢɡɧɢ
Ɉɩɟɪɚɢɦɢɮɭɫɥɨɜɧɨɫɬɶɛɟɡɭɫɥɨɜɧɨɝɨ 
ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɥɨɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɧɚɜɞɨɯɧɨɜɟɧɢɟɫɚɦɨɝɨɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɚȼɨɞɧɨɦɢɡɩɢɫɟɦ
ɨɧɩɪɢɡɧɚɜɚɥɫɹɟɣ©«!ɹɪɚɫɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɸȼɚɦɫɨɜɫɟɦɦɚɥɟɧɶɤɭɸɨɩɟɪɭ³Ⱥɪɢ
ɚɞɧɚ´«!ɩɨɤɚɹȼɚɦɟɟɪɚɫɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɨɧɚɨɠɢɜɚɟɬɢɦɧɟɜɫɺɛɨɥɶɲɟɯɨɱɟɬɫɹ
ɩɢɫɚɬɶª>@ȼɞɪɭɝɨɦɩɢɫɶɦɟɱɢɬɚɟɦ©ɋɟɝɨɞɧɹɧɚɩɢɫɚɧɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɣɫɬɢɯ
ɤ³Ⱥɪɢɚɞɧɟ´ɅɸɛɢɬɥɢȺɪɢɚɞɧɚȻɚɯɭɫɚ"ɇɚɷɬɨɧɟɬɚɤɥɟɝɤɨɞɚɬɶɨɬɜɟɬɈɧɚ
ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɬɟɝɨɡɚɞɪɭɝɨɝɨɡɚȽɟɪɦɟɫɚɩɨɫɥɚɧɧɢɤɚɫɦɟɪɬɢɩɪɢɲɟɞɲɟɝɨɡɚɧɟɣ
ɉɭɫɬɶɨɫɬɚɧɟɬɫɹɡɚɝɚɞɤɨɣɁɚɝɚɞɤɚ²ɷɬɨɩɪɟɤɪɚɫɧɨª>@
Ȼɟɯɬɨɥɶɮɭɜɢɞɟɥɫɜɹɡɶɦɟɠɞɭɞɭɲɟɜɧɨɣɛɨɥɶɸɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɣɠɟɧɳɢɧɵɢɟɟ
ɦɢɮɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɞɜɨɣɧɢɤɨɦɜɫɢɥɭɱɟɝɨ©ɪɚɡɪɵɜɚɟɬªɨɞɧɨɥɢɧɟɣɧɭɸɧɚɩɪɚɜ
ɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɜɪɟɦɟɧɢɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚɫɨɡɞɚɜɚɹɨɫɨɛɵɣɦɢɪɩɨɡɚɤɨɧɚɦɦɢɮɨɥɨɝɢ
ɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɦɵɲɥɟɧɢɹɈɬɫɸɞɚɩɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɨɟɨɠɢɜɥɟɧɢɟɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɟɣɢɡɦɨɥɶɟɪɨɜ
ɫɤɨɣɩɶɟɫɵɨɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɏɭɝɨɪɚɫɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɈɬɬɨɧɢɢɢ©ɛɟɡɲɨɜɧɨɟªɜɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟ
ɨɛɨɢɯɜɟɟɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɩɨɞɧɨɜɵɦɢɢɦɟɧɚɦɢɈɪɢɝɢɧɚɥɶɧɨɟɞɟɬɢɳɟɏɨɮɦɚɧ
ɫɬɚɥɹ²ɒɬɪɚɭɫɚɫɥɨɜɧɨɛɵɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɢɡɭɟɬɫɹɜɬɹɝɢɜɚɹɜɢɝɪɨɜɨɟɩɨɥɟɞɪɚ
ɦɚɬɭɪɝɚɢɟɝɨɜɨɡɥɸɛɥɟɧɧɭɸȼɨɡɧɢɤɚɟɬɷɮɮɟɤɬɛɚɥɚɧɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹɦɟɠɞɭɪɟ
ɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɸɢɜɵɦɵɫɥɨɦɭɫɢɥɟɧɧɵɣɩɨɯɨɞɭɩɶɟɫɵɜɧɟɡɚɩɧɵɦɧɟɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɦ
©ɤɬɨɟɫɬɶɤɬɨªɩɨɫɭɬɢɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɸɳɢɦɬɪɚɧɫɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɦɩɪɢɟɦɨɦɩɪɟ
ɜɪɚɳɟɧɢɹȿɫɥɢɜɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɢɧɬɪɢɝɟɫɝɨɫɩɨɞɢɧɨɦɀɭɪɞɟɧɨɦȾɨɪɢɦɟ
ɧɚɈɬɬɨɧɢɹɡɚɧɢɦɚɟɬɩɨɡɢɰɢɸɫɬɨɪɨɧɧɟɝɨɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɬɟɥɹɬɨɜɨɩɟɪɟɩɥɚɫɬɢ
ɤɚɟɟɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɜɵɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɚɦɨɨɬɨɠɞɟɫɬɜɥɟɧɢɟɫȺɪɢɚɞɧɨɣɗɬɨɦɭɫɥɭɠɚɬ
ɜɫɟɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɵɫɰɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɨɮɨɪɦɥɟɧɢɹɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɫɨɡɞɚɸɬɜɢɡɭɚɥɶɧɨɫɢɦ
ɜɨɥɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɪɹɞɈɛɟɝɟɪɨɢɧɢɨɛɥɚɱɟɧɵɜɞɥɢɧɧɵɟɫɢɧɟɱɟɪɧɵɟɩɥɚɬɶɹɈɬ
ɬɨɧɢɹȾɨɪɢɦɟɧɚɩɟɪɢɨɞɢɱɟɫɤɢɩɨɤɢɞɚɟɬ©ɡɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɡɚɥªɜɞɨɦɟɀɭɪɞɟɧɚ
ɞɭɛɥɢɪɭɹɩɨɡɵɨɩɟɪɧɨɣɝɟɪɨɢɧɢɩɟɱɚɥɶɧɚɹɨɧɚɩɪɨɫɬɢɪɚɟɬɫɹɧɚ©ɡɟɦɥɟª
ɨɬɪɚɠɚɹɫɶɧɚɝɥɚɞɢɤɪɵɲɟɤɪɨɹɥɹɟɟɤɚɤɢȺɪɢɚɞɧɭɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɸɬɇɚɹɞɚ
Ⱦɪɢɚɞɚɢɗɯɨɍɦɧɨɠɟɧɧɚɹɛɢɩɨɥɹɪɧɨɫɬɶɦɢɪɨɜɡɚɥɨɠɟɧɧɚɹɜɦɢɮɟɢɷɤɫ
ɬɪɚɩɨɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɚɹɧɚɹɜɥɟɧɢɹɧɚɯɨɞɹɳɢɟɫɹɡɚɟɝɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɦɢɫɨɡɞɚɺɬɨɫɨɛɨɟ
ɦɢɮɨɩɨɷɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨɜɤɨɬɨɪɨɦɢɝɪɚɢɜɨɨɛɪɚɠɟɧɢɟɞɟɥɚɸɬɩɪɚɜ
ɞɨɩɨɞɨɛɧɵɦɧɟɩɪɚɜɞɨɩɨɞɨɛɧɨɫɬɶɢɧɟɥɨɝɢɱɧɨɫɬɶɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɹɳɟɝɨɁɚɦɵɤɚɟɬ
ɤɪɢɜɭɸɫɦɵɫɥɚɩɨɰɟɥɭɣɈɬɬɨɧɢɢɢɏɨɮɦɚɧɫɬɚɥɹɧɚɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɯɬɚɤɬɚɯɨɩɟɪɵ
ɭɬɜɟɪɠɞɚɹɦɢɮɨɥɨɝɟɦɭɩɪɨɫɥɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɠɢɡɧɢɢɥɸɛɜɢɈɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɨɱɟɪ
ɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɜɨɞɨɪɚɡɞɟɥɦɟɠɞɭɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɸɢɨɩɟɪɧɨɣɭɫɥɨɜɧɨɫɬɶɸɩɨ
ɫɤɨɥɶɤɭɝɥɚɜɧɵɟɝɟɪɨɢɡɚɥɶɰɛɭɪɝɫɤɨɣ©Ⱥɪɢɚɞɧɵªɜɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɣɠɢɡɧɢɬɚɤɢɧɟ
ɫɨɟɞɢɧɢɥɢɫɜɨɢɫɭɞɶɛɵ
ɆɢɮɨɩɨɷɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɨɬɤɪɵɬɢɹȻɟɯɬɨɥɶɮɚɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɸɬɭɜɢɞɟɬɶɦɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧ
ɧɵɟɫɜɹɡɢɦɟɠɞɭɪɚɡɧɵɦɢɹɜɥɟɧɢɹɦɢɜɧɭɬɪɢɨɩɟɪɧɨɝɨɠɚɧɪɚɩɪɢɫɜɨɛɨɞɧɨɦ
ɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɟɧɢɢɩɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɣɲɤɚɥɟ©ɗɥɢɫɫɚªɊɐɟɯɥɢɧ  ɫɨɡɞɚɧɧɚɹɤɚɤ
ɩɚɪɚɞɥɹɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢ©Ⱦɢɞɨɧɵɢɗɧɟɹªɉɺɪɫɟɥɥɚɜɉɚɫɫɚɭɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɨɞɧɢɦɢɡ
ɨɛɪɚɡɰɨɜɢɝɪɵɜɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɭɫɥɨɜɧɨɫɬɶɩɪɢɬɪɚɤɬɨɜɤɟɦɢɮɚɈɫɧɨɜɧɨɣɫɸ
ɠɟɬɩɨɜɟɫɬɜɭɟɬɨɩɪɟɞɲɟɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɣɠɢɡɧɢȾɢɞɨɧɵɗɥɢɫɫɵɭɛɢɣɫɬɜɟɦɭɠɚ
Ⱥɤɟɪɛɚɫɚɟɟɛɪɚɬɨɦɉɢɝɦɚɥɢɨɧɨɦɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɨɦɢɦɧɚɫɢɥɢɢɢɠɚɠɞɟɟɞɢɧɨ
 ȺȺɆɢɡɢɬɨɜɚ

ɥɢɱɧɨɣɜɥɚɫɬɢɜɵɧɭɠɞɟɧɧɨɦɛɟɝɫɬɜɟɝɟɪɨɢɧɢɢɧɚɞɟɠɞɟɧɚɜɨɡɪɨɠɞɟɧɢɟɜ
ɩɪɟɤɪɚɫɧɨɦɄɚɪɮɚɝɟɧɟɋɟɪɶɟɡɧɨɫɬɶɡɚɬɪɨɧɭɬɵɯɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɩɪɨɟɰɢɪɭɸɳɢɯ
ɫɹɧɚɢɫɬɨɪɢɸɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɟɫɬɜɚɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɨɬɪɚɠɟɧɢɟɜɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɨɣɥɨɝɢɤɟɞɪɚ
ɦɚɬɭɪɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹȼɬɨɪɨɣɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɭɪɨɜɟɧɶɨɛɪɚɡɭɟɬɫɹɤɨɦ
ɦɟɧɬɚɪɢɹɦɢɯɨɪɚɜɫɜɟɬɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɦɢɮɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɟɩɨɜɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɟɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɺɬ
©ɢɝɪɨɣɜɬɟɚɬɪªȼɨɡɜɪɚɬȾɢɞɨɧɵɜɫɜɨɟɩɪɨɲɥɨɟɩɨɞɤɪɟɩɥɟɧɧɵɣɰɢɬɚɬɨɣ
ɢɡɮɢɧɚɥɶɧɨɣɚɪɢɢɩɺɪɫɟɥɥɨɜɫɤɨɣɝɟɪɨɢɧɢɨɤɭɬɚɧɩɥɚɦɟɧɟɦɤɨɫɬɪɚɏɨɪɤɚɤ
ɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɟɥɢɰɨɢɫɬɨɪɨɧɧɢɣɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɬɟɥɶɫɨɛɵɬɢɣɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɜɨɢɭɫɢ
ɥɢɹɱɬɨɛɵɩɨɞɧɹɬɶȾɢɞɨɧɭɢɡɚɧɬɢɱɧɨɝɨɩɪɨɲɥɨɝɨɢɨɡɚɛɨɱɟɧɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɦ
ɧɟɭɦɢɪɚɟɬɥɢɨɧɚɭɠɟɜɉɪɨɥɨɝɟɌɚɤɨɣ©ɠɟɫɬɨɬɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɹªɩɟɪɢɨɞɢɱɟɫɤɢ
ɜɬɨɪɝɚɟɬɫɹɜɨɩɟɪɧɵɣɫɸɠɟɬɩɨɞɱɟɪɤɢɜɚɹɜɨɨɛɪɚɠɚɟɦɨɫɬɶɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɹɳɟɝɨ
ɛɟɡɭɬɪɚɬɵɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɧɟɩɪɟɯɨɞɹɳɢɯɢɫɬɢɧɈɞɧɚɤɨɐɟɯɥɢɧɫɨɯɪɚɧɹɟɬɝɥɚɜɟɧ
ɫɬɜɨ©ɨɩɟɪɧɨɝɨªɡɚɦɵɤɚɹɫɨɱɢɧɟɧɢɟɞɢɚɥɨɝɨɦɥɟɣɬɬɟɦɵɥɸɛɜɢȺɤɟɪɛɚɫɚɢ
ɗɥɢɫɫɵɢɪɢɬɦɨɢɧɬɨɧɚɰɢɢ©5HPHPEHUPHªɢɡɚɪɢɢȾɢɞɨɧɵ
ɂɧɨɣɦɨɞɭɫ©ɫɜɟɪɯɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɝɨªɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚɨɩɟɪɵɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɬɆɆɚ
ɪɟɥɥɢɜɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɟ©ɌɭɪɚɧɞɨɬªɉɭɱɱɢɧɢɧɚɫɰɟɧɟȻɨɞɟɧɫɤɨɝɨɨɡɟɪɚ  
ɋɡɚɥɶɰɛɭɪɝɫɤɨɣ©Ⱥɪɢɚɞɧɨɣªɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɢɪɨɞɧɢɬ©ɛɢɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹ
ɸɳɚɹªɪɚɫɲɢɪɹɸɳɚɹɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɦɵɫɥɨɜɨɣɪɹɞɫɨɱɢɧɟɧɢɹȼɨɬɥɢɱɢɟ
ɨɬɫɜɨɟɝɨɤɨɥɥɟɝɢɲɜɟɣɰɚɪɫɤɢɣɪɟɠɢɫɫɟɪɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɧɟɦɨɣɫɰɟɧɨɣɧɚ
ɞɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣɩɥɨɳɚɞɤɟɨɮɨɪɦɥɟɧɧɨɣɤɚɤɤɨɦɧɚɬɚɤɚɛɢɧɟɬɦɭɡɵɤɚɧɬɚ
ȼɯɨɞɹɳɢɣɦɭɠɱɢɧɚɨɥɢɰɟɬɜɨɪɹɟɬɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɚɜɩɨɢɫɤɟɢɞɟɣȾɥɹɞɨɫɬɨɜɟɪ
ɧɨɫɬɢɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɵɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɚɹɲɤɚɬɭɥɤɚɢɨɞɧɚɢɡɟɺɤɢɬɚɣɫɤɢɯɦɟɥɨɞɢɣ
²ɮɚɤɬɵɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɵɟɢɡɠɢɡɧɢɉɭɱɱɢɧɢȽɪɨɡɧɵɟɨɪɤɟɫɬɪɨɜɵɟɚɤɤɨɪɞɵɩɟɪɟ
ɤɥɸɱɚɸɬɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚɫɤɚɡɨɱɧɵɣɫɸɠɟɬȼɬɟɱɟɧɢɟɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹɤɨɥɥɢɡɢɣɜɷɬɨɣ
ɠɟɤɨɦɧɚɬɟɩɨɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɄɚɥɚɮɰɟɧɨɣɫɜɨɟɣɠɢɡɧɢɝɨɬɨɜɵɣɡɚɜɨɟɜɚɬɶɫɟɪɞɰɟ
ɌɭɪɚɧɞɨɬɄɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɢɟɝɨɝɟɪɨɣɜɪɚɜɧɨɣɫɬɟɩɟɧɢɨɬɨɠɞɟɫɬɜɥɹɸɬɦɢɮɨɥɨ
ɝɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɣɦɨɬɢɜɩɨɢɫɤɚɪɟɲɟɧɢɹɫɭɞɶɛɨɧɨɫɧɵɯɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɞɥɹɉɭɱɱɢɧɢ
²ɷɬɨɮɢɧɚɥɶɧɵɣɥɸɛɨɜɧɵɣɞɭɷɬɩɨɫɥɟɬɪɚɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɫɦɟɪɬɢɅɢɭɞɥɹɄɚɥɚɮɚ
²ɥɸɛɨɜɶɩɪɢɧɰɟɫɫɵȼɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟɨɧɢɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɬɫɹɞɜɨɣɧɢɤɚɦɢɧɢɜɟɥɢɪɭɹ
ɝɪɚɧɶɦɟɠɞɭɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢɜɨɨɛɪɚɠɚɟɦɵɦɆɚɪɟɥɥɢɨɛɵɝɪɵɜɚɟɬɩɪɢɫɭɬ
ɫɬɜɭɸɳɭɸɜɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɱɟɫɤɭɸɥɢɧɢɸɫɚɦɨɢɞɟɧɬɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢɌɭɪɚɧɞɨɬɫ
ɅɨɭɅɢɧɝɢ©ɜɨɡɜɪɚɬɚªɤɱɭɜɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɦɭɦɢɪɭɥɸɞɟɣȼɩɟɪɜɨɦɫɥɭɱɚɟɪɚɫɫɤɚ
ɡɵɜɚɹɨɫɥɵɲɢɦɨɦɟɸɤɪɢɤɟɩɨɪɭɝɚɧɧɨɣɩɪɢɧɰɟɫɫɵɝɟɪɨɢɧɹɩɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɨɨɛ
ɥɚɱɚɟɬɫɹɜɫɬɚɪɢɧɧɵɟɬɹɠɟɥɵɟɨɞɟɠɞɵȼɫɰɟɧɟɡɚɝɚɞɨɤɜɪɟɦɹɫɥɨɜɧɨɛɵɧɚ
ɩɪɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɜɫɩɹɬɶɢɩɪɨɢɝɪɵɜɚɹɌɭɪɚɧɞɨɬɨɫɬɚɟɬɫɹɫɨɝɨɥɟɧɧɵɦɢɩɥɟɱɚɦɢ
Ⱦɥɹɪɚɫɤɪɵɬɢɹɟɟɩɫɢɯɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɦɟɬɚɦɨɪɮɨɡɵɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹɧɟɦɨɟɜɢɞɟɨ
ȺɄɢɬɰɢɝɚɫɪɢɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɦɢɮɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɚɬɪɢɛɭɬɨɦɦɚɫɤɢɈɬɜɟɬɵɩɪɢɧɰɚɢɫ
ɤɚɠɚɸɬɛɟɡɞɭɲɧɵɣɟɟɥɢɤɩɨɤɚɨɧɚɧɟɪɚɡɪɭɲɚɟɬɫɹȼɦɢɮɨɥɨɝɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɦ
ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟɨɩɟɪɵɬɚɤɨɣɩɪɢɺɦɧɟɩɪɨɫɬɨɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬɩɪɟɨɞɨɥɟɬɶɧɟɞɨɫɬɢɠɢ
ɦɨɫɬɶɤɪɭɩɧɨɝɨɩɥɚɧɚɩɪɢɨɝɪɨɦɧɵɯɦɚɫɲɬɚɛɚɯɫɰɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɩɥɨɳɚɞɤɢɈɧɜ
ɨɪɝɚɧɢɱɧɨɦɟɞɢɧɫɬɜɟɫɞɪɭɝɢɦɢɪɚɫɤɪɵɜɚɟɬɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶɠɚɧɪɚɤɞɢɮɮɭɡɢɢ
Ɉɩɟɪɚɢɦɢɮɭɫɥɨɜɧɨɫɬɶɛɟɡɭɫɥɨɜɧɨɝɨ 
ɫɦɵɫɥɨɜɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɢɸɧɟɨɠɢɞɚɧɧɵɯɩɚɪɚɥɥɟɥɟɣɦɟɠɞɭɪɟɚɥɶɧɵɦɢɮɚɤɬɚɦɢɢ
ɜɵɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɵɦɢɢɫɬɨɪɢɹɦɢɤɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢɞɭɯɨɜɧɨɝɨɨɩɵɬɚ
Ɇɚɫɤɚɢɝɪɚɟɬɜɚɠɧɭɸɪɨɥɶɢɜɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɢɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɩɥɚɧɚɜɩɨɫɬɚ
ɧɨɜɤɟ©Ɋɢɝɨɥɟɬɬɨªȼɟɪɞɢ ɪɟɠɢɫɫɟɪɎɒɬɺɥɶɰɥɶȻɪɟɝɟɧɰ ɬɨɧɧɚɹ
ɝɨɥɨɜɚɤɥɨɭɧɚɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹɜɬɨɪɵɦ©əªɝɟɪɨɹɜɵɪɚɠɚɹɪɚɡɧɵɟɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹɢɡ
ɞɺɜɤɭɜɟɫɟɥɶɟɬɪɟɜɨɠɧɵɟɩɪɟɞɨɳɭɳɟɧɢɹɧɟɠɧɵɟɱɭɜɫɬɜɚȼɩɟɪɟɥɨɦɧɵɣ
ɦɨɦɟɧɬɞɪɚɦɵɤɨɝɞɚɲɭɬɩɨɦɨɝɚɟɬɜɵɤɪɚɫɬɶɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɭɸɞɨɱɶɝɨɥɨɜɚɦɚ
ɫɤɚɥɢɲɚɟɬɫɹɜɧɚɱɚɥɟɝɥɚɡ ɤɚɤɧɟɜɫɩɨɦɧɢɬɶɗɞɢɩɚ ɩɨɬɨɦɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɬɚɟɬɡɥɨ
ɜɟɳɢɣɜɢɞɱɟɪɟɩɚɩɪɟɞɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɹɢɫɯɨɞɫɨɛɵɬɢɣ
ȿɫɥɢɩɪɢɧɹɬɶɬɟɡɢɫɨɩɪɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɢɜɨɩɟɪɟɪɚɡɧɵɯɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɦɢɮɨɩɨɷɬɢɤɢ
ɢɜɨɡɧɢɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɢɢɧɬɟɪɬɟɤɫɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɯɦɨɬɢɜɨɜɜɧɭɬɪɢɠɚɧɪɚɬɨɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɢɜɚ
ɟɬɫɹɫɜɹɡɶɦɟɠɞɭ©ɉɟɧɨɣɞɧɟɣªȾɟɧɢɫɨɜɚɢɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɨɣɩɚɪɨɣ©ɉɢɤɨɜɚɹɞɚɦɚª
ɑɚɣɤɨɜɫɤɨɝɨ²©ɂɝɪɨɤªɉɪɨɤɨɮɶɟɜɚɉɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɦɵɟɡɚɦɟɱɚɧɢɹɥɢɲɶɞɨɩɨɥ
ɧɹɸɬɧɚɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɹɧɚɞɦɢɮɨɥɨɝɢɡɦɨɦɤɨɧɰɟɩɰɢɢɷɬɨɝɨɫɨɱɢɧɟɧɢɹ>@ɂɦɟɟɬɫɹ
ɜɜɢɞɭɦɨɬɢɜ©ɩɨɪɨɱɧɚɹɫɬɪɚɫɬɶ²ɩɨɝɭɛɥɟɧɧɚɹɥɸɛɨɜɶªɜɏȱɏɜɟɤɟɱɭɜɫɬɜɚ
ɢɠɢɡɧɶɪɚɡɛɢɜɚɥɢɫɶɢɡɡɚɤɚɪɬɨɱɧɨɝɨɚɡɚɪɬɚɜɏɏ²ɢɡɡɚɮɚɧɚɬɢɱɧɨɝɨɩɨ
ɤɥɨɧɟɧɢɹɦɨɞɧɨɦɭɢɞɨɥɭɋɷɬɢɯɩɨɡɢɰɢɣ©ɉɟɧɚɞɧɟɣªȻȼɢɚɧɚ±ɗȾɟɧɢ
ɫɨɜɚɡɚɦɵɤɚɟɬɤɪɢɜɭɸɫɦɵɫɥɚɩɪɨɲɟɞɲɟɝɨɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɵɣɞɥɹɦɢɮɚɩɭɬɶɜɚ
ɪɢɚɧɬɧɵɯɩɪɟɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɣ
ȼɭɜɥɟɱɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɦɢɮɨɩɨɷɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɚɦɢɨɩɟɪɵɧɟɫɥɟɞɭɟɬɡɚɛɵ
ɜɚɬɶɱɬɨɠɚɧɪɨɛɥɚɞɚɟɬɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɢɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚɦɢɞɥɹɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɟɧɢɹɫɜɨɢɯ
ɦɟɞɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɟɣɢɮɭɧɤɰɢɣɜɫɨɰɢɨɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɨɦɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟɉɨ
ɷɬɨɦɭɞɚɥɟɤɨɧɟɤɚɠɞɨɟɫɨɱɢɧɟɧɢɟɰɟɥɟɫɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɨɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɬɶɫɤɜɨɡɶɩɪɢ
ɡɦɭɦɢɮɚȾɥɹɩɪɢɦɟɪɚ²ɞɜɟɫɯɨɠɢɟɩɨɬɟɦɚɬɢɤɟɧɨɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟɩɨ©ɩɪɚɜ
ɞɨɩɨɞɨɛɢɸªɨɩɟɪɵ©ɉɚɫɫɚɠɢɪɤɚªɆȼɚɣɧɛɟɪɝɚ  ɢ©ɀɟɧɫɤɢɣɨɪɤɟɫɬɪ
Ⱥɭɲɜɢɰɚªɒɏɨɣɤɟ ± Ɉɛɟɧɚɩɢɫɚɧɵɧɚɨɫɧɨɜɟɩɪɨɡɵɛɵɜɲɢɯɭɡ
ɧɢɰɈɫɜɟɧɰɢɦɚɉɨɜɟɫɬɶɁɉɨɫɦɵɲɧɟɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɚɪɟɚɥɶɧɵɦɢɫɨɛɵɬɢɹɦɢ
ɨɛɨɝɚɳɟɧɚɦɨɬɢɜɚɦɢ©ɦɭɤɫɨɜɟɫɬɢª©ɫɬɪɚɯɚɪɚɡɨɛɥɚɱɟɧɢɹªɱɬɨɞɚɟɬɚɜɬɨɪɚɦ
ɨɩɟɪɵɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶɜɧɨɫɢɬɶɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹɜɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨɊɨɦɚɧɎɎɟɧɟɥɨɧɤɚɤ
ɨɫɧɨɜɚɨɩɟɪɵɏɨɣɤɟɫɨɡɞɚɧɩɨɞɧɟɜɧɢɤɨɜɵɦɡɚɩɢɫɹɦɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɩɟɜɢɰɚɜɟɥɚɫ
ɦɨɦɟɧɬɚɨɬɩɪɚɜɤɢɜɤɨɧɰɥɚɝɟɪɶȿɟɜɨɫɩɨɦɢɧɚɧɢɹ²ɷɬɨɯɪɨɧɢɤɚɫɬɪɚɲɧɵɯ
ɛɭɞɧɟɣɢɫɭɞɟɛɪɟɚɥɶɧɵɯɥɸɞɟɣɇɚɯɥɵɧɭɜɲɟɟɩɪɨɲɥɨɟɜɵɡɜɚɥɨɪɟɚɤɰɢɸ
ɨɫɬɚɜɲɟɣɫɹɜɠɢɜɵɯɜɢɨɥɨɧɱɟɥɢɫɬɤɢɥɚɝɟɪɧɨɝɨɨɪɤɟɫɬɪɚȺɅɚɫɤɟɪȼɚɥɶɮɢɲ
ɜɧɺɫɲɟɣɤɨɪɪɟɤɬɢɜɵɜɬɟɤɫɬɫɨɱɢɧɟɧɢɹɌɚɤɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɵɩɨɫɜɨɟɦɭɡɚɩɟɱɚɬ
ɥɟɥɢɬɪɚɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɫɬɪɚɧɢɰɵɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɏɏɜɟɤɚ
Ɉɛɨɛɳɚɹɪɚɡɦɵɲɥɟɧɢɹɧɚɞɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟɦɨɩɟɪɵɢɦɢɮɚɦɨɠɧɨɫɤɚ
ɡɚɬɶɱɬɨɨɩɟɪɚɪɚɜɧɚɢɧɟɪɚɜɧɚɦɢɮɭȼɦɢɮɟɷɦɩɢɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɨɩɵɬɫɜɟɪɧɭɬ
ɜɫɢɦɜɨɥɵɜɨɩɟɪɟɨɧɩɪɨɯɨɞɢɬɮɚɡɵɨɬɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯɩɚɪɚɥɥɟɥɟɣɫɪɟ
ɚɥɢɹɦɢɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɱɟɪɟɡɭɫɥɨɜɧɨɟɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨɢɝɪɵɞɨɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɡɚ
ɰɢɢɢɞɟɢɢɫɩɨɫɨɛɨɜɟɺɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɢɹȼɷɬɨɦɜɢɞɢɬɫɹɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɠɚɧɪɚ
ɢɟɝɨɧɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɚɹɫɚɦɨɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ
 ȺȺɆɢɡɢɬɨɜɚ

Ʌา฼ฯฺส฼฽ฺส
ɄɢɪɢɥɥɢɧɚɅȾɪɚɦɚ±Ɉɩɟɪɚ±ɊɨɦɚɧɆɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɚɹɚɤɚɞɟɦɢɹʋɋ±
 ɄɢɪɢɥɥɢɧɚɅɈɬ©Ⱥɥɤɟɫɬɵªɤ©Ⱥɥɶɰɟɫɬɟª Ⱥɧɬɢɱɧɵɣɦɢɮɜɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɟɇɨɜɨɝɨɜɪɟ
ɦɟɧɢ ɆɭɡɵɤɚɢɦɢɮɫɛɬɪɆȽɆɉɂɢɦȽɧɟɫɢɧɵɯȼɵɩɋ±
 ɆɢɡɢɬɨɜɚȺɆɢɮɨɥɨɝɢɡɦɯɭɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣɤɨɧɰɟɩɰɢɢ©ɉɟɧɵɞɧɟɣªɗȾɟɧɢɫɨɜɚ
Ɇɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɣɬɟɚɬɪɏɏɜɟɤɚɋɨɛɵɬɢɹɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵɢɬɨɝɢɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɵɪɟɞɫɨɫɬ
ȺȺȻɚɟɜɚȿɇɄɭɪɢɥɟɧɤɨɆȿɞɢɬɨɪɢɚɥɍɊɋɋɋ±
 ɆɿɡɿɬɨɜɚȺɉɟɪɫɟɥɥɿɜɫɶɤɿɦɨɬɢɜɢɨɩɟɪɢ©ȿɥɿɫɫɚªɊɭɬɐɟɯɥɿɧɑɚɫɨɩɢɫɇɚɰɿɨɧɚɥɶ
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ึ฽ัๅิสีๆืุอุา฻ิ฽฻฻฼ฬสඑංඑฬฯิส

ർൺඋඅൽൺඁඅඁൺඎඌඈඇඍඁൾඋඎඌඌංൺඇർඅൺඌඌංർඈඉൾඋൺංඇඍඁൾ
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ɛɵɬɢɹɢɫɨɫɪɟɞɨɬɨɱɢɬɶɫɹɧɚɬɚɤɢɯɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɰɟɥɨɫɬɧɨɫɬɹɯ ɦɟɞɥɟɧɧɨɢɡɦɟ
ɧɹɸɳɢɯɫɹɜɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɤɚɤɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɨɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɚɰɢɜɢɥɢɡɚɰɢɹɈɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɹ;,;
ɜɟɤɤɚɤɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɚɦɨɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɧɭɸɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɨɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɭɸɷɩɨɯɭɪɚɫɩɨ
ɥɚɝɚɸɳɭɸɫɹɦɟɠɞɭɤɥɚɫɫɢɰɢɡɦɨɦɢɇɨɜɨɣɦɭɡɵɤɨɣȾɚɥɶɯɚɭɡɯɪɨɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢ
ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɟɝɨɢɝɨɞɚɦɢɢɩɨɞɪɚɡɞɟɥɹɟɬɧɚɛɨɥɟɟɤɪɚɬɤɢɯɩɟɪɢɨ
ɞɨɜɀɚɧɪɨɩɟɪɵɡɚɧɢɦɚɟɬɩɪɢɷɬɨɦɜɚɠɧɨɟɦɟɫɬɨɤɪɚɫɧɨɣɧɢɬɶɸɩɪɨɯɨɞɹɱɟ
ɪɟɡɪɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɢɟɤɚɠɞɨɝɨɢɡɧɢɯ
Ɋɭɫɫɤɚɹɨɩɟɪɚɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɚɜɟɫɶɦɚɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɢɦɱɢɫɥɨɦɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɣɜɵɛɨɪ
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɫɥɚɛɨɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɧɵɦɇɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɟɟɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɭɞɟɥɟɧɨ
ɆȽɥɢɧɤɟɢɆɆɭɫɨɪɝɫɤɨɦɭɊɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɹɠɚɧɪɨɩɟɪɵɜɬɜɨɪɱɟɫɬɜɟɑɚɣɤɨɜ
ɫɤɨɝɨɆɭɫɨɪɝɫɤɨɝɨɩɨɡɞɧɟɝɨɊɢɦɫɤɨɝɨɄɨɪɫɚɤɨɜɚɢȻɨɪɨɞɢɧɚɭɱɟɧɵɣɢɫɯɨɞɢɬ
ɢɡɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɢɢɤɨɬɨɪɚɹɩɨɟɝɨɫɥɨɜɚɦɡɚɦɟɬɧɨɥɢɛɨɪɚɞɢɤɚɥɶɧɨ
ɫɤɥɨɧɹɟɬɫɹɤɷɩɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɭɌɪɚɤɬɭɹɷɩɢɱɧɨɫɬɶɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɨɢɧɚɱɟɱɟɦɩɪɢɧɹɬɨɜ
ɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɦɦɭɡɵɤɨɡɧɚɧɢɢɢɨɩɢɪɚɹɫɶɜɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢɧɚ©ɉɨɷɬɢɤɭªȺɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɹ
ɜ©ȻɨɪɢɫɟȽɨɞɭɧɨɜɟªɨɧɭɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɬɱɟɪɬɵɷɩɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɜɧɚɥɢɱɢɢɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɯ
ɮɚɛɭɥɜɨɫɨɛɨɦɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢ©ɞɪɚɦɵɚɮɮɟɤɬɨɜªɢɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢ
ȼɨɩɪɟɤɢɩɚɪɚɞɨɤɫɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɪɚɫɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɣȾɚɥɶɯɚɭɡɚɟɝɨɚɧɚɥɢɡɨɞɧɚɤɨɤɚɠɟɬ
ɫɹɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɧɨɚɪɝɭɦɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɦɢɫɨɞɟɪɠɢɬɫɜɨɟɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɣɢɧɟɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɣ
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ɭɡɵɤɚ;,;ɜɟɤɚɡɚɧɢɦɚɟɬɜɚɠɧɨɟɦɟɫɬɨɜɧɚɭɱɧɨɦɧɚɫɥɟɞɢɢɜɵɞɚ
ɸɳɟɝɨɫɹɧɟɦɟɰɤɨɝɨɦɭɡɵɤɨɜɟɞɚɄɚɪɥɚȾɚɥɶɯɚɭɡɚ ± ɋ
ɝɨɞɚɩɨɞɟɝɨɪɭɤɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɨɦɧɚɱɚɥɚɫɶɪɚɛɨɬɚɧɚɞ©ɇɨɜɵɦɪɭɤɨ
ɜɨɞɫɬɜɨɦɩɨɦɭɡɵɤɨɡɧɚɧɢɸª 1HXHV+DQGEXFKGHU0XVLNZLVVHQVFKDIW ɝɞɟɢɦ
ɩɨɥɧɨɫɬɶɸɛɵɥɧɚɩɢɫɚɧɬɨɦ©Ɇɭɡɵɤɚ;,;ɜɟɤɚªɂɡɞɚɧɢɟɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɥɨɦɟɬɨɞɨ
ɥɨɝɢɢɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɧɨɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɩɨɞɯɨɞɚ
ɂɞɟɢɤɪɭɩɧɟɣɲɟɝɨɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɹɦɟɬɨɞɨɥɨɝɢɢɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɧɨɣɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ
ɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɨɝɨɢɫɬɨɪɢɤɚɎɟɪɧɚɧɚȻɪɨɞɟɥɹ  ɫɬɚɥɢɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɩɨɩɭ
ɥɹɪɧɵɜȿɜɪɨɩɟɜ±ɟɝɨɞɵɢɯɜɥɢɹɧɢɟɧɟɫɨɦɧɟɧɧɨɢɫɩɵɬɚɥɢȾɚɥɶ
ɯɚɭɡɜɚɠɧɚɹɦɟɬɨɞɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɪɚɛɨɬɚɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ©Ɉɫɧɨɜɵɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɦɭɡɵɤɢª
ɛɵɥɚɨɩɭɛɥɢɤɨɜɚɧɚɜɝɨɞɭ>@ɢɞɨɫɢɯɩɨɪɧɟɭɬɪɚɬɢɥɚɫɜɨɟɝɨɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ
ɤɚɤɜɩɪɨɱɟɦɢɜɫɟɧɚɭɱɧɨɟɧɚɫɥɟɞɢɟɭɱɟɧɨɝɨɈɧɚɛɵɥɚɩɟɪɟɢɡɞɚɧɚɜ
ɝɨɞɭɜɩɪɟɞɢɫɥɨɜɢɢɤɧɟɣɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɨɪɜɟɧɫɤɨɝɨɭɧɢɜɟɪɫɢɬɟɬɆɢɤɟɥɟɄɚɥɟɥɥ
ɪɚɫɤɪɵɜɚɟɬɧɚɭɱɧɭɸɝɥɭɛɢɧɭɢɪɚɡɧɨɫɬɨɪɨɧɧɨɫɬɶɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɣɢɫɬɨɪɢɨɝɪɚ
ɮɢɢȾɚɥɶɯɚɭɡɚ>@ɦɟɬɨɞɨɥɨɝɢɸɧɟɦɟɰɤɨɝɨɭɱɟɧɨɝɨɜɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣɫɬɚɬɶɟɚɧɚ

ȿɝɨɫɭɬɶɪɚɫɤɪɵɬɚɜɪɚɛɨɬɟɂɋɚɜɟɥɶɟɜɨɣɢȺɉɨɥɟɬɚɟɜɚ>@ɂɫɬɨɪɢɤɚɦɢɛɵɥɢɫɮɨɪɦɭɥɢɪɨ
ɜɚɧɵɢɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɵɞɜɚɩɨɞɯɨɞɚɤɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɸɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ²ɫɨɛɵɬɢɣɧɵɣɢɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɧɵɣɉɪɟɞɫɬɚ
ɜɢɬɟɥɢɨɞɧɨɝɨɩɨɥɚɝɚɸɬɱɬɨɢɫɬɨɪɢɹɫɨɫɬɨɢɬɜɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɢɫɨɛɵɬɢɣɚɫɬɨɪɨɧɧɢɤɢɞɪɭɝɨɝɨɫɬɪɟ
ɦɹɬɫɹɢɝɧɨɪɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɫɨɛɵɬɢɹɢɫɨɫɪɟɞɨɬɨɱɢɬɶɫɹɧɚɬɚɤɢɯɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɰɟɥɨɫɬɧɨɫɬɹɯ ɦɟɞɥɟɧɧɨ
ɢɡɦɟɧɹɸɳɢɯɫɹɜɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɤɚɤɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɨɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɚɰɢɜɢɥɢɡɚɰɢɹɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟ
ɫɤɚɹɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɹ²ɢɦɟɧɧɨɨɧɢɢɩɨɥɭɱɢɥɢɧɚɡɜɚɧɢɟɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪ>@

ɋɦɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪɫɬɚɬɶɸɆɚɪɤɭɫɚɁɚɝɨɪɫɤɢɩɨɞɱɟɪɤɧɭɜɲɟɝɨɫɟɝɨɞɧɹɲɧɢɣɚɤɬɢɜɧɵɣɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɜ
ɬɪɭɞɚɦȾɚɥɶɯɚɭɡɚɜɬɨɦɱɢɫɥɟɢɜɚɧɝɥɨɹɡɵɱɧɨɦɦɭɡɵɤɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɢ>±@
ɄɚɪɥȾɚɥɶɯɚɭɡɨɪɭɫɫɤɨɣɤɥɚɫɫɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɨɩɟɪɟ 
ɥɢɡɢɪɭɟɬɇɢɤɨɥɚɭɫɍɪɛɚɧɟɤ>@ɋ©Ɉɫɧɨɜɚɦɢɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɦɭɡɵɤɢªɛɵɥɚɩɪɟ
ɟɦɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɜɹɡɚɧɬɨɦɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɧɵɣɦɭɡɵɤɟ;,;ɜɟɤɚɜ1HXHV+DQGEXFKGHU
0XVLNZLVVHQVFKDIW>@
ɋɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɧɨɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɩɨɞɯɨɞȾɚɥɶɯɚɭɡɚɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬɪɚɫɤɪɵɬɢɟɢ
ɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɸɬɨɝɨɤɚɤɩɪɨɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹɢɤɚɤɭɸɪɨɥɶɜɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɦɭɡɵɤɢɢɝɪɚ
ɸɬɷɫɬɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɟɩɫɢɯɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟ
ɚɬɚɤɠɟɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɫɜɹɡɢɢɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹȼɵɹɜɥɟɧɧɵɟɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɵɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪ
ɢɢɯɤɨɧɫɬɢɬɭɬɢɜɧɵɯɫɜɹɡɟɣɜ;,;ɜɟɤɟɩɪɨɧɭɦɟɪɨɜɚɥɞɢɫɤɭɬɢɪɨɜɚɜɲɢɣɫ
Ⱦɚɥɶɯɚɭɡɨɦɏȼɒɜɚɛ
ɗɫɬɟɬɢɤɚɝɟɧɢɹɤɚɤɢɧɫɬɚɧɰɢɹɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɩɨɥɨɠɧɚɹɧɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɧɨɣɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶ
ɧɨɣɩɨɷɬɢɤɟ
ɉɪɢɧɰɢɩɚɜɬɨɧɨɦɢɢɜɵɬɟɫɧɢɜɲɢɣɥɢɛɨɨɛɟɫɰɟɧɢɜɲɢɣɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɚɥɶ
ɧɨɩɪɢɤɥɚɞɧɨɣɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɦɭɡɵɤɢ
ɂɞɟɹɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɹɤɚɤɤɨɪɪɟɥɹɬɤɷɫɬɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɚɜɬɨɧɨɦɢɢ
Ʉɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɹɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹɦɭɡɵɤɢɤɚɤɜɨɩɥɨɳɟɧɢɟɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɣɥɨɝɢɤɢɫɨɞ
ɧɨɣɫɬɨɪɨɧɵɢɜɱɭɜɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɟɜɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɢɨɪɢɝɢɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɤɨɦɩɨɡɢ
ɬɨɪɚɫɞɪɭɝɨɣ
Ȼɭɪɠɭɚɡɧɚɹɤɨɧɰɟɪɬɧɚɹɠɢɡɧɶɤɚɤɢɧɫɬɢɬɭɰɢɨɧɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɹɦɵɫɥɢɨɛɚɜɬɨɧɨ
ɦɢɢɢɜɬɨɠɟɜɪɟɦɹɤɚɤɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟɬɨɜɚɪɧɨɝɨɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɚɦɭɡɵɤɢ
ɗɦɚɧɫɢɩɚɰɢɹɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɨɣɦɭɡɵɤɢ
ɇɚɥɢɱɢɟɤɥɚɫɫɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɢɡɴɹɬɵɯɢɡɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɣɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɳɢɯɫɬɚ
ɛɢɥɶɧɵɣɪɟɩɟɪɬɭɚɪɢɜɫɬɭɩɚɸɳɢɯɜɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɪɟɱɢɜɵɟɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹɫɩɨɫɬɭɥɚɬɨɦ
ɧɨɜɢɡɧɵɢɫɢɞɟɟɣɩɪɨɝɪɟɫɫɚ
ɍɜɚɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟɤɨɪɢɝɢɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɢɧɟɩɨɜɬɨɪɢɦɨɫɬɢɫɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ
ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɛɪɚɬɶɩɪɢɦɟɪɧɟɩɨɞɪɚɠɚɹɟɣ
ɍɝɪɨɡɚɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɢɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɯɠɚɧɪɨɜ
ɉɨɞɱɟɪɤɢɜɚɧɢɟ©ɩɨɷɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨªɢɧɟɜɵɫɨɤɚɹɨɰɟɧɤɚ©ɦɟɯɚɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨª ɱɬɨ
ɨɛɴɹɜɥɹɥɨɫɶɫɚɦɨɫɨɛɨɣɪɚɡɭɦɟɸɳɢɦɫɹɧɨɱɟɦɭɦɨɝɥɢɢɧɟɩɪɢɞɚɜɚɬɶɨɫɨɛɨ
ɝɨɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹ >@
;,;ɜɟɤɬɪɚɤɬɭɟɬɫɹȾɚɥɶɯɚɭɡɨɦɤɚɤɷɩɨɯɚɜɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɦɭɡɵɤɢɩɪɨɫɬɢɪɚ
ɸɳɚɹɫɹɨɬɩɨɡɞɧɟɝɨɬɜɨɪɱɟɫɬɜɚȻɟɬɯɨɜɟɧɚɨɩɟɪɊɨɫɫɢɧɢɢɩɟɫɟɧɒɭɛɟɪɬɚɞɨ
©ɷɦɚɧɫɢɩɚɰɢɢɞɢɫɫɨɧɚɧɫɚªɭɒɺɧɛɟɪɝɚɍɱɟɧɵɣɫɤɥɨɧɹɥɫɹɤɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɸ;,;
ɜɟɤɚɤɚɤɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɡɚɦɤɧɭɬɨɣɢɫɚɦɨɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɣɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɨɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɷɩɨɯɢɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɸɳɟɣɫɹɦɟɠɞɭɤɥɚɫɫɢɰɢɡɦɨɦɢɇɨɜɨɣɦɭɡɵɤɨɣɋɨɱɬɹɡɚɜɟ
ɞɨɦɨɧɟɩɪɢɟɦɥɟɦɵɦɢɯɪɨɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɧɟɣɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɟɜɟɯɢ±ɝɟɪɦɚɧ
ɫɤɢɣɦɭɡɵɤɨɜɟɞɜɡɹɥɡɚɨɫɧɨɜɭɩɟɪɢɨɞɫɩɨɝɨɞɵ
©Ɇɭɡɵɤɚ;,;ɜɟɤɚªɜɤɥɸɱɚɟɬȼɜɟɞɟɧɢɟɢɩɹɬɶɝɥɚɜ±±
±±±Ɉɩɨɪɧɵɦɢɬɨɱɤɚɦɢɞɥɹɬɚɤɨɝɨɞɟ
ɥɟɧɢɹɫɬɚɥɢɫɨɛɵɬɢɹɦɢɪɨɜɨɣɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢȼɟɧɫɤɢɣɤɨɧɝɪɟɫɫɢɪɟɫɬɚɜɪɚɰɢɹ
Ȼɭɪɛɨɧɨɜ  ɞɜɟɪɟɜɨɥɸɰɢɢɜɨɎɪɚɧɰɢɢ ɢɝɨɞɵ ɮɪɚɧɰɭɡ
ɫɤɚɹ©ɤɚɬɚɫɬɪɨɮɚª±ɝɨɞɨɜɨɬɫɬɚɜɤɚȻɢɫɦɚɪɤɚɜɝɨɞɭɢɧɚɱɚ
ɥɨɉɟɪɜɨɣɆɢɪɨɜɨɣɜɨɣɧɵ  ɉɪɢɷɬɨɦɭɱɟɧɵɣɜɫɹɱɟɫɤɢɚɤɰɟɧɬɢɪɭ
ɟɬɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɭɸɚɜɬɨɧɨɦɢɸɫɨɛɵɬɢɣɜɨɛɥɚɫɬɢɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɦɭɡɵɤɢɢɜɫɮɟɪɟ
 Ɇȿɉɵɥɚɟɜ

ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɤɢɢɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢɩɨɥɟɦɢɡɢɪɭɹɫɜɪɚɠɞɟɛɧɨɣɞɥɹɧɟɝɨɦɚɪɤɫɢɫɬɫɤɨɣ
ɢɫɬɨɪɢɨɝɪɚɮɢɟɣȼɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɦɢɬɨɝɟɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɟɦɵɟȾɚɥɶɯɚɭɡɨɦɯɪɨɧɨɥɨ
ɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɜɟɯɢɫɜɹɡɵɜɚɸɬɫɹɫɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢɫɨɛɵɬɢɹɦɢɢɹɜ
ɥɟɧɢɹɦɢ;,;ɜɟɤɜɟɝɨɞɚɥɶɯɚɭɡɨɜɫɤɨɣɬɪɚɤɬɨɜɤɟ ± ɨɛɨɡɧɚɱɚɟɬɫɹ
ɤɚɤɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɣɨɬɪɟɡɨɤɩɪɨɫɬɢɪɚɸɳɢɣɫɹɨɬɩɨɡɞɧɟɝɨɬɜɨɪɱɟɫɬɜɚȻɟɬɯɨɜɟɧɚ
ɨɩɟɪɊɨɫɫɢɧɢɢɩɟɫɟɧɒɭɛɟɪɬɚɞɨɲɺɧɛɟɪɝɨɜɫɤɨɣ©ɷɦɚɧɫɢɩɚɰɢɢɞɢɫɫɨɧɚɧ
ɫɚª ɢɤɨɦɩɥɟɦɟɧɬɚɪɧɨɝɨɩɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɸɤɧɟɣɨɬɯɨɞɚɊɒɬɪɚɭɫɚɨɬɦɨɞɟɪ
ɧɢɡɦɚɜ©Ʉɚɜɚɥɟɪɟɪɨɡɵª >@
ɍɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɟɧɚɡɜɚɧɧɵɯɯɪɨɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɪɚɦɨɤɢɝɪɚɧɢɰɞɚɺɬɜɨɡɦɨɠ
ɧɨɫɬɶɭɥɨɜɢɬɶɨɩɨɪɭɧɚɫɨɛɵɬɢɹɩɪɟɠɞɟɜɫɟɝɨɚɜɫɬɪɨɧɟɦɟɰɤɨɣɦɭɡɵɤɢ ɞɨɛɚ
ɜɢɦɱɬɨɢɡɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɹɞɚɥɶɯɚɭɡɨɜɫɤɨɣ©Ɇɭɡɵɤɢ;,;ɜɟɤɚªɧɟɩɨɫɬɢɠɢɦɵɦ
ɨɛɪɚɡɨɦɢɫɱɟɡɥɨɬɜɨɪɱɟɫɬɜɨɄȾɟɛɸɫɫɢɢɆɊɚɜɟɥɹ 
Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɨɣ©ɫɤɜɨɡɧɨɣɥɢɧɢɟɣªɜɤɧɢɝɟȾɚɥɶɯɚɭɡɚɦɨɠɧɨɫɱɢɬɚɬɶɩɪɨɫɥɟ
ɠɢɜɚɧɢɟɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɫɭɞɶɛɵɢɦɟɧɧɨɨɩɟɪɧɨɝɨɠɚɧɪɚɇɚɦɟɤɧɚɷɬɨɫɨɞɟɪ
ɠɢɬɫɹɭɠɟɜɨɜɜɟɞɟɧɢɢ²ɜɩɚɪɚɝɪɚɮɟ©ɋɬɢɥɟɜɨɣɞɭɚɥɢɡɦª>±@Ɋɟɱɶ
ɡɞɟɫɶɢɞɟɬɨɛɚɧɬɢɬɟɡɟɧɟɦɟɰɤɨɝɨɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚɥɢɡɦɚɢɢɬɚɥɨɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɨɣ
ɨɩɟɪɵ ©ɷɩɨɯɟȻɟɬɯɨɜɟɧɚɢɊɨɫɫɢɧɢªɩɨɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɸȾɚɥɶɯɚɭɡɚ ɇɢɠɟɪɚɡ
ɝɨɜɨɪɨɛɨɩɟɪɟɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨɜɨɡɨɛɧɨɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɝɨɜɨɪɢɬɫɹɨɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɨɣɤɨɦɢɱɟ
ɫɤɨɣɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɨɣɢɧɟɦɟɰɤɨɣɨɩɟɪɚɯɨȻɟɥɥɢɧɢɢȾɨɧɢɰɟɬɬɢɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɢɢ
©ɛɨɥɶɲɨɣɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɨɣɨɩɟɪɵª ɚɬɚɤɠɟȾɠɊɨɫɫɢɧɢ²ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪɟ©ȼɢɥɶ
ɝɟɥɶɦɚɌɟɥɥɹª ɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɣɞɪɚɦɟȼɚɝɧɟɪɚɢɨɩɟɪɟɞɪɚɦɟȼɟɪɞɢȼɩɚɪɚɝɪɚ
ɮɟ©ɂɞɟɹɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣɨɩɟɪɵªɢɡȽɥɚɜɵ,,, ± ɤɪɚɬɤɨɪɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɟ
ɧɵɨɩɟɪɵɆȽɥɢɧɤɢɎɗɪɤɟɥɹɋɬɆɨɧɸɲɤɨəȼɌɨɦɚɲɟɤɚȻɋɦɟɬɚɧɵ
ɜɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɟɦɩɚɪɚɝɪɚɮɟɪɟɱɶɢɞɟɬɨɛɨɩɟɪɟɛɭɮɮɚɨɩɟɪɟɬɬɟɢɬɚɤɧɚɡɵɜɚɟ
ɦɨɣɫɚɜɨɣɫɤɨɣɨɩɟɪɟȼȽɥɚɜɟ,9 ± ɧɚɯɨɞɢɦɤɪɚɬɤɢɣɚɧɚɥɢɡɨɛɪɚɡ
ɰɨɜ©ɥɢɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɞɪɚɦɵªɢɨɩɟɪɧɨɝɨɪɟɚɥɢɡɦɚ ɨɩɟɪȽɭɧɨɆɚɫɫɧɟ©Ʉɚɪɦɟɧª
Ȼɢɡɟɢ©ɋɤɚɡɨɤȽɨɮɦɚɧɚªɈɮɮɟɧɛɚɯɚ ɚɜɩɚɪɚɝɪɚɮɟɩɨɞɧɚɡɜɚɧɢɟɦ©Ɋɭɫɫɤɚɹ
ɦɭɡɵɤɚɷɩɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɨɩɟɪɚªɫɬɪɚɧɧɵɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɦɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɹɸɬɫɹ©ȻɨɪɢɫȽɨɞɭɧɨɜª
Ɇɭɫɨɪɝɫɤɨɝɨ©ɄɧɹɡɶɂɝɨɪɶªȻɨɪɨɞɢɧɚ©ɁɨɥɨɬɨɣɩɟɬɭɲɨɤªɊɢɦɫɤɨɝɨɄɨɪɫɚ
ɤɨɜɚɢ©ȿɜɝɟɧɢɣɈɧɟɝɢɧªɑɚɣɤɨɜɫɤɨɝɨ
ɁɚɤɨɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɱɬɨȾɚɥɶɯɚɭɡɝɨɜɨɪɹɨ;,;ɜɟɤɟɧɟɦɨɝɨɛɨɣɬɢɫɜɨɢɦɜɧɢ
ɦɚɧɢɟɦɪɭɫɫɤɭɸɦɭɡɵɤɭɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɜɲɭɸɫɨɛɨɣɫɥɢɲɤɨɦɜɚɠɧɨɟɢɡɚɦɟɬɧɨɟ
ɹɜɥɟɧɢɟɜɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɣɠɢɡɧɢɞɚɧɧɨɝɨɩɟɪɢɨɞɚɈɞɧɚɤɨɫɪɚɡɭɡɚɦɟɬɧɨɧɟɤɨɟ
ɜɵɫɨɤɨɦɟɪɧɨɫɧɢɫɯɨɞɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟɡɚɦɟɬɧɨɟɜɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢɧɟɬɨɥɶɤɨ
ɩɪɢɪɚɡɛɨɪɟɧɨɢɩɪɢɭɩɨɦɢɧɚɧɢɢɬɟɯɢɥɢɢɧɵɯɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɣɋɚɦɢɯɤɪɭɝ
ɱɪɟɡɜɵɱɚɣɧɨɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɜɵɛɨɪɠɟɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɯɨɛɪɚɡɰɨɜɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɧɟ
ɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɧɵɦɢɞɚɠɟɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɥɶɧɵɦɌɚɤɢɡɫɨɱɢɧɟɧɢɣȾɚɪɝɨɦɵɠɫɤɨɝɨɧɚ
ɡɜɚɧɥɢɲɶ©ɄɚɦɟɧɧɵɣɝɨɫɬɶªɢɡɨɩɟɪɧɨɝɨɬɜɨɪɱɟɫɬɜɚɊɢɦɫɤɨɝɨɄɨɪɫɚɤɨɜɚ
²©ɁɨɥɨɬɨɣɩɟɬɭɲɨɤªɆɭɫɨɪɝɫɤɢɣɮɢɝɭɪɢɪɭɟɬɬɨɥɶɤɨɤɚɤɚɜɬɨɪ©Ȼɨɪɢɫɚ
Ƚɨɞɭɧɨɜɚªɩɪɢɭɩɨɦɢɧɚɧɢɢ©ȼɟɫɧɵɫɜɹɳɟɧɧɨɣªɋɬɪɚɜɢɧɫɤɨɝɨɭɦɚɥɱɢɜɚɟɬ
ɫɹɨɫɨɡɞɚɧɧɵɯɪɚɧɟɟ©ɀɚɪɩɬɢɰɟª©ɉɟɬɪɭɲɤɟª²ɢɬɞɇɚɢɛɨɥɶɲɟɝɨɜɧɢ
ɄɚɪɥȾɚɥɶɯɚɭɡɨɪɭɫɫɤɨɣɤɥɚɫɫɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɨɩɟɪɟ 
ɦɚɧɢɹɭɞɨɫɬɨɢɥɢɫɶȽɥɢɧɤɚɢɆɭɫɨɪɝɫɤɢɣɉɟɪɜɨɝɨɢɡɧɢɯȾɚɥɶɯɚɭɡɫɤɥɨɧɟɧ
ɨɰɟɧɢɬɶɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨɜɵɫɨɤɨɫɨɯɪɚɧɹɹɨɞɧɚɤɨɧɟɤɭɸɩɪɟɧɟɛɪɟɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ
©ɂɜɚɧɋɭɫɚɧɢɧª ©ɀɢɡɧɶɡɚɰɚɪɹª ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɟɬɫɹɧɟɦɟɰɤɢɦɦɭɡɵɤɨ
ɜɟɞɨɦɤɚɤ©ɨɩɟɪɚɫɩɚɫɟɧɢɹªɧɨɫɬɢɥɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɥɟɠɚɳɢɣɜɟɟɨɫɧɨ
ɜɟ²ɪɟɰɟɩɰɢɹɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɣɩɟɫɧɢɢɥɢɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɩɟɫɟɧɧɨɝɨɞɭɯɚɈɛɴɹɫɧɹɹɩɪɨ
ɛɭɠɞɟɧɢɟɢɪɨɫɬɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɧɚɱɚɥɚɜɦɭɡɵɤɟȾɚɥɶɯɚɭɡɫɜɹɡɵɜɚɟɬɟɝɨɫ
ɜɨɡɧɢɤɲɟɣɜɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɨɫɬɶɸɜɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɦɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɢɢɢɥɢɨɬɪɚ
ɠɟɧɢɢɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɱɭɜɫɬɜɚ©Ʉɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɹɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɜɦɭ
ɡɵɤɟɟɫɬɶɫɤɨɪɟɟɩɨɧɹɬɢɟɨɬɧɨɫɹɳɟɟɫɹɧɟɤɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɦɭɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɭɚɤɩɨ
ɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɢɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɩɫɢɯɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɮɭɧɤɰɢɢªɀɚɧɪɨɦɜɨɩɥɨɬɢɜɲɢɦ
ɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɣɫɬɢɥɶɭɱɟɧɵɣɫɱɢɬɚɟɬɨɩɟɪɭɚɧɟɫɢɦɮɨɧɢɸɱɬɨ
ɫɜɹɡɚɧɨɫ©ɨɪɢɟɧɬɚɰɢɟɣɷɩɨɯɢɜɤɨɬɨɪɭɸɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɨɡɧɚɱɚɥɨɩɪɟɠɞɟɜɫɟɝɨ
ɤɨɦɩɟɬɟɧɬɧɨɫɬɶɜɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɟɧɚɤɥɚɫɫɢɱɟɫɤɭɸɩɨɷɬɢɤɭɫɱɢɬɚɜɲɭɸɜɵɫɲɢɦ
ɠɚɧɪɨɦɞɪɚɦɭ²ɬɨɱɧɟɟɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɸª>@
Ƚɨɜɨɪɹɨɫɜɹɡɢɫɬɢɥɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɡɚɦɵɫɥɚɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣɦɭɡɵɤɢɫɢɞɟɟɣ
ɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɣɩɟɫɧɢȾɚɥɶɯɚɭɡɪɚɫɰɟɧɢɜɚɟɬɤɨɧɬɪɚɫɬɪɭɫɫɤɨɣɩɟɫɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɢɩɨɥɶ
ɫɤɨɣɬɚɧɰɟɜɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɜ©ɂɜɚɧɟɋɭɫɚɧɢɧɟªɤɚɤɧɚɢɜɧɵɣɯɨɬɹɢɷɫɬɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ
ɨɩɪɚɜɞɚɧɧɵɣ ɩɪɢɷɬɨɦɧɢɱɟɝɨɧɟɫɤɚɡɚɧɨɨɦɧɨɝɨɩɥɚɧɨɜɨɫɬɢɤɨɧɬɪɚɫɬɚɪɭɫ
ɫɤɨɝɨɢɩɨɥɶɫɤɨɝɨɧɚɱɚɥɜɦɭɡɵɤɟɨɩɟɪɵ ɉɟɪɟɞɧɚɦɢ²ɹɪɤɢɣɩɪɢɦɟɪɪɚɡ
ɦɵɲɥɟɧɢɣɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɰɚɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɜɲɟɝɨɪɭɫɫɤɭɸɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɭ©ɫɨɫɬɨɪɨɧɵªɢɧɟ
ɱɭɜɫɬɜɨɜɚɜɲɟɝɨɟɟɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɤɢɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɱɬɨɪɭɫɫɤɨɹɡɵɱɧɵɟɢɫɬɨɱɧɢ
ɤɢɩɪɢɷɬɨɦɧɟɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɥɢɫɶȾɚɥɶɯɚɭɡɨɩɢɪɚɥɫɹɧɚɤɧɢɝɢɨɪɭɫɫɤɨɣɢɫɥɚ
ɜɹɧɫɤɨɣɦɭɡɵɤɟɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɨɝɨɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɝɨɦɭɡɵɤɨɜɟɞɚɢɫɬɨɪɢɤɚȾɠɟɪɚɥɞɚɗɪ
ɧɟɫɬɚȺɛɪɚɯɚɦɚ
ȼɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɨɝɨɨɬɫɬɭɩɥɟɧɢɹɜɝɜȼɟɧɟɛɵɥɨɩɭɛɥɢɤɨɜɚɧɧɟ
ɦɟɰɤɢɣɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɤɧɢɝɢɦɨɫɤɨɜɫɤɨɝɨɬɟɚɬɪɨɜɟɞɚɤɪɢɬɢɤɚɛɥɟɫɬɹɳɟɝɨɡɧɚɬɨɤɚ
ɨɩɟɪɧɨɝɨɠɚɧɪɚȺɥɟɤɫɟɹɉɚɪɢɧɚ©ɏɨɠɞɟɧɢɟɜɧɟɜɢɞɢɦɵɣɝɪɚɞɉɚɪɚɞɢɝɦɵɪɭɫ
ɫɤɨɣɤɥɚɫɫɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɨɩɟɪɵª ɆɨɫɤɜɚȺɝɪɚɮ ȼɷɬɨɣɡɚɦɟɱɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣɪɚɛɨɬɟ
ɫɲɢɪɨɤɢɯɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɩɨɡɢɰɢɣɪɚɫɤɪɵɜɚɸɬɫɹɝɥɭɛɢɧɧɵɟɚɪɯɟɬɢɩɢɱɟ
ɫɤɢɟɨɫɧɨɜɵɪɭɫɫɤɨɣɨɩɟɪɵɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɟɫɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɦɢɫɮɟɪɚɦɢɞɭɯɨɜɧɨɣɠɢɡ
ɧɢɉɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɱɬɨɢɦɟɧɧɨɩɨɞɨɛɧɨɝɨɪɨɞɚɤɧɢɝɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɜɚɥɨȾɚɥɶɯɚɭɡɭ
ɤɚɤɚɜɬɨɪɭ©Ɇɭɡɵɤɢ;,;ɜɟɤɚª²ɬɚɤɭɠɟɩɟɪɜɚɹɝɥɚɜɚɩɨɞɧɚɡɜɚɧɢɟɦ©ɇɚɛɚɬ
ɡɚɤɥɚɧɢɹɢɩɟɪɟɡɜɨɧɤɨɪɨɧɚɰɢɢɰɚɪɶª ³2SIHUXQJVJORFNHQXQG.U|QXQJVJHOlXW
GHU=DU´ ɫɪɚɡɭɩɪɢɜɥɟɤɥɚɛɵɩɪɢɫɬɚɥɶɧɨɟɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɟɦɟɰɤɨɝɨɦɭɡɵɤɨɜɟɞɚ>
±@Ɂɚɤɨɧɨɦɟɪɧɨɱɬɨɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɰɢɹɤɧɢɝɢɜɵɡɜɚɥɚɜɟɫɶɦɚɛɥɚɝɨɠɟɥɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟ
ɨɬɤɥɢɤɢɩɪɟɫɫɵ>@Ɉɫɬɚɟɬɫɹɥɢɲɶɫɨɠɚɥɟɬɶɱɬɨɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɰɢɹɧɚɡɜɚɧɧɨɣɪɚɛɨ
ɬɵɩɨɪɹɞɭɩɪɢɱɢɧɛɵɥɚɛɵɧɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɚɜɛɵɜɲɟɦɋɋɋɊ
ɀɚɧɪɨɜɨɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɢɫɬɨɤɢ©ɂɜɚɧɚɋɭɫɚɧɢɧɚªɬɢɩɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɩɪɢ
ɧɚɞɥɟɠɚɳɟɝɨɠɚɧɪɭ©ɨɩɟɪɵɫɩɚɫɟɧɢɹªȾɚɥɶɯɚɭɡɜɨɡɜɨɞɢɬɤɬɨɣɥɢɧɢɢɢɫɬɨ
ɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹɧɚɱɚɥɨɤɨɬɨɪɨɣ²ɜɪɟɜɨɥɸɰɢɨɧɧɨɣɷɩɨɯɟ ɜɢɞɢɦɨɢɦɟ
ɟɬɫɹɜɜɢɞɭɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɚɹɪɟɜɨɥɸɰɢɹɝɨɞɚɨɞɧɚɤɨɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɢɟɫɨɛɵɬɢɹ
 Ɇȿɉɵɥɚɟɜ

ɢɝɨɞɨɜɩɚɪɚɞɨɤɫɚɥɶɧɵɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɦɢɝɧɨɪɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ©ɊɭɫɥɚɧɢɅɸɞ
ɦɢɥɚªɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɟɬɫɹɝɟɪɦɚɧɫɤɢɦɭɱɟɧɵɦɤɚɤɞɨɜɨɥɶɧɨɡɚɦɵɫɥɨɜɚɬɚɹɡɚ
ɩɭɬɚɧɧɚɹɩɨɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɸɫɤɚɡɤɚɩɟɫɬɪɚɹɩɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɸɧɨɫɛɥɟɞɧɵɦɢɯɚɪɚɤ
ɬɟɪɚɦɢ>±@
ɀɚɧɪɨɩɟɪɵȾɚɥɶɯɚɭɡɧɟɛɟɡɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɹɫɱɢɬɚɟɬɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɦɜɪɭɫɫɤɨɣ
ɦɭɡɵɤɟ;,;ɜɟɤɚɊɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɹɟɝɨɬɪɚɤɬɨɜɤɭɜɬɜɨɪɱɟɫɬɜɟɚɜɬɨɪɨɜɷɬɨɝɨ
ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ ɑɚɣɤɨɜɫɤɨɝɨɆɭɫɨɪɝɫɤɨɝɨɩɨɡɞɧɟɝɨɊɢɦɫɤɨɝɨɄɨɪɫɚɤɨɜɚɢȻɨɪɨ
ɞɢɧɚ ɭɱɟɧɵɣɢɫɯɨɞɢɬɢɡɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɢɢɤɨɬɨɪɚɹɩɨɟɝɨɫɥɨɜɚɦɡɚ
ɦɟɬɧɨɥɢɛɨɪɚɞɢɤɚɥɶɧɨɫɤɥɨɧɹɟɬɫɹɤɷɩɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɭ ɤɭɪɫɢɜɦɨɣ²Ɇɉ >
@ɇɟɫɦɨɬɪɹɧɚɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɟɠɚɧɪɨɜɨɩɟɪɢɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɧɚɡɜɚɧɧɵɯɚɜ
ɬɨɪɨɜɢɯɧɟɫɨɦɧɟɧɧɨɣɨɛɳɟɣɱɟɪɬɨɣɩɨɦɧɟɧɢɸɭɱɟɧɨɝɨɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɬɨɱɬɨ
ɜɫɟɨɧɢɹɜɧɨɨɬɤɥɨɧɹɸɬɫɹɨɬ©ɡɚɦɤɧɭɬɨɣªɮɨɪɦɵɞɪɚɦɵɩɟɪɟɧɟɫɟɧɧɨɣɢɡ
ɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɝɨɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɹɇɨɜɨɝɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɢɧɚɨɩɟɪɭɈɱɟɜɢɞɧɨ
ɱɬɨɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɟɬɚɤɢɯɨɩɟɪɤɚɤ©ȻɨɪɢɫȽɨɞɭɧɨɜª©Ʉɧɹɡɶɂɝɨɪɶª©ȿɜɝɟ
ɧɢɣɈɧɟɝɢɧªɢ©Ɂɨɥɨɬɨɣɩɟɬɭɲɨɤªɩɨɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɭɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɧɢɹɜɧɢɯɷɩɢɱɟ
ɫɤɨɝɨɜɵɝɥɹɞɢɬɞɥɹɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɟɣɪɭɫɫɤɨɣɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɣɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵɜɟɫɶɦɚ
ɫɬɪɚɧɧɨɈɞɧɚɢɡɩɪɢɱɢɧɫɜɹɡɚɧɚɫɞɚɥɶɯɚɭɡɨɜɫɤɢɦɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɦɷɩɢɱɟɫɤɨ
ɝɨɜɨɫɯɨɞɹɳɟɦɤȺɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɸɋɫɵɥɤɢɧɚɚɧɬɢɱɧɨɫɬɶɜɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢɧɚȺɪɢ
ɫɬɨɬɟɥɹɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɸɬɫɹɭȾɚɥɶɯɚɭɡɚɤɚɤɜɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɬɟɨɪɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɬɚɤɢɜ
ɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɚɫɩɟɤɬɚɯȼɫɜɹɡɢɫɪɭɫɫɤɨɣɷɩɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɨɩɟɪɨɣɢɦ
ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬɫɹɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɚɹɰɢɬɚɬɚɢɡ©ɉɨɷɬɢɤɢª©Ⱦɚɥɟɟɧɚɞɥɟɠɢɬɩɨɦɧɢɬɶɬɨ
ɨɱɺɦɧɟɨɞɧɨɤɪɚɬɧɨɛɵɥɨɫɤɚɡɚɧɨɢɧɟɫɨɱɢɧɹɬɶɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɢɫɷɩɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɫɨ
ɫɬɚɜɨɦȺɩɨɞɷɩɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɹɪɚɡɭɦɟɸɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɳɢɣɜɫɟɛɟɦɧɨɝɨɮɚɛɭɥ ɧɟɦ
HLQHQYLHOVWR൶JHQ,QKDOW ²ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪɟɫɥɢɛɵɤɬɨɫɞɟɥɚɥɨɞɧɭɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɸɢɡ
ɰɟɥɨɣ³ɂɥɢɚɞɵ´ª>@
Ɍɨɱɬɨɚɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɟɜɫɤɨɟɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɟɜɜɢɞɟɥɨɡɭɧɝɚ©ɟɞɢɧɫɬɜɚɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹª
ɫɬɚɜɲɟɟɨɛɳɢɦɦɟɫɬɨɦɲɤɨɥɶɧɨɣɩɨɷɬɢɤɢɧɟɩɨɞɯɨɞɢɥɨɤɢɫɬɨɪɢɤɨɞɪɚɦɚ
ɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɭɠɚɧɪɭɧɟɦɨɝɥɨɛɵɬɶɧɟɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɨɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɣɷɫɬɟɬɢɤɟɇɨɜɨɝɨ
ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢɩɢɲɟɬɭɱɟɧɵɣɈɞɧɚɤɨɜɨɩɟɪɭɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɞɪɚɦɚ ɢɦɟɧɧɨɤɧɟɣ
Ⱦɚɥɶɯɚɭɡɨɬɧɨɫɢɬ©Ƚɨɞɭɧɨɜɚªɢ©Ʉɧɹɡɹɂɝɨɪɹª ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɢɚɥɶɧɨɨɬɥɢɱɚɜɲɚ
ɹɫɹɨɬɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɢɫɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɨɦɩɪɨɧɢɤɥɚɞɨɜɨɥɶɧɨɩɨɡɞɧɨȼɟɪ
ɞɢɤɬɧɟɦɟɰɤɨɝɨɦɭɡɵɤɨɜɟɞɚɫɭɪɨɜ©ȻɨɪɢɫȽɨɞɭɧɨɜªɢ©Ʉɧɹɡɶɂɝɨɪɶªɜɨɬ
ɥɢɱɢɟɨɬ©Ƚɭɝɟɧɨɬɨɜªɢ©ɉɪɨɪɨɤɚªɆɟɣɟɪɛɟɪɚɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬɫɨɛɨɣɧɟɱɬɨ
ɢɧɨɟɤɚɤɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɭɜɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɠɚɧɪɚ>@
Ʉɪɚɬɤɨɜɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɦɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɭ©ȻɨɪɢɫɚȽɨɞɭɧɨɜɚªɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚ
ɟɦɨɝɨɢɦɟɧɧɨɫɬɨɱɤɢɡɪɟɧɢɹɩɪɟɬɜɨɪɟɧɢɹɡɞɟɫɶɷɩɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɧɚɱɚɥɚ
ȼɚɠɧɵɦɞɥɹȾɚɥɶɯɚɭɡɚɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯɫɬɨɪɨɧɫɨɞɟɪ
ɠɚɧɢɹɨɩɟɪɵɥɢɧɢɣɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹɫɨɛɵɬɢɣɚɢɦɟɧɧɨɜɡɚɢɦɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɣɝɟɪɨɟɜ
©ɞɪɚɦɵɚɮɮɟɤɬɨɜªɩɨȾɚɥɶɯɚɭɡɭ ɢɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɵ
ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɆɵɜɧɨɜɶɫɬɚɥɤɢɜɚɟɦɫɹɡɞɟɫɶɫɜɟɫɶɦɚɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɧɵɦɢɧɨɨɡɚɞɚɱɢ
ɜɚɸɳɢɦɢɭɬɜɟɪɠɞɟɧɢɹɦɢɂɯɫɭɬɶɬɚɤɨɜɚ
ɄɚɪɥȾɚɥɶɯɚɭɡɨɪɭɫɫɤɨɣɤɥɚɫɫɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɨɩɟɪɟ 
ɍɆɟɣɟɪɛɟɪɚɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɤɚɤɞɪɚɦɚɚɮɮɟɤɬɨɜɫɚɦɨɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɢɜɰɟɥɨɦɧɟ
ɜɬɨɪɝɚɟɬɫɹɜɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɭɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɫɟɟɛɨɪɶɛɨɣɡɚɜɥɚɫɬɶɢɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢɢɧ
ɬɪɢɝɚɦɢɢɧɚɱɟ²ɭɆɭɫɨɪɝɫɤɨɝɨɝɞɟɥɸɛɨɜɶȽɪɢɝɨɪɢɹɤɆɚɪɢɧɟɟɫɬɶɧɟɛɨ
ɥɟɟɱɟɦɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɞɥɹɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɹɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɰɟɥɢȿɫɥɢɜ©Ƚɭɝɟɧɨɬɚɯªɢ
©ɉɪɨɪɨɤɟªɞɪɚɦɚɚɮɮɟɤɬɨɜɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɢɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɟɬɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɟɬɨɜ©Ȼɨ
ɪɢɫɟȽɨɞɭɧɨɜɟªɨɧɚ²ɱɚɫɬɧɵɣɦɨɦɟɧɬɩɨɥɶɫɤɢɣɚɤɬ ɦɭɡɵɤɚɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨɪɟɡ
ɤɨɨɬɥɢɱɧɚɨɬɦɭɡɵɤɢɨɫɬɚɥɶɧɵɯɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ ɜɜɟɞɟɧɜɨɩɟɪɭɩɨɡɞɧɟɟɩɨɞɱɟɪ
ɤɢɜɚɟɬɭɱɟɧɵɣɬɟɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɱɟɦɬɨɩɨɫɬɨɪɨɧɧɢɦɜɧɟɲɧɢɦ
Ⱦɚɥɶɯɚɭɡɩɢɲɟɬɞɥɹɷɫɬɟɬɢɤɢɠɚɧɪɚɪɟɲɚɸɳɢɦɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɬɨɬɮɚɤɬɱɬɨ
ɞɪɚɦɚɚɮɮɟɤɬɨɜ ɭɜɢɞɟɧɧɚɹɝɥɚɡɚɦɢɆɚɪɢɧɵɆɧɢɲɟɤɤɚɤɤɨɦɟɞɢɹɚɮɮɟɤɬɨɜ 
ɟɫɬɶɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɞɥɹɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɹɰɟɥɢɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɢɚɧɟɧɚɨɛɨɪɨɬ
ɂɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɧɚɮɨɧɟɨɩɟɪɧɨɝɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹɩɪɟɞɦɟɬɨɦ
ɷɬɨɝɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɤɚɤɬɚɤɨɜɵɦɚɞɪɚɦɚɚɮɮɟɤɬɨɜɢɡɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɝɨɩɪɢɧɰɢ
ɩɚɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɳɟɝɨɟɝɨɱɟɪɬɵɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɢɢɩɪɟɜɪɚɳɚɟɬɫɹɜɱɚɫɬɧɵɣɦɨɦɟɧɬ
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɦɨɝɛɵɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɟɫɥɢɛɵɧɟɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɶɨɞɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ>@
ȿɳɟɨɞɧɨɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɟɪɚɫɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɟɭɱɟɧɨɝɨɫɜɨɞɢɬɫɹɤɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɟɦɭ
ɢɡɬɪɟɯɥɢɧɢɣɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ©ɦɧɨɝɨɮɚɛɭɥɶɧɨɣɞɪɚɦɵªɆɭɫɨɪɝɫɤɨɝɨ ɢɫɬɨɪɢɹɫɚ
ɦɨɝɨɰɚɪɹɋɚɦɨɡɜɚɧɰɚɢɧɚɪɨɞɚ ɥɢɲɶɥɢɧɢɹɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹɨɛɪɚɡɚȻɨɪɢɫɚɥɨɝɢɱɟ
ɫɤɢɡɚɦɤɧɭɬɚɟɝɨɫɦɟɪɬɶɸɆɭɡɵɤɨɜɟɞɫɤɥɨɧɹɟɬɫɹɤɦɵɫɥɢɱɬɨɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟɜ
ɣɪɟɞɚɤɰɢɢɨɩɟɪɵɫɰɟɧɵɩɨɞɄɪɨɦɚɦɢɩɪɨɥɢɜɚɟɬɫɜɟɬɧɚɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɵɢɦɟɧɧɨ
ɷɩɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɢɢɢɡɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɨɥɟɠɚɜɲɢɟɜɨɫɧɨɜɟɨɩɟɪɵɧɨɡɚɬɟɦɧɚ
ɪɭɲɟɧɧɵɟɜɫɬɚɜɤɚɦɢɢɞɨɛɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɦɢȼɪɚɦɤɚɯɷɩɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɧɵɟɟɞɢ
ɧɢɰɵɨɩɟɪɵɩɨɧɹɬɧɵɢɥɨɝɢɱɧɵɢɦɟɧɧɨɤɚɤɡɚɦɤɧɭɬɵɟɤɚɪɬɢɧɵɬɨɝɞɚɤɚɤɜ
ɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɟɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɢ ɤɤɨɬɨɪɨɣɢɦɟɟɬɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɸɩɪɢɛɥɢɠɚɬɶɫɹɨɩɟɪɚɆɭɫɨɪɝ
ɫɤɨɝɨ ɨɧɢɝɪɨɡɹɬɩɪɟɜɪɚɬɢɬɶɫɹɜɧɟɱɬɨɮɪɚɝɦɟɧɬɚɪɧɨɟȾɚɥɶɯɚɭɡɨɬɦɟɱɚɟɬɬɚɤ
ɠɟɱɬɨɨɞɢɧɢɡɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɨɜɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɢɢɨɩɟɪɵ²ɜɬɨɦ
ɱɬɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɟɥɢɰɚɩɨɱɬɢɧɟɝɨɜɨɪɹɬɞɪɭɝɫɞɪɭɝɨɦɗɬɨɤɚɤɹɜɫɬɜɭɟɬɢɡ
ɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɚɦɵɫɥɢɭɱɟɧɨɝɨɬɨɠɟɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɷɩɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɨɩɟɪɚɞɚɧɧɨɝɨɠɚɧɪɚɧɟ
ɧɭɠɞɚɟɬɫɹɜɞɢɚɥɨɝɟɤɚɤɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɧɨɦɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɟɞɪɚɦɵɢɛɨɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟɨɛɪɚɡɨɜ
ɡɞɟɫɶɮɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɩɚɪɚɥɥɟɥɶɧɨ>±@
ɊɚɫɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɹɦȾɚɥɶɯɚɭɡɚɧɟɥɶɡɹɨɬɤɚɡɚɬɶɜɥɨɝɢɱɧɨɫɬɢɜɧɚɥɢɱɢɢɚɪɝɭ
ɦɟɧɬɚɰɢɢɢɦɟɸɳɟɣɩɨɞɫɨɛɨɣɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨɬɜɟɪɞɭɸɩɨɱɜɭɯɨɬɹɫɚɦɯɨɞɪɚɫ
ɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɣɡɞɟɫɶɜɟɫɶɦɚɧɟɨɛɵɱɟɧ²ɜɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢɞɥɹɦɭɡɵɤɨɜɟɞɨɜɜɨɫɩɢɬɚɧ
ɧɵɯɜɪɭɫɥɟɪɭɫɫɤɨɹɡɵɱɧɨɣɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɢɄɪɚɬɤɨɪɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɧɵɟɧɚɦɢɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ
ɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɧɨɣɢɫɬɨɪɢɨɝɪɚɮɢɢɜɦɭɡɵɤɟɢɬɪɚɤɬɨɜɤɚɷɩɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɜɪɭɫɫɤɨɣɨɩɟɪɟ
ɩɨɡɚɩɪɨɲɥɨɝɨɫɬɨɥɟɬɢɹɫɜɨɟɨɛɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɟɧɧɵɟɜɪɚɛɨɬɟȾɚɥɶɯɚɭɡɚ©Ɇɭ
ɡɵɤɚ;,;ɜɟɤɚª²ɪɚɡɭɦɟɟɬɫɹɥɢɲɶɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɫɪɟɞɢɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɚɩɪɨɱɢɯɜɫɬɚ
ɸɳɢɯɩɪɢɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɢɧɚɫɥɟɞɢɹɜɵɞɚɸɳɟɝɨɫɹɭɱɟɧɨɝɨɉɚɪɚɞɨɤɫɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɯɨɞɚ
ɟɝɨɦɵɫɥɢɢɜɵɜɨɞɨɜɧɟɬɨɥɶɤɨɫɬɢɦɭɥɢɪɭɟɬɤɞɢɫɤɭɫɫɢɢɢɪɚɡɦɵɲɥɟɧɢɸɧɨ
ɢɞɚɟɬɞɪɚɝɨɰɟɧɧɭɸɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶɜɫɬɪɟɱɢɫɢɧɵɦɧɟɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɦɞɥɹɧɚɫɢ
ɜɫɟɝɞɚɚɪɝɭɦɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɦɜɡɝɥɹɞɨɦɧɚɬɨɱɬɨɤɚɡɚɥɨɫɶɯɨɪɨɲɨɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɵɦ
 Ɇȿɉɵɥɚɟɜ

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 ɄɨɫɢɤɨɜȽɄɁɚɪɭɛɟɠɧɨɟɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɟɢɬɟɨɪɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵɧɚɭɤɢɨ
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า฼สีๆ้ื฻ิุำิุึาแฯ฻ิุำุูฯฺๅඑඏංංංฬฯิส
ูุ฻฼สืุฬิสฺูุหีฯึๅ

ඉඈൾඍංർඌඈൿඅංൻඋൾඍඍඈ
ංඇඍඁൾൾං඀ඁඍൾൾඇඍඁ฻ൾඇඍඎඋඒංඍൺඅංൺඇർඈආංർඈඉൾඋൺ
ൿඈඋආඎඅൺඍංඈඇඈൿൺඉඋඈൻඅൾආ

Ⱥɧɧɨɬɚɰɢɹɂɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɚɹɤɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɨɩɟɪɚ;9,,,ɜɟɤɚ²ɞɚɜɧɢɣɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ
ɦɭɡɵɤɢɨɞɧɚɤɨɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟɪɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɢɟɟɟɩɨɷɬɢɤɢɞɨɫɢɯɩɨɪɧɟɩɪɟɞɩɪɢ
ɧɢɦɚɥɨɫɶɂɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɢɤɨɧɫɬɚɬɢɪɨɜɚɥɢɦɧɨɝɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟɟɟɢɫɬɨɤɨɜɨɬɥɢɱɚɸɳɟɟ
ɟɟɨɬɨɩɟɪɵVHULDɧɨɧɚɷɬɨɦɩɨɤɚɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɥɢɫɶȼɫɬɚɬɶɟɬɟɦɚɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɚɧɚ
ɥɢɡɨɦɤɨɪɧɟɣɢɡɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɩɪɨɢɡɪɚɫɬɚɸɬɪɚɡɧɵɟɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɬɢɩɵɢɜɚɠɧɟɣɲɢɟ
ɫɸɠɟɬɧɵɟɦɨɬɢɜɵɲɢɪɨɤɨɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɟɜɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɢɫɬɢɤɟɛɭɮɮɨɧɧɨɣɨɩɟɪɵ
Ɍɪɚɞɢɰɢɹɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɨɣɤɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɨɩɟɪɵɞɥɢɥɚɫɶɛɨɥɟɟɩɨɥɭɬɨɪɚɜɟɤɨɜɢɦɟ
ɥɚɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟɫɬɚɞɢɢɢɪɟɚɥɢɡɨɜɚɥɚɫɶɜɪɚɡɧɵɯɥɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɯɢɫɰɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɮɨɪɦɚɯ
Ɋɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɟɫɸɠɟɬɧɨɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɬɢɩɵɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵɜɧɟɣɬɨɠɟɧɟɪɚɜɧɨ
ɦɟɪɧɨȺɧɚɥɢɡɩɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɱɬɨɜɥɢɹɧɢɹɤɨɦɟɞɢɢɞɟɥɶɚɪɬɟɢɢɫɩɚɧɫɤɨɣɤɨɦɟɞɢɢ
©ɩɥɚɳɚɢɲɩɚɝɢªɨɬɦɟɱɚɟɦɵɟɞɨɜɨɥɶɧɨɱɚɫɬɨɫɤɨɪɟɟɩɟɪɟɨɰɟɧɢɜɚɸɬɫɹɇɚɩɪɨ
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ɦɨɥɶɟɪɨɜɫɤɨɣ©ɤɨɦɟɞɢɢɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɚªɟɟɢɦɩɭɥɶɫɵɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɨɜɚɥɢɧɚɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɢɯ
ɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɢɫɬɨɜɩɨɪɚɡɧɨɦɭɧɨɜɫɟɝɞɚɩɥɨɞɨɬɜɨɪɧɨȾɨɜɨɥɶɧɨɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɵɟɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɢ
ɯɨɬɹɢɦɟɧɟɟɲɢɪɨɤɨɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɧɵɟɜɨɫɯɨɞɹɬɤɩɚɫɬɨɪɚɥɢɩɨɡɞɧɟɝɨȼɨɡɪɨɠɞɟ
ɧɢɹɤɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɦɦɨɬɢɜɚɦɛɚɪɨɱɧɨɣɨɩɟɪɵ;9,,ɜɟɤɚɊɟɞɤɨɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɟɤɚɪ
ɧɚɜɚɥɶɧɵɟɦɨɬɢɜɵɬɚɤɠɟɡɚɧɢɦɚɥɢɨɫɨɛɨɟɦɟɫɬɨȻɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɨɫɸɠɟɬɧɵɯɦɨɬɢɜɨɜ
ɢɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɣɫɢɧɬɟɡɢɪɭɟɬɫɹɜɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɢɫɬɢɤɟȽɨɥɶɞɨɧɢɬɜɨɪɱɟɫɬɜɨ
ɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨɨɛɨɡɧɚɱɢɥɨɩɨɪɭɪɚɫɰɜɟɬɚɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɨɣɛɭɮɮɨɧɧɨɣɨɩɟɪɵ
Ʉɥɸɱɟɜɵɟɫɥɨɜɚɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɚɹɤɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɨɩɟɪɚ;9,,,ɜɟɤɚɩɨɷɬɢɤɚɥɢɛɪɟɬ
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ɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɚɹɤɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɨɩɟɪɚ;9,,,ɜɟɤɚ²ɨɞɧɚɢɡɹɪɱɚɣɲɢɯɫɬɪɚɧɢɰ
ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɡɚɩɚɞɧɨɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɣɦɭɡɵɤɢɦɨɳɧɚɹɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɹɨɯɜɚɬɵɜɚɜ
ɲɟɣɩɟɪɢɨɞɨɤɨɥɨɩɨɥɭɬɨɪɚɜɟɤɨɜ ɨɬɩɟɪɜɵɯɨɩɵɬɨɜəɤɨɩɨɆɟɥɚɧɢ
ɜɤɨɧɰɟɯɝɨɞɨɜɞɨɫɬɚɜɲɢɯɩɪɢɡɧɚɧɧɨɣɤɥɚɫɫɢɤɨɣɨɩɟɪEXৼDȾɠɨɚɤ
ɤɢɧɨɊɨɫɫɢɧɢ Ʉɨɧɟɱɧɨɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɚɹɤɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɨɩɟɪɚɭɠɟɞɚɜɧɨɧɚɯɨɞɢɬ
ɫɹɜɩɨɥɟɡɪɟɧɢɹɦɭɡɵɤɨɜɟɞɨɜɢɩɨɟɟɩɨɜɨɞɭɜɵɫɤɚɡɚɧɵɰɟɧɧɵɟɡɚɦɟɱɚɧɢɹ
ɦɢɦɨɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɫɥɨɠɧɨɩɪɨɣɬɢɄɩɪɢɦɟɪɭɜɧɟɞɚɜɧɟɣɨɛɡɨɪɧɨɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɪɚɛɨɬɟȽɥɨɪɢɢɋɬɚɮɮɶɟɪɢɨɬɦɟɱɚɟɬɫɹɱɬɨɜɫɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɢɫɫɟɪɶɟɡɧɨɣɨɩɟ
ɪɨɣɤɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɢɦɟɟɬɨɞɧɨɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɢɚɥɶɧɨɟɨɬɥɢɱɢɟɟɫɥɢɩɨɷɬɢɤɚɥɢɛɪɟɬ
ɬɨɞɥɹɨɩɟɪɵVHULDɧɟɢɡɛɟɠɧɨɜɨɫɯɨɞɢɬɝɥɚɜɧɵɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɦɤɨɞɧɨɦɭɨɫɧɨɜɨɩɨ
ɥɚɝɚɸɳɟɦɭɢɫɬɨɤɭ²ɡɧɚɦɟɧɢɬɨɦɭɬɪɭɞɭȺɪɢɫɬɨɬɟɥɹɨɡɚɤɨɧɚɯɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɹ
ɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɢɇɨɤɚɤɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɨɨɤɨɦɟɞɢɢɜɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɧɟɫɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɨɫɶɫɬɨɥɶɠɟɚɜ
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ɱɟɫɤɚɹɨɩɟɪɚɜɫɜɨɢɯɢɫɬɨɤɚɯɧɟɝɨɦɨɝɟɧɧɚɤɚɤɨɩɟɪɚVHULDɧɨɝɟɬɟɪɨɝɟɧɧɚ
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ɨɛɪɚɡɰɨɜɢɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɣɧɚɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɨɩɢɪɚɥɚɫɶɢɢɡɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨɩɪɨɢɡɪɚɫɬɚɥɚɢɬɚ
ɥɶɹɧɫɤɚɹɛɭɮɮɨɧɧɚɹɨɩɟɪɚ
ɋɢɫɬɟɦɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɹɩɨɷɬɢɤɢɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɨɣɤɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɢɫɬɢɤɢ²ɡɚ
ɞɚɱɚɧɟɢɡɩɪɨɫɬɵɯɄɚɪɥɨȽɨɥɶɞɨɧɢɜɫɜɨɢɯɆɟɦɭɚɪɚɯɫɨɡɞɚɧɧɵɯɤɤɨɧɰɭ
ɤɚɪɶɟɪɵɩɢɫɚɥ©Ʉɚɤɨɜɵɡɚɤɨɧɵɤɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɨɩɟɪɵ"Ʉɚɤɨɜɵɟɟɩɪɚɜɢɥɚ"Ⱦɭ
ɦɚɸɱɬɨɨɧɚɢɯɧɟɢɦɟɟɬ«ªɇɨɬɭɬɠɟɫɩɭɫɬɹɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨɫɬɪɨɤɨɫɜɨɢɯɥɢ
ɛɪɟɬɬɨ©ɉɨɫɜɨɟɦɭɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɸɢɫɬɢɥɸɷɬɢɩɶɟɫɵɜɨɜɫɟɧɟɡɚɫɥɭɠɢɜɚɸɬ
ɩɪɟɡɪɟɧɢɹªɬɟɜɧɢɯɟɫɬɶɤɚɤɢɟɬɨɞɨɫɬɨɢɧɫɬɜɚɩɭɫɬɶɢɯɢɧɟɥɶɡɹɧɚɡɜɚɬɶ
©ɯɨɪɨɲɨɧɚɩɢɫɚɧɧɵɦɢɞɪɚɦɚɦɢª>±@ȼɨɡɧɢɤɚɟɬɜɨɩɪɨɫɦɨɠɧɨɥɢɜ
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ȼɬɚɤɨɣɨɰɟɧɤɟɟɞɢɧɨɞɭɲɧɵɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɢɪɚɡɧɵɯɧɚɭɱɧɵɯɲɤɨɥɢɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɣ²ɧɟɦɟɰɤɨɣɚɧ
ɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɣɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɨɣɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɨɣ>@

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ɧɨɫɬɚɥɤɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɫɬɟɦɱɬɨɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɢɬɶɨɛɳɢɟɚɧɚɥɨɝɢɢɩɪɨɫɬɨɧɨɞɟɬɚɥɶɧɨɚɪɝɭɦɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ
ɩɪɢɱɢɧɧɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟɫɜɹɡɢ²ɫɥɨɠɧɨɉɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɸɤɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɨɣɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɣɤɨɦɟɞɢɢ
;9,,ɜɟɤɚɢɤɨɦɟɞɢɢɞɟɥɶɚɪɬɟ²ɫɦɨɛɷɬɨɦ>@
ɉɨɷɬɢɤɚɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɨɣɤɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɨɩɟɪɵ;9,,,ɜɟɤɚ 
ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɢɜɵɹɜɢɬɶɤɚɤɢɟɥɢɛɨɡɚɤɨɧɵɢɥɢɢɯɧɟɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɟɬɢɜɫɹɤɨɟɥɢɛɪɟɬ
ɬɨɩɢɫɚɥɨɫɶDGOLELWXP"ɉɨɡɢɰɢɹȽɨɥɶɞɨɧɢɨɱɟɧɶɜɚɠɧɚɬɚɤɤɚɤɫɟɝɨɢɦɟɧɟɦ
ɜɨɦɧɨɝɨɦɫɜɹɡɚɧɚɫɬɚɛɢɥɢɡɚɰɢɹɠɚɧɪɚɨɩɟɪɵEXৼD>@Ⱦɥɹɨɬɜɟɬɚɧɚɷɬɨɬ
ɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɛɪɚɬɢɦɫɹɤɚɧɚɥɢɡɭɨɞɧɨɝɨɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨ²©ɑɟɪɬɨɜɤɚª /DGLDYROHVVD 
Ƚɨɥɶɞɨɧɢ ɝȼɟɧɟɰɢɹɬɟɚɬɪɚɋɚɧɋɚɦɭɷɥɟɦɭɡɵɤɚȻɚɥɶɞɚɫɫɚɪɟȽɚɥɭɩ
ɩɢȼɨɛɳɢɯɱɟɪɬɚɯɟɟɫɸɠɟɬɬɚɤɨɜ
ɘɧɨɲɚɩɨɯɢɬɢɥɞɟɜɭɲɤɭɢɡɞɨɦɚɢɫɤɪɵɜɚɟɬɫɹɫɧɟɣɜɝɨɫɬɢɧɢɰɟɜɇɟɚɩɨɥɟ
Ɉɧɯɨɱɟɬɧɚɧɟɣɠɟɧɢɬɶɫɹɧɨɨɩɚɫɚɟɬɫɹɥɢɲɢɬɶɫɹɧɚɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɚɫɜɨɟɝɨɩɪɟɫɬɚɪɟɥɨ
ɝɨɨɬɰɚȾɟɧɟɝɧɟɬɢɦɨɥɨɞɵɦɛɟɪɟɬɫɹɩɨɦɨɱɶɧɚɯɨɞɱɢɜɵɣɫɥɭɝɚɎɚɥɶɤɨɈɧɡɧɚ
ɟɬɦɟɫɬɧɨɝɨɛɨɝɚɬɨɝɨɱɭɞɚɤɚɉɨɩɩɨɧɟɩɨɦɟɲɚɧɧɨɝɨɧɚɩɨɢɫɤɚɯɤɥɚɞɚɋɬɨɢɬɩɪɢ
ɤɢɧɭɬɶɫɹɨɩɵɬɧɵɦɢɤɥɚɞɨɢɫɤɚɬɟɥɹɦɢɫȼɨɫɬɨɤɚɢɞɟɧɶɝɢɩɨɥɶɸɬɫɹɪɟɤɨɣɉɨɫɥɟ
ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɨɣɱɟɪɟɞɵɧɟɞɨɪɚɡɭɦɟɧɢɣɎɚɥɶɤɨɭɫɬɪɚɢɜɚɟɬɦɚɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɫɟɚɧɫɞɨɛɵɱɢ
ɤɥɚɞɚɜɩɨɞɜɚɥɟɭɉɨɩɩɨɧɟɢɩɟɪɟɨɞɟɬɵɟɱɟɪɬɹɦɢɸɧɨɲɚɫɞɟɜɭɲɤɨɣɨɛɦɚɧɨɦ
ɜɵɦɚɧɢɜɚɸɬɭɛɨɝɚɱɚɡɨɥɨɬɵɟɢɫɟɪɟɛɪɹɧɵɟɦɨɧɟɬɵɉɨɩɩɨɧɟɜɨɬɱɚɹɧɢɢɡɥɵɟ
ɞɭɯɢɥɢɲɢɥɢɟɝɨɞɟɧɟɝɚɤɥɚɞɚɨɧɬɚɤɢɧɟɧɚɲɟɥɇɨɟɝɨɪɟɲɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹɫɥɭɠɚɧɤɚ
ɝɪɨɡɢɬɜɵɜɟɫɬɢɨɛɦɚɧɳɢɤɨɜɧɚɱɢɫɬɭɸɜɨɞɭȾɟɧɶɝɢɩɪɢɞɟɬɫɹɜɟɪɧɭɬɶɧɨɷɬɨɧɟ
ɛɟɞɚɸɧɨɲɚɩɨɥɭɱɚɟɬɢɡɜɟɫɬɢɟɨɫɦɟɪɬɢɨɬɰɚɢɧɚɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɟɢɬɟɩɟɪɶɦɨɥɨɞɵɟɦɨ
ɝɭɬɛɟɫɩɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɠɟɧɢɬɶɫɹ
ɍɠɟɜɷɬɨɦɫɯɟɦɚɬɢɱɧɨɦɢɫɨɤɪɚɳɟɧɧɨɦɢɡɥɨɠɟɧɢɢɜɢɞɹɬɫɹɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨɤɥɸ
ɱɟɜɵɯɦɨɬɢɜɨɜɢɦɟɸɳɢɯɞɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɭɸɩɪɟɞɵɫɬɨɪɢɸɉɪɟɠɞɟɜɫɟɝɨɷɬɨɫɬɪɟɦ
ɥɟɧɢɟɦɨɥɨɞɵɯɤɠɟɧɢɬɶɛɟɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɯɞɟɧɟɝɢɯɢɬɪɵɣɫɥɭɝɚɛɟ
ɪɭɳɢɣɫɹɜɫɟɭɫɬɪɨɢɬɶɩɭɬɟɦɨɛɦɚɧɚɧɟɤɨɟɝɨɭɫɥɨɜɧɨɝɨ©ɫɬɚɪɢɤɚªɎɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ
ɬɭɬɜɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɚɫɯɟɦɚɜɤɨɬɨɪɨɣɥɟɝɤɨɭɝɚɞɵɜɚɸɬɫɹɤɨɧɬɭɪɵɬɢɩɢɱɧɨɝɨ©ɦɟ
ɬɚɫɸɠɟɬɚªɞɪɟɜɧɟɣɥɚɬɢɧɫɤɨɣɤɨɦɟɞɢɢɩɚɥɥɢɚɬɵ&ɚɦ©ɦɟɬɚɫɸɠɟɬªɨɩɢɫɚɧɜ
ɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢɜɤɧɢɝɟɜɟɞɭɳɟɝɨɨɬɟɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɹɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɣɤɨɦɟ
ɞɢɢɆɢɯɚɢɥɚɅɟɨɧɢɞɨɜɢɱɚȺɧɞɪɟɟɜɚ>±@ȼɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɢɫɬɢɤɟȽɨɥɶɞɨɧɢɨɧɜ
ɫɚɦɵɯɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɯɜɚɪɢɚɰɢɹɯɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɟɬɫɹɞɨɜɨɥɶɧɨɱɚɫɬɨɜ©Ʌɭɧɧɨɦɦɢɪɟª
ɦɨɥɨɞɨɣɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɯɨɱɟɬɠɟɧɢɬɶɫɹɧɚɞɟɜɭɲɤɟɢɧɚɬɚɥɤɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɧɚɫɨɩɪɨɬɢɜɥɟɧɢɟ
ɟɟɨɬɰɚɧɨɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɢɦɱɢɜɵɣɫɨɫɟɞɭɥɚɠɢɜɚɟɬɞɟɥɨɩɪɢɩɨɦɨɳɢɦɢɫɬɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢ
ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɹɧɟɨɞɨɥɢɦɨɟɥɸɛɨɩɵɬɫɬɜɨɫɬɚɪɢɤɚɤɚɫɬɪɨɧɨɦɢɢɜ©Ⱥɩɬɟɤɚɪɟªɝɞɟ
ɫɯɨɞɧɭɸɤɨɥɥɢɡɢɸɭɞɚɟɬɫɹɪɟɲɢɬɶɩɪɢɤɢɧɭɜɲɢɫɶɬɭɪɤɚɦɢɢɫɭɥɹɫɜɨɟɜɨɥɶɧɨ
ɦɭɨɬɰɭɩɪɨɰɜɟɬɚɸɳɭɸɤɨɦɦɟɪɰɢɸɜɋɬɚɦɛɭɥɟɌɚɤɢɟɫɸɠɟɬɵɫɤɜɨɡɧɨɣɧɢɬɶɸ
ɩɪɨɯɨɞɹɬɱɟɪɟɡɜɫɸɢɫɬɨɪɢɸɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɨɣɤɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɨɩɟɪɵɧɚɱɢɧɚɹɨɬɫɚɦɨɣ
ɪɚɧɧɟɣ²©ɌɚɧɱɚɢɥɢɉɨɞɟɫɬɚɢɡɦɟɫɬɟɱɤɚɄɨɥɨɧɶɨɥɟª  ɝɞɟɩɚɪɭɫɨɟɞɢ
ɧɹɟɬɯɢɬɪɵɣɫɥɭɝɚȻɪɭɫɤɢɧɨɢɡɚɤɚɧɱɢɜɚɹɛɟɫɫɦɟɪɬɧɵɦ©ɋɟɜɢɥɶɫɤɢɦɰɢɪɸɥɶ
ɧɢɤɨɦªɊɨɫɫɢɧɢ ɥɢɛɪɧɚɨɫɧɨɜɟɤɨɦɟɞɢɢɉȻɨɦɚɪɲɟ 
ȼ©ɑɟɪɬɨɜɤɟªȽɨɥɶɞɨɧɢɟɫɬɶɢɩɨɛɨɱɧɚɹɢɧɬɪɢɝɚȼɧɟɟɜɨɜɥɟɱɟɧɚɫɭ
ɩɪɭɠɟɫɤɚɹɩɚɪɚɝɪɚɮɚɢɝɪɚɮɢɧɢɇɚɫɬɪɢɩɪɨɠɢɜɚɸɳɚɹɜɬɨɣɠɟɝɨɫɬɢɧɢɰɟ
ȼɨɡɧɢɤɚɟɬɩɭɬɚɧɢɰɚɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭɉɨɩɩɨɧɟɫɱɢɬɚɟɬɝɪɚɮɫɤɨɣɱɟɬɨɣɸɧɨɲɭɢ

ȾɚɜɧɨɩɪɢɡɧɚɧɨɱɬɨȽɚɥɭɩɩɢɛɵɥɥɭɱɲɢɦ©ɫɨɚɜɬɨɪɨɦªȽɨɥɶɞɨɧɢɈɞɧɚɤɨɢɯɫɨɬɪɭɞɧɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ
ɢɦɟɥɨɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɨɞɪɭɝɨɣɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɱɟɦɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɧɚɹɪɚɛɨɬɚɜ;,;±;;ɜɟɤɚɯɢɥɢɜɧɚɲɟɜɪɟ
ɦɹɗɬɚɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚɪɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɚɜɫɬɚɬɶɟɄɨɪɞɭɥɵɄɧɚɭɫ>@
 ɉȼɅɭɰɤɟɪ

ɞɟɜɭɲɤɭɩɪɢɛɵɜɲɢɯɱɭɬɶɪɚɧɶɲɟɚɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɢɯɫɭɩɪɭɝɨɜɇɚɫɬɪɢɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɬ
ɤɚɤɪɚɡɡɚɤɥɚɞɨɢɫɤɚɬɟɥɟɣɑɟɪɟɞɚɧɟɭɪɹɞɢɰɜɵɡɧɚɧɧɵɯɷɬɨɣɨɲɢɛɤɨɣɠɢɜɨ
ɧɚɩɨɦɢɧɚɟɬɞɪɭɝɨɣɜɟɫɶɦɚɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɧɵɣɫɸɠɟɬɧɵɣɬɢɩɞɪɟɜɧɟɣɩɚɥ
ɥɢɚɬɵɡɚɩɟɱɚɬɥɟɧɧɵɣɜɡɧɚɦɟɧɢɬɨɣɤɨɦɟɞɢɢ©Ɇɟɧɟɯɦɵªɉɥɚɜɬɚɝɞɟɞɜɭɯ
ɝɟɪɨɟɜɛɥɢɡɧɟɰɨɜɩɭɬɚɸɬɞɪɭɝɫɞɪɭɝɨɦɈɲɢɛɨɱɧɚɹɢɞɟɧɬɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɹɤɚɤɛɚ
ɡɨɜɵɣɦɨɬɢɜɩɨɪɨɠɞɚɸɳɢɣɤɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɭɸɩɭɬɚɧɢɰɭɫɩɨɫɨɛɟɧɫɢɥɶɧɨɨɠɢ
ɜɢɬɶɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟȽɨɥɶɞɨɧɢɩɪɚɜɞɚɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɢɬɚɟɬɛɨɥɟɟɩɪɢɫɬɚɥɶɧɨɜɧɢɤɚɬɶ
ɜɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɫɜɨɢɯɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɟɣɩɨɷɬɨɦɭɫɤɨɪɟɟɱɭɪɚɟɬɫɹɫɰɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɤɭ
ɬɟɪɶɦɵɈɞɧɚɤɨɜɰɟɥɨɦɜɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɨɣɛɭɮɮɨɧɧɨɣɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɢɩɨɯɨɠɢɟɩɪɢɟ
ɦɵɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵɞɨɜɨɥɶɧɨɲɢɪɨɤɨɄɩɪɢɦɟɪɭɜɩɟɪɜɨɣɨɩɟɪɟȺɋɤɚɪɥɚɬɬɢ
©ɇɟɞɨɪɚɡɭɦɟɧɢɹɢɡɡɚɫɯɨɞɫɬɜɚª ɥɢɛɪȾɎɄɨɧɬɢɧɢ ɰɟɥɵɣɪɹɞɩɪɟ
ɩɹɬɫɬɜɢɣɜɥɸɛɨɜɧɵɯɜɡɚɢɦɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹɯɞɜɭɯɩɚɪɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɟɬɤɚɤɪɚɡɢɡɡɚ
ɛɪɚɬɶɟɜɛɥɢɡɧɟɰɨɜɧɢɱɟɝɨɧɟɡɧɚɜɲɢɯɞɪɭɝɨɞɪɭɝɟɢɜɵɹɫɧɢɜɲɢɯɫɜɨɟɪɨɞ
ɫɬɜɨɬɨɥɶɤɨɜɮɢɧɚɥɟɈɲɢɛɨɱɧɚɹɢɞɟɧɬɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɹɱɚɫɬɨɩɪɢɫɭɬɫɬɜɭɟɬɜɧɟɚ
ɩɨɥɢɬɚɧɫɤɨɣFRPPHGLDPXVLFDOH±ɯɝɝɝɞɟɨɧɚɜɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦɪɟɚɥɢɡɭɟɬɫɹ
ɫɩɨɦɨɳɶɸɩɪɢɟɦɚɢɧɤɨɝɧɢɬɨȼɨɩɟɪɟȾɠȻɉɟɪɝɨɥɟɡɢ©ȼɥɸɛɥɟɧɧɵɣɛɪɚɬª
ɥɢɛɪȾɠȺɎɟɞɟɪɢɤɨ ɝɥɚɜɧɵɣɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠ²ɧɚɣɞɟɧɵɲɜɨɫɩɢɬɚɧɧɵɣ
ɜɱɭɠɨɦɞɨɦɟɚɡɚɬɟɦɜɨɥɟɸɫɭɞɶɛɵɨɤɚɡɚɜɲɢɣɫɹɫɪɟɞɢɪɨɞɧɵɯɇɢɫɚɦɨɧ
ɧɢɪɨɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɢɤɢɧɟɞɨɝɚɞɵɜɚɸɬɫɹɨɟɝɨɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɢɢɡɡɚɱɟɝɨɜɨɡɧɢɤɚ
ɟɬɝɨɪɹɱɢɣɤɥɭɛɨɤɢɡɜɥɸɛɥɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɢɫɨɩɟɪɧɢɱɟɫɬɜɚɨɛɨɫɬɪɟɧɧɵɣɨɩɚɫɧɨ
ɫɬɹɦɢɢɧɰɟɫɬɚ>@ȼɞɪɭɝɢɯɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨɝɟɪɨɢɢɧɨɝɞɚɧɚɦɟɪɟɧɧɨɦɚɫɤɢɪɭɸɬ
ɫɜɨɸɥɢɱɧɨɫɬɶɉɪɢɷɬɨɦɟɫɥɢɝɟɪɨɣɭɬɚɢɜɚɟɬɛɥɚɝɨɪɨɞɧɨɟɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɟ
ɟɦɭɭɝɪɨɠɚɟɬɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɶɦɟɡɚɥɶɹɧɫɚɚɟɫɥɢɩɟɪɟɨɞɟɜɲɢɫɶɫɤɪɵɜɚɟɬɩɨɥɬɨ
ɞɚɠɟɫɟɤɫɭɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɫɤɚɧɞɚɥɚȼɨɩɟɪɟȽɅɚɬɢɥɥɵ©Ɇɧɢɦɚɹɤɚɦɟɪɢɫɬɤɚª 
ɥɢɛɪȾɠȺɎɟɞɟɪɢɤɨ ɤɩɪɢɦɟɪɭɝɟɪɨɣɧɚɧɢɦɚɟɬɫɹɜɞɨɦɤɜɨɡɥɸɛɥɟɧɧɨɣ
ɩɨɞɜɢɞɨɦɫɥɭɠɚɧɤɢɢɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɦɥɸɛɨɜɧɵɯɞɨɦɨɝɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɫɨɫɬɨ
ɪɨɧɵɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɯɦɭɠɱɢɧɜɬɨɦɱɢɫɥɟɢɨɬɰɚɧɟɜɟɫɬɵɋɥɨɜɨɦɢɫɩɵɬɚɧɧɵɣ
ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɚɧɬɢɱɧɨɫɬɢɩɪɢɟɦTXLSURTXR ɛɭɤɜ©ɤɬɨɬɨɜɦɟɫɬɨɤɨɝɨɬɨª ɨɛɟ
ɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɸɳɢɣɰɟɥɵɣɜɨɪɨɯɩɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɢɣɢɥɢɤɨɥɥɢɡɢɣɢɡɡɚɩɭɬɚɧɢɰɵɩɪɨɱ
ɧɨɭɤɨɪɟɧɢɥɫɹɜɤɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɢɫɬɢɤɟ;9,,±;9,,,ɜɟɤɨɜ
Ɋɹɞɤɥɸɱɟɜɵɯɦɨɬɢɜɨɜɜ©ɑɟɪɬɨɜɤɟªȽɨɥɶɞɨɧɢɫɜɹɡɚɧɫɨɛɪɚɡɨɦɉɨɩɩɨɧɟ
ȼɟɝɨɥɢɰɟɦɵɢɦɟɟɦɫɜɨɟɨɛɪɚɡɧɭɸ©ɰɢɬɚɬɭªɩɪɹɦɨɟɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɧɢɟɧɚɡɧɚɦɟɧɢ
ɬɭɸɤɨɦɟɞɢɸɉɥɚɜɬɚ©Ʉɭɛɵɲɤɚªɤɨɬɨɪɭɸɫɱɢɬɚɸɬɨɞɧɢɦɢɡɪɚɧɧɢɯɨɛɪɚɡɰɨɜ
©ɤɨɦɟɞɢɢɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɚªɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɟɩɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɢɹɜɞɨɜɨɥɶɧɨɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɧɨɣ
ɥɸɛɨɜɧɨɣɢɧɬɪɢɝɟɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɸɬɡɞɟɫɶɧɟɢɡɡɚɨɛɵɱɧɨɝɨɧɟɠɟɥɚɧɢɹɫɬɚɪɢɤɚɨɬɰɚ
ɜɵɞɚɬɶɡɚɦɭɠɞɨɱɶɚɢɡɡɚɟɝɨɤɪɚɣɧɟɣɩɨɞɨɡɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɢɟɞɜɚɥɢɧɟɩɨɦɟ
ɲɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚɧɚɩɨɱɜɟɫɥɭɱɚɣɧɨɧɚɣɞɟɧɧɨɝɨɤɥɚɞɚɉɨɩɩɨɧɟɜɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨȽɨɥɶɞɨ
ɧɢɤɥɚɞɟɳɟɧɟɧɚɲɟɥɨɧɥɢɲɶɝɪɟɡɢɬɨɧɟɦɧɨɢɦɟɧɧɨɷɬɚɞɟɬɚɥɶɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɚ
ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬɡɚɦɤɧɭɬɶɧɚɧɟɦɜɫɟɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ©Ʉɭɛɵɲɤɚªɉɥɚɜɬɚɨɤɚɡɚɥɚɫɢɥɶɧɨɟ
ɜɥɢɹɧɢɟɧɚɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɭɸɤɨɦɟɞɢɨɝɪɚɮɢɸɜɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɧɚɬɭɟɟɥɢɧɢɸɱɬɨ
ɜɟɞɟɬɤ©ɜɵɫɨɤɢɦªɤɥɚɫɫɢɰɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɤɨɦɟɞɢɹɦɆɨɥɶɟɪɚ>@
ɉɨɷɬɢɤɚɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɨɣɤɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɨɩɟɪɵ;9,,,ɜɟɤɚ 
ȽɨɥɶɞɨɧɢɫɩɢɟɬɟɬɨɦɨɬɧɨɫɢɜɲɢɣɫɹɤɆɨɥɶɟɪɭɜɨɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɥɫɹɨɩɵɬɨɦ
ɨɛɨɢɯɩɪɟɞɲɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɢɤɨɜ©ɑɟɪɬɨɜɤɚªɞɚɟɬɩɨɜɨɞɡɚɜɟɫɬɢɪɟɱɶɨɥɢɧɢɢ©ɤɨɦɟ
ɞɢɢɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɨɜªɜɛɭɮɮɨɧɧɨɣɨɩɟɪɟȽɨɫɩɨɞɫɬɜɭɸɳɚɹɬɨɱɤɚɡɪɟɧɢɹɨɞɧɚɤɨɞɨ
ɫɢɯɩɨɪɬɚɤɨɜɚɱɬɨɨɛ©ɨɩɟɪɟɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɨɜªɧɚɱɢɧɚɸɬɝɨɜɨɪɢɬɶɥɢɲɶɜɫɜɹɡɢɫ
ɦɨɰɚɪɬɨɜɫɤɨɣ©ɋɜɚɞɶɛɨɣɎɢɝɚɪɨªɫɨɡɞɚɧɧɨɣɩɨɡɞɧɟɟɜɟɝɨɞɵɗɬɨɧɟ
ɜɩɨɥɧɟɜɟɪɧɨɢɯɪɨɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɢɩɨɫɭɬɢȼɥɢɹɧɢɟɆɨɥɶɟɪɚɧɚɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɭɸ
ɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɭɸɤɨɦɟɞɢɸɡɚɦɟɬɧɨɫɧɚɱɚɥɚ;9,,,ɜɟɤɚɍɠɟɜɫɟɜɟɪɨɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɢɯ
ɢɧɬɟɪɦɟɰɰɨɯɝɝɱɚɫɬɨɜɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɥɢɫɶ²ɪɚɡɭɦɟɟɬɫɹɫɜɵɧɭɠɞɟɧ
ɧɵɦɢɦɨɞɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɹɦɢ²ɟɝɨɝɟɪɨɢɫɢɯɹɪɤɨɨɱɟɪɱɟɧɧɵɦɢɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ
ɱɟɪɬɚɦɢ²ɬɨɬɠɟɋɤɭɩɨɣ Ƚɚɪɩɚɝɨɧ ɆɧɢɦɵɣɛɨɥɶɧɨɣȽɨɫɩɨɞɢɧɞɟɉɭɪɫɨɧɶɹɤ
ɢɥɢȾɜɨɪɹɧɢɧɪɟɦɟɫɥɟɧɧɢɤȼɚɧɟɡɢɨ ɝɨɫɩɨɞɢɧɀɭɪɞɟɧ ɇɟɚɩɨɥɢɬɚɧɟɰȾɠȺ
Ɏɟɞɟɪɢɤɨ²ɚɜɬɨɪɬɟɤɫɬɚɛɟɫɫɦɟɪɬɧɨɣ©ɋɥɭɠɚɧɤɢɝɨɫɩɨɠɢªɢɦɧɨɝɢɯɩɨɥɧɨ
ɮɨɪɦɚɬɧɵɯɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨɫɨɡɞɚɧɧɵɯɜɟɝɝɞɥɹɨɩɟɪɉɟɪɝɨɥɟɡɢɢɞɪɭɝɢɯ
ɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɨɜɸɠɚɧ²ɜɫɟɝɞɚɬɳɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɜɵɜɟɪɹɥɦɨɬɢɜɵɩɨɫɬɭɩɤɨɜɭɫɜɨɢɯ
ɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɟɣɧɚɞɟɥɹɥɢɯɠɢɜɵɦɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟɦɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟɦɷɦɨɰɢɣɢɞɹɜɷɬɨɦ
ɩɨɩɭɬɢɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɨɝɨɤɥɚɫɫɢɤɚɂɡɜɟɫɬɧɨɱɬɨɢȽɨɥɶɞɨɧɢɫɫɟɪɟɞɢɧɵɯɝɝ
ɧɚɱɚɥɩɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɨɜɵɬɟɫɧɹɬɶɜɤɨɦɟɞɢɹɯɢɦɩɪɨɜɢɡɚɰɢɸɡɚɩɢɫɚɧɧɵɦɬɟɤɫɬɨɦɦɚ
ɫɤɭ²ɦɢɦɢɤɨɣɠɢɜɨɝɨɥɢɰɚɫɢɬɭɚɬɢɜɧɵɣɤɨɦɢɡɦ²ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɦɢɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɟɣ
ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɧɵɦɢɧɚɢɯɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚɯɷɦɨɰɢɹɯɢɥɢɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɹɯɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɚɬɟɩɨɫɥɟ
ɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɞɜɢɝɚɥɫɹɤɤɨɦɟɞɢɢɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɨɜɈɧɫɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɨɦɷɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɥ
ɜɷɬɨɦɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɢɭɠɟɜɪɚɧɧɢɯɤɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨ ©Ƚɪɚɮɢɧɸɲɤɚª 
ɢɜɩɟɪɜɵɯɡɪɟɥɵɯɨɩɟɪɚɯEXৼD ©ȺɪɤɚɞɢɹɧɚȻɪɟɧɬɟªɢ©ɇɟɪɚɞɢɜɵɣª²ɨɛɟ
 ȼɩɪɨɱɟɦɤɪɚɣɧɟɪɟɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɧɵɣ©ɇɟɪɚɞɢɜɵɣªɢɦɟɥɭɩɭɛɥɢɤɢɞɨɜɨɥɶ
ɧɨɯɨɥɨɞɧɵɣɩɪɢɟɦɢȽɨɥɶɞɨɧɢɛɵɫɬɪɨɩɨɧɹɥɱɬɨɫɰɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ©ɪɟɚɥɢɡɦªɧɟ
ɜɩɨɥɧɟɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɟɬɩɪɢɪɨɞɟɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɟɤɨɦɟɞɢɢɢɞɚɥɟɤɨɧɟɢɫɱɟɪɩɵɜɚɟɬ
ɟɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢɉɨɷɬɨɦɭɨɧɨɬɤɚɡɚɥɫɹɨɬɪɟɮɨɪɦɚɬɨɪɫɤɢɯɚɦɛɢɰɢɣɧɨɜɫɟɠɟ
©ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹªɥɢɧɢɹɩɪɨɱɟɪɱɟɧɚɜɟɝɨɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɢɫɬɢɤɟɞɨɜɨɥɶɧɨɨɬɱɟɬ
ɥɢɜɨɊɚɡɭɦɟɟɬɫɹɜɨɛɪɚɡɟɉɨɩɩɨɧɟɢɡ©ɑɟɪɬɨɜɤɢªɨɧɚɫɨɫɟɞɫɬɜɭɟɬɫɛɨɥɟɟɬɪɚ
ɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɦɢɦɨɬɢɜɚɦɢɋɚɦɵɦɜɟɫɨɦɵɦɟɟɩɪɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɟɦɭȽɨɥɶɞɨɧɢɫɬɨɢɬɫɱɢ
ɬɚɬɶ©Ⱦɟɪɟɜɟɧɫɤɨɝɨɮɢɥɨɫɨɮɚªɝɞɟɡɚɠɢɬɨɱɧɵɣɤɪɟɫɬɶɹɧɢɧɇɚɪɞɨɢɦɟɹɜɵɛɨɪ
ɦɟɠɞɭɫɨɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɣɧɟɜɟɫɬɨɣɝɨɪɨɠɚɧɤɨɣɢɡɞɨɜɨɥɶɧɨɪɟɫɩɟɤɬɚɛɟɥɶɧɵɯɤɪɭ
ɝɨɜɢɟɟɦɢɥɨɜɢɞɧɨɣɢɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɣɫɥɭɠɚɧɤɨɣɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɢɬɚɟɬɜɬɨɪɭɸɤɚɤɪɨɜɧɸ
ɫɟɛɟɂɷɬɨɬɜɵɛɨɪɩɪɟɞɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɬɧɟɤɨɧɜɟɧɰɢɢɫɬɚɬɭɫɢɥɢɤɚɤɢɟɥɢɛɨɫɰɟ
ɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɢɥɢɫɨɛɵɬɢɹɧɨɧɟɨɠɢɞɚɧɧɚɹɫɤɥɨɧɧɨɫɬɶɝɥɚɜɧɨɝɨɝɟɪɨɹ
ɜɫɟɜɡɜɟɲɢɜɚɬɶɢɨɛɞɭɦɵɜɚɬɶɟɝɨɧɟɬɢɩɢɱɧɨɟɞɥɹɤɪɟɫɬɶɹɧɢɧɚɢɩɨɬɨɦɭɢɧɞɢ
ɜɢɞɭɚɥɶɧɨɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɨɟɩɪɢɫɬɪɚɫɬɢɟɤɮɢɥɨɫɨɮɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɸ
Ⱦɜɢɠɟɧɢɟɤ©ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɨɫɬɢªɦɨɠɧɨɫɱɢɬɚɬɶɜɬɨɪɵɦɨɫɧɨɜɨɩɨɥɚɝɚɸɳɢɦ
ɢɫɬɨɤɨɦɫɸɠɟɬɧɵɯɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɣɜɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɨɣɛɭɮɮɨɧɧɨɣɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɢɫɬɢɤɟɉɨ
ɦɢɦɨɷɬɨɝɨɜ©ɑɟɪɬɨɜɤɟªɩɪɨɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɨɩɨɪɚɧɚɞɪɭɝɢɟɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɢɄɩɪɢ
ɦɟɪɭɬɚɱɬɨɫɜɹɡɚɧɚɫɨɫɥɭɠɚɧɤɨɣɉɨɩɩɨɧɟɜɫɬɚɜɲɟɣɧɚɡɚɳɢɬɭɫɜɨɟɝɨɯɨɡɹ
ɢɧɚɉɨɩɩɨɧɟɨɛɟɳɚɥɧɚɧɟɣɠɟɧɢɬɶɫɹɤɚɤɬɨɥɶɤɨɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɢɬɫɹɤɥɚɞɩɨɬɨɦɜ
 ɉȼɅɭɰɤɟɪ

ɢɯɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹɜɤɪɚɞɵɜɚɟɬɫɹɪɟɜɧɨɫɬɶɧɨɫɥɭɠɚɧɤɚɫɦɟɥɨɜɫɬɭɩɚɟɬɫɹɡɚɉɨɩɩɨ
ɧɟɢɜɮɢɧɚɥɟɚɧɨɧɫɢɪɭɸɬɫɹɢɯɫɜɚɞɶɛɚɇɚɥɢɰɨɡɧɚɤɨɦɵɣɩɨɦɧɨɝɢɦɤɨɦɢɱɟ
ɫɤɢɦɢɧɬɟɪɦɟɰɰɨɦɨɬɢɜ©ɫɥɭɠɚɧɤɢɝɨɫɩɨɠɢªɋɚɦɦɨɬɢɜɤɚɤɢɡɚɤɥɸɱɟɧɧɨɟɜ
ɧɟɦɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ²ɫɬɪɟɦɥɟɧɢɟɤɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɦɭɜɨɡɜɵɲɟɧɢɸɫɦɟɧɟɫɬɚɬɭɫɚ²
ɬɨɠɟɢɦɟɟɬɞɨɜɨɥɶɧɨɞɚɜɧɸɸɢɫɬɨɪɢɸȿɝɨɦɨɠɧɨɜɫɬɪɟɬɢɬɶɜɢɫɩɚɧɫɤɨɣɤɨɦɟ
ɞɢɢ©ɡɨɥɨɬɨɝɨɜɟɤɚª ;9,±;9,,ɫɬɨɥɟɬɢɣ ɨɧɟɦɝɪɟɡɢɬɆɚɥɶɜɨɥɢɨɜɲɟɤɫɩɢ
ɪɨɜɫɤɨɣ©Ⱦɜɟɧɚɞɰɚɬɨɣɧɨɱɢªɢɢɡɡɚɧɟɝɨɩɨɩɚɞɚɟɬɜɩɪɨɫɚɤɝɨɫɩɨɞɢɧɀɭɪɞɟɧ
ɜɦɨɥɶɟɪɨɜɫɤɨɦ©Ɇɟɳɚɧɢɧɟɜɨɞɜɨɪɹɧɫɬɜɟªȼɦɢɪɟɨɩɟɪɵɟɞɜɚɥɢɧɟɜɩɟɪɜɵɟ
ɨɧɡɜɭɱɢɬɜɪɟɱɚɯȺɪɧɚɥɶɬɵɫɥɭɠɚɧɤɢɉɨɩɩɟɢɢɡɨɩɟɪɵɄɆɨɧɬɟɜɟɪɞɢ  
ȼɤɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɢɧɬɟɪɦɟɰɰɨɨɧɰɟɥɢɤɨɦɪɚɫɬɜɨɪɹɟɬɫɹɜɬɪɟɬɶɟɫɨɫɥɨɜɧɨɣɫɪɟɞɟ
ɢɲɢɪɨɤɨɬɢɪɚɠɢɪɭɟɬɫɹɜɩɨɥɧɨɮɨɪɦɚɬɧɵɯɠɟɛɭɮɮɨɧɧɵɯɨɩɟɪɚɯɧɚɩɪɨɬɢɜ
ɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɟɬɫɹɫɪɚɜɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɪɟɞɤɨȼɩɨɩɭɥɹɪɧɨɣ©ɑɟɤɤɢɧɟɢɥɢȾɨɛɪɨɣɞɨɱɤɟª
ɇɉɢɱɱɢɧɧɢɧɚɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨȽɨɥɶɞɨɧɢ  ɷɬɨɬɦɨɬɢɜɜɫɭɞɶɛɟɝɥɚɜɧɨɣɝɟɪɨɢ
ɧɢɬɪɚɤɬɭɟɬɫɹɜɞɭɯɟ©ɫɥɟɡɧɨɣɤɨɦɟɞɢɢªɟɳɟɨɞɧɨɝɨɬɟɩɟɪɶɭɠɟɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɨ
ɧɨɜɨɦɨɞɧɨɝɨɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɨɤɚɡɚɜɲɟɝɨɜɥɢɹɧɢɟɧɚȽɨɥɶɞɨɧɢɚɱɟɪɟɡɧɟɝɨɢɧɚ
ɫɟɧɬɢɦɟɧɬɚɥɢɫɬɫɤɭɸɪɚɡɧɨɜɢɞɧɨɫɬɶɨɩɟɪɵEXৼD
ȼ©ɑɟɪɬɨɜɤɟªɢɦɟɟɬɫɹɟɳɟɨɞɧɚɫɰɟɧɚɫɜɨɢɦɢɤɨɪɧɹɦɢɭɯɨɞɹɳɚɹɜɞɚ
ɥɟɤɨɟɩɪɨɲɥɨɟɊɟɱɶɨɩɨɢɫɤɟɤɥɚɞɚɫɩɨɦɨɳɶɸɦɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɩɨɫɪɟɞɧɢɤɨɜɢɡ
ɩɪɟɢɫɩɨɞɧɟɣɋɚɦɵɦɩɟɪɜɵɦɮɚɧɬɚɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɷɩɢɡɨɞɨɦɡɚɤɥɢɧɚɧɢɹɞɭɯɨɜɜ
ɨɩɟɪɟɛɵɥɚɡɧɚɦɟɧɢɬɚɹɫɰɟɧɚɆɟɞɟɢɢɡ©əɫɨɧɚªɎɄɚɜɚɥɥɢ  ɩɨɫɥɟɤɨ
ɬɨɪɨɣɩɨɞɨɛɧɵɟɷɩɢɡɨɞɵɫɬɚɥɢɩɥɨɞɢɬɶɫɹɜɨɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɨɤ²ɤɚɤ
©ɫɟɪɶɟɡɧɵɯªɬɚɤɢɤɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɨɩɟɪɌɚɤɜ©ɉɨɞɟɫɬɚɢɡɦɟɫɬɟɱɤɚɄɨɥɨɧɶɨɥɟª
ɨɩɟɪɟɜɨɡɧɢɤɲɟɣɥɢɲɶɱɟɪɟɡɥɟɬɩɨɫɥɟ©əɫɨɧɚªɢɦɟɟɬɫɹɩɨɯɨɠɚɹɫɰɟɧɚ
ɪɟɲɟɧɧɚɹɜɩɚɪɨɞɢɣɧɨɦɤɥɸɱɟ©ɋɰɟɧɵɡɚɤɥɢɧɚɧɢɣªɛɥɚɝɨɩɨɥɭɱɧɨɩɟɪɟɤɨ
ɱɟɜɚɥɢɢɜ;9,,,ɫɬɨɥɟɬɢɟɪɚɜɧɨɤɚɤɢɩɚɪɨɞɢɢ²ɢɧɚɛɪɨɫɤɢɟɫɰɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ
ɷɮɮɟɤɬɵɢɜɰɟɥɨɦɧɚɩɚɬɟɬɢɤɭɢɮɚɧɬɚɫɬɢɤɭ©ɫɟɪɶɟɡɧɨɣɨɩɟɪɵªɌɚɤɢɟɩɚ
ɪɨɞɢɢɫɨɡɞɚɜɚɥɢɫɶɫɬɨɥɶɱɚɫɬɨɱɬɨɢɯɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɸɬɜɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣ
ɠɚɧɪɨɜɨɣɪɚɡɧɨɜɢɞɧɨɫɬɶɸɤɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɨɩɟɪɵ>@Ɍɚɤɱɬɨɢɡɞɟɫɶɜɥɢɛɪɟɬ
ɬɨȽɨɥɶɞɨɧɢɩɟɪɟɞɧɚɦɢ²ɮɪɚɝɦɟɧɬɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɢɣɜɩɨɥɧɟɫɚɦɨɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶ
ɧɭɸɢɞɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɭɸɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɸ
ɂɬɚɤɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪɟ©ɑɟɪɬɨɜɤɢªɯɨɪɨɲɨɜɢɞɧɨɫɤɨɥɶɦɧɨɝɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɯ
ɤɨɪɧɟɣɩɟɪɟɩɥɟɥɨɫɶɜɧɟɣɢɨɤɚɡɚɥɨɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɧɚɟɟɫɸɠɟɬɉɪɢɷɬɨɦɨɧɚ
ɞɚɥɟɤɨɧɟɢɫɱɟɪɩɵɜɚɟɬɜɫɟɝɨɬɨɝɨɦɧɨɝɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹɱɬɨɜɰɟɥɨɦɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɨ
ɜɨɩɟɪɧɨɣɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɢɫɬɢɤɟɄɩɪɢɦɟɪɭɡɞɟɫɶɜɨɜɫɟɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɭɟɬɩɚɫɬɨɪɚɥɶɧɚɹ
ɤɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɥɢɧɢɹɫɟɟɨɫɨɛɵɦɢɦɨɬɢɜɚɦɢɢɬɨɩɨɫɚɦɢȼɞɪɭɝɢɯɨɩɟɪɚɯɨɞ
ɧɚɤɨɞɨɜɨɥɶɧɨɱɚɫɬɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɧɚɮɨɧɟɢɞɢɥɥɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɫɟɥɶɫɤɨ
ɝɨɢɥɢɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɝɨɨɤɪɭɠɟɧɢɹɢɪɚɡɧɨɝɨɪɨɞɚɫɟɥɹɧɟɢɤɪɟɫɬɶɹɧɟɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɸɬ
ɜɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɟɣɈɩɟɪɚ©ɉɨɞɟɫɬɚɢɡɦɟɫɬɟɱɤɚɄɨɥɨɧɶɨɥɟª ɜɧɨɜɶɭɩɨ
ɦɹɧɟɦɟɟ ɧɨɫɢɥɚɤɨɥɨɪɢɬɧɨɟɠɚɧɪɨɜɨɟɨɛɨɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟFRPPHGLDFLYLOHUXVWLFDOH
ɬɟɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɚɹɢɫɟɥɶɫɤɚɹɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɩɨɞɱɟɪɤɢɜɚɹɷɬɨɬɦɨɦɟɧɬɉɨɡɞɧɟɟɢɜ
ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɜɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨȽɨɥɶɞɨɧɢɫɟɥɶɫɤɢɣɤɨɥɨɪɢɬɢɫɟɥɶɫɤɢɟɧɪɚɜɵɫɬɚ
ɉɨɷɬɢɤɚɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɨɣɤɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɨɩɟɪɵ;9,,,ɜɟɤɚ 
ɧɭɬɱɚɫɬɵɦɚɧɬɭɪɚɠɟɦȼɞɟɪɟɜɧɟɭɦɨɪɹɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɟɝɨ©Ɋɵɛɚɱɟɤª
ɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɚɜɫɦɭɡɎȻɟɪɬɨɧɢ ɧɚɨɬɞɚɥɟɧɧɨɦɯɭɬɨɪɟ²©ɋɟɥɶɫɤɨɝɨ
ɮɢɥɨɫɨɮɚªɧɚɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɣɹɪɦɚɪɤɟ²©ɊɵɧɤɚɜɆɚɥɶɦɚɧɬɢɥɟª ɦɭɡȾ
Ɏɢɫɤɟɬɬɢ ɂɞɚɠɟɜɡɧɚɦɟɧɢɬɨɣ©ɑɟɤɤɢɧɟɢɥɢȾɨɛɪɨɣɞɨɱɤɟªɫɨɛɵɬɢɹɪɚɡ
ɜɨɪɚɱɢɜɚɸɬɫɹɜɞɚɥɟɤɨɦɩɨɦɟɫɬɶɟɜɨɤɪɭɠɟɧɢɢɫɟɥɄɨɧɟɱɧɨɩɚɫɬɨɪɚɥɶɧɟɥɶ
ɡɹɨɞɧɨɡɧɚɱɧɨɨɬɧɟɫɬɢɤɫɮɟɪɟɤɨɦɟɞɢɢɟɟɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟɫɤɨɪɟɟɫɟɪɟɞɢɧɧɨɟ
ɢɜɥɢɹɧɢɟɨɧɚɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɥɚɧɟɬɨɥɶɤɨɧɚɤɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɭɸɧɨɢɧɚɫɟɪɶɟɡɧɭɸɨɩɟɪɭ
ɫɦɤɩɪɢɦɟɪɭɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨɨɩɟɪ©Ʉɨɪɨɥɶɩɚɫɬɭɯªɢɥɢ©ɈɥɢɦɩɢɚɞɵªɆɟɬɚɫɬɚ
ɡɢɨ ɇɨɜɛɭɮɮɨɧɧɨɣɨɩɟɪɟɜɧɟɩɪɢɤɨɫɧɨɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɫɨɯɪɚɧɢɬɫɹɨɞɧɨɢɡɨɫɧɨ
ɜɨɩɨɥɚɝɚɸɳɢɯɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɩɚɫɬɨɪɚɥɢɫɟɥɶɫɤɢɣɛɵɬɢɫɟɥɶɫɤɢɟɝɟɪɨɢɞɚɠɟɨɬɞɚ
ɥɹɹɫɶɨɬɛɥɚɝɨɫɥɨɜɟɧɧɵɯɩɨɥɭɦɢɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɚɪɤɚɞɫɤɢɯɩɚɫɬɭɯɨɜɢɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɬɚɹ
ɜɩɨɥɧɟɠɢɜɵɟɱɟɪɬɵɨɛɵɱɧɵɯɤɪɟɫɬɶɹɧ;9,,,ɫɬɨɥɟɬɢɹɫɨɯɪɚɧɹɸɬɧɟɤɨɬɨ
ɪɵɣɨɬɬɟɧɨɤɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɣɫɜɨɛɨɞɵɢɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ
ɋɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɨɨɪɢɝɢɧɚɥɟɧɟɳɟɨɞɢɧɨɫɨɛɵɣɫɸɠɟɬɧɵɣɢɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɰɢɨɧ
ɧɵɣɩɥɚɫɬɢɦɟɸɳɢɣɹɜɧɨɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɧɵɣɤɚɪɧɚɜɚɥɶɧɵɣɝɟɧɟɡɢɫɊɹɞɤɨɦɢɱɟ
ɫɤɢɯɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨȽɨɥɶɞɨɧɢ ±ɝɝ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɢɯɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɭɸɝɪɭɩɩɭ
ɨɬɥɢɱɚɟɬɧɚɥɢɱɢɟɜɫɸɠɟɬɟɤɚɪɧɚɜɚɥɶɧɨɣɚɥɥɟɝɨɪɢɢɈɛɵɱɧɨɫɬɨɥɶɫɜɨɣ
ɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣȽɨɥɶɞɨɧɢɪɟɚɥɢɡɦɢɥɢɝɨɜɨɪɹɨɫɬɨɪɨɠɧɟɟɧɚɬɭɪɨɩɨɞɨɛɢɟɜɢɡɨ
ɛɪɚɠɟɧɢɢɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɟɣɡɞɟɫɶɭɫɬɭɩɚɟɬɦɟɫɬɨɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɦɨɥɢɰɟɬɜɨɪɟɧɢɹɦȼ
ɫɸɠɟɬɚɯɜɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦɪɚɡɪɚɛɚɬɵɜɚɸɬɫɹɦɨɬɢɜɵɧɪɚɜɨɭɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɩɪɢɬɱɢɥɢ
ɧɚɪɨɞɧɵɯɩɨɫɥɨɜɢɰɱɚɫɬɨɝɪɨɬɟɫɤɧɨɩɟɪɟɜɟɪɧɭɬɵɟɱɬɨɜɵɞɚɟɬɢɯɤɚɪɧɚɜɚɥɶ
ɧɭɸɩɪɢɪɨɞɭɌɚɤɨɜɚɤɩɪɢɦɟɪɭɤɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɨɩɟɪɚ©ɋɬɪɚɧɚɄɭɤɤɚɧɢɹª 
ɦɭɡȽɚɥɭɩɩɢ Ⱦɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɜɧɟɣɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬɜɦɢɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɫɬɪɚɧɟɥɟɧɬɹɟɜɝɞɟ
ɬɟɤɭɬ©ɦɨɥɨɱɧɵɟɪɟɤɢɫɪɟɞɢɤɢɫɟɥɶɧɵɯɛɟɪɟɝɨɜªɚɜɫɟɦɨɛɢɬɚɬɟɥɹɦɫɬɪɨɝɨ
ɧɚɫɬɪɨɝɨɡɚɩɪɟɳɟɧɨɬɪɭɞɢɬɶɫɹȼɨɩɟɪɟ©Ⱥɪɯɢɮɚɧɮɚɧ²ɤɨɪɨɥɶɝɥɭɩɰɨɜªɫɨ
ɛɵɬɢɹɪɚɡɜɨɪɚɱɢɜɚɸɬɫɹɜɫɬɨɥɶɠɟɮɚɧɬɚɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɝɨɪɨɞɟɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɟɦ
ɫɤɨɩɢɳɟɪɚɡɧɵɯɦɨɪɚɥɶɧɵɯɩɨɪɨɤɨɜɄɨɪɧɢɷɬɨɝɨɪɟɞɤɨɝɨɞɥɹɧɨɜɨɟɜɪɨɩɟɣ
ɫɤɨɣɤɨɦɟɞɢɢɬɢɩɚɜɨɫɯɨɞɹɬɤɪɚɧɧɟɣɚɬɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɤɨɦɟɞɢɢɜɪɟɦɟɧȺɪɢɫɬɨɮɚ
ɧɚɗɬɚɫɜɹɡɶɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɡɚɦɟɬɧɚɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪɟɨɩɟɪɵ©Ɇɢɪɧɚɜɵɜɨɪɨɬɢɥɢɉɨɞ
ɜɥɚɫɬɶɸɠɟɧɳɢɧª ɦɭɡȽɚɥɭɩɩɢ ɝɞɟɢɡɨɛɪɚɠɟɧɨɫɬɪɨɜɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɨ
ɭɩɪɚɜɥɹɟɦɵɣɜɨɢɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɢɢɱɟɫɬɨɥɸɛɢɜɵɦɢɠɟɧɳɢɧɚɦɢɦɭɠɱɢɧɵɠɟ
ɧɚɯɨɞɹɬɫɹɭɧɢɯɜɭɫɥɭɠɟɧɢɢɋɸɠɟɬɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɧɵɣɧɚɮɚɧɬɚɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɫɢɬɭ
ɚɰɢɢɢɦɵɫɥɟɧɧɵɯɞɨɩɭɳɟɧɢɹɯɞɚɟɬɩɨɜɨɞɤɨɛɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɸɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɢ
ɷɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɢɞɟɣɢɜɟɫɶɦɚɛɥɢɡɤɨɫɦɵɤɚɟɬɫɹɫɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɚɦɢɚɪɢɫɬɨɮɚɧɨɜɫɤɨɣ
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ɧɚɜɚɥɢɡɨɜɚɧɧɵɯɤɨɦɟɞɢɣɜɫɟɠɟɞɨɜɨɥɶɧɨɭɡɨɤɫɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɭȽɨɥɶɞɨɧɢ
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ඈඉൾඋൺඍඋൺඇඌඅൺඍංඈඇ ඌ 
ൽඈർඎආൾඇඍංඇ඀ർඈඇൿඅංർඍඌඈൿ‫ލ‬ආඎඌංർൺඅർඎඅඍඎඋൾඌ‫ތ‬

Ⱥɧɧɨɬɚɰɢɹȼɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟɥɟɬɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɟɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɚɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨɜɧɚɭɤɟɨɛɨɩɟ
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ɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚɚɜɬɨɪɨɩɢɪɚɟɬɫɹɧɚɦɟɬɨɞɵɚɧɚɥɢɡɚɨɩɟɪɧɨɣɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɢɢɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɚɧ
ɧɵɟɜɥɟɧɢɝɪɚɞɫɤɨɣɩɟɬɟɪɛɭɪɝɫɤɨɣɚɧɚɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɲɤɨɥɟɝɥɚɜɧɵɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɦɜ
ɬɪɭɞɚɯȿȺɊɭɱɶɟɜɫɤɨɣȼɩɟɪɜɵɟɜɨɬɟɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɦɦɭɡɵɤɨɡɧɚɧɢɢɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɬɫɹ
ɤɥɚɫɫɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɹɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯɜɢɞɨɜɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚɜɡɚɪɭɛɟɠɧɨɣɢɪɭɫɫɤɨɣɤɥɚɫɫɢ
ɱɟɫɤɨɣɨɩɟɪɟ;,;ɜɟɤɚ²©ɢɧɬɟɪɶɟɪª ɡɚɤɪɵɬɨɟɤɚɦɟɪɧɨɟ ©ɩɥɨɳɚɞɶª ɨɬɤɪɵ
ɬɨɟɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨ ɢɢɯɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɵ ©ɤɟɥɶɹª©ɬɸɪɟɦɧɚɹɤɚɦɟɪɚª©ɤɚɸɬɚª©ɛɟɪɟɝ
ɪɟɤɢªɢɞɪɭɝɢɟ ɚɬɚɤɠɟɫɦɟɲɚɧɧɵɯɜɢɞɨɜ ©ɥɟɫª©ɫɚɞªɞɜɨɪɰɨɜɵɣɢɥɢɛɚɥɶ
ɧɵɣ©ɡɚɥª©ɦɨɪɟª ɜɵɞɟɥɹɸɬɫɹɨɫɨɛɵɟɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɩɪɢɟɦɵ ©ɨɛɟɡɥɸ
ɠɢɜɚɧɢɟª©ɜɬɨɪɠɟɧɢɟª©ɪɚɡɦɵɤɚɧɢɟª Ɉɬɞɟɥɶɧɨɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɸɬɫɹɨɩɩɨɡɢɰɢɢ
ɫɰɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ±ɡɚɫɰɟɧɧɨɟɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɟ±ɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɱɟɫɤɨɟɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨ ɢɩɪɢɟɦɵ
ɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɤɚɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɪɟɲɟɧɢɹɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚɜɤɚɦɟɪ
ɧɨɣɨɩɟɪɟ ɜɬɨɦɱɢɫɥɟɜɦɨɧɨɨɩɟɪɟ ɉɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨɩɨɧɢɦɚɟɬɫɹɤɚɤɜɚɠɧɟɣɲɢɣ
ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɣɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɢɢɨɩɟɪɵɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɣɫɫɸɠɟɬɧɵɦɢɩɫɢɯɨ
ɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɜɪɟɦɟɧɟɦɜɥɢɹɸɳɢɣɧɚɜɧɟɲɧɟɟɢɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɟɟɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɬɟɦɩɫɨ
ɛɵɬɢɣɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɭɸɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɰɢɸɢɮɨɪɦɭɬɢɩɜɵɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɧɢɹɢɞɚɠɟɬɢɩɜɨ
ɤɚɥɶɧɨɣɪɟɱɢɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɟɣ
Ʉɥɸɱɟɜɵɟɫɥɨɜɚɨɩɟɪɚɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨɩɥɨɳɚɞɶɢɧɬɟɪɶɟɪɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɚɹɫɰɟ
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ɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɹɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚɜɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹɯɨɛɨɩɟɪɟɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ
ɨɛɵɱɧɨɜɚɫɩɟɤɬɟɫɰɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚɢɥɨɤɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢɦɟɫɬɚ
ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɜɫɸɠɟɬɟɈɞɧɚɤɨɞɨɫɢɯɩɨɪɜɬɟɧɢɨɫɬɚɟɬɫɹɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɬɨɦ
ɤɚɤɭɸɪɨɥɶɢɝɪɚɟɬɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨɜɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɣɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɢɢɨɩɟɪɵɤɚɤɨɜɵ
©ɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɵªɟɝɨɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɫɜɧɟɲɧɢɦɢɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɦɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɦɫɸ
ɠɟɬɧɵɦɢɩɫɢɯɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɜɪɟɦɟɧɟɦɤɚɤɜɥɢɹɟɬɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨɧɚɬɟɦɩɫɨ
ɛɵɬɢɣɧɚɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɭɸɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɰɢɸɢɮɨɪɦɭɚɬɚɤɠɟɧɚɬɢɩɜɵɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɧɢɹ
ɢɜɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɣɪɟɱɢɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɟɣɋɢɦɩɬɨɦɚɬɢɱɧɨɱɬɨɜɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɰɢɹɯɨɛɨɛɳɚ
ɸɳɟɝɨɬɢɩɚɜɬɨɦɱɢɫɥɟɜɨɩɟɪɧɵɯɫɥɨɜɚɪɹɯɢɷɧɰɢɤɥɨɩɟɞɢɹɯɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨ
ɜɨɩɟɪɟɜɨɛɨɡɧɚɱɟɧɧɨɦɜɵɲɟɪɚɤɭɪɫɟɧɟɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɭɸɬɢɨɬ
ɞɟɥɶɧɵɟɫɥɨɜɚɪɧɵɟɫɬɚɬɶɢɥɢɛɨɩɚɪɚɝɪɚɮɵɟɦɭɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɧɵɟȼɦɭɡɵɤɨɡɧɚ
ɧɢɢɧɟɬɤɥɚɫɫɢɮɢɤɚɰɢɢɬɢɩɨɜɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚɜɟɝɨɫɜɹɡɢɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɣɞɪɚɦɚ
ɬɭɪɝɢɟɣɩɨɞɨɛɧɨɣɬɨɣɱɬɨɛɵɥɚɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɟɧɚɌȼɇɢɥɨɜɨɣɩɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɸɤ
ɫɰɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ ɮɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢ²ɫɸɠɟɬɧɵɦ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɹɦɜɪɭɫɫɤɨɣɤɥɚɫɫɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɨɩɟɪɟ>±@ɚɉȼɅɭɰɤɟɪɨɦɢɂɉɋɭɫɢɞɤɨ²ɤɫɸɠɟɬɧɨɦɭɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɸ
ɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨɆɟɬɚɫɬɚɡɢɨ>±@ȼɬɨɠɟɜɪɟɦɹɜɫɜɹɡɢɫɚɧɚɥɢɡɨɦɞɪɚɦɚ
ɬɭɪɝɢɢɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯɨɩɟɪɧɚɤɨɩɥɟɧɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɨɛɴɟɦɱɚɫɬɧɵɯɧɚɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɣ
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɬɪɟɛɭɸɬɨɛɨɛɳɟɧɢɹɢɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɢ
ȼɦɨɧɨɝɪɚɮɢɢ©ɈɩɟɪɧɚɹɦɭɡɵɤɚɢɫɰɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɟɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟªȿɜɝɟɧɢɣȺɤɭ
ɥɨɜɨɬɦɟɱɚɥ©ɇɚɫɬɨɹɳɢɣɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɧɢɤɨɝɞɚɧɟɫɨɡɞɚɟɬɦɭɡɵ
ɤɢ³ɜɨɨɛɳɟ´ɦɭɡɵɤɢɨɬɨɪɜɚɧɧɨɣɨɬɫɰɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɢɨɬɟɝɨɨɛɫɬɨ
ɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɈɧɜɫɟɝɞɚɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɦɜɡɨɪɨɦɤɚɤɛɵ³ɜɢɞɢɬ´ɫɰɟɧɭª>@Ʉɚɤ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨɜɨɩɟɪɟɫɥɭɠɢɬɬɟɦɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨɦɤɨɬɨɪɨɟ
ɢɝɪɚɟɬɜɚɠɧɭɸɚɜɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɫɥɭɱɚɹɯɢɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɳɭɸɪɨɥɶɜɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɢɢ
ɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯɫɰɟɧɤɚɪɬɢɧɢɬɞɇɚɨɫɨɛɭɸɟɝɨɪɨɥɶɜɫɜɹɡɢɫɞɟɤɨɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɣɪɨ
ɥɶɸɦɭɡɵɤɢɜɨɩɟɪɧɨɦɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɟɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɥɚȿȺɊɭɱɶɟɜɫɤɚɹ©ɉɨɞ³ɞɟɤɨɪɚ
ɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɶɸ´ɢɦɟɟɬɫɹɜɜɢɞɭɜɟɫɶɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɩɟɣɡɚɠɢɧ
ɬɟɪɶɟɪɗɬɚɫɬɨɪɨɧɚɧɟɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɱɢɫɬɨɜɧɟɲɧɢɦɚɬɪɢɛɭɬɨɦɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɹɚɢɝɪɚɟɬ
ɜɧɟɦɨɝɪɨɦɧɭɸɜɵɪɚɡɢɬɟɥɶɧɭɸɪɨɥɶª>ɫɧɨɫɤɚ@ȼɦɨɧɨɝɪɚɮɢɢɨ©ɏɨ
ɜɚɧɳɢɧɟªɆɭɫɨɪɝɫɤɨɝɨɊɭɱɶɟɜɫɤɚɹɝɨɜɨɪɹɨɛɢɡɨɛɪɚɡɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣɫɮɟɪɟ©ɜɫɟɝ
ɞɚɧɟɨɬɞɟɥɢɦɨɣɨɬɫɭɬɢɨɬɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɟɝɨɩɥɚɧɚɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹªɩɨɞɱɟɪɤɧɭɥɚɪɨɥɶ

ɋɦɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪɚɧɚɥɢɡɨɛɪɚɡɧɨɫɦɵɫɥɨɜɵɯɮɭɧɤɰɢɣɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɝɨɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚɜɨɩɟɪɟȽɥɢɧɤɢ
©ɀɢɡɧɶɡɚɰɚɪɹªɜɫɬɚɬɶɟɆɚɪɢɧɵɋɢɞɨɪɨɜɨɣ>@Ɋɟɤɚɩɨɥɟɥɟɫɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɸɬɫɹɚɜɬɨɪɨɦɢ
ɤɚɤɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɵɫɟɦɚɧɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚɫɸɠɟɬɚ>@

ɋɨɲɥɟɦɫɹɞɥɹɩɪɢɦɟɪɚɧɚɫɚɦɭɸɚɜɬɨɪɢɬɟɬɧɭɸɧɚɫɟɝɨɞɧɹɲɧɢɣɞɟɧɶɷɧɰɢɤɥɨɩɟɞɢɸ7KH1HZ
*URYH'LFWLRQDU\RI2SHUD>@ɦɨɧɨɝɪɚɮɢɢɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɯɥɟɬ>@
ɉɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨɜɨɩɟɪɟɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɚɫɩɟɤɬ 
ɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɹɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢɜɚɜɬɨɪɫɤɢɯɪɟɦɚɪɤɚɯ©Ɂɞɟɫɶɧɟɬɫɥɭɱɚɣɧɨɫɬɟɣɧɟɬɱɢ
ɫɬɨɞɟɤɨɪɚɬɢɜɧɵɯ³ɡɚɞɭɦɨɤ´Ɇɟɫɬɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɫɨɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɫɹɫɨɫɰɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ
ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɦɢɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɫɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɣɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɢɟɣª>@
ɉɪɟɠɞɟɜɫɟɝɨɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɪɚɡɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɬɶɩɨɧɹɬɢɹɫɰɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧ
ɫɬɜɚɫɸɠɟɬɧɨɝɨɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚɢɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɦɨɟɩɨɧɹɬɢɟ©ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨɜɨɩɟ
ɪɟªɋɰɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɟɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨɜɨɩɟɪɟɞɚɠɟɩɪɢɧɚɥɢɱɢɢɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɨɬɨɱ
ɧɵɯɚɜɬɨɪɫɤɢɯɭɤɚɡɚɧɢɣɜɫɟɝɞɚɜɚɪɢɚɬɢɜɧɨɪɟɚɥɢɡɭɟɬɫɹɫɬɨɣɢɥɢɢɧɨɣɞɨɥɟɣ
ɭɫɥɨɜɧɨɫɬɢɚɜɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɦɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɦɬɟɚɬɪɟɡɚɱɚɫɬɭɸɜɨɩɪɟɤɢɚɜɬɨɪɫɤɨ
ɦɭɡɚɦɵɫɥɭɋɸɠɟɬɧɨɟɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨ²ɦɟɫɬɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɢɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚɜɪɚɡ
ɧɨɣɫɬɟɩɟɧɢɞɟɬɚɥɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɟɨɛɨɡɧɚɱɟɧɧɵɟɜɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨɜɪɟɦɚɪɤɚɯɤɥɚɜɢɪɚ
ɢɩɚɪɬɢɬɭɪɵɈɛɚɨɧɢɨɛɥɚɞɚɸɬɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɨɣɚɜɬɨɧɨɦɢɟɣɩɨɷɬɨɦɭɧɟɪɟɞɤɨ
ɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɸɬɫɹɢɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɸɬɫɹɨɛɨɫɨɛɥɟɧɧɨɇɨɱɚɫɬɶɸɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɣ
ɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɢɢɨɩɟɪɵɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹɬɨɥɶɤɨɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨɭɠɟɜɨɩɥɨɳɟɧɧɨɟɜɦɭ
ɡɵɤɟɌɨɝɞɚɦɟɠɞɭɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨɦɢɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɦ²ɫɸɠɟɬɧɵɦɢɱɬɨɟɳɟɜɚɠ
ɧɟɟɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɦ²ɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɟɬɜɡɚɢɦɨɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɶɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨɜɥɢɹɟɬɧɚ
ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɭɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɭɸɪɟɱɶɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɟɣɢɩɪ
ȼɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɣɪɟɠɢɫɫɟɪɫɤɨɣɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɢɢɦɟɧɧɨɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨ
ɧɚɪɹɞɭɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɟɦ²ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɦɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɩɟɪɢɨɞɨɦɢɥɢɷɩɨɯɨɣɜ
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɩɪɨɬɟɤɚɟɬɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ ɩɨɞɜɟɪɝɚɟɬɫɹɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɸɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟɱɚɫɬɨɜɩɥɨɬɶ
ɞɨɟɝɨɩɨɥɧɨɣ©ɨɬɦɟɧɵªɉɪɟɧɟɛɪɟɠɟɧɢɟɧɟɬɨɥɶɤɨɚɜɬɨɪɫɤɢɦɪɟɲɟɧɢɟɦɧɨɢ
ɫɚɦɢɦɢɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɹɦɢɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚ ɜɩɥɚɧɟɤɨɪɪɟɥɹ
ɰɢɢɫɦɭɡɵɤɨɣ ɞɟɦɨɧɫɬɪɢɪɭɟɬɧɟɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɟɝɨɫɭɬɢɉɪɨɹɫɧɢɬɶɷɬɨɬɜɨɩɪɨɫ
ɥɭɱɲɟɜɫɟɝɨɧɚɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɟɤɥɚɫɫɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɨɩɟɪɵ;,;ɜɟɤɚɢɡɚɪɚɦɤɚɦɢɤɨɦɢ
ɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɠɚɧɪɚȼɵɛɨɪɞɚɧɧɨɝɨɩɟɪɢɨɞɚɨɛɭɫɥɨɜɥɟɧɞɜɭɦɹɩɚɪɚɥɥɟɥɶɧɨɩɪɨ
ɬɟɤɚɜɲɢɦɢɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚɦɢ²ɷɜɨɥɸɰɢɟɣɫɚɦɨɝɨғɨɩɟɪɧɨɝɨɠɚɧɪɚɢɷɜɨɥɸɰɢɟɣ
ɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɫɰɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚɀɚɧɪɨɜɚɹɷɜɨɥɸɰɢɹɨɩɟɪɵɫɨɩɪɨ
ɜɨɠɞɚɥɚɫɶɪɚɫɲɢɪɟɧɢɟɦɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚɫɸɠɟɬɧɨɝɨɦɨɠɧɨɝɨɜɨɪɢɬɶɨɛɨɬɱɟɬ
ɥɢɜɨɣɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɢɤɟɝɨɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢ²ɨɬ©ɬɢɩɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯªɨɩɟɪɧɵɯ
ɫɸɠɟɬɨɜ;9,,±;9,,,ɜɟɤɨɜ ɜGUDPPDSHUPXVLFDɢRSHUDVHULD ɤɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɟ
ɧɚɫɸɠɟɬɧɭɸɭɧɢɤɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɜɨɩɟɪɚɯ;;±;;,ɜɟɤɨɜ;,;ɜɟɤɜɢɞɢɬɫɹɡɞɟɫɶ
©ɡɨɥɨɬɨɣɫɟɪɟɞɢɧɨɣªɩɟɪɢɨɞɨɦɫɨɞɧɨɣɫɬɨɪɨɧɵɫɸɠɟɬɧɨɝɨɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹ
ɫɞɪɭɝɨɣ²ɡɚɜɟɪɲɟɧɢɹɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯɜɢɞɨɜɫɸɠɟɬɧɨɝɨɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧ
ɫɬɜɚɑɬɨɤɚɫɚɟɬɫɹɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚɫɰɟɧɵɜɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɢɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɦɬɟ
ɚɬɪɟɬɨɨɧɨɜ;,;ɜɟɤɟɨɛɪɟɬɚɟɬɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɢɚɥɶɧɭɸɩɨɥɧɨɬɭɭɧɚɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɜɨɬ
ɩɪɟɞɲɟɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɯɩɟɪɢɨɞɨɜɭɠɟɫɥɨɠɢɜɲɢɟɫɹɬɢɩɨɜɵɟɞɟɤɨɪɚɰɢɢ ©ɞɜɨɪɟɰª
©ɯɪɚɦª©ɬɸɪɶɦɚª©ɫɚɞª©ɥɟɫª©ɩɚɜɢɥɶɨɧªɢɬɞ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɥɢɫɜɩɟ
ɱɚɬɥɹɸɳɟɣɞɨɫɬɨɜɟɪɧɨɫɬɶɸɜɨɫɫɨɡɞɚɜɚɬɶɦɟɫɬɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɢɩɟɪɟɞɚɜɚɬɶɞɟɬɚ
ɥɢɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢɢɨɛɨɝɚɬɢɜɲɢɫɶɧɨɜɟɣɲɢɦɢɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɹɦɢɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɣɦɚ
ɲɢɧɟɪɢɢɢɞɟɤɨɪɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚ
ȼɫɚɦɨɦɨɛɳɟɦɜɢɞɟɦɨɠɧɨɜɵɞɟɥɢɬɶɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɩɚɪɵɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟɧ
ɧɨɣɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢɜɚɫɩɟɤɬɟɫɸɠɟɬɧɨɣɥɨɤɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɢɦɟɫɬɚɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɡɚɤɪɵɬɨɟ
 ȼȼȽɨɪɹɱɢɯ

ɨɬɤɪɵɬɨɟɜɚɫɩɟɤɬɟɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚ²ɫɰɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɟɡɚɫɰɟɧɧɨɟ
ɨɛɨɡɧɚɱɚɟɦɨɟɤɚɤɩɪɚɜɢɥɨɪɟɦɚɪɤɨɣ©ɡɚɫɰɟɧɨɣª ɜɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɚɫɩɟɤ
ɬɟ²ɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɟɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɱɟɫɤɨɟɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨ
Ɂɚɤɪɵɬɨɟɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨ²ɷɬɨɢɧɬɟɪɶɟɪɤɚɦɟɪɧɨɟɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨɫ
ɛɨɥɶɲɢɦɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨɦɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɨɜɤɨɦɧɚɬɚɝɨɪɧɢɰɚɝɨɫɬɢɧɚɹɫɩɚɥɶɧɹɤɚ
ɛɢɧɟɬɩɨɤɨɢɜɨɞɜɨɪɰɟɢɥɢɡɚɦɤɟɤɟɥɶɹɲɚɬɟɪɢɬɞȾɥɹɧɟɝɨɩɪɟɞɧɚɡɧɚɱɟ
ɧɵɫɨɥɶɧɵɟ ɚɪɢɢɦɨɧɨɥɨɝɢɢɩɪɨɱɢɟ ɢɚɧɫɚɦɛɥɟɜɵɟ ɱɚɳɟɜɫɟɝɨɞɭɷɬɧɵɟ 
ɜɵɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɧɢɹɁɚɦɤɧɭɬɨɟɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɜɚɟɬɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɭɸɫɬɟɩɟɧɶ
ɢɧɬɢɦɧɨɫɬɢɫɜɨɟɝɨɪɨɞɚɡɚɳɢɬɭɨɬɜɧɟɲɧɟɝɨɦɢɪɚɂɦɟɧɧɨɡɞɟɫɶɩɪɨɬɟɤɚɟɬ
ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɟɟɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɫɨɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɢɟɦɭɡɚɦɟɞɥɟɧɢɟɦɫɰɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɨ
ɛɵɬɢɣɧɨɝɨ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢɢɢɥɥɸɡɢɟɣɡɚɦɟɞɥɟɧɢɹɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɮɢɡɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɜɪɟɦɟ
ɧɢȼɢɧɬɟɪɶɟɪɟɤɚɤɩɪɚɜɢɥɨɡɜɭɱɢɬɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɹɹɢɧɬɪɨɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɧɚɹɪɟɱɶɜɵ
ɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɧɢɹɨɬɦɟɱɟɧɵɩɫɢɯɨɥɨɝɢɡɚɰɢɟɣɞɟɬɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɟɣɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɹɡɵɤɚ
ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟɜɵɪɚɡɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢɢɧɬɨɧɚɰɢɹɦɢ
Ɉɫɨɛɵɟɫɥɭɱɚɢɡɚɤɪɵɬɨɝɨɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚ²ɬɸɪɟɦɧɚɹɤɚɦɟɪɚɩɟɳɟɪɚ
ɩɨɞɡɟɦɟɥɶɟɤɚɸɬɚɧɚɤɨɪɚɛɥɟɋɩɟɰɢɮɢɤɚɬɸɪɟɦɧɨɝɨɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚ²ɜɩɪɨ
ɬɢɜɨɩɨɥɨɠɧɨɣɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɨɦɭɢɧɬɟɪɶɟɪɭɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɟ ɞɢɫ
ɤɨɦɮɨɪɬɩɫɢɯɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɟɞɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɧɚɝɟɪɨɟɜɨɤɚɡɚɜɲɢɯɫɹɜɷɬɢɯɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯ 
ɩɪɢɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɢɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɣɮɭɧɤɰɢɢ²ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɢɹɜɧɟɲɧɟɝɨɦɢɪɚɄɚɸɬɚ²
ɩɪɢɦɟɪɱɚɫɬɢɱɧɨɝɨɪɚɡɦɵɤɚɧɢɹɤɚɦɟɪɧɨɝɨɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚɩɫɢɯɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ
ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɧɚɝɟɪɨɟɜ ɢɯɦɵɫɥɢɱɭɜɫɬɜɚɪɟɱɶɜɬɨɦɱɢɫɥɟɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɭɸ 
ɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɝɨɨɬɤɪɵɬɨɝɨɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚ²ɦɨɪɹ
ȼɤɚɦɟɪɧɨɣɨɩɟɪɟɢɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ²ɜɦɨɧɨɨɩɟɪɟɜɨɡɧɢɤɲɟɣɜɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ
ɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɷɜɨɥɸɰɢɢɢɦɟɧɧɨɢɧɬɟɪɶɟɪɧɵɯɫɰɟɧɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨɢɡɧɚɱɚɥɶ
ɧɨɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɨɫɭɠɟɧɨɌɟɦɛɨɥɶɲɟɟɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɜɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɣɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɢɢ
ɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɬɚɸɬɩɪɢɟɦɵ©ɪɚɡɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹªɷɬɨɝɨɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚȼ©ɑɟɥɨɜɟɱɟɫɤɨɦ
ɝɨɥɨɫɟªɉɭɥɟɧɤɚɷɬɨɧɟɬɨɥɶɤɨɬɟɥɟɮɨɧɧɵɟɡɜɨɧɤɢɢɪɚɡɝɨɜɨɪɵɫɧɟɜɢɞɢɦɵ
ɦɢɫɨɛɟɫɟɞɧɢɤɚɦɢɧɨɜɩɟɪɜɭɸɨɱɟɪɟɞɶɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɟɧɢɹɜɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɢɢɩɪɨ
ɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟɜɩɚɦɹɬɢɝɟɪɨɢɧɢɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɟɧɧɵɟɩɨɱɬɢɢɫɤɥɸɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɭɡɵ
ɤɚɥɶɧɵɦɢɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚɦɢ
Ɉɬɤɪɵɬɨɟɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨ²ɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɨɟ ɩɥɨɳɚɞɶɭɥɢɰɚ ɢɫɟɥɶɫɤɨɟ ɜɚ
ɪɢɚɧɬɵ²ɫɬɟɩɶɩɨɥɟɛɟɪɟɝɪɟɤɢɢɬɩ ɗɬɨɬɜɢɞɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚɜɨɩɟɪɟɩɪɟɞ
ɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬɦɚɫɫɨɜɵɟɫɰɟɧɵɫɭɱɚɫɬɢɟɦɛɨɥɶɲɨɝɨɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɚɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɟɣɯɨɪɚ

ɗɬɨɬɜɢɞɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚɧɚɯɨɞɹɳɢɣɫɹɡɚɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɦɢɜɢɞɢɦɨɣɡɪɢɬɟɥɹɦɢɱɚɫɬɢɫɰɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɩɥɨ
ɳɚɞɤɢɊɨɦɚɧȻɟɪɱɟɧɤɨɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬ©ɢɥɥɸɡɨɪɧɵɦɫɰɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɦª>@ȼɦɨɧɨɝɪɚɮɢɢȽɭɧɞɭ
ɥɵɄɪɟɣɰɟɪɜɩɟɪɜɵɟɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɪɨɥɶɡɚɧɚɜɟɫɚɜɨɩɟɪɧɨɦɬɟɚɬɪɟɩɨ
ɧɢɦɚɟɦɨɝɨɤɚɤɨɫɨɛɨɟ©ɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɧɨɟɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨɦɟɠɞɭ³ɪɟɚɥɶɧɵɦ´ɜɪɟɦɟɧɟɦɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɜɫɬɭɩɥɟɧɢɹɢɜɪɟɦɟɧɟɦ ɢɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨɦ ɞɪɚɦɵª©³ɧɟɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɨɣɡɨɧɨɣ´ɦɟɠɞɭɜɧɭɬɪɟɧ
ɧɟɣɢɜɧɟɲɧɟɣɱɚɫɬɶɸɞɪɚɦɵª>±@

Ȼɟɧɞɠɚɦɢɧɒɨɫɬɚɤɨɜɫɤɢɚɧɚɥɢɡɢɪɭɹɫɰɟɧɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɭɸɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɭɜɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɦɤɚɦɟɪɧɨɦ
ɬɟɚɬɪɟɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɧɚɡɧɚɱɢɦɨɫɬɶ©ɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɮɢɡɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚɫɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ
ɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟɦɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢªɧɟɢɡɛɟɠɧɨɫɬɶɫɜɹɡɢɢɧɬɢɦɧɨɝɨɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚɤɚɦɟɪɧɨɣɫɰɟɧɵɢɩɫɢ
ɯɨɥɨɝɢɢ>@
ɉɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨɜɨɩɟɪɟɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɚɫɩɟɤɬ 
ɢɫɬɚɬɢɫɬɨɜ Ɂɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɭɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɦɭɨɛɴɟɦɭɨɬɜɟɱɚɟɬɛɨɥɶɲɚɹ
ɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɚғɹɢɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɚɹɩɪɨɬɹɠɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɫɰɟɧ ɜɪɭɫɫɤɨɣɤɥɚɫɫɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɨɩɟ
ɪɟ²©ɛɨɥɶɲɚɹɯɨɪɨɜɚɹɮɨɪɦɚªɜɬɟɪɦɢɧɨɥɨɝɢɢɊɭɱɶɟɜɫɤɨɣ>@ Ⱦɥɹ
ɩɥɨɳɚɞɢɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɚɨɛɪɚɳɟɧɧɚɹɜɨɜɧɟɪɟɱɶɤɪɭɩɧɵɣɲɬɪɢɯɜɢɧɬɨɧɚɰɢɢ
ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɪɢɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɩɪɢɟɦɨɜ
Ɉɫɨɛɵɣɩɪɢɟɦ²©ɨɛɟɡɥɸɠɢɜɚɧɢɟªɨɬɤɪɵɬɨɝɨɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚɬɨɥɶ
ɤɨɱɬɨɡɚɩɨɥɧɟɧɧɨɝɨɧɚɪɨɞɨɦəɪɤɢɣɷɮɮɟɤɬɜɧɟɡɚɩɧɨɜɨɡɧɢɤɲɟɣɩɭɫɬɨ
ɬɵɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬɜɵɞɟɥɢɬɶɢɡɨɛɳɟɝɨɩɥɚɧɚɫɜɨɟɝɨɪɨɞɚɤɪɭɩɧɵɣɩɥɚɧɝɨɪɚɡɞɨ
ɹɪɱɟɱɟɦɜɢɧɬɟɪɶɟɪɟɩɪɢɜɥɟɱɶɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɤɨɫɬɚɸɳɟɣɫɹɢɥɢɩɨɹɜɢɜɲɟɣɫɹ
ɧɚɫɰɟɧɟɮɢɝɭɪɟɌɚɤɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬɜɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢɜɩɟɪɜɨɦɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɢ ɩɨɹɜɥɟ
ɧɢɟȺɧɞɪɟɹɏɨɜɚɧɫɤɨɝɨɢɗɦɦɵ ɧɚɱɚɥɟɬɪɟɬɶɟɝɨ Ɇɚɪɮɚ ɢɜɬɨɪɨɣɤɚɪɬɢ
ɧɵɱɟɬɜɟɪɬɨɝɨɚɤɬɚ©ɏɨɜɚɧɳɢɧɵª Ⱦɨɫɢɮɟɣ Ɂɜɭɱɚɳɢɟɧɚɩɥɨɳɚɞɢɞɢɚɥɨ
ɝɢɢɦɨɧɨɥɨɝɢɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɨɦɨɝɥɢɛɵɛɵɬɶɩɪɨɢɡɧɟɫɟɧɵɢɜɢɧɬɟɪɶɟɪɟɨɞɧɚɤɨ
ɫɚɦɢɯɩɟɪɟɧɨɫɜɨɬɤɪɵɬɨɟɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨɫɨɡɞɚɟɬɧɨɜɵɟɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ
ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢȼɫɭɳɧɨɫɬɢɦɨɠɧɨɝɨɜɨɪɢɬɶɡɞɟɫɶɨɜɬɨɪɠɟɧɢɢɨɞɧɨɝɨɬɢɩɚ
ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚɜɞɪɭɝɨɣ
Ɉɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɹɤɚɦɟɪɧɨɝɨɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚɜɧɭɬɪɢɨɬɤɪɵɬɨɝɨɤɚɤɢɨɛɪɚɬɧɵɣ
ɯɨɞ²ɜɬɨɪɠɟɧɢɟɜɧɟɲɧɟɝɨɦɢɪɚɜɡɚɤɪɵɬɨɟɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨ²ɢɡɥɸɛɥɟɧɧɵɣ
ɩɪɢɟɦɜɨɩɟɪɧɨɣɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɢɢȼɨɜɬɨɪɨɦɫɥɭɱɚɟɩɨɞɤɥɸɱɚɟɬɫɹɡɚɫɰɟɧɧɨɟ
ɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨɤɨɬɨɪɨɟɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɬɫɹɤɚɤɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɢɚɥɶɧɨɨɬɤɪɵɬɨɟɆɧɨ
ɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɩɪɢɦɟɪɵɬɚɤɨɝɨɪɨɞɚɜɪɭɫɫɤɨɣɤɥɚɫɫɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɨɩɟɪɟ²ɨɬɜɬɨɪɠɟ
ɧɢɹɩɨɥɹɤɨɜɜ©ɀɢɡɧɢɡɚɰɚɪɹªɢɩɪɚɡɞɧɢɤɚɆɚɫɥɟɧɢɰɵɜɨ©ȼɪɚɠɶɟɣɫɢɥɟªɞɨ
ɮɢɧɚɥɚ©ɐɚɪɫɤɨɣɧɟɜɟɫɬɵªɝɞɟɜɩɚɥɚɬɭɜɰɚɪɫɤɨɦɬɟɪɟɦɟɊɢɦɫɤɢɣɄɨɪɫɚɤɨɜ
ɜɫɥɟɞɡɚɅɶɜɨɦɆɟɟɦ ɩɨɨɱɟɪɟɞɢɜɜɨɞɢɬɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɜɫɟɯɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɟɣɨɩɟ
ɪɵɛɨɹɪɨɩɪɢɱɧɢɤɨɜɢɫɟɧɧɵɯɞɟɜɭɲɟɤɌɚɤɚɹɫɜɟɪɯɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɹɞɟɣɫɬɜɭ
ɸɳɢɯɥɢɰɜɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɧɨɦɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟ©ɩɥɨɳɚɞɧɵɯªɤɨɦ
ɩɨɧɟɧɬɨɜ ɜɬɨɦɱɢɫɥɟɯɨɪɚ ²ɨɫɨɛɵɣɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɯɨɞɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɸɳɢɣ
ɩɪɢɞɚɬɶɪɚɡɜɹɡɤɟɩɨɱɬɢɚɧɬɢɱɧɵɣɞɭɯɜɵɫɨɤɨɣɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɢɋɯɨɞɧɨɟɪɟɲɟɧɢɟ
²ɜɮɢɧɚɥɟ©ɈɬɟɥɥɨªɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɜɤɨɬɨɪɨɦɪɚɡɜɨɪɚɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɜɫɩɚɥɶɧɟȾɟɡɞɟ
ɦɨɧɵɍɧɢɤɚɥɶɧɵɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟɢɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɫɥɨɠɧɨɫɬɶɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚ
ɧɢɹɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚɡɚɫɰɟɧɨɣɜ©Ɍɨɫɤɟª
ȼɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɞɜɭɯɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɯɜɢɞɨɜɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚɜɨɩɟɪɟɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɟɬ
ɢɜɨɫɨɛɵɯɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɚɯɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɦɨɠɧɨɛɵɥɨɛɵɧɚɡɜɚɬɶɫɦɟɲɚɧɧɵɦɢɗɬɨ
ɫɨɞɧɨɣɫɬɨɪɨɧɵɥɟɫɫɚɞɫɞɪɭɝɨɣ²ɡɚɥ ɞɜɨɪɰɨɜɵɣɡɚɦɤɨɜɵɣɢɥɢɛɚɥɶ
ɧɵɣ ɤɚɛɚɤɩɨɫɬɨɹɥɵɣɞɜɨɪɢɝɨɪɧɵɣɞɨɦɢɬɞɂɯɝɥɚɜɧɚɹɨɬɥɢɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹ
ɱɟɪɬɚ²ɫɨɜɦɟɳɟɧɢɟɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɨɜɨɬɤɪɵɬɨɝɨɢɤɚɦɟɪɧɨɝɨɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚɉɪɨ
ɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨɥɟɫɚɫɚɞɚɢɛɥɢɡɤɢɯɢɦɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɨɜɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɢɚɥɶɧɨɨɬɤɪɵɬɨɞɥɹ
ɩɟɪɟɦɟɳɟɧɢɹɥɸɛɵɯɝɪɭɩɩɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɟɣɞɥɹɦɚɫɫɨɜɵɯɫɰɟɧɢɜɷɬɨɦɫɦɵɫɥɟ
ɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɩɨɞɨɛɧɨɩɥɨɳɚɞɢȼɬɨɠɟɜɪɟɦɹɨɧɨɢɞɟɚɥɶɧɨɩɨɞɯɨɞɢɬɞɥɹ
ɤɚɦɟɪɧɵɯɫɰɟɧɢɦɟɧɧɨɡɞɟɫɶɱɚɫɬɨɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɹɬɫɜɢɞɚɧɢɹɢɜɫɬɪɟɱɢɝɟɪɨɟɜ
ȼɧɭɬɪɢɬɚɤɨɝɨɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚɤɚɤɛɵɜɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɫɹɢɧɬɟɪɶɟɪɛɟɡɹɜɧɵɯɟɝɨ
 ȼȼȽɨɪɹɱɢɯ

ɜɧɟɲɧɢɯɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɨɜɌɚɤɜɧɚɱɚɥɟɮɢɧɚɥɚ©ɏɨɜɚɧɳɢɧɵªɟɞɢɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɷɥɟ
ɦɟɧɬɢɧɬɟɪɶɟɪɚɜɫɨɫɧɨɜɨɦɛɨɪɭ²ɤɚɦɟɧɶɧɚɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɨɩɭɫɤɚɟɬɫɹȾɨɫɢɮɟɣ
ȿɝɨɦɨɧɨɥɨɝɩɨɜɫɟɦɜɵɪɚɡɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚɦɩɨɥɧɨɫɬɶɸɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɟɬɤɚ
ɦɟɪɧɨɣɫɰɟɧɟɢɤɚɦɟɪɧɨɦɭɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɭɂɩɨɞɨɛɧɨɢɧɬɟɪɶɟɪɭɥɟɫɧɨɟɩɪɨ
ɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹɭɹɡɜɢɦɵɦɩɟɪɟɞɜɬɨɪɠɟɧɢɟɦ ɩɟɬɪɨɜɰɵ ɱɬɨɩɪɨɢɫ
ɯɨɞɢɬɢɜɧɚɡɜɚɧɧɵɯɪɚɧɟɟɢɦɧɨɝɢɯɞɪɭɝɢɯɨɩɟɪɚɯ
ɉɪɢɧɰɢɩɢɚɥɶɧɚɹɡɚɤɪɵɬɨɫɬɶɜɧɟɲɧɟɟɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɢɟɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚɡɚɥɚ
ɪɨɞɧɢɬɟɝɨɫɢɧɬɟɪɶɟɪɨɦɄɚɤɢɜɧɟɦɡɞɟɫɶɫɨɯɪɚɧɹɟɬɫɹɢɤɚɤɩɪɚɜɢɥɨɢɫ
ɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶɜɬɨɪɠɟɧɢɹɢɡɜɧɟɋ©ɩɥɨɳɚɞɶɸªɡɚɥɪɨɞɧɢɬɩɨɬɟɧ
ɰɢɚɥɦɚɫɫɨɜɵɯɫɰɟɧɱɚɫɬɨ²ɜɟɫɶɦɚɪɚɡɜɟɪɧɭɬɵɯ
Ɉɫɨɛɵɣɫɥɭɱɚɣ²ɦɨɪɟɷɬɨɬɜɢɞɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚɩɨɠɚɥɭɣɫɚɦɵɣɨɬ
ɤɪɵɬɵɣɦɨɠɧɨɫɤɚɡɚɬɶɛɟɫɤɪɚɣɧɢɣ ɜɨɬɥɢɱɢɟɨɬɩɥɨɳɚɞɢɜɫɟɬɚɤɢɢɦɟɸ
ɳɟɣɧɨɦɢɧɚɥɶɧɵɟɝɪɚɧɢɰɵɜɜɢɞɟɨɱɟɪɬɚɧɢɣɡɞɚɧɢɣɢɥɢɫɬɟɧ Ɉɞɧɚɤɨɛɟɡ
ɤɨɪɚɛɥɹ ɡɚɦɤɧɭɬɨɝɨɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚ ɨɧɧɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɟɧɜɨɩɟɪɟɨɬɫɸɞɚɜɨɡɧɢ
ɤɚɟɬɫɨɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɟ ɫɦɟɲɟɧɢɟ ɞɜɭɯɜɢɞɨɜɆɨɪɟɧɟɧɟɣɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɨɧɨɚɤɬɢɜɧɨ
ɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɟɬɧɚɝɟɪɨɟɜɜɩɫɢɯɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɩɥɚɧɟ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɪɟɥɶɟɮɧɨɷɬɨ
ɩɨɤɚɡɚɧɨɜɩɟɪɜɨɦɚɤɬɟ©Ɍɪɢɫɬɚɧɚɢɂɡɨɥɶɞɵª ȼɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɦɨɬɧɨɲɟ
ɧɢɢɧɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɧɚɧɚɲɜɡɝɥɹɞɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɶɡɜɭɱɚɧɢɟɩɟɫɧɢɦɨɥɨɞɨɝɨɦɚ
ɬɪɨɫɚɨɬɤɪɵɜɚɸɳɟɣɩɟɪɜɵɣɚɤɬ©Ɍɪɢɫɬɚɧɚªɜɧɟɦɨɪɫɤɨɝɨɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚ²
ɧɚɫɬɨɥɶɤɨɨɧɢɜɡɚɢɦɨɫɜɹɡɚɧɵȾɚɠɟɧɚɛɟɪɟɝɭɦɨɪɹɫɚɦɨɟɝɨɜɢɡɭɚɥɶɧɨɟɢ
ɩɫɢɯɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɟɩɪɢɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟ ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪɟɠɟɦɢɧɭɬɧɚɹɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶɭɜɢ
ɞɟɬɶɨɠɢɞɚɟɦɵɣɤɨɪɚɛɥɶ ɩɨɪɨɠɞɚɟɬɤɚɤɜɬɪɟɬɶɟɦɚɤɬɟ©Ɍɪɢɫɬɚɧɚªɨɫɨ
ɛɭɸɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɧɭɸɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɭɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɳɭɸɯɨɞɦɵɫɥɟɣɱɭɜɫɬɜɩɟɪɫɨɧɚ
ɠɟɣɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɯɜɵɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɧɢɣ
Ʉɪɚɬɤɨɨɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɟɦɟɳɟɨɞɧɭɩɚɪɭɩɨɧɹɬɢɣɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɟ±ɫɢɦɜɨɥɢ
ɱɟɫɤɨɟɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨɊɟɚɥɶɧɨɟɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨ ɛɵɬɨɜɨɟɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɨɟ ²ɷɬɨ
ɜɫɟɩɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɟɪɚɧɟɟɜɢɞɵɜɢɯɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɦɧɟɨɫɥɨɠɧɟɧɧɨɦɜɨɩɥɨ
ɳɟɧɢɢɋɢɦɜɨɥɢɡɚɰɢɹɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚɡɚɤɥɸɱɚɟɬɫɹɜɩɪɢɞɚɧɢɢɟɦɭ
ɫɩɨɦɨɳɶɸɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯɩɪɢɟɦɨɜ ɜɩɟɪɜɭɸɨɱɟɪɟɞɶɩɪɢɩɨɦɨɳɢɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶ
ɧɵɯɫɪɟɞɫɬɜ ɨɫɨɛɵɯɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɈɧɢɩɪɨɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹɜɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɢ©ɮɢɡɢɱɟɫɤɢɯª
ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤ²ɡɚɦɟɞɥɟɧɢɢɤɚɤɛɵɪɚɫɬɹɝɢɜɚɧɢɢɜɪɟɦɟɧɢɢɫɤɚɠɟɧɢɢɩɚ
ɪɚɦɟɬɪɨɜɫɚɦɨɝɨɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚɩɪɢɞɚɧɢɹɟɦɭɫɜɟɪɯɴɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯɫɜɨɣɫɬɜ
ȼɫɟɷɬɨɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɬɪɚɡɭɦɟɟɬɫɹɜɜɨɫɩɪɢɹɬɢɢɩɪɟɠɞɟɜɫɟɝɨɫɚɦɢɯɝɟɪɨɟɜ
ɨɩɟɪɵɚɬɚɤɠɟɫɥɭɲɚɬɟɥɟɣɡɪɢɬɟɥɟɣɉɪɢɦɟɪɵɬɚɤɨɝɨɪɨɞɚɫɨɫɪɟɞɨɬɨɱɟɧɵ
ɝɥɚɜɧɵɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɦɜɨɩɟɪɟ;;ɜɟɤɚ ©ɉɟɥɥɟɚɫɢɆɟɥɢɡɚɧɞɚªȾɟɛɸɫɫɢ©Ɂɚ
ɦɨɤɝɟɪɰɨɝɚɋɢɧɹɹȻɨɪɨɞɚªȻɚɪɬɨɤɚ©Ɉɝɧɟɧɧɵɣɚɧɝɟɥªɉɪɨɤɨɮɶɟɜɚ©ɋɜɹ
ɬɨɣɎɪɚɧɰɢɫɤȺɫɫɢɡɫɤɢɣªɆɟɫɫɢɚɧɚɢɞɪ ȼ©ɋɤɚɡɚɧɢɢɨɧɟɜɢɞɢɦɨɦɝɪɚ

ɂɧɚɱɟɪɟɲɟɧɚɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɡɚɰɢɹɫɸɠɟɬɧɨɝɨɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚɜɨɩɟɪɟȽɥɚɫɫɚ©ɗɣɧɲɬɟɣɧɧɚɩɥɹɠɟªɂɡ
ɬɪɟɯɜɢɞɨɜɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚ²ɩɨɟɡɞɫɭɞɢɤɨɫɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɤɨɪɚɛɥɶɜɨɩɥɨɳɟɧɧɵɯɝɥɚɜɧɵɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɦ
ɤɚɤɜɢɡɭɚɥɶɧɚɹɢɞɟɹɨɛɴɟɤɬɫɢɦɜɨɥ ɫɦɨɛɷɬɨɦɩɨɞɪɨɛɧɟɟɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟɊɚɣɚɧɚɗɛɪɚɣɬɚ>
±@ ²ɥɢɲɶɫɭɞɫɨɞɟɪɠɢɬɱɟɪɬɵɛɥɢɡɨɫɬɢɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɨɦɭɨɩɟɪɧɨɦɭɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɭ
ɉɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨɜɨɩɟɪɟɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɚɫɩɟɤɬ 
ɜɚɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɡɚɰɢɹɡɚɬɪɚɝɢɜɚɟɬɧɟɬɨɥɶɤɨɥɟɫɧɨɟɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨ²ɦɟɫɬɨɨɛɢɬɚɧɢɹ
ɝɥɚɜɧɨɣɝɟɪɨɢɧɢɥɟɫɧɨɣɞɟɜɵɎɟɜɪɨɧɢɢɧɨɢɩɥɨɳɚɞɶ²ȼɟɥɢɤɢɣɄɢɬɟɠɉɨ
ɞɨɛɧɨɬɨɦɭɤɚɤɩɪɟɨɛɪɚɠɟɧɢɟɥɟɫɚɦɟɧɹɟɬɟɝɨɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɭɸɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɭ
ɪɚɞɢɤɚɥɶɧɨɦɟɧɹɟɬɫɹɢɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɣɹɡɵɤɤɢɬɟɠɚɧɫɬɚɜɲɢɯɠɢɬɟɥɹɦɢɇɟɛɟɫ
ɧɨɝɨɝɪɚɞɚȼɮɢɧɚɥɶɧɨɣɤɚɪɬɢɧɟɨɩɟɪɵɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɱɟɫɤɨɟɩɪɟɨɛɪɚɠɟɧɧɨɟɤɢɬɟɠ
ɫɤɨɟɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨɩɨɥɧɨɫɬɶɸɪɢɬɭɚɥɢɡɨɜɚɧɨ²ɤɚɤɢɪɟɱɶ ɫɥɨɜɟɫɧɚɹɢɦɭɡɵ
ɤɚɥɶɧɚɹ ɢɬɟɦɚɬɢɡɦɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɟɣɚɜɪɟɦɹ²ɜɟɱɧɨɢɛɟɫɤɨɧɟɱɧɨ
Ɉɫɨɛɵɣɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɜɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɢɢɨɩɟɪɵɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟɩɪɨ
ɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚɢɜɪɟɦɟɧɢɂɡɜɫɟɝɨɦɧɨɝɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɵɯɪɚɤɭɪɫɨɜɭɤɚɠɟɦ
ɡɞɟɫɶɧɚɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶɜɡɚɢɦɨɜɥɢɹɧɢɹɌɚɤɜɢɧɬɟɪɶɟɪɟɜɪɟɦɹɤɚɤɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ
ɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɬɟɱɟɬɦɟɞɥɟɧɧɟɟɷɬɨɦɭɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɟɬɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɟɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɚ
ɫɨɛɵɬɢɣɜɩɥɨɬɶɞɨɩɨɥɧɨɣɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢɫɸɠɟɬɧɨɝɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɢɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɚɟɝɨɜɨ
ɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɣɩɫɢɯɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɩɥɚɧɩɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɟɬɚɤɢɯɨɩɟɪɧɵɯɮɨɪɦɤɚɤɦɨ
ɧɨɥɨɝɚɧɫɚɦɛɥɶɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟɞɭɷɬɫɨɝɥɚɫɢɹɢɞɪ
ȼɫɜɨɸɨɱɟɪɟɞɶɜɪɟɦɹɫɭɬɨɤɜɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢɧɨɱɶ ɤɚɤɜɪɟɦɹɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ ɫɩɨ
ɫɨɛɧɚ©ɫɭɡɢɬɶªɥɸɛɨɟɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨɈɬɤɪɵɬɨɦɭɨɧɚɩɪɢɞɚɟɬɱɟɪɬɵɢɧɬɟɪɶɟ
ɪɚɫɨɡɞɚɜɚɹɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɟɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɞɥɹɤɚɦɟɪɧɨɣɫɰɟɧɵ²ɤɚɤɩɪɚɜɢɥɨɦɨ
ɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɜɵɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɧɢɹɥɢɛɨɫɜɢɞɚɧɢɹ ɤɨɦɩɥɟɦɟɧɬɚɪɧɚɧɨɱɶɢɬɚɣɧɵɦ
ɞɟɥɚɦɞɪɭɝɨɝɨɪɨɞɚ²ɡɚɝɨɜɨɪɚɦɝɚɞɚɧɢɸɢɩɪɨɱɟɦɭ Ɂɚɤɪɵɬɨɟɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧ
ɫɬɜɨɛɥɚɝɨɞɚɪɹɧɨɱɧɨɦɭɜɪɟɦɟɧɢɟɳɟɛɨɥɟɟɫɭɠɚɟɬɫɹɌɟɦɫɚɦɵɦɧɨɱɶ ɢɥɢ
ɟɟɚɧɚɥɨɝ²ɬɟɦɧɨɬɚɜɩɨɦɟɳɟɧɢɢ ɜɥɢɹɟɬɧɚɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɟɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢ
ɢɫɚɦɨɜɨɫɩɪɢɹɬɢɟɜɫɟɣɫɰɟɧɵ ɹɪɤɢɟɩɪɢɦɟɪɵ²ɜ©ɀɢɡɧɢɡɚɐɚɪɹª©Ɍɪɢ
ɫɬɚɧɟɢɂɡɨɥɶɞɟª©ɉɢɤɨɜɨɣɞɚɦɟª©Ȼɨɝɟɦɟª 
ɂɬɚɤɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨɜɨɩɟɪɟɧɟɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɥɢɲɶɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɨɣɧɟɣɬɪɚɥɶ
ɧɨɣɫɪɟɞɨɣɜɤɨɬɨɪɨɣɪɚɡɜɨɪɚɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɊɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟɜɢɞɵɫɸɠɟɬɧɨ
ɝɨɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚɪɟɚɥɢɡɨɜɚɧɧɵɟɫɰɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɢ ɜɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɫɤɨɣɪɟɠɢɫɫɭɪɟ 
ɜɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣɦɟɪɟɨɛɭɫɥɚɜɥɢɜɚɸɬɜɵɛɨɪɤɚɤɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɯɨɩɟɪɧɵɯɮɨɪɦ
ɫɨɥɶɧɵɯɚɧɫɚɦɛɥɟɜɵɯɢɥɢɯɨɪɨɜɵɯ ɬɚɤɢɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɯɟɞɢɧɢɰ ɬɚɤɨɬ
ɤɪɵɬɨɟɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨ©ɞɢɤɬɭɟɬªɜɵɛɨɪɤɪɭɩɧɵɯɪɚɡɜɟɪɧɭɬɵɯɫɰɟɧ Ɇɨɠɧɨ
ɤɨɧɫɬɚɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɜɥɢɹɧɢɟɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚɧɚɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ ɜɫɬɨɪɨɧɭɨɫɥɚɛɥɟɧɢɹɟɝɨ
ɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɢɜɤɚɦɟɪɧɵɯɫɰɟɧɚɯɢɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɛɨɥɶɲɟɣɚɤɬɢɜɧɨɫɬɢɜɩɥɨɳɚɞ
ɧɵɯɫɰɟɧɚɯ ɜɨɤɚɥɶɧɭɸɪɟɱɶɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɟɣ ɢɧɬɪɨɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɧɭɸɜɢɧɬɟɪɶɟɪɟɢ
ɨɛɪɚɳɟɧɧɭɸɜɨɜɧɟɜɦɚɫɫɨɜɵɯɫɰɟɧɚɯ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟɜɪɟɦɟɧɢȼɫɟɷɬɨɜɫɨɜɨɤɭɩ
ɧɨɫɬɢɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬɨɬɧɟɫɬɢɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɨɤɱɢɫɥɭɜɚɠɧɟɣɲɢɯɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɨɜɦɭ
ɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɣɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɢɢɨɩɟɪɵ
Ʌา฼ฯฺส฼฽ฺส
ȺɤɭɥɨɜȿȺɈɩɟɪɧɚɹɦɭɡɵɤɚɢɫɰɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɟɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɆȼɫɟɫɨɸɡɧɨɟɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶ
ɧɨɟɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɨ
ȺɧɚɥɢɡɜɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɯɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɣɭɱɟɛɧɨɟɩɨɫɨɛɢɟɨɬɜɪɟɞɈɉɄɨɥɨɜɫɤɢɣɅ
Ɇɭɡɵɤɚ
ȻɟɪɱɟɧɤɨɊɗɄɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɫɤɚɹɪɟɠɢɫɫɭɪɚɆɉɆɭɫɨɪɝɫɤɨɝɨɆɍɊɋɋ
 ȼȼȽɨɪɹɱɢɯ
Ʌɭɰɤɟɪɉȼɋɭɫɢɞɤɨɂɉɂɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɚɹɨɩɟɪɚ;9,,,ɜɟɤɚɆɄɥɚɫɫɢɤɚɏɏ
ɑɗɩɨɯɚɆɟɬɚɫɬɚɡɢɨ
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ɪɟɲɚɝɧɭɬɶɝɪɚɧɢɰɭɏɏ±;;,ɜɟɤɨɜɌɚɤɨɣɜɵɜɨɞɦɨɠɧɨɫɞɟɥɚɬɶɡɧɚɤɨɦɹɫɶɤɚɤ
ɫɬɪɭɞɚɦɢɜɢɞɧɵɯɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɨɜɟɞɨɜɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɟɝɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɢɬɚɤɢɫɯɭɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ
ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɨɣɫɟɝɨɞɧɹɲɧɟɝɨɞɧɹɇɚɲɚɰɟɥɶ²ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɶɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɹɜɥɟɧɢɹɫɨ
ɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɣɨɩɟɪɵɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɦɨɝɥɢɛɵɛɵɬɶɫɨɨɬɧɟɫɟɧɵɫ©ɩɨɡɞɧɢɦɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɦɨɦª
©ɉɨɡɞɧɢɣɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɦªɫɟɝɨɞɧɹɨɛɫɭɠɞɚɟɬɫɹɜɰɟɥɨɦɪɹɞɟɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɨɜɟɞɱɟ
ɫɤɢɯɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɣȿɝɨɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɣɱɟɪɬɨɣɦɨɠɧɨɫɱɢɬɚɬɶɪɟɮɥɟɤɫɢɸɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚ
ɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɦɚȼɫɜɹɡɢɫɷɬɢɦɤɨɫɧɟɦɫɹɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɤɥɸɱɟɜɵɯɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɦɚ
Ɇɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɦ ɚɜɚɧɝɚɪɞɢɡɦ ²ɭɫɥɨɜɧɨɟɧɚɡɜɚɧɢɟɜɫɟɯɧɨɜɟɣɲɢɯɷɤɫɩɟɪɢ
ɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɯɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɣɜɯɭɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɟ;;ɜɟɤɚɄɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɢɡɦ
ɚɛɫɬɪɚɤɰɢɨɧɢɡɦɞɚɞɚɢɡɦɤɭɛɢɡɦɮɨɜɢɡɦɨɪɮɢɡɦɨɩɚɪɬɩɨɩɚɪɬɩɭɪɢɡɦɫɸɪ
ɪɟɚɥɢɡɦ²ɜɨɬɞɚɥɟɤɨɧɟɩɨɥɧɵɣɢɯɩɟɪɟɱɟɧɶȼɫɟɷɬɢɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɫɬɪɨɹɬɫɹɧɚ
ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɢɪɹɞɚɨɛɳɢɯɩɪɟɞɩɨɫɵɥɨɤȼɨɩɟɪɜɵɯɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɦ ɚɜɚɧɝɚɪɞ ɜɨɬɥɢ
ɱɢɟɨɬɦɨɞɟɪɧɚɪɚɞɢɤɚɥɶɧɨɩɨɪɵɜɚɟɬɫɩɪɨɲɥɵɦɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɹɭɬɪɚɱɢɜɚɟɬɞɥɹɧɟɝɨ

ɈɛɷɬɨɦɩɢɲɭɬɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɜɫɟɜɟɞɭɳɢɟɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɢɊɌɚɪɭɫɤɢɧ>@ȾɄɪɚɦɟɪ>@Ʌ
Ʉɪɚɦɟɪ>@ȾɅɨɤɯɟɞ>@ɨɬɟɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟɭɱɟɧɵɟɋɂɋɚɜɟɧɤɨ>@ȼɉɑɢɧɚɟɜ>@ȿ
Ʌɢɚɧɫɤɚɹ>@ɆɋȼɵɫɨɰɤɚɹɢȽȼȽɪɢɝɨɪɶɟɜɚ>@ɢɞɪɭɝɢɟ
Ɉɩɟɪɚɢ©ɩɨɡɞɧɢɣɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɦª 
ɜɫɹɤɭɸɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɇɨɜɢɡɧɚɤɚɤɬɚɤɨɜɚɹɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹɝɥɚɜɧɨɣɰɟɥɶɸɬɜɨɪɱɟɫɬɜɚɢ
ɝɥɚɜɧɵɦɤɪɢɬɟɪɢɟɦɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɟɝɨɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɜɋɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟɦɩɨɥɧɨɝɨɬɜɨɪɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ
ɪɚɫɤɪɟɩɨɳɟɧɢɹɫɬɚɥɨɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɨɧɨɜɚɬɨɪɫɤɢɯɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɣɦɨɥɧɢɟɧɨɫɧɨɭɫɬɚ
ɪɟɜɚɸɳɢɯɢɫɦɟɧɹɟɦɵɯɜɫɟɛɨɥɟɟɧɨɜɵɦɢȺɜɚɧɝɚɪɞɭɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɭɬɨɩɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɨɛɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɤɚɤɫɢɥɟɤɨɬɨɪɚɹɦɨɠɟɬɢɡɦɟɧɢɬɶɦɢɪɪɚɡɪɭɲɚɹ
ɫɬɚɪɭɸɢɫɨɡɞɚɜɚɹɧɨɜɭɸɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɗɬɨɧɚɲɥɨɩɨɱɬɢɛɭɤɜɚɥɶɧɨɟɨɬɪɚɠɟɧɢɟ
ɜɫɥɨɜɚɯɄɒɬɨɤɯɚɭɡɟɧɚ©ɇɚɲɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɦɢɪ²ɧɚɲɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɹɡɵɤ²
ɧɚɲɚɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɚɹɝɪɚɦɦɚɬɢɤɚɧɢɤɚɤɢɯɇȿɈª>ɰɢɬɩɨ@
ɉɚɪɚɥɥɟɥɶɧɨɩɨɧɹɬɢɸ©ɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɦªɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹɩɨɧɹɬɢɟ©ɚɜɚɧɝɚɪɞɚª
ɘɇɏɨɥɨɩɨɜɩɪɢɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɥɫɹɲɢɪɨɤɨɝɨɬɨɥɤɨɜɚɧɢɹɷɬɨɝɨɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɚɝɨɜɨɪɹ
ɨɧɚɥɢɱɢɢɞɜɭɯ©ɚɜɚɧɝɚɪɞɨɜªɜɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɦɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɏɏɜɟɤɚɉɨɦɧɟɧɢɸ
ɭɱɟɧɨɝɨɩɪɢɦɟɪɧɵɦɢɯɪɨɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢɪɚɦɤɚɦɢ©ɚɜɚɧɝɚɪɞɚ,ªɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ
±ɝɝɚ©ɚɜɚɧɝɚɪɞɚ,,ª²±ɂɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɩɨɞɱɟɪɤɢɜɚɥ
ɱɬɨɷɬɢɞɜɟ©ɛɨɥɶɲɢɟɜɨɥɧɵɫɜɹɡɚɧɵɞɪɭɝɫɞɪɭɝɨɦɨɛɪɚɡɭɹɜɦɟɫɬɟɨɝɪɨɦ
ɧɵɣɫɤɚɱɨɤɨɬɞɟɥɹɸɳɢɣɏɏɜɟɤɨɬɩɨɦɟɧɶɲɟɣɦɟɪɟɩɪɟɞɲɟɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɣɷɩɨ
ɯɢ³ɇɨɜɨɝɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ´±ª>@
ȼ±ɝɨɞɵɪɹɞɩɢɫɚɬɟɥɟɣɢɮɢɥɨɫɨɮɨɜɜɨɡɜɟɫɬɢɥɢɨɧɚɫɬɭɩɥɟɧɢɢɷɩɨ
ɯɢɩɨɫɬɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɦɚɉɨɹɜɢɥɨɫɶɨɛɳɟɟɨɳɭɳɟɧɢɟɱɬɨɜɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɢɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡ
ɦɚɧɚɫɬɭɩɢɥɧɟɤɢɣɩɪɟɞɟɥɤɨɝɞɚɟɝɨɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɤɚɡɚɥɫɹɢɫɱɟɪɩɚɧɧɵɦɤɨɝɞɚɢɞɬɢ
ɞɚɥɶɲɟɫɬɚɥɨɧɟɤɭɞɚ©ɉɨɫɬɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɦ²ɷɬɨɨɬɜɟɬɆɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɦɭɪɚɡɩɪɨɲɥɨɟ
ɧɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɭɧɢɱɬɨɠɢɬɶɢɛɨɟɝɨɭɧɢɱɬɨɠɟɧɢɟɜɟɞɟɬɤɧɟɦɨɬɟɟɝɨɧɭɠɧɨɩɟ
ɪɟɨɫɦɵɫɥɢɬɶɢɪɨɧɢɱɧɨɛɟɡɧɚɢɜɧɨɫɬɢª>@²ɩɢɲɟɬɍɦɛɟɪɬɨɗɤɨɉɨ
ɫɬɦɨɞɟɪɧɧɚɡɵɜɚɸɬ©ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɨɣɰɢɬɚɬªȿɫɥɢɜɫɟɱɬɨɦɨɠɧɨɛɵɥɨɫɨɡɞɚɬɶɭɠɟ
ɫɨɡɞɚɧɨɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɟɫɬɜɨɦɢɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭɧɢɱɟɝɨɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɢɚɥɶɧɨɧɨɜɨɝɨɧɟɫɨɡɞɚɟɬ
ɫɹɬɨɫɨɡɞɚɧɧɨɟɰɢɬɢɪɭɟɬɫɹɤɨɦɛɢɧɢɪɭɟɬɫɹɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɢɪɭɟɬɫɹɊɚɡɵɫɤɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ
ɧɨɜɵɟɫɦɵɫɥɵɜɬɨɦɱɬɨɭɠɟɤɚɡɚɥɨɫɶɨɫɦɵɫɥɟɧɧɵɦɢɩɨɧɹɬɧɵɦɉɨɫɬɦɨɞɟɪ
ɧɢɫɬɫɤɢɟɬɟɤɫɬɵ²ɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɚɮɢɥɨɫɨɮɢɹɤɢɧɨɢɡɨɛɪɚɡɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɨ
ɫɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɵɦɢɞɥɹɧɟɝɨɠɚɧɪɚɦɢɤɨɥɥɚɠɚɢɧɫɬɚɥɥɹɰɢɢɩɟɪɮɨɪɦɚɧɫɚɢɯɟɩ
ɩɟɧɢɧɝɚɫɚɦɚɦɟɬɨɞɢɤɚɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢɯɭɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯɚɤɰɢɣɢɜɵɫɬɚɜɨɤ²ɜɫɟ
ɷɬɨɫɬɢɦɭɥɵɞɥɹɧɨɜɵɯɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɣɈɧɢɜɨɜɥɟɤɚɸɬɜɞɢɚɥɨɝɦɟɠɞɭɚɜɬɨɪɚ
ɦɢɢɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɟɣɧɟɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɹɧɢɱɟɝɨɧɨɜɨɝɨɤɪɨɦɟɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɨɜ
ȾɥɹɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢɩɨɫɬɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɦɚɀȾɟɥɟɡɢɎȽɜɚɬɬɚɪɢɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭ
ɸɬɨɛɪɚɡ©ɪɢɡɨɦɵªɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɩɟɪɟɞɚɟɬɫɥɨɠɧɨɫɬɶɩɟɪɟɩɥɟɬɟɧɢɣɢɩɟɪɟɫɟɱɟ
ɧɢɣɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɣɢɫɦɵɫɥɨɜɜɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɟɉɨɫɬɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɦɪɚɞɢɤɚɥɶɧɨ
ɩɥɸɪɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɟɧɢɡɧɟɝɨɢɫɱɟɡɥɢɜɫɹɤɢɟɧɟɡɵɛɥɟɦɵɟɩɪɚɜɢɥɚɢɝɪɵɢɚɤɫɢɨɦɵ
ɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɈɧ©ɨɬɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹɨɬɠɟɫɬɤɨɫɬɢɢɡɚɦɤɧɭɬɨɫɬɢɤɨɧɰɟɩɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɯ
ɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɣɫɨɡɧɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɢɝɧɨɪɢɪɭɟɬɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɢɛɢɧɚɪɧɨɝɨɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟ
ɧɢɹɞɟɥɚɹɫɬɚɜɤɭɧɚɦɚɪɝɢɧɚɥɢɡɚɰɢɸɨɬɤɪɵɬɨɫɬɶɛɟɡɨɰɟɧɨɱɧɨɫɬɶɢɞɟɫɬɚ
ɛɢɥɢɡɚɰɢɸɥɸɛɵɯɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɨɰɟɧɧɨɫɬɧɵɯɨɪɢɟɧɬɚɰɢɣª>@
ȼɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɚɫɥɟɞɧɢɤɚɩɨɫɬɦɨɞɟɪɧɚɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɸɬɭɠɟɭɩɨɦɹɧɭɬɵɣɦɟɬɚ
ɦɨɞɟɪɧ>@ɇɨɷɬɨɧɟɟɞɢɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɹɯɨɞɚɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵ
 Ɍȼɐɚɪɟɝɪɚɞɫɤɚɹ

ȼɨɬɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨɩɪɢɦɟɪɨɜɚɥɶɬɟɪɧɚɬɢɜɵȼɵɞɚɸɳɢɣɫɹɡɧɚɬɨɤɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɣ
ɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɵɑɚɪɥɡȾɠɟɧɤɫɩɪɢɡɧɚɟɬɱɬɨɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɦɨɤɚɡɚɥɫɹɝɨɪɚɡɞɨɭɫɬɨɣ
ɱɢɜɟɟɱɟɦɨɛɷɬɨɦɛɵɥɨɩɪɢɧɹɬɨɞɭɦɚɬɶɢɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɢɥɫɜɨɟɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɟ
ɧɚɪɹɞɭɫɚɜɚɧɝɚɪɞɨɦɢɩɨɫɬɦɨɞɟɪɧɨɦɉɨɫɥɟɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɰɢɢɜɝɨɞɭɤɧɢɝɢ
©əɡɵɤɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɵɩɨɫɬɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɦɚªɭɠɟɜɨɧɩɭɛɥɢɤɭɟɬɤɧɢɝɭ7KH1HZ
0RGHUQV>@ɝɞɟɝɨɜɨɪɢɬɨɧɨɜɨɣɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɤɟɢɞɟɣɩɨɹɜɢɜɲɢɯɫɹɜɟɝɨɞɵ
Ɉɧɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɱɬɨɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɵɣɞɥɹɩɨɫɬɦɨɞɟɪɧɚɷɤɥɟɤɬɢɡɦɭɯɨɞɢɬɢɩɪɢɯɨ
ɞɢɬɧɨɜɨɟɨɫɨɡɧɚɧɢɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɟɣɡɚɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɯɜɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɦɟ
ȼɵɞɚɸɳɢɣɫɹɚɦɟɪɢɤɚɧɫɤɢɣɮɢɥɨɥɨɝɆɚɪɞɠɨɪɢɉɟɪɥɨɮɮɢɞɟɬɫɯɨɞɧɵɦ
ɩɭɬɟɦɜɚɧɚɥɢɡɟɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵɢɜɨɡɜɟɳɚɟɬɨ©ɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɦɟ;;,ɜɟɤɚª>@ȿɟ
ɝɥɚɜɧɵɣɬɟɡɢɫɫɨɫɬɨɢɬɜɬɨɦɱɬɨɜɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɫɬɢɥɹɯɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɣɩɨɷɡɢɢɨɛ
ɧɚɪɭɠɢɜɚɸɬɫɹɢɦɩɭɥɶɫɵɡɚɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɟɜɩɨɷɡɢɢɪɚɧɧɟɝɨɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɦɚ©ɧɨɜɵɟ
ɚɦɟɪɢɤɚɧɫɤɢɟɩɨɷɬɵªɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɬɫɟɛɹɩɪɟɟɦɧɢɤɚɦɢɜɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢɬɚɤɢɯɮɢ
ɝɭɪɤɚɤɌɗɥɢɨɬɢɍɈɞɟɧ©ȼɬɨɪɭɸɜɨɥɧɭɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɦɚªɨɧɚɜɢɞɢɬɜɬɜɨɪ
ɱɟɫɬɜɟɋɸɡɚɧɏɨɭɑɚɪɥɡɚȻɟɪɧɲɬɟɣɧɚɋɬɢɜɚɆɚɤɄɚɮɮɟɪɢɉɪɢɷɬɨɦɦɟɠɞɭ
ɢɞɟɹɦɢɦɨɥɨɞɵɯɢ©ɫɬɚɪɵɯɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɫɬɨɜªɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɛɨɥɶ
ɲɟɫɯɨɞɫɬɜɚɱɟɦɫɩɨɫɬɦɨɞɟɪɧɨɦ
ȼɦɭɡɵɤɟɫɯɨɞɧɵɯɩɨɡɢɰɢɣɩɪɢɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɨɞɢɧɢɡɫɚɦɵɯɚɤɬɢɜɧɵɯɫɟ
ɝɨɞɧɹɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɯɦɵɫɥɢɬɟɥɟɣɮɢɥɨɫɨɮɢɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɄɥɚɭɫɋɬɟɮɟɧɆɚɧ
ɤɨɩɮ>@ɉɨɟɝɨɦɧɟɧɢɸɜɟɝɨɞɵɏɏɜɟɤɚɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɟɬɹɜɥɟɧɢɟ
ɧɚɡɜɚɧɧɨɟɢɦ©ɜɬɨɪɵɦɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɦɨɦª VHFRQGPRGHUQLW\ ɗɬɨɩɨɧɹɬɢɟɩɪɢɧɚɞ
ɥɟɠɢɬȽɟɧɪɢɯɭɄɥɨɬɰɭɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɨɩɭɛɥɢɤɨɜɚɥɤɧɢɝɭ©Ɇɨɞɟɪɧ²ɉɨɫɬɦɨɞɟɪɧ
²ȼɬɨɪɨɣɆɨɞɟɪɧª>@ɉɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭɩɚɪɚɥɥɟɥɢɫɦɭɡɵɤɨɣɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɸɬɩɨɦɧɟ
ɧɢɸɆɚɧɤɨɩɮɚɫɚɦɵɦɨɱɟɜɢɞɧɵɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɦɬɨɧɟɬɧɢɤɚɤɢɯɩɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɢɣɤɬɨɦɭ
ɱɬɨɛɵɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶɷɬɭɫɯɟɦɭɢɞɥɹɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚ
Ɍɟɪɦɢɧ©ɤɥɚɫɫɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɦªɨɧɫɱɢɬɚɟɬɫɩɪɚɜɟɞɥɢɜɵɦɩɨɨɬɧɨɲɟ
ɧɢɸɤɒɺɧɛɟɪɝɭɋɬɪɚɜɢɧɫɤɨɦɭȻɚɪɬɨɤɭȺɣɜɡɭɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɢɫɤɚɥɢɧɨɜɵɣɦɚɬɟ
ɪɢɚɥɧɨɨɫɬɚɜɚɥɢɫɶɧɚɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɯɩɨɡɢɰɢɹɯɜɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢɮɨɪɦɵɝɪɚɦ
ɦɚɬɢɤɢɫɢɧɬɚɤɫɢɫɚɢɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɣɫɟɦɚɧɬɢɤɢɂɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɦɨɦɟɧɬ
ɫɨɜɩɚɜɲɢɣɫɢɞɟɟɣɧɨɜɨɝɨɧɚɱɚɥɚɜɩɨɫɥɟɜɨɟɧɧɭɸɷɩɨɯɭɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɥɫɹɨɳɭ
ɳɟɧɢɟɦɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɩɪɟɟɦɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɨɬɇɨɜɨɜɟɧɫɤɨɣɲɤɨɥɵɢɷɬɨɨɳɭɳɟ
ɧɢɟɝɚɪɦɨɧɢɢɫɨɫɜɨɢɦɜɪɟɦɟɧɟɦɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɥɨɜɩɥɨɬɶɞɨɯɤɨɝɞɚɩɨɫɬ
ɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɫɬɫɤɢɟɜɟɹɧɢɹɫɟɪɶɟɡɧɨɩɨɲɚɬɧɭɥɢɭɜɟɪɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɜɜɵɛɪɚɧɧɨɦɩɭɬɢ
ɇɨɜɫɟɱɬɨɤɚɫɚɥɨɫɶɩɨɫɬɦɨɞɟɪɧɚɨɤɚɡɚɥɨɫɶɩɨɦɧɟɧɢɸɆɚɧɤɨɩɮɚɨɱɟɧɶ
ɤɪɚɬɤɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɦɢɧɟɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɵɦɂɡɚɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɦɢɩɨɫɬɦɨɞɟɪɧɚɨɫɬɚɟɬɫɹɧɟ
ɦɚɥɨɦɭɡɵɤɢɧɟɨɬɜɟɱɚɸɳɟɣɷɬɢɦɤɪɢɬɟɪɢɹɦɁɞɟɫɶɆɚɧɤɨɩɮɩɨɦɢɦɨɫɟɛɹɫɚ
ɦɨɝɨɫɱɢɬɚɟɬɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɦɧɚɡɜɚɬɶɬɚɤɢɯɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɯɦɭɡɵɤɚɧɬɨɜɤɚɤɆɚɪɤ
ȺɧɞɪɟɊɢɱɚɪɞȻɚɪɪɟɬɬɉɶɟɪɥɭɢɞɠɢȻɢɥɥɨɧɟɏɚɹɑɟɪɧɨɜɢɧɋɟɛɚɫɬɢɚɧɄɥɚ
ɪɟɧɎɪɷɧɤɄɨɤɫɗɧɧɨɉɨɩɩɟȼɨɥɶɮɪɚɦɒɭɪɢɝɢɞɪɭɝɢɟ
ȼɫɟɯɢɯɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɹɟɬɧɟɩɪɢɹɬɢɟɬɟɯɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɨɜɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬɜɚɠ
ɧɨɟɹɞɪɨɩɨɫɬɦɨɞɟɪɧɚɨɛɢɥɶɧɨɟɰɢɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɚɤɰɟɧɬɧɚɢɪɨɧɢɢɢɩɚɪɨɞɢɢ
Ɉɩɟɪɚɢ©ɩɨɡɞɧɢɣɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɦª 
ɫɦɟɲɟɧɢɟ©ɜɵɫɨɤɢɯªɢ©ɧɢɡɤɢɯªɫɬɢɥɟɣ©ɩɪɨɫɬɨɟªɢ©ɧɚɢɜɧɨɟªɇɚɩɪɨɬɢɜ
ɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɟɣɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɨɣɞɥɹ©ɜɬɨɪɨɝɨɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɦɚªɫɱɢɬɚɟɬɫɹɬɹɝɨɬɟɧɢɟɤ
ɫɥɨɠɧɨɦɭɢ©ɫɜɟɪɯɫɥɨɠɧɨɦɭªɉɨɷɬɨɣɩɪɢɱɢɧɟɜɱɢɫɥɨ©ɧɨɜɵɯɦɨɞɟɪɧɢ
ɫɬɨɜªɃɏɺɣɫɥɟɪɜɤɥɸɱɚɟɬɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪȻɪɚɣɚɧɚɎɺɪɧɢɯɨɭ>@ɚȾɆɟɬɰɟɪ
ɞɨɛɚɜɥɹɟɬɏɟɥɶɦɭɬɚɅɚɯɟɧɦɚɧɚɢȾɶɺɪɞɹɅɢɝɟɬɢ>@
Ȼɪɢɬɚɧɫɤɢɟɭɱɟɧɵɟɧɟɦɟɧɟɟɢɧɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɨɨɛɫɭɠɞɚɸɬɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɭ©ɜɨɡɜɪɚɬɚ
ɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɦɚªȺɍɢɬɬɚɥɥ>@ɪɚɫɫɭɠɞɚɟɬɨɬɨɦɱɬɨɨɞɧɨɢɡɫɚɦɵɯɹɪɤɢɯɞɥɹ
ɫɜɨɟɝɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɢɩɪɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɣɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɦɚ²ɷɤɫɩɪɟɫɫɢɨɧɢɡɦɌɚɤɩɨɫɥɟ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɨɛɨɡɧɚɱɚɟɬɧɨɜɭɸɮɚɡɭ©ɷɤɫɩɪɟɫɫɢɨɧɢɡɦɚª²©ɝɢɩɟɪɷɤɫɩɪɟɫ
ɫɢɨɧɢɫɬɫɤɢɣɚɜɚɧɝɚɪɞªɋɜɹɡɵɜɚɹɷɤɫɩɪɟɫɫɢɨɧɢɡɦɫɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɦ©ɫɥɨɠɧɨɫɬɢª
ɩɢɫɶɦɚɍɢɬɬɚɥɥɨɬɦɟɱɚɟɬɟɝɨɨɩɨɪɧɵɟɬɨɱɤɢȼɟɛɟɪɧɢɒɺɧɛɟɪɝɷɩɨɯɢɯ
²ɞɚɪɦɲɬɚɞɫɤɢɣɚɜɚɧɝɚɪɞɯ²ɜɨɡɪɨɠɞɟɧɢɟɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɦɚɏɏɨɥɥɢɝɟ
ɪɨɦɏɅɚɯɟɧɦɚɧɧɨɦɢȻɎɺɪɧɢɯɨɭɇɚɷɬɨɦ©ɫɤɜɨɡɧɚɹɥɢɧɢɹªɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɦɚ
ɧɟɡɚɤɚɧɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɫɪɟɞɢɩɨɤɨɥɟɧɢɹ±ɯɬɚɤɠɟɟɫɬɶɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɵɫɬɪɟ
ɦɹɳɢɟɫɹɤɜɵɫɲɢɦɫɬɟɩɟɧɹɦɫɥɨɠɧɨɫɬɢȼɛɪɢɬɚɧɫɤɨɣɦɭɡɵɤɟɷɬɨɊɟɛɟɤɤɚ
ɋɨɧɞɟɪɫ ɪ ȾɠɟɣɦɫȾɢɥɥɚɧ ɪ ȾɠɟɣɦɫɄɥɚɪɤ ɪ Ⱦɢɚɥɨɝ
ɫɷɤɫɩɪɟɫɫɢɨɧɢɡɦɨɦɦɨɠɧɨɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɬɶɢɜɨɩɟɪɟɜɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢɜɨɩɟɪɟ©Ɇɢ
ɧɨɬɚɜɪªɏɚɪɪɢɫɨɧɚȻɺɪɬɭɢɫɥɚ  
ɋɚɦɚɢɞɟɹɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɚɨɛɪɚɬɢɬɶɫɹɤɦɢɮɭɨɆɢɧɨɬɚɜɪɟɜɵɡɵɜɚɟɬɨɝɪɨɦ
ɧɨɟɱɢɫɥɨɚɫɫɨɰɢɚɰɢɣɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɦɢɯɭɞɨɠɧɢɤɨɜɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɫɬɨɜɜɱɚɫɬɧɨ
ɫɬɢɫɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɵɦɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɫɬɫɤɢɦɠɭɪɧɚɥɨɦ©Ɇɢɧɨɬɚɜɪªɢɡɞɚɜɚɜɲɢɦɫɹɜɉɚ
ɪɢɠɟɜ±ɝɨɞɚɯɁɚɫɬɚɜɤɢɤɷɬɨɦɭɠɭɪɧɚɥɭɪɢɫɨɜɚɥɢɉɚɛɥɨɉɢɤɚɫɫɨ
ɊɟɧɟɆɚɝɪɢɬɬɋɚɥɶɜɚɞɨɪȾɚɥɢɆɚɤɫɗɪɧɫɬɉɨɞɜɥɢɹɧɢɟɦɮɢɥɨɫɨɮɫɤɢɯɢ
ɩɫɢɯɨɚɧɚɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɬɟɨɪɢɣɞɥɹɦɧɨɝɢɯɚɜɬɨɪɨɜ;;ɜɟɤɚɦɢɮɨɆɢɧɨɬɚɜɪɟ
ɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɡɢɪɭɟɬɛɥɭɠɞɚɧɢɹɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚɜɝɥɭɛɢɧɚɯɩɨɞɫɨɡɧɚɧɢɹɟɝɨɩɨɢɫɤɢɫɨɛ
ɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨ©ɹªɛɨɪɶɛɭɫɨɫɜɨɢɦɢɫɬɪɚɯɚɦɢɢɩɪɟɞɪɚɫɫɭɞɤɚɦɢ
ȼɟɫɶɷɬɨɬɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɢɞɟɣȻɺɪɬɭɢɫɥɢɟɝɨɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɢɫɬȾɷɜɢɞɏɚɪɫɟɧɬɩɟ
ɪɟɞɚɸɬɨɩɢɪɚɹɫɶɧɚɨɞɢɧɢɡɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɵɯɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɨɜɩɟɪɟɞɚɱɢɦɢɮɚɜɞɪɚɦɚɬɢ
ɱɟɫɤɨɣɛɚɥɥɚɞɟ©ɆɢɧɨɬɚɜɪªɲɜɟɣɰɚɪɫɤɨɝɨɩɢɫɚɬɟɥɹɎɪɢɞɪɢɯɚȾɸɪɪɟɧɦɚɬɬɚ
ȼɵɛɨɪɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɚɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨɧɟɫɥɭɱɚɟɧȾɸɪɪɟɧɦɚɬɬɤɚɤɪɚɡɢɟɫɬɶɩɪɟɞɫɬɚ
ɜɢɬɟɥɶɬɨɣɜɬɨɪɨɣɜɨɥɧɵɷɤɫɩɪɟɫɫɢɨɧɢɡɦɚɤɨɬɨɪɚɹɜɨɡɧɢɤɥɚɜɒɜɟɣɰɚɪɢɢ
ɩɨɫɥɟȼɬɨɪɨɣɦɢɪɨɜɨɣɜɨɣɧɵɜɩɨɥɧɟɨɪɝɚɧɢɱɧɨɫɨɟɞɢɧɢɜɨɛɳɟɟɨɳɭɳɟɧɢɟ
©ɩɨɫɥɟɜɨɟɧɧɨɣɬɪɚɜɦɵªɢɠɟɥɚɧɢɟɩɟɪɟɠɢɬɶɤɨɲɦɚɪɩɨɬɪɹɫɟɧɢɣȼɪɚɧɧɢɯ
ɪɚɫɫɤɚɡɚɯȾɸɪɪɟɧɦɚɬɬɚɨɬɦɟɱɚɸɬɜɥɢɹɧɢɟɪɚɧɧɢɯɪɚɫɫɤɚɡɨɜɎɪɚɧɰɚɄɚɮɤɢ
Ɍɟɦɚɫɭɞɶɛɵɫɬɨɥɶɠɟɛɟɫɫɦɵɫɥɟɧɧɨɣɫɤɨɥɶɢɧɟɨɬɜɪɚɬɢɦɨɣɫɬɚɥɚɨɞɧɨɣɢɡ
ɫɚɦɵɯɥɸɛɢɦɵɯɬɟɦɩɢɫɚɬɟɥɹ
ȼɵɛɨɪɬɟɤɫɬɚɞɥɹɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨɫɬɚɥɞɥɹȻɺɪɬɭɢɫɥɚɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɨɠɢɞɚɟɦɵɦɢ
ɧɟɡɚɩɥɚɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɦɋɨɞɧɨɣɫɬɨɪɨɧɵɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɜɫɟɝɞɚɬɹɝɨɬɟɥɤɦɢɮɭɨɱɟɦ
ɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɭɸɬɩɨɱɬɢɜɫɟɧɚɩɢɫɚɧɧɵɟɢɦɜɩɟɪɢɨɞ±ɯ©ɛɨɥɶɲɢɟªɨɩɟ
ɪɵ©ɉɚɧɱɢȾɠɭɞɢª©ɆɚɫɤɚɈɪɮɟɹª©Ƚɚɭɷɣɧª ɩɨɦɨɬɢɜɚɦɫɤɚɡɚɧɢɣɨɤɨɪɨɥɟ
ȺɪɬɭɪɟɢɪɵɰɚɪɹɯɄɪɭɝɥɨɝɨɫɬɨɥɚ ɋɞɪɭɝɨɣɫɬɨɪɨɧɵɫɚɦɚɹɤɪɭɩɧɚɹɟɝɨɨɩɟɪɚ
 Ɍȼɐɚɪɟɝɪɚɞɫɤɚɹ

©ɆɚɫɤɚɈɪɮɟɹªɨɛɥɚɞɚɥɚɹɪɤɨɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɧɨɣɩɨɫɬɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɫɬɫɤɨɣɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɤɨɣ©ɪɚ
ɡɨɪɜɚɧɧɵɣɧɚɪɪɚɬɢɜªɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨ©ɪɚɫɫɥɨɟɧɢɟªɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɟɣ ɬɚɤɈɪɮɟɣɗɜɪɢɞɢɤɚ
Ƚɚɞɟɫɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵɤɚɤɩɟɜɰɵɬɚɧɰɨɪɵɢɤɭɤɥɵɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨ ɦɧɨɝɨɤɪɚɬɧɵɣ
ɩɨɜɬɨɪɫɸɠɟɬɧɨɣɤɚɧɜɵɫɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɦɢɜɚɪɢɚɰɢɹɦɢɦɢɮɚ ɬɚɤɗɜɪɢɞɢɤɚɜ
ɨɞɧɨɣɫɰɟɧɟɭɦɢɪɚɟɬɩɪɨɫɬɨɨɬɭɤɭɫɚɡɦɟɢɜɞɪɭɝɨɣ²ɨɬɭɤɭɫɚɩɱɟɥɵɜɬɪɟɬɶɟɣ
²ɜɧɚɤɚɡɚɧɢɟɡɚɢɡɦɟɧɭɈɪɮɟɹɫȺɪɢɫɬɟɟɦɢɬɩ ©Ɇɢɧɨɬɚɜɪªɜɷɬɨɦɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɟ
ɜɩɨɥɧɟɥɨɝɢɱɧɨɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɟɬɤɚɤɟɳɟɨɞɢɧɞɪɟɜɧɟɝɪɟɱɟɫɤɢɣɦɢɮ²ɨɞɧɚɤɨɜɫɟɱɬɨ
ɦɨɝɥɨɛɵɛɵɬɶɫɜɹɡɚɧɨɫɩɨɫɬɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɦɨɦɡɞɟɫɶɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɭɟɬɧɚɪɪɚɬɢɜɩɨɫɥɟ
ɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɟɧɢɹɫɟɧɚɝɟɪɨɢ ȺɪɢɚɞɧɚɢɌɟɫɟɣ ɫɤɨɪɟɟɪɟɚɥɢɫɬɢɱɧɵɱɟɦɭɫɥɨɜɧɵ
ɐɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɣɢɞɟɟɣɨɩɟɪɵɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹɞɜɨɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɝɟɪɨɹ Ɇɢɧɨɬɚɜ
ɪɚ ɟɝɨɩɪɟɛɵɜɚɧɢɟɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɜɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɟɫɤɨɣɢɡɜɟɪɢɧɨɣɨɛɨɥɨɱɤɟɦɭ
ɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹɛɨɪɶɛɚɞɜɭɯɧɚɱɚɥɜɨɞɧɨɦɬɟɥɟ
ɇɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɟɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɟɣɞɪɚɦɵɝɥɚɜɧɨɝɨɝɟɪɨɹɪɚɡɞɜɨɟɧɢɟɟɝɨɥɢɱɧɨ
ɫɬɢɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɨɬɤɪɚɣɧɟɣɠɟɫɬɨɤɨɫɬɢ ɫɰɟɧɚɫɭɛɢɣɫɬɜɨɦɞɟɜɭɲɤɢɜɅɚɛɢɪɢɧ
ɬɟ ɤɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɟɫɤɨɣɪɟɮɥɟɤɫɢɢ ɞɢɚɥɨɝɢɫɨɬɪɚɠɟɧɢɟɦɜɡɟɪɤɚɥɟ ²ɜɨɜɫɟɦ
ɷɬɨɦɩɪɨɫɬɭɩɚɸɬɱɟɪɬɵɷɤɫɩɪɟɫɫɢɨɧɢɡɦɚɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɸɬɫɹɟɳɟɢɧɚ
ɭɪɨɜɧɟɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɹɡɵɤɚɄɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɩɨɫɨɛɩɢɫɶɦɚɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ
ɦɨɠɧɨɧɚɡɜɚɬɶɢɚɬɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɦɢɫɜɨɛɨɞɧɨɞɜɟɧɚɞɰɚɬɢɬɨɧɨɜɵɦ ɩɨɫɬɫɟɪɢɣ
ɧɵɦ ɱɬɨɜɵɡɵɜɚɟɬɚɫɫɨɰɢɚɰɢɢɫ©ȼɨɰɰɟɤɨɦªȺȻɟɪɝɚȼɨɡɧɢɤɚɟɬɩɨɱɜɚɞɥɹ
ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɹɝɥɚɜɧɨɝɨɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɚɨɩɟɪɵȻɺɪɬɭɢɫɥɚɫɝɟɪɨɟɦȻɟɪɝɚɨɛɚɧɚɯɨɞɹɬ
ɫɹɜɨɜɥɚɫɬɢɢɪɪɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɱɬɨɨɬɪɚɠɚɟɬɫɹɜɩɨɞɨɛɧɨɦ©ɩɨɬɨɤɭɫɨɡɧɚɧɢɹª
ɧɟɩɪɟɪɵɜɧɨɦɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɢɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɣɦɚɬɟɪɢɢ
ɋɝɭɳɟɧɧɚɹɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɚɹɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɚɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɹɟɬɫɹɢɧɚɞɪɭɝɢɟɩɟɪ
ɫɨɧɚɠɢȺɪɢɚɞɧɚɢɫɩɵɬɵɜɚɟɬɰɟɥɵɣɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɫɥɨɠɧɵɯɱɭɜɫɬɜɨɧɚɫɬɵɞɢɬɫɹ
ɫɜɨɟɝɨɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɹɢɨɬɜɪɚɬɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨɩɚɞɟɧɢɹɟɟɦɚɬɟɪɢɜɟɞɶɩɨɥɟɝɟɧ
ɞɟɦɚɬɶȺɪɢɚɞɧɵɰɚɪɢɰɚɉɚɫɢɮɚɹɨɬɞɚɥɚɫɶɛɟɥɨɦɭɛɵɤɭɧɟɫɞɟɪɠɚɜɩɨɯɨɬɢ
ɱɬɨɢɩɪɢɜɟɥɨɤɪɨɠɞɟɧɢɸɟɟɟɞɢɧɨɭɬɪɨɛɧɨɝɨɛɪɚɬɚȺɫɬɟɪɢɨɫɚ Ɇɢɧɨɬɚɜɪɚ 
Ⱥɪɢɚɞɧɚɨɛɪɟɱɟɧɚɤɚɠɞɵɣɝɨɞɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɬɶɧɟɜɢɧɧɵɯɸɧɨɲɟɣɢɞɟɜɭɲɟɤɩɪɢ
ɧɨɫɢɦɵɯɜɠɟɪɬɜɭɆɢɧɨɬɚɜɪɭɢɩɪɨɜɨɠɚɬɶɢɯɜɅɚɛɢɪɢɧɬɱɬɨɧɟɜɵɧɨɫɢɦɨɬɹ
ɝɨɬɢɬɟɟ©Ʉɪɢɬ²ɦɨɹɤɥɟɬɤɚª²ɩɨɟɬɨɧɚɈɧɚɫɬɪɚɫɬɧɨɯɨɱɟɬɢɡɛɟɠɚɬɶɫɜɨɟɣ
ɫɭɞɶɛɵɱɬɨɢɬɨɥɤɚɟɬɟɟɤɌɟɫɟɸɌɟɫɟɣɠɟɬɨɠɟɩɨɝɥɨɳɟɧɫɥɨɠɧɨɣɞɢɥɟɦɦɨɣ
Ⱥɫɬɟɪɢɨɫɢɟɦɭɩɪɢɯɨɞɢɬɫɹɪɨɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɢɤɨɦɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭɩɨɨɞɧɨɣɢɡɜɟɪɫɢɣɢ
ɌɟɫɟɣɢɆɢɧɨɬɚɜɪɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɹɬɨɬɨɞɧɨɝɨɨɬɰɚ²ɦɨɪɫɤɨɝɨɰɚɪɹɉɨɫɟɣɞɨɧɚɂ
ɤɚɤɩɢɲɟɬɫɚɦȻɺɪɬɭɢɫɥ©ɧɟɩɨɧɹɬɧɨɤɬɨɡɞɟɫɶɭɠɚɫɧɵɣɡɜɟɪɶɆɢɧɨɬɚɜɪɥɢ
ɧɟɦɨɟɱɭɞɨɜɢɳɟɨɛɪɟɱɟɧɧɨɟɫɭɞɶɛɨɣɪɚɡɪɵɜɚɬɶɜɤɪɨɜɶɬɟɥɚɠɟɪɬɜɌɟɫɟɣɥɢ
ɝɟɪɨɣɫɨɡɧɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɢɞɭɳɢɣɧɚɭɛɢɣɫɬɜɨɫɜɨɟɝɨɟɞɢɧɨɤɪɨɜɧɨɝɨɛɪɚɬɚª>@
Ƚɟɪɨɢɡɚɩɟɪɬɵɜɫɜɨɢɯɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚɯɤɚɤɜɥɚɛɢɪɢɧɬɟɢɬɪɚɝɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɤɪɨɜɚɜɚɹɪɚɡ
ɜɹɡɤɚɧɚɫɰɟɧɟ ɌɟɫɟɣɭɛɢɜɚɟɬɆɢɧɨɬɚɜɪɚ ɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹɧɟɟɞɢɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ ɤɚɤ
ɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɨɌɟɫɟɣɧɟɫɦɟɧɢɥɱɟɪɧɵɟɩɚɪɭɫɚɧɚɛɟɥɵɟɤɚɤɩɪɨɫɢɥɟɝɨɨɛɷɬɨɦɟɝɨ
ɡɟɦɧɨɣɨɬɟɰɗɝɟɣɜɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟɱɟɝɨɗɝɟɣɛɪɨɫɚɟɬɫɹɫɨɫɤɚɥɵȺɪɢɚɞɧɚɩɨɨɞ
ɧɨɣɢɡɜɟɪɫɢɣɛɭɞɟɬɩɨɤɢɧɭɬɚɌɟɫɟɟɦɧɚɇɚɤɫɨɫɟɢɭɦɪɟɬ 
Ɉɩɟɪɚɢ©ɩɨɡɞɧɢɣɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɦª 
ɋɩɢɫɨɤɩɪɢɦɟɪɨɜɦɨɠɧɨɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɢɬɶɉɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɢɰɚɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɨɣ
ɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɫɤɨɣɥɢɧɢɢɄɚɣɹɋɚɚɪɢɚɯɨɢɜɵɞɚɸɳɢɣɫɹɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɢɣɤɨɦɩɨɡɢ
ɬɨɪɋɚɥɶɜɚɬɨɪɟɒɶɹɪɪɢɧɨɜɫɜɨɢɯɡɧɚɤɨɜɵɯɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɯɪɭɛɟɠɚ;;±;;,
ɜɟɤɨɜɨɛɪɚɳɚɸɬɫɹɤɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɫɬɫɤɨɣɷɫɬɟɬɢɤɟɦɚɥɨɤɬɨɢɡɤɪɢɬɢɤɨɜɭɞɟɪɠɚɥ
ɫɹɨɬɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɹɨɩɟɪɵɋɚɚɪɢɚɯɨ©Ʌɸɛɨɜɶɢɡɞɚɥɟɤɚªɫ©ɉɟɥɥɟɚɫɨɦɢɆɟɥɢ
ɡɚɧɞɨɣªɄȾɟɛɸɫɫɢɚɨɩɟɪɵ©Ʌɠɢɜɵɣɫɜɟɬɬɜɨɢɯɨɱɟɣªɒɶɹɪɪɢɧɨɜɧɨɜɶ
ɫ©ȼɨɰɰɟɤɨɦª
ɁɧɚɦɟɧɢɬɵɣɚɦɟɪɢɤɚɧɫɤɢɣɦɭɡɵɤɨɜɟɞɋɸɡɚɧɆɚɤɄɥɚɪɢɡɚɦɟɱɚɟɬ©Ʉɨɝ
ɞɚɹɧɚɱɢɧɚɥɚɩɢɫɚɬɶɩɪɨɩɨɫɬɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɦɹɞɭɦɚɥɚɱɬɨɦɵɹɜɥɹɟɦɫɹɫɜɢɞɟɬɟ
ɥɹɦɢɪɚɡɪɵɜɚɫɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɫɬɫɤɨɣɬɪɚɟɤɬɨɪɢɟɣ«!ɂɩɨɷɬɨɦɭɤɚɠɟɬɫɹɫɬɪɚɧ
ɧɵɦɱɬɨɩɨɫɥɟɫɬɨɥɶɤɢɯɷɩɢɡɨɞɨɜɪɟɲɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨɪɚɡɪɵɜɚɫɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɟɣɫɧɨɜɚ
ɩɨɩɚɞɚɟɲɶɜɨɛɴɹɬɢɹɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɦɚ«!
ɌɚɤɢɟɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɵɤɚɤɋɚɚɪɢɚɯɨȻɟɧɞɠɚɦɟɧɢɒɶɹɪɪɢɧɨɨɬɞɚɥɢɞɨɥɠ
ɧɨɟɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɦɭ«ɇɚɲɢ³ɩɨɫɬɩɨɫɬɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɫɬɫɤɢɟɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɫɬɵ´ɪɟɲɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ
ɧɚɩɨɦɢɧɚɸɬɧɚɦɨɛɷɫɬɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɛɨɝɚɬɫɬɜɟɫɜɨɢɯɩɪɟɞɲɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɢɤɨɜɨɫɨɛɟɧ
ɧɨɨɛɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɚɯɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɥɨɡɚɛɵɬɶɧɨɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɛɟɡ
ɫɬɟɫɧɟɧɢɹɩɪɨɪɨɫɥɢɜɧɨɜɨɣɦɭɡɵɤɟª>@
ɉɨɞɜɟɞɟɦɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɢɬɨɝɢɆɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɦɨɤɚɡɚɥɫɹɧɟɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɨɠɢɡɧɟ
ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɵɦɹɜɥɟɧɢɟɦɂɧɚɜɟɪɧɨɟɩɪɚɜɛɵɥɘɏɚɛɟɪɦɚɫɤɨɝɞɚɜɩɪɨ
ɜɢɞɱɟɫɤɢɧɚɡɜɚɥɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɦ©ɧɟɡɚɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɵɦɩɪɨɟɤɬɨɦª>@
ɉɨɡɞɧɢɣɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɦɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɨɬɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɟɛɹɨɬɩɨɫɬɦɨɞɟɪɧɚɩɪɢɡɧɚ
ɟɬɩɪɚɜɨɦɭɡɵɤɢɧɚɢɫɬɢɧɧɨɫɬɶɈɧɧɚɫɥɟɞɭɟɬɜɟɫɶɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɦɭɡɵ
ɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɦɚɧɨɫɬɟɦɭɫɥɨɜɢɟɦɱɬɨɜɫɟɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɹɤɥɚɫɫɢɱɟɫɤɨ
ɝɨɦɨɞɟɪɧɢɡɦɚɚɜɚɧɝɚɪɞɚɩɨɫɬɦɨɞɟɪɧɚɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɸɬɫɹɩɨɞɡɧɚɤɨɦɩɨɢɫɤɚ
ɢɫɬɢɧɧɨɝɨɜɵɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɧɢɹɋɨɯɪɚɧɹɹɜɟɪɭɜɷɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɢɢɧɧɨɜɚɰɢɢ©ɩɨɡɞ
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ɠɟɦɩɟɪɟɠɢɬɶ ɢɧɚɫɥɚɞɢɬɶɫɹɩɟɪɟɠɢɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɬɟɯɱɭɜɫɬɜɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɩɭɫɬɶɨɧɢɢ
ɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹɤ;9,,;9,,,;,;;;ɜɟɤɚɦɬɟɦɧɟɦɟɧɟɟɬɪɨɝɚɸɬɧɚɫȼɫɩɨɫɨɛ
ɧɨɫɬɢ©ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɶªɫɬɪɚɫɬɢɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɹɸɬɫɹɜɫɟɮɚɤɬɨɪɵɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɢɟɮɟɧɨ
ɦɟɧɨɩɟɪɵɞɪɚɦɚɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨɦɢɡɚɧɫɰɟɧɚ ɫɟɝɨɞɧɹɟɳɟɢɪɟɠɢɫɫɭɪɚ ɩɪɨɞɸɫɢ
ɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɚɹɮɨɪɦɚɩɨɞɱɢɧɟɧɧɚɹɫɬɪɨɝɢɦɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɦɡɚɤɨɧɚɦɢ
ODVWEXWQRWOHDVW²ɜɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɟɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɨɄɚɠɞɵɣɢɡɷɬɢɯɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜɞɨɥɠɟɧɢɡɭ
ɱɚɬɶɫɹLX[WDSURSULDSULQFLSLD ɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɨɫɜɨɢɦɡɚɤɨɧɚɦ ɧɨɧɟɢɡɨɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɚɜ
ɫɨɜɨɤɭɩɧɨɫɬɢɢɜɤɨɧɤɭɪɟɧɰɢɢɫɨɜɫɟɦɢɞɪɭɝɢɦɢɮɚɤɬɨɪɚɦɢɗɬɨɢɟɫɬɶɨɫɧɨɜ
ɧɚɹɢɞɟɹɞɚɧɧɨɝɨɦɟɠɞɢɫɰɢɩɥɢɧɚɪɧɨɝɨɫɢɦɩɨɡɢɭɦɚ
Ɇɵɭɬɜɟɪɠɞɚɟɦɱɬɨɨɩɟɪɚɟɟɚɧɚɥɢɡɞɨɥɠɧɚɛɵɬɶɪɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɚɫɩɨɡɢɰɢɣ
ɟɳɟɨɞɧɨɣɞɢɫɰɢɩɥɢɧɵɩɟɞɚɝɨɝɢɤɢɁɧɚɧɢɟɨɩɟɪɧɨɝɨɬɟɚɬɪɚɦɨɠɟɬɩɪɢɧɟɫɬɢ
ɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɭɸɩɨɥɶɡɭɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɸɧɚɲɢɯɦɨɥɨɞɵɯɝɪɚɠɞɚɧɯɨɬɹɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɚɹ
ɦɨɥɨɞɟɠɶɜɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦɜɵɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɟɬɞɢɫɬɚɧɰɢɸɩɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɸɤɷɬɨɦɭɠɚɧɪɭ
²ɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɦɭɢɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɦɭɈɞɧɚɤɨɤɨɝɞɚɭɱɟɧɢɤɢɭɡɧɚ
ɸɬɟɝɨɬɨɩɪɨɧɢɤɚɸɬɫɹɷɧɬɭɡɢɚɡɦɨɦɢɦɟɧɧɨɜɫɢɥɭɩɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɹɜɨɩɥɨɳɟɧɧɨ
ɝɨɨɩɵɬɚɚɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɣɢɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɢɩɨɦɟɳɟɧɧɨɝɨɜɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧ
ɧɵɟɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɢɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɟɪɚɦɤɢȼɧɚɲɟɣɫɬɚɬɶɟɢɡɭɱɚɹɬɪɢɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɵɯ
ɜɫɟɦɩɪɢɦɟɪɚ ɞɭɷɬɵɢɡɨɩɟɪ©ɋɜɚɞɶɛɚɎɢɝɚɪɨª©ȿɜɝɟɧɢɣɈɧɟɝɢɧª©Ʌɸɱɢɹɞɢ
Ʌɚɦɦɟɪɦɭɪªɦɵɩɨɫɬɚɪɚɟɦɫɹɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɶɤɚɤɜɨɫɩɢɬɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɩɨɬɟɧɰɢɚɥɬɚɤ
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ɚɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɣɭɩɪɟɤ ɜɩɪɨɱɟɦɥɟɠɚɳɢɣɧɚɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢ ɱɬɨɨɩɟɪɧɵɟ
ɬɟɚɬɪɵɩɪɟɜɪɚɬɢɥɢɫɶɜɦɭɡɟɢɝɞɟɫɨɡɟɪɰɚɟɬɫɹɩɪɨɲɥɨɟɜɢɞɧɵɣɢɬɚ
ɥɶɹɧɫɤɢɣɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɣɤɪɢɬɢɤɎɟɞɟɥɟɞ¶Ⱥɦɢɤɨɨɬɜɟɬɢɥ©Ɇɭɡɟɢɧɭɠ
ɧɵɧɚɦɂɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɬɚɤɚɹɫɭɞɶɛɚɩɨɫɬɢɝɥɚɢɨɩɟɪɧɭɸɦɭɡɵɤɭªɈɩɟɪɧɨɟ
ɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɨ²ɭɞɢɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹɯɭɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɚɹɧɚɯɨɞɤɚɫɨɩɪɨɜɨɠɞɚɸɳɚɹɧɚɫ
ɛɨɥɟɟɱɟɬɵɪɟɯɫɬɨɥɟɬɢɣ²ɢɟɫɬɶɩɪɟɠɞɟɜɫɟɝɨɦɭɡɟɣ²ɫɬɪɚɫɬɟɣɚɮɮɟɤ
ɬɨɜɱɭɜɫɬɜɷɦɨɰɢɣɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɯɜɠɢɜɨɣɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɫɥɨɜɧɨ
ɨɧɢɜɫɩɵɯɢɜɚɸɬɩɪɹɦɨɭɧɚɫɧɚɝɥɚɡɚɯɩɟɪɟɞɧɚɲɢɦɭɲɚɦɡɚɯɜɚɬɵɜɚɹɧɚɫ
ɂɡɨɦɨɪɮɢɡɦɦɟɠɞɭɜɵɪɚɡɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɸɦɭɡɵɤɢ ɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɣɮɨɪɦɵ ɢ
ɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɨɣ²ɤɥɸɱɟɜɨɣɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɷɬɨɣɫɢɥɵȻɥɚɝɨɞɚɪɹɨɩɟɪɧɨ
ɦɭɬɟɚɬɪɭɦɵɦɨɠɟɦɩɟɪɟɠɢɬɶɬɟɱɭɜɫɬɜɚ ɢɧɚɫɥɚɞɢɬɶɫɹɩɟɪɟɠɢɜɚɧɢɟɦ ɤɨɬɨ
ɪɵɟɩɭɫɬɶɨɧɢɢɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹɤ;9,,;9,,,;,;;;ɜɟɤɚɦɬɟɦɧɟɦɟɧɟɟɬɪɨ
ɝɚɸɬɧɚɫɇɚɲɢɪɟɰɟɩɬɨɪɵɮɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɪɟɚɝɢɪɭɸɬɧɚɞɜɨɣɧɨɣɜɵɡɨɜȿɫɥɢɫ
ɨɞɧɨɣɫɬɨɪɨɧɵɨɧɢɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬɫɨɛɨɣ ɫɢɥɶɧɨɨɝɪɭɛɥɹɹ ɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɛɢɨɥɨ
ɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɷɜɨɥɸɰɢɢɜɢɞɨɜɢɡɦɟɪɹɟɦɨɣɬɵɫɹɱɟɥɟɬɢɹɦɢ²ɬɟɞɨɥɝɨɝɨɨɱɟɧɶ
ɞɨɥɝɨɝɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɢɬɨɫɞɪɭɝɨɣ²ɢɯɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɫɢɥɶɧɨɨɛɭɫɥɨɜɥɟɧɨɢɫɬɨ
ɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢɢɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɦɢɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɚɦɢɇɚɩɟɪɜɵɣɜɡɝɥɹɞɥɸɛɨɜɶɂɡɨɥɶɞɵɢ
Ɍɪɢɫɬɚɧɚɜɞɪɚɦɟȼɚɝɧɟɪɚ ɢɥɢɜɩɨɷɦɟȽɨɬɮɪɢɞɚɋɬɪɚɫɛɭɪɝɫɤɨɝɨ ɧɟɫɨɢɡɦɟ
ɪɢɦɚɫɱɭɜɫɬɜɚɦɢɸɧɨɣɩɚɪɵɩɨɹɜɢɜɲɟɣɫɹɧɚɫɜɟɬɩɨɫɥɟɝɨɞɚɂɬɟɦɧɟ
ɦɟɧɟɟɨɩɵɬɥɸɛɨɜɧɨɣɫɬɪɚɫɬɢɡɚɩɨɥɵɯɚɜɲɟɣ²ɜɫɟɪɚɜɧɨɫɟɝɨɞɧɹɢɥɢɬɨɝ
ɞɚ²ɧɟɪɚɡɥɢɱɚɟɬɫɹɪɚɞɢɤɚɥɶɧɨɜɫɜɨɟɣɩɫɢɯɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɟ

ɈɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɢɡɚɫɥɭɝɚɯɤɪɢɬɢɤɚɢɭɱɟɧɨɝɨɎɞ¶Ⱥɦɢɤɨɫɦ>@
Ɉɩɟɪɧɨɟɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɨɜɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɢɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɞɢɞɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɜɵɡɨɜ 
ȼɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɢ©ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɶªɫɬɪɚɫɬɢɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɹɸɬɫɹɜɫɟɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚɫɨ
ɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɢɟɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɨɩɟɪɵɞɪɚɦɚɩɨɧɢɦɚɟɦɚɹɤɚɤɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɤɨɧɮɥɢɤ
ɬɚɜɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɢ ɜɩɟɪɜɭɸɨɱɟɪɟɞɶɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɚɱɭɜɫɬɜ ɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨɤɚɤ
ɩɨɷɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚɨɬɜɟɱɚɸɳɚɹɡɚɪɚɡɜɟɪɬɵɜɚɧɢɟɫɸɠɟɬɚɜɥɨɝɢɤɟɬɟɚ
ɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɣɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵɦɢɡɚɧɫɰɟɧɚ ɫɟɝɨɞɧɹɟɳɟɢɪɟɠɢɫɫɭɪɚ ɪɟɚɥɢɡɭɸɳɚɹ
ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɜɠɟɫɬɚɯɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹɯɨɫɜɟɳɟɧɢɢɫɰɟɧɨɝɪɚɮɢɢɩɪɨɞɸɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ
ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɸɳɟɟɜɵɛɨɪɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɟɣɢɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɟɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɨɤɫɜɹɡɵɜɚɹɜɫɟɯ²
ɨɬɡɚɤɚɡɱɢɤɨɜɞɨɚɜɬɨɪɨɜɡɪɢɬɟɥɟɣɜɡɚɥɟɢɢɦɩɪɟɫɚɪɢɨɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɚɹɮɨɪɦɚ
ɩɨɞɱɢɧɟɧɧɚɹɫɬɪɨɝɢɦɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɦɡɚɤɨɧɚɦɢODVWEXWQRWOHDVW²ɜɨɤɚɥɶ
ɧɨɟɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɨɟɫɥɢɩɪɚɜɞɚɬɨɱɬɨ©ɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɜɨɩɟɪɟ²ɷɬɨɟɝɨɝɨɥɨɫª ɜɫɟ
ɬɨɬɠɟɎɞ¶Ⱥɦɢɤɨ ɄɚɠɞɨɟɢɡɷɬɢɯɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɞɨɥɠɧɨɢɡɭɱɚɬɶɫɹLX[WDSURSULD
SULQFLSLD ɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɨɫɜɨɢɦɡɚɤɨɧɚɦ ɧɨɧɟɢɡɨɥɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɚɜɫɨɜɨɤɭɩɧɨɫɬɢɢ
ɜɤɨɧɤɭɪɟɧɰɢɢɫɨɜɫɟɦɢɞɪɭɝɢɦɢɮɚɤɬɨɪɚɦɢɗɬɨɢɟɫɬɶɨɫɧɨɜɧɚɹɢɞɟɹɫɟɝɨɞ
ɧɹɲɧɟɝɨɦɟɠɞɢɫɰɢɩɥɢɧɚɪɧɨɝɨɫɢɦɩɨɡɢɭɦɚɈɧɩɪɢɡɵɜɚɟɬɤ©ɤɨɧɰɟɪɬɭªɪɚɡ
ɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɯɞɢɫɰɢɩɥɢɧɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɵɯɫɥɭɲɚɬɶɞɪɭɝɞɪɭɝɚɢɜɫɬɭɩɚɬɶɜɞɢɚɥɨɝ
ɬɟɨɪɢɸɞɪɚɦɵɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɧɭɸɤɪɢɬɢɤɭɪɚɡɞɟɥɫɰɟɧɨɝɪɚɮɢɢɜɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɨɜɟɞɟ
ɧɢɢɬɟɚɬɪɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɟɫɨɰɢɨɥɨɝɢɸɢɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɢɫɬɨɪɢɸɢɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɦɭ
ɡɵɤɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɟɢɢɫɬɨɪɢɸɦɭɡɵɤɢ
Ɇɵɛɟɪɟɦɫɹɭɬɜɟɪɠɞɚɬɶɱɬɨɨɩɟɪɚɢɟɟɚɧɚɥɢɡɞɨɥɠɧɵɛɵɬɶɪɚɫɫɦɨ
ɬɪɟɧɵɟɳɟɨɞɧɨɣɞɢɫɰɢɩɥɢɧɨɣɩɟɞɚɝɨɝɢɤɨɣɁɧɚɧɢɟɨɩɟɪɧɨɝɨɬɟɚɬɪɚɦɨɠɟɬ
ɩɪɢɧɟɫɬɢɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɭɸɩɨɥɶɡɭɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɸɩɨɞɪɚɫɬɚɸɳɟɝɨɩɨɤɨɥɟɧɢɹɯɨɬɹ
ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɚɹɦɨɥɨɞɟɠɶɜɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦɜɵɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɟɬɞɢɫɬɚɧɰɢɸɩɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɸ
ɤɷɬɨɦɭɠɚɧɪɭ²ɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɦɭɢɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɦɭɈɞɧɚɤɨɤɨɝ
ɞɚɭɱɟɧɢɤɢɜɧɢɤɚɸɬɜɧɟɝɨɬɨɩɪɨɧɢɤɚɸɬɫɹɷɧɬɭɡɢɚɡɦɨɦɧɚɱɢɧɚɹɩɨɫɬɢɝɚɬɶ
ɨɩɵɬɚɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɣɢɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɢɩɨɦɟɳɟɧɧɵɣɜɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɟ
ɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɟɪɚɦɤɢɧɨɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɣɜɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ
ɫɰɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɫɨɛɵɬɢɹ
Ⱦɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɥɢɭɦɟɫɬɧɨɜɜɟɫɬɢɨɩɟɪɭɜɲɤɨɥɶɧɵɣɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɫɨɛɪɚ
ɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣɰɟɥɶɸ"ɇɚɧɚɲɜɡɝɥɹɞɩɪɹɦɨɣɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɫɧɟɣɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɟɧɧɵɣ
ɨɫɨɡɧɚɧɧɨɢɜɞɭɦɱɢɜɨɜɮɨɪɦɟɩɪɟɞɜɚɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɬɳɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɪɚɡɴɹɫɧɟɧɧɨɝɨɩɪɨ
ɫɥɭɲɢɜɚɧɢɹɢɩɪɨɫɦɨɬɪɚɦɨɠɟɬɩɨɡɜɨɥɢɬɶɫɬɭɞɟɧɬɚɦ ɩɪɢɱɟɦɥɸɛɨɝɨɩɪɨ
ɮɢɥɹ ɜɨɩɟɪɜɵɯɨɳɭɬɢɬɶɜɫɟɛɟɷɦɨɰɢɸɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɸɳɭɸɨɛɵɱɧɨɫɩɨɧɬɚɧ
ɧɨɜɨɜɬɨɪɵɯɨɫɨɡɧɚɬɶɟɟ²ɢɞɢɫɬɚɧɰɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɫɹɨɬɧɟɟɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɹɫɥɨɜɧɨɫɨ
ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵɧɚɤɨɧɟɰɩɨɦɟɫɬɢɬɶɷɬɭɷɦɨɰɢɸɜɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɭɸɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɭɸɩɟɪ
ɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɭɢɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɣɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɩɪɢɫɜɚɢɜɚɹɟɟɢɫɚɦɨɦɭɫɟɛɟ
ɗɬɨɬɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɩɪɢɫɜɨɟɧɢɹɢɞɢɫɬɚɧɰɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹɜɨɞɧɨɢɬɨɠɟɜɪɟɦɹɜɨɡ
ɧɢɤɚɟɬɛɥɚɝɨɞɚɪɹɞɜɭɦɮɚɤɬɨɪɚɦɨɫɧɨɜɨɩɨɥɚɝɚɸɳɢɦɞɥɹɦɭɡɵɤɢ²ɩɪɢɱɟɦ
ɧɟɬɨɥɶɤɨɨɩɟɪɧɨɣɋɨɞɧɨɣɫɬɨɪɨɧɵɦɭɡɵɤɚɨɛɥɚɞɚɟɬɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶɸ©ɜɨɫɫɨɡ
ɞɚɜɚɬɶªɱɭɜɫɬɜɚɤɚɤɟɫɥɢɛɵɨɧɢɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɥɢɡɞɟɫɶɢɫɟɣɱɚɫɢɫɥɨɜɧɨɜɧɭ
ɬɪɢɧɚɫɋɞɪɭɝɨɣ²ɷɬɨ©ɜɨɫɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɟªɜɨɩɥɨɳɚɟɬɫɹɜɪɟɚɥɶɧɵɯɢɮɢɡɢɱɟɫɤɢ

Ɋɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɢɸɨɩɟɪɵɜɚɫɩɟɤɬɟɩɟɞɚɝɨɝɢɤɢɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɨɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɟɢɡɞɚɧɢɟ>@
 ɅȻɶɹɧɤɨɧɢȾɠɅɚɎɚɱɟ

ɨɳɭɬɢɦɵɯɧɚɲɢɦɫɥɭɯɨɦɮɨɪɦɚɯɋɪɟɞɢɜɫɟɯɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɯɠɚɧɪɨɜɨɩɟɪɚ
ɬɟɫɧɨɫɩɥɟɬɚɸɳɚɹɫɥɨɜɨɦɭɡɵɤɭɫɰɟɧɭɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɩɪɨɹɜɥɹɟɬɷɬɭɫɢɥɭɫɚɦɵɦ
ɩɨɤɨɪɹɸɳɢɦɢɡɚɯɜɚɬɵɜɚɸɳɢɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɦɂɟɫɥɢɨɩɟɪɧɵɣɬɟɚɬɪɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɟɬ
ɭɠɟɱɟɬɵɪɟɫɬɨɥɟɬɢɹɧɟɩɨɞɚɜɚɹɡɚɦɟɬɧɵɯɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɨɜɡɚɤɚɬɚɬɨɷɬɨɤɚɤɪɚɡ
ɫɜɹɡɚɧɨɫɟɝɨɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶɸɩɪɟɩɨɞɧɨɫɢɬɶɜɩɨɱɬɢɧɚɝɥɹɞɧɨɣɩɥɚɫɬɢɤɟɨɱɟ
ɜɢɞɧɨɣɢɩɥɟɧɹɸɳɟɣɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɭɫɬɪɚɫɬɟɣɢɛɟɫɤɨɧɟɱɧɵɟɧɸɚɧɫɵɩɫɢɯɢɤɢɢ
ɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨ²ɜɥɚɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɢɦɢɉɨɷɬɨɦɭɨɩɟɪɚɩɭɫɬɶɧɟɜɫɟɷɬɨɨɫɨɡɧɚ
ɸɬɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɥɚɢɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɚɟɬɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɬɶɮɭɧɤɰɢɸɦɨɳɧɨɣ©ɲɤɨɥɵɱɭɜɫɬɜª
ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɨɜɚɧɧɨɣ>@
ȼɨɛɥɚɫɬɢɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɹɪɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɢɟɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɯɮɨɪɦɛɨɥɟɟɢɥɢɦɟ
ɧɟɟɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯɢɥɢɨɛɭɱɟɧɢɟɧɚɜɵɤɭɪɚɫɩɨɡɧɚɜɚɬɶɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɟ
ɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɟɩɪɢɟɦɵɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬɭɱɚɳɢɦɫɹɜɤɥɸɱɢɬɶɫɹɜɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɭɸ
ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɸɢɩɟɪɟɠɢɬɶɜɵɬɟɤɚɸɳɢɟɢɡɧɟɟɤɨɝɧɢɬɢɜɧɵɟɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɹɗɬɨɩɨ
ɛɭɠɞɚɟɬɢɯɤɧɚɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɸɧɚɞɫɜɨɢɦɢɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɢɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɦɢɞɜɢɠɟɧɢ
ɹɦɢɢɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɤɢɯɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɸȾɥɹɨɛɥɟɝɱɟɧɢɹɡɚɞɚɱɢɥɭɱɲɟɛɭɞɟɬɜɵ
ɛɪɚɬɶɩɨɧɚɱɚɥɭɨɩɟɪɧɵɟɮɪɚɝɦɟɧɬɵɜɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɚɹɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɰɢɹɹɫɧɨ
ɩɪɨɱɟɪɱɢɜɚɟɬɩɫɢɯɢɱɟɫɤɭɸɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɸɌɨɥɶɤɨɩɨɫɥɟɷɬɨɝɨɦɨɠɧɨɛɪɚɬɶɫɹɡɚ
ɷɩɢɡɨɞɵɜɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɚɹɢɝɪɚɢɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬ
ɤɚɠɭɬɫɹɛɨɥɟɟɫɥɨɠɧɵɦɢɢɥɢɦɟɧɟɟɨɞɧɨɡɧɚɱɧɵɦɢɉɪɢɜɟɞɟɦɜɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟɩɪɢ
ɦɟɪɨɜɜɫɟɦɧɚɦɯɨɪɨɲɨɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɵɯɬɪɢɨɩɟɪɧɵɟɞɭɷɬɚɩɪɟɤɪɚɫɧɨɩɨɞɯɨɞɹ
ɳɢɟɞɥɹɱɟɬɤɨɝɨɜɵɹɜɥɟɧɢɹɢɨɛɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɹɧɚɭɪɨɤɚɯɩɪɨɰɟɞɭɪɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɦɵɯ
ɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɨɦɩɪɢɜɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɢɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɨɣɩɫɢɯɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢɢɞɥɹ
ɞɟɦɨɧɫɬɪɚɰɢɢɬɨɝɨɤɚɤɢɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɦɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɚɹɮɨɪɦɚɧɚɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɟɬɩɟɱɚɬɶ
ɧɚɟɟɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɉɟɪɜɵɟɞɜɚɜɡɹɬɵɟɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɢɡ©ɋɜɚɞɶɛɵɎɢ
ɝɚɪɨªɆɨɰɚɪɬɚɢ©ȿɜɝɟɧɢɹɈɧɟɝɢɧɚªɑɚɣɤɨɜɫɤɨɝɨɢɦɟɸɬɩɨɞɜɚɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɚ
ɱɶɢɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɣɛɥɢɡɤɢɢɬɟɦɫɚɦɵɦɩɚɪɢɬɟɬɧɵɯɨɬɹɝɟɪɨɢɢ
ɧɚɯɨɞɹɬɫɹɜɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɟɞɪɭɝɫɞɪɭɝɨɦȼɬɪɟɬɶɟɦɞɭɷɬɟɜɡɹɬɨɦɢɡ©Ʌɸɱɢɢɞɢ
ɅɚɦɦɟɪɦɭɪªȾɨɧɢɰɟɬɬɢɞɜɚɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɚɫɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵɜɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯɷɦɨɰɢɨ
ɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɚɧɬɚɝɨɧɢɡɦɚȼɨɜɫɟɯɬɪɟɯɞɭɷɬɚɯ²ɫɜɨɟɝɨɪɨɞɚɬɪɟɯ©ɞɭɷɥɹɯª²
ɨɬɩɪɚɜɧɚɹɬɨɱɤɚɟɞɢɧɚɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹɦɟɠɞɭɞɜɭɦɹɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɚɦɢɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶ
ɧɵɟɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢɨɞɧɚɤɨɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɨɪɚɡɧɵɟ
ȼ©ɋɜɚɞɶɛɟɎɢɝɚɪɨª²ɷɬɨɣɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɣɤɨɦɟɞɢɢȾɚɉɨɧɬɟɢɆɨɰɚɪ
ɬɚɤɨɬɨɪɭɸɫɱɢɬɚɸɬɢɫɬɢɧɧɨɣɢɧɚɝɥɹɞɧɨɣɷɧɰɢɤɥɨɩɟɞɢɟɣɱɭɜɫɬɜ²ɜɞɭɷɬɟ
Ɇɚɪɰɟɥɢɧɵɢɋɭɫɚɧɧɵɢɡɩɟɪɜɨɝɨɚɤɬɟɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɚɨɞɧɚɢɡɛɚɡɨɜɵɯɩɟɪɜɢɱ
ɧɵɯɷɦɨɰɢɣ²ɡɥɨɫɬɶɜɵɡɜɚɧɧɚɹɢɩɨɞɩɢɬɵɜɚɟɦɚɹɷɦɨɰɢɟɣɩɨɞɫɩɭɞɧɨɣ²
ɡɚɜɢɫɬɶɸɋɚɪɤɚɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɩɨɞɱɟɪɤɧɭɬɨɟɫɨɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɟɯɨɪɨɲɢɯɦɚɧɟɪɜɨɡɜɨ
ɞɢɬɩɪɟɩɨɞɧɟɫɟɧɢɟɷɬɢɯɱɭɜɫɬɜɜɪɚɧɝɩɨɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɦɭɤɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɌɟɤɫɬɢ
ɦɭɡɵɤɚɨɬɪɚɠɚɸɬɡɥɨɫɬɶɤɚɤɜɡɟɪɤɚɥɟȾɜɟɠɟɧɳɢɧɵɩɨɱɬɢɤɚɤɜɨɬɤɪɨɜɟɧ
ɧɨɮɚɪɫɨɜɨɦɝɷɝɟɫɬɪɟɦɹɬɫɹɭɧɢɱɬɨɠɢɬɶɞɪɭɝɞɪɭɝɚɉɪɟɡɪɟɧɢɟɜɵɬɟɫɧɹɟɬ
ɷɦɩɚɬɢɸɚɝɪɟɫɫɢɹɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɚɧɚɡɚɳɢɬɭɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢɤɚɠɞɚɹ
ɢɡɞɜɭɯɤɨɧɤɭɪɟɧɬɨɤɫɬɪɟɦɢɬɫɹɨɞɨɥɟɬɶɩɪɨɬɢɜɧɢɤɚɧɟɣɬɪɚɥɢɡɨɜɚɬɶɟɝɨɇɟ
Ɉɩɟɪɧɨɟɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɨɜɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɢɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɞɢɞɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɜɵɡɨɜ 
ɩɪɟɤɪɚɳɚɸɳɢɟɫɹɬɪɢɨɥɶɧɵɟɪɟɩɟɬɢɰɢɢɭɫɬɪɭɧɧɵɯ²ɪɢɬɦɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɷɦɛɥɟ
ɦɚɹɡɵɤɚɫɩɥɟɬɧɢɩɨɞɚɧɧɨɝɨɩɨɞɜɢɞɨɦɧɚɢɝɪɚɧɧɨɣɜɟɠɥɢɜɨɫɬɢɧɢɨɞɧɨɝɨ
ɨɫɤɨɪɛɥɟɧɢɹɡɚɬɨɫɩɥɨɲɧɨɟɩɨɞɞɪɚɡɧɢɜɚɧɢɟɗɬɢɤɟɬɢɡɛɟɠɚɬɶɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨɨɛ
ɳɟɫɬɜɨɝɨɜɟɤɚɧɟɜɫɢɥɚɯɜɨɩɥɨɳɟɧɜɦɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɯɩɪɟɞɩɢɫɚɧɧɵɯɡɚ
ɩɨɜɟɞɹɦɢɪɟɜɟɪɚɧɫɚɯɈɧɧɚɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɟɬɫɜɨɢɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧɢɹɧɚɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɢɟɜɪɚɠ
ɞɟɛɧɵɯɱɭɜɫɬɜɭɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɹɨɬɹɜɧɨɪɚɡɪɭɲɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɮɨɪɦɊɟɱɶɞɜɭɯɠɟɧɳɢɧ
²ɞɜɭɯɩɪɢɛɥɢɠɟɧɧɵɯɤɤɪɭɝɚɦɡɧɚɬɢɩɪɢɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɯɤɥɢɱɧɨɫɬɢɝɪɚɮɢɧɢ²
ɫɜɢɞɭɭɱɬɢɜɚɧɚɫɚɦɨɦɠɟɞɟɥɟɩɪɨɜɨɤɚɬɢɜɧɚɥɢɲɶɩɪɢɤɪɵɜɚɟɬɧɚɢɜɵɫ
ɲɭɸɫɬɟɩɟɧɶɹɞɨɜɢɬɨɝɨɜɟɪɨɥɨɦɫɬɜɚɋɬɨɢɬɜɫɥɭɲɚɬɶɫɹ©ɝɪɚɮɫɤɚɹɩɚɫɫɢɹª
©ɥɸɛɨɜɶɜɫɟɣɂɫɩɚɧɢɢª©ɞɨɫɬɨɢɧɫɬɜɚª©ɨɛɥɢɤª©ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟªɢɧɚɤɨɧɟɰ
ɫɦɟɪɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɭɞɚɪ©ɜɨɡɪɚɫɬªɗɬɨɩɫɢɯɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɫɚɦɚɹɱɭɜɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹɬɨɱ
ɤɚɢɩɪɨɢɡɧɟɫɟɧɧɵɣɬɪɢɪɚɡɚɩɨɞɪɹɞɜɨɡɝɥɚɫɡɧɚɦɟɧɭɟɬɬɪɢɭɦɮɋɭɫɚɧɧɵɢ
ɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɸɆɚɪɰɟɥɢɧɵɈɧɢɲɢɩɹɬDSDUWHɢɞɪɭɝɢɟɫɥɨɜɧɨɧɟɜɵɫɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɟ
ɜɫɥɭɯɨɫɤɨɪɛɥɟɧɢɹɢɩɪɨɤɥɹɬɢɹɧɟɜɫɤɪɵɜɚɹɜɩɪɨɱɟɦɩɚɬɢɧɭɮɚɥɶɲɢɜɨɣ
ɜɟɠɥɢɜɨɫɬɢɌɨɥɶɤɨɧɚɦɝɧɨɜɟɧɢɟɧɚɞɜɟɞɨɥɢɜɤɚɞɟɧɰɢɢɬɤɚɧɶɬɪɢɨɥɟɣɭ
ɫɬɪɭɧɧɵɯɩɪɟɪɵɜɚɟɬɫɹɗɬɨɦɨɦɟɧɬɤɨɝɞɚɬɪɚɟɤɬɨɪɢɢɞɜɭɯɠɟɧɳɢɧ²ɞɜɭɯ
ɫɨɩɪɚɧɨɩɨɸɳɢɯɜɨɞɧɨɦɞɢɚɩɚɡɨɧɟ²ɪɚɫɯɨɞɹɬɫɹɨɬɛɪɨɫɢɜɜɢɞɢɦɵɣɩɚ
ɪɢɬɟɬɨɞɧɚɞɟɦɨɧɫɬɪɢɪɭɟɬɜɟɪɯɧɚɞɞɪɭɝɨɣɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɹɛɨɥɟɟɜɵɫɨɤɨɣɧɨɬɵ
Ʉɨɧɟɱɧɨɟɜɟɪɯɧɟɟ©ɥɹªɋɭɫɚɧɧɵɩɨɫɥɟ©ɫɨɥɶªɭɆɚɪɰɟɥɢɧɵɨɛɨɡɧɚɱɚɟɬɩɨ
ɛɟɞɭɦɨɥɨɞɨɣɠɟɧɳɢɧɵȼɨɡɪɚɫɬɧɨɦɢɧɚɥɶɧɵɣɢɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɡɞɟɫɶɩɨɞ
ɥɢɧɧɚɹɨɫɧɨɜɚɡɚɜɢɫɬɢ²ɱɭɜɫɬɜɚɤɨɬɨɪɨɟɜɫɜɨɟɣɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɟɩɪɨɢɫɬɟɤɚɟɬɢɡ
ɫɚɦɨɨɰɟɧɤɢɫɭɛɴɟɤɬɚɜɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɟɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɣȿɫɥɢɤɚɤɢɜɫɥɭ
ɱɚɟɫɧɚɲɢɦɞɭɷɬɨɦɜɷɬɨɦɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɟɚɤɬɢɜɢɪɭɟɬɫɹɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɟ ɜɵɹɜɥɹɸɳɟɟ
ɧɟɪɚɜɟɧɫɬɜɨ ɚɧɟɜɡɚɢɦɧɨɟɨɬɪɚɠɟɧɢɟ ɤɚɤɭɪɚɜɧɵɯ ɩɪɟɢɦɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɨɞɧɨ
ɝɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹɞɥɹɞɪɭɝɨɝɨɭɧɢɠɟɧɢɟɦɁɚɜɢɫɬɶɨɜɥɚɞɟɜɚɟɬɆɚɪɰɟɥɢɧɨɣɟɣ
ɧɟɜɨɫɩɨɥɧɢɦɨɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɟɬɦɨɥɨɞɨɫɬɢɚɡɧɚɱɢɬɢɥɸɛɜɢɁɚɳɢɬɚɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢɢ
ɞɟɦɨɧɫɬɪɚɰɢɹɡɥɨɫɬɢɢɦɟɟɬɛɨɥɟɟɝɥɭɛɨɤɢɣɦɨɬɢɜɜɱɭɜɫɬɜɟɧɟɚɞɟɤɜɚɬɧɨɫɬɢ
ɢɜɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɨɦɜɢɞɟɧɢɢɫɟɛɹɫɚɦɨɣ
ɅɟɧɫɤɢɣɢɈɧɟɝɢɧɜɫɰɟɧɟɞɭɷɥɢ ©ȼɪɚɝɢȾɚɜɧɨɥɢɞɪɭɝɨɬɞɪɭɝɚª ɢɡ
ɜɬɨɪɨɝɨɚɤɬɚɨɩɟɪɵɑɚɣɤɨɜɫɤɨɝɨɞɟɦɨɧɫɬɪɢɪɭɸɬɛɥɢɡɨɫɬɶɢɫɯɨɞɫɬɜɨɱɭɜɫɬɜ
ɧɟɫɦɨɬɪɹɧɚɨɱɟɜɢɞɧɭɸɪɚɡɧɢɰɭɜɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɚɯɁɞɟɫɶɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɸɬɝɪɭɫɬɶ
ɨɳɭɳɟɧɢɟɭɬɪɚɬɵɨɬɱɭɠɞɟɧɢɟȾɜɚɦɨɥɨɞɵɯɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɚɦɧɨɝɢɟɝɨɞɵɞɪɭɡɶɹ
ɜɨɞɢɧɩɪɨɤɥɹɬɵɣɦɨɦɟɧɬɢɡɝɥɭɩɨɝɨɬɳɟɫɥɚɜɢɹɩɪɟɜɪɚɬɢɥɢɫɶɜɚɧɬɚɝɨɧɢ
ɫɬɨɜɜɪɚɝɨɜȼɡɚɢɦɧɚɹɩɪɢɹɡɧɶɩɪɟɜɪɚɬɢɥɚɫɶɜɧɟɧɚɜɢɫɬɶɨɧɢɧɚɦɟɪɟɜɚɸɬ
ɫɹɭɛɢɬɶɞɪɭɝɞɪɭɝɚɅɸɛɨɟɞɚɠɟɩɪɢɝɥɭɲɟɧɧɨɟɫɬɪɟɦɥɟɧɢɟɤɩɪɢɦɢɪɟɧɢɸ
ɩɪɢɯɨɞɹɳɟɟɜɫɨɡɧɚɧɢɟɦɝɧɨɜɟɧɧɨɨɬɦɟɬɚɟɬɫɹɉɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɢɭɬɪɚɱɢɜɚɸɬɫɩɨ
ɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɟɝɨɪɟɡɨɧɚɧɫɚɢɯɝɥɭɛɢɧɚɫɠɢɦɚɟɬɫɹɪɚɧɟɟɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɹɜɲɢɟ
ɢɯɱɭɜɫɬɜɚɨɯɥɚɞɟɜɚɸɬȼɫɟɜɞɪɭɝɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɥɨɜɢɞɬɹɝɨɫɬɧɵɣɨɱɟɪɬɚɧɢɹɞɪɭɠ
ɛɵɧɟɤɨɝɞɚɠɢɜɨɣɢɩɪɢɜɥɟɤɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣɤɚɠɭɬɫɹɬɟɩɟɪɶɦɪɚɱɧɵɦɢɧɟɪɟɚɥɶɧɵ
ɦɢɞɚɥɟɤɢɦɢɧɟɭɥɨɜɢɦɵɦɢȼɧɟɡɚɩɧɚɹɦɟɬɚɦɨɪɮɨɡɚɱɬɨɜɨɛɨɢɯɩɪɨɛɭɞɢ

Ɉɩɫɢɯɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚɯɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɹɢɨɬɪɚɠɟɧɢɹɫɦ>@
 ɅȻɶɹɧɤɨɧɢȾɠɅɚɎɚɱɟ

ɥɚɨɞɧɨɢɬɨɠɟɝɨɪɟɫɬɧɨɟɱɭɜɫɬɜɨɜɨɡɞɜɢɝɧɭɜɲɟɟɤɨɦɦɭɧɢɤɚɬɢɜɧɵɣɛɚɪɶɟɪ
ɜɦɭɡɵɤɟɜɨɩɥɨɳɟɧɚɜɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɩɪɢɟɦɟɫɬɨɥɶɠɟɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɚɪɧɨɦɫɤɨɥɶɢ
ɧɚɝɥɹɞɧɨɦɄɚɧɨɧɜɬɟɪɰɢɸɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɹɟɬɜɫɬɪɨɝɢɯɪɚɦɤɚɯɞɜɟɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɨɩɚ
ɪɚɥɥɟɥɶɧɵɯɥɢɧɢɢɛɟɡɧɚɞɟɠɧɨɩɪɢɷɬɨɦɪɚɡɪɨɡɧɟɧɧɵɟɨɧɭɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɟɬɨɛɨɢɯ
ɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɟɣɜɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢɢɡɤɨɬɨɪɨɣɧɟɜɢɞɧɨɜɵɯɨɞɚɄɚɧɨɧɩɨɞɜɨɞɢɬɜɤɨɧɰɟ
ɤɩɨɥɧɨɦɭɦɭɱɟɧɢɹɮɪɚɝɦɟɧɬɭɢɡɥɨɠɟɧɧɨɦɭɜɩɚɪɚɥɥɟɥɶɧɵɯɬɟɪɰɢɹɯɢɫɟɤ
ɫɬɚɯɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɣɡɧɚɤɬɢɩɢɱɧɵɣɞɥɹɥɸɛɨɜɧɵɯɞɭɷɬɨɜɡɜɭɱɢɬɡɞɟɫɶɤɚɤɧɚ
ɩɪɚɫɧɨɟɧɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɟɫɬɪɟɦɥɟɧɢɟɤɩɪɢɦɢɪɟɧɢɸɈɧɢɠɟɥɚɥɢɛɵɨɬɛɪɨɫɢɬɶ
ɛɨɪɶɛɭɢɜɧɨɜɶɜɟɪɧɭɬɶɫɹɤɞɪɭɠɟɫɤɢɦɱɭɜɫɬɜɚɦ ©Ⱥɯɧɟɡɚɫɦɟɹɬɶɫɹɥɶɧɚɦª 
ɧɨɩɪɚɜɢɥɚɞɭɷɥɢɡɚɩɪɟɳɚɸɬɷɬɨɍɫɬɭɩɢɬɶɩɪɢɜɹɡɚɧɧɨɫɬɢɛɵɥɨɛɵɬɪɭɫɥɢɜɨ
ɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɧɟɞɨɩɭɫɬɢɦɨɑɟɬɵɪɟɞɥɢɧɧɵɯ©ɇɟɬªɩɪɨɲɟɩɬɚɧɧɵɟɜɭɞɭɲɚɸ
ɳɟɦSLDQLVVLPRɩɨɞɚɜɥɹɸɬɧɚɜɫɟɝɞɚɥɸɛɭɸɡɚɩɨɡɞɚɥɭɸɦɵɫɥɶȼɫɟɤɨɧɱɟɧɨ
ɤɚɠɞɵɣɨɫɬɚɟɬɫɹɨɞɢɧɫɨɫɜɨɟɣɛɨɥɶɸɂɜɷɬɨɦɫɥɭɱɚɟɬɨɠɟɬɨɪɠɟɫɬɜɭɟɬɷɬɢ
ɤɟɬ²ɛɨɥɟɟɨɛɳɢɣɞɢɤɬɚɬɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣɤɨɧɜɟɧɰɢɢ²ɬɨɣɱɬɨɞɟɪɠɢɬɛɪɚɡɞɵ
ɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɜɢɝɪɟɉɟɪɱɚɬɤɚɛɪɨɲɟɧɧɚɹɅɟɧɫɤɢɦɢɩɨɞɧɹɬɚɹɈɧɟɝɢɧɵɦɛɟɡ
ɜɨɡɜɪɚɬɧɨɪɚɡɞɟɥɢɥɚɜɪɟɦɹɧɚ©ɞɨªɢ©ɩɨɫɥɟªȻɟɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɧɟɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶɤ
ɩɨɫɬɭɩɤɭɫɚɦɨɭɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟɡɚɦɤɧɭɬɨɫɬɶɬɢɩɢɱɧɵɟɞɥɹɞɟɩɪɟɫɫɢɜɧɵɯɧɚɫɬɪɨ
ɟɧɢɣɧɚɫɬɭɩɚɸɬɧɟɢɡɛɟɠɧɨɢɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵɫɨɛɟɫɤɭɪɚɠɢɜɚɸɳɟɣɬɨɱɧɨɫɬɶɸ
ɜɷɬɢɯɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɯɩɨɪɚɡɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɦɢɧɭɬɚɯɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɬɟɚɬɪɚ
Ⱦɚɠɟɦɨɧɭɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɟɬɢɩɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɟɨɩɟɪɧɵɟɮɨɪɦɵɦɨɝɭɬɩɪɢɜɥɟ
ɤɚɬɶɫɹɞɥɹɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯɢɩɫɢɯɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɜɜɦɭɡɵ
ɤɚɥɶɧɨɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɣɫɰɟɧɟɨɧɢɞɨɤɚɤɨɣɬɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɢɥɟɩɹɬɬɟɜɚɹɸɬɢɯɌɚɤ
ɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɦɚɹ6ROLWDIRUPDGH¶GXHWWL ɩɪɢɛɥɩɟɪɟɜɨɞ²ɨɛɵɱɧɚɹɢɥɢɩɪɢɧɹɬɚɹ
ɮɨɪɦɚɞɭɷɬɨɜ ɛɚɡɨɜɚɹɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɧɚɹɜɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɨɣɪɨɦɚɧɬɢ
ɱɟɫɤɨɣɨɩɟɪɟɧɚɱɚɥɚɞɟɜɹɬɧɚɞɰɚɬɨɝɨɜɟɤɚ²ɧɢɝɞɟɬɟɨɪɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɧɟɨɩɢɫɚɧɧɚɹ
ɧɨɤɨɞɢɮɢɰɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɚɹɧɚɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɟ²ɞɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɷɬɨȼɨɡɶɦɟɦɞɭɷɬɅɸɱɢɢɢ
ɗɧɪɢɤɨɢɡ,,ɚɤɬɚ©ɅɸɱɢɢɞɢɅɚɦɦɟɪɦɭɪªȾɨɧɢɰɟɬɬɢɑɟɬɵɪɟɪɚɡɞɟɥɚɜɪɚɡ
ɧɵɯɬɟɦɩɚɯɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɩɨɫɥɟɨɬɤɪɵɜɚɸɳɟɝɨɫɰɟɧɭɪɟɱɢɬɚɬɢɜɚɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬ
ɞɭɷɬ7HPSRG¶DWWDFFR&DQWDELOH7HPSRGLPH]]R&DEDOHWWDɁɞɟɫɶɨɧɢɡɚɞɚɸɬ
ɩɚɪɚɞɢɝɦɭɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɫɬɨɥɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɹɦɟɠɞɭɞɜɭɦɹɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɚɦɢɤɨɬɨ
ɪɵɟɜɫɮɟɪɟɱɭɜɫɬɜɢɷɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɧɨɪɦɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɚɬɤɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɨɱɭɠɞɵɦɦɢ
ɪɚɦɧɚɫɬɨɥɶɤɨɠɟɞɚɥɟɤɢɦɤɚɤɞɚɥɟɤɢɞɢɚɩɚɡɨɧɵɫɨɩɪɚɧɨɢɛɚɪɢɬɨɧɚɌɚɤɨɟ
ɫɬɨɥɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɟɦɨɠɟɬɩɪɢɜɟɫɬɢɬɨɥɶɤɨɤɨɬɤɪɵɬɨɣɤɨɥɥɢɡɢɢ7HPSRG¶DWWDFFR
ɞɚɟɬɨɛɪɚɡɅɸɱɢɹ²ɟɟɛɨɥɶɜɵɞɚɟɬɛɥɟɞɧɨɫɬɶ²ɜɨɬɤɪɵɬɭɸɧɚɩɚɞɚɟɬɧɚ
ɛɪɚɬɚɥɨɪɞɚȽɟɧɪɢɗɲɬɨɧɚɨɬɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨɡɚɜɢɫɢɬɟɟɫɭɞɶɛɚɂɦɟɧɧɨɨɧɚɛɟɪɟɬ
ɧɚɫɟɛɹɢɧɢɰɢɚɬɢɜɭɱɬɨɛɵ©ɡɚɞɚɬɶɬɨɧªɱɬɨɛɵɢɧɢɰɢɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɞɢɚɥɨɝȽɟɧɪɢ
ɭɜɢɥɢɜɚɟɬɩɵɬɚɹɫɶɦɚɧɢɩɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɩɨɞɦɚɫɤɨɣɧɚɢɝɪɚɧɧɨɣɛɪɚɬɫɤɨɣɥɸɛ
ɜɢ ɢɩɨɬɨɦɭɨɬɜɟɱɚɹɜɬɨɧɫɟɫɬɪɟɬɨɟɫɬɶɟɟɠɟɦɟɥɨɞɢɟɣ ɨɧɭɜɟɳɟɜɚɟɬɢ
ɭɩɪɟɤɚɟɬɟɟɞɟɥɚɹɜɢɞɱɬɨɩɨɧɢɦɚɟɬɢɩɪɨɳɚɟɬɧɨɥɢɲɶɭɫɢɥɢɜɚɹɩɨɫɬɟɩɟɧ


Ɉɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢɥɢɱɧɨɝɨɜɵɛɨɪɚɢɤɨɧɜɟɧɰɢɣɜɚɫɩɟɤɬɟɩɫɢɯɨɥɨɝɢɢɜɵɛɨɪɚɫɦ>@
Ɉɩɟɪɧɨɟɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɨɜɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɢɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɞɢɞɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɜɵɡɨɜ 
ɧɨɜɧɟɣɱɭɜɫɬɜɨɜɢɧɵɇɚɤɨɧɟɰɨɧɩɪɢɛɟɝɚɟɬɤɨɛɦɚɧɭɞɟɦɨɧɫɬɪɢɪɭɹɟɣ
ɹɤɨɛɵɩɟɪɟɯɜɚɱɟɧɧɨɟɩɢɫɶɦɨɨɬɟɟɜɨɡɥɸɛɥɟɧɧɨɝɨɩɪɢɧɭɠɞɟɧɧɨɝɨɤɢɡɝɧɚ
ɧɢɸ²ɩɢɫɶɦɨɧɚɜɟɬɢɮɚɥɶɲɢɜɤɚɩɪɢɜɨɞɹɳɟɟɅɸɱɢɸɜɨɬɱɚɹɧɢɟȽɟɧɪɢɤɚɤ
ɥɢɱɧɨɫɬɶɛɟɫɱɭɜɫɬɜɟɧɟɝɨɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɭɟɬɬɨɥɶɤɨɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɟɰɟɥɢɋɟɫɬɪɚɜɟɝɨ
ɝɥɚɡɚɯ²ɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɸɳɟɟɟɦɭɫɩɨɦɨɳɶɸɡɚɞɭɦɚɧɧɨɝɨɜɵɝɨɞɧɨɝɨɛɪɚ
ɤɚɫɩɚɫɬɢɫɟɦɶɸɨɬɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɩɚɞɟɧɢɹɊɚɡɞɟɥ&DQWDELOHɚɤɰɟɧɬɢɪɭɟɬɷɬɨɬ
ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɜɡɚɢɦɧɨɝɨɨɬɱɭɠɞɟɧɢɹȿɫɥɢɅɸɱɢɹɭɛɢɬɚɹɝɨɪɟɦɩɪɨɥɢɜɚɟɬɫɥɟɡɵɜ
ɬɪɨɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣɦɟɥɨɞɢɢɨɩɨɬɟɪɹɧɧɨɣɥɸɛɜɢȽɟɧɪɢɩɪɨɝɨɜɚɪɢɜɚɟɬɜɩɨɥɝɨɥɨɫɚ
ɭɩɪɟɤɢɢɩɨɜɬɨɪɹɟɬɥɠɢɜɵɟɞɨɜɨɞɵȼ7HPSRGLPH]]R ɫɪɟɞɧɟɦɪɚɡɞɟɥɟ ɤɨɧ
ɮɥɢɤɬɟɳɟɭɠɟɫɬɨɱɚɟɬɫɹɂɡɡɚɫɰɟɧɵɡɜɭɤɢɤɜɢɧɬɭɜɚɥɬɨɪɧɜɨɡɜɟɳɚɸɬɩɪɢ
ɛɵɬɢɟɥɨɪɞɚȺɪɬɭɪɚɠɟɧɢɯɚɩɪɟɞɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɧɨɝɨɟɣȽɟɧɪɢɲɚɧɬɚɠɢɪɭɟɬɅɸ
ɱɢɸɧɚɠɢɦɚɹɧɚɧɟɟɬɨɥɶɤɨɷɬɨɬɛɪɚɤɩɨɭɝɨɜɨɪɭɜɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɢɫɩɚɫɬɢɫɟɦɶɸ
ɨɬɩɨɡɨɪɚɇɚɜɹɡɵɜɚɟɦɨɟɱɭɜɫɬɜɨɜɢɧɵɨɝɪɨɦɧɨɩɫɢɯɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɝɧɟɬɧɟɜɵ
ɧɨɫɢɦȻɪɚɬɩɨɞɚɜɥɹɟɬɟɟɪɚɡɪɭɲɚɟɬɭɧɢɱɬɨɠɚɟɬȾɥɹɠɟɧɳɢɧɵɧɟɨɫɬɚɟɬɫɹ
ɜɵɯɨɞɚɨɧɚɨɬɞɚɧɚɧɚɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɥɫɜɨɟɝɨɛɪɚɬɚɢɨɛɷɬɨɦɜɨɡɜɟɳɚɟɬ&DEDOHWWD
ɟɟɷɤɡɚɥɶɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɟɜɨɡɛɭɠɞɟɧɢɟɌɟɩɟɪɶɨɧɬɨɪɠɟɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɣɧɚɩɚɞɚɟɬɡɚ
ɞɚɟɬɬɨɧɟɫɥɢɨɧɚɨɬɜɟɪɝɚɟɬɷɬɨɬɛɪɚɤɨɧɛɭɞɟɬɩɪɟɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɶɟɟɜɨɫɧɚɯɤɚɤ
ɝɪɨɡɧɚɹɬɟɧɶɆɟɪɡɨɫɬɶɨɛɦɚɧɚɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɹɟɬɫɹɫɭɠɚɫɧɵɦɜɢɞɟɧɢɟɦɤɪɨɜɚɜɨ
ɝɨɝɨɪɹȼɨɥɧɟɧɢɟɄɚɛɚɥɟɬɬɵɜɵɪɚɠɚɟɬɫɭɞɶɛɭɅɸɱɢɢȼɫɟɱɬɨɟɣɨɫɬɚɟɬɫɹ
ɷɬɨɩɥɚɤɚɬɶɭɫɬɭɩɢɬɶɭɝɪɨɡɚɦɫɜɨɟɝɨɛɪɚɬɚɩɪɨɫɢɬɶɛɨɝɚɨɫɦɟɪɬɢɆɭɠɱɢ
ɧɚɜɤɥɸɱɢɥɠɟɧɳɢɧɭɜɫɜɨɸɠɟɫɬɨɤɭɸɜɫɟɥɟɧɧɭɸɢɩɨɝɭɛɢɥɟɟɄɨɧɮɥɢɤɬ
ɦɟɠɞɭɦɢɪɨɦɷɦɨɰɢɣɞɟɥɢɤɚɬɧɵɦɢɨɬɡɵɜɱɢɜɵɦɨɛɪɟɱɟɧɧɵɦɧɚɭɧɢɱɬɨɠɟ
ɧɢɟɢɞɪɭɝɢɦɱɟɪɫɬɜɵɦɢɪɚɫɫɱɟɬɥɢɜɵɦɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɟɝɨɤɚɧɧɢɛɚɥɢɡɢɪɭɟɬɧɟ
ɦɨɠɟɬɛɵɬɶɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɛɨɥɟɟɢɧɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɨɢɜɩɟɱɚɬɥɹɸɳɟ
Ɋɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɹɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟɢɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɭɸɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɭɬɪɟɯɞɭɷɬɨɜɦɵ
ɫɨɫɪɟɞɨɬɨɱɢɥɢɫɶɜɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦɧɚɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɣɮɨɪɦɟɇɟɫɬɨɥɶɤɨɩɨɬɨɦɭɱɬɨ
ɨɛɴɟɦɫɬɚɬɶɢɡɚɫɬɚɜɢɥɧɚɫɨɬɞɚɬɶɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɬɟɧɢɟɬɨɥɶɤɨɨɞɧɨɦɭɢɡɦɟɪɟɧɢɸɢ
ɧɟɩɨɬɨɦɭɱɬɨɦɵɩɨɩɪɢɡɜɚɧɢɸ²ɦɭɡɵɤɨɜɟɞɵɚɧɟɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɧɵɟɤɪɢɬɢ
ɤɢɢɥɢɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟɢɫɬɨɪɢɤɢɆɵɫɱɢɬɚɟɦɜɚɠɧɨɣɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɶɩɥɸɪɚɥɢ
ɫɬɢɱɧɨɝɨɜɡɝɥɹɞɚɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɹɜɫɟɯɫɬɨɪɨɧɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɚ©ɨɩɟɪɵªȼɢɬɨɝɟɧɚɨɫɧɨ
ɜɟɚɧɚɥɢɡɚɬɨɝɨɤɚɤɭɫɬɪɨɟɧɚɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɚɹɮɨɪɦɚɧɚɬɪɟɯɪɚɡɧɵɯɩɪɢɦɟɪɚɯ
ɜɨɩɥɨɳɟɧɢɹɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɨɜɯɨɱɟɬɫɹɨɛɪɚɬɢɬɶɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚɞɜɚ
ɜɚɠɧɵɯɫɞɢɞɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɬɨɱɤɢɡɪɟɧɢɹɦɟɯɚɧɢɡɦɚ
 Ɋɚɡɥɢɱɢɟɩɪɢɟɦɨɜɢɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɯɮɨɪɦɜɪɚɡɧɵɯɮɪɚɝɦɟɧɬɚɯɩɨ
ɡɜɨɥɹɟɬɩɨɞɧɹɬɶɫɹɧɚɞɧɚɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɟɦɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɢɤɢɢɚɛɫɬɪɚɝɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɫɹɞɨɦɨɪ
ɮɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɬɢɩɨɜɬɚɤɢɯɤɚɤɛɭɮɮɨɧɧɵɣɞɭɷɬɪɚɫɩɟɬɵɣɞɢɚɥɨɝɢɡɬɧ
/LWHUDWXURSHU RSpUDGLDORJXp ɬɟɰɟɥɢɤɨɦɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɧɵɣɧɚɡɚɢɦɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɧɨɦɢɡ

ɑɭɜɫɬɜɨɜɢɧɵ²ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɧɚɹɷɦɨɰɢɹɜɨɬɥɢɱɧɨɟɨɬɫɬɵɞɚɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɸɳɟɝɨɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɣɪɚ
ɤɭɪɫɢɦɟɟɬɹɪɤɨɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɧɭɸɩɪɢɜɚɬɧɭɸɥɢɱɧɭɸɨɤɪɚɲɟɧɧɨɫɬɶ>@

Ɂɞɟɫɶɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɦɷɬɨɬɬɟɪɦɢɧɜɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɢɭɬɜɟɪɞɢɜɲɟɦɫɹɜɡɚɩɚɞɧɨɟɜɪɨɩɟɫɤɨɦɦɭɡɵɤɨɜɟɞɟ
ɧɢɢ²ɬɟɤɚɤɨɩɟɪɚɩɪɹɦɨɨɩɢɪɚɸɳɚɹɫɹɧɚɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɧɵɣɬɟɤɫɬɋɦ>@
 ɅȻɶɹɧɤɨɧɢȾɠɅɚɎɚɱɟ

ɩɨɷɦɵɬɟɤɫɬɟɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɢɣɪɨɦɚɧɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɞɭɷɬɗɬɢɬɢɩɵɧɚɣɞɭɬɜɩɨɫɥɟɞ
ɫɬɜɢɢɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɹɩɨɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɭɫɯɨɞɫɬɜɢɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɣɜɞɪɭɝɢɯɫɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɢɦɵɯ
ɮɪɚɝɦɟɧɬɚɯɋɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣɬɨɱɤɢɡɪɟɧɢɹɡɞɟɫɶɟɫɬɶɩɨɜɨɞɩɟɪɟɣɬɢɨɬɡɧɚ
ɤɨɦɫɬɜɚɫɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɦɨɛɴɟɤɬɨɦɤɨɛɪɟɬɟɧɢɸɫɭɦɦɵɡɧɚɧɢɣɩɪɢɦɟɧɢɦɵɯɤ
ɞɪɭɝɢɦɨɛɴɟɤɬɚɦɗɬɚɨɩɟɪɚɰɢɹɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɹɟɦɚɹɜɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɦɢɦɟɟɬɬɚɤɠɟ
ɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɭɸɩɨɞɨɫɧɨɜɭɮɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɨɧɚɩɨɞɩɢɬɵɜɚɟɬ©ɷɧɰɢɤɥɨɩɟɞɢɸªɮɨɪ
ɦɚɥɶɧɵɯɨɬɫɵɥɨɤɤɨɬɨɪɭɸɡɪɢɬɟɥɶɫɜɨɟɝɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɢɭɫɜɚɢɜɚɥɜɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɦɛɟɫ
ɫɨɡɧɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɩɭɬɟɦɩɪɢɜɵɤɚɧɢɹȿɟɬɪɚɧɫɥɹɰɢɹɩɨɫɟɬɢɬɟɥɹɦɬɟɚɬɪɨɜɢɥɢɭɱɚ
ɳɢɦɫɹɜɲɤɨɥɚɯɧɚɲɢɯɞɧɟɣɞɚɟɬɢɦɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶɩɨɤɪɚɣɧɟɣɦɟɪɟɧɟɦɧɨɝɨ
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฻ุัฮสืาฯ਄਒ਁ਍਍ਁਐਅ਒਍ਕਓਉਃਁ
ิสิูุูๅ฼ิส็ีา฼สฺาัสเาาา฻ิ฽฻฻฼ฬส
਄਒ਁ਍਍ਁਐਅ਒਍ਕਓਉਃਁ
ൺඌൺඇංආඉൾඍඎඌൿඈඋൺඋඍ඀ൾඇඍඋංൿංർൺඍංඈඇ

Ⱥɧɧɨɬɚɰɢɹȼɫɬɚɬɶɟɧɚɨɫɧɨɜɟɦɟɬɨɞɚɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɞɟɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɰɢɢɪɚɫɫɦɚ
ɬɪɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɩɨɩɵɬɤɚɮɥɨɪɟɧɬɢɣɫɤɨɣɤɚɦɟɪɚɬɵɫɨɡɞɚɬɶɜɥɢɰɟɧɨɜɨɝɨɯɭɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧ
ɧɨɝɨɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɚ²GUDPPDSHUPXVLFD²ɷɥɢɬɚɪɧɵɣɨɛɴɟɤɬɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚɥɢɲɟɧ
ɧɵɣɫɜɹɡɟɣɤɚɤɫɩɪɟɞɲɟɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɣɚɤɚɞɟɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɟɣɫɬɪɨɝɨɝɨɩɢɫɶɦɚ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɨɣɦɟɫɫɨɣɢɦɨɬɟɬɨɦɫɨɞɧɨɣɫɬɨɪɨɧɵɢɦɚɞɪɢɝɚɥɨɦ²ɫɞɪɭɝɨɣ 
ɬɚɤɢɫɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɨɣɩɟɫɟɧɧɨɣɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɟɣ²ɫɥɢɲɤɨɦɩɨɩɭɥɹɪɧɨɣɱɬɨɛɵɥɟɱɶɜ
ɨɫɧɨɜɭɦɨɧɨɞɢɢɧɨɜɨɝɨɬɢɩɚ
Ɂɚɦɵɫɟɥɮɥɨɪɟɧɬɢɣɫɤɢɯɫɨɡɞɚɬɟɥɟɣɨɩɟɪɧɨɝɨɠɚɧɪɚɞɢɥɟɬɚɧɬɨɜɫɬɨɱɤɢɡɪɟ
ɧɢɹɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɯɢɦɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɣɨɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɣɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɢɢɡɧɚɱɚɥɶ
ɧɨɛɵɥɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɨɛɳɟɣɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɢɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹɞɚɧɧɨɝɨɜɢɞɚɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚɩɨ
ɷɬɨɦɭɢɯɩɨɩɵɬɤɚɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɞɟɥɚɬɶɨɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɟɧɧɭɸɪɟɱɶ²ɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɭɠɟ
ɩɪɟɠɞɟɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɜɲɢɣɫɹɜɢɧɬɟɪɦɟɞɢɹɯɤɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚɦ²ɨɫ
ɧɨɜɨɣɰɟɥɨɝɨɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɹɛɵɥɚɨɛɪɟɱɟɧɚɧɚɩɪɨɜɚɥ
Ɂɚɪɨɠɞɟɧɢɟɨɩɟɪɵɜɩɟɪɜɵɟɚɧɚɥɢɡɢɪɭɟɬɫɹɧɚɮɨɧɟɜɫɟɛɨɥɟɟɭɩɪɨɳɚɸɳɟɣɫɹ
ɞɥɹɫɥɭɲɚɬɟɥɶɫɤɨɝɨɜɨɫɩɪɢɹɬɢɹɫɟɪɶɟɡɧɨɣɦɭɡɵɤɢɜɢɬɨɝɟɜɵɬɟɫɧɢɜɲɟɣɢɡɨ
ɛɪɟɬɟɧɢɟɮɥɨɪɟɧɬɢɣɰɟɜ²ɧɚɩɟɜɧɭɸɞɟɤɥɚɦɚɰɢɸ²ɧɚɩɟɪɢɮɟɪɢɸɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶ
ɧɨɝɨɧɚɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɹɨɩɟɪɧɨɝɨɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɹɂɡɜɟɫɬɧɚɹɧɟɭɞɚɱɚɤɪɭɠɤɚȻɚɪɞɢɄɨɪɫɢ
ɫɜɹɡɚɧɚɫɬɟɦɱɬɨɩɪɟɠɧɹɹɭɱɟɧɚɹɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɹɜɡɨɧɟɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɣɢɧɬɟɪɦɟɞɢɢ
ɩɚɫɬɨɪɚɥɢɢɦɚɞɪɢɝɚɥɶɧɨɣɤɨɦɟɞɢɢ²ɪɟɚɥɶɧɵɯɩɪɟɞɲɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɢɰɛɭɞɭɳɟɣɨɩɟ
ɪɵ²ɨɤɚɡɚɥɚɫɶɝɨɪɚɡɞɨɛɨɥɟɟɞɨɫɬɭɩɧɨɣɞɥɹɜɨɫɩɪɢɹɬɢɹɲɢɪɨɤɨɣɩɭɛɥɢɤɢɱɟɦ
ɪɟɱɢɬɚɬɢɜɫɨɡɞɚɧɧɵɣɮɥɨɪɟɧɬɢɣɫɤɨɣɤɚɦɟɪɚɬɨɣ
ɄɥɸɱɟɜɵɟɫɥɨɜɚɨɩɟɪɧɚɹɦɨɧɨɞɢɹGUDPPDSHUPXVLFDɮɥɨɪɟɧɬɢɣɫɤɚɹɤɚ
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ɧɚɥɶɧɨɣɦɭɡɵɤɢɜɬɨɪɨɣɩɨɥɨɜɢɧɵ;9,ɜɟɤɚɫɬɚɥɚɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɚɹɩɨɩɭɥɹ
ɪɢɡɚɰɢɹɹɡɵɤɚɨɛɭɫɥɨɜɥɟɧɧɚɹɭɫɢɥɢɜɲɢɦɫɹɜɥɢɹɧɢɟɦɩɟɫɟɧɧɨɣɝɨ
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ɜɚɧɧɵɯɛɥɚɝɨɱɟɫɬɢɜɵɦɢɫɬɢɯɚɦɢɉɨɡɞɧɟɟɧɟɝɥɚɫɧɨɩɨɨɳɪɹɥɨɫɶɢɫɬɢɥɢɫɬɢ
ɱɟɫɤɨɟɫɯɨɞɫɬɜɨɦɨɬɟɬɨɜɢɦɟɫɫɫɦɚɫɫɨɜɨɣɩɪɨɞɭɤɰɢɟɣɛɥɚɝɨɞɚɪɹɱɟɦɭɜ
ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɟɣɱɟɬɜɟɪɬɢ;9,ɜɞɢɫɬɚɧɰɢɹɦɟɠɞɭɷɬɢɦɢɠɚɧɪɨɜɵɦɢɫɮɟɪɚɦɢɡɧɚ
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ɪɚɫɫɱɢɬɚɧɧɵɯɧɚɜɨɫɩɪɢɹɬɢɟɢɧɬɟɥɥɟɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɣɷɥɢɬɵ>@ɛɵɥɨɜɤɚ
ɤɨɣɬɨɦɟɪɟɩɨɩɵɬɤɨɣɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɫɬɨɹɬɶɷɬɨɦɭɭɩɪɨɳɟɧɢɸ
ȼɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɠɟɥɚɧɢɟɫɨɡɞɚɬɶɧɟɤɢɣɜɨɡɜɵɲɟɧɧɵɣɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɣɫɬɢɥɶɫɨ
ɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɣɜɵɫɨɤɨɦɭɪɟɝɢɫɬɪɭɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɩɚɫɬɨɪɚɥɶɧɵɯɫɸɠɟɬɨɜ
ɥɟɝɲɢɯɜɨɫɧɨɜɭGUDPPDSHUPXVLFDɡɚɫɬɚɜɢɥɨɟɟɫɨɡɞɚɬɟɥɟɣ²ȾɠɄɚɱɱɢ
ɧɢɢəɉɟɪɢ²ɨɬɤɚɡɚɬɶɫɹɨɬɦɚɥɟɣɲɢɯɧɚɦɺɤɨɜɧɚɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɭɸɢɦɩɟɫɟɧ
ɧɭɸɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɸɌɚɤɜɨɞɧɨɝɨɥɨɫɧɨɦɢɡɥɨɠɟɧɢɢɨɧɢɹɜɧɨɢɡɛɟɝɚɸɬɜɫɟɝɨɱɬɨ
ɦɨɝɥɨɛɵɧɚɩɨɦɧɢɬɶɨɜɢɥɥɚɧɟɥɥɟɢɥɢɤɚɧɰɨɧɟɬɬɟɩɪɢɬɨɦɱɬɨɜɢɡɞɚɧɧɨɦɜ
ɝɫɛɨɪɧɢɤɟɄɚɱɱɢɧɢ©ɇɨɜɚɹɦɭɡɵɤɚªɬɚɤɨɜɵɟɩɟɫɧɢɢɦɟɸɬɫɹɋɞɪɭɝɨɣ
ɫɬɨɪɨɧɵɚɜɬɨɪɵɪɚɧɧɢɯɨɩɟɪɨɛɨɲɥɢɫɜɨɢɦɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɦɢɜɵɫɨɤɨɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢ
ɨɧɚɥɶɧɭɸɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɸɦɧɨɝɨɝɨɥɨɫɧɨɝɨɦɚɞɪɢɝɚɥɚɡɚɜɨɟɜɚɜɲɭɸɫɟɛɟɩɪɨɱɧɨɟ
ɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟɜɪɚɦɤɚɯɢɧɬɟɪɦɟɞɢɣɤɤɨɦɟɞɢɹɦɢɩɚɫɬɨɪɚɥɹɦ

ɂɫɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟɜ©ɗɜɪɢɞɢɤɟªɄɚɱɱɢɧɢɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɪɟɩɥɢɤɚɌɢɪɫɢɤɨɬɨɪɚɹɜɩɪɨɱɟɦɧɟɢɦɟɟɬ
ɫɬɪɨɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɩɨɜɬɨɪɨɜɂɧɬɟɪɟɫɧɨɱɬɨɬɚɠɟɪɟɩɥɢɤɚɌɢɪɫɢɜ©ɗɜɪɢɞɢɤɟªɉɟɪɢɨɮɨɪɦɥɟɧɚɜ
ɜɢɞɟɪɟɱɢɬɚɬɢɜɚɚɜɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟ©ɤɨɦɩɟɧɫɚɰɢɢªɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɭɩɨɪɭɱɟɧɚɩɟɫɟɧɧɚɹ=LQIRQLD

Ʉɚɧɰɨɧɟɬɬɚɦɢɜ©ɇɨɜɨɣɦɭɡɵɤɟªɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹ$ULD6HVWD8GLWHXGLWHDPDQWL0HQWUHFKHIUDGRJOLHH
SHQH$OIRQWHDOSUDWR1RQKDµOFLHOFRWDQWLOXPL

ɉɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɠɚɠɞɚɥɚɜɢɧɬɟɪɦɟɞɢɹɯɤɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɹɦɥɺɝɤɨɣɪɚɡɜɥɟɤɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣ
ɦɭɡɵɤɢɭɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɢɩɨɞɨɛɧɵɯɦɟɪɨɩɪɢɹɬɢɣɩɪɢɝɥɚɲɚɥɢɱɚɳɟɜɫɟɝɨɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɨɜɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɰɟɜ ɚ
ɧɟɮɥɚɦɚɧɞɰɟɜ ɦɚɞɪɢɝɚɥɵɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɛɵɥɢɜɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɨɣɫɬɟɩɟɧɢɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɵɫɧɚɱɚɥɚɧɚ
ɫɬɚɪɭɸɮɪɨɬɬɨɥɭ ɎɄɨɪɬɟɱɱɚɋɞɟɥɶɉɚɥɥɚȺɞɟɥɥɚȼɢɨɥɚ ɩɨɡɞɧɟɟɧɚɤɚɧɰɨɧɟɬɬɭɢɥɢɜɢɥɥɚ
ɧɟɥɥɭ ȺɋɬɪɢɞɠɨɗɞɟɄɚɜɚɥɶɟɪɢɄɆɟɪɭɥɨɅɆɚɪɟɧɰɢɨ0ȺɂɧɠɟɧɶɟɪɢȺȽɚɛɪɢɟɥɢ 

Ɉɛɷɬɨɦ²>±@
ɋɨɡɞɚɧɢɟGUDPPDSHUPXVLFDɤɚɤɩɨɩɵɬɤɚɷɥɢɬɚɪɢɡɚɰɢɢɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚ 
ɇɚɧɚɲɜɡɝɥɹɞɩɪɢɱɢɧɚɩɨɤɨɬɨɪɨɣɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɳɚɹɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɹɞɪɚɦɚɬɢ
ɱɟɫɤɨɣɬɪɚɤɬɨɜɤɢɦɚɞɪɢɝɚɥɚɧɟɭɞɨɜɥɟɬɜɨɪɹɥɚɄɚɱɱɢɧɢɉɟɪɢɢɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɜɲɟɝɨ
ɡɚɧɢɦɢɆɞɟȽɚɥɶɹɧɨɫɨɫɬɨɢɬɜɫɥɢɲɤɨɦɛɨɥɶɲɨɣɩɨɩɭɥɹɪɧɨɫɬɢɤɨɬɨɪɭɸ
ɡɚɜɨɟɜɚɥɷɬɨɬɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɣɠɚɧɪɄɚɤɩɨɥɭɱɢɥɨɫɶɱɬɨɫɬɨɥɶɷɥɢɬɚɪɧɵɣɤɚ
ɡɚɥɨɫɶɛɵɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɩɨɥɸɛɢɥɫɹɲɢɪɨɤɨɣɩɭɛɥɢɤɟ"Ɂɚɦɟɬɢɦɱɬɨɢɡɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɨɜ
ɡɨɧɟɡɚɪɨɠɞɚɸɳɟɝɨɫɹɦɚɞɪɢɝɚɥɚɨɤɚɡɚɥɢɫɶɫɪɚɡɭɞɜɟɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɨɪɚɡɧɵɟɬɪɚ
ɞɢɰɢɢɈɞɧɚɢɡɧɢɯ²ɭɱɺɧɚɹ©ɫɬɪɨɝɨɫɬɢɥɶɧɚɹªɡɚɜɟɡɺɧɧɚɹɜɂɬɚɥɢɸɩɪɟɞ
ɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɹɦɢɮɪɚɧɤɨɮɥɚɦɚɧɞɫɤɨɣɲɤɨɥɵɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɫɭɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɢɟɦɜɡɹɥɢɫɶ
ɡɚɫɨɱɢɧɟɧɢɟɦɭɡɵɤɢɧɚɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɭɸɩɨɷɡɢɸɈɞɧɚɤɨɧɟɠɟɥɚɹɨɩɭɫɤɚɬɶɫɹ
ɧɚɭɪɨɜɟɧɶɦɟɫɬɧɨɣ²ɮɪɨɬɬɨɥɶɧɨɣ²ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɢɩɨɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɸɛɨɥɟɟɧɢɡ
ɤɨɣɱɟɦɬɚɤɤɨɬɨɪɨɣɨɧɢɩɪɢɜɵɤɥɢɩɪɢɫɨɱɢɧɟɧɢɢɦɟɫɫɢɦɨɬɟɬɨɜɨɧɢɫɬɚɥɢ
ɫɨɡɞɚɜɚɬɶɫɜɨɢ©ɦɚɞɪɢɝɚɥɵªɜɩɪɢɜɵɱɧɨɣɢɦɬɟɯɧɢɤɟ²ɧɚɬɨɬɦɨɦɟɧɬɜɪɟ
ɦɟɧɢɜɟɫɶɦɚɚɛɫɬɪɚɤɬɧɨɣɩɨɹɡɵɤɭɢɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɸɧɚɫɥɭɲɚɬɟɥɹ
Ⱦɪɭɝɚɹɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɹɢɫɯɨɞɢɜɲɚɹɨɬɮɪɨɬɬɨɥɵɛɭɞɭɱɢɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɨɣɫɱɢɫɬɨɢɬɚ
ɥɶɹɧɫɤɨɣɦɚɧɟɪɨɣFDQWRDOOLXWRɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɥɚɨɞɧɨɝɨɥɨɫɧɭɸɜɨɤɚɥɶɧɭɸɞɟ
ɤɥɚɦɚɰɢɸɩɨɞɚɤɤɨɦɩɚɧɟɦɟɧɬɥɸɬɧɢɢɥɢɚɧɫɚɦɛɥɹɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɨɜɉɨɡɞɧɟɟɜɨ
ɦɧɨɝɨɦɩɨɞɜɥɢɹɧɢɟɦɮɥɚɦɚɧɞɰɟɜɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɢɟɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɵɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɹɬɛɵɜ
ɲɭɸɮɪɨɬɬɨɥɭɜ©ɫɬɪɨɝɨɫɬɢɥɶɧɵɣªɮɨɪɦɚɬɨɛɥɚɝɨɪɚɠɢɜɚɹɩɪɟɠɞɟɫɜɨɛɨɞɧɵɟ
ɩɨɝɨɥɨɫɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɸɩɨɱɬɢɬɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟɮɨɪɦɵɦɧɨɝɨɝɨɥɨɫɢɹɌɚɤȺɋɬɪɢɞɠɨ
ɧɚɫɵɬɢɥɦɨɬɟɬɧɵɦɩɢɫɶɦɨɦɤɚɧɰɨɧɟɬɬɭȺȽɚɛɪɢɷɥɢ²ɜɢɥɥɚɧɟɥɥɭ>@ɚ
ȺȻɚɧɤɶɟɪɢ²ɱɚɫɬɧɨɟɩɪɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɟɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɟɣ²ɞɠɭɫɬɢɧɢɚɧɭ>±@
ȼɷɬɨɦɫɦɵɫɥɟɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɨɩɪɚɜɛɵɥɡɧɚɦɟɧɢɬɵɣɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɢɤɬɟɯɫɨɛɵɬɢɣȼ
ȾɠɭɫɬɢɧɢɚɧɢɤɨɝɞɚɫɱɢɬɚɥɤɚɧɰɨɧɟɬɬɵɈȼɟɤɤɢɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɨɦ©ɩɟɪɟɥɨɠɟɧɢɹª
ɧɚɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨɝɨɥɨɫɨɜɜɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɫɬɢɥɹɩɪɟɠɞɟɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɜɲɟɝɨɜɜɢɞɟɫɨɥɶ
ɧɨɝɨɢɫɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɹɩɨɞɚɤɤɨɦɩɚɧɟɦɟɧɬɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɨɝɨɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚɂɦɟɧɧɨɜɵ
ɬɟɫɧɟɧɢɟɦɨɬɟɬɨɩɨɞɨɛɧɵɯɦɚɞɪɢɝɚɥɨɜɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɰɢɹɦɢɧɨɜɨɝɨ²ɤɚɧɰɨɧɟɬɬɧɨ


ɊɟɱɶɢɞɟɬɨɬɚɤɢɯɦɚɫɬɟɪɚɯɤɚɤɀȾɟɩɪɟɏɂɡɚɚɤəɈɛɪɟɯɬȺȼɢɥɥɚɪɬɎȼɟɪɞɟɥɨəȺɪ
ɤɚɞɟɥɶɬɑɞɟɊɨɪɟɀɞɟȼɟɪɬɢɞɪɂɡɧɢɯɬɨɥɶɤɨȺɪɤɚɞɟɥɶɬɫɭɦɟɥɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɢɬɶɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬɵ
ɫɬɪɨɝɨɝɨɩɢɫɶɦɚɫɮɪɨɬɬɨɥɶɧɵɦ©ɧɚɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟɦªɱɟɦɨɛɴɹɫɧɹɟɬɫɹɨɝɪɨɦɧɚɹɩɨɩɭɥɹɪɧɨɫɬɶɟɝɨ
ɦɭɡɵɤɢɜɂɬɚɥɢɢɜɬɨɪɨɣɩɨɥɨɜɢɧɵ;9,ɜ

ɉɨɡɞɧɟɟɷɬɨɢɡɵɫɤɚɧɧɨɟɞɟɬɢɳɟɜɵɫɨɤɨɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɨɜɧɚɱɢɧɚɟɬ©ɫɧɢɡɭª
ɩɨɞɜɟɪɝɚɬɶɫɹɜɥɢɹɧɢɸɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɨɣɩɟɫɟɧɧɨɣɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɢ ɨɛɷɬɨɦ²>@ ɛɥɚɝɨɞɚɪɹɱɟɦɭɜɨ
ɜɬɨɪɨɣɩɨɥɨɜɢɧɟ;9,ɜɩɨɱɬɢɧɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɨɬɞɟɥɢɬɶɭɩɪɨɳɟɧɧɨɟɫɬɪɨɝɨɟɩɢɫɶɦɨɨɬɭɥɭɱɲɟɧ
ɧɵɯɜɟɪɫɢɣɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɨɝɨɩɨɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɸɦɧɨɝɨɝɨɥɨɫɢɹ

ɈɛɢɫɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɫɤɨɣɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɟFDQWRDOOLXWR²>±@

Ɉɫɜɹɡɢɷɬɨɣɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɢɫɛɭɞɭɳɢɦɦɚɞɪɢɝɚɥɨɦ²>±@ɂɧɬɟɪɟɫɧɨɱɬɨɜɪɚɦ
ɤɚɯɞɚɧɧɨɝɨɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɫɨɡɞɚɬɟɥɢɩɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɭɠɟɪɚɧɧɢɯɦɚɞɪɢɝɚɥɨɜ ɫɜɨɛɨɞɧɵɯɩɨɮɨɪɦɟ
ɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɰɢɣɩɨɫɚɠɟɧɧɵɯɧɚɜɵɫɨɤɨɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɭɸɩɨɷɡɢɸɧɨɜɨɝɨ²©ɩɟɬɪɚɪɤɢɫɬɫɤɨɝɨª²ɨɛ
ɪɚɡɰɚ ɧɚɩɪɨɬɹɠɟɧɢɢɯɝɝɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɚɥɢɜɪɭɤɨɩɢɫɹɯɢɦɟɧɨɜɚɬɶɫɜɨɢɬɜɨɪɟɧɢɹ©ɤɚɧɰɨɧɚ
ɦɢª>@ɇɚɱɢɧɚɹɫɝɩɪɟɠɧɟɟɧɚɢɦɟɧɨɜɚɧɢɟɩɨɥɧɨɫɬɶɸɜɵɬɟɫɧɹɟɬɫɹɧɨɜɵɦɢɞɚɠɟɬɟ
ɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɵɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɜɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢɝɨɥɨɫɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɚɸɬɬɜɨɪɢɬɶɜɨɮɪɨɬɬɨɥɶɧɨɣɬɪɚ
ɞɢɰɢɢ ɤɚɤɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪȻɌɪɨɦɛɨɧɱɢɧɨɄɎɟɫɬɚɢɥɢəȽɟɪɨ ɢɦɟɧɭɸɬɫɜɨɢɜɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɟɤɨɦ
ɩɨɡɢɰɢɢ©ɦɭɡɵɤɨɣɧɚɦɚɞɪɢɝɚɥªɚɜɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɢɢɩɪɨɫɬɨ©ɦɚɞɪɢɝɚɥª

Ɉɛɷɬɨɦ²>±@
 ɋɁɂɫɯɚɤɨɜɚ

ɝɨ²ɨɛɪɚɡɰɚɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɨɜɚɥɨɤɨɥɨɫɫɚɥɶɧɨɦɭɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɸɷɬɨɝɨɠɚɧɪɚ
ɨɛɷɬɨɦɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɭɟɬɜɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢɨɝɪɨɦɧɨɟɱɢɫɥɨɨɩɭɛɥɢɤɨɜɚɧɧɵɯɫɛɨɪ
ɧɢɤɨɜ ɇɟɫɥɭɱɚɣɧɨɌɆɨɪɥɢɜɤɨɧɰɟ;9,ɜɨɬɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹɨɦɚɞɪɢɝɚɥɟɤɚɤɨ
©ɥɭɱɲɟɦɜɢɞɟɥɺɝɤɨɣ OLJKW ɦɭɡɵɤɢª>±@
Ɂɚɤɨɧɨɦɟɪɧɵɦɢɬɨɝɨɦɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɚɩɨɩɭɥɹɪɢɡɚɰɢɢɦɚɞɪɢɝɚɥɚɫɬɚɥɨɫɨɡɞɚ
ɧɢɟFRPPHGLDKDUPRQLFD ɧɵɧɟɢɦɟɧɭɟɦɨɣɦɚɞɪɢɝɚɥɶɧɨɣɤɨɦɟɞɢɟɣ ɦɭɡɵ
ɤɚɥɶɧɨɟɧɚɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟɤɨɬɨɪɨɣɛɵɥɨɤɚɤɢɜɢɧɬɟɪɦɟɞɢɹɯɩɨɥɧɨɫɬɶɸɧɚɰɟɥɟɧɨ
ɧɚɪɚɡɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɟɩɭɛɥɢɤɢɩɪɢɬɨɦɱɬɨɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɨɫɨɡɞɚɜɚɟɦɨɣɦɭɡɵɤɢɨɬɜɟɱɚɥɨ
ɫɚɦɵɦɜɵɫɨɤɢɦɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɦɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹɦȿɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɩɨɷɬɨɦɭɱɬɨ
ɦɚɞɪɢɝɚɥɶɧɵɟɤɨɦɟɞɢɢɤɚɤɢɫɛɨɪɧɢɤɢɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɧɵɟɷɬɨɦɭɠɚɧɪɭɧɟɨɞɧɨ
ɤɪɚɬɧɨɩɟɪɟɢɡɞɚɜɚɥɢɫɶɛɭɞɭɱɢɧɟɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɨɜɨɫɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɧɵɦɢɫɚɦɨɣɲɢɪɨɤɨɣ
ɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɟɣ>±@ɜɨɬɥɢɱɢɟɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪɨɬɤɥɚɜɢɪɨɜɪɚɧɧɢɯɨɩɟɪɤɨ
ɬɨɪɵɟɪɟɞɤɨɢɡɞɚɜɚɥɢɫɶɢɱɚɫɬɨɜɵɛɪɚɫɵɜɚɥɢɫɶɩɨɫɥɟɢɫɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɹɌɚɤɢɦɨɛ
ɪɚɡɨɦɤɤɨɧɰɭ;9,ɜɜɜɨɫɩɪɢɹɬɢɢɛɨɪɰɨɜɡɚɫɟɪɶɟɡɧɨɟɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɟɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɨ
ɦɧɨɝɨɝɨɥɨɫɧɵɣɦɚɞɪɢɝɚɥɨɤɚɡɚɥɫɹ©ɢɫɩɨɪɱɟɧªɟɝɨɩɪɟɞɵɞɭɳɟɣɚɧɬɢɞɪɚɦɚɬɢ
ɱɟɫɤɨɣɢɫɬɨɪɢɟɣȼɷɬɨɦɫɦɵɫɥɟɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɨɩɪɚɜɛɵɥȺɗɣɧɲɬɟɣɧɤɨɝɞɚɡɚ
ɦɟɬɢɥɱɬɨɦɚɞɪɢɝɚɥɶɧɵɟɤɨɦɟɞɢɢɈȼɟɤɤɢ©ɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹɱɟɦɭɝɨɞɧɨɬɨɥɶɤɨɧɟ
ɤɨɦɟɞɢɹɦɢɢɢɦɟɸɬɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɟɨɛɳɟɝɨɫɬɟɚɬɪɨɦɫɰɟɧɨɣɢɪɨɠɞɟɧɢɟɦɨɩɟɪɵ
ɱɟɦ©&LFDODPHQWRªɋɬɪɢɞɠɨ«ª>±@ɜɤɨɬɨɪɨɦɦɚɞɪɢɝɚɥɨɜɢɡɥɚ
ɝɚɸɬɫɸɠɟɬɛɟɡɫɰɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ
ɉɨɞɨɛɧɨɟɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟɭɫɨɡɞɚɬɟɥɟɣɩɟɪɜɵɯɨɩɟɪɚɬɚɤɠɟɩɪɨɩɨɜɟɞɧɢɤɨɜɢɯ
ɢɞɟɣɫɥɨɠɢɥɨɫɶɢɤɦɚɞɪɢɝɚɥɚɦɧɚɩɢɫɚɧɧɵɦɞɥɹɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɯɢɧɬɟɪɦɟɞɢɣɇɟ
ɭɞɢɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɩɨɷɬɨɦɭɩɪɟɧɟɛɪɟɠɟɧɢɟɜɵɤɚɡɚɧɧɨɟȾɠȻȾɨɧɢɦɭɡɵɤɟɜɫɩɟɤ
ɬɚɤɥɹɯɜɬɨɪɨɣɩɨɥɨɜɢɧɵ;9,ɜ©ɋɥɟɞɭɟɬɩɨɦɧɢɬɶɱɬɨɦɟɥɨɞɢɢɬɨɝɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ
ɫɢɥɶɧɨɨɬɥɢɱɚɥɢɫɶɨɬɧɵɧɟɲɧɢɯɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɩɢɲɭɬɫɹɜɫɬɢɥɟɨɛɵɱɧɨɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɦɨɦ
©ɪɟɱɢɬɚɬɢɜɧɵɦªɈɧɢɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɥɢɫɶɩɨɱɬɢɢɫɤɥɸɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɜɚɪɢɟɬɬɚɯɱɚɫɬɨ
ɜɟɫɶɦɚɡɚɬɟɣɥɢɜɵɯɫɦɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɦɢɩɨɜɬɨɪɚɦɢɷɮɮɟɤɬɚɦɢɷɯɨɢɬɨɦɭɩɨ
ɞɨɛɧɵɦɢɜɟɳɚɦɢɨɞɧɚɤɨɧɟɢɦɟɸɳɢɦɢɧɢɱɟɝɨɨɛɳɟɝɨɫɯɨɪɨɲɟɣɩɨɞɥɢɧɧɨ
ɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɣɦɭɡɵɤɨɣ«ª>@ȿɳɺɛɨɥɟɟɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɱɟɧɜɫɜɨɢɯɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɹɯɨ

Ɉɛɷɬɨɦ²>±@Ⱦɟɦɨɤɪɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɹɦɚɞɪɢɝɚɥɚɧɟɛɵɥɚɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɬɨɬɚɥɶɧɵɦɹɜɥɟɧɢɟɦɇ
ȼɢɱɟɧɬɢɧɨɑɞɟɊɨɪɟɀɞɟȼɟɪɬɅɅɭɞɡɚɫɤɢɢɟɝɨɭɱɟɧɢɤɄȾɠɟɡɭɚɥɶɞɨɧɚɨɛɨɪɨɬɢɫɤɚɥɢ
ɫɩɨɫɨɛɵɭɫɥɨɠɧɟɧɢɹɷɥɢɬɚɪɢɡɚɰɢɢɠɚɧɪɚ

Ɉɛɷɬɨɦɜɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ²>±@

Ɉɛɷɬɨɦ²>±±@

Ɉɛɷɬɨɦ²>@

ɗɮɮɟɤɬɵɷɯɨɜɩɟɪɜɵɟɨɫɜɨɟɧɧɵɟɜɦɧɨɝɨɯɨɪɧɵɯɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɰɢɹɯɜɟɧɟɰɢɚɧɫɤɨɝɨɫɨɛɨɪɚɋɜɆɚɪ
ɤɚɫɬɚɥɢɨɱɟɧɶɩɨɩɭɥɹɪɧɵɢɜɦɚɞɪɢɝɚɥɚɯɜɬɨɦɱɢɫɥɟɬɟɯɱɬɨɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɥɢɫɶɜɢɧɬɟɪɦɟɞɢ
ɹɯɉɨɦɧɟɧɢɸɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪɄɚɜɚɥɶɟɪɢ©ɏɨɪɨɲɨɩɪɨɡɜɭɱɚɬɭɤɪɚɲɟɧɢɹɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɦɵɟ³ɷɯɨ´ª>
@²ɭɤɚɡɚɧɢɟɹɜɧɨɜɵɡɵɜɚɸɳɟɟɪɚɡɞɪɚɠɟɧɢɟȾɨɧɢ

ɇɟɭɞɢɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɱɬɨɪɚɡɭɦɧɵɟɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɗɞɟɄɚɜɚɥɶɟɪɢ ɜɨɦɧɨɝɨɦɨɩɩɨɧɟɧɬɮɥɨ
ɪɟɧɬɢɣɫɤɨɝɨɤɪɭɠɤɚ ɩɪɟɞɴɹɜɥɹɥɤɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɧɨɦɭɬɟɤɫɬɭɩɨɞɥɢɧɧɨɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɹ
ȾɠȻȾɨɧɢɫɱɢɬɚɟɬɫɦɟɯɨɬɜɨɪɧɵɦɢɫɱɢɬɚɹɱɬɨ©ɜɫɺɷɬɨɧɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɫɰɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɭɸɦɭɡɵɤɭɞɨ
ɭɪɨɜɧɹɲɭɬɨɱɧɵɯɩɟɫɟɧɨɤ ɱɢɬɚɣ©ɤɚɧɰɨɧɟɬɬª²ɋɂ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɦɢɜɛɨɥɶɲɨɦɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɫɧɚɛ
ɠɚɥɢɫɶɫɚɦɵɟɧɢɡɤɨɩɪɨɛɧɵɟɤɨɦɟɞɢɢ ɬɨɟɫɬɶɦɚɞɪɢɝɚɥɶɧɵɟɤɨɦɟɞɢɢ²ɋɂ ɞɥɹɦɧɢɦɨɝɨ
ɋɨɡɞɚɧɢɟGUDPPDSHUPXVLFDɤɚɤɩɨɩɵɬɤɚɷɥɢɬɚɪɢɡɚɰɢɢɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚ 
ɫɬɚɪɨɣɦɧɨɝɨɝɨɥɨɫɧɨɣɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɢɡɚɳɢɬɧɢɤɪɚɧɧɟɣɨɩɟɪɵȾɋȻɨɧɢɧɢɭɬɜɟɪɠ
ɞɚɹɱɬɨ©ɢɡɥɢɲɧɢɣɤɨɧɬɪɚɩɭɧɤɬɩɪɢɩɟɧɢɢɛɨɥɶɲɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɚɝɨɥɨɫɨɜɦɧɨɠɟ
ɫɬɜɨɩɚɫɫɚɠɟɣɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɟɦɵɟɩɪɢɢɝɪɟɧɚɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɫɬɪɭɧɧɵɯɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚɯ
ɧɪɚɜɹɬɫɹɬɨɥɶɤɨɧɟɜɟɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣɩɭɛɥɢɤɟª>@əɫɧɨɱɬɨɷɬɨɝɨɤɪɢɬɢɤɚɪɚɡ
ɞɪɚɠɚɥɢɧɟɫɬɨɥɶɤɨɯɢɬɪɨɫɩɥɟɬɟɧɢɹɝɨɥɨɫɨɜɫɤɨɥɶɤɨɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɹɹɩɪɨɧɢɡɚɧ
ɧɨɫɬɶɧɨɜɟɣɲɢɯɫɨɱɢɧɟɧɢɣ©DUVSHUIHFWDªɤɚɧɰɨɧɟɬɬɧɨɣɢɧɬɨɧɚɰɢɟɣɫɨɡɞɚɸɳɟɣ
ɢɥɥɸɡɢɸɲɢɪɨɤɨɣɞɨɫɬɭɩɧɨɫɬɢɷɬɨɣɦɭɡɵɤɢɈɬɫɸɞɚɢɭɩɪɟɤɜ©ɧɟɜɟɠɟɫɬɜɟɧ
ɧɨɫɬɢªɩɭɛɥɢɤɢɩɨɥɭɱɚɸɳɟɣɨɬɧɟɟɭɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɢɟȼɟɞɶɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɨɨɱɟɜɢɞɰɭɬɟɯ
ɫɨɛɵɬɢɣȼȾɠɭɫɬɢɧɢɚɧɢɩɪɢɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɢɯɞɜɨɪɚɯɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɨɜɚɥɨɫɶɬɨɝɞɚɜɢɪ
ɬɭɨɡɧɨɟɫɨɥɶɧɨɟɩɟɧɢɟɜɫɨɩɪɨɜɨɠɞɟɧɢɢɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚɬɨɝɞɚɤɚɤɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɨɟ
ɦɧɨɝɨɝɨɥɨɫɢɟɛɵɥɨɧɚɰɟɥɟɧɨɧɚ©ɭɞɨɜɥɟɬɜɨɪɟɧɢɟɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨɜɤɭɫɚª ɫɦ
>@ ɄɚɤɫɩɪɚɜɟɞɥɢɜɨɡɚɦɟɬɢɥɚɘȺɅɢɬɜɢɧɨɜɚ©ɈɬGUDPPDSHUPXVLFD²
©ɜɨɡɪɨɠɞɟɧɧɨɣªɚɧɬɢɱɧɨɣɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɢ²ɨɠɢɞɚɥɢɩɪɟɠɞɟɜɫɟɝɨɝɥɭɛɨɤɢɯɷɬɢɱɟ
ɫɤɢɯɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɣ H൵HWWL ɧɚɞɭɲɭɫɥɭɲɚɬɟɥɟɣɢɧɬɟɪɦɟɞɢɢɠɟɛɵɥɢɩɪɢɡɜɚɧɵ
ɪɚɡɜɥɟɤɚɬɶɢɢɡɭɦɥɹɬɶɩɭɛɥɢɤɭɞɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɹɟɣɱɢɫɬɨɷɫɬɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟɭɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɢɟ
ɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦɜɟɥɢɤɨɥɟɩɧɨɝɨɡɪɟɥɢɳɚɢɦɭɡɵɤɢª>@
ɈɞɧɚɤɨɤɚɤɩɨɤɚɡɚɥɚɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɚVWLOHUHFLWDWLYRɞɨɜɨɥɶɧɨɬɹɠɟɥɨɫɥɭɲɚɟɬɫɹ
ɜɛɨɥɶɲɨɦɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɟɇɟɫɦɨɬɪɹɧɚɬɨɱɬɨɪɟɱɢɬɚɬɢɜɧɨɟɢɡɥɨɠɟɧɢɟɧɟɩɨɥɧɨ
ɫɬɶɸɩɪɨɧɢɡɵɜɚɟɬɪɚɧɧɢɟɨɩɟɪɵɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɹɦɟɫɬɨɞɥɹ ɜɚɪɢɚɰɢɨɧɧɨ ɫɬɪɨɮɢ
ɱɟɫɤɢɯ©ɚɪɢɣªɢɧɨɜɨɣɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɢɫɨɥɶɧɨɝɨɦɚɞɪɢɝɚɥɚɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɟɧɚɩɨɥɧɟ
ɧɢɟɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɹɜɰɟɥɨɦɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹɜɟɫɶɦɚɨɞɧɨɩɥɚɧɨɜɵɦɌɚɤɩɨɧɚɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɸ
Ⱦɂɜɟɧɚ©ɄɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɵɄɚɦɟɪɚɬɵɧɚɫɬɨɥɶɤɨɨɬɞɚɥɢɫɶɞɟɥɭɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹɞɟ
ɤɥɚɦɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨɫɬɢɥɹɱɬɨɱɚɫɬɨɢɯɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɧɚɩɨɥɧɹɥɢɫɶɦɨɧɨɬɨɧɧɵɦɢ
ɡɜɭɱɚɧɢɹɦɢª>@ɇɟɫɥɭɱɚɣɧɨȾɋȻɨɧɢɧɢɡɚɞɧɢɦɱɢɫɥɨɦɯɜɚɥɢɬɦɚɧɟ
ɪɭɄɚɱɱɢɧɢɞɨɛɚɜɥɹɹɱɬɨɨɧɚ©ɧɟɢɦɟɥɚɜɫɟɛɟɧɢɱɟɝɨɩɪɢɧɭɠɞɺɧɧɨɝɨɢɧɚɬɹ
ɧɭɬɨɝɨɤɚɤɨɛɷɬɨɦɨɛɵɱɧɨɝɨɜɨɪɢɬɫɹª>@ ɤɭɪɫɢɜɦɨɣ²ɋɂ 
Ʉɨɧɟɱɧɨɧɟɥɶɡɹɫɤɚɡɚɬɶɱɬɨɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɬɟɚɬɪɫɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɦɫɨɩɪɨ
ɜɨɠɞɟɧɢɟɦ ɤɫɮɟɪɟɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨɬɟɨɪɢɹɫɟɪɟɞɢɧɵ;9,,,ɜɜɫɟɟɳɟɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɪɚɡɞɟɥ
©GUDPPDSHUPXVLFDª>@ ɜɩɥɚɧɟɜɨɫɩɪɢɹɬɢɹɫɥɨɠɧɟɟɱɢɫɬɨɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨ
ɝɨɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɹɈɞɧɚɤɨɜɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯɨɛɵɱɧɨɝɨɬɟɚɬɪɚɢɧɬɨɧɚɰɢɹɩɪɨɢɡɧɨɫɢɦɨɝɨ
ɬɟɤɫɬɚɢɦɟɟɬɬɨɥɶɤɨɫɦɵɫɥɨɜɭɸɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɭɸɢɧɟɪɚɫɰɟɧɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɫɥɭɲɚɬɟɥɶ
ɫɤɢɦɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɦɫɚɦɚɩɨɫɟɛɟɋɥɨɜɨɠɟɩɨɫɚɠɟɧɧɨɟɧɚɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɟɢɧɬɨɧɢ
ɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɧɨɩɪɢɷɬɨɦɨɫɬɚɜɲɟɟɫɹɜɡɨɧɟ©ɪɚɡɝɨɜɨɪɧɨɣɪɟɱɢª ɡɚɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɡɪɢɬɟɥɹ
ɧɚɦɧɨɝɨɛɨɥɟɟɜɧɢɦɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɩɪɢɫɥɭɲɢɜɚɬɶɫɹɤɩɪɨɢɡɧɨɫɢɦɨɦɭɬɟɤɫɬɭɤɨɬɨɪɵɣ
ɬɟɩɟɪɶɧɟɫɟɬɧɟɬɨɥɶɤɨɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟɫɥɨɜɧɨɢɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɨɟ
ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟɦɟɥɨɞɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɥɢɧɢɢȼɨɫɩɪɢɹɬɢɟɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɟɣɥɢɲɟɧɧɨɣɱɢɫɬɨɦɭ
ɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɪɢɬɦɚɩɪɟɠɞɟɞɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɜɲɟɝɨɭɞɨɜɨɥɶɫɬɜɢɟɫɥɭɲɚɬɟɥɹɦɜɢɬɨɝɟ
ɭɫɢɥɟɧɢɹɷɮɮɟɤɬɚª>@

ɉɨɦɧɟɧɢɸɇȺɪɧɨɧɤɭɪɚɜɪɟɱɢɬɚɬɢɜɧɵɯɷɩɢɡɨɞɚɯɪɚɧɧɢɯɮɥɨɪɟɧɬɢɣɫɤɢɯɨɩɟɪ©³ɩɨɸɳɚɹɪɟɱɶ´
6SUHFKJHVDQJ ɧɨɬɢɪɨɜɚɥɚɫɶɩɪɢɛɥɢɡɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ²ɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɨɪɢɬɦɭɢɦɟɥɨɞɢɢɪɟɱɢɉɪɢɷɬɨɦɩɨɫɬɨ
ɹɧɧɨɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɥɨɫɶɱɬɨɜɧɟɣɧɟɬɬɚɤɬɚɚɟɫɬɶɥɢɲɶɪɟɱɟɜɵɟɭɞɚɪɟɧɢɹɡɚɩɢɫɶɠɟɧɚ²ɥɢɲɶ
ɨɪɮɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɶª>@ȼɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɩɨɥɨɠɧɨɫɬɶɷɬɨɦɭɩɨɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɦɭɩɪɨɮɟɫ
 ɋɁɂɫɯɚɤɨɜɚ

ɭɬɨɦɥɹɟɬɢɯȼɩɪɢɞɜɨɪɧɨɦɢɫɬɟɛɥɢɲɦɟɧɬɟ;9,ɜɨɞɧɨɝɨɥɨɫɧɨɟɩɟɧɢɟɜɫɨ
ɩɪɨɜɨɠɞɟɧɢɢɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚɛɵɥɨɩɨɩɭɥɹɪɧɵɦɧɨɨɧɨɧɟɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɥɨɛɨɥɶ
ɲɢɯɩɪɨɬɹɠɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɣɉɨɷɬɨɦɭɢɞɟɹȼȽɚɥɢɥɟɢɢɟɝɨɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɟɣɫɨɡɞɚɬɶ
ɰɟɥɵɣɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɶɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɸɩɨɱɬɢɩɨɥɬɨɪɚɱɚɫɚɜɬɚɤɨɦɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶ
ɧɨɦɢɡɥɨɠɟɧɢɢɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɛɵɥɚɨɛɪɟɱɟɧɚɉɨɥɭɱɚɟɬɫɹɱɬɨɪɚɞɢɞɨɫɬɢɠɟ
ɧɢɹɜɵɫɨɤɨɝɨɭɪɨɜɧɹɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɜGUDPPDSHUPXVLFDɟɟɫɨɡɞɚɬɟɥɢɩɪɢ
ɧɟɫɥɢɜɠɟɪɬɜɭɱɢɫɬɨɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɭɸɫɬɨɪɨɧɭɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɹ
ɍɱɢɬɵɜɚɹɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɟɣɷɜɨɥɸɰɢɢɨɩɟɪɧɨɝɨɠɚɧɪɚɧɚɰɟɥɟɧ
ɧɨɣɧɚɨɫɜɨɟɧɢɟɩɪɟɠɞɟɜɫɟɝɨɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɚɧɟɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɧɵɯ 
ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɨɜɨɩɵɬɮɥɨɪɟɧɬɢɣɫɤɨɝɨɤɪɭɠɤɚɦɨɠɧɨɛɵɥɨɛɵɢɩɪɨɢɝɧɨɪɢɪɨɜɚɬɶ
ɟɫɥɢɛɵɟɝɨ©ɢɡɨɛɪɟɬɟɧɢɟɦª²ɪɟɱɢɬɚɬɢɜɨɦ²ɧɟɜɨɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɥɢɫɶɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɢɟ
ɦɚɫɬɟɪɚɛɭɞɭɳɟɣɨɩɟɪɵɢɛɟɡɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨɜɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɢɫɬɚɥɨɧɟɦɵɫɥɢɦɵɦɜɵ
ɪɚɠɟɧɢɟɫɰɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹȼɚɠɧɨɱɬɨɜɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɟɦɧɚɩɟɜɧɚɹɞɟɤɥɚɦɚ
ɰɢɹɩɟɪɟɫɬɚɟɬɛɵɬɶɜɰɟɧɬɪɟɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɹɛɭɞɭɱɢɜɵɬɟɫɧɟɧɚɧɚɩɟɪɢɮɟɪɢɸɦɭɡɵ
ɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɧɚɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɹɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɹɛɨɥɟɟɠɢɡɧɟɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɵɦɢɨɩɟɪɧɵɦɢɮɨɪɦɚɦɢ
ɂɟɫɥɢɡɚɪɨɠɞɟɧɢɟɨɩɟɪɵɛɵɥɨɫɜɹɡɚɧɨɫɩɨɩɵɬɤɨɣɷɥɢɬɚɪɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɚɤɚɞɟɦɢ
ɱɟɫɤɨɟɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɨɧɚɩɪɨɬɹɠɟɧɢɢ;9,ɫɬɨɥɟɬɢɹɧɟɭɤɥɨɧɧɨɫɬɪɟɦɹɳɟɟɫɹɜɫɬɨ
ɪɨɧɭɭɩɪɨɳɟɧɢɹɬɨɟɟɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɟɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɟɧɢɟɜɫɟɪɚɜɧɨɭɩɪɨɫɬɢɥɨɫɶɨɤɚ
ɡɚɜɲɢɫɶɜɪɭɫɥɟɨɛɳɟɣɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɢɢɜɫɬɚɜɧɚɤɨɦɦɟɪɱɟɫɤɢɟɪɟɥɶɫɵ
Ʌา฼ฯฺส฼฽ฺส
 ȺɪɧɨɧɤɭɪɇɆɨɢɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɢɤɢȻɚɯɆɨɰɚɪɬɆɨɧɬɟɜɟɪɞɢɩɟɪɫɧɟɦɆɄɥɚɫ
ɫɢɤɚɏɏ,
 >Ʉɚɜɚɥɶɟɪɢɞɟ¶ɗ@Ʉɱɢɬɚɬɟɥɹɦȼɫɬɭɩɥɟɧɢɟɤɩɟɪɜɨɦɭɩɟɱɚɬɧɨɦɭɢɡɞɚɧɢɸ©ɉɪɟɞ
ɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɨȾɭɲɟɢɌɟɥɟªɗɄɚɜɚɥɶɟɪɢɩɟɪɆȻɚɬɨɜɨɣɋɬɚɪɢɧɧɚɹɦɭɡɵɤɚ
ʋɋ±
 ɄɨɪɨɛɨɜɚȺɆɚɞɪɢɝɚɥɤɚɤɧɨɜɚɹ&DUPHQSDVWRUDOHɜɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɣɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɟɊɟɧɟɫ
ɫɚɧɫɚɋɬɚɪɢɧɧɚɹɦɭɡɵɤɚʋ±ɋ±
 Ʌɢɬɜɢɧɨɜɚɘɂɡɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɪɟɧɟɫɫɚɧɫɧɵɯɢɧɬɟɪɦɟɞɢɣ©Ɏɥɨɪɟɧɬɢɣɫɤɢɣɦɚɣªɋɬɚ
ɪɢɧɧɚɹɦɭɡɵɤɚʋ  ɋ±
 ɅɭɰɤɟɪɉȼɊɚɧɧɢɣɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɢɣɦɚɞɪɢɝɚɥ;9,ɜɟɤɭɱɟɛɧɨɦɟɬɨɞɢɱɟɫɤɨɟɩɨɫɨ
ɛɢɟɆɊȺɆɢɦȽɧɟɫɢɧɵɯ
 ɆɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɚɹɷɫɬɟɬɢɤɚɁɚɩɚɞɧɨɣȿɜɪɨɩɵ;9,,±;9,,,ɜɟɤɨɜɆɆɭɡɵɤɚ
 ɇɚɫɨɧɨɜɊȺ©ȼɬɨɪɨɟɪɨɠɞɟɧɢɟªɨɩɟɪɵɆɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɚɹɧɚɭɤɚɜɏɏ,ɜɟɤɟɩɭɬɢɢ
ɩɨɢɫɤɢɆɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɵɆɟɠɞɭɧɚɪɨɞɧɨɣɧɚɭɱɧɨɣɤɨɧɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɢɊȺɆɢɦȽɧɟɫɢɧɵɯ
ɆɊȺɆɢɦȽɧɟɫɢɧɵɯɋ±
ɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɗɞɟɄɚɜɚɥɶɟɪɢɪɟɤɨɦɟɧɞɭɟɬ©«ɬɨɱɬɨɩɨɟɬɫɹɢɬɨɱɬɨɢɝɪɚɟɬɫɹɧɚ
ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚɯɧɟɞɨɥɠɧɨɡɜɭɱɚɬɶɜɨɞɧɨɣɦɚɧɟɪɟɧɨɫɛɨɥɶɲɢɦɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɟɦɪɢɬɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɩɪɨ
ɩɨɪɰɢɣɚɢɦɟɧɧɨ²ɧɚɬɪɢɧɚɲɟɫɬɶɢɧɚɞɜɚªɈɱɟɜɢɞɧɨɱɬɨɬɪɟɛɭɹɪɚɡɧɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɹɜɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɟ
ɧɢɢɬɚɤɬɨɜɵɯɪɚɡɦɟɪɨɜ²ɢɄɚɜɚɥɶɟɪɢɩɪɟɞɴɹɜɥɹɟɬɤɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɸɱɢɫɬɨɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɟ
ɚɧɟɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɧɵɟɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹ>@

ɗɬɨɩɨɧɢɦɚɥɢɫɚɦɄɚɱɱɢɧɢɤɨɝɞɚɜɜɺɥɜɫɜɨɸ©ɗɜɪɢɞɢɤɭªɰɟɥɵɣɪɹɞɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɢɯɯɨɪɨɜɵɯ
ɜɫɬɚɜɨɤ ɜɬɨɦɱɢɫɥɟɜɫɬɢɥɟɤɚɧɰɨɧɟɬɬɵ ɩɪɢɜɵɱɧɵɯɢɦɢɥɵɯɞɥɹɭɯɚɫɥɭɲɚɬɟɥɟɣ

ɇɚɧɚɲɜɡɝɥɹɞɅȻɶɹɧɤɨɧɢɢɌɍɨɥɤɟɪɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɨɫɩɪɚɜɟɞɥɢɜɨɧɚɫɬɚɢɜɚɸɬɧɚɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɧɨɣ
ɞɟɬɟɪɦɢɧɚɰɢɢɠɚɧɪɚGUDPPDSHUPXVLFDɜɨɬɥɢɱɢɟɨɬɛɨɥɟɟɩɨɡɞɧɢɯɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɢɯɨɩɟɪ>@
Ⱥɜɬɨɪɵɞɚɠɟɞɨɩɭɫɤɚɸɬ©ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɟɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɟɛɟɡɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɟɩɭɛɥɢɤɢɤɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɭɦɭɡɵɤɢ ɬɨ
ɟɫɬɶɫɚɦɨɣɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɰɢɢɚɧɟɢɫɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɸ ɜɪɚɦɤɚɯɩɪɢɧɹɬɵɯɫɬɢɥɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɩɪɚɤɬɢɤª>@
ɋɨɡɞɚɧɢɟGUDPPDSHUPXVLFDɤɚɤɩɨɩɵɬɤɚɷɥɢɬɚɪɢɡɚɰɢɢɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚ 
 ɉɚɧɤɢɧɚȿȼɎɪɨɬɬɨɥɚɜɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɟɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɨɝɨɜɨɡɪɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ ± ɞɢɫ«
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ȺɧɧɨɬɚɰɢɹɈɩɟɪɚ©ȾɢɞɨɧɚɢɗɧɟɣªɉɺɪɫɟɥɥɚɧɚɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨɌɟɣɬɚɞɨɫɢɯɩɨɪ
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ɩɨɜɨɞɞɥɹɧɚɩɢɫɚɧɢɹɧɢɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚɩɟɪɜɨɣɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢɧɚɦɞɨɫɢɯɩɨɪɧɟ
ɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɵɧɟɫɦɨɬɪɹɧɚɬɨɱɬɨɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɢɟɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɢɩɪɨɜɟɥɢɤɪɨɩɨɬɥɢɜɭɸ
ɪɚɛɨɬɭɢɡɭɱɢɜɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɨɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬɨɜɷɩɨɯɢɩɨɞɪɨɛɧɨɩɪɨɚɧɚɥɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɜɥɢɬɟ
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ɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬ
Ʉɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɦɭɜɪɟɦɟɧɢɧɚɦɬɨɱɧɨɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɨɱɬɨɩɟɪɜɚɹɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚɨɩɟɪɵɫɨ
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ɫɫɨɛɵɬɢɹɦɢɋɥɚɜɧɨɣɪɟɜɨɥɸɰɢɢɞɨɥɠɧɵɛɵɬɶɢɫɤɥɸɱɟɧɵɢɡɟɝɨɪɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɟ
ɧɢɹɈɫɧɨɜɧɵɟɜɟɪɫɢɢɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɢ©Ⱦɢɞɨɧɵɢɗɧɟɹªɫɜɹɡɚɧɵ
ɫɟɝɨɞɧɹɫɩɨɞɝɨɬɨɜɤɨɣɤɩɪɚɡɞɧɨɜɚɧɢɸɥɟɬɢɹɊɟɫɬɚɜɪɚɰɢɢɥɢɛɨɫɫɨɛɵɬɢɹ
ɦɢɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɯɥɟɬɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹəɤɨɜɚ,,Ɉɞɧɚɤɨɜɥɸɛɨɦɫɥɭɱɚɟɦɨɠɧɨɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɨ
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ɦɨɧɚɪɯɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɫɨɡɧɚɧɢɹɜȺɧɝɥɢɢɧɚɤɚɧɭɧɟɩɚɞɟɧɢɹɞɢɧɚɫɬɢɢɋɬɸɚɪɬɨɜɪɚ
ɡɨɱɚɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɩɨɞɞɚɧɧɵɯɛɪɢɬɚɧɫɤɨɣɤɨɪɨɧɵɜɫɜɨɢɯɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɹɯ
ɉɪɢɷɬɨɦɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɸɨɩɟɪɵɧɢɜɤɨɟɦɫɥɭɱɚɟɧɟɥɶɡɹɫɜɨɞɢɬɶɤɩɨɢɫɤɭɟɟ
ɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɩɨɞɬɟɤɫɬɚȼɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢɫɥɟɞɭɟɬɭɞɟɥɢɬɶɛɨɥɶɲɟɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɹɥɢ
ɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɧɨɦɭɢɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɦɭɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɭɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɪɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɟɜɨɛɪɚɡɝɥɚɜ
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ɞɢɚɥɨɝɚɄɚɪɢɫɫɢɦɢ
ɄɥɸɱɟɜɵɟɫɥɨɜɚȽɟɧɪɢɉɺɪɫɟɥɥɨɩɟɪɚ©ȾɢɞɨɧɚɢɗɧɟɣªɇɷɣɯɟɦɌɟɣɬɊɟ
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ɫɨɜɦɟɫɬɧɨɝɨɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹȼɢɥɶɝɟɥɶɦɚɢɆɚɪɢɢ²ɱɚɫɬɨɟɢɞɨɥɝɨɟɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟ
ɫɭɩɪɭɝɚɜȺɧɝɥɢɢ²ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɨɜɚɥɢɬɨɦɭɱɬɨɫɸɠɟɬɨɩɟɪɵɦɨɝɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢ
ɦɚɬɶɫɹɤɚɤɧɟɩɨɞɨɛɚɸɳɢɣɧɚɦɟɤɧɚɥɢɱɧɭɸɠɢɡɧɶɤɨɪɨɥɟɜɫɤɨɣɱɟɬɵɚɩɨɫɥɟ
ɫɦɟɪɬɢɆɚɪɢɢɜɞɟɤɚɛɪɟɝɨɞɚɟɳɟɢɤɚɤɫɤɪɵɬɚɹɩɨɩɵɬɤɚɜɨɡɥɨɠɢɬɶɧɚ
ȼɢɥɶɝɟɥɶɦɚɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɡɚɩɟɱɚɥɶɧɭɸɭɱɚɫɬɶɠɟɧɵɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɟɢɫɩɨɥɧɟ
ɧɢɟ©Ⱦɢɞɨɧɵɢɗɧɟɹªɜɬɚɤɨɣɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢɩɨɦɧɟɧɢɸɉɪɚɣɫɚɛɵɥɨɧɟɦɵɫɥɢɦɨ
>@ɋɚɦɚɩɨɩɵɬɤɚɜɨɡɞɚɬɶɯɜɚɥɭɧɨɜɵɦɦɨɧɚɪɯɚɦɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦ©ɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ
ɩɪɢɧɰɚɫɨɛɥɚɡɧɢɜɲɟɝɨɢɩɨɤɢɧɭɜɲɟɝɨɧɟɜɪɨɬɢɱɧɭɸɤɨɪɨɥɟɜɭɦɨɝɥɚɩɨɤɚ
ɡɚɬɶɫɹɛɟɫɬɚɤɬɧɨɣª>@ȼɭɞɢɉɢɧɧɨɤɜɵɱɢɬɵɜɚɸɬɢɡɬɟɤɫɬɚɩɪɨɥɨɝɚɧɚ
Ɉɩɟɪɚɉɺɪɫɟɥɥɚ©Ⱦɢɞɨɧɚɢɗɧɟɣªɤɚɤɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɚɥɥɟɝɨɪɢɹ 
ɦɟɤɢɧɚɩɨɡɞɧɢɣɩɪɢɯɨɞɜɟɫɧɵɢɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɸɬɱɬɨɞɚɬɨɣɩɟɪɜɨɝɨɢɫɩɨɥɧɟ
ɧɢɹ©Ⱦɢɞɨɧɵɢɗɧɟɹªɛɵɥɝɨɞɩɪɢɜɨɞɹɜɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɟɧɢɟɫɜɨɟɣɜɟɪɫɢɢ
ɪɹɞɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɢɤɨɜɨɤɪɚɣɧɟɫɭɪɨɜɨɣɢɡɚɬɹɠɧɨɣɡɢɦɟɜȺɧɝɥɢɢ
ɝɨɞɨɜ>࣓@
ɋɭɪɨɜɵɣɤɪɢɬɢɤɬɟɨɪɢɢȼɭɞɚɢɉɢɧɧɨɤɚɗɧɞɪɸɍɨɤɥɢɧɝɩɪɟɞɥɨɠɢɥ
ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɭɸɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɸɚɥɥɟɝɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɩɪɨɥɨɝɚɍɨɤɥɢɧɝɨɛɪɚɳɚɟɬ
ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚɨɛɢɥɢɟɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɌɟɣɬɚɦɨɪɫɤɢɯɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɧɢɤɚɤɧɟɜɹɠɭɳɢɯɫɹɫ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɦɨȼɢɥɶɝɟɥɶɦɟɈɪɚɧɫɤɨɦɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɩɪɨɫɥɚɜɢɥɫɹɫɜɨɢɦɢɜɨɟɧ
ɧɵɦɢɭɫɩɟɯɚɦɢɧɚɫɭɲɟɁɚɬɨɞɪɭɝɨɣɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɷɬɨɝɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ
ɤɨɪɨɥɶəɤɨɜ,,ɟɳɟɛɭɞɭɱɢɝɟɪɰɨɝɨɦɃɨɪɤɫɤɢɦɜɨɡɝɥɚɜɥɹɥɛɪɢɬɚɧɫɤɢɣɮɥɨɬ
௅ ɩɨɞɟɝɨɤɨɦɚɧɞɨɜɚɧɢɟɦɚɧɝɥɢɱɚɧɟɨɞɟɪɠɚɥɢɞɜɟɛɨɥɶɲɢɟɩɨɛɟ
ɞɵɧɚɞɝɨɥɥɚɧɞɰɚɦɢɧɚɦɨɪɟ>@ɉɪɢɷɬɨɦɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɟɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɢɯɤɨɪɨɥɟɜ
ɫȼɟɧɟɪɨɣ²ɜɛɪɢɬɚɧɫɤɨɣɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɦɢɮɨɥɨɝɢɢɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɨɩɨɤɪɨɜɢ
ɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨɜɚɜɲɟɣȺɥɶɛɢɨɧɭ²ɛɵɥɨɨɛɳɢɦɦɟɫɬɨɦɉɨɞɨɛɧɨɣɱɟɫɬɢɭɞɨɫɬɚ
ɢɜɚɥɢɫɶɢȿɤɚɬɟɪɢɧɚȻɪɚɝɚɧɫɫɤɚɹɠɟɧɚɄɚɪɥɚ,,ɢɫɭɩɪɭɝɚɫɚɦɨɝɨғ əɤɨɜɚ,,
ɆɚɪɢɹɆɨɞɟɧɫɤɚɹ>࣓@
Ɉɞɧɚɤɨɝɥɚɜɧɵɦɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɦɬɟɤɫɬɚɧɚɤɨɬɨɪɨɦɍɨɤɥɢɧɝɫɬɪɨɢɬɫɜɨɟɢɫɬɨɥ
ɤɨɜɚɧɢɟɚɥɥɟɝɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɫɦɵɫɥɚɩɪɨɥɨɝɚɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɮɪɚɡɚȼɟɫɧɵɨɛɪɚɳɚɸ
ɳɟɣɫɹɜɧɚɱɚɥɟɜɬɨɪɨɣɫɰɟɧɵɤɫɨɩɪɨɜɨɠɞɚɸɳɢɦɟɟɧɢɦɮɚɦ©+HWKDWIDLOVRI
DGGUHVVLQJµ7LVEXWMXVWKHVKRXOGIDLORISRVVHVVLQJª ©ɇɟɭɦɟɟɲɶɩɪɨɫɢɬɶ²
ɇɟɫɦɨɠɟɲɶɩɨɥɭɱɢɬɶɜɨɜɥɚɞɟɧɢɟª ɉɨɦɢɦɨɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɝɨɥɟɤɫɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɡɧɚɱɟ
ɧɢɹɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɟDGGUHVVɜɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɦɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɥɟɤɫɢɤɨɧɟȻɪɢɬɚɧɢɢɤɨɧ
ɰɚɯɝɨɞɨɜɨɡɧɚɱɚɥɨ©ɩɨɞɧɨɫɢɬɶɚɞɪɟɫªɬɨɟɫɬɶɩɪɟɩɨɞɧɨɫɢɬɶɦɨɧɚɪɯɭɜɨ
ɜɪɟɦɹɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣɰɟɪɟɦɨɧɢɢɩɢɫɶɦɟɧɧɵɣɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬɜɟɪɧɨɩɨɞɞɚɧɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ
ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɚ>࣓@ɇɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɫɬɶɜɩɨɞɨɛɧɨɝɨɪɨɞɚɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɠɟɫɬɚɯ
ɜɨɡɧɢɤɥɚɜɝɨɞɭɩɨɫɥɟɬɨɝɨɤɚɤɚɩɪɟɥɹɜȺɧɝɥɢɢɛɵɥɚɜɵɩɭɳɟɧɚ©Ⱦɟ
ɤɥɚɪɚɰɢɹɨɜɟɪɨɬɟɪɩɢɦɨɫɬɢª ɢɥɢ©Ⱦɟɤɥɚɪɚɰɢɹɨɪɟɥɢɝɢɨɡɧɨɣɬɟɪɩɢɦɨɫɬɢª 
ɞɚɪɨɜɚɜɲɚɹɫɜɨɛɨɞɭɨɬɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɪɟɥɢɝɢɨɡɧɵɯɨɛɪɹɞɨɜɜɫɟɦɦɟɧɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɚɦ²
ɜɬɨɦɱɢɫɥɟɩɪɟɫɜɢɬɟɪɢɚɧɚɦɤɜɚɤɟɪɚɦɢɟɞɢɧɨɜɟɪɰɚɦɤɨɪɨɥɹɤɚɬɨɥɢɤɚɦ²ɢ
ɞɨɩɭɫɤɚɜɲɚɹɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶɡɚɧɢɦɚɬɶɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟɞɨɥɠɧɨɫɬɢɜɧɟɡɚɜɢɫɢ
ɦɨɫɬɢɨɬɪɟɥɢɝɢɨɡɧɵɯɭɛɟɠɞɟɧɢɣɤɚɧɞɢɞɚɬɨɜɨɬɤɚɡɫɟɦɢɟɩɢɫɤɨɩɨɜɚɧɝɥɢɤɚɧ
ɫɤɨɣɰɟɪɤɜɢɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɚɬɶɬɚɤɨɣɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬɢɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɜɲɢɣɫɭɞɟɛɧɵɣɩɪɨɰɟɫɫ
ɧɚɞɨɬɤɚɡɧɢɤɚɦɢɩɨɫɥɭɠɢɥɢɨɞɧɨɣɢɡɩɪɢɱɢɧɋɥɚɜɧɨɣɪɟɜɨɥɸɰɢɢɍɨɤɥɢɧɝ
ɜɵɢɫɤɢɜɚɟɬɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɩɪɨɥɨɝɚɢɞɪɭɝɢɟɧɚɦɟɤɢɧɚɤɚɦɩɚɧɢɸɩɨɩɪɨɩɚɝɚɧɞɟɜɟ
ɪɨɬɟɪɩɢɦɨɫɬɢɚɪɚɞɭɸɳɢɯɫɹɩɪɢɯɨɞɭɜɟɫɧɵɩɚɫɬɭɯɨɜɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɬɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢ
ɜɚɬɶɤɚɤ©ɪɭɩɨɪªɤɚɬɨɥɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɨɛɳɢɧɵȺɧɝɥɢɢ>@
ȼɫɥɟɞɡɚɩɪɨɥɨɝɨɦɍɨɤɥɢɧɝɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɢɪɭɟɬɢɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɣɫɸɠɟɬɨɩɟɪɵ
ɭɩɨɞɨɛɥɹɹɟɝɨɪɨɦɚɧɭɫɤɥɸɱɨɦɄɚɤɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɨɌɟɣɬɜɧɟɫɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɢɡɦɟ
ɧɟɧɢɹɜɨɪɢɝɢɧɚɥɶɧɵɣɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɫɸɠɟɬɚɢɡɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɣɜɑɟɬɜɟɪɬɨɣɤɧɢɝɟ©ɗɧɟ
ɢɞɵªȼɟɪɝɢɥɢɹɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɦɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɟɦɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɜɨɩɟɪɟɫɬɚɧɨɜɹɬɫɹɜɟɞɶɦɵ
ɩɨɩɭɥɹɪɧɵɟɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɢɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɝɨɬɟɚɬɪɚ;9,,ɫɬɨɥɟɬɢɹ ɪɚɡɭɦɟɟɬɫɹɨɬ
 ɊȺɇɚɫɨɧɨɜ

ɫɭɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɟɜɷɩɨɫɟɚɧɬɢɱɧɨɝɨɚɜɬɨɪɚ Ʉɚɤɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟɨɬɩɥɵɬɢɟɗɧɟɹɢɡ
Ʉɚɪɮɚɝɟɧɚɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɬɫɹɧɟɤɚɤɩɨɤɨɪɧɨɫɬɶɪɨɤɭɢɢɫɬɢɧɧɨɣɜɨɥɟɛɨɝɨɜ
ɬɪɟɛɭɸɳɢɯɨɬɝɟɪɨɹɨɫɧɨɜɚɬɶɊɢɦ ©ɧɨɜɭɸɌɪɨɸª ɚɤɚɤɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɤɨɜɚɪɧɨ
ɝɨɡɚɝɨɜɨɪɚɜɪɚɝɨɜɦɨɧɚɪɯɢɢɠɟɥɚɸɳɢɯɩɨɝɭɛɢɬɶɨɛɨɢɯɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɟɣɢɪɚɡ
ɪɭɲɢɬɶɢɯɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɨȼɫɥɟɞɡɚɉɪɚɣɫɨɦɍɨɤɥɢɧɝɬɪɚɤɬɭɟɬɤɨɡɧɢɜɟɞɶɦɤɚɤ
ɚɥɥɟɝɨɪɢɸɡɚɝɨɜɨɪɚɤɚɬɨɥɢɤɨɜɩɪɨɬɢɜȺɧɝɥɢɢɨɞɧɚɤɨɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɢɪɭɟɬɫɸɠɟɬ
ɨɩɟɪɵɢɧɚɱɟɱɟɦɟɝɨɩɪɟɞɲɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɢɤɉɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭɩɨɦɧɟɧɢɸɍɨɤɥɢɧɝɚɩɪɨɢɡ
ɜɟɞɟɧɢɟɛɵɥɨɫɨɡɞɚɧɨɜɚɧɟɜɝɨɞɭɜɪɚɝɢɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɚɩɥɟɬɭɬɫɟɬɢ
ɫɜɨɢɯɢɧɬɪɢɝɝɨɪɚɡɞɨɛɥɢɠɟɤɨɞɜɨɪɭɱɟɦɷɬɨɦɨɠɟɬɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɶɫɹɇɟɫɱɚɫɬɧɚɹ
ɥɸɛɨɜɶȾɢɞɨɧɵɢɗɧɟɹɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɡɢɪɭɟɬɧɟɫɥɨɠɢɜɲɢɟɫɹɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹəɤɨɜɚ,,
ɜɩɟɪɢɨɞɊɟɫɬɚɜɪɚɰɢɢɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɨɪɵɜɬɨɦɱɢɫɥɟɫɚɦɌɟɣɬɫɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɥɢɟɝɨ
ɮɢɝɭɪɭɫɨɛɪɚɡɨɦɥɟɝɟɧɞɚɪɧɨɝɨɗɧɟɹ ɢȻɪɢɬɚɧɢɢɚɜɢɧɚɡɚɧɟɭɞɚɱɧɵɣɪɨɦɚɧ
ɥɟɠɢɬɜɨɦɧɨɝɨɦɧɚɫɨɜɟɬɱɢɤɚɯɩɪɢɞɜɨɪɧɵɯɜɨɝɥɚɜɟɫȻɟɥɢɧɞɨɣɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɢ
ɭɝɨɜɨɪɢɥɢȾɢɞɨɧɭɩɨɞɞɚɬɶɫɹɱɚɪɚɦɱɭɠɟɡɟɦɰɚɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɨɝɨɧɟɬɨɥɶɤɨɫɜɨɟɣ
ɜɨɟɧɧɨɣɞɨɛɥɟɫɬɶɸɧɨɢɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɨɫɬɶɸɤɫɨɫɬɪɚɞɚɧɢɸ>࣓@ɋɨɛɵ
ɬɢɹɩɟɪɜɨɝɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɍɨɤɥɢɧɝɫɨɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɫɞɟɛɚɬɚɦɢɜɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɦɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟ
ɜɪɟɦɟɧȻɢɥɥɹɨɛɨɬɜɨɞɟ>࣓@ɚɬɪɢɭɦɮɚɥɶɧɨɟɹɜɥɟɧɢɟɗɧɟɹɫɝɨɥɨɜɨɣ
ɱɭɞɨɜɢɳɚɩɨɜɢɞɢɦɨɦɭɞɢɤɨɝɨɜɟɩɪɹɭɛɢɣɰɵɸɧɨɝɨȺɞɨɧɢɫɚ ɨɞɧɚɢɡɨɬɫɵ
ɥɨɤɤɦɚɫɤɟȻɥɨɭ ²ɬɨɬɫɚɦɵɣɦɨɦɟɧɬɜɨɜɬɨɪɨɦɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɢɨɩɟɪɵɤɨɝɞɚɧɚ
ɤɨɪɨɬɤɨɟɜɪɟɦɹɭɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɬɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɪɟɦɚɠɨɪ²ɫɤɪɚɬɤɨɜɪɟɦɟɧ
ɧɵɦɭɫɩɟɯɨɦɨɡɧɚɦɟɧɨɜɚɜɲɢɦɧɚɱɚɥɨɰɚɪɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɹəɤɨɜɚ,,²ɩɨɞɚɜɥɟɧ
ɧɵɦɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɢɟɦɆɨɧɦɭɬɚ>࣓@
Ɍɨɥɤɨɜɚɧɢɟɍɨɤɥɢɧɝɚɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɛɨɥɶɲɨɟɜɩɟɱɚɬɥɟɧɢɟɫɜɨɟɣɞɟɬɚɥɶ
ɧɨɫɬɶɸɢɜɦɟɫɬɟɫɬɟɦɧɟɥɢɲɟɧɨɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɯɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɪɟɱɢɣɈɫɬɚɟɬɫɹɧɟɩɨ
ɧɹɬɧɵɦɤɚɤɢɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɦɫɨɝɥɚɫɭɸɬɫɹɦɟɠɞɭɫɨɛɨɣɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɢɩɪɨɥɨɝɚɢ
ɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɝɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɟɫɥɢɜɩɟɪɜɨɦɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɨɞɟɪɠɢɬɫɹɜɨɫɯɜɚɥɟɧɢɟ
əɤɨɜɚ,,ɢɩɪɢɧɹɬɨɣɢɦ©Ⱦɟɤɥɚɪɚɰɢɢɨɜɟɪɨɬɟɪɩɢɦɨɫɬɢª ɜɬɨɦɱɢɫɥɟɭɫɬɚɦɢ
ɩɚɫɬɭɯɨɜɢɧɨɜɟɪɰɟɜ ɬɨɤɚɤɷɬɨɜɹɠɟɬɫɹɫɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɢɦɢɩɪɟɞɨɫɬɟɪɟɠɟɧɢɹɦɢ
ɤɨɪɨɥɸ²ɨɬɚɣɧɵɯɤɨɡɧɹɯɤɚɬɨɥɢɤɨɜɢȻɪɢɬɚɧɢɢ²ɨɜɪɟɞɟɧɟɭɞɚɱɧɵɯɫɨ
ɜɟɬɨɜ"Ɍɟɦɧɟɦɟɧɟɟɨɩɵɬɍɨɤɥɢɧɝɚɩɨɫɥɭɠɢɥɫɬɢɦɭɥɨɦɤɩɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɸɧɨɜɵɯ
ɚɥɥɟɝɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɬɪɚɤɬɨɜɨɤɇɚɢɛɨɥɟɟɩɪɨɞɭɦɚɧɧɚɹɢɬɳɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɚɪɝɭɦɟɧɬɢɪɨ
ɜɚɧɧɚɹɩɨɩɵɬɤɚɛɵɥɚɩɪɟɞɩɪɢɧɹɬɚɝɥɚɜɧɵɦɨɩɩɨɧɟɧɬɨɦɭɱɟɧɨɝɨɉɢɧɧɨɤɨɦ
ɜɞɜɭɯɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɰɢɹɯɯɝɨɞɨɜɨɧɪɚɡɴɹɫɧɹɟɬɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɦɭɱɢɬɚɬɟɥɸɩɨ
ɫɥɚɧɢɹɜɥɨɠɟɧɧɵɟɌɟɣɬɨɦɜɤɚɠɞɭɸɢɡɫɰɟɧɩɪɨɥɨɝɚ
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ɫɥɟɞɧɢɣɝɨɞɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɄɚɪɥɚ,,ɤɚɤɱɚɫɬɶɛɨɥɶɲɨɣɩɪɨɩɚɝɚɧɞɢɫɬɫɤɨɣɤɚɦɩɚ
ɧɢɢɪɚɡɜɟɪɧɭɬɨɣɤɨɪɨɥɟɦɢɩɚɪɬɢɟɣɬɨɪɢɧɚɤɚɧɭɧɟɩɪɚɡɞɧɨɜɚɧɢɹɥɟɬɢɹ
Ɋɟɫɬɚɜɪɚɰɢɢɗɬɚɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɚɹɩɪɢɞɜɨɪɧɚɹɦɚɫɤɚɞɨɩɨɥɧɹɥɚɞɜɟɩɶɟɫɵɤɨɪɨ
ɥɟɜɫɤɨɝɨɢɫɬɨɪɢɨɝɪɚɮɚɢɩɨɷɬɚɥɚɭɪɟɚɬɚȾɠɨɧɚȾɪɚɣɞɟɧɚɩɪɟɞɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɧɵɟ
ɞɥɹɨɛɳɟɞɨɫɬɭɩɧɨɣɫɰɟɧɵ²©ɄɨɪɨɥɶȺɪɬɭɪªɢ©ȺɥɶɛɢɨɧɢȺɥɶɛɚɧɢɣª
Ɍɟɣɬɛɵɥɢɡɜɟɫɬɟɧɤɷɬɨɦɭɜɪɟɦɟɧɢɤɚɤɩɪɨɬɟɠɟɢɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɧɵɣɫɨɬɪɭɞɧɢɤ
Ɉɩɟɪɚɉɺɪɫɟɥɥɚ©Ⱦɢɞɨɧɚɢɗɧɟɣªɤɚɤɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɚɥɥɟɝɨɪɢɹ 
ɩɪɨɫɥɚɜɥɟɧɧɨɝɨɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɨɪɚȺɥɥɟɝɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɵɜɫɟɯɬɪɟɯɩɶɟɫɛɵɥɢ
ɩɨɱɟɪɩɧɭɬɵɚɜɬɨɪɚɦɢɢɡɧɚɫɬɟɧɧɨɣɢɩɨɬɨɥɨɱɧɨɣɪɨɫɩɢɫɢɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɯɩɨ
ɦɟɳɟɧɢɣȼɢɧɞɡɨɪɫɤɨɝɨɡɚɦɤɚ²ɝɪɚɧɞɢɨɡɧɨɝɨɩɪɨɟɤɬɚɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɟɧɧɨɝɨɧɟ
ɚɩɨɥɢɬɚɧɫɤɢɦɯɭɞɨɠɧɢɤɨɦȺɧɬɨɧɢɨȼɟɪɪɢɨɫɝɪɭɩɩɨɣɩɨɦɨɳɧɢɤɨɜɧɚɱɚɥɨ
ɪɚɛɨɬɩɪɢɲɥɨɫɶɧɚɢɥɢɝɨɞɤɝɨɞɭɛɵɥɢɩɨɥɧɨɫɬɶɸɨɬɞɟɥɚɧɵ
ɩɨɤɨɢɦɨɧɚɪɯɚɢɟɝɨɫɭɩɪɭɝɢɜɧɚɱɚɥɟɯɝɨɞɨɜɪɚɛɨɬɵɩɟɪɟɦɟɫɬɢɥɢɫɶɜ
ɩɪɢɜɚɬɧɭɸɤɚɩɟɥɥɭɄɚɪɥɚ,,ɢɜɡɚɥɫɜȽɟɨɪɝɢɹ>࣓@
ɉɨɦɧɟɧɢɸɉɢɧɧɨɤɚɚɥɥɟɝɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɨɛɪɚɡɵɩɟɪɜɨɣɫɰɟɧɵɩɪɨɥɨɝɚɜɨɫ
ɯɨɞɹɬɤɬɪɟɦɪɨɫɩɢɫɹɦȼɟɪɪɢɨɨɞɜɭɯɢɡɧɢɯɦɨɠɧɨɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɬɶɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ
ɛɥɚɝɨɞɚɪɹɬɨɦɭɱɬɨɨɧɢɛɵɥɢɡɚɩɟɱɚɬɥɟɧɵɧɚɝɪɚɜɸɪɚɯɉɶɟɪɚȼɚɧɞɪɟɛɚɧɤɚ
ɨɩɭɛɥɢɤɨɜɚɧɧɵɯɜɅɨɧɞɨɧɟɜɟɝɨɞɵ ɫɦ>@ ɇɚɩɨɬɨɥɤɟɤɨ
ɪɨɥɟɜɫɤɨɣɝɨɫɬɢɧɨɣȼɟɪɪɢɨɢɡɨɛɪɚɡɢɥɬɪɢɭɦɮɊɟɫɬɚɜɪɚɰɢɢɄɚɪɥ,,ɞɜɢɠɟɬ
ɫɹɩɨɧɟɛɭɧɚɫɨɥɧɟɱɧɨɣɤɨɥɟɫɧɢɰɟɜɫɨɩɪɨɜɨɠɞɟɧɢɢɚɥɥɟɝɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɮɢɝɭɪ
ɋɥɚɜɵɆɢɪɚɢɢɡɹɳɧɵɯɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜȽɟɪɚɤɥɢɡɝɨɧɹɟɬɜɪɚɝɨɜɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɚɚɇɟɩ
ɬɭɧɢȻɪɢɬɚɧɢɹɜɵɪɚɠɚɸɬɫɜɨɟɩɨɱɬɟɧɢɟɦɨɧɚɪɯɭɇɚɞɪɭɝɨɣɩɨɬɨɥɨɱɧɨɣɪɨ
ɫɩɢɫɢɜɩɪɢɟɦɧɨɦɡɚɥɟɤɨɪɨɥɹɆɟɪɤɭɪɢɣɞɟɦɨɧɫɬɪɢɪɭɟɬɪɚɡɜɟɜɚɸɳɢɣɫɹɜ
ɜɨɡɞɭɯɟɩɨɪɬɪɟɬɄɚɪɥɚ,,ɱɟɬɵɪɟɦɫɬɨɪɨɧɚɦɫɜɟɬɚɜɨɡɝɥɚɜɥɹɟɦɵɦɇɟɩɬɭɧɨɦ
ɋɭɞɹɩɨɨɩɭɛɥɢɤɨɜɚɧɧɵɦɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɦɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɹɦɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɦɪɨɫɩɢɫɢɪɚɫ
ɩɨɥɚɝɚɜɲɟɣɫɹɧɚɞɛɚɥɞɚɯɢɧɨɦɤɨɪɨɥɟɜɫɤɨɝɨɬɪɨɧɚɛɵɥɨɢɡɨɛɪɚɠɟɧɢɟɍɬɪɟɧ
ɧɟɣɡɜɟɡɞɵɫɧɚɞɩɢɫɶɸ6\GXV&DUROLQXP ©ɁɜɟɡɞɚɄɚɪɥɚª ɚɜɞɚɥɶɧɟɦɤɨɧɰɟ
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ɬɪɢɬɨɧɚɦɢɢɧɢɦɮɚɦɢɋɨɝɥɚɫɧɨɥɟɝɟɧɞɟɜɞɟɧɶɪɨɠɞɟɧɢɹɄɚɪɥɚ,,ɦɚɹ
ɝɨɞɚ ɟɝɨɩɪɚɡɞɧɨɜɚɧɢɟɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɱɧɨɫɨɜɩɚɞɚɥɨɫɞɧɟɦɊɟɫɬɚɜɪɚɰɢɢ
ɦɚɹɝɨɞɚ ɧɚɧɟɛɨɫɜɨɞɟɅɨɧɞɨɧɚɩɨɹɜɢɥɨɫɶɫɜɟɬɢɥɨɤɨɬɨɪɨɟɩɪɢɧɹɥɢɡɚ
ȼɟɧɟɪɭɫɬɟɯɩɨɪɷɬɚɡɜɟɡɞɚɧɟɩɪɨɫɬɨɩɨɤɪɨɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨɜɚɥɚɄɚɪɥɭɧɨɢɫɥɭ
ɠɢɥɚɫɜɨɟɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɦɫɢɦɜɨɥɨɦɟɝɨɧɟɡɧɚɜɲɟɝɨɦɟɪɵɠɟɧɨɥɸɛɢɹ>@ɜ
ɨɬɥɢɱɢɟɨɬȾɪɚɣɞɟɧɚɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬɉɢɧɧɨɤɌɟɣɬɜɚɥɥɟɝɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɩɪɨɥɨɝɟɤɤɚ
ɦɟɪɧɨɣɦɚɫɤɟɦɨɝɞɚɬɶɧɚɦɟɤɧɚɷɬɭɜɫɟɦɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɭɸɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɟɫɤɭɸɫɥɚɛɨɫɬɶ
ɩɪɚɜɹɳɟɣɨɫɨɛɵ ɎɟɛɞɟɥɢɬɫɜɨɸɜɥɚɫɬɶɫɄɨɪɨɥɟɜɨɣɅɸɛɜɢɨɧɰɚɪɢɬɞɧɟɦ
ɚɨɧɚɧɨɱɚɦɢ>@ 
ȼɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɰɢɢɝɨɞɚɉɢɧɧɨɤɨɛɴɹɫɧɹɟɬɥɨɝɢɤɭɩɨɤɨɬɨɪɨɣɜɬɨɪɚɹ
ɫɰɟɧɚɩɪɨɥɨɝɚɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɧɚɹɩɪɢɯɨɞɭȼɟɫɧɵɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɚɟɬɪɚɡɜɟɪɬɵɜɚɬɶɭɠɟ
ɧɚɦɟɱɟɧɧɵɣɚɥɥɟɝɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɪɹɞɉɚɫɬɭɯɢɢɩɚɫɬɭɲɤɢɫɨɛɪɚɥɢɫɶɞɥɹɬɨɝɨ
ɱɬɨɛɵɨɬɦɟɬɢɬɶ©ɪɚɞɨɫɬɧɵɣɞɟɧɶª 7R&HOHEUDWHWKLV*HQLDO'D\ ɨɧɢɩɪɢɡɵ
ɜɚɸɬɩɨɡɚɛɵɬɶɨɦɟɥɚɧɯɨɥɢɢɢɩɨɜɟɫɟɥɢɬɶɫɹ©ɷɬɢɦɭɬɪɨɦª 7KLV0RUQLQJ>
࣓@ ɑɬɨɛɵɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɶɨɤɚɤɨɦɢɦɟɧɧɨɞɧɟɢɞɟɬɪɟɱɶɉɢɧɧɨɤɫɨɨɬɧɨ
ɫɢɬɩɪɨɥɨɝɌɟɣɬɚɫɨɞɨɣ8SVKHSKHUGVXSɧɚɦɭɡɵɤɭȾɠɨɧɚȻɥɨɭɢɫɩɨɥɧɟɧ
ɧɨɣɩɨɫɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɹɦɥɨɧɞɨɧɫɤɨɣɩɪɟɫɫɵɦɚɹɝɨɞɚɜɩɨɤɨɹɯɄɚɪɥɚ,,
©ɜɱɟɫɬɶɞɧɹɊɨɠɞɟɧɢɹɊɟɫɬɚɜɪɚɰɢɢɢɄɨɪɨɧɚɰɢɢª>@ɋɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ
ɞɜɭɯɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɧɵɯɬɟɤɫɬɨɜɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬɭɱɟɧɨɝɨɤɜɵɜɨɞɭɨɬɨɦɱɬɨ©ɪɚɞɨɫɬ
ɧɵɣɞɟɧɶªɭɩɨɦɢɧɚɟɦɵɣɜɩɪɨɥɨɝɟɫɨɜɩɚɞɚɟɬɫɨ©ɫɥɚɜɧɵɦɞɧɟɦª 5HQRZQHG
 ɊȺɇɚɫɨɧɨɜ

GD\ ɜɨɡɜɟɳɚɟɦɵɦɚɜɬɨɪɨɦɨɞɵ>@ɋɩɨɦɨɳɶɸɚɧɚɥɢɡɚɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ
ɮɚɤɬɨɜɉɢɧɧɨɤɩɪɢɯɨɞɢɬɤɜɵɜɨɞɭɱɬɨɟɞɢɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɣɞɚɬɨɣɭɬɪɟɧ
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ɦɚɹɝɨɞɚ>࣓@
Ʉɚɡɚɥɨɫɶɛɵɦɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɟɚɪɝɭɦɟɧɬɵɫɬɨɪɨɧɧɢɤɨɜ©ɤɨɪɨɥɟɜɫɤɨɝɨª
ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ©Ⱦɢɞɨɧɵɢɗɧɟɹªɛɵɥɢɫɟɪɶɟɡɧɨɩɨɤɨɥɟɛɥɟɧɵɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɰɢɟɣ
ɰɟɧɧɟɣɲɟɝɨɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬɚ²ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɟɞɢɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨɧɟɨɫɩɨ
ɪɢɦɨɝɨɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɢɤɚɨɛɢɫɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɢɨɩɟɪɵȼɩɢɫɶɦɟɢɡɫɢ
ɪɢɣɫɤɨɝɨɝɨɪɨɞɚȺɥɟɩɩɨɜɅɨɧɞɨɧɨɬɮɟɜɪɚɥɹɝɨɞɚɩɪɢɛɵɜɲɢɣɜɷɬɨɬ
ɝɨɪɨɞɦɟɫɹɰɟɦɪɚɧɟɟɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɢɣɤɭɩɟɰɊɨɭɥɚɧɞɒɟɪɦɚɧɨɩɢɫɵɜɚɟɬ©ɦɚɫɤɭª
ɫɨɱɢɧɟɧɧɭɸ©Ƚɚɪɪɢª Ƚɟɧɪɢɉɺɪɫɟɥɥɨɦ ɞɥɹ©ɛɚɥɚɭɉɪɢɫɬɚªɢɷɬɨɨɩɢɫɚ
ɧɢɟɧɟɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɨɦɧɟɧɢɣɜɬɨɦɨɤɚɤɨɦɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɢɢɞɟɬɪɟɱɶ ɫɦɩɭ
ɛɥɢɤɚɰɢɸɜɬɨɦɱɢɫɥɟɮɚɤɫɢɦɢɥɶɧɨɟɜɨɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɟɨɬɪɵɜɤɚɩɢɫɶɦɚ>
࣓@ ɉɨɪɚɫɱɟɬɚɦɧɚɲɟɞɲɟɝɨɢɨɩɭɛɥɢɤɨɜɚɜɲɟɝɨɞɨɤɭɦɟɧɬȻɪɚɣɚɧɚ
ɍɚɣɬɚɒɟɪɦɚɧɞɨɥɠɟɧɛɵɥɩɨɤɢɧɭɬɶȺɧɝɥɢɸɧɟɩɨɡɞɧɟɟɢɸɥɹɝɨɞɚ>
࣓@ɗɬɨɡɚɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɡɚɞɭɦɚɬɶɫɹɩɨɦɧɟɧɢɸɉɪɚɣɫɚɩɢɫɶɦɨɒɟɪɦɚɧɚ
ɤɚɪɞɢɧɚɥɶɧɨɦɟɧɹɟɬɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɨ©Ⱦɢɞɨɧɟɢɗɧɟɟªɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɜɡɝɥɹɞɨɜ
ɬɳɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɜɵɫɬɪɨɟɧɧɚɹɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɹɦɢɬɜɨɪɱɟɫɬɜɚɉɺɪɫɟɥɥɚɜɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ
ɟɝɨɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɰɢɢɩɨɩɪɨɫɬɭɨɛɜɚɥɢɥɚɫɶ>࣓@
ɍɨɤɥɢɧɝɢɉɢɧɧɨɤɜɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɰɢɹɯɯɝɨɞɨɜɨɫɩɚɪɢɜɚɸɬɬɚɤɭɸɨɰɟɧ
ɤɭɯɨɬɹɒɟɪɦɚɧɭɩɨɦɢɧɚɟɬɢɫɤɥɸɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɭɨɩɟɪɵɜɩɚɧɫɢɨɧɟ
ɉɪɢɫɬɚɷɬɨɧɟɩɪɟɩɹɬɫɬɜɭɟɬɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢɟɟɩɪɟɞɲɟɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɝɨɢɫɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɹɭ
ɤɨɪɨɥɹɨɤɨɬɨɪɨɦɤɭɩɟɰɦɨɝɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪɩɪɨɫɬɨɧɟɡɧɚɬɶ>࣓@ɬɟɚɫɩɟɤ
ɬɵ©Ⱦɢɞɨɧɵɢɗɧɟɹªɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɬɪɭɞɧɨɨɛɴɹɫɧɢɬɶɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɦɭɱɟ
ɧɵɦɧɚɫɬɚɢɜɚɟɬɍɨɤɥɢɧɝɫɬɚɧɨɜɹɬɫɹɩɨɧɹɬɧɵɦɢɜɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɟ©ɭɜɟɫɟɥɢɬɟɥɶ
ɧɨɝɨªɩɪɢɞɜɨɪɧɨɝɨɬɟɚɬɪɚɷɩɨɯɢɊɟɫɬɚɜɪɚɰɢɢ>@ɂɜɥɸɛɨɦɫɥɭɱɚɟɮɚɤɬ
ɢɫɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɹɨɩɟɪɵɧɚɩɪɚɡɞɧɢɤɟɜɩɚɧɫɢɨɧɟɛɥɚɝɨɪɨɞɧɵɯɞɟɜɢɰɧɟɩɨɡɞɧɟɟ
ɢɸɥɹɝɨɞɚɧɟɢɫɤɥɸɱɚɟɬɩɨɜɬɨɪɧɵɯɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɨɤ©Ⱦɢɞɨɧɚɢɗɧɟɹªɜɬɨɦ
ɠɟɑɟɥɫɢɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪɜɝɨɞɭɫɪɚɡɭɩɨɫɥɟɋɥɚɜɧɨɣɪɟɜɨɥɸɰɢɢ
ɂɦɟɧɧɨɤɷɬɨɦɭɜɪɟɦɟɧɢɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɫɹ©ɗɩɢɥɨɝɤɨɩɟɪɟ³Ⱦɢɞɨɧɚɢɗɧɟɣ´ɢɫ
ɩɨɥɧɟɧɧɨɣɜɩɚɧɫɢɨɧɟɦɪɚȾɠɉɪɢɫɬɚɜɑɟɥɫɢɩɪɨɢɡɧɟɫɟɧɥɟɞɢȾɨɪɨɬɢȻɺɪɤª
ɂɡɜɟɫɬɧɵɣɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɨɪɌɨɦɚɫȾɸɪɮɟɣɨɩɭɛɥɢɤɨɜɚɥɷɬɨɫɨɱɢɧɟɧɢɟɜɫɨɛɪɚɧɢɢ
©ɇɨɜɵɟɫɬɢɯɨɬɜɨɪɟɧɢɹªɧɚɩɟɱɚɬɚɧɧɨɦɜɤɨɧɰɟɝɨɞɚ ɯɨɬɹɧɚɬɢɬɭɥɶɧɨɦ
ɥɢɫɬɟɜɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟɞɚɬɵɜɵɯɨɞɚɭɤɚɡɚɧɝɨɞɫɦ>@ ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ
ɥɟɬɨɦɝɨɞɚȾɸɪɮɟɣɪɚɛɨɬɚɥɜɩɚɧɫɢɨɧɟɭɱɢɬɟɥɟɦɩɟɧɢɹ>@Ɍɟɤɫɬɷɩɢ
ɥɨɝɚɬɚɤɠɟɬɚɢɬɜɫɟɛɟɧɟɦɚɥɨɡɚɝɚɞɨɤɇɚɩɢɫɚɧɨɧɛɵɥɫɤɨɪɟɟɜɫɟɝɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢ
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ɉɪɢɷɬɨɦɝɥɚɜɧɨɣɰɟɥɶɸɷɩɢɥɨɝɚɜɢɞɢɬɫɹɩɨɩɵɬɤɚɨɩɪɚɜɞɚɬɶɫɨɫɬɨɹɜ
ɲɟɟɫɹɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɨɩɟɪɵɜɬɨɜɪɟɦɹɤɚɤɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɣɬɟɚɬɪɢɡɨɛɪɚɠɚɟɬɫɹ
Ⱦɸɪɮɟɟɦɝɧɟɡɞɨɦɪɚɡɜɪɚɬɚɛɥɚɝɨɪɨɞɧɵɟɞɟɜɢɰɵɧɚɫɜɨɟɦɡɚɤɪɵɬɨɦɫɩɟɤɬɚ
ɤɥɟɩɨɸɬɢɩɥɹɲɭɬɩɨɞɨɛɧɨɚɧɝɟɥɚɦ²ɨɞɧɚɤɨɜɨɬɥɢɱɢɟɨɬɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɯɟɳɟɧɟ
ɩɨɡɧɚɥɢɥɸɛɨɜɶɢɧɟɡɧɚɤɨɦɵɫ©ɜɟɥɢɤɢɦɢɨɛɦɚɧɳɢɤɚɦɢªɦɭɠɱɢɧɚɦɢɗɩɢ
ɥɨɝɞɚɟɬɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɹɗɥɥɟɧɏɚɪɪɢɫɬɪɚɤɬɨɜɚɬɶɢɜɫɸɨɩɟɪɭɤɚɤɩɪɟɞɨɫɬɟɪɟɠɟ
ɧɢɟɧɟɨɩɵɬɧɵɦɞɟɜɭɲɤɚɦɦɨɥɨɞɵɦɥɸɞɹɦɧɟɫɬɨɢɬɞɨɜɟɪɹɬɶɞɚɠɟɜɬɟɯɫɥɭ
ɱɚɹɯɤɨɝɞɚɫɜɨɢɦɷɮɮɟɤɬɧɵɦɩɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɟɦɨɧɢɝɥɭɛɨɤɨɪɚɧɹɬɠɟɧɫɤɢɟɫɟɪɞɰɚ
>@ȼɩɪɨɱɟɦɡɞɟɫɶɫɬɨɢɬɜɫɩɨɦɧɢɬɶɢɨɬɨɦɱɬɨɥɟɞɢȾɨɪɨɬɢɭɞɨɫɬɨɟɧɧɚɹ
ɱɟɫɬɢɡɚɱɢɬɚɬɶɬɟɤɫɬɷɩɢɥɨɝɚɧɚɯɨɞɢɥɚɫɶɜɩɚɧɫɢɨɧɟɩɪɨɬɢɜɜɨɥɢɪɨɞɢɬɟɥɟɣ
ɟɟɨɬɟɰɊɢɱɚɪɞȻɺɪɤɣɝɪɚɮɄɥɚɧɪɢɤɚɪɞɛɟɠɚɥɜɝɨɞɭɜɂɪɥɚɧɞɢɸ
ɝɞɟɜɨɟɜɚɥɧɚɫɬɨɪɨɧɟɹɤɨɛɢɬɨɜɩɪɨɬɢɜɚɪɦɢɢȼɢɥɶɝɟɥɶɦɚɈɪɚɧɫɤɨɝɨ>@
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਄ਁ਎ਓਅਃਈਁ਎ਔਪਅ
ฬ฻ูฯิ฼สิี้฿฾ฺสืเ฽ั฻ิุอุึ฽ัๅิสีๆืุอุ฼ฯส฼ฺส
එඏංං±ืสแสีสඑඏංංංฬฯิส

਄ਁ਎ਓਅਃਈਁ਎ਔਪਅංඇඍඁൾൿඋൾඇർඁආඎඌංർൺඅඍඁൾൺඍඋൾ
ඉൾඋൿඈඋආൺඇർൾඌ ඍඁൺඇൽൾൺඋඅඒඍඁർൾඇඍඎඋඒ

ȺɧɧɨɬɚɰɢɹɌɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɟɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢɜɨɎɪɚɧɰɢɢ;9,,²ɧɚɱɚɥɚ;9,,,ɜɟɤɚ
ɧɟɨɬɞɟɥɢɦɵɨɬɬɚɧɰɚəɜɥɹɹɫɶɢɡɵɫɤɚɧɧɵɦɭɤɪɚɲɟɧɢɟɦɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɢɦɭɡɵ
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ɈɞɧɚɢɡɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɧɟɣɲɢɯɪɚɡɧɨɜɢɞɧɨɫɬɟɣɫɰɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɬɚɧɰɚɷɩɨɯɢɅɸɞɨɜɢɤɚ
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ɫɹɦɭɡɵɤɚɫɥɨɜɨɢɬɚɧɰɟɜɚɥɶɧɨɟɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟɁɞɟɫɶɧɚɛɥɸɞɟɬɫɹɨɪɢɝɢɧɚɥɶɧɚɹɞɥɹ
ɬɚɧɰɟɜɚɥɶɧɨɣɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɢɛɚɪɨɤɤɨɮɨɪɦɚɫɢɧɬɟɡɚɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɜɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣɫɬɟɩɟ
ɧɢɪɟɝɭɥɢɪɭɟɦɨɝɨɜɪɢɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɭɸɷɩɨɯɭɜɥɢɹɧɢɟɦɡɚɤɨɧɨɜɤɪɚɫɧɨɪɟɱɢɹɊɚɡɜɟɬ
ɜɥɟɧɧɚɹɲɤɚɥɚɫɩɨɫɨɛɨɜɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɨɜGDQVHFKDQWpH²ɨɬɩɚɪɚɥ
ɥɟɥɢɡɦɚɞɨɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣɚɜɬɨɧɨɦɢɢ²ɩɪɢɜɥɟɤɚɟɬɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɟɣ
ɦɭɡɵɤɢ;9,,²ɧɚɱɚɥɚ;9,,,ɜɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɯɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹɯɂɡɭɱɟɧɢɟɷɬɨɝɨɮɟɧɨ
ɦɟɧɚɤɚɤɜɟɫɶɦɚɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣɮɨɪɦɵɮɢɤɫɚɰɢɢɞɭɲɟɜɧɵɯɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɣɨɛɨɝɚɳɚ
ɟɬɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɨɛɚɪɨɱɧɨɣɬɟɨɪɢɢɚɮɮɟɤɬɨɜɭɬɨɱɧɹɟɬɫɦɵɫɥɫɬɨɥɶɜɚɠɧɨɝɨ
ɞɥɹɧɟɟɩɨɧɹɬɢɹ©ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɚªɤɨɬɨɪɨɟɜɨɦɧɨɝɨɦɨɫɨɡɧɚɜɚɥɨɫɶɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɚɦɢ
ɬɨɝɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɢɱɟɪɟɡɬɚɧɰɟɜɚɥɶɧɵɟɠɚɧɪɵɪɚɫɤɪɵɜɚɟɬɫɜɨɟɨɛɪɚɡɢɟɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɢɯ
ɢɫɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɫɤɢɯɫɬɢɥɟɣEHOOɟGDQVHɢELHQFKDQWH
ɈɛɪɚɳɟɧɢɟɤGDQVHFKDQWpHɪɚɫɲɢɪɹɟɬɧɚɭɱɧɵɟɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɹɨɩɭɬɹɯɮɨɪɦɨɨɛɪɚ
ɡɨɜɚɧɢɹɜɬɚɧɰɟɜɚɥɶɧɨɣɦɭɡɵɤɟɞɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɛɨɝɚɬɫɬɜɨɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɧɵɯɢɜɵɪɚɡɢ
ɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɟɣɦɚɥɵɯɮɨɪɦɛɚɪɨɤɤɨɜɬɨɦɱɢɫɥɟɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɹɳɢɯɜɧɢɯ
ɫɢɧɬɚɤɫɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɜɉɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɱɬɨɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟGDQVHFKDQWpHɫɩɨ
ɫɨɛɧɨɞɚɬɶɧɨɜɵɟɢɦɩɭɥɶɫɵɢɫɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɫɤɨɣɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɢɬɚɧɰɟɜɚɥɶɧɨɣɦɭ
ɡɵɤɢɛɚɪɨɤɤɨɚɜɦɟɫɬɟɫɧɟɣ²ɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɢɯɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɯɠɚɧɪɨɜ
;9,,²ɩɟɪɜɨɣɩɨɥɨɜɢɧɵ;9,,,ɜɟɤɚ
Ʉɥɸɱɟɜɵɟɫɥɨɜɚɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɢɣɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɣɬɟɚɬɪ;9,,±ɧɚɱɚɥɚ;9,,,ɜɟɤɚ
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ɨɪɨɲɨ ɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɨ ɧɚɫɤɨɥɶɤɨ ɜɚɠɧɭɸ ɪɨɥɶ ɢɝɪɚɥɨ ɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɨ ɬɚɧ
ɰɚɜɨɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɨɦɬɟɚɬɪɟ;9,,±ɩɟɪɜɨɣɩɨɥɨɜɢɧɵ;9,,,ɜɟɤɚȻɟɡ
ɯɨɪɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɚɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɥɢɫɶɤɚɤɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ
ɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɢɬɚɤɢɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɫɰɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɠɚɧɪɵɬɨɝɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ
²ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɛɚɥɟɬɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɟɫɧɢɦɨɩɟɪɚɛɚɥɟɬɤɨɦɟɞɢɹɛɚɥɟɬɝɟɪɨɢɱɟ
ɫɤɚɹɩɚɫɬɨɪɚɥɶɧɚɤɨɧɟɰɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɹɧɚɦɭɡɵɤɟɫɬɚɜɲɚɹɜɵɫɲɢɦɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢ
ɟɦɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɬɟɚɬɪɚɷɩɨɯɢɚɛɫɨɥɸɬɢɡɦɚɂɦɟɧɧɨɧɚɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɟɤɭɥɶɬɢ
ɜɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɬɚɧɰɟɜɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɧɚɱɚɥɚɫɬɚɥɨɨɞɧɢɦɢɡɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɨɜɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ
ɫɜɨɟɨɛɪɚɡɢɹɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɨɣɨɩɟɪɧɨɣɲɤɨɥɵɂɡɜɟɫɬɧɨɱɬɨɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɢɟɦɭ
ɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɟɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢɧɟɩɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɜɤɥɸɱɚɥɢɜɫɟɛɹɬɚɧɟɰɡɧɚ
ɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɭɸɪɨɥɶɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨɀȻɅɸɥɥɢɩɪɨɞɟɦɨɧɫɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɥɭɠɟɜɫɜɨɟɦɩɟɪ
ɜɨɦɨɛɪɚɡɰɟɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɢɧɚɦɭɡɵɤɟ©ɄɚɞɦɢȽɟɪɦɢɨɧɚª  Ⱥɜɬɨɪɢɬɟɬɧɚɹ
ɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɢɰɚɬɚɧɰɚɛɚɪɨɤɤɨɊɟɛɟɤɤɚɏɚɪɪɢɫɍɨɪɪɢɤɜɨɞɧɨɣɢɡɫɜɨ
ɢɯɧɟɞɚɜɧɢɯɪɚɛɨɬ²ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥɶɧɨɣɦɨɧɨɝɪɚɮɢɢ©Ɍɚɧɟɰɢɞɪɚɦɚɜɨɮɪɚɧ
ɰɭɡɫɤɨɣɛɚɪɨɱɧɨɣɨɩɟɪɟªɭɛɟɞɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɞɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɛɨɝɚɬɫɬɜɨɢɦɧɨɝɨɨɛɪɚ
ɡɢɟɮɭɧɤɰɢɣɜɵɩɨɥɧɹɟɦɵɯɬɚɧɰɟɦɜɨɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɯɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɹɯ
>@ɗɬɨɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɚɟɬɫɹɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɸɄɨɪɨɥɟɜɫɤɨɣɚɤɚɞɟɦɢɢɦɭɡɵɤɢɜ
ɩɨɥɟɩɪɢɫɬɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɹɤɨɬɨɪɨɣɧɚɯɨɞɢɥɨɫɶɬɟɫɧɨɟɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ
ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɬɟɤɫɬɨɜɨɝɨɢɯɨɪɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɨɜɫ
ɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɢɝɪɨɣ
ɉɪɢɦɟɱɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɱɬɨɯɨɪɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɬɟɫɧɨɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɭ
ɟɬɫɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɨɦɚɤɬɟɪɫɤɨɣɞɟɤɥɚɦɚɰɢɢɚɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɢɫɨɫɥɨɜɨɦȻɥɚɝɨ
ɞɚɪɹɟɝɨɩɪɢɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɸɛɨɥɟɟɹɫɧɵɦɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹɫɦɵɫɥɨɜɨɟɧɚɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟɬɚɧ
'DQVHFKDQWpHɜɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɹɯɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɨɝɨɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɬɟɚɬɪɚ 
ɰɟɜɚɥɶɧɵɯɧɨɦɟɪɨɜɭɫɢɥɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɫɬɟɩɟɧɶɢɯɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɧɚ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤɭɧɟɡɪɹɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɳɢɤɚɦɛɚɥɟɬɨɜɜɬɨɜɪɟɦɹɧɚɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɪɟɤɨɦɟɧɞɨ
ɜɚɥɨɫɶɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɬɶɫɜɨɟɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɨɫɨɡɧɚɧɢɹɦɢɧɟɬɨɥɶɤɨɢɡɨɛɥɚɫɬɢɝɟɨɦɟɬɪɢɢ
ɫɤɭɥɶɩɬɭɪɵɠɢɜɨɩɢɫɢɦɭɡɵɤɢɧɟɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɦɢɫɭɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɟɦ
ɬɚɧɰɟɜɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɚɌɚɤɨɣɩɨɞɯɨɞɤɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɸɛɚɥɟɬɚɨɝɨɜɚɪɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɆɢ
ɲɟɥɟɦɞɟɉɸɪɨɦɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɩɪɢɦɟɱɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɦɞɨɛɚɜɥɹɟɬɤɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɦ
ɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɚɦɟɳɟɨɞɢɧ²©ɢɡɹɳɧɨɟɫɬɢɯɨɬɜɨɪɫɬɜɨªɧɟɩɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɞɨɥɠɧɨɟ
ɩɨɟɝɨɦɧɟɧɢɸɭɤɪɚɲɚɬɶɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɶ>@
ɋɜɹɡɶɬɚɧɰɚɫɩɨɷɡɢɟɣɚɱɟɪɟɡɧɟɟ²ɢɫɩɟɧɢɟɦɢɦɟɟɬɞɚɜɧɢɟɢɫɬɨɪɢ
ɱɟɫɤɢɟɤɨɪɧɢɈɛɷɬɨɦɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɭɟɬɬɚɧɰɟɜɚɥɶɧɚɹɪɢɬɦɢɤɚɤɨɬɨɪɚɹɟɳɟ
ɜɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɚɚɧɬɢɱɧɨɫɬɢɫɨɝɥɚɫɨɜɵɜɚɥɚɫɶɫɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɹɦɢɬɟɯɢɥɢɢɧɵɯɩɨ
ɷɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɪɚɡɦɟɪɨɜ
ɋɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹɫɬɢɯɨɬɜɨɪɧɵɯɫɬɨɩɫɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɦɢɬɚɧɰɟɜɚɥɶɧɵɦɢɠɚɧɪɚ
ɦɢɢɦɟɜɲɢɟɦɟɫɬɨɜɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɟɞɪɟɜɧɢɯɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɥɢɫɶɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɚɦɢɢɯɨ
ɪɟɨɝɪɚɮɚɦɢɛɚɪɨɤɤɨɈɬɨɦɱɬɨɨɧɢɜ;9,,ɜɟɤɟɛɵɥɢɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɦɢɞɥɹɫɨ
ɱɢɧɢɬɟɥɟɣɬɚɧɰɟɜɚɥɶɧɨɣɦɭɡɵɤɢɜɨɎɪɚɧɰɢɢɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɭɟɬɜɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢ
ɆɚɪɟɧɆɟɪɫɟɧɧȼɱɟɬɜɟɪɬɨɣɱɚɫɬɢ©ɍɧɢɜɟɪɫɚɥɶɧɨɣɝɚɪɦɨɧɢɢª  ɨɧ
ɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɹɚɧɬɢɱɧɵɯɫɬɢɯɨɬɜɨɪɧɵɯɫɬɨɩɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɧɵɦɜ
ɟɝɨɜɪɟɦɹɬɚɧɰɚɦ>@
Ɍɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɣɬɚɧɟɰɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɨɝɨɛɚɪɨɤɤɨɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɨɜɚɥɫɨɫɥɨɜɨɦ
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ɟɝɨɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɢɬɟɨɪɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɚɫɩɟɤɬɚɯ>@
əɪɤɢɦɢɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɟɧɢɹɦɢɫɜɹɡɢɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɢɩɪɢɞɜɨɪɧɨɝɨɬɚɧɰɚɮɪɚɧ
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ɬɚɫɚɪɚɛɚɧɞɵɝɚɜɨɬɚɢɞɪ ȼɢɫɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɢɭɱɚɫɬɜɭɸɬɬɚɧɰɨɪɵɩɟɜɰɵɢɦɭɡɵ
ɤɚɧɬɵɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚɥɢɫɬɵɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɢɟɝɪɭɩɩɭFRQWLQXRɁɧɚɦɟɧɢɬɵɟɚɜɬɨɪɵ
ɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɢɯɛɚɥɟɬɨɜɢɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɣɧɚɦɭɡɵɤɟ²ɀȻɅɸɥɥɢȺɄɚɦɩɪɚɆ
ȺɒɚɪɩɚɧɬɶɟɆɆɚɪɟɢɞɪɩɨɫɜɨɟɦɭɦɨɞɟɥɢɪɭɹɨɩɵɬɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵɚɧɬɢɱɧɨ
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Ⱥɧɚɥɨɝɢɱɧɵɟɡɚɦɟɱɚɧɢɹɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɬɫɹɬɚɤɠɟɜɛɨɥɟɟɩɨɡɞɧɟɦɬɪɚɤɬɚɬɟ©'HSRHPDWXPFDQWXHW


YLULEXVUK\WKPLª  ɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɚɳɟɦɧɢɞɟɪɥɚɧɞɫɤɨɦɭɮɢɥɨɥɨɝɭɂɫɚɚɤɭȼɨɫɫɭ ȼɨɫɫɢɭɫɭ 


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 ɅȾɉɵɥɚɟɜɚ

Ɂɚɦɟɬɢɦɱɬɨɩɪɢɫɭɳɟɟɛɚɪɨɱɧɨɣɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɢɨɳɭɳɟɧɢɟɬɚɧɰɚɜɩɪɟɞɞɜɟ
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ɮɢɹª  ɌȺɪɛɨəɫɧɨɨɫɨɡɧɚɜɚɹɩɪɢɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟɧɟɤɨɟɝɨɡɚɲɢɮɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɝɨ
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ɜɟɬɨɜɚɥɫɨɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɬɶɬɚɧɟɰɩɨɷɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɬɟɤɫɬɨɦɪɚɫɩɟɜɚɟɦɵɦɧɚɨɫɧɨɜɧɭɸ
ɦɟɥɨɞɢɸɈɧɜɟɫɶɦɚɤɪɚɫɧɨɪɟɱɢɜɨɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɞɢɥɫɜɨɣɫɨɜɟɬɫɨɱɢɧɢɜɤɢɡɜɟɫɬ
ɧɨɦɭɧɚɩɟɜɭɩɚɜɚɧɵɢɡɫɛɨɪɧɢɤɚɉȺɬɬɟɧɶɹɧɚɬɪɨɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɩɨɷɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɤɭ
ɩɥɟɬɵɥɸɛɨɜɧɨɝɨɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɹ>í@Ɍɚɤɢɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɦɫɨɡɞɚɬɟɥɹɢɡɜɟɫɬ
ɧɟɣɲɟɝɨɬɪɚɤɬɚɬɚɨɬɚɧɰɟɜɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɨɣɫɬɟɩɟɧɢɦɨɠɧɨɫɱɢɬɚɬɶɢɨɞɧɢɦɢɡ
ɪɚɧɧɢɯɚɜɬɨɪɨɜGDQVHVFKDQWpHV
ɋɢɧɬɟɡɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɢɯɜɪɚɦɤɚɯGDQVHFKDQWpHɫɬɚɜɢɬɩɟɪɟɞ
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ɞɟɧɢɟɚɞɟɤɜɚɬɧɨɝɨɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɚɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɚɧɚɡɜɚɧɢɹɠɚɧɪɚɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɳɟɝɨɧɚɫɨ
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ɜɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɟGDQVHFKDQWpHɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɢɬɫɹɤɚɤ©ɫɩɟɬɵɣªɢɥɢ©ɩɪɨɩɟɬɵɣɬɚɧɟɰª
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FKDQWpHɦɨɠɧɨɛɵɥɨɛɵɬɪɚɤɬɨɜɚɬɶɤɚɤ©ɩɪɨɩɟɜɚɟɦɵɣɬɚɧɟɰªɇɚɧɚɲɜɡɝɥɹɞ
ɷɬɨɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɢɟ²ɧɟɛɟɫɫɩɨɪɧɨɟɢɡɡɚɧɚɪɭɲɟɧɢɹɧɨɪɦɹɡɵɤɚ²ɜɧɚɢɛɨɥɶ
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ɧɨɝɨɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɚɢɫɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɫɤɨɝɨɫɨɫɬɚɜɚ ɬɚɤɦɨɠɧɨɜɫɬɪɟɬɢɬɶɩɪɢɦɟɪɵ
ɞɥɹɫɨɥɢɫɬɚɜɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɚɧɫɚɦɛɥɹɯɨɪɚ ɮɨɪɦɵɢɦɚɫɲɬɚɛɨɜ ɨɬɦɢɧɢɚɬɸ
ɪɵɜɛɚɪɨɱɧɨɣɞɜɭɯɱɚɫɬɧɨɣɮɨɪɦɟɞɨɪɚɡɜɟɪɧɭɬɨɣɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɰɢɢɜɮɨɪɦɟɨɫɬɢ
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ɲɢɧɫɬɜɟɫɥɭɱɚɟɜGDQVHFKDQWpHɜɵɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɜɝɨɦɨɮɨɧɧɨɝɚɪɦɨɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɦ
ɫɤɥɚɞɟɨɞɧɚɤɨɫɪɟɞɢɧɢɯɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɸɬɫɹɢɪɟɞɤɢɟɨɪɢɝɢɧɚɥɶɧɵɟɩɨɥɢɮɨɧɢɱɟ
ɫɤɢɟɨɛɪɚɡɰɵ
ɁɧɚɱɢɦɵɦɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɦɜɵɪɚɡɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɜGDQVHFKDQWpHɫɱɢɬɚɥɢɫɶɪɢɬɦɵ
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ɋɢɦɨɧɭɀɨɡɟɮɭɉɟɥɥɟɝɪɟɧɭȺɧɬɭɚɧɭɍɞɚɪɭɞɟɅɹɆɨɬɭɉɨɪɚɡɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɪɚɡɧɨ
'DQVHFKDQWpHɜɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɹɯɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɨɝɨɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɬɟɚɬɪɚ 
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ɳɢɤɬɨɧɤɨɭɥɚɜɥɢɜɚɥɢɦɩɭɥɶɫɵ©ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɣɞɭɲɢªɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɡɚɬɟɦɩɟɪɟɞɚɜɚɥ
ɜɯɨɪɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɩɚɩɨɡɚɯɦɢɦɢɤɟɠɟɫɬɚɯ
ɋɞɪɭɝɨɣɫɬɨɪɨɧɵɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɬɚɧɰɨɪɚɬɟɫɧɨɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɨɜɚɥɢɫɦɭɡɵ
ɤɨɣɇɨɩɨɠɚɥɭɣɟɳɟɛɨɥɟɟɜɚɠɧɭɸɪɨɥɶɜɩɪɟɩɨɞɧɟɫɟɧɢɢɯɭɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣ
ɢɞɟɢGDQVHVFKDQWpHVɢɝɪɚɥɢɫɜɹɡɢɫɪɢɬɨɪɢɤɨɣɡɚɤɨɧɚɦɢɤɨɬɨɪɨɣɮɪɚɧɰɭɡ
ɫɤɢɟɦɚɫɬɟɪɚɪɭɤɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɨɜɚɥɢɫɶɜɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯɜɢɞɚɯɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚ²ɬɟɚɬɪɟɩɨ
ɷɡɢɢɠɢɜɨɩɢɫɢ
ȼGDQVHFKDQWpHɩɨɞɱɟɪɤɧɭɬɨɣɪɢɬɨɪɢɱɧɨɫɬɶɸɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɸɬɫɹɤɚɤɫɩɨ
ɫɨɛɪɚɫɤɪɵɬɢɹɟɝɨɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɹɬɚɤɢɮɨɪɦɚɜɤɨɬɨɪɭɸɨɧɨɡɚɤɥɸɱɚɟɬɫɹɈɛ
ɷɬɨɦɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɭɟɬɜɩɟɪɜɭɸɨɱɟɪɟɞɶɬɪɚɤɬɨɜɤɚɩɚɪɬɢɢɩɟɜɰɚɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨ
ɜɨɎɪɚɧɰɢɢɩɨɫɥɨɜɚɦɆɆɟɪɫɟɧɧɚɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɥɢɧɟɢɧɚɱɟɤɚɤ©ɝɚɪɦɨɧɢ
ɱɟɫɤɢɦɨɪɚɬɨɪɨɦ ɬɟɩɪɨɢɡɧɨɫɹɳɢɦɪɟɱɶɩɨɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɨɦɦɭɡɵɤɢ²Ʌɉ ª>
@Ɂɜɭɱɚɳɟɟɢɡɟɝɨɭɫɬɩɪɨɩɟɜɚɟɦɨɟɫɥɨɜɨɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɥɨɫɶɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɢ
ɤɚɦɢɤɚɤɚɧɚɥɨɝɫɥɨɜɚɩɪɨɢɡɧɨɫɢɦɨɝɨɚɜɟɫɶɬɟɤɫɬGDQVHFKDQWpHɩɪɢɪɚɜɧɢ
ɜɚɥɫɹɤɡɚɤɨɧɱɟɧɧɨɣɨɪɚɬɨɪɫɤɨɣɪɟɱɢ
ɉɨɞɱɟɪɤɧɟɦɱɬɨɩɨɞɨɛɧɵɟɩɚɪɚɥɥɟɥɢɨɬɦɟɱɚɥɢɧɟɬɨɥɶɤɨɦɭɡɵɤɚɧɬɵɢɫ
ɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɢɢɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɵɧɨɢɩɪɢɡɧɚɧɧɵɟɦɷɬɪɵɪɢɬɨɪɢɤɢ²ɤɚɤɧɚɩɪɢ
ɦɟɪȻɅɚɦɢɭɞɟɥɢɜɲɟɝɨɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɨɪɚɬɨɪɫɤɢɦɷɮɮɟɤɬɚɦɜɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɣɦɭɡɵ
ɤɢɜɬɪɚɤɬɚɬɟ©Ɋɢɬɨɪɢɤɚɢɥɢɂɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɨɝɨɜɨɪɢɬɶª>@
ɉɪɢɦɟɱɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɱɬɨɨɧɭɩɨɞɨɛɥɹɟɬɢɫɬɢɧɧɨɦɭɨɪɚɬɨɪɭɧɟɬɨɥɶɤɨɩɟɜɰɚ
ɧɨɢɬɚɧɰɨɪɚɤɨɝɞɚɝɨɜɨɪɢɬɨɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɢɬɚɧɰɟɜɚɥɶɧɵɯɲɚɝɨɜɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɦ
ɫɥɨɝɚɦɜɩɟɧɢɢɚɜɵɪɚɡɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɠɟɫɬɵɢɩɨɡɵɫɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɦɢ
ɪɢɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢɮɢɝɭɪɚɦɢ>@
ɑɟɦɠɟɩɪɢɜɥɟɤɚɟɬɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɫɤɨɟɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɟGDQVHFKDQWpH
ɜɧɚɲɢɞɧɢ"
ɉɪɟɠɞɟɜɫɟɝɨɨɧɨɪɚɫɲɢɪɹɟɬɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɨɬɚɧɰɟɜɚɥɶɧɨɣɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɟ
ɛɚɪɨɤɤɨɋɞɪɭɝɨɣɫɬɨɪɨɧɵɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟɨɛɪɚɡɰɨɜɞɚɧɧɨɝɨɠɚɧɪɚɩɪɨɥɢ
ɜɚɟɬɫɜɟɬɧɚɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɭɸɜɨɤɚɥɶɧɭɸɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɸELHQFKDQWHɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭɩɪɢ
ɦɟɪɵGDQVHFKDQWpHɲɢɪɨɤɨɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵɜɬɪɚɤɬɚɬɚɯɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɧɵɯɮɪɚɧ
ɰɭɡɫɤɨɦɭɜɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɦɭɫɬɢɥɸ;9,,±ɧɚɱɚɥɚ;9,,,ɜɟɤI ȻɟɧɢɧɶɞɟȻɚɫɢɥɢɋ
Ȼɪɨɫɫɚɪɢɞɪ 
ȺɧɚɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɧɚɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɹɧɚɞGDQVHFKDQWpHɦɨɝɭɬɨɛɨɝɚɬɢɬɶɜɚɠɧɨɣ
ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɟɣɦɭɡɵɤɚɧɬɨɜɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚɥɢɫɬɨɜɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɧɟɪɟɞɤɨɜɤɥɸɱɚɸɬɜ
ɫɜɨɣɪɟɩɟɪɬɭɚɪɨɛɪɚɡɰɵɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯɬɚɧɰɟɜɚɥɶɧɵɯɠɚɧɪɨɜ;9,,±;9,,,ɫɬɨ
ɥɟɬɢɣɈɛɪɚɬɢɜɲɢɫɶɤGDQVHFKDQWpHɨɧɢɫɦɨɝɭɬɭɬɨɱɧɢɬɶɫɜɨɢɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟ
ɧɢɹɨɦɭɡɵɤɟɞɚɧɧɨɝɨɩɟɪɢɨɞɚɤɨɬɨɪɚɹɛɭɤɜɚɥɶɧɨɩɪɨɧɢɡɚɧɚɬɚɧɰɟɜɚɥɶɧɨ
ɫɬɶɸɈɬɦɟɬɢɦɜɷɬɨɣɫɜɹɡɢɤɧɢɝɭɤɚɧɚɞɫɤɨɣɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɢɰɵɆɷɪɢɋɚɣɪ
ɨɫɬɢɥɟɢɢɫɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɫɤɨɣɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɟɧɚɫɬɪɭɧɧɵɯɫɦɵɱɤɨɜɵɯɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚɯ
ɜɨɎɪɚɧɰɢɢɩɟɪɢɨɞɚ±ɝɨɞɨɜɈɛɫɭɠɞɚɹɩɭɬɢɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹɞɚɧɧɵɯɢɧ
 ɅȾɉɵɥɚɟɜɚ

ɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɨɜɤɚɤɫɨɥɢɪɭɸɳɢɯɚɜɬɨɪɜɬɪɟɬɶɟɣɱɚɫɬɢɪɚɛɨɬɵɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɩɪɢ
ɡɧɚɤɢɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɨɦɭɫɬɢɥɸɊɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɹɜɨɩɪɨɫɵɚɪɬɢɤɭɥɹ
ɰɢɢɬɟɦɩɚɪɢɬɦɢɤɢɨɪɧɚɦɟɧɬɢɤɢɢɩɪɨɱɆɋɚɣɪɩɨɞɱɟɪɤɢɜɚɟɬɜɚɠɧɨɫɬɶ
ɜɞɚɧɧɨɦɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɟɢɦɟɧɧɨɬɚɧɰɟɜɚɥɶɧɵɯɠɚɧɪɨɜ>@Ɉɧɚɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɧɚɢɯ
ɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɜɦɭɡɵɤɟɞɥɹɫɬɪɭɧɧɵɯɬɚɤɢɯɚɜɬɨɪɨɜɤɚɤɆɆɚɪɟɀȻȻɚɪɶɟɪ
ȺɎɨɪɤɟɪɟ
ɂɡɭɱɟɧɢɟGDQVHFKDQWpHɦɨɠɟɬɢɦɟɬɶɢɛɨɥɟɟɲɢɪɨɤɢɣɪɚɞɢɭɫɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹ
ɚɢɦɟɧɧɨɩɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɶɡɧɚɧɢɹɨɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɟɧɟɬɨɥɶɤɨɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɧɨɢɞɪɚɦɚ
ɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɬɟɚɬɪɚɜɨɎɪɚɧɰɢɢ;9,,±ɩɟɪɜɨɣɩɨɥɨɜɢɧɵ;9,,,ɜɟɤɨɜɉɨɝɪɭ
ɠɟɧɢɟɜɦɢɪɬɚɧɰɟɜɚɥɶɧɨɣɩɨɷɡɢɢɭɬɨɱɧɹɟɬɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɯɭɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɷɫɬɟ
ɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɜɤɭɫɚɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɨɝɨɞɥɹɬɨɣɷɩɨɯɢ
ȼɟɫɶɦɚɲɢɪɨɤɫɩɟɤɬɪɦɭɡɵɤɨɜɟɞɱɟɫɤɢɯɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɫɤɢɯɚɫɩɟɤɬɨɜ
GDQVHFKDQWpHȿɝɨɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɟɭɝɥɭɛɥɹɟɬɡɧɚɧɢɹɨɬɟɨɪɢɢɚɮɮɟɤɬɨɜ²ɜɱɚɫɬ
ɧɨɫɬɢɨɧɨɭɬɨɱɧɹɟɬɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟɚɮɮɟɤɬɚɡɚɤɥɸɱɟɧɧɨɝɨɜɬɨɦɢɥɢɢɧɨɦɬɚɧ
ɰɟɜɚɥɶɧɨɦɠɚɧɪɟ
ɂɡɭɱɟɧɢɟGDQVHFKDQWpHɩɨɦɨɝɚɟɬɬɨɱɧɟɟɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɬɶɜɚɠɧɭɸɞɥɹɛɚɪɨɤ
ɤɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɜɲɭɸɜɪɚɦɤɚɯɬɟɨɪɢɢɚɮɮɟɤɬɨɜɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɸ©ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɚª²ɜ
ɞɚɧɧɨɦɫɥɭɱɚɟɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɚɬɚɧɰɚ
ɉɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɚɹɜɚɠɧɨɫɬɶɫɜɹɡɢɦɭɡɵɤɢɢɫɥɨɜɚGDQVHFKDQWpHɩɨɫɜɨɟɦɭ
ɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɭɟɬɨɜɥɢɹɧɢɢɧɚɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɭɸɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɭɛɚɪɨɤɤɨɪɢɬɨɪɢɤɢɷɬɨ
ɫɩɪɚɜɟɞɥɢɜɨɢɜɢɫɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɫɤɨɦɩɥɚɧɟ ɦɚɧɟɪɚɩɪɟɩɨɞɧɟɫɟɧɢɹɬɚɧɰɚɤɚɤ
ɨɪɚɬɨɪɫɤɨɝɨɜɵɫɬɭɩɥɟɧɢɹ ɢɜɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɰɢɢɬɚɧɰɚɟɟɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɟɣ
ɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢ²ɢɧɵɦɢɫɥɨɜɚɦɢɪɟɱɶɢɞɟɬɨɜɨɡɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɢɪɢɬɨɪɢɤɢɧɚɦɭɡɵ
ɤɚɥɶɧɨɟɮɨɪɦɨɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɂɧɬɟɪɟɫɧɵɟɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɨɛɷɬɨɦɢɦɟɸɬɫɹɜɧɟɞɚɜ
ɧɨɨɩɭɛɥɢɤɨɜɚɧɧɨɦɬɪɭɞɟɧɚɩɨɥɶɫɤɨɦɹɡɵɤɟ ɫɦɜɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢɬɪɟɬɶɸɝɥɚɜɭ
ɪɚɛɨɬɵɝɞɟɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɩɪɢɦɟɧɟɧɢɟɪɢɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɩɪɢɟɦɨɜɢɢɯɜɨɡɞɟɣ
ɫɬɜɢɟɧɚɫɢɧɬɚɤɫɢɫɢɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɰɢɸɜɫɨɱɢɧɟɧɢɹɯɞɥɹɫɤɪɢɩɤɢɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɚɳɢɯ
ɦɚɫɬɟɪɚɦɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɨɝɨɛɚɪɨɤɤɨ>@
ȼɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɧɵɮɨɪɦɨɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɳɢɟɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɵɩɪɨɬɟɤɚɸɳɢɟɜ
GDQVHFKDQWpHɧɚɫɢɧɬɚɤɫɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɭɪɨɜɧɟ
ɂɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɫɤɨɟɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɤɧɟɦɭɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɦɢɧɚɢɛɨ
ɥɟɟɜɚɠɧɵɦɢɮɚɤɬɨɪɚɦɢ
ɋɢɧɬɚɤɫɢɫɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɟɧɡɞɟɫɶɜɩɥɚɧɟɨɛɳɟɣɷɫɬɟɬɢɤɢɮɨɪɦɵɜɰɟɥɨɦɹɜ
ɥɹɸɳɟɣɫɹɨɥɢɰɟɬɜɨɪɟɧɢɟɦɪɚɜɧɨɜɟɫɢɹɢɩɨɪɹɞɤɚ
ɍɪɨɜɟɧɶɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢɦɟɥɤɢɯɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɧɵɯɟɞɢɧɢɰɜɛɚɪɨɱɧɵɯɬɚɧɰɚɯɡɚ
ɧɢɦɚɟɬɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɟɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟɩɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɸɤɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɰɢɨɧɧɨɦɭɭɪɨɜɧɸ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɸɳɟɦɭɡɞɟɫɶɜɰɟɥɨɦɤɚɤɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɸɳɢɣɫɹɗɬɨɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɚɟɬɨɬɱɟɬ
ɥɢɜɚɹɪɚɫɱɥɟɧɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɜɮɨɪɦɵɪɚɡɜɟɪɬɵɜɚɧɢɸɤɨɬɨɪɨɣɜɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶ
ɧɨɣɫɬɟɩɟɧɢɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɚɞɢɫɤɪɟɬɧɨɫɬɶ

ɉɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɱɬɨɜɞɚɧɧɨɣɫɜɹɡɢɭɦɟɫɬɧɨɜɫɩɨɦɧɢɬɶɨɩɪɨɲɥɨɦɫɤɪɢɩɤɢɤɚɤɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚ
ɚɤɤɨɦɩɚɧɢɪɭɸɳɟɝɨɜɨɛɭɱɟɧɢɢɬɚɧɰɚɦɢɩɪɢɪɚɡɭɱɢɜɚɧɢɢɛɚɥɟɬɨɜ
'DQVHFKDQWpHɜɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɹɯɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɨɝɨɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɬɟɚɬɪɚ 
ȼɪɚɦɤɚɯɨɛɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɹɫɢɧɬɚɤɫɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɜɜɟɫɶɦɚɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɧɵɦ
ɩɪɟɞɦɟɬɨɦɚɧɚɥɢɡɚɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹɲɤɚɥɚɫɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɣɰɟɡɭɪ²ɜɬɚɧɰɟɦɭɡɵ
ɤɟɩɨɷɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɬɟɤɫɬɟ
ɇɚɫɢɧɬɚɤɫɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɭɪɨɜɧɟɜɫɰɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɬɚɧɰɚɯɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɨɝɨɛɚɪɨɤ
ɤɨɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɢɜɚɸɬɫɹɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟɫɩɨɫɨɛɵɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹɦɭɡɵɤɢɢ
ɫɥɨɜɚ²ɨɬɩɚɪɚɥɥɟɥɢɡɦɚɞɨɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣɚɜɬɨɧɨɦɢɢɆɟɠɞɭɷɬɢɦɢɩɨɥɸ
ɫɚɦɢɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɟɬɫɹɞɢɮɮɟɪɟɧɰɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɚɹɲɤɚɥɚɝɪɚɞɚɰɢɣɈɧɚɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɚɟɬ
ɫɜɨɟɨɛɪɚɡɢɟɤɨɧɬɪɚɩɭɧɤɬɚɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹɦɟɥɨɞɢɢɢɬɟɤɫɬɚɇɚɛɥɸɞɚɟɦɵɣɤɨɧ
ɬɪɚɩɭɧɤɬɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɢɜɚɟɬɩɪɢɫɭɬɫɬɜɢɟɜɨɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɟɣɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢɨɛɪɚɡɰɨɜ
ɞɚɧɧɨɝɨɠɚɧɪɚ©ɩɚɪɧɵɯɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɨɜɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɳɢɯɧɟɪɚɫɬɨɪɠɢɦɨɟɟɞɢɧɫɬɜɨª
ɫɢɦɦɟɬɪɢɱɧɨɟɧɟɫɢɦɦɟɬɪɢɱɧɨɟɤɨɧɬɢɧɭɚɥɶɧɨɟɞɢɫɤɪɟɬɧɨɟɥɚɤɨɧɢɱɧɨɟɞɥɢ
ɬɟɥɶɧɨɪɚɡɜɟɪɬɵɜɚɸɳɟɟɫɹ
ȼɡɚɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟɫɥɟɞɭɟɬɟɳɟɪɚɡɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɩɪɨɚɤɰɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɩɪɢɫɭɬ
ɫɬɜɢɟɜɨɛɫɭɠɞɚɟɦɨɦɧɚɦɢɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɟɜɟɪɛɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɤɨɦɩɨɧɟɧɬɚ²ɫɥɨɜɚ
ɩɨɞɱɟɪɤɧɭɬɨɟ ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ ɤ ɤɨɬɨɪɨɦɭ ɢɡɞɚɜɧɚ ɨɬɥɢɱɚɟɬ ɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɭɸ ɧɚ
ɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɭɸɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɭȾɥɹɧɟɟɱɪɟɡɜɵɱɚɣɧɨɜɚɠɧɵɦɚɧɟɪɚɩɪɨɢɡɧɟɫɟɧɢɹ
ɢɩɪɟɩɨɞɧɟɫɟɧɢɹɫɚɦɨɡɜɭɱɚɧɢɟɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɬɚɸɳɢɟɜɭɫɥɨɜɢɹɯɪɢɬɨɪɢɱɟ
ɫɤɨɣɷɩɨɯɢɪɨɥɶɜɚɠɧɟɣɲɢɯɫɦɵɫɥɨɨɛɪɚɡɭɸɳɢɯɮɚɤɬɨɪɨɜɜɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɟ
ɫɤɨɣ ɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɞɟɤɥɚɦɚɰɢɢ ɜɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɢ ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɨɣ ɦɭɡɵɤɟ
ɯɨɪɟɨɝɪɚɮɢɢɉɨɞɪɨɛɧɵɣɚɧɚɥɢɡɩɨɷɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɬɟɤɫɬɨɜGDQVHVFKDQWpHVɩɨ
ɡɜɨɥɹɟɬɩɪɢɛɥɢɡɢɬɶɫɹɤɩɨɧɢɦɚɧɢɸɫɬɨɥɶɜɚɠɧɨɣɞɥɹɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɨɝɨɢɫ
ɤɭɫɫɬɜɚɛɚɪɨɤɤɨɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɢɤɚɤ©ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪªɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɜɦɭɡɵɤɟɱɚɫɬɨɨɪɢ
ɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɧ ɧɚ ɛɵɬɭɸɳɢɟ ɜ ɬɨ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɬɚɧɰɟɜɚɥɶɧɵɟ ɠɚɧɪɵ ɉɨɞɱɟɪɤɧɟɦ
ɬɚɤɠɟɱɬɨɞɥɹɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɣɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵɎɪɚɧɰɢɢɤɚɤɬɚɤɨɜɨɣɬɚɧɟɰɜɫɟɝɞɚ
ɢɦɟɥɝɥɭɛɢɧɧɨɟɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɤɨɬɨɪɨɟɜɩɨɥɧɨɣɦɟɪɟɪɚɫɤɪɵɜɚɟɬɫɹɜ;9,,±
ɩɟɪɜɨɣ;9,,,ɜɟɤɚ
Ȼɭɞɭɱɢɨɪɢɝɢɧɚɥɶɧɵɦɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɦɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɢɯɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɯɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɟɣ
ɧɚɡɜɚɧɧɨɝɨɩɟɪɢɨɞɚɩɨɞɱɚɫɡɚɫɥɨɧɹɟɦɵɦɦɨɧɭɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɦɢɯɨɪɨɜɵɦɢɧɨ
ɦɟɪɚɦɢɩɚɬɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɜɨɡɜɵɲɟɧɧɵɦɢɫɨɥɶɧɵɦɢɢɞɢɚɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢɜɨɤɚɥɶ
ɧɵɦɢɫɰɟɧɚɦɢɩɵɲɧɵɦɢɬɚɧɰɟɜɚɥɶɧɵɦɢɞɢɜɟɪɬɢɫɦɟɧɬɚɦɢGDQVHFKDQWpHɜ
ɩɨɥɧɨɣɦɟɪɟɮɨɤɭɫɢɪɭɟɬɜɫɟɛɟɷɫɬɟɬɢɤɭɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɨɝɨɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚɫɜɨɟɝɨɜɪɟ
ɦɟɧɢɄɨɧɟɱɧɨɠɟɷɬɚɠɚɧɪɨɜɚɹɪɚɡɧɨɜɢɞɧɨɫɬɶɫɰɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɬɚɧɰɚɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ
ɛɥɟɫɬɹɳɢɦɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɟɧɢɟɦɬɨɝɨɝɥɭɛɢɧɧɨɝɨɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɹɤɚɤɢɦɞɥɹɮɪɚɧɰɭɡ
ɫɤɨɣɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵɨɛɥɚɞɚɥɨɬɚɧɰɟɜɚɥɶɧɨɟɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɨ


ȼɧɚɱɚɥɟ;9,,,ɜɟɤɚɝɥɭɛɢɧɧɨɟɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɬɚɧɰɟɜɚɥɶɧɵɯɠɚɧɪɨɜɞɥɹɪɚɫɤɪɵɬɢɹɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɢ©ɯɚ
ɪɚɤɬɟɪɚªɜɨɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɨɣɦɭɡɵɤɟɛɥɟɫɬɹɳɟɩɨɤɚɡɚɥɜɫɜɨɢɯɨɪɤɟɫɬɪɨɜɵɯɫɸɢɬɚɯ©Ɍɟɪɩɫɢɯɨɪɚª
ɢ©ɏɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɵɬɚɧɰɚªɀɎɊɟɛɟɥɶɇɨɜɵɟɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɧɵɟɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɨɜɬɨɪɨɦɢɡɭɤɚɡɚɧɧɵɯɫɨɱɢ
ɧɟɧɢɣɩɪɢɜɨɞɹɬɫɹɜɫɬɚɬɶɟȾɠɟɮɪɢȻɺɪɞɠɟɫɚ>@ɋɦɬɚɤɠɟɧɚɲɭɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɰɢɸ>@
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ൺඇൽඍඍඈඋඋൾඃඬඇඒඏൾඅൺඌർඈ

Ⱥɧɧɨɬɚɰɢɹɋɬɚɬɶɹɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɚɪɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɢɸɨɞɧɨɝɨɢɡɤɥɸɱɟɜɵɯɦɨɦɟɧɬɨɜ
ɜɧɟɞɨɥɝɨɣɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɢɫɩɚɧɫɤɨɣɛɚɪɨɱɧɨɣɨɩɟɪɵɊɟɱɶɢɞɟɬɨɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɟɩɪɨɢɡɜɟ
ɞɟɧɢɹɉɄɚɥɶɞɟɪɨɧɚɢɌɌɨɪɪɟɯɨɧɚɢȼɟɥɚɫɤɨ©ɉɭɪɩɭɪɪɨɡɵªɜɜɢɰɟɤɨɪɨɥɟɜ
ɫɬɜɟɅɢɦɚɜɝɨɞɭȼɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɢɫɦɟɬɨɞɨɥɨɝɢɟɣɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɢɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɭ
ɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹɚɧɚɥɢɡɢɪɭɸɬɫɹɤɚɤɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɟɢɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ
ɩɪɟɞɩɨɫɵɥɤɢɷɬɨɝɨɜɚɠɧɟɣɲɟɝɨɫɨɛɵɬɢɹɧɚɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢɡɚɨɤɟɚɧɫɤɢɯɤɨɥɨɧɢɣɂɫ
ɩɚɧɢɢɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɟɧɧɨɝɨɩɨɞɩɨɤɪɨɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨɦɜɢɰɟɤɨɪɨɥɹɅɢɦɵɬɚɤɢɜɨɩɪɨ
ɫɵɚɜɬɨɪɫɬɜɚɦɭɡɵɤɢ
ɂɡɜɟɫɬɧɨɱɬɨɜɆɚɞɪɢɞɟɨɩɟɪɚɫɬɚɜɢɥɚɫɶɫɦɭɡɵɤɨɣɞɪɭɝɨɝɨɢɫɩɚɧɫɤɨɝɨɤɨɦɩɨ
ɡɢɬɨɪɚɏɭɚɧɚɂɞɚɥɶɝɨȼɫɮɟɪɟɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɹɚɜɬɨɪɚɞɨɤɥɚɞɚɬɟɤɫɬɄɚɥɶɞɟɪɨɧɚɨɫɧɨ
ɜɵɜɚɸɳɢɣɫɹɧɚɫɜɨɟɨɛɪɚɡɧɨɣɬɪɚɤɬɨɜɤɟɚɧɬɢɱɧɨɝɨɦɢɮɚɨȼɟɧɟɪɟɢȺɞɨɧɢɫɟɚ
ɬɚɤɠɟɟɝɨɝɥɭɛɨɤɨɦɟɬɚɮɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɢɜɵɪɚɡɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪȺɧɚɥɢɡɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶ
ɧɨɝɨɬɟɤɫɬɚɢɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɢɢɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬɫɞɟɥɚɬɶɜɵɜɨɞɨɛɢɯɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɟɣɫɦɵɫɥɨɜɨɣ
ɫɜɹɡɢɫɩɨɷɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɱɬɨɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɨɜɚɥɨɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɦɢɞɟɹɦɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɞɪɚɦɚ
ɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚɷɩɨɯɢȼɦɟɫɬɟɫɬɟɦɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪ ɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɵ ɨɩɢɪɚɥɢɫɶ
ɧɚɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɢɢɫɩɚɧɫɤɨɣɫɬɪɨɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɩɟɫɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɚɬɚɤɠɟɬɚɧɰɟɜɚɥɶɧɵɯɠɚɧɪɨɜ
ɫɨɟɞɢɧɢɜɢɯɫɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɢɦɜɵɪɚɡɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɪɟɱɢɬɚɬɢɜɧɵɦɫɬɢɥɟɦȼɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟ
ɷɬɨɣɨɪɝɚɧɢɱɧɨɣɚɫɫɢɦɢɥɹɰɢɢ©ɉɭɪɩɭɪɪɨɡɵªɫɬɚɥɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢɝɥɭɛɨɤɨɫɜɨ
ɟɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɦɹɜɥɟɧɢɟɦɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɣɛɚɪɨɱɧɨɣɨɩɟɪɧɨɣɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵ
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ɫɩɚɧɫɤɚɹɛɚɪɨɱɧɚɹɨɩɟɪɚɜɬɨɪɨɣɩɨɥɨɜɢɧɵ;9,,ɜɟɤɚɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɚ
ɞɜɭɦɹɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɦɢɫɨɡɞɚɧɧɵɦɢɧɚɬɟɤɫɬɵɉɟɞɪɨɄɚɥɶɞɟɪɨɧɚ²
ɷɬɨ©ɉɭɪɩɭɪɪɨɡɵª /DS~USXUDGHODURVD ɢ©Ɋɟɜɧɨɫɬɶɢɞɭɧɨɜɟɧɢɟɦ
ɜɟɬɪɚɭɛɢɜɚɟɬª &HORVDXQGHODLUHPDWDQ ɫɦɭɡɵɤɨɣɏɭɚɧɚɂɞɚɥɶɝɨɂɫɩɨɥ
ɧɢɬɟɥɶɫɤɚɹɫɭɞɶɛɚɩɟɪɜɨɣɨɤɚɡɚɥɚɫɶɭɧɢɤɚɥɶɧɨɣ²ɢɦɟɧɧɨ©ɉɭɪɩɭɪɪɨɡɵª
ɫɬɚɥɩɟɪɜɨɣɜɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɨɩɟɪɨɣɩɪɨɞɟɥɚɜɲɟɣɩɭɬɶɱɟɪɟɡɨɤɟɚɧɢɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɨɣ
ɜɇɨɜɨɦɋɜɟɬɟɜɝɨɞɭɜɅɢɦɟ ɜɢɰɟɤɨɪɨɥɟɜɫɬɜɨɉɟɪɭ 
ȼɝɨɞɭɩɨɞɩɢɫɚɧɢɟɦɉɢɪɟɧɟɣɫɤɨɝɨɦɢɪɧɨɝɨɞɨɝɨɜɨɪɚɡɚɜɟɪɲɚɟɬ
ɫɹɞɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟɂɫɩɚɧɢɢɢɎɪɚɧɰɢɢɗɬɨɬɞɨɝɨɜɨɪɟɳɟɛɨɥɟɟ
ɭɤɪɟɩɢɥɞɢɧɚɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɫɨɸɡȽɚɛɫɛɭɪɝɨɜɢȻɭɪɛɨɧɨɜɆɚɪɢɢɌɟɪɟɡɵȺɜɫɬɪɢɣ
ɫɤɨɣ ɂɫɩɚɧɫɤɨɣ ɞɨɱɟɪɢɎɢɥɢɩɩɚ,9ɢɦɨɥɨɞɨɝɨɅɸɞɨɜɢɤɚ;,9Ɋɨɫɤɨɲɧɵɟ
ɫɜɚɞɟɛɧɵɟɬɨɪɠɟɫɬɜɚɜɤɥɸɱɚɥɢɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɭɧɨɜɨɝɨɬɢɩɚɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɹɧɚɡɜɚɧ
ɧɨɝɨ¿HVWDFDQWDGD²ɦɚɥɨɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɨɝɨɜɆɚɞɪɢɞɟɠɚɧɪɚɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɜɨɬɥɢɱɢɟ
ɨɬɢɫɩɚɧɫɤɢɯɫɚɪɫɭɷɥɢVHPLɨɩɟɪɩɟɥɫɹɨɬɧɚɱɚɥɚɢɞɨɤɨɧɰɚɄɨɧɤɭɪɟɧɰɢɹ
ɞɜɭɯɞɚɜɧɢɯɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɫɨɩɟɪɧɢɤɨɜ²ɂɫɩɚɧɢɢɢɎɪɚɧɰɢɢ²ɜɨɲɥɚɜɧɨ
ɜɭɸɮɚɡɭ²ɯɭɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɭɸɩɨɷɬɨɦɭɫɨɩɪɨɜɨɠɞɚɬɶ©ɫɜɚɞɶɛɭɜɟɤɚªɞɨɥɠ
ɧɵɛɵɥɢɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɫɨɡɞɚɧɧɵɟɢɫɤɥɸɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɢɫɩɚɧɫɤɢɦɢɚɜɬɨɪɚɦɢɌɨ
ɱɬɨɬɚɤɚɹɤɨɧɤɭɪɟɧɰɢɹɢɦɟɥɚɦɟɫɬɨɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɚɟɬɫɹɢɜɬɟɤɫɬɟɜɫɬɭɩɥɟɧɢɹ
ɥɨɚ Ʉɚɥɶɞɟɪɨɧɚɝɞɟɚɜɬɨɪɩɪɹɦɨɭɬɜɟɪɠɞɚɟɬɱɬɨɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɶ©ɞɨɥɠɟɧɛɵɬɶ
ɰɟɥɢɤɨɦɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɧɚɦɭɡɵɤɭɱɬɨɞɥɹɧɚɫ Ʉɚɥɶɞɟɪɨɧɝɨɜɨɪɢɬɨɛɢɫɩɚɧɰɚɯ²
ɂɄ ɧɟɨɛɵɱɧɨɧɨɩɭɫɬɶɞɪɭɝɢɟɧɚɰɢɢɜɢɞɹɬɱɬɨɦɵɦɨɠɟɦɫɨɪɟɜɧɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ
ɫɧɢɦɢɜɨɜɫɟɦɥɭɱɲɟɦª>@ȼɟɫɶɦɚɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɨɱɬɨɬɟɤɫɬɷɬɨɝɨɩɪɨɢɡɜɟ
ɞɟɧɢɹɛɵɥɚɡɚɤɚɡɚɧɢɫɬɢɧɧɵɦɢɬɨɧɤɢɦɰɟɧɢɬɟɥɟɦɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚȽɚɫɩɚɪɨɦɞɟ
ȺɪɨɢȽɭɫɦɚɧɨɦɦɚɪɤɢɡɨɦɞɟɗɥɢɱɟɂɦɟɧɧɨɨɧɩɪɢɜɥɟɤɤɪɚɛɨɬɟɤɨɦɩɨɡɢ
ɬɨɪɚɏɭɚɧɚɂɞɚɥɶɝɨɱɬɨɛɵɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɶɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɭɸɧɨɜɢɧɤɭɥɭɱɲɢɦɢɢɫ
ɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɶɫɤɢɦɢɫɢɥɚɦɢɜɨɞɜɨɪɰɚɯɋɚɪɫɭɷɥɚɢȻɭɷɧɊɟɬɢɪɨɝɞɟɹɧɜɚɪɹ
ɝɨɞɚɢɫɨɫɬɨɹɥɚɫɶɩɪɟɦɶɟɪɚȼɬɟɤɫɬɟɄɚɥɶɞɟɪɨɧɚɛɵɥɚɧɚɦɟɱɟɧɚɨɩɪɟ
ɞɟɥɟɧɧɚɹɫɰɟɧɨɝɪɚɮɢɹɜɨɩɥɨɳɟɧɧɚɹɜɞɟɤɨɪɚɰɢɹɯɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɨɝɨɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶ
ɧɨɝɨɫɰɟɧɨɝɪɚɮɚɢɢɧɠɟɧɟɪɚȺɧɬɨɧɢɨɆɚɪɢɹȺɧɬɨɧɨɰɰɢ©Ɋɹɞɨɦɫɞɢɜɧɵɦ
ɫɚɞɨɦȼɟɧɟɪɵɝɞɟɰɜɟɬɭɬɹɪɤɢɟɰɜɟɬɵɛɶɸɬɮɨɧɬɚɧɵɢɫɥɚɞɨɫɬɧɨɩɨɸɬɧɢɦ
ɮɵɩɪɨɫɬɢɪɚɥɫɹɞɪɟɦɭɱɢɣɥɟɫɪɹɞɨɦɫ³ɦɢɪɧɵɦɢɥɭɝɚɦɢ´ɜɵɫɢɥɫɹɦɪɚɱɧɵɣ
ɝɪɨɬ²ɬɟɦɧɚɹɪɚɫɫɟɥɢɧɚɡɟɦɥɢ³ɩɭɝɚɸɳɚɹɢɩɟɱɚɥɶɧɚɹ´ɫɚɦɚɹ³ɭɠɚɫɚɸɳɚɹ
ɬɸɪɶɦɚɤɨɲɦɚɪɧɵɣɡɚɫɬɟɧɨɤ´«!ɂɡɝɪɨɬɚ«!ɜɵɯɨɞɹɬɱɟɬɵɪɟɨɞɟɬɵɟ

Ⱥɧɬɨɧɨɰɰɢɫɞɟɥɚɥɞɟɤɨɪɚɰɢɣɥɟɫɝɪɨɬɫɚɞɵɝɨɪɵɢɧɟɛɟɫɚ
ɂɫɩɚɧɫɤɚɹɨɩɟɪɚɜɇɨɜɨɦɫɜɟɬɟ 
ɜɱɟɪɧɨɟɫɩɨɤɪɵɬɵɦɢɦɚɫɤɚɦɢɥɢɰɚɦɢɮɢɝɭɪɵ²ɋɬɪɚɯɫɮɚɤɟɥɨɦɉɨɞɨ
ɡɪɟɧɢɟɫɥɭɩɨɣɞɟɪɠɚɳɚɹɡɦɟɸɁɚɜɢɫɬɶɢɫɠɢɦɚɸɳɢɣɜɪɭɤɟɤɢɧɠɚɥȽɧɟɜ
ȼɝɥɭɛɢɧɟɩɟɳɟɪɵɫɦɭɬɧɨɜɢɞɟɧɞɪɹɯɥɵɣɫɬɚɪɟɰɜɡɜɟɪɢɧɵɯɲɤɭɪɚɯɢɜɰɟ
ɩɹɯ²Ɋɚɡɨɱɚɪɨɜɚɧɢɟª>@ȼɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟɢɫɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɟɣɛɵɥɢɩɪɢɝɥɚɲɟɧɵ
ɥɭɱɲɢɟɩɟɜɰɵɢɦɭɡɵɤɚɧɬɵɢɡɄɨɪɨɥɟɜɫɤɨɣɤɚɩɟɥɥɵȼɫɟɩɚɪɬɢɢɜɨɩɟɪɟɡɚ
ɢɫɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟɦɤɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɚɑɚɬɨ ɬɟɧɨɪ ɢɚɥɥɟɝɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɝɟɪɨɹ
Ɋɚɡɨɱɚɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɛɚɪɢɬɨɧ ɢɫɩɨɥɧɹɥɢɠɟɧɳɢɧɵɬɚɤɤɚɤɩɟɧɢɟɤɚɫɬɪɚɬɨɜɜɢɫ
ɩɚɧɫɤɢɯɬɟɚɬɪɚɯɛɵɥɨɡɚɩɪɟɳɟɧɨ>,;@
ɋɩɭɫɬɹɥɟɬɫɨɫɬɨɹɥɚɫɶɧɨɜɚɹɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚ¿HVWDFDQWDGDɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɥɟɧɧɚɹ
ɜɱɟɫɬɶɧɨɜɨɣɤɨɪɨɥɟɜɵɂɫɩɚɧɢɢɆɚɪɢɢɅɭɢɡɵɈɪɥɟɚɧɫɤɨɣȼɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɢ
ɨɩɟɪɚɫɬɚɜɢɥɚɫɶɩɪɢɞɜɨɪɟɟɳɟɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨɪɚɡɧɨɧɢɤɚɤɨɝɨɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɦɚ
ɬɟɪɢɚɥɚɨɬɷɬɢɯɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɨɤɧɟɫɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɨɫɶɆɵɛɵɧɢɤɨɝɞɚɧɟɭɡɧɚɥɢɦɭ
ɡɵɤɭɷɬɨɝɨɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɟɫɥɢɛɵɧɟɢɧɢɰɢɚɬɢɜɚɢɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢɨɞɧɨɝɨɢɡ
ɫɚɦɵɯɩɪɟɞɚɧɧɵɯɩɨɞɞɚɧɧɵɯɢɫɩɚɧɫɤɨɣɤɨɪɨɧɵɞɨɧɚɆɟɥɶɱɨɪɚɉɨɪɬɨɤɚɪɪɟ
ɪɨɢɅɚɫɫɨɞɟɥɚȼɟɝɚɝɪɚɮɚɆɨɧɤɥɨɜɚɩɨɫɜɹɬɢɜɲɟɝɨɜɫɸɫɜɨɸɠɢɡɧɶɫɥɭ
ɠɟɧɢɸɦɨɧɚɪɯɢɢɢɫɩɚɧɫɤɢɯȽɚɛɫɛɭɪɝɨɜɆɨɧɤɥɨɜɚɩɨɥɭɱɢɥɩɨɫɬɜɢɰɟɤɨɪɨɥɹ
ɇɨɜɨɣɂɫɩɚɧɢɢɜɝɨɞɭɚɬɪɢɝɨɞɚɫɩɭɫɬɹ²ɚɧɚɥɨɝɢɱɧɵɣɩɨɫɬɜɫɚɦɨɦ
ɛɨɥɶɲɨɦɜɢɰɟɤɨɪɨɥɟɜɫɬɜɟɇɨɜɨɝɨɋɜɟɬɚ²ɉɟɪɭɈɛɥɚɞɚɹɞɚɥɶɧɨɜɢɞɧɵɦ
ɭɦɨɦɛɨɥɶɲɨɣɜɥɚɫɬɶɸɢɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɵɦɢɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɹɦɢɝɪɚɮɆɨɧɤɥɨɜɚɢɧɢ
ɰɢɢɪɨɜɚɥɧɨɜɭɸɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɭ©ɉɭɪɩɭɪɚɪɨɡɵªɜɅɢɦɟɜɨɞɜɨɪɰɟɜɢɰɟɤɨɪɨɥɹ
>±@ɂɡɟɝɨɱɚɫɬɧɨɣɩɟɪɟɩɢɫɤɢɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɨɱɬɨɧɚɯɨɞɹɫɶɜɡɚɨɤɟɚɧɫɤɢɯ
ɜɥɚɞɟɧɢɹɯɂɫɩɚɧɢɢɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɧɚɡɵɜɚɥ©ɤɨɧɰɨɦɫɜɟɬɚªɨɧɢɫɩɵɬɵɜɚɥɝɥɭɛɨ
ɤɭɸɧɨɫɬɚɥɶɝɢɸɩɨɩɪɢɞɜɨɪɧɨɣɠɢɡɧɢɆɚɞɪɢɞɚ>;@ɢɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɷɬɢɦɨɬ
ɱɚɫɬɢɨɛɴɹɫɧɹɟɬɫɹɟɝɨɫɬɪɚɫɬɧɨɟɠɟɥɚɧɢɟɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɢɬɶɧɨɜɨɟɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟ
ɨɩɟɪɵɧɚɬɟɤɫɬɨɞɧɨɝɨɢɡɫɚɦɵɯɩɨɩɭɥɹɪɧɵɯɜɤɨɥɨɧɢɹɯɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɚɈɞɧɚ
ɤɨɫɥɭɠɚɜɟɪɨɣɢɩɪɚɜɞɨɣɢɫɩɚɧɫɤɢɦȽɚɛɫɛɭɪɝɚɦɫɪɚɠɚɹɫɶɜɧɟɞɚɥɟɤɨɦɩɪɨ
ɲɥɨɦɜɛɢɬɜɚɯɫɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɚɦɢɆɨɧɤɥɨɜɚɩɪɢɭɪɨɱɢɥɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɭɤɩɪɚɡɞɧɨɜɚ
ɧɢɸɞɧɹɪɨɠɞɟɧɢɹɢɝɨɞɨɜɳɢɧɵɜɨɫɲɟɫɬɜɢɹɧɚɩɪɟɫɬɨɥɩɟɪɜɨɝɨɢɫɩɚɧɫɤɨɝɨ
Ȼɭɪɛɨɧɚ²Ɏɢɥɢɩɩɚ9>±@©9LYD)HOLSRYLYDª²ɩɪɨɜɨɡɝɥɚɲɚɟɬ
ɯɨɪɩɨɞɫɨɩɪɨɜɨɠɞɟɧɢɟɬɪɭɛɛɚɪɚɛɚɧɨɜɢɤɚɫɬɚɧɶɟɬɜɧɨɜɨɦɉɪɨɥɨɝɟɄɨɧɟɱ
ɧɨɧɟɬɨɥɶɤɨɧɨɫɬɚɥɶɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢɱɭɜɫɬɜɚɦɢɆɨɧɤɥɨɜɚɨɛɴɹɫɧɹɟɬɫɹɨɛɪɚɳɟɧɢɟ
ɢɦɟɧɧɨɤɷɬɨɦɭɫɨɱɢɧɟɧɢɸȻɵɥɧɟɫɨɦɧɟɧɧɵɣɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɩɨɞɬɟɤɫɬ>±@
²ɜɟɞɶɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚ¿HVWDFDQWDGDɨɞɧɨɝɨɢɡɫɬɨɥɩɨɜɢɫɩɚɧɫɤɨɣɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɢɢ
;9,,ɜɟɤɚɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɥɚɧɟɦɚɥɨɧɚɦɟɤɨɜɧɚɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɟɢɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɪɟɚɥɢɢ
ɜɩɟɪɜɭɸɨɱɟɪɟɞɶɆɨɧɤɥɨɜɚɜɵɪɚɠɚɥɫɜɨɸɩɨɥɧɭɸɥɨɹɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɧɟɩɪɨɫɬɨɧɨ
ɜɨɦɭɤɨɪɨɥɸɚɩɟɪɜɨɦɭȻɭɪɛɨɧɭɧɚɢɫɩɚɧɫɤɨɦɬɪɨɧɟɜɦɟɫɬɟɫɬɟɦɷɬɨɩɪɟɞ
ɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɞɨɥɠɧɨɛɵɥɨɫɬɚɬɶɨɥɢɰɟɬɜɨɪɟɧɢɟɦɧɟɡɵɛɥɟɦɨɝɨɟɞɢɧɫɬɜɚɫɚɦɨɣ
ɢɫɩɚɧɫɤɨɣɦɨɧɚɪɯɢɢɦɟɬɪɨɩɨɥɢɢɢɟɟɡɚɨɤɟɚɧɫɤɢɯɜɥɚɞɟɧɢɣɉɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ
Ʉɚɥɶɞɟɪɨɧɚɩɨɜɟɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɟɨɝɭɛɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɪɟɜɧɨɫɬɢɢɪɚɡɞɨɪɨɜɫɨɞɟɪɠɚ
ɥɨɦɧɨɝɨɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟɩɨɫɥɚɧɢɟɤɤɨɦɭɛɵɨɧɨɧɟɛɵɥɨɨɛɪɚɳɟɧɨɩɪɢɡɵɜɚɹ
ɤɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɸɢɦɢɪɭ>@ȼɟɞɶɢɜɦɚɞɪɢɞɫɤɨɦȻɭɷɧɊɟɬɢɪɨɷɬɚɨɩɟɪɚɫɬɚ
 ɂȺɄɪɹɠɟɜɚ

ɥɚɱɚɫɬɶɸɫɜɚɞɟɛɧɵɯɬɨɪɠɟɫɬɜɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɞɨɥɠɧɵɛɵɥɢɫɜɟɫɬɢɧɚɧɟɬɜɪɚɠɞɭ
ɂɫɩɚɧɢɢɢɎɪɚɧɰɢɢȼɵɛɨɪɆɨɧɤɥɨɜɚɧɟɥɶɡɹɧɚɡɜɚɬɶɫɥɭɱɚɣɧɵɦ
ȼɬɚɤɢɯɭɫɥɨɜɢɯɩɨɹɜɢɥɫɹɥɢɦɫɤɢɣɦɚɧɭɫɤɪɢɩɬ²ɟɞɢɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɚɹɧɚɫɟ
ɝɨɞɧɹɲɧɢɣɞɟɧɶɫɨɯɪɚɧɢɜɲɚɹɫɹɜɟɪɫɢɹɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɬɟɤɫɬɚɨɩɟɪɵɈɞɧɚɤɨ
ɜɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟɚɜɬɨɪɚɦɭɡɵɤɢɡɞɟɫɶɮɢɝɭɪɢɪɭɟɬɫɨɜɫɟɦɞɪɭɝɨɣɢɫɩɚɧɫɤɢɣɤɨɦɩɨ
ɡɢɬɨɪ²ɌɨɦɚɫɌɨɪɪɟɯɨɧɢȼɟɥɚɫɤɨ ± 
ɈɌɨɪɪɟɯɨɧɟɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɨɱɬɨɨɧɪɨɞɢɥɫɹɧɟɞɚɥɟɤɨɨɬɝɨɪɨɞɚȺɥɶɛɚɫɟɬɟɜ
ɝɨɞɭɫɥɭɠɢɥɭɤɚɫɬɢɥɶɫɤɨɝɨɝɪɚɧɞɚɞɨɧɚɉɟɞɪɨȺɧɬɨɧɢɨɎɟɪɧɚɧɞɟɫɚ
ɞɟɄɚɫɬɪɨɢɦɟɜɲɟɝɨɜɥɢɹɧɢɟɩɪɢɞɜɨɪɟɎɢɥɢɩɩɚ,9ɉɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɸɬɱɬɨɜɨɬ
ɪɨɱɟɫɤɢɟɝɨɞɵɨɧɦɨɝɛɪɚɬɶɭɪɨɤɢɦɭɡɵɤɢɭɏɭɚɧɚɂɞɚɥɶɝɨɢɩɨɫɟɳɚɬɶɩɪɢ
ɞɜɨɪɧɵɟɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɟɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢɜɤɥɸɱɚɹɦɚɞɪɢɞɫɤɢɟɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɢ©ɉɭɪɩɭɪɚ
ɪɨɡɵªȼɝɨɞɭɩɨɤɪɨɜɢɬɟɥɶɌɨɪɪɟɯɨɧɚɩɨɥɭɱɢɥɩɨɫɬɜɢɰɟɤɨɪɨɥɹɉɟɪɭ
ɢɦɨɥɨɞɨɣɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɥɡɚɧɢɦɜɇɨɜɵɣɋɜɟɬɫɬɚɜɤɚɩɟɥɶɦɟɣɫɬɟ
ɪɨɦɅɢɦɫɤɨɝɨɫɨɛɨɪɚɋɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɟɦɚɜɬɨɪɢɬɟɬɌɨɪɪɟɯɨɧɚɭɤɪɟɩɢɥɫɹɢɨɧɫɬɚɥ
ɨɞɧɢɦɢɡɫɚɦɵɯɡɧɚɦɟɧɢɬɵɯɢɜɥɢɹɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɦɭɡɵɤɚɧɬɨɜɅɚɬɢɧɫɤɨɣȺɦɟɪɢɤɢ
Ƚɥɚɜɧɨɣɠɚɧɪɨɜɨɣɫɮɟɪɨɣɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɚɛɵɥɚɞɭɯɨɜɧɚɹɦɭɡɵɤɚɱɬɨɤɚɫɚɟɬɫɹ
ɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɣɬɨ©ɉɭɪɩɭɪɪɨɡɵª²ɟɞɢɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɜɫɜɨɟɦɪɨɞɟɩɪɢɦɟɪɄɚɤɨ
ɜɚɛɵɥɚɪɨɥɶɌɨɪɪɟɯɨɧɚɜɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɢɨɩɟɪɵ"ɇɚɷɬɨɬɜɨɩɪɨɫɧɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɞɚɬɶ
ɨɞɧɨɡɧɚɱɧɵɣɨɬɜɟɬɍɱɢɬɵɜɚɹɱɬɨɨɩɟɪɚɫɨɞɟɪɠɢɬɦɧɨɝɨɨɬɫɵɥɨɤɢɰɢɬɚɬɢɡ
ɢɫɩɚɧɫɤɨɣɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɣɦɭɡɵɤɢɚɬɚɤɠɟɢɦɟɟɬɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟɫɬɢɥɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟ
ɫɯɨɞɫɬɜɨɫɨɩɟɪɨɣɏɂɞɚɥɶɝɨ©Ɋɟɜɧɨɫɬɶɢɞɭɧɨɜɟɧɢɟɦɜɟɬɪɚɭɛɢɜɚɟɬªɦɨɠ
ɧɨɫɞɟɥɚɬɶɜɵɜɨɞɱɬɨɛɨɥɶɲɚɹɱɚɫɬɶɦɭɡɵɤɢɨɩɟɪɵɧɟɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɢɬɌɨɪɪɟ
ɯɨɧɭɢȼɟɥɚɫɤɨ>@ȼɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɨɧɛɵɥɚɜɬɨɪɨɦɧɨɜɨɝɨɩɪɨɥɨɝɚɢɫɤɨɦɩɨɧɨ
ɜɚɥɭɠɟɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɵɣɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɣɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥ>@Ɍɚɤɢɥɢɢɧɚɱɟɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɛ
ɚɜɬɨɪɫɬɜɟ©ɉɭɪɩɭɪɚɪɨɡɵªɨɫɬɚɟɬɫɹɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɦȼɨɬɩɨɱɟɦɭɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɨɟɢɡɞɚ
ɧɢɟɨɩɟɪɵɩɨɞɝɨɬɨɜɥɟɧɧɨɟɚɦɟɪɢɤɚɧɫɤɨɣɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɢɰɟɣɅɭɢɡɨɣɋɬɚɣɧ
ɢɦɟɟɬɞɜɭɯɚɜɬɨɪɨɜ²Ɍɨɪɪɟɯɨɧɚɢȼɟɥɚɫɤɨɢɂɞɚɥɶɝɨ>@
Ʌɢɛɪɟɬɬɨɨɫɧɨɜɵɜɚɟɬɫɹɧɚɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɨɦɦɢɮɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɫɸɠɟɬɟɨɥɸɛ
ɜɢȼɟɧɟɪɵ ɭɝɪɟɤɨɜȺɮɪɨɞɢɬɵ ɢȺɞɨɧɢɫɚ ɏɤɧɢɝɚɆɟɬɚɦɨɪɮɨɡɈɜɢɞɢɹ 
ɢɦɟɜɲɟɦɦɧɨɠɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɨɜɢɬɪɚɤɬɨɜɨɤɄɧɟɦɭɨɛɪɚɳɚɥɢɫɶɪɚɡɥɢɱ
ɧɵɟɯɭɞɨɠɧɢɤɢɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɢɢɩɨɷɬɵ;9,±;9,,ɜɟɤɨɜɫɪɟɞɢɧɢɯȼɟɪɨɧɟɡɟ
ɌɢɧɬɨɪɟɬɬɨɌɢɰɢɚɧɊɢɛɟɪɚɒɟɤɫɩɢɪɢɞɪɇɚɩɪɢɦɟɪɧɚɤɚɪɬɢɧɟȼɟɪɨɧɟ
ɡɟɢɡɨɛɪɚɠɟɧɚɥɸɛɨɜɧɚɹɢɞɢɥɥɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɫɰɟɧɚɜɫɚɞɭɌɢɰɢɚɧɡɚɩɟɱɚɬɥɟɥɧɚ
ɩɪɹɠɟɧɧɵɣɦɨɦɟɧɬɤɨɝɞɚȼɟɧɟɪɚɡɧɚɹɨɫɬɪɚɲɧɨɦɩɪɨɪɨɱɟɫɬɜɟɩɵɬɚɟɬɫɹ
ɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɶȺɞɨɧɢɫɚɊɢɛɟɪɚɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɢɪɭɟɬɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚɫɚɦɨɦɞɪɚɦɚɬɢ
ɱɟɫɤɨɦɦɨɦɟɧɬɟɤɨɝɞɚȼɟɧɟɪɚɜɭɠɚɫɟɜɵɛɟɝɚɟɬɤɫɦɟɪɬɟɥɶɧɨɪɚɧɟɧɨɦɭɧɚ
ɨɯɨɬɟȺɞɨɧɢɫɭȼɬɪɚɤɬɨɜɤɟɄɚɥɶɞɟɪɨɧɚɦɢɮɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɟɩɨɜɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɟɨɬ
ɱɚɫɬɢɭɬɪɚɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɜɨɣɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɜɧɟɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɣɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɑɭɜɫɬɜɚɝɟ
ɪɨɟɜɛɨɝɨɜɨɛɪɟɬɚɸɬɠɢɜɭɸɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɭɸɨɤɪɚɫɤɭɚɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟɢɯɜɡɚɢɦɨ
ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɣɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɡɢɪɭɟɬɫɹɂɦɟɧɧɨɧɟɢɫɬɨɜɚɹɥɸɛɨɜɶȼɟɧɟɪɵɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬ
ɤɝɢɛɟɥɢȺɞɨɧɢɫɚɄɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɭɫɢɥɢɜɚɸɬɧɨɜɵɟɝɟɪɨɢɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɸɳɢɟɢɭɝɥɭ
ɂɫɩɚɧɫɤɚɹɨɩɟɪɚɜɇɨɜɨɦɫɜɟɬɟ 
ɛɥɹɸɳɢɟɬɟɦɭɪɟɜɧɨɫɬɢɤɨɬɨɪɨɣɧɟɛɵɥɨɜɦɢɮɟɗɬɨɆɚɪɫɜɥɸɛɥɟɧɧɵɣɜ
ȼɟɧɟɪɭɢɟɝɨɫɟɫɬɪɚɛɨɝɢɧɹɜɨɣɧɵȻɟɥɥɨɧɚɌɚɤɢɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɦɥɸɛɜɢɩɪɨɬɢ
ɜɨɫɬɨɢɬɪɟɜɧɨɫɬɶɚɥɢɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɥɢɧɢɢɝɥɚɜɧɵɯɝɟɪɨɟɜ²ɜɨɢɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɚɹɫɮɟ
ɪɚ>±@ɉɨɦɢɦɨɷɬɨɝɨɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɟɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɨɬɬɟɧɹɟɬɫɹɤɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢ
ɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɚɦɢ²ɤɪɟɫɬɶɹɧɚɦɢɑɚɬɨɢɋɟɥɶɮɨɣɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɩɨɫɜɨɟɦɭɩɚɪɨɞɢ
ɪɭɸɬɜɨɡɜɵɲɟɧɧɵɟɩɟɪɟɠɢɜɚɧɢɹɝɥɚɜɧɵɯɝɟɪɨɟɜȾɚɧɶɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɣɷɫɬɟɬɢ
ɤɟɫɜɨɟɝɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ²ɩɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɟɚɥɥɟɝɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɮɢɝɭɪɋɬɪɚɯɉɨɞɨɡɪɟɧɢɟ
ɁɚɜɢɫɬɶȽɧɟɜɊɚɡɨɱɚɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɈɧɢɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɸɬɜɨɞɧɨɣɢɡɤɥɸɱɟɜɵɯɫɰɟɧɨɩɟ
ɪɵ²ɫɰɟɧɟɜȽɪɨɬɟɪɚɡɨɱɚɪɨɜɚɧɢɹɝɞɟɆɚɪɫɡɚɝɥɹɞɵɜɚɹɜɜɨɥɲɟɛɧɨɟɡɟɪ
ɤɚɥɨɜɢɞɢɬɢɡɦɟɧɭȼɟɧɟɪɵɁɟɪɤɚɥɨɪɚɡɪɭɲɚɟɬɦɢɪɢɥɥɸɡɢɣɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹ
ɱɬɨɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɆɚɪɫɚɜɫɟɝɨɥɢɲɶɢɥɥɸɡɢɹɚɡɟɪɤɚɥɶɧɨɟɨɬɪɚɠɟɧɢɟɫɬɚɧɨ
ɜɢɬɫɹɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɸȼɢɬɨɝɟɪɟɜɧɨɫɬɶɡɚɯɜɚɬɵɜɚɟɬɆɚɪɫɚɢɨɧɪɟɲɚɟɬɫɹɧɚ
ɭɛɢɣɫɬɜɨȺɞɨɧɢɫɚɄɚɤɦɵɜɢɞɢɦɛɚɪɨɱɧɚɹɦɟɬɚɮɨɪɢɱɧɨɫɬɶɢɤɨɧɬɪɚɫɬɵ
ɩɪɨɧɢɡɵɜɚɸɬɬɟɤɫɬɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨɋɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɤɨɧɬɪɚɫɬɧɵɯɫɰɟɧ ɥɸɛɨɜɧɵɯ
ɫɹɜɧɵɦɷɪɨɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɩɨɞɬɟɤɫɬɨɦɤɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɜɨɢɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɫɨɡɞɚɟɬɨɫɨ
ɛɭɸɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɧɭɸɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɭɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹ
ȼɚɠɧɨɣɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɸɬɟɤɫɬɚɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹɦɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɟɩɨɜɬɨɪɵɮɨɪ
ɦɢɪɭɸɳɢɟɫɜɨɸɫɦɵɫɥɨɜɭɸɫɢɦɦɟɬɪɢɸɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪɜɨɡɝɥɚɫ©$\LQIHOLFHª
ɡɜɭɱɚɳɢɣɜɧɚɱɚɥɟɨɩɟɪɵɤɚɤɩɪɟɞɜɨɫɯɢɳɟɧɢɟɬɪɚɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɮɢɧɚɥɚɢɜɤɨɧ
ɰɟɫɪɚɡɭɩɨɫɥɟɫɦɟɪɬɢȺɞɨɧɢɫɚȼɚɠɧɨɟɫɦɵɫɥɨɜɨɟɢɤɨɧɫɬɪɭɤɬɢɜɧɨɟɡɧɚɱɟ
ɧɢɟɢɦɟɸɬɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨɩɨɜɬɨɪɹɸɳɢɟɫɹɯɪɨɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɜɨɡɝɥɚɫɵɜɡɞɨɯɢ©$\GH
PLª Ɉɣɛɟɞɚ ɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɸɳɢɟɜɪɨɥɢɧɟɤɨɟɝɨɬɟɤɫɬɨɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɪɟɮɪɟɧɚ
ɬɚɤɠɟɩɪɟɞɜɨɫɯɢɳɚɸɳɟɝɨɬɪɚɝɢɱɟɫɤɭɸɪɚɡɜɹɡɤɭ
ȿɫɥɢɨɛɪɚɬɢɬɶɫɹɤɚɧɚɥɢɡɭɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɣɫɬɢɥɢɫɬɢɤɢɬɨɦɵɭɜɢɞɢɦɱɬɨ
ɡɞɟɫɶɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨɲɢɪɨɤɨɩɪɢɦɟɧɹɟɬɫɹɪɟɱɢɬɚɬɢɜɧɵɣɫɬɢɥɶɢɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɟɬɫɨ
ɛɥɚɡɧɭɜɢɞɟɬɶɜɷɬɨɦɜɥɢɹɧɢɟɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɨɝɨVWLOHUHFLWDWLYRɫɬɚɜɲɟɝɨɨɞɧɢɦɢɡ
ɝɥɚɜɧɵɯɧɨɜɲɟɫɬɜɢɡɚɜɨɟɜɚɧɢɣɪɚɧɧɟɣɛɚɪɨɱɧɨɣɨɩɟɪɵɈɞɧɚɤɨɤɚɤɫɩɪɚɜɟɞ
ɥɢɜɨɭɬɜɟɪɠɞɚɟɬɅɋɬɚɣɧɢɫɩɚɧɫɤɢɟɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɵɩɨɡɚɢɦɫɬɜɨɜɚɥɢɬɨɥɶɤɨ
ɫɚɦɭɢɞɟɸɪɟɱɢɬɚɬɢɜɚɩɪɢɫɩɨɫɨɛɢɜɟɟɤɢɫɩɚɧɫɤɨɣɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɣ
ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɟɌɢɩɪɟɱɢɬɚɰɢɢɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɜɢɫɩɚɧɫɤɢɯɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɚɯɩɨɥɭɱɢɥɧɚɡɜɚɧɢɟ
UHFLWDGRɨɩɢɪɚɥɫɹɧɚɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɢɢɜɩɟɪɜɭɸɨɱɟɪɟɞɶɧɚɪɚɫɩɟɜ
ɧɭɸɞɟɤɥɚɦɚɰɢɸɤɨɬɨɪɚɹɫɥɨɠɢɥɫɹɜɦɚɞɪɢɞɫɤɨɦɩɪɢɞɜɨɪɧɨɦɬɟɚɬɪɟɈɧɚɨɬ
ɥɢɱɚɟɬɫɹɝɨɪɚɡɞɨɛɨɥɟɟɦɟɥɨɞɢɱɧɵɦɦɹɝɤɢɦɢɞɚɠɟɩɟɫɟɧɧɵɦɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɨɦɜ
ɨɬɥɢɱɢɟɨɬɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɝɨɜɵɪɚɡɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨɪɟɱɢɬɚɬɢɜɚɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɰɟɜ>@Ʉɨɪ
ɧɢɷɬɨɣɫɜɨɟɨɛɪɚɡɧɨɣɢɝɥɭɛɨɤɨɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣɦɚɧɟɪɵɜɨɫɯɨɞɹɬɤɢɫɩɚɧɫɤɨɣ
ɪɨɦɚɧɫɨɜɨɣɥɢɪɢɤɟɚɬɚɤɠɟɬɚɧɰɚɦɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɦɵɦEDLOHVɂɫɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟɪɨɦɚɧ
ɫɨɜɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɰɢɪɤɭɥɢɪɨɜɚɥɢɜ;9,ɜɟɤɟɜɭɫɬɧɨɦɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɟɧɨɢɩɪɢɫɭɬ
ɫɬɜɨɜɚɥɢɜɩɢɫɶɦɟɧɧɵɯɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɚɯɬɚɤɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɦɵɯ&DQFLRQHURɢɦɟɥɨɧɟɤɢɟ
ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɵɟɱɟɪɬɵɤɚɫɚɸɳɢɟɫɹɦɟɥɨɞɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɢɪɢɬɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɪɚɡɜɟɪɬɵɜɚ
ɧɢɹȼɦɟɥɨɞɢɢɱɚɳɟɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɥɨɩɨɫɬɭɩɟɧɧɨɟɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟɫɩɨɜɬɨɪɹɸɳɢɦɢɫɹ
ɡɜɭɤɚɦɢɩɪɢɛɥɢɠɚɹɫɶɬɟɦɫɚɦɵɦɤɪɟɱɢɬɚɰɢɢɌɟɤɫɬɨɛɵɱɧɨɞɟɤɥɚɦɢɪɨɜɚɥ
 ɂȺɄɪɹɠɟɜɚ

ɫɹɜɫɢɥɥɚɛɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɦɚɧɟɪɟɢɞɜɭɞɨɥɶɧɨɦɪɚɡɦɟɪɟɌɚɤɢɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɦɪɨɦɚɧɫɨ
ɜɚɹɥɢɪɢɤɚɢɡɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɨɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɥɚɜɫɟɛɟɩɪɟɞɩɨɫɵɥɤɢɦɚɧɟɪɵUHFLWDGR>@
ɇɚɪɹɞɭɫɷɬɢɦɫɜɨɟɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɦɪɟɱɢɬɚɬɢɜɧɵɦɫɬɢɥɟɦɜɨɩɟɪɟɲɢɪɨɤɨɢɫ
ɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɫɹɩɟɫɟɧɧɵɟɠɚɧɪɵɫɬɪɨɮɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɵ ɤɨɩɥɵɬɨɧɨɬɨɧɚɞɵ 
ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɸɳɢɟɩɨɜɬɨɪɟɧɢɟɤɚɤɨɝɨɥɢɛɨɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɚɫɪɚɡɧɵɦ
ɬɟɤɫɬɨɦɉɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟɨɠɢɜɥɟɧɧɵɯɢɧɟɫɥɨɠɧɵɯɫɬɨɱɤɢɡɪɟɧɢɹɦɟɥɨɞɢɤɢɢ
ɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɣɮɚɤɬɭɪɵɩɟɫɟɧɧɵɯɮɨɪɦɩɨɜɬɨɪɹɸɳɢɯɫɹɫɭɞɢɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣɷɧɟɪ
ɝɢɟɣɢɧɚɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɶɸɤɚɤɧɟɥɶɡɹɥɭɱɲɟɩɟɪɟɞɚɜɚɥɨɥɸɛɨɜɧɭɸɫɬɪɚɫɬɶɝɟ
ɪɨɟɜȿɫɥɢɨɛɪɚɬɢɬɶɫɹɤɪɟɧɟɫɫɚɧɫɧɨɣɷɫɬɟɬɢɤɟɬɨɦɵɭɜɢɞɢɦɱɬɨɩɨɜɬɨɪ
ɧɨɫɬɢɜɦɭɡɵɤɟɭɞɟɥɹɥɨɫɨɛɨɟɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɅɟɨɧɚɪɞɨ©Ɇɭɡɵɤɚɜɦɧɨɝɨɤɪɚɬɧɨɦ
ɡɜɭɱɚɧɢɢ²ɩɢɫɚɥɨɧ²ɧɟɧɚɫɤɭɱɢɜɚɟɬɬɟɛɟ²ɧɚɨɛɨɪɨɬɨɱɚɪɨɜɵɜɚɟɬɬɟɛɹ
ɢɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɩɪɢɱɢɧɨɣɬɨɝɨɱɬɨɜɫɟɱɭɜɫɬɜɚɜɦɟɫɬɟɫɝɥɚɡɨɦɯɨɬɟɥɢɛɵɨɛɥɚ
ɞɚɬɶɟɸ«ª>@ȼɟɝɨɪɚɫɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɹɯɬɨɥɶɤɨɱɟɪɟɡɩɨɜɬɨɪɹɟɦɨɫɬɶɦɭɡɵɤɚ
ɜɨɩɥɨɳɚɸɳɚɹɝɚɪɦɨɧɢɸɦɨɠɟɬɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɫɬɨɹɬɶɪɚɡɪɭɲɟɧɢɸɜɪɟɦɟɧɟɦɗɬɨ
ɭɛɟɞɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟɷɫɬɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟɨɛɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɢɟɩɨɜɬɨɪɧɨɫɬɢɜɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɯɜɢɞɚɯ
ɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚɧɚɲɥɨɫɜɨɟɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟɜɛɚɪɨɱɧɨɣɨɩɟɪɟȼɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟɩɪɢɦɟɪɚɦɨɠɧɨ
ɩɪɢɜɟɫɬɢɫɰɟɧɭɤɨɝɞɚȼɟɧɟɪɚɡɚɜɥɟɤɚɟɬȺɞɨɧɢɫɚɢɩɨɟɬɬɪɢɤɭɩɥɟɬɧɵɟɩɟɫ
ɧɢɝɞɟɤɚɠɞɨɟɩɨɜɬɨɪɟɧɢɟɩɪɢɜɧɨɫɢɬɫɜɨɢɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟɚɤɰɟɧɬɵɭɫɢɥɢ
ɜɚɹɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɟ
ɉɨɜɬɨɪɧɨɫɬɶɜɵɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɢɜɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɰɢɢɫɰɟɧɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɱɚɳɟɫɬɪɨɹɬɫɹɧɚ
ɨɫɧɨɜɟɪɟɮɪɟɧɧɨɝɨɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɚɩɪɢɜɧɨɫɹɳɟɝɨɫɨɪɚɡɦɟɪɧɨɫɬɶɩɪɨɩɨɪɰɢɨɧɚɥɶ
ɧɨɫɬɶɫɢɦɦɟɬɪɢɸɫɬɨɥɶɜɚɠɧɵɟɜɛɚɪɨɱɧɨɣɷɫɬɟɬɢɤɟɌɚɤɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɵɩɪɨ
ɥɨɝɥɨɚɜɫɬɪɟɱɚȺɞɨɧɢɫɚɢȼɟɧɟɪɵɫɰɟɧɚɆɚɪɫɚɢȻɟɥɨɧɵɢɞɪ
ȼɡɚɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɢɯɨɬɟɥɨɫɶɛɵɚɤɰɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɬɶɫɜɨɟɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɣɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɨɩɟ
ɪɵ©ɉɭɪɩɭɪɪɨɡɵªɤɨɬɨɪɚɹɧɟɫɟɬɜɫɟɛɟɱɟɪɬɵɛɚɪɨɱɧɨɣɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɣɞɪɚɦɵ
ɢɩɪɢɷɬɨɦɨɩɢɪɚɟɬɫɹɧɚɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɟɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɢ
Ʌา฼ฯฺส฼฽ฺส
 ɅɟɨɧɚɪɞɨɞɚȼɢɧɱɢɂɡɛɪɚɧɧɵɟɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɜɞɜɭɯɬɨɦɚɯɌɨɦ,,ɩɟɪɢɫɬɚɬɶɢ
ȺȺȽɭɛɟɪɚȼɉɁɭɛɨɜɚȼɄɒɢɥɟɣɤɨȺɆɗɮɪɨɫɚɆȻɟɪɥɢɧȾɢɪɟɤɬɆɟɞɢɚ

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ɐɟɧɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɣȺɦɟɪɢɤɟ ɬɟɪɪɢɬɨɪɢɢɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɯɆɟɤɫɢɤɢɢȽɜɚɬɟɦɚɥɵ ɢɧɤɨɜ
ɜɘɠɧɨɣȺɦɟɪɢɤɟ ɉɟɪɭ >@Ⱦɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɟɦɟɫɬɨɜɤɭɥɶɬɭ
ɪɟɢɧɞɟɣɰɟɜɡɚɧɢɦɚɥɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɣɬɟɚɬɪɩɪɟɠɞɟɜɫɟɝɨɬɚɧɰɟɜɚɥɶɧɵɟɞɪɚɦɵ
ɫɦɭɡɵɤɨɣɫɸɠɟɬɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɚɢɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɢɹɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɥɢɫɶɤɚɧɨɧɚɦɢ
ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɨɝɨɷɩɨɫɚɜɫɜɨɸɨɱɟɪɟɞɶɨɩɢɪɚɜɲɟɝɨɫɹɧɚɦɢɮɨɩɨɷɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɢ
ɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɨɫɧɨɜɵɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵɪɨɞɨɜɨɝɨɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɚɌɚɧɰɟɜɚɥɶɧɨɟɞɟɣɫɬɜɨɫɨ
ɩɪɨɜɨɠɞɚɥɨɫɶɩɨɷɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɩɨɜɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɟɦɤɚɠɞɵɣɚɤɬɟɪɢɝɪɚɥɬɨɥɶɤɨɨɞɧɭ
ɪɨɥɶɞɥɹɤɨɬɨɪɨɣɨɧɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɥɞɟɪɟɜɹɧɧɭɸɦɚɫɤɭ>@ɋɨɜɬɨɪɨɣɩɨɥɨɜɢ
ɧɵ;9,,ɜɟɤɚɩɨɥɟɦɞɥɹɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɯɢɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɯɬɪɚɞɢ
ɰɢɣɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɯɢɬɚɧɰɟɜɚɥɶɧɵɯɠɚɧɪɨɜɜɇɨɜɨɣɂɫɩɚɧɢɢɫɬɚɥɚɫɚɪɫɭɷɥɚ
ɩɨɹɜɢɥɢɫɶɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɟɮɨɪɦɵɫɢɧɬɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɯɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɟɣɝɞɟɬɟɦɚ
ɞɢɚɥɨɝɚɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɋɬɚɪɨɝɨɢɇɨɜɨɝɨɋɜɟɬɚɧɚɲɥɚɫɜɨɟɨɬɪɚɠɟɧɢɟ²ɬɚɤɩɨɹɜɢ
ɥɢɫɶɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ©Ʉɨɧɤɢɫɬɚª©Ɇɚɜɪɵɢɯɪɢɫɬɢɚɧɟª©Ɍɨɪɢɬɨɫªɭɦɚɣɹ>
@ɋɸɠɟɬɨɆɨɧɬɟɫɭɦɟɢɄɨɪɬɟɫɟɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɟɬɫɹɢɜɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɩɨɷɬɢɱɟ
ɫɤɨɦɠɚɧɪɟɬɨɤɨɬɢɧɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɟɦɫɨɛɨɣɫɨɟɞɢɧɟɧɢɟɦɟɥɨɞɢɣɤɚɬɨɥɢɱɟ
ɫɤɢɯɪɨɠɞɟɫɬɜɟɧɫɤɢɯɩɟɫɟɧɜɢɥɶɹɧɫɢɤɨɢɢɧɞɟɣɫɤɨɝɨɪɢɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɬɚɧɰɚɦɢ

ɌɚɤɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪɤɨɪɨɥɶɉɪɭɫɫɢɢɎɪɢɞɪɢɯ,,ɭɱɚɫɬɜɨɜɚɥɜɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɢɬɟɤɫɬɚɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨɞɥɹɨɩɟ
ɪɵ©ɆɨɧɬɟɫɭɦɚªɄȽȽɪɚɭɧɚ>@
ɈɩɟɪɵɨɛɚɦɟɪɢɤɚɧɫɤɢɯɢɧɞɟɣɰɚɯȺȼɢɜɚɥɶɞɢɢȽɉɺɪɫɟɥɥɚ 
ɬɨɬɟɉɪɢɦɟɪɵɬɨɤɨɬɢɧɨɜɨɆɨɧɬɟɫɭɦɟɢɄɨɪɬɟɫɟɩɪɢɜɨɞɹɬɫɹɜɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹɯ
ɦɟɤɫɢɤɚɧɫɤɢɯɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɨɜɢɮɨɥɶɤɥɨɪɢɫɬɨɜɎȾɨɦɢɧɝɟɫɚɢɅɋɚɧɞɢ>
±@ȼɩɟɪɢɨɞɤɨɥɨɧɢɡɚɰɢɢɩɟɪɟɫɟɱɟɧɢɟɢɫɩɚɧɫɤɢɯɢɢɧɞɟɣɫɤɢɯɬɪɚɞɢ
ɰɢɣɩɪɨɹɜɢɥɫɹɢɜɫɮɟɪɟɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɨɣɢɧɞɟɣɫɤɨɣɬɚɧɰɟɜɚɥɶɧɨɣɞɪɚɦɵɜɫɨ
ɩɪɨɜɨɠɞɟɧɢɢɤɨɬɨɪɨɣɤɚɤɩɪɚɜɢɥɨɭɱɚɫɬɜɨɜɚɥɢɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɟɚɧɫɚɦɛɥɢ
ɜɫɨɫɬɚɜɟɢɫɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɟɣɧɟɬɨɥɶɤɨɧɚɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɨɦɢɞɢɨɮɨɧɟ ɳɟɥɟɜɨɣɛɚɪɚ
ɛɚɧɬɭɧɢɧɞɟɣɰɟɜɦɚɣɹ ɢɚɷɪɨɮɨɧɟ ɮɥɟɣɬɚ ɧɨɢɧɚɚɷɪɨɮɨɧɚɯɢɫɩɚɧɫɤɨɝɨ
ɮɥɟɣɬɚɹɡɵɱɤɨɜɵɣɱɢɪɢɦɢɚɬɪɭɛɚ ɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ>@
ȼɤɚɤɨɣɫɬɟɩɟɧɢɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɰɚɦ;9,,±;9,,,ɜɟɤɨɜɛɵɥɢɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɵɢɧɞɟɣ
ɫɤɢɟɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɟɢɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɟɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɢ"ȼɝɨɞɭɜɋɟɜɢɥɶɟɜɵɲɥɨɜ
ɫɜɟɬ©Ʉɪɚɬɱɚɣɲɟɟɫɨɨɛɳɟɧɢɟɨɪɚɡɨɪɟɧɢɢɂɧɞɢɣªɧɚɩɢɫɚɧɧɨɟɞɟɫɹɬɢɥɟɬɢɟɦ
ɪɚɧɶɲɟɞɥɹɛɭɞɭɳɟɝɨɤɨɪɨɥɹɎɢɥɢɩɩɚ,,ɦɢɫɫɢɨɧɟɪɨɦɞɨɦɢɧɢɤɚɧɰɟɦȻɚɪɬɨ
ɥɨɦɟɞɟɅɚɫɄɚɫɚɫɨɦ ± >@Ɉɧɬɚɤɠɟɧɚɩɢɫɚɥɦɧɨɝɨɬɨɦɧɭɸ©ɂɫɬɨ
ɪɢɸɂɧɞɢɣªɤɨɬɨɪɚɹɛɵɥɚɢɡɞɚɧɚɬɨɥɶɤɨɜɝɨɞɭɯɨɬɹɪɭɤɨɩɢɫɶɤɧɢɝɢ
ɜɚɪɯɢɜɟɛɵɥɚɞɨɫɬɭɩɧɚɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɦɢɫɬɨɪɢɤɚɦɢɯɪɨɧɢɫɬɚɦɟɳɟɩɪɢɠɢɡɧɢ
ɦɢɫɫɢɨɧɟɪɚȼɝɨɞɭɭɜɢɞɟɥɚɫɜɟɬ©ɉɪɚɜɞɢɜɚɹɢɫɬɨɪɢɹɡɚɜɨɟɜɚɧɢɹɇɨɜɨɣ
ɂɫɩɚɧɢɢªɤɨɧɤɢɫɬɚɞɨɪɚ ɫɨɥɞɚɬɚ ȻɟɪɧɚɥɹȾɢɚɫɚɞɟɥɶɄɚɫɬɢɥɶɨ ± 
ɧɚɩɢɫɚɧɧɚɹɜ±ɟɝɨɞɵɈɩɢɫɚɧɢɹɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɯɫɨɛɵɬɢɣɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨ
ɝɨɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚɪɢɹɜɤɧɢɝɟɫɤɭɞɧɵɚɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟɤɧɢɦɥɢɲɟɧɨɜɨɫɬɨɪɠɟɧɧɨ
ɫɬɢɢɩɢɟɬɟɬɚɧɚɩɪɨɬɢɜɚɜɬɨɪɱɚɫɬɨɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɹɟɬɫɨɜɫɟɦɧɟɥɟɫɬɧɵɟɚɝɪɭɛɵɟ
ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɢɹɜɚɞɪɟɫɦɭɡɵɤɢɢɫɩɨɥɧɹɜɲɟɣɫɹɜɨɜɪɟɦɹɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɢɹɹɡɵɱɟɫɤɢɯ
ɨɛɪɹɞɨɜɫɠɟɪɬɜɨɩɪɢɧɨɲɟɧɢɹɦɢɢɛɨɥɟɟɬɨɝɨɧɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɵ ɬɪɭɛɵ 
©ɞɶɹɜɨɥɶɫɤɢɦɢª>@ɂɦɟɧɧɨɟɝɨɦɧɟɧɢɟɧɚɞɨɥɝɨɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɢɥɨɧɟɝɚɬɢɜɧɨɟ
ɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟɤɢɧɞɟɣɫɤɢɦɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɹɦɫɨɫɬɨɪɨɧɵɩɪɨɫɜɟɳɟɧɧɵɯɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɰɟɜ
ɉɟɪɜɵɦɢɨɩɟɪɚɦɢɧɚɫɸɠɟɬɵɡɚɜɨɟɜɚɧɢɹȺɦɟɪɢɤɢɫɬɚɥɢ©Ʉɨɪɨɥɟɜɚɢɧ
ɞɟɣɰɟɜª ©7KH,QGLDQ4XHHQª Ƚɟɧɪɢɉɟɪɫɟɥɥɚ ± ɢ©Ɇɨɬɟɫɭ
ɦɚª ©0RWH]XPDª Ⱥɧɬɨɧɢɨȼɢɜɚɥɶɞɢ ± 
ȾɠɨɧȾɪɚɣɞɟɧɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɢɫɬɉɺɪɫɟɥɥɚɩɨɭɬɜɟɪɠɞɟɧɢɸȾɆɚɤɆɢɥɥɚɧɚ
ɦɨɝɡɧɚɬɶɬɨɥɶɤɨɬɪɭɞɵɅɨɩɟɫɚɞɟȽɨɦɚɪɚ ± ɫɜɹɳɟɧɧɢɤɚɞɭɯɨɜ
ɧɢɤɚɎɟɪɧɚɧɞɨɞɟɄɨɪɬɟɫɚɢɫɬɨɪɢɤɚɚɜɬɨɪɚ©ȼɫɟɨɛɳɟɣɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɂɧɞɢɣªɢ
©ɂɫɬɨɪɢɢɡɚɜɨɟɜɚɧɢɹɆɟɤɫɢɤɢªɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɜɫɜɨɸɨɱɟɪɟɞɶɛɵɥɢɯɨɪɨɲɨɢɡ
ɜɟɫɬɧɵȻɟɪɧɚɥɸȾɢɚɫɭɞɟɥɶɄɚɫɬɢɥɶɨ>@ɋɞɪɭɝɨɣɫɬɨɪɨɧɵȾɪɚɣ
ɞɟɧɧɚɩɢɫɚɜɲɢɣɧɟɬɨɥɶɤɨɩɶɟɫɭ©Ʉɨɪɨɥɟɜɚɢɧɞɟɣɰɟɜªɧɨɢɡɚɬɟɦɧɚɟɟɨɫ
ɧɨɜɟ©ɂɧɞɟɣɫɤɨɝɨɢɦɩɟɪɚɬɨɪɚªɭɠɟɜɩɟɪɜɨɦɫɸɠɟɬɟɫɨɟɞɢɧɢɥɞɜɟɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ
²ɨɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɢɰɟɢɧɤɨɜɢɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɟɚɰɬɟɤɨɜɂɬɟɦɫɚɦɵɦɨɬɞɚɥɞɚɧɶɧɟ
ɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɩɪɚɜɞɟɚɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɢɞɟɟɡɚɜɨɟɜɚɧɢɹɢɧɞɟɣɫɤɨɣɰɢɜɢɥɢɡɚ
ɰɢɢɩɨɤɨɪɟɧɢɹɢɫɩɚɧɰɚɦɢɢɧɞɟɣɫɤɢɯɜɨɠɞɟɣ>±@ȼɩɪɟɞɢɫɥɨɜɢɢ
ɤɩɶɟɫɟ©ɂɧɞɟɣɫɤɢɣɢɦɩɟɪɚɬɨɪªɨɧɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɥɱɬɨɧɟɦɨɝɧɢɫɬɪɨɝɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɶ
ɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɩɪɚɜɞɟɧɢɩɨɥɧɨɫɬɶɸɨɬɤɚɡɚɬɶɫɹɨɬɧɟɟɅɭɢɞɠɢȾɠɭɫɬɢɚɜ

ȼɷɬɨɦɨɧɭɩɨɞɨɛɥɹɥɫɹɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɦɭɩɨɷɬɭȾɚɜɟɧɚɧɬɭ ± ɧɚɩɢɫɚɜɲɟɦɭɩɶɟɫɭ©ɀɟ
ɫɬɨɤɨɫɬɶɢɫɩɚɧɰɟɜɜɉɟɪɭªɤɨɬɨɪɚɹɤɚɤɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɦɚɫɤɚɫɦɭɡɵɤɨɣɆɷɬɬɶɸɅɨɤɤɚ ±
 ȺɋȺɥɩɚɬɨɜɚȼɂɅɢɫɨɜɨɣ

ɬɨɪɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨɜɢɜɚɥɶɞɢɟɜɫɤɨɣɨɩɟɪɵɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɥɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɧɨɦɭɜɟɝɨɜɪɟ
ɦɹɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɸɚɰɬɟɤɫɤɨɣɰɢɜɢɥɢɡɚɰɢɢɫɜɟɧɟɰɢɚɧɫɤɨɣɪɟɫɩɭɛɥɢɤɨɣɚɬɚɤɠɟ
ɬɪɚɤɬɨɜɤɟɢɯɫɬɨɥɢɰ²Ɍɟɧɨɱɬɢɬɥɚɧɚɢȼɟɧɟɰɢɢ²ɤɚɤɢɦɟɸɳɢɯɜɧɟɲɧɟɟ
ɜɢɡɭɚɥɶɧɨɟɫɯɨɞɫɬɜɨɞɚɠɟɜɝɨɪɨɞɫɤɨɣɩɥɚɧɢɪɨɜɤɟ>±@
ɂɫɬɨɪɢɹɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɹ©Ʉɨɪɨɥɟɜɵɢɧɞɟɣɰɟɜªɉɺɪɫɟɥɥɚɜɟɫɶɦɚɫɤɭɩɚɧɚɮɚɤ
ɬɵɗɬɨɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɟɫɱɢɬɚɸɬɜɵɫɲɢɦɞɨɫɬɢɠɟɧɢɟɦɡɪɟɥɨɝɨɦɚɫɬɟɪɚȾɠɍɷ
ɫɬɪɟɩɨɬɦɟɱɚɟɬɱɬɨɯɨɬɹɦɭɡɵɤɚɡɚɧɢɦɚɟɬɜɧɟɦ©ɝɨɪɚɡɞɨɦɟɧɶɲɟɟɦɟɫɬɨɱɟɦ
ɜ©ɄɨɪɨɥɟȺɪɬɭɪɟªɢ©Ʉɨɪɨɥɟɜɟɮɟɣªɧɨɡɞɟɫɶɨɧɚɟɳɟɛɨɥɟɟɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɚª>
@ɂɦɟɧɧɨɜ©Ʉɨɪɨɥɟɜɟɢɧɞɟɣɰɟɜªɨɤɨɧɱɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ
ɫɬɢɥɶɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɚɪɚɧɟɟɭɫɟɪɞɧɨɢɡɭɱɚɜɲɟɝɨɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɭɸɦɭɡɵɤɭɯɨɬɹɜɧɟɣ
ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɢɜɚɸɬɜɥɢɹɧɢɟɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɨɣɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɣɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɢ>@
ɋɩɟɰɢɮɢɤɚɠɚɧɪɚɫɟɦɢɨɩɟɪɵ ɩɶɟɫɵɫɦɭɡɵɤɨɣɬɚɧɰɟɦɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɢɝɪɨɣ ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɬɶɟɟɤɚɤɫɜɨɟɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɣ©ɦɨɫɬªɦɟɠɞɭɬɪɚɞɢɰɢ
ɨɧɧɨɣɢɧɞɟɣɫɤɨɣɢɤɥɚɫɫɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɡɚɩɚɞɧɨɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɣɦɭɡɵɤɨɣɋɸɠɟɬ©Ʉɨ
ɪɨɥɟɜɵɢɧɞɟɣɰɟɜªɧɟɢɦɟɟɬɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹɤɪɟɚɥɶɧɵɦɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɫɨɛɵɬɢɹɦ
ɧɨɫɜɹɡɚɧɫɛɨɪɶɛɨɣɚɰɬɟɤɨɜɢɢɧɤɨɜȼɷɤɫɩɨɡɢɰɢɢɩɨɜɟɫɬɜɭɟɬɫɹɨɧɟɝɚɬɢɜ
ɧɨɦɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢɢɧɞɟɣɰɟɜɤɜɨɣɧɟɢɨɛɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɹɯɜɧɭɬɪɢɥɸɛɨɜɧɨɝɨɬɪɟɭ
ɝɨɥɶɧɢɤɚ ɆɨɧɬɟɫɭɦɚɫɵɧɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɢɰɵɢɧɤɨɜȺɤɚɰɢɫɢɞɨɱɶȼɟɪɯɨɜɧɨɝɨ
ɂɧɤɢɈɪɚɰɢɹ Ɂɚɜɹɡɤɚɩɪɢɯɨɞɢɬɫɹɧɚɷɩɢɡɨɞɤɥɹɬɜɵɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɢɰɵɐɟɦɩɨ
ɚɥɵɨɦɟɫɬɢɫɜɨɢɦɜɪɚɝɚɦɊɚɡɜɢɬɢɟɩɨɤɚɡɚɧɨɜɷɩɢɡɨɞɚɯɡɚɯɜɚɬɚɆɨɧɬɟɫɭɦɨɣ
ɜɩɥɟɧȼɟɪɯɨɜɧɨɝɨɂɧɤɢɢɈɪɚɰɢɢɨɫɜɨɛɨɠɞɟɧɢɹɢɯɝɟɧɟɪɚɥɨɦɌɪɚɤɫɚɥɥɨɣ
ɛɨɪɶɛɵɫɨɩɟɪɧɢɤɨɜɆɨɧɬɟɫɭɦɵɢȺɤɚɰɢɫɚɩɥɟɧɟɧɢɹɢɡɚɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɹɜɬɸɪɶɦɭ
ȼɟɪɯɨɜɧɨɝɨɂɧɤɢɈɪɚɰɢɢɢɆɨɧɬɟɫɭɦɵɩɨɩɵɬɨɤȺɤɚɰɢɫɚɜɵɡɜɨɥɢɬɶɫɨɩɟɪ
ɧɢɤɚɢɜɨɡɥɸɛɥɟɧɧɭɸɛɨɹɫɨɩɟɪɧɢɤɨɜɄɭɥɶɦɢɧɚɰɢɟɣɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹɫɰɟɧɚɩɨɞ
ɝɨɬɨɜɤɢɤɠɟɪɬɜɨɩɪɢɧɨɲɟɧɢɸɫɦɟɪɬɶɪɚɧɟɧɵɯɆɨɧɬɟɫɭɦɨɣȺɤɚɰɢɫɚɢɌɪɚɤ
ɫɚɥɥɵɊɚɡɜɹɡɤɚɧɚɱɢɧɚɟɬɫɹɫɩɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɹɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɣɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɢɰɵɢɧɞɟɣɰɟɜ
ȺɦɟɤɫɢɢɤɨɬɨɪɚɹɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹɦɚɬɟɪɶɸɆɨɧɬɟɫɭɦɵɢɡɡɚɱɟɝɨɦɧɢɦɚɹɩɪɚ
ɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɢɰɚɐɟɦɩɨɚɥɚɤɨɧɱɚɟɬɠɢɡɧɶɫɚɦɨɭɛɢɣɫɬɜɨɦɚȼɟɪɯɨɜɧɵɣɂɧɤɚɪɚɡ
ɪɟɲɚɟɬɫɜɨɟɣɞɨɱɟɪɢɜɵɣɬɢɡɚɦɭɠɡɚɆɨɧɬɟɫɭɦɭ
ȼɦɭɡɵɤɟɉɺɪɫɟɥɥɚɧɚɪɹɞɭɫɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɦɢɞɥɹɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɣɨɩɟɪɵ
ɤɨɧɰɚ;9,,ɜɟɤɚɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɦɢɢɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɹɡɵɤɨɜɵɦɢɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚɦɢ
ɦɨɠɧɨɜɵɞɟɥɢɬɶɨɪɢɝɢɧɚɥɶɧɵɟɫɜɨɟɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɟɪɟɲɟɧɢɹȼɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟɚɧɬɪɚɤɬɨɜ
ɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɨɦɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɫɹɩɶɟɫɵɞɥɹɚɷɪɨɮɨɧɨɜ ɦɟɞɧɵɯɬɪɭɛ ©ɯɨɪɧɩɚɣɩª
ɉɨɪɚɡɢɬɟɥɟɧɮɚɤɬɚɧɚɥɨɝɢɱɧɨɝɨ ɜɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟɪɢɬɭɪɧɟɥɟɣɦɟɠɞɭɞɢɚɥɨɝɚɦɢɝɟ
ɪɨɟɜ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹɡɜɭɱɚɧɢɹɚɧɫɚɦɛɥɹɜɫɨɫɬɚɜɟɞɭɷɬɚɦɟɞɧɵɯɬɪɭɛɢɫɩɚɧ
ɫɤɨɝɨɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɹɢɢɧɞɟɣɫɤɨɝɨɳɟɥɟɜɨɝɨɛɚɪɚɛɚɧɚɜɬɚɧɰɟɜɚɥɶɧɨɣɞɪɚɦɟ
 ɛɵɥɚɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɚɜɥɨɧɞɨɧɫɤɨɦɬɟɚɬɪɟ©Ʉɨɤɩɢɬªɢɥɢ©Ɏɟɧɢɤɫªɜɝɨɞɭ>±@

ȼɬɨɠɟɜɪɟɦɹɜɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɯɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɰɢɹɯɟɟɧɚɡɵɜɚɸɬɨɩɟɪɨɣɤɨɬɨɪɨɣɧɟɛɵɥɨ>@ɬɚɤɤɚɤ
ɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɧɟɨɤɨɧɱɢɥɪɚɛɨɬɭɧɚɞɧɟɸɢɡɚɜɟɪɲɢɥɨɩɟɪɭɟɝɨɛɪɚɬȾɚɧɢɷɥɶɉɺɪɫɟɥɥɞɨɩɢɫɚɜ
ɲɢɣɦɭɡɵɤɭɤɮɢɧɚɥɶɧɨɣɫɰɟɧɟ²ɦɚɫɤɟȽɢɦɟɧɟɹɉɪɢɱɢɧɵɷɬɨɝɨɧɟɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɵɧɨɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ
ɉɺɪɫɟɥɥɧɟɧɚɩɢɫɚɥɮɢɧɚɥɶɧɭɸɦɚɫɤɭɢɡɫɨɥɢɞɚɪɧɨɫɬɢɫȾɪɚɣɞɟɧɨɦɭɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨɷɬɨɣɫɰɟɧɵ
ɧɟɛɵɥɨɢɜɬɨɠɟɜɪɟɦɹɪɟɲɢɥɩɨɦɨɱɶɛɪɚɬɭɜɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɢɟɝɨɛɭɞɭɳɟɣɤɚɪɶɟɪɵ>@
ɈɩɟɪɵɨɛɚɦɟɪɢɤɚɧɫɤɢɯɢɧɞɟɣɰɚɯȺȼɢɜɚɥɶɞɢɢȽɉɺɪɫɟɥɥɚ 
ɢɧɞɟɣɰɟɜɦɚɣɹ©ɊɚɛɢɧɚɥɶȺɱɢª>±@Ɍɢɩɢɱɧɨɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɣɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜ
ɥɹɟɬɫɹɫɰɟɧɚɫɞɭɯɚɦɢ²ɩɨɞɨɛɧɵɟɟɫɬɶɜɨɩɟɪɚɯɉɺɪɫɟɥɥɚ©Ⱦɢɞɨɧɚɢɗɧɟɣª
©Ʉɨɪɨɥɟɜɚɮɟɣª©ɄɨɪɨɥɶȺɪɬɭɪªɈɛɪɚɡɵɩɨɬɭɫɬɨɪɨɧɧɟɝɨɦɢɪɚɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɵ
ɢɞɥɹɢɧɞɟɣɫɤɢɯɬɚɧɰɟɜɚɥɶɧɵɯɞɪɚɦɌɚɤɢɟɩɚɪɚɥɥɟɥɢɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɚɧɝɥɢɣ
ɫɤɢɯɢɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɵɯɢɧɞɟɣɫɤɢɯɷɥɟɦɟɧɬɨɜɜɪɹɞɥɢɛɵɥɢɨɫɨɡɧɚɧɧɵɦɢɨɞɧɚ
ɤɨɨɧɢɜɟɫɶɦɚɩɪɢɦɟɱɚɬɟɥɶɧɵ
ȼɨɬɥɢɱɢɟɨɬɫɟɦɢɨɩɟɪɵɉɺɪɫɟɥɥɚ©Ɇɨɬɟɫɭɦɚªȼɢɜɚɥɶɞɢɛɵɥɚɧɚɩɢ
ɫɚɧɚɜɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɹɯɠɚɧɪɚGUDPPDSHUPXVLFDȼɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɹɯɷɬɨɝɨɠɚɧɪɚɨɛɪɚ
ɡɵɝɟɪɨɟɜɢɧɞɟɣɰɟɜɧɟɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɸɬɫɹɢɧɚɯɨɞɹɬɫɹɜɫɬɚɬɢɱɧɨɦɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɢɡɚ
ɜɟɪɲɚɟɬɫɹɨɩɟɪɚɫɱɚɫɬɥɢɜɵɦɤɨɧɰɨɦɭɜɨɞɹɳɢɦɨɬɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ
ɋɨɡɞɚɧɢɟɨɩɟɪɵ©Ɇɨɬɟɫɭɦɚªȼɢɜɚɥɶɞɢɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɫɹɤɩɨɡɞɧɟɦɭɩɟɪɢɨɞɭɬɜɨɪ
ɱɟɫɬɜɚɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɚ>@ȼɝɨɞɭȼɢɜɚɥɶɞɢɩɨɫɟɬɢɥȼɟɧɭɢɉɪɚɝɭȼ
ɤɨɥɥɟɤɰɢɢɷɪɰɝɟɪɰɨɝɚɎɟɪɞɢɧɚɧɞɚɜɡɚɦɤɟȺɦɛɪɚɫɧɚɯɨɞɹɳɟɦɫɹɧɟɞɚɥɟɤɨɨɬ
ɂɧɫɛɪɭɤɚɫɝɨɞɚɧɚɯɨɞɢɥɚɫɶɩɨɞɥɢɧɧɚɹɤɨɪɨɧɚɆɨɧɬɟɫɭɦɵɫɞɟɥɚɧɧɚɹ
ɢɡɩɟɪɶɟɜɩɬɢɰɤɟɰɚɥɹɢɮɥɚɦɢɧɝɨȼ;,;ɜɟɤɟɨɧɚɛɵɥɚɩɟɪɟɞɚɧɚɜȼɟɧɫɤɢɣ
ɷɬɧɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɦɭɡɟɣɜɤɨɬɨɪɨɦɯɪɚɧɢɬɫɹɢɞɨɫɢɯɩɨɪ ɜɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟɜɪɟɦɹ
ɷɬɨȼɫɟɦɢɪɧɵɣɦɭɡɟɣ >@ȼɧɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɫɬɢɨɬɬɨɝɨɜɢɞɟɥɥɢɷɬɨɬɷɤɫɩɨɧɚɬ
ɜɨɜɪɟɦɹɫɜɨɟɣɩɨɟɡɞɤɢȼɢɜɚɥɶɞɢɢɥɢɧɟɬɫɚɦɮɚɤɬɟɟɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɬɟɧɢɹɷɪɰɝɟɪ
ɰɨɝɨɦɢɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɹɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɣɨɧɟɣɜɚɪɢɫɬɨɤɪɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ
ɤɪɭɝɚɯɨɱɟɧɶɜɚɠɧɵȼɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɟɤɨɧɤɢɫɬɵɧɚɥɢɱɢɟɤɨɪɨɧɵɜȿɜɪɨɩɟɜɚɜ
ɫɬɪɢɣɫɤɨɣɢɦɩɟɪɢɢɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɡɢɪɨɜɚɥɨɨɤɨɧɱɚɬɟɥɶɧɭɸɩɨɛɟɞɭɩɪɨɫɜɟɳɟɧɧɨɝɨ
ɰɢɜɢɥɢɡɨɜɚɧɧɨɝɨɯɪɢɫɬɢɚɧɫɤɨɝɨɦɢɪɚɧɚɞɹɡɵɱɟɫɤɢɦɢɧɞɟɣɫɤɢɦ
ɋɸɠɟɬ©Ɇɨɬɟɫɭɦɵªȼɢɜɚɥɶɞɢɫɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɟɬɫɹɢɡɰɟɩɢɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɷɩɢ
ɡɨɞɨɜɫɪɟɞɢɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɫɢɫɬɨɪɢɟɣɫɜɹɡɚɧɚɬɨɥɶɤɨɡɚɜɹɡɤɚ ɩɨɛɟɞɚɢɫɩɚɧɰɟɜɜ
ɛɢɬɜɟɫɢɧɞɟɣɰɚɦɢ ɜɨɫɬɚɥɶɧɨɦ²ɷɬɨɬɢɩɢɱɧɚɹɞɥɹɬɨɝɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɢɥɸɛɨɜ
ɧɨɞɢɧɚɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɞɪɚɦɚ>@Ʉɨɦɩɨɡɢɰɢɹɨɩɟɪɵɫɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɟɬɫɹɢɡɱɟɪɟɞɨ
ɜɚɧɢɹɚɪɢɣɞɭɷɬɨɜɢɪɟɱɢɬɚɬɢɜɨɜȼɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɟɩɚɪɬɢɢɜɢɪɬɭɨɡɧɵɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɢ
ɫɥɨɠɧɵɜɧɢɯɧɟɦɚɥɨɩɪɨɬɹɠɟɧɧɵɯɤɨɥɨɪɚɬɭɪɯɨɞɨɜɧɚɲɢɪɨɤɢɟɢɧɬɟɪɜɚɥɵ
ɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɨɜɫɟɷɬɢɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵɜɩɚɪɬɢɢɆɨɬɟɫɭ
ɦɵ©Ƚɨɥɨɜɨɤɪɭɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹɤɨɥɨɪɚɬɭɪɚª>@ɢɥɢ©ɹɪɨɫɬɧɚɹɤɨɥɨɪɚɬɭɪɚª>
@ɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɭɸɬɩɟɜɱɟɫɤɢɣɫɬɢɥɶ©Ɇɨɬɟɫɭɦɵªɜɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɯɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚɯ
ɢɷɬɨɜɩɨɥɧɨɣɦɟɪɟɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɫɹɢɦɟɧɧɨɤɢɧɞɟɣɫɤɢɦɨɛɪɚɡɚɦɉɪɢɷɬɨɦɤɚɤ
ɢɉɺɪɫɟɥɥȼɢɜɚɥɶɞɢɢɧɬɭɢɬɢɜɧɨɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɜ©Ɇɨɬɟɫɭɦɟªɚɥɥɸɡɢɸɧɚɡɜɭ
ɱɚɧɢɟɢɧɞɟɣɫɤɢɯɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɨɜɫɬɪɭɧɧɵɟ©ɢɦɢɬɢɪɭɸɬªɡɜɭɱɚɧɢɟɛɚɪɚɛɚɧɚ±
ɦɟɦɛɪɚɧɨɮɨɧɚɭɷɭɷɬɥɶɫɨɩɪɨɜɨɠɞɚɜɲɟɝɨɪɢɬɭɚɥɵɫɠɟɪɬɜɨɩɪɢɧɨɲɟɧɢɹɦɢ
ɌɚɤɨɝɨɠɟɪɨɞɚɩɪɢɟɦɦɨɠɧɨɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɢɬɶɢɭȽɪɚɭɧɚɜɮɢɧɚɥɶɧɨɣɚɪɢɢɆɨɧ
ɬɟɫɭɦɵɝɞɟɩɢɰɰɢɤɚɬɨɫɬɪɭɧɧɵɯɧɚɩɨɦɢɧɚɟɬɡɜɭɱɚɧɢɟɢɧɞɟɣɫɤɨɝɨɳɟɥɟɜɨɝɨ
ɛɚɪɚɛɚɧɚɬɟɩɨɧɚɰɬɥɢɜɨɜɪɟɦɹɩɟɧɢɹɤɭɢɤɚɬɥɹ
ɇɚɩɪɨɬɹɠɟɧɢɢɦɧɨɝɢɯɥɟɬɩɚɪɬɢɬɭɪɚ©Ɇɨɬɟɫɭɦɵªȼɢɜɚɥɶɞɢɫɱɢɬɚɥɚɫɶ
ɭɬɪɚɱɟɧɧɨɣɉɨɷɬɨɦɭɜɝɨɞɭɠɟɥɚɹɩɨɫɬɚɜɢɬɶ©ɢɧɞɟɣɫɤɭɸɨɩɟɪɭªȼɢ

Ɍɚɤɚɹɫɬɢɥɢɫɬɢɤɚɨɬɜɟɱɚɥɚɩɨɬɪɟɛɧɨɫɬɹɦɫɥɭɲɚɬɟɥɶɫɤɨɣɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɢɟɝɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ>±@
 ȺɋȺɥɩɚɬɨɜɚȼɂɅɢɫɨɜɨɣ

ɜɚɥɶɞɢɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɢɣɝɨɛɨɢɫɬɞɢɪɢɠɟɪɢɦɭɡɵɤɨɜɟɞɀɚɧɄɥɨɞɆɚɥɶɝɭɚɪ
± ɫɨɛɪɚɥɜɟɞɢɧɭɸɩɚɪɬɢɬɭɪɭɩɚɫɬɢɱɱɨɮɪɚɝɦɟɧɬɵɪɚɡɧɵɯɨɩɟɪɧɵɯ
ɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɣɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɚȼɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟɜɪɟɦɹɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɟɬɧɨɜɚɹɜɟɪɫɢɹ©ɢɧ
ɞɟɣɫɤɨɣɨɩɟɪɵªȼɢɜɚɥɶɞɢɜɝɨɞɭɜɚɪɯɢɜɟȻɟɪɥɢɧɫɤɨɣɉɟɜɱɟɫɤɨɣɚɤɚɞɟ
ɦɢɢɦɭɡɵɤɨɜɟɞɨɦɋɬɟɮɮɟɧɨɦȼɨɫɫɨɦɛɵɥɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɬɟɤɫɬɚɜɬɨɪɫɤɨɝɨɨɪɢ
ɝɢɧɚɥɚ ɜɩɨɥɧɨɦɜɢɞɟɫɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɫɹ,,ɚɤɬɨɫɬɚɥɶɧɵɟɱɚɫɬɢɩɚɪɬɢɬɭɪɵɫɨɫɬɨɹɬ
ɢɡɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯɮɪɚɝɦɟɧɬɨɜ ɇɚɨɫɧɨɜɟɷɬɢɯɬɟɤɫɬɨɜɜɝɨɞɭɛɵɥɚɩɨɞɝɨ
ɬɨɜɥɟɧɚɧɨɜɚɹɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚɨɩɟɪɵȼɢɜɚɥɶɞɢ©Ɇɨɬɟɫɭɦɚªɜɤɨɧɰɟɪɬɧɨɦɢɫɩɨɥ
ɧɟɧɢɢɟɟɩɪɟɦɶɟɪɚɫɨɫɬɨɹɥɚɫɶɜɄɨɧɰɟɪɬɧɨɦɡɚɥɟȾɟȾɟɥɟɧɜɊɨɬɬɟɪɞɚɦɟɩɨɞ
ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɦɎɆɋɚɪɞɟɥɥɢ ɪ ȼɧɚɲɟɜɪɟɦɹɪɟɧɟɫɫɚɧɫɩɟɪɟɠɢɥɚɢ
ɨɩɟɪɚɉɺɪɫɟɥɥɚȼɝɨɞɭɧɚɨɫɧɨɜɟɨɩɟɪɵɩɚɫɬɢɱɱɨ©Ʉɨɪɨɥɟɜɚɢɧɞɟɣɰɟɜª
ɚɬɚɤɠɟɯɨɪɨɜɵɯɫɨɱɢɧɟɧɢɣɚɧɬɟɦɨɜɢɝɢɦɧɨɜɉɺɪɫɟɥɥɚɪɟɠɢɫɫɟɪɨɦɉɢɬɟɪɨɦ
ɋɟɥɥɚɪɫɨɦ ɪ ɢɞɢɪɢɠɟɪɨɦɌɟɨɞɨɪɨɦɄɭɪɟɧɬɡɢɫɨɦ ɪ ɛɵɥɚɨɫɭ
ɳɟɫɬɜɥɟɧɚɨɞɧɨɢɦɟɧɧɚɹɨɩɟɪɧɚɹɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚɩɪɟɦɶɟɪɚɤɨɬɨɪɨɣɫɨɫɬɨɹɥɚɫɶɜ
ɉɟɪɦɫɤɨɦɨɩɟɪɧɨɦɬɟɚɬɪɟɄɨɪɨɥɟɜɫɤɨɝɨɬɟɚɬɪɚɜɆɚɞɪɢɞɟɢȺɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɣɧɚ
ɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣɨɩɟɪɟɜɅɨɧɞɨɧɟȼɨɬɥɢɱɢɟɨɬɫɟɦɢɨɩɟɪɵɉɺɪɫɟɥɥɚɢɞɭɳɟɣɜ
ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟɱɚɫɚɧɨɜɚɹɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚɞɥɢɬɫɹɨɤɨɥɨɱɟɬɵɪɟɯɱɚɫɨɜȼɫɸɠɟɬɛɵɥɢ
ɜɧɟɫɟɧɵɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɩɟɪɟɧɟɫɟɧɨɜɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɭɸɷɩɨ
ɯɭɨɛɪɚɡɵɝɟɪɨɟɜɨɛɨɛɳɟɧɵɢɨɛɧɨɜɥɟɧɵɞɨɬɚɤɨɣɫɬɟɩɟɧɢɱɬɨɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɸɬ
ɩɟɪɟɞɡɪɢɬɟɥɹɦɢɤɚɤɝɥɨɛɚɥɶɧɵɟɫɢɦɜɨɥɵɜɨɣɧɵɢɦɢɪɚɌɚɤɢɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɦɬɟɦɚ
ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɹɋɬɚɪɨɝɨɢɇɨɜɨɝɨɋɜɟɬɚɩɨɥɭɱɢɥɚɧɨɜɭɸɬɪɚɤɬɨɜɤɭȼɨɫɧɨɜɟ
ɧɨɜɨɣɨɩɟɪɵ ɫɟɦɢɨɩɟɪɵɩɚɫɬɢɱɱɨ ²ɯɨɪɨɜɵɟɫɰɟɧɵɬɚɧɰɵɱɬɟɧɢɟɪɨɦɚ
ɧɚɧɢɤɚɪɚɝɭɚɧɫɤɨɣɩɢɫɚɬɟɥɶɧɢɰɵɅɭɢɡɵȺɝɢɥɚɪ>@
ȼɰɟɥɨɦɛɥɚɝɨɞɚɪɹɧɚɥɢɱɢɸɞɜɭɯɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɨɜɩɚɪɬɢɬɭɪɨɛɟɢɯɨɩɟɪ©Ʉɨ
ɪɨɥɟɜɚɢɧɞɟɣɰɟɜªɉɺɪɫɟɥɥɚɨɬɤɪɵɜɚɟɬɩɭɬɶɤɧɨɜɵɦɷɤɫɩɟɪɢɦɟɧɬɚɦɜɨɛɥɚ
ɫɬɢɫɨɱɢɧɟɧɢɹɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɯɨɩɟɪɧɵɯɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɣɧɚɢɧɞɟɣɫɤɭɸɬɟɦɭɜɬɨ
ɜɪɟɦɹɤɚɤɨɩɟɪɚ©Ɇɨɬɟɫɭɦɚªȼɢɜɚɥɶɞɢɫɥɨɜɧɨɜɨɡɜɪɚɳɚɟɬɢɫɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɟɣɢ
ɫɥɭɲɚɬɟɥɶɫɤɭɸɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɸɜɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɚɟɟɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɹɢɨɱɟɧɶɭɫɥɨɜɧɨɝɨɡɧɚɤɨɦ
ɫɬɜɚɫɞɚɥɟɤɢɦɢɧɞɟɣɫɤɢɦɦɢɪɨɦɩɪɢɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɢɜɚɠɧɨɫɬɢɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɨɝɨɞɢ
ɚɥɨɝɚɂɞɥɹɜɨɩɥɨɳɟɧɢɹɷɬɨɝɨɡɧɚɤɨɦɫɬɜɚɢɷɬɨɝɨɞɢɚɥɨɝɚɨɛɚɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɚ
ɜɫɜɨɟɜɪɟɦɹɫɦɨɝɥɢɧɚɣɬɢɬɚɤɢɟɜɵɪɚɡɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɨɬɤɪɵɥɢ
ɩɟɪɫɩɟɤɬɢɜɵɞɥɹɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɹɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɢɧɨɜɵɯɩɪɨɱɬɟɧɢɣɨɩɟɪɢɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɟɧɢɹ
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Ʌา฼ฯฺส฼฽ฺส
 ȻɢɪɸɤɨɜɚȿȼɊɨɠɞɟɧɢɟɧɨɜɨɣɪɚɫɵɉɢɬɟɪɋɟɥɥɚɪɫɢɌɟɨɞɨɪɄɭɪɟɧɬɡɢɫɨɬ
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 ȾɨɛɪɭɲɤɢɧȽɅɉɪɨɛɥɟɦɵɞɟɮɢɧɢɰɢɢɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɣɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵɆɟɫɨɚɦɟɪɢɤɢɜɤɨɧ
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ɈɩɟɪɵɨɛɚɦɟɪɢɤɚɧɫɤɢɯɢɧɞɟɣɰɚɯȺȼɢɜɚɥɶɞɢɢȽɉɺɪɫɟɥɥɚ 
 ɄɢɪɧɚɪɫɤɚɹȾɄɋɟɤɪɟɬɵɩɨɩɭɥɹɪɧɨɫɬɢȺɧɬɨɧɢɨȼɢɜɚɥɶɞɢɋɬɚɪɢɧɧɚɹɦɭɡɵɤɚ
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ɤɚɧɬɨɜɚɭɬɟɧɬɢɫɬɨɜȼ±ɝɨɞɚɯɜɵɲɥɢɜɫɜɟɬɧɚɭɱɧɨɟɢɡɞɚɧɢɟɩɚɪ
ɬɢɬɭɪɵ>@ɤɥɚɜɢɪɝɨɥɨɫɚɢɨɪɤɟɫɬɪɨɜɚɹɫɸɢɬɚɗɬɨɢɡɞɚɧɢɟɫɬɚɥɨɬɪɟɬɶɢɦ
ɩɨɫɥɟɩɪɢɠɢɡɧɟɧɧɨɝɨ>@ɢɬɨɦɚɢɡɫɨɛɪɚɧɢɹɫɨɱɢɧɟɧɢɣɊɚɦɨ>@ɢɥɟɝɥɨ
ɜɨɫɧɨɜɭɩɟɪɜɨɣɚɭɞɢɨɡɚɩɢɫɢɨɩɟɪɵɁɚɩɢɫɶɧɟɫɨɜɫɟɦɩɨɥɧɚɹɤɭɩɢɪɨɜɚɧɵ
ɮɢɧɚɥɶɧɨɟɪɨɧɞɨȺɪɭɷɪɢɫɚɞɜɚɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɯɡɚɧɢɦɩɚɫɩɶɟɢɡɚɤɥɸɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣ
ɤɨɧɬɪɞɚɧɫɧɟɜɫɟɝɞɚɫɨɛɥɸɞɚɸɬɫɹɡɧɚɤɢɩɨɜɬɨɪɟɧɢɹɍɫɨɥɢɫɬɨɜɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨ
ɦɭɠɱɢɧɬɟɪɹɟɬɫɹɛyɥɶɲɚɹɱɚɫɬɶɚɜɬɨɪɫɤɨɣɦɟɥɢɡɦɚɬɢɤɢɚɬɚɧɟɰɦɸɡɟɬɢɫ
ɩɨɥɧɹɟɬɫɹɛɟɡɭɱɚɫɬɢɹɩɪɟɞɩɢɫɚɧɧɵɯɊɚɦɨɜɨɥɵɧɨɤ
ɉɪɢɱɢɧɵɢɧɬɟɪɟɫɚɊɚɦɨɢɄɚɸɡɚɤɚɤȿɝɢɩɬɭɥɟɠɚɬɧɚɩɨɜɟɪɯɧɨɫɬɢȼ
ɝɨɞɭɜɉɚɪɢɠɟɜɵɲɟɥɪɨɦɚɧɚɛɛɚɬɚɌɟɪɪɚɫɨɧɚ©ɋɟɬɨɫɢɥɢɂɫɬɨɪɢɹɠɢɡ
ɧɢɩɨɱɟɪɩɧɭɬɚɹɢɡɩɚɦɹɬɧɢɤɨɜɢɫɜɢɞɟɬɟɥɶɫɬɜȾɪɟɜɧɟɝɨȿɝɢɩɬɚɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɟɧ
ɧɚɹɫɝɪɟɱɟɫɤɨɣɪɭɤɨɩɢɫɢªȼɦɡɚɧɢɦɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɥɩɟɪɜɵɣɬɨɦ©ɂɫɬɨ
ɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɛɢɛɥɢɨɬɟɤɢªȾɢɨɞɨɪɚɋɢɰɢɥɢɣɫɤɨɝɨɜɧɨɜɨɦɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɨɦɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɟ
ɚɛɛɚɬɚ>@ɝɞɟɝɨɜɨɪɢɬɫɹɜɬɨɦɱɢɫɥɟɨȿɝɢɩɬɟȿɝɢɩɟɬɫɤɭɸɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɤɭɜɬɨ
ɜɪɟɦɹɭɠɟɧɚɱɢɧɚɥɢɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɢɟɦɚɫɨɧɵɤɱɢɫɥɭɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɩɪɢ
ɧɚɞɥɟɠɚɥɢɊɚɦɨɢɄɚɸɡɚɤɗɬɚɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɚɫɬɪɟɦɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɹɥɚɫɶɄ
ɩɪɢɦɟɪɭɜɊɨɫɫɢɢɟɝɢɩɟɬɫɤɢɟɡɧɚɤɢɩɨɹɜɢɥɢɫɶɜɦɚɫɨɧɫɤɢɯɝɪɚɦɨɬɚɯɧɟɩɨɡɞ

/HVIrWHVGHO¶+\PHQHWGHO¶$PRXU/H&RQFHUW6SLULWXHOFRQG+HUYp1LTXHW*ORVVD*&'


ȿɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɦɚɫɨɧɫɤɚɹɬɟɦɚɬɢɤɚɧɚɯɨɞɢɥɚɦɟɫɬɨɜɢɯɫɨɱɢɧɟɧɢɹɯɢɜɧɟɟɝɢɩɟɬɫɤɨɝɨɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɚ>@
©ɉɪɚɡɞɧɟɫɬɜɚȽɢɦɟɧɟɹɢȺɦɭɪɚªȿɝɢɩɟɬɜɦɭɡɵɤɟɀɎɊɚɦɨ 
ɧɟɟɝɨɞɚ>@Ⱦɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ©ȼɨɥɲɟɛɧɨɣɮɥɟɣɬɵªȼɨɥɶɮɝɚɧɝɚȺɦɚɞɟɹ
Ɇɨɰɚɪɬɚ  ɩɪɨɬɟɤɚɟɬɜɟɝɢɩɟɬɫɤɨɦɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɟɫɪɟɞɢɩɢɪɚɦɢɞ©³ȼɨɥ
ɲɟɛɧɭɸɮɥɟɣɬɭ´>«@ɢɧɨɝɞɚɞɚɜɚɥɢɩɨɞɬɚɤɢɦɢɧɚɢɦɟɧɨɜɚɧɢɹɦɢ²ɬɨ³ȿɝɢ
ɩɟɬɫɤɢɟɦɢɫɬɟɪɢɢ´ɬɨ³Ɍɚɢɧɫɬɜɚɂɡɢɞɵ´«ª>@Ɉɧɚɧɟɛɵɥɚɩɟɪɜɨɣɜ
ɫɜɨɟɦɪɨɞɟ©Ɉɩɟɪɵɫɦɚɫɨɧɫɤɢɦɢɫɸɠɟɬɚɦɢɩɨɹɜɢɥɢɫɶɟɳɟɡɚɞɟɫɹɬɶɥɟɬɞɨ
³ȼɨɥɲɟɛɧɨɣɮɥɟɣɬɵ´²ɤɩɪɢɦɟɪɭ³Ɉɡɢɪɢɞɚ´ɞɪɟɡɞɟɧɫɤɨɝɨɤɚɩɟɥɶɦɟɣɫɬɟ
ɪɚɂɨɝɚɧɧɚȽɨɬɬɥɢɛɚɇɚɭɦɚɧɚɧɚɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨɄɚɬɚɪɢɧɨɆɚɰɰɨɥi  ª>@
Ʉɚɤɢɦɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɟɬȿɝɢɩɟɬɜɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɣɦɭɡɵɤɟ;9,,,ɜɟɤɚ"ȼɨɩɟɪɟȽɟɧ
ɞɟɥɹ©ɘɥɢɣɐɟɡɚɪɶɜȿɝɢɩɬɟªɢɡ©ɟɝɢɩɟɬɫɤɨɝɨªɩɪɢɫɭɬɫɬɜɭɸɬɥɢɲɶɢɫɬɨɪɢ
ɱɟɫɤɢɟɫɨɛɵɬɢɹɢɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɢ>±@ɇɢɜ©ȼɨɥɲɟɛɧɨɣɮɥɟɣɬɟªɧɢɜ
ɦɭɡɵɤɟɆɨɰɚɪɬɚɤɩɶɟɫɟ©Ɍɚɦɨɫɰɚɪɶȿɝɢɩɬɚªɜɨɬɥɢɱɢɟɨɬ©ȺɢɞɵªȾɠɭ
ɡɟɩɩɟȼɟɪɞɢɧɟɬɧɢɤɚɤɢɯ©ɟɝɢɩɟɬɫɤɢɯɬɪɭɛªɇɚɩɪɨɬɢɜɜɨɩɟɪɟɟɫɬɶɜɟɧɫɤɢɟ
ɛɚɫɫɟɬɝɨɪɧɵȼɩɪɨɱɟɦɢ©ɟɝɢɩɟɬɫɤɢɟɬɪɭɛɵªȼɟɪɞɢɫɤɨɪɟɟɫɥɟɞɭɸɬ©ɞɪɟɜ
ɧɟɪɢɦɫɤɨɦɭɨɛɪɚɡɰɭª>@
ɍɊɚɦɨ©ɟɝɢɩɟɬɫɤɨɝɨªɧɚɩɟɪɜɵɣɜɡɝɥɹɞɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɟɱɟɦɭɟɝɨɦɥɚɞɲɟ
ɝɨɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɢɤɚɆɨɰɚɪɬɚɇɨɟɫɥɢɜ©ȼɨɥɲɟɛɧɨɣɮɥɟɣɬɟªɟɝɢɩɟɬɫɤɢɣɚɧɬɭ
ɪɚɠ²ɥɢɲɶɩɨɜɨɞɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɶɧɚɫɰɟɧɟɦɚɫɨɧɫɤɭɸɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɤɭɜɦɭɡɵɤɟɊɚɦɨ
ɜɫɟɠɟɩɪɢɫɭɬɫɬɜɭɟɬɨɛɪɚɡȿɝɢɩɬɚ²ɫɬɪɚɧɵɩɪɢɪɨɞɵɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɚɧɚɪɨɞɚ
ɢɟɝɨɛɨɝɨɜ
©Ȼɨɝɢȿɝɢɩɬɚªɜɩɟɪɜɵɟɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɥɢɩɪɢɞɜɨɪɧɨɣɩɭɛɥɢɤɟɩɪɟɞɜɚɪɹɟɦɵɟɨɫ
ɧɨɜɚɧɧɵɦɧɚɝɪɟɱɟɫɤɨɣɦɢɮɨɥɨɝɢɢɩɪɨɥɨɝɨɦɝɞɟɞɟɣɫɬɜɭɸɬȺɦɭɪȽɪɚɰɢɢɇɚ
ɫɥɚɠɞɟɧɢɹȽɢɦɟɧɟɣɢȾɨɛɪɨɞɟɬɟɥɢɋɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɟɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯɦɢɮɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ
ɫɢɫɬɟɦɜɩɨɥɧɟɨɪɝɚɧɢɱɧɨȿɝɨɤɨɪɧɢɦɨɠɧɨɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɢɬɶɜɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɟɷɥɥɢɧɢɫɬɢ
ɱɟɫɤɨɝɨȿɝɢɩɬɚɨɧɨɬɚɤɠɟɜɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɹɯɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɨɣɛɚɪɨɱɧɨɣɨɩɟɪɵ
ɋɰɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɠɢɡɧɶɩɪɨɥɨɝɚɛɵɥɚɧɟɞɨɥɝɨɣɭɠɟɜɝɨɞɭɨɩɟɪɭɛɚ
ɥɟɬɜɉɚɪɢɠɟɛɟɡɧɟɝɨɆɭɡɵɤɚɩɪɨɥɨɝɚɢɦɟɟɬɪɹɞɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɣɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɨɬ
ɥɢɱɚɸɬɟɟɨɬɦɭɡɵɤɢɩɨɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɯɚɤɬɨɜɍɜɟɪɬɸɪɚɨɛɪɚɦɥɹɸɳɚɹɩɪɨɥɨɝ
ɨɬɯɨɞɢɬɨɬɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɨɣɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɢɟɟɩɟɪɜɚɹɱɚɫɬɶɧɟɨɬɤɪɵɜɚɟɬɫɹɚɤɤɨɪɞɨ
ɜɵɦWXWWLɂɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɵɜɫɬɭɩɚɸɬɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɛɚɫɵɚɥɶɬɵɢɮɚɝɨɬɵ²
ɫɤɪɢɩɤɢ²ɮɥɟɣɬɵ ɝɨɛɨɢɜɩɟɪɜɨɣɱɚɫɬɢɜɨɨɛɳɟɧɟɭɱɚɫɬɜɭɸɬ Ɇɹɝɤɢɣ
ɧɟɠɧɵɣɤɨɥɨɪɢɬɜɵɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɞɨɫɚɦɨɝɨɤɨɧɰɚɩɪɨɥɨɝɚɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɣɬɨɧɚɥɶ
ɧɨɫɬɶɸɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨɨɫɬɚɟɬɫɹɥɹɦɚɠɨɪɋɨɥɢɪɭɸɬɬɨɥɶɤɨɜɵɫɨɤɢɟɝɨɥɨɫɚȺɦɭɪ
²ɫɨɩɪɚɧɨȽɢɦɟɧɟɣ²ɫɨɩɪɚɧɨɇɚɫɥɚɠɞɟɧɢɟ²ɬɟɧɨɪ KDXWHFRQWUH ȼɬɨ
ɪɭɸɩɨɥɨɜɢɧɭɩɪɨɥɨɝɚɫɜɹɡɵɜɚɟɬɰɟɩɶɢɡɬɪɟɯ©ɞɭɷɬɨɜɫɨɝɥɚɫɢɹªȺɦɭɪɚɢȽɢ
ɦɟɧɟɹɂɡɞɜɭɯɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟɭɩɨɬɪɟɛɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɮɨɪɦ²ɫɬɚɪɢɧɧɨɣɞɜɭɯɱɚɫɬɧɨɣ
ɢɪɨɧɞɨ²ɪɟɲɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɟɬɜɬɨɪɚɹɑɚɫɬɵɟɜɨɡɜɪɚɳɟɧɢɹɦɢɧɢɚɬɸɪ
ɧɵɯɪɟɮɪɟɧɨɜɜɤɭɩɟɫɢɧɬɨɧɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɦɪɨɞɫɬɜɨɦɦɧɨɝɢɯɬɟɦɩɪɨɥɨɝɚɫɨɡɞɚ
ɸɬɡɚɜɨɪɚɠɢɜɚɸɳɢɣɝɢɩɧɨɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɷɮɮɟɤɬ
ɋɸɠɟɬɩɟɪɜɨɝɨɚɤɬɚ HQWUpH ©Ɉɡɢɪɢɫªɨɬɩɪɚɜɧɨɣɬɨɱɤɨɣɢɦɟɟɬɮɪɚɝɦɟɧɬ
ɢɡ©ɂɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɛɢɛɥɢɨɬɟɤɢªȾɢɨɞɨɪɚɋɢɰɢɥɢɣɫɤɨɝɨȼɝɥɚɜɟɬɪɟɬɶɟɣ

ɉɟɪɟɱɢɫɥɟɧɵɜɩɨɪɹɞɤɟɩɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɹɧɚɫɰɟɧɟ
 ȺȼȻɭɥɵɱɺɜɚ

ɤɧɢɝɢ ©ɈɛɚɦɚɡɨɧɤɚɯȺɮɪɢɤɢª ɝɪɟɱɟɫɤɢɣɢɫɬɨɪɢɤɩɨɜɟɞɚɥɤɚɤɰɚɪɢɰɚɚɦɚ


ɡɨɧɨɤɆɢɪɢɧɚ 0\ULQH ɫɨɛɪɚɥɚɬɪɢɞɰɚɬɶɬɵɫɹɱɩɟɲɢɯɢɬɪɢɬɵɫɹɱɢɤɨɧɧɵɯ
ɜɨɢɬɟɥɶɧɢɰɢɜɵɲɥɚɜɩɨɯɨɞ>@ȼɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɟɣɝɥɚɜɟ ©Ƚɨɪɝɨɧɵɞɪɭɝɢɟ
ɜɨɢɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟɠɟɧɳɢɧɵɩɨɛɟɠɞɟɧɧɵɟɚɦɚɡɨɧɤɚɦɢª ɨɧɭɩɨɦɹɧɭɥɱɬɨɆɢ
ɪɢɧɚɩɪɢɲɥɚɜȿɝɢɩɟɬɢɡɚɤɥɸɱɢɥɚɞɪɭɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɫɨɸɡɫȽɨɪɨɦɫɵɧɨɦɂɡɢ
ɞɵɢɈɡɢɪɢɫɚ>@ȾɚɥɟɟȾɢɨɞɨɪɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɧɨɪɚɫɫɤɚɡɚɥɨɟɟɡɚɜɨɟɜɚɧɢɹɯ
ɢɨɝɢɛɟɥɢɜɛɢɬɜɟɫɨɫɤɢɮɚɦɢɢɮɪɚɤɢɣɰɚɦɢ
ȼ ɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨ Ʉɚɸɡɚɤɚ ɰɚɪɢɰɭ ɚɦɚɡɨɧɨɤ ɡɨɜɭɬ Ɉɪɬɟɡɢɹ Ɇɢɪɢɧɚ ɠɟ
0LUULQH ɨɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɡɨɜɚɧɚɩɪɨɫɬɨɤɚɤ©ɞɢɤɚɹɚɦɚɡɨɧɤɚªȼɩɟɪɜɨɣɫɰɟɧɟɨɧɚ
ɩɪɟɞɭɩɪɟɠɞɚɟɬɰɚɪɢɰɭɩɪɟɞɫɬɨɢɬɩɨɛɟɞɢɬɶɟɝɢɩɬɹɧɢɢɯɩɪɟɞɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɹɈɡɢ
ɪɢɫɚɥɢɛɨɨɤɚɡɚɬɶɫɹɜɩɨɫɬɵɞɧɨɦɪɚɛɫɬɜɟȺɦɚɡɨɧɤɢɭɫɬɪɟɦɥɹɸɬɫɹɤɨɪɭɠɢɸ
Ɉɡɢɪɢɫɩɪɢɛɥɢɠɚɟɬɫɹɤɧɢɦɢɩɪɢɡɵɜɚɟɬɩɨɤɨɪɢɬɶɫɹɩɪɟɥɟɫɬɧɨɦɭɩɨɜɟɥɢɬɟ
ɥɸ²ȺɦɭɪɭȼɨɩɪɟɤɢɩɪɢɡɵɜɚɦɆɢɪɢɧɵɰɚɪɢɰɚɧɟɫɩɟɲɢɬɪɚɫɩɪɚɜɢɬɶɫɹɫ
ɜɪɚɝɨɦɉɨɡɧɚɤɭɈɡɢɪɢɫɚɜɯɨɞɹɬɟɝɢɩɬɹɧɟɱɬɨɛɵɫɨɛɥɚɡɧɢɬɶɞɢɤɢɯɚɦɚɡɨɧɨɤ
ɩɥɨɞɚɦɢɡɟɦɥɢ²ɰɜɟɬɚɦɢɢɮɪɭɤɬɚɦɢɆɭɡɵɩɪɢɧɨɫɹɬɫɫɨɛɨɣɜɫɟɜɨɡɦɨɠ
ɧɵɟɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚɆɢɪɢɧɚɫɱɚɫɬɶɸɚɦɚɡɨɧɨɤɩɵɬɚɟɬɫɹɩɨɪɚɡɢɬɶ
ɜɪɚɝɚɧɨɈɪɬɟɡɢɹɩɨɤɨɪɟɧɧɚɹɱɚɪɚɦɢȺɦɭɪɚɛɟɪɟɬɈɡɢɪɢɫɚɩɨɞɡɚɳɢɬɭɢɜɟ
ɥɢɬɡɚɤɨɜɚɬɶɜɨɫɫɬɚɜɲɢɯɜɰɟɩɢɉɪɟɠɞɟɱɟɦɟɟɭɜɟɞɭɬɢɡɚɬɨɱɚɬɜɩɟɳɟɪɚɯ
Ɇɢɪɢɧɚɭɫɩɟɜɚɟɬɛɪɨɫɢɬɶɰɚɪɢɰɟ©əɫɜɨɛɨɞɧɚɚɬɵ²ɫɥɭɠɚɧɤɚª
ɉɪɢɠɢɡɧɢɊɚɦɨɢɄɚɸɡɚɤɚɟɝɢɩɟɬɫɤɢɟɢɟɪɨɝɥɢɮɵɟɳɟɧɟɛɵɥɢɪɚɫ
ɲɢɮɪɨɜɚɧɵɢɧɢɱɬɨɧɟɫɬɟɫɧɹɥɨɮɚɧɬɚɡɢɢɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɚɄɚɸɡɚɤɫɧɚɛɞɢɥɚɦɚ
ɡɨɧɨɤɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɵɦɷɩɢɬɟɬɨɦ©ɞɢɤɢɟªɢɩɨɫɟɥɢɥɢɯɫɪɟɞɢɫɤɚɥɢ©ɧɟɭɯɨɠɟɧ
ɧɵɯªɞɟɪɟɜɶɟɜȼɨɜɪɟɦɹɡɚɤɥɸɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɝɨɞɢɜɟɪɬɢɫɦɟɧɬɚɩɨɡɧɚɤɭɈɡɢɪɢɫɚ
ɦɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɶɩɪɟɨɛɪɚɠɚɟɬɫɹɫɤɚɥɵɢɫɱɟɡɚɸɬɩɨɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹɫɚɞɵɢɩɥɨɞɨɪɨɞɧɚɹ
ɪɚɜɧɢɧɚȾɢɤɚɹɦɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɶɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɨɣɋɸɠɟɬɨɦɢɪɧɨɦɩɨɤɨ
ɪɟɧɢɢɟɝɢɩɬɹɧɚɦɢɚɦɚɡɨɧɨɤɨɛɨɪɚɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɢɫɬɨɪɢɟɣɤɨɥɨɧɢɡɚɰɢɢɜɚɪɜɚɪɨɜ
ɰɢɜɢɥɢɡɨɜɚɧɧɨɣɧɚɰɢɟɣ²ɬɟɦɚɞɥɹɎɪɚɧɰɢɢ;9,,,ɜɟɤɚɜɟɫɶɦɚɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɚɹ
ȿɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɤɨɥɨɧɢɡɚɰɢɹɩɨɤɚɡɚɧɚɤɚɤɛɥɚɝɨɞɥɹɞɢɤɚɪɟɣ ɢɫɤɥɸɱɚɹɪɚɡɜɟ
ɱɬɨɡɚɤɨɜɚɧɧɵɯɜɰɟɩɢ Ɍɨɬɮɚɤɬɱɬɨɩɨɤɨɪɟɧɧɵɟɜɚɪɜɚɪɵɜ©Ɉɡɢɪɢɫɟªɩɪɟɞ
ɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵɬɨɥɶɤɨɜɫɜɨɟɣɠɟɧɫɤɨɣɢɩɨɫɬɚɫɢɛɭɞɟɬɜɟɫɶɦɚɬɢɩɢɱɧɨɞɥɹɬɚɤɨɝɨ
ɪɨɞɚɫɸɠɟɬɨɜɜɩɨɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɟɜɟɤɚ>@
ȼɦɭɡɵɤɟɊɚɦɨɩɨɤɨɪɟɧɢɟɚɦɚɡɨɧɨɤɟɝɢɩɬɹɧɚɦɢɜɨɩɥɨɳɟɧɨɧɚɧɟɫɤɨɥɶ
ɤɢɯɭɪɨɜɧɹɯȺɤɬɧɚɱɢɧɚɟɬɫɹɜɰɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣɢɜɨɢɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣɬɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɪɟ
ɦɚɠɨɪȼɧɟɣɠɟɧɚɩɢɫɚɧɵɫɰɟɧɚɜɨɫɫɬɚɧɢɹɆɢɪɢɧɵɚɪɢɹɈɪɬɟɡɢɢ©ȼɷɬɢɯ
ɞɢɤɢɯɦɟɫɬɚɯɦɵɧɚɯɨɞɢɦɫɥɚɜɭª ©1RXVWURXYRQVHQFHOLHXVDXYDJHODJORLUHª 
ɢɚɪɢɟɬɬɚɈɡɢɪɢɫɚ©Ʌɟɬɢɬɟɤɩɨɛɟɞɟª ©9ROH]jODYLFWRLUHª ɜɤɨɬɨɪɨɣɜɨɢɧ
ɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɶɩɟɪɟɨɫɦɵɫɥɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɚɦɚɡɨɧɨɤɩɪɢɡɵɜɚɸɬɤɥɸɛɨɜɧɵɦɩɨɛɟɞɚɦ
ɧɚɞɦɭɠɱɢɧɚɦɢȼɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɟɦɪɟɦɚɠɨɪɜɵɬɟɫɧɹɟɬɫɹɬɨɦɧɵɦɫɢɦɢɧɨɪɨɦɢ
ɫɨɥɶɦɚɠɨɪɨɦ²ɬɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɸɩɨɛɟɞɢɜɲɢɯɟɝɢɩɬɹɧ

ȼɟɪɨɹɬɧɨɢɦɹɧɚɜɟɹɧɨɧɚɡɜɚɧɢɟɦɨɩɟɪɵȺɧɞɪɟɄɚɪɞɢɧɚɥɹȾɟɬɭɲɚ©Ɇɚɪɬɟɡɢɹɩɟɪɜɚɹɰɚɪɢɰɚ
ɚɦɚɡɨɧɨɤª
©ɉɪɚɡɞɧɟɫɬɜɚȽɢɦɟɧɟɹɢȺɦɭɪɚªȿɝɢɩɟɬɜɦɭɡɵɤɟɀɎɊɚɦɨ 
ɉɚɪɬɢɹɈɪɬɟɡɢɢɧɚɩɢɫɚɧɚɞɥɹɥɟɝɤɨɝɨɫɨɩɪɚɧɨɢɧɨɬɢɪɨɜɚɧɚɜɫɤɪɢɩɢɱ
ɧɨɦɤɥɸɱɟɩɚɪɬɢɹɆɢɪɢɧɵ²ɧɨɦɢɧɚɥɶɧɨɞɥɹɫɨɩɪɚɧɨ ɤɥɸɱ©ɞɨªɧɚɩɟɪɜɨɣ
ɥɢɧɟɣɤɟ ɧɨɩɨɬɟɫɫɢɬɭɪɟ²ɫɤɨɪɟɟɞɥɹɦɟɰɰɨɢɥɢɤɨɧɬɪɚɥɶɬɨ EDVGHVVXV 
ɏɨɪɵɚɦɚɡɨɧɨɤɫɨɫɬɨɹɬɢɡɞɜɭɯɩɚɪɬɢɣɫɨɩɪɚɧɨɤɤɨɬɨɪɵɦɦɨɝɭɬɩɪɢɫɨɟɞɢ
ɧɹɬɶɫɹɜɵɫɨɤɢɟɬɟɧɨɪɚ KDXWHFRQWUH Ɉɬɢɦɟɧɢɟɝɢɩɬɹɧɩɨɱɬɢɞɨɤɨɧɰɚɚɤɬɚ
ɩɨɟɬɈɡɢɪɢɫ ɬɟɧɨɪ ɇɚɪɨɞɦɨɥɱɢɬɩɨɤɚɧɚɤɨɧɟɰɧɟɩɪɢɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɟɬɫɹɤɦɢɧɢ
ɚɬɸɪɧɨɦɭɯɨɪɭ©ɑɬɨɡɚɧɟɠɧɵɟɚɪɨɦɚɬɵª ©4XHOVGRX[SDUIXPVª Ɂɚɬɨɟɝɢɩ
ɬɹɧɟɦɧɨɝɨɬɚɧɰɭɸɬɜɜɵɯɨɞɚɯɛɚɥɟɬɚɭɱɚɫɬɜɭɸɬȼɪɟɦɟɧɚɝɨɞɚɦɭɡɵɂɫɤɭɫ
ɫɬɜɚɠɧɟɰɵɫɛɨɪɳɢɤɢɜɢɧɨɝɪɚɞɚɫɚɬɢɪɵȺɦɚɡɨɧɤɢɧɚɱɢɧɚɸɬɩɨɞɪɚɠɚɬɶ
ɟɝɢɩɬɹɧɚɦɥɢɲɶɜɡɚɤɥɸɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɞɢɜɟɪɬɢɫɦɟɧɬɟɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɧɨɦɫɨɸɡɭɞɜɭɯ
ɧɚɪɨɞɨɜɉɟɪɜɵɣɬɚɧɟɰ²ɫɚɪɚɛɚɧɞɚɥɭɪ²ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɨɛɨɣɞɢɚɥɨɝɞɜɭɯ
ɤɨɧɬɪɚɫɬɧɵɯɬɚɧɰɟɜ ɉɪɢɦɟɪ 

ɉɟɧɢɟɚɦɚɡɨɧɨɤɫɨɩɪɨɜɨɠɞɚɸɬɬɨɥɶɤɨɫɬɪɭɧɧɵɟɤɤɨɬɨɪɵɦɜɫɰɟɧɟɜɨɫ
ɫɬɚɧɢɹɩɪɢɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɸɬɫɹɝɨɛɨɢȾɚɠɟɜɪɨɧɞɨɈɪɬɟɡɢɢ©ɋɱɚɫɬɥɢɜɵɟɩɬɢɰɵª
©+HXUHX[RLVHDX[ª ɩɟɧɢɟɩɬɢɰɩɟɪɟɞɚɟɬɫɹɧɟɮɥɟɣɬɚɦɢɚɫɤɪɢɩɤɚɦɢɋɩɪɢ
ɯɨɞɨɦɈɡɢɪɢɫɚɩɨɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹɦɭɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟɢɧɟɠɧɵɟɮɚɝɨɬɵɚɡɚɬɟɦɢɮɥɟɣɬɵ
ɂɬɚɤɚɦɚɡɨɧɤɢɩɨɤɚɡɚɧɵɤɚɤɧɚɪɨɞɜɚɪɜɚɪɫɤɢɣɱɬɨɩɨɞɱɟɪɤɧɭɬɨɫɤɭɩɨ
ɜɚɬɨɣɨɪɤɟɫɬɪɨɜɤɨɣȿɝɢɩɬɹɧɟɧɚɩɪɨɬɢɜɩɪɢɧɨɫɹɬɫɫɨɛɨɣɜɫɺɨɱɚɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ
ɰɢɜɢɥɢɡɚɰɢɢɜɤɥɸɱɚɹɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɨɟɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɨɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɚɪɨɦɚɬɨɜɌɢɩɢɱ
ɧɵɟɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɢɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɢɯɛɚɥɟɬɨɜɬɚɧɰɭɸɬɬɢɩɢɱɧɨɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɢɟɬɚɧɰɵ
ɊɟɱɢɬɚɬɢɜɜɨɜɪɟɦɹɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨɨɱɚɪɨɜɚɧɧɚɹɈɪɬɟɡɢɹɬɳɟɬɧɨɩɨɛɭɠɞɚɟɬɫɟɛɹ
ɧɚɧɟɫɬɢɜɪɚɝɭɫɦɟɪɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɭɞɚɪɫɥɨɜɧɨɫɩɢɫɚɧɫ©ȺɪɦɢɞɵªɀɚɧɚȻɚɬɢɫɬɚ
Ʌɸɥɥɢ  ɝɞɟɜɨɫɬɨɱɧɚɹɜɨɥɲɟɛɧɢɰɚɧɟɜɫɢɥɚɯɩɨɝɭɛɢɬɶɪɵɰɚɪɹɤɪɟ
ɫɬɨɧɨɫɰɚɏɨɬɹɈɡɢɪɢɫɩɨɫɥɨɜɭɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨɞɢɤɚɹɦɟɫɬɧɨɫɬɶɩɪɟɜɪɚɳɚɟɬɫɹɜ
ɰɜɟɬɭɳɢɣɫɚɞɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɤɚɤɛɨɠɟɫɬɜɨɟɝɨɪɚɫɫɤɚɡɨɛɨɝɟɟɝɢɩɬɹɧ©Ɉɧɰɚ
ɪɢɬɧɚɞɜɫɟɣɩɪɢɪɨɞɨɣª ©,OUqJQHHQVRXYHUDLQVXUWRXWHODQDWXUHª ɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧ
ɧɟȽɨɪɭɉɬɚɯɭɋɟɪɚɩɢɫɭɢɥɢɟɦɭɫɚɦɨɦɭɧɨɝɪɟɱɟɫɤɨɦɭȺɦɭɪɭ²ɥɸɛɢɦɟɣ
ɲɟɦɭɢɡɛɨɠɟɫɬɜɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɨɣɛɚɪɨɱɧɨɣɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵ
ȼɨɜɬɨɪɨɦɚɤɬɟ ©Ʉɚɧɨɩª ɧɚɫɰɟɧɭɜɵɜɟɞɟɧɝɪɨɡɧɵɣɛɨɝɪɟɤɢȿɝɨɢɦɹɨɛ
ɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɨɥɢɛɨɨɬɫɨɫɭɞɨɜɞɥɹɛɚɥɶɡɚɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹɥɢɛɨɨɬɝɨɪɨɞɚɫɬɨɹɜɲɟɝɨɧɚ

ɍɱɚɫɬɢɟɬɟɧɨɪɨɜɜɠɟɧɫɤɢɯɯɨɪɚɯɛɵɥɨɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɨɣɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɟɣ>@
 ȺȼȻɭɥɵɱɺɜɚ

ɛɟɪɟɝɭɡɚɩɚɞɧɨɝɨɪɭɤɚɜɚɇɢɥɚɢɜ9,,,ɜɟɤɟɭɲɟɞɲɟɝɨɩɨɞɜɨɞɭȼɬɨɪɨɟɜɟɪɨɹɬ
ɧɟɟɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭɜɨɡɥɸɛɥɟɧɧɭɸɝɟɪɨɹɡɨɜɭɬɆɟɦɮɢɫȾɟɜɭɲɤɚɩɨɥɸɛɢɥɚɄɚɧɨɩɚ
ɜɨɛɥɢɱɶɢɩɪɨɫɬɨɝɨɟɝɢɩɬɹɧɢɧɚɇɢɥɟɹȼɷɬɨɬɞɟɧɶɞɨɥɠɧɵɨɛɴɹɜɢɬɶɢɦɹɠɟɪɬ
ɜɵɄɚɧɨɩɭɏɨɪɡɚɫɰɟɧɨɣɜɨɫɤɥɢɰɚɟɬ©ɈɧɟɛɨɇɟɫɱɚɫɬɧɚɹɆɟɦɮɢɫªȽɟɪɨɢɧɹ
ɜɦɨɧɨɥɨɝɟ©ɉɪɨɛɭɞɢɫɶȺɦɭɪª ©9HLOOH$PRXUª ɩɪɨɫɢɬɨɩɨɦɨɳɢɇɚɱɢɧɚɟɬ
ɫɹɠɟɪɬɜɨɩɪɢɧɨɲɟɧɢɟȼɧɟɡɚɩɧɨɫɧɟɛɚɨɛɪɭɲɢɜɚɸɬɫɹɩɨɬɨɤɢɜɨɞɵɜɨɞɵɇɢɥɚ
ɩɨɞɧɢɦɚɸɬɫɹɢɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɬɚɥɬɚɪɶɇɚɤɨɥɟɫɧɢɰɟɜɥɟɤɨɦɨɣɨɝɧɟɞɵɲɚɳɢɦɢɤɪɨ
ɤɨɞɢɥɚɦɢɜɫɨɩɪɨɜɨɠɞɟɧɢɢɪɟɱɧɵɯɛɨɠɟɫɬɜɢɧɚɹɞɩɨɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɄɚɧɨɩɢɫɩɚɫɚɟɬ
ɜɨɡɥɸɛɥɟɧɧɭɸȼɡɚɤɥɸɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɞɢɜɟɪɬɢɫɦɟɧɬɟɫɥɚɜɹɬɜɥɚɫɬɶȺɦɭɪɚ
Ɇɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɷɬɨɬɚɤɬɩɨɞɨɛɟɧɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɨɦɭ©ɚɞɫɤɨɦɭªɚɤɬɭɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɨɣ
ɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɣɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɢ ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪɜɬɨɪɨɦɭɚɤɬɭ©ɂɩɩɨɥɢɬɚɢȺɪɢɫɢɢªɊɚɦɨ 
ɉɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚɸɬɛɟɦɨɥɶɧɵɟɬɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɜɫɬɭɩɥɟɧɢɟɧɚɩɢɫɚɧɨɜɪɟɦɢɧɨɪɟɦɨ
ɧɨɥɨɝɆɟɦɮɢɫ²ɜɮɚɦɢɧɨɪɟɫɰɟɧɚɠɟɪɬɜɨɩɪɢɧɨɲɟɧɢɹ²ɜɫɢɛɟɦɨɥɶɦɚɠɨ
ɪɟȼɩɟɪɜɵɟɩɨɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹɧɢɡɤɢɟɦɭɠɫɤɢɟɝɨɥɨɫɚɩɚɪɬɢɢɄɚɧɨɩɚɢȼɟɪɯɨɜɧɨɝɨ
ɠɪɟɰɚɩɪɟɞɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɵɞɥɹɛɚɪɢɬɨɧɨɜ EDVWDLOOH ȼɨɪɤɟɫɬɪɟɧɟɬɮɥɟɣɬɅɟɣɬɢɧ
ɬɨɧɚɰɢɟɣɚɤɬɚ²ɨɬɜɫɬɭɩɥɟɧɢɹɞɨɱɚɤɨɧɵɢɡɞɢɜɟɪɬɢɫɦɟɧɬɚ²ɫɬɚɧɨɜɹɬɫɹɝɚɦ
ɦɨɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɟɩɚɫɫɚɠɢɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɡɢɪɭɸɳɢɟɩɨɬɨɤɢɜɨɞɵɆɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɟɮɨɪɦɵɩɨ
ɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɸɫɩɪɨɥɨɝɨɦɢɞɪɭɝɢɦɢɚɤɬɚɦɢɛɨɥɟɟɦɚɫɲɬɚɛɧɵ
ȼɫɰɟɧɟɠɟɪɬɜɨɩɪɢɧɨɲɟɧɢɹɡɜɭɱɢɬȽɢɦɧɛɨɝɭɪɟɤɢ Ʉɚɧɨɩɭ ɉɨɫɤɨɥɶ
ɤɭɊɨɡɟɬɬɫɤɢɣɤɚɦɟɧɶɟɳɟɧɟɛɵɥɧɚɣɞɟɧɢȽɢɦɧɈɡɢɪɢɫɭɫɅɭɜɪɫɤɨɣɫɬɟɥɥɵ
>@ɟɳɟɧɟɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɟɧɧɚɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɢɣɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɫɨɜɩɚɞɟɧɢɹɦɟɠɞɭɞɜɭɦɹ
ɝɢɦɧɚɦɢ ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪɫɥɨɜɚɨɛɨɝɟɢɡɨɛɢɥɢɹ ɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɨɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹɫɥɭɱɚɣɧɵ
ɦɢɆɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɢɦɧɪɟɲɟɧɜɨɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɨɣɨɩɟɪɧɨɣɫɬɢɥɢɫɬɢɤɟɢɩɪɢɷɬɨɦ
ɜɟɫɶɦɚɨɪɢɝɢɧɚɥɟɧȿɝɨɤɪɚɣɧɢɟɱɚɫɬɢɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬɫɨɛɨɣɪɟɱɢɬɚɬɢɜɀɪɟ
ɰɚɫɯɨɪɨɦɫɪɟɞɧɹɹɱɚɫɬɶ²ɦɢɧɢɚɬɸɪɧɵɣɦɨɬɟɬ
ȼ©Ʉɚɧɨɩɟªȿɝɢɩɟɬɩɨɤɚɡɚɧɢɧɚɱɟɧɟɠɟɥɢɜ©Ɉɡɢɪɢɫɟªɤɚɤɦɪɚɱɧɚɹ
ɫɬɪɚɧɚɩɨɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɣɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɟɧɚɩɨɦɢɧɚɸɳɚɹȺɢɞɨɞɧɚɤɨɩɪɨ
ɫɜɟɬɥɟɧɧɚɹɢɨɛɥɚɝɨɪɨɠɟɧɧɚɹɜɥɚɫɬɶɸȺɦɭɪɚȼɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɹɯɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɨɣɛɚ
ɪɨɱɧɨɣɨɩɟɪɵɛɵɥɨɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɬɶɢɦɟɧɧɨɬɚɤɢɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɦɫɬɪɚɧɵɝɞɟɩɪɚɜɢ
ɥɢɬɢɪɚɧɵɢɞɟɫɩɨɬɵ>@
ȼɬɪɟɬɶɟɦɚɤɬɟ©Ⱥɪɭɷɪɢɫɢɥɢɂɡɢɢªɧɚɫɰɟɧɟ²ɚɧɬɢɱɧɵɣɚɦɮɢɬɟɚɬɪɜ
ɤɨɬɨɪɨɦɩɪɨɯɨɞɹɬɢɝɪɵɜɱɟɫɬɶɂɡɢɞɵɋɨɪɟɜɧɭɸɬɫɹɠɢɜɨɩɢɫɰɵɫɤɭɥɶɩɬɨ
ɪɵɩɟɜɰɵɬɚɧɰɨɪɵɢɦɭɡɵɤɚɧɬɵɈɩɨɞɨɛɧɵɯɢɝɪɚɯɜȿɝɢɩɬɟɧɟɬɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟ
ɫɤɢɯɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɣɩɪɨɬɨɬɢɩɨɦɹɜɧɨɫɥɭɠɢɥɢɉɢɮɢɣɫɤɢɟɢɝɪɵȾɚɠɟɱɢɫɥɨɫɭ
ɞɟɣ²ɩɹɬɶ²ɫɨɜɩɚɞɚɟɬɫɢɯɱɢɫɥɨɦɧɚɝɪɟɱɟɫɤɢɯɫɨɫɬɹɡɚɧɢɹɯɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɨɜ
Ⱥɪɭɷɪɢɫ ɬɟɧɨɪ ²ɛɨɠɟɫɬɜɨɪɨɥɶɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨɜɦɢɮɨɥɨɝɢɢɧɟɜɩɨɥɧɟɹɫɧɚ
²ɞɨɥɠɟɧɠɟɧɢɬɶɫɹɧɚɩɨɛɟɞɢɬɟɥɶɧɢɰɟɂɡɢɣɍɜɵɟɝɨɜɨɡɥɸɛɥɟɧɧɚɹɈɪɢɹɞɚ
ɥɟɤɚɨɬɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚɇɨɜɞɨɯɧɨɜɥɟɧɧɚɹɥɸɛɨɜɶɸɨɧɚɪɟɲɚɟɬɩɪɢɧɹɬɶɭɱɚɫɬɢɟ
ɜɤɨɧɤɭɪɫɟɢɩɨɛɟɠɞɚɟɬȽɥɚɜɧɨɟɠɟɜɷɬɨɦɫɸɠɟɬɟ²ɜɨɫɩɟɜɚɧɢɟɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚ
Ⱦɚɠɟɩɨɫɥɟɩɪɟɞɲɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɜɲɢɯɚɤɬɨɜ©Ⱥɪɭɷɪɢɫªɩɨɪɚɠɚɟɬɛɨɝɚɬɫɬɜɨɦ
ɦɭɡɵɤɢɉɚɪɬɢɹɝɥɚɜɧɨɝɨɝɟɪɨɹɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟɜɢɪɬɭɨɡɧɚɫɪɟɞɢɜɫɟɯɬɟɧɨɪɨɜɵɯ
©ɉɪɚɡɞɧɟɫɬɜɚȽɢɦɟɧɟɹɢȺɦɭɪɚªȿɝɢɩɟɬɜɦɭɡɵɤɟɀɎɊɚɦɨ 
ɩɚɪɬɢɣɨɩɟɪɵɛɚɥɟɬɚɎɢɧɚɥɶɧɵɣɞɭɷɬɜɥɸɛɥɟɧɧɵɯɨɛɨɝɚɳɟɧɭɱɚɫɬɢɟɦɯɨɪɚ
Ɍɨɥɶɤɨɜɷɬɨɦɚɤɬɟɟɫɬɶɚɧɫɚɦɛɥɢɫɛɨɥɟɟɱɟɦɞɜɭɦɹɭɱɚɫɬɧɢɤɚɦɢɜɩɥɨɬɶɞɨ
ɤɜɢɧɬɟɬɚɫɭɞɟɣȼɨɪɤɟɫɬɪɟɩɨɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹɞɜɚɦɸɡɟɬɚɜɛɚɪɨɱɧɨɣɎɪɚɧɰɢɢɱɚ
ɫɬɨɚɫɫɨɰɢɢɪɨɜɚɜɲɢɟɫɹɫɚɧɬɢɱɧɵɦɢɩɚɫɬɭɯɚɦɢɚɬɪɢɭɦɮȺɦɭɪɚɨɬɦɟɱɟɧ
ɡɜɭɤɚɦɢɬɪɭɛɵɢɥɢɬɚɜɪɋɸɠɟɬɚɤɬɚɥɢɲɟɧɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɚɩɨɷɬɨɦɭɨɫɧɨɜɧɚɹ
ɬɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ ɫɨɥɶɦɢɧɨɪ±ɫɨɥɶɦɚɠɨɪ ɧɟɦɟɧɹɟɬɫɹȽɟɪɨɢɧɟɩɪɟɛɵɜɚɸɬɜ
ɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢɧɟɬɢɫɬɨɥɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɣɜɪɚɠɞɭɸɳɢɯɩɚɪɬɢɣȼ©Ɉɡɢɪɢɫɟªɜɤɭɥɶɦɢ
ɧɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɣɦɨɦɟɧɬɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɫɬɨɹɬɞɪɭɝɞɪɭɝɭɯɨɪɫɩɭɬɧɢɰɆɢɪɢɧɵɢɯɨɪɫɜɢɬ
ɈɪɬɟɡɢɢɢɈɡɢɪɢɫɚɜ©Ʉɚɧɨɩɟª²ɯɨɪɟɝɢɩɬɹɧɢɯɨɪɫɜɢɬɵɄɚɧɨɩɚȼ©Ⱥɪɭ
ɷɪɢɫɟªɧɟɬɫɰɟɧɞɥɹɞɜɨɣɧɨɝɨɯɨɪɚȾɢɧɚɦɢɤɚɢɜɵɫɨɤɚɹɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɚɰɢɹɫɨɛɵ
ɬɢɣɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɵɟɞɥɹ©Ȼɨɝɨɜȿɝɢɩɬɚªɡɞɟɫɶɩɟɪɟɯɨɞɹɬɜɧɨɜɨɟɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɨɞɢɚ
ɥɨɝɢɱɧɨɫɬɶɢɫɱɟɡɚɟɬɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɪɚɡɧɵɯɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɟɣɫɥɢɜɚɸɬɫɹɜɨɛɳɟɣ
ɝɚɪɦɨɧɢɢȼɨɬɦɭɡɵɤɚɧɬɵɨɫɩɚɪɢɜɚɸɬɩɟɪɜɟɧɫɬɜɨɢɫɩɨɥɧɹɹɫɚɪɚɛɚɧɞɭɋɨ
ɪɟɜɧɭɸɬɫɹɮɥɟɣɬɚɝɨɛɨɣɞɜɚɮɚɝɨɬɚɫɤɪɢɩɤɚɢɜɢɨɥɨɧɱɟɥɶɫɨɥɨɜɫɟɲɟɫɬɶ
ɝɨɥɨɫɨɜɦɢɪɧɨɫɨɟɞɢɧɹɸɬɫɹɜɩɨɥɢɮɨɧɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɮɚɤɬɭɪɟȼɷɬɨɠɟɜɪɟɦɹɞɪɭ
ɝɢɟɟɝɢɩɬɹɧɟɫɨɪɟɜɧɭɸɬɫɹɜɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɬɚɧɰɚ
ȼɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɟɫɨɫɬɹɡɚɧɢɹɨɬɤɪɵɜɚɸɬɫɹɩɚɫɬɨɪɚɥɶɧɵɦȽɢɦɧɨɦɂɡɢɞɟɤɨɬɨ
ɪɵɣɢɫɩɨɥɧɹɟɬɤɜɚɪɬɟɬɫɨɥɢɫɬɨɜɤɨɧɤɭɪɫɚɧɬɨɜɁɚɬɟɦȿɝɢɩɟɬɫɤɚɹɩɚɫɬɭɲɤɚ
ɢȿɝɢɩɟɬɫɤɢɣɩɚɫɬɭɯɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɸɬɫ©ɚɪɢɹɦɢɩɚɪɨɞɢɹɦɢª ɪɚɫɩɟɬɵɦɢɬɚɧɰɚ
ɦɢ ɉɪɟɪɵɜɚɹɤɨɧɤɭɪɫɬɚɧɰɨɪɨɜɧɚɫɰɟɧɭɜɪɵɜɚɟɬɫɹɈɪɢɹɢɩɨɟɬɦɚɥɟɧɶɤɭɸ
ɫɨɥɶɧɭɸɤɚɧɬɚɬɭ²FDQWDWLOOHɫɨɫɬɨɹɳɭɸɢɡɪɟɱɢɬɚɬɢɜɚɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɨɣɚɪɢɢɢ
ɚɪɢɟɬɬɵɜɮɨɪɦɟGDFDSRɜɫɨɩɪɨɜɨɠɞɟɧɢɢɫɤɪɢɩɨɤɢɮɥɟɣɬɩɨɱɬɢɜɟɡɞɟ²ɛɟɡ
EDVVRFRQWLQXRɇɢɱɟɝɨɩɨɞɨɛɧɨɝɨɜ©Ȼɨɝɚɯȿɝɢɩɬɚªɟɳɟɧɟɛɵɥɨɞɚɢɜɬɨɪ
ɠɟɧɢɟɜɨɩɟɪɭɫɨɥɶɧɨɣɤɚɧɬɚɬɵ²ɫɥɭɱɚɣɢɫɤɥɸɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɇɟɭɞɢɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ
ɱɬɨɈɪɢɢɩɪɢɫɭɠɞɚɸɬɩɨɛɟɞɭ
Ⱥɪɭɷɪɢɫɜɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨɩɨɤɚɡɚɧɫɤɨɪɟɟɝɟɪɨɟɦɥɸɛɨɜɧɢɤɨɦɱɟɦɛɨɠɟɫɬɜɨɦ
ȼɩɟɪɜɨɣɫɰɟɧɟɨɧɭɩɨɦɢɧɚɟɬɧɟɤɨɝɨ©ɛɨɝɚɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚªɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɩɨɞɪɚɡɭɦɟ
ɜɚɹȺɩɨɥɥɨɧɚȿɝɢɩɬɹɧɟɜɨɫɩɟɜɚɸɬɂɡɢɞɭɧɨɱɚɳɟ²ȺɦɭɪɚɄɤɨɧɰɭɚɤɬɚ
ɜɧɟɡɚɩɧɨɜɫɩɨɦɢɧɚɸɬɢɨȽɢɦɟɧɟɟɩɨɫɥɟɩɪɨɥɨɝɚɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɨɡɚɛɵɬɨɦ
ȿɝɢɩɟɬ©Ɉɡɢɪɢɫɚªɢȿɝɢɩɟɬ©Ⱥɪɭɷɪɢɫɚªɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɬɫɹɩɨɞɨɛɧɵɦɢɞɪɭɝ
ɞɪɭɝɭɧɨȿɝɢɩɟɬ©ɄɚɧɨɩɚªɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɨɢɧɨɣɈɛɪɚɡɫɬɪɚɧɵɜɨɩɟɪɟɛɚɥɟɬɟ
ɮɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɪɚɫɩɚɞɚɟɬɫɹɧɚɞɜɚɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɬɪɭɞɧɨɫɜɟɫɬɢɤɨɛɳɟɦɭɡɧɚɦɟɧɚɬɟ
ɥɸɉɨɞɨɛɧɨɬɨɦɭɤɚɤɚɛɛɚɬɌɟɪɪɚɫɨɧɜɪɨɦɚɧɟ©ɋɟɬɨɫªɚɩɟɥɥɢɪɨɜɚɥɤɧɟɤɨɣ
ɜɵɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɨɣɝɪɟɱɟɫɤɨɣɪɭɤɨɩɢɫɢɄɚɸɡɚɤɨɩɢɪɚɥɫɹɝɥɚɜɧɵɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɦɧɚ
ɫɜɨɢɡɧɚɧɢɹɨɛɚɧɬɢɱɧɨɣȽɪɟɰɢɢɊɚɦɨɩɪɢɦɟɧɢɥɫɬɢɥɢɫɬɢɤɭɫɥɨɠɢɜɲɭɸɫɹ
ɜɨɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɨɣɛɚɪɨɱɧɨɣɨɩɟɪɟɞɥɹɜɨɩɥɨɳɟɧɢɹɨɛɪɚɡɨɜȽɪɟɰɢɢ²ɨɬɩɚɫ
ɬɨɪɚɥɶɧɨɣȺɪɤɚɞɢɢɞɨȺɢɞɚɇɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɚɦɢɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɵ²ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɦɚɫɨɧɵ
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ɧɢɹɫɚɦɵɯɪɚɡɧɵɯɫɬɨɪɨɧɨɩɟɪɧɨɝɨɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚ²ɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɨɜɨɪɝɚɧɢɡɚɰɢɢɬɟ
ɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɞɟɥɚɫɬɚɧɨɜɥɟɧɢɹɠɚɧɪɨɜɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɫɬɢɥɹɗɜɨɥɸɰɢɹɨɩɟɪɵ
ɭɠɟɜ;9,,ɜɟɤɟɛɵɥɚɫɜɹɡɚɧɚɧɟɫɨɞɧɢɦɚɫɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɦɢɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɢɦɢɰɟɧ
ɬɪɚɦɢɩɨɥɢɰɟɧɬɪɢɡɦɫɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɫɜɨɟɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɢɩɨɡɞɧɟɟɜ;9,,,ɜɟɤɟɤɨɝɞɚ
ɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɚɹɨɩɟɪɚɩɨɥɭɱɢɥɚɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟɜɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɟɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɢɯ
ɫɬɪɚɧɜɬɨɦɱɢɫɥɟɢɜɊɨɫɫɢɢ
ɑɬɨɜɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɬɟɚɬɪɚɂɬɚɥɢɢɦɨɠɟɬɛɵɬɶɨɰɟɧɟɧɨɤɚɤɝɟ
ɧɟɪɚɥɶɧɚɹɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɹɚɱɬɨ²ɤɚɤɟɟɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟɨɬɜɟɬɜɥɟɧɢɹɢɫɩɟɰɢɮɢ
ɱɟɫɤɢɟɪɚɡɧɨɜɢɞɧɨɫɬɢɜɤɚɤɨɣɫɬɟɩɟɧɢɭɦɟɫɬɧɨɝɨɜɨɪɢɬɶɨɧɚɥɢɱɢɢɜɫɬɚ
ɪɢɧɧɨɣɨɩɟɪɟɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɚɜɬɨɪɫɤɨɝɨɫɬɢɥɹ"ȼɩɨɢɫɤɚɯɨɬɜɟɬɚɧɚɷɬɢ
ɜɨɩɪɨɫɵɦɭɡɵɤɨɜɟɞɵɧɚɩɪɨɬɹɠɟɧɢɢɭɠɟɫɬɚɥɟɬɩɪɢɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɸɬɫɹɞɜɭɯɩɨɞɯɨ
ɞɨɜɈɞɢɧɢɡɧɢɯ²ɧɚɡɨɜɭɟɝɨɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɦ²ɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɬɜɵɹɜɥɟ
ɧɢɟɨɛɳɟɣɢɫɬɨɪɢɤɨɫɬɢɥɟɜɨɣɥɨɝɢɤɢɤɨɝɞɚɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɟɹɜɥɟɧɢɹɪɚɫɬɜɨɪɹɸɬ
ɫɹɜɟɞɢɧɨɦɷɜɨɥɸɰɢɨɧɧɨɦɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɟɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɟɲɤɨɥɵɩɥɚɜɧɨɫɦɟɧɹɸɬ
ɞɪɭɝɞɪɭɝɚɮɥɨɪɟɧɬɢɣɫɤɚɹɪɢɦɫɤɚɹɜɟɧɟɰɢɚɧɫɤɚɹɧɚɤɨɧɟɰɧɟɚɩɨɥɢɬɚɧɫɤɚɹ
ȼɧɚɱɚɥɟɧɚɲɟɝɨɫɬɨɥɟɬɢɹɨɧɛɵɥɡɚɮɢɤɫɢɪɨɜɚɧɜɬɪɭɞɚɯɢɫɬɨɪɢɤɨɜȽɄɪɟɱ
ɦɚɪɚȽȺɛɟɪɬɚȺɒɟɪɢɧɝɚ
ȼɬɨɪɨɣɩɨɞɯɨɞ²ɟɝɨɦɨɠɧɨɭɫɥɨɜɧɨɧɚɡɜɚɬɶɷɦɩɢɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɦ²ɡɚɨɫɬɪɹ
ɟɬɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɯɮɟɧɨɦɟɧɚɯȿɳɟɜɝɨɞɭɊɭɞɨɥɶɮȽɟɪɛɟɪɜ
ɪɚɛɨɬɟɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɧɨɣɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɸɢɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɬɢɡɚɰɢɢɚɪɢɣɂɨɝɚɧɧɚȺɞɨɥɶɮɚ
ɏɚɫɫɟɡɚɹɜɢɥɱɬɨɟɝɨɝɥɚɜɧɚɹɡɚɞɚɱɚ²©ɫɬɪɟɦɥɟɧɢɟɞɨɫɬɢɱɶɬɨɱɧɨɝɨɨɩɪɟ
ɞɟɥɟɧɢɹɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɵɯɮɚɤɬɨɜª>,9@Ɂɟɪɧɨɛɪɨɲɟɧɧɨɟɩɨɱɬɢɫɬɨɥɟɬɬɨɦɭ
ɧɚɡɚɞɞɚɥɨɨɛɢɥɶɧɵɟɜɫɯɨɞɵɜɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɸɸɬɪɟɬɶɏɏɜɟɤɚɤɨɝɞɚɡɚɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟ
ɛɟɥɵɯɩɹɬɟɧɜɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɨɣɨɩɟɪɵɧɚɱɚɥɨɢɞɬɢɛɵɫɬɪɵɦɢɬɟɦɩɚ
ȼɝɨɞɭɛɵɥɚɢɡɞɚɧɚɤɧɢɝɚɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɧɚɹɪɨɥɢɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɨɣɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɣɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɢ


ɜɞɪɭɝɢɯɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɢɯɫɬɪɚɧɚɯȼɨɞɧɨɣɢɡɝɥɚɜɧɚɩɢɫɚɧɧɨɣɊɒɬɪɨɦɨɦɪɟɱɶɢɞɟɬɨɛɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɨɣ
ɨɩɟɪɟɫɟɜɟɪɧɟɟȺɥɶɩ>@
©ȽɟɧɢɣɦɟɫɬɚªɨɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɹɯɜɨɩɟɪɟVHULD 
ɦɢɜɫɟɛɨɥɟɟɱɟɬɤɨɢɞɟɬɚɥɶɧɨɩɪɨɪɢɫɨɜɵɜɚɹɨɩɟɪɧɵɣɥɚɧɞɲɚɮɬɉɪɨɞɨɥ
ɠɚɟɬɫɹɷɬɨɬɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɢɫɟɣɱɚɫȼɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟɬɚɤɢɟɨɛɨɛɳɚɸɳɢɟɩɨɧɹɬɢɹɤɚɤ
©ɫɬɢɥɟɜɚɹɷɩɨɯɚª©ɲɤɨɥɚª©ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟª©ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɹª©ɧɨɜɚɬɨɪɫɬɜɨªɩɨɨɬɧɨ
ɲɟɧɢɸɤɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɨɣɫɬɚɪɢɧɧɨɣɨɩɟɪɟɩɪɟɜɪɚɬɢɥɢɫɶɩɨɫɥɨɜɚɦɊɒɬɪɨɦɚ
ɜ©ɥɨɡɭɧɝɢɩɭɫɬɵɟɞɟɤɥɚɪɚɰɢɢª>@ɢɛɵɥɢɨɬɜɟɪɝɧɭɬɵɫɥɢɲɤɨɦɹɪ
ɤɢɦɢɫɜɨɟɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɦɩɪɢɛɥɢɠɚɣɲɟɦɪɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɢɢɨɤɚɡɚɥɨɫɶɬɜɨɪɱɟɫɬɜɨ
ɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɢɦɦɚɫɬɟɪɨɜ
ɋɟɝɨɞɧɹɪɚɞɢɤɚɥɢɡɦɩɨɥɭɜɟɤɨɜɨɣɞɚɜɧɨɫɬɢɭɠɟɧɟɤɚɠɟɬɫɹɜɩɨɥɧɨɣɦɟɪɟ
ɨɩɪɚɜɞɚɧɧɵɦɎɟɧɨɦɟɧ©ɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɣɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɢªɩɨɜɢɞɢɦɨɦɭɢɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹ
ɟɬɬɨɬɨɩɬɢɦɚɥɶɧɵɣɭɪɨɜɟɧɶɨɛɨɛɳɟɧɢɹɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɞɚɟɬɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶɜɵɹɜɢɬɶ
©ɨɛɳɟɟɜɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɦªȽɥɚɜɭɨɛɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɨɣɨɩɟɪɟɜɄɷɦɛɪɢɞɠɫɤɨɣɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ
ɦɭɡɵɤɢ;9,,,ɜɟɤɚɆɚɪɝɚɪɟɬȻɚɬɥɟɪɧɚɱɚɥɚɫɥɨɜɚɦɢ©ɂɫɬɨɪɢɹɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɨɣ
ɨɩɟɪɵɜ;9,,,ɜɟɤɟ²ɷɬɨɜɛɨɥɶɲɟɣɫɬɟɩɟɧɢɢɫɬɨɪɢɹɬɟɚɬɪɨɜɝɨɪɨɞɨɜɢɢɫ
ɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɟɣɧɟɠɟɥɢɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɨɜɠɚɧɪɨɜɢɫɨɱɢɧɟɧɢɣª>@ȼɬɨɦɠɟ
ɝɨɞɭɧɚɝɥɹɞɧɨɢɥɥɸɫɬɪɢɪɭɹɷɬɭɦɵɫɥɶɜɵɲɥɨɞɜɭɯɬɨɦɧɨɟɢɡɞɚɧɢɟ©ɂɫɬɨ
ɪɢɹɦɭɡɵɤɢɢɬɟɚɬɪɚɜɇɟɚɩɨɥɟ;9,,,ɜɟɤª>@ɋɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɟɬɧɟɦɚɥɨɞɪɭɝɢɯ
ɩɭɛɥɢɤɚɰɢɣɜɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɜɬɨɦɢɥɢɢɧɨɦɚɫɩɟɤɬɟɪɟɱɶɢɞɟɬɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɬɟɚ
ɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɯɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɹɯɞɪɭɝɢɯɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɢɯɝɨɪɨɞɨɜɧɨɜɪɹɞɭɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɣɩɨ
ɫɬɨɹɧɧɨɩɪɢɜɥɟɤɚɸɳɢɯɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɭɱɟɧɵɯɜɧɟɜɫɹɤɨɝɨɫɨɦɧɟɧɢɹɥɢɞɢɪɭɸɬ
ȼɟɧɟɰɢɹɢɇɟɚɩɨɥɶ
ȼɵɪɚɠɟɧɢɟ©ɝɟɧɢɣɦɟɫɬɚª ɥɚɬ²JHQLXVORFL ɜɵɧɟɫɟɧɧɨɟɜɧɚɡɜɚɧɢɟ
ɫɬɚɬɶɢɜɵɛɪɚɧɨɧɟɫɥɭɱɚɣɧɨɜɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɟɡɚɹɜɥɟɧɧɨɣɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚɬɢɤɢɩɨɧɢɦɚ
ɟɬɫɹɫɤɨɪɟɟɤɚɤɦɟɬɚɮɨɪɚɨɛɨɡɧɚɱɚɸɳɚɹɧɟɩɨɜɬɨɪɢɦɭɸɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɭɝɨɪɨɞɚ
ɨɫɨɛɨɟɦɢɪɨɨɳɭɳɟɧɢɟɟɝɨɠɢɬɟɥɟɣɗɬɢɜɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɢɟɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɵɜɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɦ
ɫɱɟɬɟɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɥɢɯɭɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟɢɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɟɩɪɟɞɩɨɱɬɟɧɢɹɩɭɛɥɢɤɢ
Ɉɩɟɪɚɜɩɟɪɜɵɟɞɜɚɞɟɫɹɬɢɥɟɬɢɹ;9,,,ɜɟɤɚɜɢɡɨɛɢɥɢɢɞɚɟɬɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɞɥɹ
ɪɚɫɫɭɠɞɟɧɢɹɨɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɹɯ©ɋɟɜɟɪª²ȼɟɧɟɰɢɹɢɧɚɯɨɞɢɜɲɚɹɫɹ
ɩɨɞɟɟɜɥɢɹɧɢɟɦȻɨɥɨɧɶɹɢ©ɸɝªɫɰɟɧɬɪɨɦɜɇɟɚɩɨɥɟɞɟɦɨɧɫɬɪɢɪɭɸɬɩɪɢɧ
ɰɢɩɢɚɥɶɧɨɪɚɡɧɵɟɜɤɭɫɵɊɚɡɥɢɱɟɧɜɵɛɨɪɠɚɧɪɨɜɜȼɟɧɟɰɢɢ²ɝɟɪɨɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ
ɨɩɟɪɵɢɤɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɢɧɬɟɪɦɟɰɰɨɜɇɟɚɩɨɥɟ²ɫɦɟɲɚɧɧɵɣɠɚɧɪɬɪɚɝɢɤɨɦɟ
ɞɢɣɢɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɟɤɨɦɟɞɢɢɧɚɦɟɫɬɧɨɦɞɢɚɥɟɤɬɟȼȼɟɧɟɰɢɢɞɟɥɚɥɢɫɬɚɜɤɭ
ɧɚɪɚɡɜɢɬɢɟɜɢɪɬɭɨɡɧɨɝɨɜɨɤɚɥɚɜɛɨɥɶɲɢɯɚɪɢɹɯɜɇɟɚɩɨɥɟɜɨɩɟɪɟɞɨɦɢ
ɧɢɪɨɜɚɥɚɰɟɩɶɝɪɚɰɢɨɡɧɵɯɫɨɥɶɧɵɯɧɨɦɟɪɨɜȼɟɧɟɰɢɚɧɫɤɢɟɬɟɚɬɪɚɬɹɝɨɬɟɥɢ

ȼɝɨɞɭɛɵɥɢɡɞɚɧɟɟɠɟɮɭɧɞɚɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɣɬɪɭɞɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɧɵɣɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɦɭɬɟɚɬɪɭɜ
ɉɚɪɦɟɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɸɳɢɣɢɞɟɸɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɣ>@

ɂɡɧɟɞɚɜɧɢɯɪɚɛɨɬɨɬɦɟɱɭɝɥɚɜɭɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɧɭɸɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɦɩɪɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɹɦɜɟɧɟɰɢɚɧɫɤɨɣɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɢ
ɜɤɧɢɝɟɊɚɥɶɮɚɅɨɤɟ>@ɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɧɭɸɫɬɚɬɶɸɨɫɜɹɡɢɨɩɟɪɵɫɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɢɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɣ
ɠɢɡɧɶɸɜȼɟɧɟɰɢɢ ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪɟɬɪɟɯɨɩɟɪȼɢɜɚɥɶɞɢɧɚɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨȺɆɚɪɤɢ&RVWDQ]DWULRQIDQWH
GHJO¶DPRULDGHJO¶RGLL>@ɚɬɚɤɠɟɫɬɚɬɶɸɄɄɧɚɭɫɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɨɝɨɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɢɫɬɚɩɨɜɟɧɟɰɢɚɧɫɤɨɣ
ɨɩɟɪɟEXৼD>@ȼɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɢɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɣɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵɇɟɚɩɨɥɹɜɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɟɝɨɞɵɩɪɟɨɛɥɚ
ɞɚɸɬɫɬɚɬɶɢɢɤɧɢɝɢɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɧɵɟɞɭɯɨɜɧɵɦɠɚɧɪɚɦɬɟɨɪɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɬɪɚɤɬɚɬɚɦɩɨSDUWLPHQWR
ɢɤɨɧɬɪɚɩɭɧɤɬɭɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɢɦɸɠɧɨɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɭɸɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɸɧɨɢɨɩɟɪɟɭɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹɬɪɚɞɢ
ɰɢɨɧɧɨɛɨɥɶɲɨɟɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟ²ɫɦɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ>@
 ɂɉɋɭɫɢɞɤɨ

ɤɚɜɚɧɝɚɪɞɧɵɦɩɨɢɫɤɚɦɜɨɛɥɚɫɬɢɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɰɢɢɢɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɢɢɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɢɫɬɵ
ɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɨɜɚɥɢɫɶɧɚɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɢɟɤɥɚɫɫɢɰɢɫɬɫɤɢɟɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɨɛɪɚɡɰɵɜ
ɇɟɚɩɨɥɟ²ɨɩɢɪɚɥɢɫɶɧɚɨɩɟɪɧɭɸɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɸɩɪɨɲɥɨɝɨɜɟɤɚɢɭɬɪɚɬɢɜɲɢɟ
ɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɧɨɪɦɵɢɫɩɚɧɫɤɨɝɨɪɟɧɟɫɫɚɧɫɧɨɝɨɬɟɚɬɪɚ
Ɉɞɧɚɤɨɜɟɝɨɞɵɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɹɧɚɱɚɥɚɦɟɧɹɬɶɫɹɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɭɸɢɡɨɥɹɰɢɸ
©ɫɟɜɟɪɚªɢ©ɸɝɚªɫɦɟɧɢɥɨɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɟɤɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɢɸɟɞɢɧɨɝɨɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɬɟɚ
ɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɫɬɜɚɉɪɨɯɨɞɢɥɷɬɨɬɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɩɨɞɷɝɢɞɨɣɧɚɪɚɫɬɚɸɳɟɝɨɧɟɚ
ɩɨɥɢɬɚɧɫɤɨɝɨɥɢɞɟɪɫɬɜɚɊɟɥɶɟɮɧɟɟɜɫɟɝɨɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɹɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɹɜɵɪɚɡɢ
ɥɚɫɶɜɠɚɧɪɟɨɩɟɪɵVHULD±ɯɝɨɞɨɜ©ɧɟɚɩɨɥɢɬɚɧɫɤɢɣɫɬɚɧɞɚɪɬªɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɥ
ɨɛɳɟɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɨɟɢɞɚɠɟɨɛɳɟɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɟɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟȼɚɠɧɟɣɲɭɸɪɨɥɶɜɷɬɨɦ
ɫɵɝɪɚɥɬɢɩɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨɫɨɡɞɚɧɧɵɣɉɶɟɬɪɨɆɟɬɚɫɬɚɡɢɨȼɟɫɨɦɵɣɜɤɥɚɞɜɝɟɝɟɦɨ
ɧɢɸɇɟɚɩɨɥɹɜɧɟɫɥɢɬɚɤɠɟɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɵɢɩɟɜɰɵ²ɜɨɫɩɢɬɚɧɧɢɤɢɧɟɚɩɨɥɢɬɚɧ
ɫɤɢɯɤɨɧɫɟɪɜɚɬɨɪɢɣɂɯɭɫɢɥɢɹɦɢɛɵɥɫɨɡɞɚɧɬɨɬɧɨɜɵɣɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɣɫɬɢɥɶ
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɢɥɨɩɟɪɟVHULDɧɟɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɭɸɩɨɩɭɥɹɪɧɨɫɬɶɛɟɡɭɫɥɨɜɧɵɣɩɪɢɨ
ɪɢɬɟɬɜɨɤɚɥɚɩɪɨɡɪɚɱɧɚɹɮɚɤɬɭɪɚɩɪɢɧɰɢɩFKLDUɨVFXUR²ɩɪɨɞɭɦɚɧɧɚɹɫɢɫɬɟɦɚ
ɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɯɤɨɧɬɪɚɫɬɨɜɤɪɚɫɨɬɚɤɚɧɬɢɥɟɧɧɵɯɦɟɥɨɞɢɣɢɜɢɪɬɭɨɡɧɵɣɛɥɟɫɤ
²ɜɫɟɷɬɢɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚɫɬɚɥɢɫɥɚɝɚɟɦɵɦɢɧɟɚɩɨɥɢɬɚɧɫɤɨɝɨɩɪɨɪɵɜɚ>±@
ɉɨɷɬɨɦɭɨɫɨɛɭɸɨɫɬɪɨɬɭɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɬɚɟɬɜɨɩɪɨɫɨɫɬɚɜɚɥɚɫɶɥɢɧɟɚɩɨɥɢɬɚɧɫɤɚɹ
ɦɨɞɟɥɶɧɟɢɡɦɟɧɧɨɣɩɪɢɬɪɚɧɫɩɥɚɧɬɚɰɢɢɜȼɟɧɟɰɢɸɝɨɪɨɞɨɛɥɚɞɚɜɲɢɣɫɨɛ
ɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɩɪɢɱɟɦɹɪɤɨɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɧɵɦɯɭɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɜɤɭɫɨɦ
ɉɟɪɜɵɣɩɪɢɦɟɪ²ɞɜɟ©Ɉɥɢɦɩɢɚɞɵªɨɩɟɪɵɫɨɱɢɧɟɧɧɵɟɧɚɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨ
ɆɟɬɚɫɬɚɡɢɨɜɟɧɟɰɢɚɧɰɟɦȺȼɢɜɚɥɶɞɢ  ɢɧɟɚɩɨɥɢɬɚɧɰɟɦȾɠȻɉɟɪɝɨ
ɥɟɡɢ  ©Ɉɥɢɦɩɢɚɞɚª>@ɧɚɩɢɫɚɧɧɚɹɩɨɷɬɨɦɭɠɟɩɨɫɥɟɩɟɪɟɟɡɞɚɢɡɇɟ
ɚɩɨɥɹɜȼɟɧɭ²ɨɞɧɨɢɡɫɚɦɵɯɝɚɪɦɨɧɢɱɧɵɯɟɝɨɫɨɱɢɧɟɧɢɣɈɧɨɨɬɥɢɱɚɥɨɫɶ
ɨɫɨɛɵɦɨɳɭɳɟɧɢɟɦɦɟɪɵɭɪɚɜɧɨɜɟɲɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɩɪɨɹɜɥɹɜɲɢɯɫɹɧɚɜɫɟɯɭɪɨɜ
ɧɹɯȼɫɸɠɟɬɟɡɚɧɢɦɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɩɟɪɢɩɟɬɢɢɧɚɩɨɦɢɧɚɸɳɢɟɨɤɨɥɥɢɡɢɹɯɫɨɜɪɟ
ɦɟɧɧɵɯɥɚɬɢɧɨɚɦɟɪɢɤɚɧɫɤɢɯɬɟɥɟɫɟɪɢɚɥɨɜ ɪɚɡɥɭɱɟɧɧɵɟɜɞɟɬɫɬɜɟɛɪɚɬɢɫɟ
ɫɬɪɚɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɶɢɧɰɟɫɬɚɩɨɩɵɬɤɚɫɚɦɨɭɛɢɣɫɬɜɚɫɦɟɪɬɧɵɣɩɪɢɝɨɜɨɪɚɦɭɥɟɬ
ɪɚɫɤɪɵɜɲɢɣɬɚɣɧɭɪɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ ɢɦɟɥɢɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɜɟɫ²ɨɬɫɵɥɤɭɤɬɪɭɞɚɦɚɧɬɢɱ
ɧɵɯɢɫɬɨɪɢɤɨɜ Ƚɟɪɨɞɨɬɉɚɜɫɚɧɢɣ ɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɢɗɜɪɢɩɢɞɚɢɋɨɮɨɤɥɚɚɥɥɸɡɢɢ
ɧɚɪɟɧɟɫɫɚɧɫɧɵɟɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɩɚɫɬɨɪɚɥɢɌɚɫɫɨɢȽɜɚɪɢɧɢɇɨɝɥɚɜɧɨɟɜ
ɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨɛɵɥɢɞɨɫɬɢɝɧɭɬɵɪɚɜɧɨɜɟɫɢɟɜɩɨɤɚɡɟɱɭɜɫɬɜɢɩɨɛɭɠɞɟɧɢɣɝɟɪɨɟɜ
ɢɞɟɚɥɶɧɚɹɫɢɦɦɟɬɪɢɹɚɮɮɟɤɬɨɜɋɚɦɆɟɬɚɫɬɚɡɢɨɜ$UJRPHQWRɨɩɢɫɚɥɨɛɪɚɡ
ɧɭɸɞɢɫɩɨɡɢɰɢɸɬɚɤɤɪɚɡɜɹɡɤɟɞɪɚɦɭɜɟɥɚ©ɥɸɛɨɜɧɚɹɫɬɪɚɫɬɶȺɪɢɫɬɟɢɝɟɪɨ
ɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɞɪɭɠɛɚɆɟɝɚɤɥɚɝɨɪɹɱɧɨɫɬɶɢɧɟɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɫɬɜɨɅɢɤɢɞɚɢɛɥɚɝɨɪɨɞɧɨɟ
ɫɨɫɬɪɚɞɚɧɢɟȺɪɝɟɧɵª>@ɬɨɟɫɬɶɞɜɚɩɚɫɫɢɨɧɚɪɧɵɯɝɟɪɨɹ ɪɨɥɢɩɪɢɦɚɞɨɧ
ɧɵɢVHFRQGRXRPR ɢɞɜɚɫɞɟɪɠɚɧɧɨɛɥɚɝɨɪɨɞɧɵɯ ɪɨɥɢSULPRXRPRɢVHFRQGD
GɨQQD ɭɪɚɜɧɨɜɟɲɢɜɚɥɢɞɪɭɝɞɪɭɝɚɉɨɦɢɦɨɷɬɨɝɨ©ɦɢɪɱɭɜɫɬɜªɸɧɵɯɝɟɪɨ
ɟɜɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧ©ɦɢɪɭɪɚɫɫɭɞɤɚªɫɬɚɪɢɤɨɜɪɟɡɨɧɟɪɨɜ
ȼɧɭɬɪɟɧɧɹɹɥɨɝɢɤɚɦɟɬɚɫɬɚɡɢɟɜɫɤɨɝɨɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨɜɩɨɥɧɨɣɦɟɪɟɪɟɚɥɢɡɨ
ɜɚɧɚɉɟɪɝɨɥɟɡɢɆɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɚɹɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɰɢɹɜɟɝɨ©Ɉɥɢɦɩɢɚɞɟªɫɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɟɬ
©ȽɟɧɢɣɦɟɫɬɚªɨɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɹɯɜɨɩɟɪɟVHULD 
ɫɹɢɡɫɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɬɪɟɯɬɟɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɫɮɟɪ ɫɜɟɬɥɨɣɛɪɚɜɭɪɧɨɣɝɟɪɨɢɤɢ
ɚɮɮɟɤɬɚɪɚɞɨɫɬɢɢɥɢɝɧɟɜɚɦɟɫɬɢɫɨɜɫɟɦɢɚɬɪɢɛɭɬɚɦɢɜɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɣɜɢɪɬɭɨɡ
ɧɨɫɬɢɢɨɪɤɟɫɬɪɨɜɨɝɨɛɥɟɫɤɚ Ⱥ  ɝɪɚɰɢɨɡɧɵɯɝɚɥɚɧɬɧɨɱɭɜɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯ
ɚɪɢɣɫɹɜɧɨɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɧɵɦɢɬɚɧɰɟɜɚɥɶɧɵɦɢɱɟɪɬɚɦɢ²ɢɡɹɳɧɵɯɢɞɟɚɥɢɡɢ
ɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɯɫɢɰɢɥɢɚɧɢɬɚɪɚɧɬɟɥɥ ȼ  ɫɨɡɟɪɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɥɢɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɢɫɤɨɪɛ
ɧɨɱɭɜɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɫɨɥɨ
,ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ ,,ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ ,,,ɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟ
ȺȺȺ%%%%&& %ɋȼȺȺɋȺȺ$ Ⱥ%$$$&$
ɋɨɪɚɡɦɟɪɧɨɫɬɶɭɫɬɨɣɱɢɜɨɫɬɶɢɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɟɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɮɭɧɤ
ɰɢɹɦ²ɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɟɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚɷɬɨɣɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɰɢɢɨɬɷɤɫɩɨɡɢɰɢɢɜɩɟɪɜɨɝɨɚɤɬɚ
ɱɟɪɟɡɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɨɱɧɵɣɜɬɨɪɨɣɤɮɢɧɚɥɶɧɨɦɭɡɚɤɪɭɝɥɟɧɧɨɦɭ©ɪɨɧɞɨª²ɬɚɤɨɜɚ
ɥɨɝɢɤɚɧɚɩɨɦɢɧɚɸɳɚɹɨɛɰɢɤɥɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɪɚɧɧɟɤɥɚɫɫɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚɥɶ
ɧɨɣɮɨɪɦɟɝɚɪɦɨɧɢɱɧɨɣɢɭɪɚɜɧɨɜɟɲɟɧɧɨɣ
ɐɟɩɶɧɟɞɨɦɨɥɜɨɤɢɧɟɞɨɪɚɡɭɦɟɧɢɣɜɫɸɠɟɬɟɩɪɢɞɚɸɬɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨ©Ɉɥɢɦ
ɩɢɚɞɵªɜɪɚɜɧɨɣɫɬɟɩɟɧɢɷɦɨɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɧɵɣɢɩɪɢɤɥɸɱɟɧɱɟɫɤɨɡɚ
ɧɢɦɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɉɟɪɝɨɥɟɡɢɨɬɞɚɟɬɞɚɧɶɩɟɪɜɨɦɭɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɭɢɨɫɬɚɜɥɹ
ɟɬɛɟɡɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɹɜɬɨɪɨɟɄɨɧɟɱɧɨɜɟɝɨɦɭɡɵɤɟɦɧɨɝɨɜɢɪɬɭɨɡɧɵɯɛɵɫɬɪɵɯ
ɚɪɢɣɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɯɞɥɹɨɩɟɪɵVHULɚɨɧɢɜɤɚɤɨɦɬɨɫɦɵɫɥɟɢɫɥɭɠɚɬɦɭɡɵ
ɤɚɥɶɧɵɦɚɧɚɥɨɝɨɦɫɸɠɟɬɧɨɣɡɚɧɢɦɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɇɨɪɚɜɧɨɰɟɧɧɵɣɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɜɟɫ
ɢɦɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬɞɪɭɝɢɟɨɛɪɚɡɵɂɯɨɫɧɨɜɧɨɟɫɜɨɣɫɬɜɨɦɨɠɧɨɜɵɪɚɡɢɬɶɩɨɧɹ
ɬɢɟɦ©ɝɪɚɰɢɨɡɧɨɫɬɶªɱɭɜɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɧɨɛɟɡɩɚɬɟɬɢɤɢɢɡɹɳɟɫɬɜɨɧɨɛɟɡ
ɦɚɧɟɪɧɨɫɬɢɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫɬɜɨɮɨɪɦɵɢɨɬɞɟɥɤɢɞɟɬɚɥɟɣɧɟɢɫɤɥɸɱɚɸɳɢɟɧɚɢ
ɜɧɨɣɩɪɨɫɬɨɬɵɢɬɪɨɝɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɫɜɟɬɢɬɟɧɶɥɟɝɤɨɛɟɡɜɫɹɤɨɝɨɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɹ
ɫɦɟɧɹɸɳɢɟɞɪɭɝɞɪɭɝɚ
ɉɟɪɝɨɥɟɡɢɞɨɜɟɥɞɨɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɫɬɜɚɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɢɹɸɠɧɨɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɨɝɨɜɤɭ
ɫɚɩɨɝɪɭɠɟɧɢɟɜɫɥɚɞɨɫɬɧɵɣɩɨɤɨɣɜɟɱɧɨɣɫɢɟɫɬɵɤɨɝɞɚɜɪɟɦɹɞɜɢɠɟɬɫɹɩɨ
ɤɪɭɝɭɪɚɫɫɭɞɨɤɞɪɟɦɥɟɬɧɨɱɭɜɫɬɜɚɨɛɨɫɬɪɟɧɵɢɭɬɨɧɱɟɧɵɤɨɝɞɚɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɚɹ
ɳɟɞɪɨɫɬɶɢɬɟɥɟɫɧɚɹɪɨɫɤɨɲɶɩɪɢɦɨɪɫɤɨɝɨɛɵɬɚɪɨɠɞɚɸɬɧɚɫɬɨɥɶɤɨɨɫɬɪɨɟ
ɭɩɨɟɧɢɟɠɢɡɧɶɸɱɬɨɨɧɚɭɬɪɚɱɢɜɚɟɬɤɚɤɢɟɥɢɛɨɢɧɵɟɰɟɥɢɤɪɨɦɟɫɟɛɹɫɚɦɨɣ
©ȼɱɟɪɚɜɟɫɶɞɟɧɶɨɬɞɵɯɚɥ²ɡɚɩɢɫɚɥȽɺɬɟɮɟɜɪɚɥɹɝɨɞɚ²ɡɚɬɨɫɟɝɨɞ
ɧɹɧɚɫɥɚɠɞɚɥɫɹɠɢɡɧɶɸɛɟɡɭɫɬɚɥɢɩɪɟɞɚɜɚɹɫɶɫɨɡɟɪɰɚɧɢɸɤɪɚɫɨɬɵª>@
©Ɉɬɞɚɥɟɧɧɵɣɢɥɟɧɢɜɵɣɭɝɨɥɦɢɪɚª²ɨɰɟɧɤɚɇɟɚɩɨɥɹɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɢɦɩɨɫɥɨɦ
ɥɨɪɞɨɦȼɢɥɶɹɦɨɦȽɚɦɢɥɶɬɨɧɨɦɬɚɤɠɟɜɟɫɶɦɚɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɚ>ɰɢɬɩɨ@Ɂɟɦ
ɧɨɣɪɚɣɪɹɞɨɦɫɜɟɱɧɨɨɝɧɟɞɵɲɚɳɟɣ©ɩɪɟɢɫɩɨɞɧɟɣªȼɟɡɭɜɢɹɢɎɥɟɝɪɟɣɫɤɢɯ
ɩɨɥɟɣɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɥɫɹɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɨɫɬɪɨɇɚɜɟɪɧɨɟɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɱɧɨɱɬɨɜɇɟɚɩɨɥɟ
ɩɨɯɨɪɨɧɟɧȼɟɪɝɢɥɢɣɢɫɬɢɧɧɵɣ©ɝɟɧɢɣɦɟɫɬɚªɷɬɨɣɡɟɦɥɢ>@
ɋɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɨɞɪɭɝɨɟɜɩɟɱɚɬɥɟɧɢɟɜɵɡɵɜɚɟɬɦɭɡɵɤɚ©Ɉɥɢɦɩɢɚɞɵªȼɢ
ɜɚɥɶɞɢɄɚɤɢɜɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɟɟɝɨɨɩɟɪɨɧɚɩɨɪɚɠɚɟɬɛɭɪɧɵɦɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɦɟɧɬɨɦ
ɷɧɟɪɝɢɟɣɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹɇɚɬɢɫɤɞɢɧɚɦɢɤɚɫɥɵɲɧɵɢɜɜɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɯɝɨɥɨɜɨɥɨɦɧɵɯ
ɤɨɥɨɪɚɬɭɪɚɯɢɜɡɜɭɱɚɧɢɢɨɪɤɟɫɬɪɨɜɨɣɩɚɪɬɢɢɪɢɫɭɸɳɟɣɠɢɜɨɩɢɫɧɵɟɦɭ
 ɂɉɋɭɫɢɞɤɨ

ɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɟ©ɤɚɪɬɢɧɵªɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɮɢɤɫɢɪɭɹɧɨɜɨɟɨɳɭɳɟɧɢɟɫɚɦɨɝɨɩɪɨ
ɰɟɫɫɚɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹȼɢɜɚɥɶɞɢɢɡɛɟɝɚɟɬɦɟɞɥɟɧɧɵɯɬɟɦɩɨɜɟɝɨɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɟɜɪɟ
ɦɹɞɚɠɟɜɥɢɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɢɥɢɪɢɤɨɩɚɬɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɚɪɢɹɯɬɟɱɟɬɜɞɢɚɩɚɡɨɧɟɦɟɠɞɭ
$OOHJURPRGHUDWRɢ3UHVWRȾɟɬɚɥɢɪɚɫɬɜɨɪɟɧɵɜɩɨɬɨɤɟɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɣɦɚɬɟɪɢɢ
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɡɚɯɜɚɬɵɜɚɟɬɱɢɫɬɨɣɪɚɞɨɫɬɶɸɢɜɢɬɚɥɶɧɨɣɷɧɟɪɝɢɟɣɄɨɦɩɨɡɢɰɢɹɟɝɨ
ɨɩɟɪɵɬɚɤɠɟɢɦɟɟɬɞɪɭɝɭɸɥɨɝɢɤɭɱɟɦɭɉɟɪɝɨɥɟɡɢȼɧɟɣɧɟɬɪɚɡɦɟɪɟɧɧɨɝɨ
ɱɟɪɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹɤɨɧɬɪɚɫɬɧɵɯɚɪɢɣɩɟɪɜɵɣɚɤɬɩɪɨɧɨɫɢɬɫɹɜɧɟɭɞɟɪɠɢɦɨɦɩɨɪɵ
ɜɟɜɬɨɪɨɣɢɬɪɟɬɢɣɩɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɩɨɧɚɪɚɫɬɚɸɳɟɣɤɩɚɬɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɫɨɥɨȼɨɡɧɢ
ɤɚɟɬɬɪɢɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɜɨɥɧɵɬɟɫɧɨɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɯɫɭɫɢɥɟɧɢɟɦɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ
ɧɚɩɪɹɠɟɧɢɹ²ɩɨɞɨɛɧɨɪɚɡɜɟɪɬɵɜɚɧɢɸɜɛɚɪɨɱɧɨɦɤɨɧɰɟɪɬɟ
ɇɟɜɵɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɨɦɧɟɧɢɹɱɬɨɜɟɧɟɰɢɚɧɫɤɢɣɨɩɟɪɧɵɣɜɤɭɫɩɢɬɚɥɫɹɞɪɭɝɢ
ɦɢɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɚɦɢɧɟɠɟɥɢɸɠɧɨɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɢɣɌɨɬɠɟȽɺɬɟɨɩɢɫɵɜɚɹɫɜɨɟɩɪɟ
ɛɵɜɚɧɢɟɜɝɨɪɨɞɟɧɚɅɚɝɭɧɟɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɧɟɭɩɨɦɢɧɚɟɬɩɪɢɪɨɞɧɵɟɤɪɚɫɨɬɵ
ɇɚɩɟɪɜɨɦɦɟɫɬɟɭɧɟɝɨ²ɜɩɟɱɚɬɥɟɧɢɟɨɬɫɚɦɨɣȼɟɧɟɰɢɢɤɨɬɨɪɚɹɫɚɦɚɩɨ
ɫɟɛɟ²©ɝɟɧɢɣɦɟɫɬɚªɝɨɪɨɞɫɨɡɞɚɜɲɢɣɫɜɨɣɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɦɢɮɁɞɟɫɶɧɟɬ
ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢɧɚɫɥɚɠɞɚɬɶɫɹ'ROFHIDUQLHQWHɫɥɚɞɨɫɬɧɵɦɧɟɱɟɝɨɧɟɞɟɥɚɧɶɟɦȼɟɧɟ
ɰɢɚɧɫɤɚɹɤɪɭɝɨɜɟɪɬɶɛɭɤɜɚɥɶɧɨɩɨɝɥɨɳɚɟɬȽɺɬɟ©ɉɨɫɥɟɨɛɟɞɚɜɠɚɠɞɟɩɨ
ɫɤɨɪɟɟɫɨɫɬɚɜɢɬɶɫɟɛɟɜɩɟɱɚɬɥɟɧɢɟɨɬɰɟɥɨɝɨɹɛɟɡɩɪɨɜɨɠɚɬɨɝɨɨɪɢɟɧɬɢɪɭ
ɹɫɶɬɨɥɶɤɨɩɨɫɬɪɚɧɚɦɫɜɟɬɚɪɢɧɭɥɫɹɜɥɚɛɢɪɢɧɬɷɬɨɝɨɝɨɪɨɞɚª>@ȼɟɝɨ
ɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɢɜɟɧɟɰɢɚɧɫɤɚɹɠɢɡɧɶɪɚɡɜɨɪɚɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɜɧɟɩɪɟɪɵɜɧɨɦɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɢɧɚ
Ȼɨɥɶɲɨɦɤɚɧɚɥɟɩɪɢɱɚɥɢɜɚɸɬɢɪɚɡɝɪɭɠɚɸɬɫɹɫɭɞɚɫɧɭɸɬɝɨɧɞɨɥɵɜɰɟɪ
ɤɨɜɶɫɩɟɲɚɬɠɟɧɳɢɧɵɩɪɨɯɨɞɹɬɬɨɪɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɢɢɂɧɚɤɨɧɟɰɧɟ
ɦɚɥɨɫɬɪɨɤȽɺɬɟɩɨɫɜɹɳɚɟɬɨɩɢɫɚɧɢɸɫɜɨɢɯɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɯɜɩɟɱɚɬɥɟɧɢɣɞɟɥɚɹ
ɜɵɜɨɞɨɜɟɧɟɰɢɚɧɫɤɢɯɡɪɢɬɟɥɹɯ©Ɍɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɟɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɟɨɧɢɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɢ
ɦɚɸɬɤɚɤɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɭɸɠɢɡɧɶª>@ɠɢɜɨɩɟɪɟɠɢɜɚɹɜɫɟɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɹɳɟɟ
ɧɚɫɰɟɧɟɩɵɬɚɹɫɶɞɚɠɟɜɦɟɲɚɬɶɫɹɜɯɨɞɫɨɛɵɬɢɣȾɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɨɩɟɪɧɵɟ
ɜɤɭɫɵɜȼɟɧɟɰɢɢɜɨɦɧɨɝɨɦɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɥɚɜɫɟɩɪɨɧɢɤɚɸɳɚɹɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ
ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɜɲɚɹɨɛɪɚɡɠɢɡɧɢɝɨɪɨɠɚɧɢɩɪɢɟɡɠɢɯɜɩɟɪɢɨɞɤɚɪɧɚɜɚɥɚɬɨɬɧɟ
ɫɤɨɧɱɚɟɦɵɣɤɚɥɟɣɞɨɫɤɨɩɫɨɛɵɬɢɣɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɫɬɢɪɚɥɝɪɚɧɶɦɟɠɞɭɪɟɚɥɶɧɵɦɢ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɦɵɦȼɟɧɟɰɢɹɨɫɬɚɜɢɜɲɚɹɤɬɨɦɭɜɪɟɦɟɧɢɩɨɡɚɞɢɩɨɪɭɫɜɨɟɝɨ
ɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɦɨɝɭɳɟɫɬɜɚɨɬɞɚɜɚɥɚɞɚɧɶɛɵɥɨɦɭɜɟɥɢɱɢɸɜɬɟɚɬɪɟɂɦɟɧ
ɧɨɡɞɟɫɶɬɟɦɩɟɪɚɦɟɧɬɝɨɪɨɠɚɧɢɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɧɨɫɬɶɧɚɬɭɪɵɜɟɧɟɰɢɚɧɰɟɜɧɚɲɥɢ
ɫɜɨɣɯɭɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɷɤɜɢɜɚɥɟɧɬɩɪɟɜɪɚɬɢɜɬɟɚɬɪɫɜɨɟɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɣJHQLXVORFL
ɫɜɨɟɝɨɝɨɪɨɞɚ
ɗɬɭɨɰɟɧɤɭɩɨɞɬɜɟɪɠɞɚɟɬɟɳɟɨɞɢɧɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɩɪɢɦɟɪ²ɨɩɟɪɚɅɟɨ
ɧɚɪɞɨȼɢɧɱɢ©ɋɢɪɨɣªɧɚɩɢɫɚɧɧɚɹɧɚɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨɆɟɬɚɫɬɚɡɢɨɜɝɨɞɭɋɱɢ
ɬɚɟɬɫɹɱɬɨɢɦɟɧɧɨȼɢɧɱɢɜɟɝɨɞɵɭɞɚɥɨɫɶɫɨɡɞɚɬɶɨɩɟɪɵVHULDɫɬɚɜɲɢɟ
ɨɛɪɚɡɰɨɜɵɟɞɥɹɧɟɚɩɨɥɢɬɚɧɫɤɨɝɨɣɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɢȼɫɟɨɧɢɛɵɥɢɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɵɜɊɢɦɟ
ɜɬɟɚɬɪɟ'HOOD'DPHɢɬɨɥɶɤɨɨɞɧɚ©ɋɢɪɨɣªɜɜɟɧɟɰɢɚɧɫɤɨɦɬɟɚɬɪɟɋɚɧȾɠɨ
ɜɚɧɧɢɄɪɢɡɨɫɬɨɦɨȿɫɥɢɫɪɚɜɧɢɬɶɩɚɪɬɢɬɭɪɭ©ɋɢɪɨɹªȼɢɧɱɢɫɟɝɨ©ɧɟɜɟɧɟɰɢ
ɚɧɫɤɢɦɢªɨɩɟɪɚɦɢɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɦɢɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɛɵɥɢɫɨɡɞɚɧɵɩɨɡɞɧɟɟɬɨɫɬɚɧɨ
©ȽɟɧɢɣɦɟɫɬɚªɨɪɟɝɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɹɯɜɨɩɟɪɟVHULD 
ɜɢɬɫɹɹɫɧɵɦɱɬɨɨɧɢɜɟɫɶɦɚɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɨɬɥɢɱɚɸɬɫɹɩɪɢɱɟɦɧɟɜɞɟɬɚɥɹɯɱɬɨ
ɚɛɫɨɥɸɬɧɨɟɫɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɢɩɪɟɞɫɤɚɡɭɟɦɨɚɜɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɦɨɦɟɧɬɚɯȼ©ɋɢ
ɪɨɟªɫɪɚɡɭɠɟɨɛɪɚɳɚɟɬɧɚɫɟɛɹɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɞɪɭɝɨɣɛɨɥɟɟɜɵɫɨɤɢɣɨɛɳɢɣɬɨɧɭɫ
ɦɭɡɵɤɢȾɢɧɚɦɢɤɚɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɹɢɚɤɬɢɜɧɵɟɚɮɮɟɤɬɵɡɞɟɫɶɚɛɫɨɥɸɬɧɨɩɪɟɨɛɥɚɞɚ
ɸɬɜɵɫɨɤɜɟɫɤɨɧɰɟɪɬɧɨɫɬɢɜɫɚɦɵɯɪɚɡɧɵɯɟɟɩɪɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɹɯȼ©ɋɢɪɨɟªɜɫɟɝɨ
ɨɞɧɚɦɟɞɥɟɧɧɚɹɚɪɢɹɱɬɨɞɥɹɨɩɟɪɵVHULDɬɨɝɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɢɧɟɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɨɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɭ
ɸɬɥɢɪɢɤɨɫɨɡɟɪɰɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɢɝɚɥɚɧɬɧɨɱɭɜɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɧɨɦɟɪɚɂɷɬɨɩɪɢɬɨɦ
ɱɬɨ©ɋɢɪɨɣªɧɟɢɦɟɟɬɤɚɤɢɯɥɢɛɨɩɨɦɢɦɨɫɸɠɟɬɧɵɯɨɬɥɢɱɢɣɨɬɞɪɭɝɢɯɞɪɚɦ
Ɇɟɬɚɫɬɚɡɢɨɤɨɧɮɥɢɤɬɱɭɜɫɬɜɚɢɞɨɥɝɚɥɸɛɨɜɧɨɦɚɬɪɢɦɨɧɢɚɥɶɧɚɹɢɧɬɪɢɝɚ
ɰɟɥɵɣɤɥɭɛɨɤɷɮɮɟɤɬɧɵɯɦɢɡɚɧɫɰɟɧɢɩɨɜɨɪɨɬɨɜɮɚɛɭɥɵɚɪɢɢ²ɥɢɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ
ɜɵɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɧɢɹɌɚɤɱɬɨɨɫɨɛɭɸɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɭɸɷɧɟɪɝɢɸɦɭɡɵɤɢȼɢɧɱɢɨɩɪɟ
ɞɟɥɢɥɚɧɟɮɚɛɭɥɚɢɧɟɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚɢɧɞɢɜɢɞɭɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɫɬɢɥɹɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɚɫɚɦɢɩɨ
ɫɟɛɟɚɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɚɹɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɚȼɟɧɟɰɢɢɩɪɢɫɬɪɚɫɬɢɟɤɞɟɣɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɷɧɟɪ
ɝɢɱɧɨɦɭɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɸɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɬɚɤɨɳɭɳɚɟɬɫɹɜɦɭɡɵɤɟȼɢɜɚɥɶɞɢ
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ɠɚɧɪ;9,,,ɜɟɤɚɦɨɠɟɬɫɥɭɠɢɬɶɫɜɨɟɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɦɤɥɸɱɨɦɧɟɬɨɥɶɤɨɤɩɨɧɢɦɚ
ɧɢɸɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɨɜɜɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɦɭɡɵɤɢɧɨɢɤɢɧɬɟɪɩɪɟɬɚɰɢɢɜɚɠ
ɧɵɯɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɣɯɭɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵɜɰɟɥɨɦ
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฿ุ฻ฯฮฯืฯหฺส  าฯอุ฻สฺ฻฽็ีๅ

ඃඈඌඣൽൾඇൾൻඋൺ  ൺඇൽඁංඌඓൺඋඓඎൾඅൺඌ

Ⱥɧɧɨɬɚɰɢɹɋɬɚɬɶɹɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɚɫɚɪɫɭɷɥɚɦɏɨɫɟɞɟɇɟɛɪɵ ± ɨɞɧɨɝɨ


ɢɡɜɵɞɚɸɳɢɯɫɹɢɫɩɚɧɫɤɢɯɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɨɜ;9,,,ɫɬɨɥɟɬɢɹɇɟɫɦɨɬɪɹɧɚɬɨɱɬɨ
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Ɍɟɦɧɟɦɟɧɟɟɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɟɬɮɢɝɭɪɚɱɶɟɧɚɫɥɟɞɢɟɞɨɫɬɨɣɧɨɜɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɢɜɧɚɭɱ
ɧɵɣɨɛɨɪɨɬɢɜɭɱɟɛɧɵɟɤɭɪɫɵɢɜɪɟɩɟɪɬɭɚɪɢɫɩɨɥɧɢɬɟɥɟɣɗɬɨɫɬɚɪɲɢɣ
ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɢɤɭɱɢɬɟɥɶɢɞɪɭɝɋɨɥɟɪɚɏɨɫɟɞɟɇɟɛɪɚɪɨɞɢɜɲɢɣɫɹɜɝɨɞɭ
ɢɫɤɨɧɱɚɜɲɢɣɫɹɜ
ɇɚɫɥɟɞɢɟɇɟɛɪɵɜɟɥɢɤɨɢɯɨɬɹɧɟɜɫɟɟɝɨɫɨɱɢɧɟɧɢɹɞɨɲɥɢɞɨɧɚɲɢɯ
ɞɧɟɣɬɨɱɟɦɦɵɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɦɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɨɛɨɣɦɭɡɵɤɭɨɱɟɧɶɜɵɫɨɤɨɝɨ
ɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɚɄɬɨɦɭɠɟɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɨɛɥɚɞɚɥɜɵɞɚɸɳɢɦɫɹɦɟɥɨɞɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɞɚɪɨɦ
Ⱦɜɟɨɫɧɨɜɧɵɟɬɨɱɤɢɩɪɢɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɟɝɨɬɜɨɪɱɟɫɤɢɯɫɢɥ²ɷɬɨɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɚɹɢɞɭ
ɯɨɜɧɚɹɦɭɡɵɤɚɯɨɬɹɦɨɠɧɨɟɳɟɭɩɨɦɹɧɭɬɶɟɝɨɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɞɥɹɤɥɚɜɢɲɧɵɯ
ɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɨɜɬɟɦɛɨɥɟɟɱɬɨɧɚɩɪɨɬɹɠɟɧɢɢɩɨɱɬɢɜɫɟɣɠɢɡɧɢɇɟɛɪɚɡɚɧɢ
ɦɚɥɩɪɟɫɬɢɠɧɵɟɩɨɫɬɵɜɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟɨɪɝɚɧɢɫɬɚ
Ɍɟɚɬɪɛɵɥɫɬɪɚɫɬɶɸɇɟɛɪɵɫɦɨɥɨɞɵɯɥɟɬɉɪɢɷɬɨɦɟɝɨɞɟɬɫɤɢɟɢɩɨɞ
ɪɨɫɬɤɨɜɵɟɝɨɞɵɩɪɨɲɥɢɜɚɪɚɝɨɧɫɤɨɦɝɨɪɨɞɟɄɭɷɧɤɚɝɞɟɨɬɟɰɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɚ
ɛɵɥɩɟɪɜɵɦɨɪɝɚɧɢɫɬɨɦɫɨɛɨɪɚɂɝɥɚɜɧɵɦɢɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɦɢɜɩɟɱɚɬɥɟɧɢɹɦɢ
ɞɥɹɸɧɨɝɨɇɟɛɪɵɛɵɥɢɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɠɟɞɧɟɜɧɵɟɛɨɝɨɫɥɭɠɟɧɢɹ>@
ɌɪɭɞɧɨɜɨɨɛɪɚɡɢɬɶɫɟɛɟɱɬɨɢɫɩɵɬɚɥɸɧɨɲɚɩɨɩɚɜɜɆɚɞɪɢɞɫɟɝɨɹɪɤɨɣ
ɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɣɠɢɡɧɶɸɌɚɥɚɧɬɥɢɜɵɣɦɨɥɨɞɨɣɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɛɵɫɬɪɨɜɯɨɞɢɬɜɱɢɫɥɨ
ɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɨɜɪɟɝɭɥɹɪɧɨɩɢɲɭɳɢɯɦɭɡɵɤɭɞɥɹɢɫɩɚɧɫɤɢɯɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɯɬɪɭɩɩ
Ⱥɧɚɞɨɫɤɚɡɚɬɶɱɬɨɦɭɡɵɤɚɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɥɚɫɶɜɢɫɩɚɧɫɤɨɦɬɟɚɬɪɟɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɨɬɪɭɞ
ɧɨɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɶɫɟɛɟɤɚɤɨɣɥɢɛɨɫɰɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɠɚɧɪɬɨɝɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɢɛɟɡɩɟɧɢɹɢ
ɢɝɪɵɧɚɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɯɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚɯ
ɉɪɢɧɹɬɨɫɱɢɬɚɬɶɱɬɨɢɫɩɚɧɫɤɢɣɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɣɬɟɚɬɪ;9,,,ɜɟɤɚɛɵɥɩɨ
ɝɥɨɳɟɧɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɨɣɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɟɣɫɥɟɝɤɨɣɪɭɤɢɢɫɩɚɧɫɤɢɯȻɭɪɛɨɧɨɜɈɞɧɚɤɨ
ɩɪɨɰɟɫɫɵɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɜɲɢɟɜɷɬɨɣɨɛɥɚɫɬɢɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɬɫɹɝɨɪɚɡɞɨɫɥɨɠɧɟɟȾɟɣ
ɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɩɪɢɞɜɨɪɟɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɢɟɬɪɭɩɩɵɧɚɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɨɟɜɪɟɦɹɨɬɬɟɫɧɹɸɬɢɫ
ɩɚɧɫɤɨɟɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɟɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɨɧɚɜɬɨɪɨɣɩɥɚɧɇɨɜɰɟɥɨɦɩɟɪɟɧɢɦɚɹɬɟɢɥɢ
ɢɧɵɟɱɟɪɬɵɭɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɢɯɤɨɥɥɟɝɢɫɩɚɧɰɵɧɟɫɨɛɢɪɚɸɬɫɹɨɬɤɚɡɵɜɚɬɶɫɹɨɬ
ɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɯɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯɮɨɪɦɢɠɚɧɪɨɜɬɟɦɛɨɥɟɟɱɬɨɡɚɷɬɨɝɨɥɨɫɭɟɬ
ɪɟɚɥɨɦɚɭɞɢɬɨɪɢɹɩɥɨɳɚɞɧɵɯɢɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɯɬɟɚɬɪɨɜ
Ⱦɚɢɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɢɟɦɨɞɟɥɢɩɪɟɬɟɪɩɟɜɚɥɢɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɹɩɨɩɚɜɧɚɢɫɩɚɧɫɤɭɸ
ɩɨɱɜɭɇɚɩɪɢɦɟɪɪɟɱɢɬɚɬɢɜɵɩɪɟɞɜɚɪɹɜɲɢɟɚɪɢɢGDFDSRɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɨɝɨɬɢɩɚ
ɞɨɥɠɧɵɛɵɥɢɩɢɫɚɬɶɫɹɫɭɱɟɬɨɦɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɟɣɢɫɩɚɧɫɤɨɝɨɹɡɵɤɚɢɜ;9,,
ɜɟɤɟɷɬɨɬɨɪɦɨɡɢɥɨɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɟɠɚɧɪɚɧɚɉɢɪɟɧɟɣɫɤɨɦɩɨɥɭɨɫɬɪɨɜɟ>@
ɂɩɨɡɞɧɟɟɤɨɝɞɚɢɫɩɚɧɫɤɢɟɬɪɭɩɩɵɛɪɚɥɢɞɥɹɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢɦɟɥɨɞɪɚɦɥɢɛɪɟɬ
ɬɨɆɟɬɚɫɬɚɡɢɨɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɹɢɯɧɚɢɫɩɚɧɫɤɢɣɪɟɱɢɬɚɬɢɜɵɱɚɳɟɜɫɟɝɨɩɪɟɜɪɚɳɚ
ɥɢɫɶɜɪɚɡɝɨɜɨɪɧɵɟɞɢɚɥɨɝɢ>@
Ʉɪɨɦɟɬɨɝɨɜɡɚɢɦɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɟɫɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɢɦɫɬɢɥɟɦɧɚɱɚɥɨɫɶɧɟɫɩɪɢɯɨ
ɞɨɦɤɜɥɚɫɬɢȻɭɪɛɨɧɨɜɚɝɨɪɚɡɞɨɪɚɧɶɲɟɢɡɚɜɨɟɜɚɧɢɟȿɜɪɨɩɵɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɨɣ
ɏɨɫɟɞɟɇɟɛɪɚ  ɢɟɝɨɫɚɪɫɭɷɥɵ 
ɨɩɟɪɨɣɨɬɧɸɞɶɧɟɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɥɨɫɶɂɫɩɚɧɢɟɣɇɟɬɨɥɶɤɨɩɪɢɞɜɨɪɟɎɢɥɢɩɩɚ
9ɩɨɟɬɡɧɚɦɟɧɢɬɵɣɎɚɪɢɧɟɥɥɢɧɨɢɜȼɟɧɟɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɢɟɬɪɭɩɩɵɭɫɥɚɠɞɚɸɬ
ɫɥɭɯɢɦɩɟɪɚɬɪɢɰɵɆɚɪɢɢɌɟɪɟɡɢɢɚɫɚɦɵɟɫɦɟɥɵɟɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɰɵɞɚɠɟɟɞɭɬɜ
ɞɚɥɟɤɭɸɊɨɫɫɢɸɱɬɨɛɵɩɨɫɬɭɩɢɬɶɧɚɫɥɭɠɛɭɤȿɤɚɬɟɪɢɧɟ,,
ɋɚɪɫɭɷɥɵ;9,,,ɜɟɤɚɜɟɫɶɦɚɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɫɬɨɱɤɢɡɪɟɧɢɹɜɡɚɢɦɨɨɬɧɨɲɟ
ɧɢɣɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɨɣɢɢɫɩɚɧɫɤɨɣɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɣɢɫɚɪɫɭɷɥɵɇɟɛɪɵ²ɧɟɢɫɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟ
ȼɫɟɝɨɜɫɬɪɟɱɚɸɬɫɹɭɩɨɦɢɧɚɧɢɹɟɝɨɫɚɪɫɭɷɥɨɞɧɚɤɨɧɚɫɟɝɨɞɧɹɲɧɢɣɞɟɧɶ
ɧɚɣɞɟɧɨɱɟɬɵɪɟɢɡɧɢɯȻɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɨɚɜɬɨɝɪɚɮɨɜɇɟɛɪɵɞɨɫɬɚɜɲɢɯɫɹɩɨɫɥɟ
ɫɦɟɪɬɢɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɚɟɝɨɛɪɚɬɭɢɩɥɟɦɹɧɧɢɤɚɦ>@ɪɚɜɧɨɤɚɤɢɤɨɩɢɢɩɪɢ
ɧɚɞɥɟɠɚɜɲɢɟɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɦɬɪɭɩɩɚɦɪɚɫɬɟɪɹɥɢɫɶɫɬɟɱɟɧɢɟɦɥɟɬ
Ɉɛɪɚɳɚɹɫɶɤɫɚɪɫɭɷɥɚɦ;9,,,ɫɬɨɥɟɬɢɹɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɭɱɟɫɬɶɢɧɬɟɧɫɢɜ
ɧɭɸɷɜɨɥɸɰɢɸɤɨɬɨɪɭɸɩɪɟɬɟɪɩɟɥɠɚɧɪɫɦɨɦɟɧɬɚɫɜɨɟɝɨɩɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɹɜɫɟ
ɪɟɞɢɧɟ;9,,ɜɟɤɚ
ɋɜɨɢɦɧɚɡɜɚɧɢɟɦɫɚɪɫɭɷɥɚɨɛɹɡɚɧɚɨɞɧɨɢɦɟɧɧɨɣɤɨɪɨɥɟɜɫɤɨɣɪɟɡɢɞɟɧ
ɰɢɢɜɨɡɜɟɞɟɧɧɨɣɜɩɟɪɜɨɣɩɨɥɨɜɢɧɟ;9,,ɫɬɨɥɟɬɢɹɧɟɞɚɥɟɤɨɨɬɆɚɞɪɢɞɚ
ȼɨɞɜɨɪɰɟɩɪɨɯɨɞɢɥɢɭɜɟɫɟɥɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɟɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɫɬɚɜɲɢɟ
ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɟɦɬɚɤɠɟɧɚɡɵɜɚɬɶɫɹɫɚɪɫɭɷɥɚɦɢɋɚɪɫɭɷɥɚɫɨɫɬɨɹɥɚɢɡɞɜɭɯɞɟɣ
ɫɬɜɢɣɊɚɡɝɨɜɨɪɧɵɟɞɢɚɥɨɝɢɫɨɱɟɬɚɥɢɫɶɜɧɟɣɫɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɦɢɮɪɚɝɦɟɧɬɚɦɢ
ɨɯɜɚɬɵɜɚɸɳɢɦɢɨɬɱɟɬɜɟɪɬɢɞɨɬɪɟɬɢɜɫɟɝɨɬɟɤɫɬɚɉɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɥɨɫɶɤɨɦɢɱɟ
ɫɤɨɟɫɨɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟɩɨɷɬɨɦɭɜɩɶɟɫɟɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɩɪɢɫɭɬɫɬɜɨɜɚɥɢɬɚɤɧɚɡɵɜɚ
ɟɦɵɟɲɭɬɵ©ɝɪɚɫɶɨɫɨª ɩɨɞɪɨɛɧɟɟɨɛɷɬɨɦ>±@ Ɉɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɨɷɬɢ
ɝɟɪɨɢɛɵɥɢɫɥɭɝɚɦɢɢɜɷɬɨɦɫɚɪɫɭɷɥɚɩɟɪɟɤɥɢɤɚɟɬɫɹɫɞɪɭɝɢɦɢɜɢɞɚɦɢɬɟ
ɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɯɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɨɤɜɬɨɦɱɢɫɥɟɩɥɨɳɚɞɧɵɦɢɊɚɡɭɦɟɟɬɫɹɜɟɧɱɚɥɫɚɪɫɭ
ɷɥɭɫɱɚɫɬɥɢɜɵɣɮɢɧɚɥ
ɗɬɢɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢɫɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɢɫɶɢɫɩɭɫɬɹɫɬɨɥɟɬɩɨɪɨɣɜɟɫɶɦɚɡɚɦɵɫ
ɥɨɜɚɬɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɹɫɶɫɧɨɜɨɜɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɦɢɌɚɤɜɨɫɧɨɜɭɫɸɠɟɬɚɜ;9,,,ɜɟɤɟɦɨɝɥɢ
ɛɵɬɶɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɵɞɚɠɟɦɨɬɢɜɵɚɧɬɢɱɧɵɯɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɣɢɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɫɚɪɫɭɷɥɵɇɟ
ɛɪɵɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɬɫɨɛɨɣɢɦɟɧɧɨɬɚɤɢɟɫɥɭɱɚɢɇɚɩɪɢɦɟɪɩɚɪɚɝɪɚɫɶɨɫɨɨɛ
ɧɚɪɭɠɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɜɫɚɪɫɭɷɥɟ©ɂɮɢɝɟɧɢɹɜɨɎɪɚɤɢɢªɷɬɨɫɥɭɝɚɉɢɥɚɞɚɆɨɱɢɥɚ
ɢɫɥɭɠɚɧɤɚɗɥɟɤɬɪɵɄɨɮɶɟɬɚ Ɉɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɣɜɨɩɪɨɫ²ɱɬɨɞɟɥɚɟɬɂɮɢɝɟɧɢɹ
ɜɨɎɪɚɤɢɢɧɨɨɱɟɜɢɞɧɨɷɬɨɩɪɨɫɬɨɨɲɢɛɤɚɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɚɩɟɪɟɩɭɬɚɜɲɟɝɨɛɟ
ɪɟɝɚɑɟɪɧɨɝɨɦɨɪɹɫɸɠɟɬɧɚɹɮɚɛɭɥɚɨɬɫɵɥɚɟɬɧɚɫɤ©ɂɮɢɝɟɧɢɢɜɌɚɜɪɢɞɟª 
ɇɨɟɫɥɢɪɚɡɜɹɡɤɭ©ɂɮɢɝɟɧɢɢªɟɳɟɦɨɠɧɨɫɱɢɬɚɬɶɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɱɚɫɬ
ɥɢɜɨɣɡɚɤɪɵɜɝɥɚɡɚɧɚɤɪɨɜɚɜɭɸɢɫɬɨɪɢɸɈɪɟɫɬɚɬɨɩɨɪɨɣɚɜɬɨɪɚɦɩɪɢɯɨɞɢ
ɥɨɫɶɭɜɹɡɵɜɚɬɶɨɱɟɧɶɫɢɥɶɧɵɟɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɪɟɱɢɹɦɟɠɞɭɬɪɚɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɫɸɠɟɬɨɦɢ
ɩɪɚɡɞɧɢɱɧɵɦɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɨɦɠɚɧɪɚɫɚɪɫɭɷɥɵəɪɤɢɣɩɪɢɦɟɪ²ɫɚɪɫɭɷɥɚɇɟɛɪɵ
©'RQGHKD\YLROHQFLDQRKD\FXOSDªɱɬɨɦɨɠɧɨɩɟɪɟɜɟɫɬɢɤɚɤ©Ɍɚɦɝɞɟɟɫɬɶ
ɧɚɫɢɥɢɟɧɟɬɜɢɧɵª ɢɦɟɟɬɫɹɜɜɢɞɭɱɬɨɠɟɪɬɜɚɧɚɫɢɥɢɹɧɢɜɱɟɦɧɟɜɢɧɨɜɚ
ɬɚ ȼɨɫɧɨɜɭɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨɥɟɝɤɚɡɚɥɨɫɶɛɵɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɨɧɟɩɨɞɯɨɞɹɳɢɣɫɸɠɟɬ
ɢɫɬɨɪɢɹɪɢɦɥɹɧɤɢɅɭɤɪɟɰɢɢɤɨɬɨɪɚɹɛɭɞɭɱɢɢɡɧɚɫɢɥɨɜɚɧɧɨɣɫɵɧɨɦɰɚɪɹ
ɋɟɤɫɬɨɦɌɚɪɤɜɢɧɢɟɦɩɨɤɨɧɱɢɥɚɫɫɨɛɨɣɧɚɝɥɚɡɚɯɭɦɭɠɚɄɨɧɟɱɧɨɩɨɤɚ
 ɆȺɆɨɢɫɟɟɜɚ

ɡɚɬɶɟɟɫɦɟɪɬɶɧɚɫɰɟɧɟɛɵɥɨɧɟɥɶɡɹɈɤɨɧɱɢɧɟɅɭɤɪɟɰɢɢɦɵɭɡɧɚɟɦɢɡɭɫɬ
ɝɪɚɫɶɨɫɵɱɬɨɩɪɢɡɜɚɧɨɫɧɢɡɢɬɶɬɪɚɝɢɡɦɦɨɦɟɧɬɚ>@
ɂɡɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɨɫɚɪɫɭɷɥɵɩɢɫɚɥɢɫɶɧɚɦɢɮɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɫɸɠɟɬɵɫɭɱɚɫɬɢ
ɟɦɧɢɦɮɢɩɚɫɬɭɲɤɨɜɩɟɪɟɤɥɢɤɚɹɫɶɫɩɚɫɬɨɪɚɥɶɧɵɦɢɠɚɧɪɚɦɢȿɫɬɶɬɚɤɢɟ
ɢɭɇɟɛɪɵɜɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢɞɜɟɫɨɯɪɚɧɢɜɲɢɯɫɹɫɚɪɫɭɷɥɵɉɟɪɜɚɹ²©9LHQWRHV
ODGLFKDGHODPRUªɬɨɟɫɬɶ©Ʌɸɛɨɜɧɨɟɫɱɚɫɬɶɟ²ɷɬɨɜɟɬɟɪªɝɞɟɪɚɫɫɤɚɡɵ
ɜɚɟɬɫɹɨɥɸɛɜɢɁɟɮɢɪɚɢɧɢɦɮɵɅɢɪɢɨɩɵȾɪɭɝɚɹ²©9HQGDGRHVDPRUQR
HVFLHJRªɬɨɟɫɬɶ©Ƚɥɚɡɚɥɸɛɜɢɡɚɜɹɡɚɧɵɧɨɨɧɚɧɟɫɥɟɩɚªɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɧɚɹɧɚ
ɥɸɛɨɜɧɵɯɩɟɪɢɩɟɬɢɹɯɩɚɫɬɭɯɚȺɧɯɢɫɚɜɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɡɚɦɟɲɚɧɵɧɢɦɧɨɝɨɧɢ
ɦɚɥɨȼɟɧɟɪɚȾɢɚɧɚɢɧɢɦɮɚɗɜɦɟɧɚɄɷɬɨɣɠɟɤɚɬɟɝɨɪɢɢɦɨɠɧɨɨɬɧɟɫɬɢ
ɧɟɫɨɯɪɚɧɢɜɲɢɟɫɹɫɚɪɫɭɷɥɵ©ɉɨɯɢɳɟɧɢɟȽɚɧɢɦɟɞɚªɢ©ȺɯɢɥɥɟɫɜɌɪɨɟªɇɨ
ɤɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɢɇɟɛɪɵɩɨɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹɢɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɫɸɠɟɬɵɉɨɦɢɦɨɢɫɬɨɪɢɢ
Ʌɭɤɪɟɰɢɢɫɪɟɞɢɫɚɪɫɭɷɥɇɟɛɪɵɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ©ȺɥɟɤɫɚɧɞɪɜȺɡɢɢªɇɟ
ɫɤɨɥɶɤɨɜɵɛɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɢɡɷɬɨɝɨɪɹɞɚɫɚɪɫɭɷɥɚ©ɇɟɩɨɛɟɞɢɦɵɣȺɦɚɞɢɫªɜɩɪɨ
ɱɟɦɧɢɦɭɡɵɤɚɧɢɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨɧɟɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɵɬɚɤɱɬɨɨɰɟɧɢɬɶɩɪɟɥɨɦɥɟɧɢɟ
ɪɵɰɚɪɫɤɨɝɨɪɨɦɚɧɚɜɫɚɪɫɭɷɥɟɜɫɟɪɚɜɧɨɧɟɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɉɪɨɣɞɟɬɩɚɪɚɞɟɫɹ
ɬɢɥɟɬɢɣɢɧɚɦɚɞɪɢɞɫɤɨɣɫɰɟɧɟɛɭɞɭɬɢɞɬɢɫɚɪɫɭɷɥɵɫɩɪɢɧɰɢɩɢɚɥɶɧɨɞɪɭ
ɝɢɦɢɫɸɠɟɬɚɦɢ²ɛɵɬɨɜɵɦɢɧɚɩɨɥɧɟɧɧɵɦɢɦɟɫɬɧɵɦɤɨɥɨɪɢɬɨɦɫɝɟɪɨ
ɹɦɢ©ɢɡɧɚɪɨɞɚªɇɨɇɟɛɪɚɤɷɬɨɦɭɜɪɟɦɟɧɢɫɨɫɪɟɞɨɬɨɱɢɬɫɹɧɚɧɚɩɢɫɚɧɢɢ
ɞɭɯɨɜɧɨɣɦɭɡɵɤɢ
ɋɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɩɟɪɜɵɯɫɚɪɫɭɷɥɫɢɥɶɧɨɢɡɦɟɧɢɥɫɹɢɢɯɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɣɦɚɬɟ
ɪɢɚɥɢɡɞɟɫɶɤɚɤɪɚɡɭɦɟɫɬɧɨɝɨɜɨɪɢɬɶɨɛɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɨɦɜɥɢɹɧɢɢɉɚɪɚ©ɪɟ
ɱɢɬɚɬɢɜ²ɚɪɢɹɞɚɤɚɩɨªɩɪɨɱɧɨɡɚɤɪɟɩɢɥɚɫɶɜɢɫɩɚɧɫɤɨɦɬɟɚɬɪɟɩɪɢɱɟɦɧɟ
ɬɨɥɶɤɨɜɫɚɪɫɭɷɥɚɯɧɨɢɞɪɭɝɢɯɢɫɤɨɧɧɨɢɫɩɚɧɫɤɢɯɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɟ
ɫɤɢɯɠɚɧɪɚɯɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪɚɭɬɨɫɚɤɪɚɦɟɧɬɚɥɶ²ɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɹɯɧɚɞɭɯɨɜɧɭɸɬɟɦɭ
ɫɬɚɜɢɜɲɢɯɫɹɧɚɩɪɚɡɞɧɢɤɌɟɥɚɏɪɢɫɬɨɜɚ
ɇɟɫɬɨɢɬɞɭɦɚɬɶɨɞɧɚɤɨɱɬɨɷɬɢɨɩɟɪɧɵɟɮɨɪɦɵɩɪɢɲɥɢɜɂɫɩɚɧɢɸ
ɜɦɟɫɬɟɫɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɢɦɢɬɪɭɩɩɚɦɢɜɟɝɨɞɵ;9,,,ɫɬɨɥɟɬɢɹɆɵɦɨɠɟɦɨɛ
ɧɚɪɭɠɢɬɶɢɯɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪɭɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɚɪɭɛɟɠɚ;9,,ɢ;9,,,ɜɟɤɨɜɋɟɛɚɫɬɶɹ
ɧɚȾɭɪɨɧɚ
ɂɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɢɟɚɪɢɢɪɚɡɭɦɟɟɬɫɹɧɟɛɵɥɢɮɨɪɦɚɥɶɧɵɦɪɟɜɟɪɚɧɫɨɦɡɚɟɡ
ɠɢɦɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɰɚɦɈɧɢɤɚɤɢɜɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɨɣɨɩɟɪɟɫɨɨɬɧɨɫɢɥɢɫɶɫɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵ
ɦɢɚɮɮɟɤɬɚɦɢɢɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɥɢɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɶɝɟɪɨɹɫɪɚɡɧɵɯɫɬɨɪɨɧɗɬɨɛɵɥɨɜɚɠɧɨ
ɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭɩɫɢɯɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɱɟɪɬɵɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɟɣɜɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɯɬɚɤɨɝɨɪɨɞɚ
ɱɚɫɬɨɧɟɛɵɥɢɜɵɩɢɫɚɧɵɉɪɢɦɟɪɨɦɦɨɠɟɬɩɨɫɥɭɠɢɬɶɚɪɢɹɝɧɟɜɚɤɨɬɨɪɭɸ
ɢɫɩɨɥɧɹɟɬȼɟɧɟɪɚɜɨɩɟɪɟ©9HQGDGRHVDPRUQRHVFLHJRª
ɇɨɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɢɟɚɪɢɢɫɪɟɱɢɬɚɬɢɜɚɦɢɧɟɜɵɬɟɫɧɢɥɢɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɨɧɧɵɟɢɫ
ɩɚɧɫɤɢɟɮɨɪɦɵɚɱɟɪɟɞɨɜɚɥɢɫɶɫɧɢɦɢɄɬɚɤɨɜɵɦɨɬɧɨɫɹɬɫɹɬɚɤɧɚɡɵɜɚɟ

ɑɬɨɜɩɪɨɱɟɦɬɚɤɠɟɦɨɝɥɨɛɵɬɶɩɨɞɝɨɬɨɜɥɟɧɨɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɨɣɦɨɞɟɥɶɸȼɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢɨɛɳɟɟɜɪɨ
ɩɟɣɫɤɭɸɩɨɩɭɥɹɪɧɨɫɬɶɨɛɪɟɬɚɟɬ©ɋɥɭɠɚɧɤɚɝɨɫɩɨɠɚªȾɠȻɉɟɪɝɨɥɟɡɢɢɷɬɚɜɨɥɧɚɡɚɯɥɟɫɬ
ɧɭɥɚɢɂɫɩɚɧɢɸ>@
ɏɨɫɟɞɟɇɟɛɪɚ  ɢɟɝɨɫɚɪɫɭɷɥɵ 
ɦɵɟFXDWUR²ɝɨɦɨɮɨɧɧɵɟɱɟɬɵɪɟɯɝɨɥɨɫɧɵɟɯɨɪɵɨɛɵɤɧɨɜɟɧɧɨɨɬɤɪɵɜɚɸ
ɳɢɟɢɡɚɤɪɵɜɚɸɳɢɟɚɤɬɇɨɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟɹɪɤɢɦɢɢɨɠɢɞɚɟɦɵɦɢɩɭɛɥɢɤɨɣɛɵɥɢ
ɫɨɥɶɧɵɟɢɥɢɞɭɷɬɧɵɟɧɨɦɟɪɚɢɫɩɚɧɫɤɨɝɨɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɹɩɪɟɠɞɟɜɫɟɝɨ²
ɫɟɝɢɞɢɥɶɢ
ɋɟɝɢɞɢɥɶɹ²ɢɫɩɚɧɫɤɚɹɩɟɫɟɧɧɨɬɚɧɰɟɜɚɥɶɧɚɹɮɨɪɦɚɜɬɪɟɯɞɨɥɶɧɨɦɪɚɡ
ɦɟɪɟȿɟɢɫɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟɱɚɫɬɨɫɨɩɪɨɜɨɠɞɚɥɨɫɶɢɝɪɨɣɧɚɤɚɫɬɚɧɶɟɬɚɯȼɫɚɪɫɭ
ɷɥɚɯɫɟɝɢɞɢɥɶɹɦɨɝɥɚɢɫɩɨɥɧɹɬɶɫɹɤɚɤɝɟɪɨɹɦɢɝɪɚɫɶɨɫɨɬɚɤɢɫɟɪɶɟɡɧɵɦɢ
ɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɚɦɢɇɚɩɪɢɦɟɪɜ©ɂɮɢɝɟɧɢɢ«ªɫɟɝɢɞɢɥɶɸɩɨɸɬɈɪɟɫɬɢȾɢɪɰɟɹ
ɋɚɦɵɣɠɟɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɵɣɩɪɢɦɟɪɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɹɟɬɜɫɟɛɟɠɚɧɪɵɫɟɝɢɞɢɥɶɢɢɮɚɧɞɚɧ
ɝɨɗɬɨɞɭɷɬɝɪɚɫɶɨɫɨɢɡɫɚɪɫɭɷɥɵ©9HQGDGRHVDPRUQRHVFLHJRª
ȼɚɠɧɟɣɲɟɟɢɡɦɟɧɟɧɢɟɩɪɨɢɡɨɲɟɞɲɟɟɫɫɚɪɫɭɷɥɨɣɜ;9,,,ɜɟɤɟɷɬɨɟɟ
ɜɵɯɨɞɢɡɩɪɢɞɜɨɪɧɨɝɨɬɟɚɬɪɚɜɬɟɚɬɪɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɵɣɈɧɫɜɹɡɚɧɜɬɨɦɱɢɫɥɟɫ
ɪɟɮɨɪɦɨɣɝɥɚɜɧɵɯɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɯɩɥɨɳɚɞɨɤɆɚɞɪɢɞɚɜɟɝɨɞɵɌɚɤɨɜɵɦɢ
ɹɜɥɹɥɢɫɶ7HDWURGHO3UtQFLSHɢ7HDWURGHOD&UX] ɩɨɧɚɡɜɚɧɢɸɭɥɢɰɧɚɤɨɬɨ
ɪɵɯɨɧɢɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɥɢɫɶ Ɂɚɧɹɬɧɨɱɬɨɇɟɛɪɚɞɚɠɟɠɢɥɜɞɜɭɯɲɚɝɚɯɨɬɧɢɯ
ɧɚɉɥɚɫɚɞɟɥɶȺɧɯɟɥɶ>@
Ɉɛɟɩɥɨɳɚɞɤɢɧɚɩɪɨɬɹɠɟɧɢɢɦɧɨɝɢɯɞɟɫɹɬɢɥɟɬɢɣɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɨɜɚɥɢɜɮɨɪ
ɦɟɤɨɪɪɚɥɟɣɧɟɩɨɞɯɨɞɹɳɢɯɞɥɹɩɨɤɚɡɚɩɨɥɧɨɰɟɧɧɨɝɨɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɫɩɟɤɬɚ
ɤɥɹɄɨɪɪɚɥɶɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɥɫɨɛɨɣɞɜɭɯɷɬɚɠɧɵɟɩɨɞɦɨɫɬɤɢɩɨɞɨɬɤɪɵɬɵɦɧɟ
ɛɨɦɫɨɨɪɭɠɟɧɧɵɟɜɨɞɜɨɪɢɤɟɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɧɧɨɦɫɬɟɧɚɦɢɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɯɞɨɦɨɜȼɨ
ɜɬɨɪɨɣɬɪɟɬɢ;9,,,ɜɟɤɚɧɚɱɢɧɚɟɬɫɹɩɟɪɟɫɬɪɨɣɤɚɫɚɦɵɯɩɨɩɭɥɹɪɧɵɯɤɨɪɪɚɥɟɣ
ɜɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɢɟɬɟɚɬɪɵɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɨɝɨɨɛɪɚɡɰɚɫɩɪɢɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɟɦɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɵɯɦɚɞɪɢɞ
ɫɤɢɯɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɨɪɨɜɬɟɯɥɟɬɇɟɫɥɭɱɚɣɧɨɩɨɱɬɢɜɫɟɫɚɪɫɭɷɥɵɇɟɛɪɵɩɪɢɯɨɞɹɬɫɹ
ɧɚɤɨɧɟɰɯ±ɟɝɨɞɵȻɨɥɟɟɬɨɝɨɨɞɧɚɢɡɧɢɯ©ɉɨɯɢɳɟɧɢɟȽɚɧɢɦɟɞɚª
ɛɵɥɚɧɚɩɢɫɚɧɚɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɤɨɤɨɧɱɚɧɢɸɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɚɧɨɜɨɝɨɡɞɚɧɢɹ7HDWUR
GHO3UtQFLSHɜɝɨɞɭ
Ʉɨɧɟɱɧɨɡɧɚɬɶɦɨɝɥɚɢɜ;9,,,ɜɟɤɟɡɚɤɚɡɚɬɶɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɭɫɚɪɫɭɷɥɭɩɨ
ɩɨɜɨɞɭɤɚɤɨɝɨɬɨɫɟɦɟɣɧɨɝɨɬɨɪɠɟɫɬɜɚɌɚɤɞɜɟɢɡɫɚɪɫɭɷɥɇɟɛɪɵɧɚɩɢɫɚɧɵ
ɞɥɹɝɟɪɰɨɝɚɆɟɞɢɧɚɫɟɥɢɇɨɫɢɦɩɬɨɦɚɬɢɱɧɨɱɬɨɫɵɝɪɚɧɧɚɹɞɥɹɞɜɨɪɹɧɢɧɚ
ɫɚɪɫɭɷɥɚɱɟɪɟɡɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɨɟɜɪɟɦɹɜɫɟɪɚɜɧɨɩɨɩɚɞɚɥɚɧɚɩɨɞɦɨɫɬɤɢɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨ
ɝɨɬɟɚɬɪɚ>@
Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɵɦɢɠɟɡɚɤɚɡɱɢɤɚɦɢɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɥɢɢɫɩɚɧɫɤɢɟɚɤɬɟɪɫɤɢɟɬɪɭɩɩɵ
ɩɵɬɚɜɲɢɟɫɹ²ɢɧɟɛɟɡɭɫɩɟɯɚ²ɫɨɩɟɪɧɢɱɚɬɶɫɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɨɣɨɩɟɪɨɣɗɬɨ
ɨɛɫɬɨɹɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɥɨɜɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢɢɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɟɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɫɚɪ
ɫɭɷɥ
ȼɰɟɥɨɦɦɨɠɧɨɫɤɚɡɚɬɶɱɬɨɚɪɢɢɢɡɫɚɪɫɭɷɥɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨɦɟɧɟɟɜɢɪɬɭɨɡɧɵ
ɱɟɦɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɢɟɚɪɢɢɨɩɟɪɫɟɪɢɚɢɥɢɠɟɱɟɦɜɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɟɩɚɪɬɢɢɜɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ
ɞɭɯɨɜɧɵɯɫɨɱɢɧɟɧɢɹɯɬɨɝɨɠɟɇɟɛɪɵɇɨɜɫɟɠɟɷɬɨɧɟ©ɩɟɫɟɧɤɢªɢɢɯɢɫɩɨɥ
ɧɟɧɢɟɬɪɟɛɭɟɬɩɨɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɦɭɯɨɪɨɲɢɯɜɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɯɞɚɧɧɵɯȼɩɪɨɱɟɦɇɟɛɪɚ
ɝɨɞɚɦɢɫɨɬɪɭɞɧɢɱɚɥɫɨɞɧɢɦɢɢɬɟɦɢɠɟɬɪɭɩɩɚɦɢɩɪɟɠɞɟɜɫɟɝɨɫɬɪɭɩɩɨɣ
ɏɨɫɟɉɚɪɪɵɬɚɤɱɬɨɨɧɩɪɟɤɪɚɫɧɨɡɧɚɥɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɢɫɜɨɢɯɩɟɜɢɰ
 ɆȺɆɨɢɫɟɟɜɚ

ɂɦɟɧɧɨ²ɩɟɜɢɰɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭɥɶɜɢɧɚɹɞɨɥɹɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɯɧɨɦɟɪɨɜɥɨ
ɠɢɥɚɫɶɧɚɩɥɟɱɢɩɨɸɳɢɯɚɤɬɪɢɫɍɠɟɜ;9,,ɫɬɨɥɟɬɢɢɜɂɫɩɚɧɢɢɝɥɚɜɧɵɟ
ɦɭɠɫɤɢɟɩɚɪɬɢɢɤɚɤɢɜɂɬɚɥɢɢɩɟɥɢɫɨɩɪɚɧɨɇɨɩɟɜɰɵɤɚɫɬɪɚɬɵɡɞɟɫɶɧɟ
ɩɪɢɜɟɬɫɬɜɨɜɚɥɢɫɶɢɬɚɤɢɟɪɨɥɢɜɫɟɝɞɚɞɨɫɬɚɜɚɥɢɫɶɠɟɧɳɢɧɚɦɉɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɟ
ɫɚɪɫɭɷɥɧɚɫɰɟɧɟɩɭɛɥɢɱɧɨɝɨɬɟɚɬɪɚɤɨɧɟɱɧɨɞɨɛɚɜɥɹɥɨɷɧɬɭɡɢɚɡɦɚɢɫɩɚɧ
ɫɤɢɦɩɟɜɢɰɚɦɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɩɨɬɟɫɧɢɥɢɛɵɥɨɩɪɢɟɡɠɢɟɫɨɩɪɚɧɢɫɬɵȼɟɪɨɹɬɧɨ
ɨɩɨɪɚɧɚɠɟɧɫɤɢɟɝɨɥɨɫɚɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɥɚɢɫɨɫɬɚɜɯɨɪɨɜFXDWURɷɬɨɧɟɩɪɢɜɵɱ
ɧɵɟɧɚɦɫɨɩɪɚɧɨɚɥɶɬɬɟɧɨɪɢɛɚɫɚɬɪɢɫɨɩɪɚɧɨɢɬɟɧɨɪɗɬɨɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɥɨɡɚ
ɧɹɬɶɜɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɟɦɢɧɢɦɭɦɩɟɜɰɨɜɡɚɞɟɣɫɬɜɨɜɚɜɜFXDWURɚɤɬɪɢɫɢɫɩɨɥɧɹ
ɸɳɢɯɝɥɚɜɧɵɟɪɨɥɢ
ɋɚɪɫɭɷɥɚɦɟɧɹɟɬɢɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɣɨɪɤɟɫɬɪɄɚɤɭɠɟɛɵɥɨɫɤɚɡɚɧɨɦɭɡɵɤɚ
ɛɵɥɚɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɣɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɟɣɥɸɛɨɝɨɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɈɞ
ɧɚɤɨɬɚɦɝɞɟɨɧɚɢɦɟɥɚɦɟɧɶɲɟɟɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟɦɨɠɧɨɛɵɥɨɨɛɨɣɬɢɫɶɧɟɡɚɦɵɫ
ɥɨɜɚɬɵɦɚɤɤɨɦɩɚɧɟɦɟɧɬɨɦɚɬɚɤɠɟɩɚɪɨɣɝɨɪɧɨɜɢɛɚɪɚɛɚɧɨɦɟɫɥɢɧɚɬɨ
ɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɥɢɪɟɦɚɪɤɢɋɚɪɫɭɷɥɚɠɟɬɪɟɛɭɟɬɩɭɫɬɶɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɨɝɨɧɨɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɨ
ɝɨɨɪɤɟɫɬɪɚɫɬɪɭɧɧɵɟɛɚɫɫɨɤɨɧɬɢɧɭɨɚɱɚɫɬɨɢɫɨɥɢɪɭɸɳɢɟɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɵ
ȼɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɯɦɨɝɥɢɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɬɶɮɥɟɣɬɵɝɨɛɨɢɢɥɢɩɚɪɚɜɚɥɬɨɪɧɤɚɤ
ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪɜɚɪɢɢɉɨɥɢɞɨɪɚɢɡ©ɂɮɢɝɟɧɢɢª
Ɉɞɧɚɤɨɩɪɟɠɞɟɱɟɦɧɚɧɹɬɶɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɚɬɪɭɩɩɟɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨɛɵɥɨɜɵ
ɛɪɚɬɶɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨɉɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɵɦɢɫɨɚɜɬɨɪɚɦɢɇɟɛɪɵɢɧɟɬɨɥɶɤɨɜɠɚɧɪɟɫɚɪ
ɫɭɷɥɵɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɬɫɹɞɜɚɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɚɡɧɚɤɨɜɵɯɞɥɹɢɫɩɚɧɫɤɨɝɨɬɟɚɬɪɚ;9,,,
ɜɟɤɚɉɟɪɜɵɣɢɡɧɢɯ²ɏɨɫɟɞɟɄɚɧɶɢɫɚɪɟɫ ± Ɉɧɛɵɥɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶ
ɧɨɫɬɚɪɲɟɇɟɛɪɵɢɧɚɱɢɧɚɥɫɜɨɣɩɭɬɶɤɚɤɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɚɬɟɥɶɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɣɄɚɥɶɞɟ
ɪɨɧɚ>@Ɉɞɧɚɤɨɬɚɥɚɧɬɢɬɜɨɪɱɟɫɤɚɹɝɢɛɤɨɫɬɶɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɥɢɟɦɭɭɫɩɟɲɧɨ
ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɚɬɶɪɚɛɨɬɭɢɜɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɚɇɟɛɪɵɄɚɧɶɢɫɚɪɟɫɛɵɥɨɮɢɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɦɩɪɢ
ɞɜɨɪɧɵɦɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɨɦɢɢɦɟɥɨɝɪɨɦɧɨɟɜɥɢɹɧɢɟɜɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɦɦɢɪɟ
ȼɬɨɪɵɦɩɨɫɬɨɹɧɧɵɦɫɨɪɚɬɧɢɤɨɦɇɟɛɪɵɛɵɥɇɢɤɨɥɚɫȽɨɧɫɚɥɟɫɆɚɪɬɢ
ɧɟɫ ɨɤ±ɩɨɫɥɟ ɛɥɢɡɤɢɣɟɦɭɩɨɜɨɡɪɚɫɬɭɢɫɬɚɜɲɢɣɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɭ
ɞɪɭɝɨɦɢɞɚɠɟɞɭɲɟɩɪɢɤɚɡɱɢɤɨɦȼɩɨɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɢɢɦɟɧɧɨɨɧɫɦɟɧɢɬɄɚɧɶɢɫɟ
ɪɚɫɚɧɚɩɨɫɬɭɩɪɢɞɜɨɪɧɨɝɨɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɚɗɬɨɭɠɟɛɵɥɱɟɥɨɜɟɤɧɨɜɨɝɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ
ɢɜɟɝɨɞɵɬɪɭɩɩɚɏɨɫɟɉɚɪɪɵɱɚɫɬɨɫɨɬɪɭɞɧɢɱɚɟɬɢɦɟɧɧɨɫɧɢɦ
Ʉɷɬɨɦɭɦɨɠɧɨɞɨɛɚɜɢɬɶɨɛɪɚɳɟɧɢɟɇɟɛɪɵɜɫɚɪɫɭɷɥɟ©9LHQWRHVODGLFKD
GHODPRUª  ɤɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨȺɧɬɨɧɢɨɞɟɋɚɦɨɪɵ ± ɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨɢɫɫɥɟ
ɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɢɧɚɪɹɞɭɫɄɚɧɶɢɫɚɪɟɫɨɦɧɚɡɵɜɚɸɬ©ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɦɭɫɩɟɲɧɵɦɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪ
ɝɨɦȻɚɪɨɤɤɨª>@ ɪɚɡɭɦɟɟɬɫɹɩɪɢɦɟɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɤɂɫɩɚɧɢɢ ȼɩɪɨɱɟɦɬɟɤɫɬ
ɩɨɤɨɣɧɨɝɨɞɟɋɚɦɨɪɵɜɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɟɝɨɞɚɛɵɥɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɢɡɦɟɧɟɧ>@
ɉɨɫɥɟɞɧɟɟɱɬɨɯɨɬɟɥɨɫɶɛɵɡɚɦɟɬɢɬɶɜɫɜɹɡɢɫɫɚɪɫɭɷɥɨɣɷɬɨɬɨɱɬɨɫɬɚ
ɜɢɥɚɫɶɨɧɚɤɚɤɢɞɪɭɝɢɟɤɪɭɩɧɵɟɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɟɮɨɪɦɵɫɩɪɨɥɨɝɨɦɧɚɡɵɜɚɜ
ɲɟɦɫɹɜɂɫɩɚɧɢɢ©ɥɨɚªɢɢɧɬɟɪɦɟɞɢɹɦɢɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɦɨɝɥɢɧɚɡɵɜɚɬɶɫɹɫɚɣɧɟ
ɬɚɦɢɢɥɢɬɨɧɚɞɢɥɶɹɦɢɉɨɤɨɧɬɪɚɤɬɚɦɢɫɱɟɬɚɦɜɢɞɧɨɱɬɨɦɭɡɵɤɭɞɥɹɷɬɢɯ
ɱɚɫɬɟɣɦɨɝɩɢɫɚɬɶɤɚɤɚɜɬɨɪɫɚɪɫɭɷɥɵɬɚɤɢɞɪɭɝɨɣɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪ
ɏɨɫɟɞɟɇɟɛɪɚ  ɢɟɝɨɫɚɪɫɭɷɥɵ 
Ɍɨɱɬɨɜɫɚɪɫɭɷɥɟ;9,,,ɜɟɤɚɨɬɪɚɡɢɥɢɫɶɜɚɠɧɟɣɲɢɟɱɟɪɬɵɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ
ɪɚɜɧɨɤɚɤɢɬɨɱɬɨɤɠɚɧɪɭɨɛɪɚɳɚɥɢɫɶɜɟɞɭɳɢɟɚɜɬɨɪɵɷɩɨɯɢɩɨɛɭɠɞɚɟɬɤ
ɞɚɥɶɧɟɣɲɟɦɭɜɧɢɦɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɭɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɸɠɚɧɪɚɇɨɩɨɦɢɦɨɭɬɨɱɧɟɧɢɹɦɭɡɵ
ɤɚɥɶɧɨɣɤɚɪɬɵȿɜɪɨɩɵ;9,,,ɫɬɨɥɟɬɢɹɢɡɷɬɨɝɨɦɨɠɧɨɢɡɜɥɟɱɶɢɱɢɫɬɨɩɪɚɤ
ɬɢɱɟɫɤɭɸɩɨɥɶɡɭɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪɩɨɩɨɥɧɢɬɶɪɟɩɟɪɬɭɚɪɩɟɜɰɨɜɩɪɟɤɪɚɫɧɨɣɦɭɡɵ
ɤɨɣɞɥɹɞɜɭɯɫɨɩɪɚɧɨ

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ɂɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɨɩɪɢɮɢɧɚɧɫɨɜɨɣɩɨɞɞɟɪɠɤɟɊɎɎɂɜɪɚɦɤɚɯɧɚɭɱɧɨɝɨɩɪɨ
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Ⱥɧɧɨɬɚɰɢɹɋɪɟɞɢɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɢɯɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɯɚɜɬɨɪɨɜ;9,,,ɫɬɨɥɟɬɢɹɨɫɨɛɨɝɨ
ɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɹɡɚɫɥɭɠɢɜɚɟɬɮɢɝɭɪɚɌɨɦɚɫɚȺɜɝɭɫɬɢɧɚȺɪɧɚȿɝɨɩɟɪɭɩɪɢɧɚɞɥɟɠɚɬɨɤɨ
ɥɨɫɰɟɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɣ ɜɬɨɦɱɢɫɥɟɩɨɱɬɢɨɩɟɪɢɦɚɫɨɤ ɨɞɧɚɤɨ
ɡɧɚɱɢɦɨɫɬɶɞɟɹɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢȺɪɧɚɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɹɟɬɫɹɧɟɬɨɥɶɤɨɟɟɦɚɫɲɬɚɛɚɦɢəɜɥɹɹɫɶ
ɤɪɭɩɧɟɣɲɢɦɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɦɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɨɦɫɜɨɟɝɨɩɨɤɨɥɟɧɢɹɨɧɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɥɧɚɰɢɨ
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Ɉɩɟɪɚ©ɗɥɢɡɚª  ɢɦɚɫɤɚ©Ȼɪɢɬɚɧɢɹª  ɩɨɹɜɢɥɢɫɶɭɠɟɜɬɨɜɪɟɦɹɤɨɝ
ɞɚɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɡɚɫɥɭɠɢɥɩɪɢɡɧɚɧɢɟɜɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɣɫɮɟɪɟɚɟɝɨɦɭɡɵɤɚɛɵɥɚɩɨɩɭ
ɥɹɪɧɨɣɭɫɥɭɲɚɬɟɥɟɣɄɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɱɭɬɤɨɪɟɚɝɢɪɨɜɚɥɤɚɤɧɚɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɟɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɢ
ɬɚɤɢɧɚɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɭɸɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɭɜɫɬɪɚɧɟɩɨɷɬɨɦɭɨɛɚɫɨɱɢɧɟɧɢɹɛɵɥɢɹɜɧɵɦ
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ɚɥɥɟɝɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɫɸɠɟɬɫɤɨɪɟɟɩɪɢɛɥɢɠɚɟɬɟɟɤɠɚɧɪɭɦɚɫɤɢȼɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɟɦɚɫɨɱ
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©Ȼɪɢɬɚɧɢɹªɫɚɧɚɥɨɝɢɱɧɵɦɢɚɥɥɟɝɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢɫɸɠɟɬɨɦɢɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɚɦɢɫɪɟɞɢɤɨ
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ɷɬɢɯɫɬɨɥɶɪɚɡɥɢɱɧɵɯɜɢɞɨɜɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɬɟɚɬɪɚɨɬɦɟɱɚɟɬɫɹɟɳɟɜɟɤɨɦɪɚ
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ɜɬɨɪɨɣɩɨɥɨɜɢɧɟ;9,,ɜɟɤɚɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɪɚɡɞɟɥɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹȺȼɉɟɪɟɜɚɥɨɜɨɣ
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ɥɟɝɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɤɚɤɢɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɨɟɟɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɟɣȻɪɢɬɚɧɢɹɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɫɹɜɫɨ
ɫɬɨɹɧɢɢɭɧɵɧɢɹɨɬɩɪɢɛɥɢɠɚɸɳɟɣɫɹɜɨɟɧɧɨɣɦɨɳɢɂɫɩɚɧɢɢȽɟɧɢɣȺɧɝɥɢɢ
Ɇɢɪɋɜɨɛɨɞɚɇɟɩɬɭɧɚɬɚɤɠɟɦɨɪɹɤɢɩɚɫɬɭɯɢɢɩɚɫɬɭɲɤɢɟɟɩɨɞɛɚɞɪɢɜɚ
©ɗɥɢɡɚªɢ©ȻɪɢɬɚɧɢɹªɌɨɦɚɫɚȺɜɝɭɫɬɢɧɚȺɪɧɚ 
ɸɬɛɨɟɜɨɣɞɭɯȻɪɢɬɚɧɢɢɤɪɟɩɧɟɬɜɨɟɧɧɵɣɦɚɪɲɩɪɟɞɲɟɫɬɜɭɟɬɩɟɪɟɥɨɦɧɨɣ
ɛɢɬɜɟɩɨɫɥɟɤɨɬɨɪɨɣɜɫɟɩɪɨɫɥɚɜɥɹɸɬɦɢɪ
©ɗɥɢɡɚªɡɚɦɵɲɥɹɥɚɫɶɢɤɚɡɚɥɨɫɶɛɵɞɨɥɠɧɚɛɵɥɚɛɵɬɶɜɨɫɩɪɢɧɹ
ɬɚɤɚɤɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɟɩɚɬɪɢɨɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɟɈɞɧɚɤɨɤɨɪɨɥɟɜɫɤɚɹɫɟɦɶɹɩɪɨɹɜɢ
ɥɚɩɨɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɸɤɧɟɣɤɪɚɣɧɸɸɧɟɞɨɛɪɨɠɟɥɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɶȺɪɬɭɪɆɟɪɮɢɜ
©*UD\¶V,QQ-RXUQDOªɫɪɚɡɭɩɨɫɥɟɡɚɩɪɟɬɚɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢɩɢɫɚɥ©ɉɪɨɲɥɵɦɜɟ
ɱɟɪɨɦɧɨɜɚɹɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɚɹɨɩɟɪɚ³ɗɥɢɡɚ´ɛɵɥɚɭɧɢɱɬɨɠɟɧɚɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɨɪɚɫɩɨ
ɪɹɠɟɧɢɸɜɵɲɟɫɬɨɹɳɟɣɜɥɚɫɬɢɱɬɨɨɡɧɚɱɚɟɬɱɬɨɦɧɨɝɢɟɥɸɞɢɫɯɨɪɨɲɢɦ
ɜɤɭɫɨɦɛɵɥɢɥɢɲɟɧɵɜɟɫɶɦɚɢɡɹɳɧɨɝɨɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭɛɵɥɨɩɨ
ɜɫɟɦɟɫɬɧɨɩɪɢɡɧɚɧɨɱɬɨɷɬɚɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɚɹɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚɢɦɟɟɬɷɤɫɬɪɚɨɪɞɢ
ɧɚɪɧɵɟɞɨɫɬɨɢɧɫɬɜɚɛɭɞɭɱɢɛɥɚɝɨɪɚɡɭɦɧɨɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɚɜɪɚɫɱɟɬɟɧɚɞɨɧɟ
ɫɟɧɢɟɜɨɨɛɪɚɠɟɧɢɸɫɚɦɵɯɠɢɜɵɯɢɞɟɣɢɩɪɨɛɭɠɞɟɧɢɟɫɬɪɚɫɬɢɜɤɚɠɞɨɦ
ɱɭɜɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɦɫɟɪɞɰɟª>@Ɉɩɟɪɚɫɨɲɥɚɫɨɫɰɟɧɵɩɟɪɜɨɝɨɠɟɫɩɟɤɬɚ
ɤɥɹɨɞɧɚɤɨɛɵɥɚɭɫɩɟɲɧɨɜɨɡɪɨɠɞɟɧɚɜɬɟɚɬɪɚɯɫɤɨɬɨɪɵɦɢɧɚɬɨɬɦɨɦɟɧɬ
ɬɟɫɧɨɫɨɬɪɭɞɧɢɱɚɥȺɪɧɜɝɨɞɭɜɞɭɛɥɢɧɫɤɨɦɬɟɚɬɪɟ©ɋɦɨɤȺɥɥɢªɢɜ
ɝɨɞɭ²ɜ©ȾɪɭɪɢɅɟɣɧªȻɨɥɟɟɬɨɝɨɦɭɡɵɤɚ©ɗɥɢɡɵªɩɭɛɥɢɤɨɜɚɥɚɫɶ
ɜɩɨɩɭɥɹɪɧɨɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɠɟɧɫɤɨɦɠɭɪɧɚɥɟ©/DG\¶V0DJD]LQHªɢɡɞɚ
ɜɚɜɲɟɦɫɹɫɯɝɨɞɨɜɱɬɨɬɚɤɠɟɝɨɜɨɪɢɬɨɟɟɜɨɫɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɢɞɚɠɟɞɜɚ
ɞɟɫɹɬɢɥɟɬɢɹɫɩɭɫɬɹ>@
ȼɞɨɲɟɞɲɟɣɞɨɧɚɫɩɚɪɬɢɬɭɪɟɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɭɸɬɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨɫɨɥɶɧɵɯɧɨɦɟɪɨɜ
ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɫɱɢɬɚɸɬɫɹɭɬɟɪɹɧɧɵɦɢɚɬɚɤɠɟɜɤɥɸɱɟɧɵɧɟɜɫɟɪɟɱɢɬɚɬɢɜɵɢɯɨɪɵ
ɧɨɨɛɳɚɹɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɰɢɹɫɨɯɪɚɧɢɥɚɫɶɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɜɩɟɪɜɨɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɨɦɜɢɞɟɜɤɥɸ
ɱɚɹɨɬɤɪɵɜɚɸɳɭɸɨɩɟɪɭɭɜɟɪɬɸɪɭɢɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɣɦɚɪɲɜɬɪɟɬɶɟɦɚɤɬɟ
Ɉɩɟɪɚɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɚɩɨɚɤɬɚɦɩɪɢɦɟɪɧɨɪɚɜɧɨɝɨɨɛɴɟɦɚɭɤɚɠɞɨɝɨɩɟɪ
ɫɨɧɚɠɚɢɦɟɸɬɫɹɜɵɯɨɞɧɵɟɧɨɦɟɪɚɚɜɮɢɧɚɥɶɧɨɦɚɧɫɚɦɛɥɟɝɥɚɜɧɵɟɩɟɪɫɨ
ɧɚɠɢɢɫɩɨɥɧɹɸɬɩɚɬɟɬɢɱɟɫɤɭɸɩɟɫɧɸ
ɈɩɟɪɵȺɪɧɚɨɛɵɱɧɨɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɵɜɢɡɞɚɧɢɹɯɬɨɱɧɵɦɢɠɚɧɪɨɜɵɦɢɧɚɢ
ɦɟɧɨɜɚɧɢɹɦɢɨɩɟɪɚVHULDɤɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɨɩɟɪɚɛɚɥɥɚɞɧɚɹɨɩɟɪɚɨɩɟɪɚɛɭɪɥɟɫɤ
ɂɬɨɥɶɤɨ©ɗɥɢɡɟªɞɚɧɩɨɞɡɚɝɨɥɨɜɨɤ©ɨɩɟɪɚªɛɟɡɭɬɨɱɧɟɧɢɹɜɢɞɨɜɨɣɩɪɢɧɚɞ
ɥɟɠɧɨɫɬɢɈɧɚɫɨɫɬɨɢɬɢɡɬɪɟɯɚɤɬɨɜɱɬɨɬɢɩɢɱɧɨɞɥɹɨɩɟɪɵVHULDɈɞɧɚɤɨɜ
ɬɜɨɪɱɟɫɬɜɟɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɚɷɬɨɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɟɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɚɚɤɬɨɜɠɚɧɪɨɜɨɦɭɧɚɤɥɨ
ɧɟɧɢɸɧɟɫɨɛɥɸɞɚɟɬɫɹɜɩɨɥɧɨɣɦɟɪɟɬɪɢɚɤɬɚɢɦɟɸɬɦɚɫɤɢ ©Ʉɨɦɭɫª©Ⱥɥɶ
ɮɪɟɞª©ɄɨɪɨɥɶȺɪɬɭɪª©ȼɨɥɲɟɛɧɵɣɩɪɢɧɰª ɛɭɪɥɟɫɤɧɵɟɨɩɟɪɵ ©ɏɪɚɦ
ɬɭɩɨɫɬɢª©Ⱥɯɢɥɥɟɫɜɸɛɤɚɯª ɤɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɨɩɟɪɵ ©Ʌɸɛɨɜɶɜɞɟɪɟɜɧɟª©Ɉɛ
ɦɚɧɭɬɵɣɨɩɟɤɭɧª©Ɋɨɡɚª©Ʌɸɛɨɜɶɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɩɭɬɶª ɢɨɩɟɪɵVHULD ©Ɋɨɡɚɦɭɧ
ɞɚª©Ⱥɪɬɚɤɫɟɪɤɫª©Ɉɥɢɦɩɢɚɞɚª >@Ⱥɪɧɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɨɨɛɨɡɧɚɱɢɥ©ɗɥɢɡɭª
ɤɚɤɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɭɸɨɩɟɪɭɜɤɨɬɨɪɨɣɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɭɸɬɪɚɡɝɨɜɨɪɧɵɟɞɢɚɥɨɝɢɯɨɬɹɫɪɟ
ɞɢɟɝɨɫɨɱɢɧɟɧɢɣɢɦɟɸɬɫɹɨɩɟɪɵɫɛɨɥɟɟɬɨɱɧɵɦɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɟɦɨɛɨɡɧɚɱɟ
ɧɢɹɠɚɧɪɨɜɵɦɩɪɢɡɧɚɤɚɦɚɚɥɥɟɝɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɫɸɠɟɬɩɪɢɛɥɢɠɚɟɬɟɟɤɦɚɫɤɟ
Ʉɨɧɟɱɧɨɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɩɨɞ©ɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɣªɦɨɝɩɨɞɪɚɡɭɦɟɜɚɬɶɛɚɥɥɚɞɧɭɸɨɩɟ
ɪɭɤɚɤɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣɠɚɧɪɨɞɧɚɤɨɷɬɚɜɟɪɫɢɹɫɨɦɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɚɜɜɢɞɭɬɨɝɨɱɬɨ
 Ⱥɋɉɪɢɜɚɥɨɜɚ

ɛɚɥɥɚɞɧɚɹɨɩɟɪɚɫɨɱɢɧɹɥɚɫɶɨɛɵɱɧɨɧɚɛɵɬɨɜɨɣɫɚɬɢɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɚɧɟɜɨɡɜɵ
ɲɟɧɧɵɣɚɥɥɟɝɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɫɸɠɟɬ>@
Ʉɫɨɠɚɥɟɧɢɸɧɚɫɟɝɨɞɧɹɲɧɢɣɞɟɧɶɫɥɨɠɧɨɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɶɜɤɚɤɨɦɫɨɨɬɧɨ
ɲɟɧɢɢɜɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɟɧɚɯɨɞɢɥɢɫɶɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɢɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɚɹɫɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɸɳɢɟ
ɧɨɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɚɹɹɜɧɨɢɦɟɥɚɩɪɟɜɨɫɯɨɞɹɳɟɟɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ ɢɡɧɚɱɚɥɶɧɨɧɨɦɟɪɨɜ
ɛɵɥɨɛɨɥɟɟɚɷɬɨɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɤɚɤɜɩɨɥɧɨɰɟɧɧɵɯɨɩɟɪɚɯȺɪɧɚ©Ɍɨɦɚɫɢ
ɋɚɥɥɢªɢ©Ⱥɪɬɚɤɫɟɪɤɫª ɉɨɧɚɲɟɦɭɦɧɟɧɢɸɦɨɠɧɨɨɬɧɟɫɬɢ©ɗɥɢɡɭªɤɠɚɧ
ɪɭVHPLɨɩɟɪɵɡɚɧɢɦɚɜɲɟɦɭɩɪɨɦɟɠɭɬɨɱɧɨɟɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɟɦɟɠɞɭɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɟ
ɫɤɢɦɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɟɦɢɨɩɟɪɨɣɤɚɤɬɚɤɨɜɨɣ
ɑɟɪɟɡɝɨɞɜɝɨɞɭȺɪɧɫɬɚɜɢɬɜɬɟɚɬɪɟ©ȾɪɭɪɢɅɟɣɧªɫɜɨɟɧɨɜɨɟ
ɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ²ɦɚɫɤɭɜɞɜɭɯɚɤɬɚɯ©ȻɪɢɬɚɧɢɹªɧɚɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨȾɷɜɢɞɚɆɚɥɥɟ
ɬɚ 'DYLG0DOOHWW± ɩɪɢɡɜɚɧɧɭɸ©ɩɪɨɛɭɞɢɬɶɛɪɢɬɚɧɫɤɢɣɞɭɯɩɪɨɬɢɜ
ɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɨɜɜɩɪɟɞɞɜɟɪɢɢɋɟɦɢɥɟɬɧɟɣɜɨɣɧɵªɆɚɫɤɚɧɟɪɚɡɜɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɜɫɨɨɬɜɟɬ
ɫɬɜɢɢɫɫɸɠɟɬɧɨɣɥɨɝɢɤɨɣɢɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɡɪɢɬɟɥɸɱɟɪɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟɚɥɥɟɝɨɪɢɱɟ
ɫɤɢɯɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɟɣɩɪɢɡɜɚɧɧɵɯɜɨɨɞɭɲɟɜɢɬɶɝɥɚɜɧɭɸɝɟɪɨɢɧɸ²Ȼɪɢɬɚɧɢɸ
ɇɚɫɰɟɧɟɫɦɟɧɹɸɬɞɪɭɝɞɪɭɝɚɦɢɮɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɟȽɟɧɢɣɆɚɪɫɌɪɢɬɨɧɇɟɩ
ɬɭɧɩɨɫɜɹɳɚɹɫɜɨɢɦɨɧɨɥɨɝɢɩɨɞɧɹɬɢɸɞɭɯɚȻɪɢɬɚɧɢɢȼɨɜɬɨɪɨɣɩɨɥɨɜɢɧɟ
ɩɨɹɜɥɹɸɬɫɹɡɟɦɧɵɟɞɚɠɟɛɵɬɨɜɵɟɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɢ²ȻɨɰɦɚɧɆɨɪɹɤɇɷɧȼɢɯ
ɩɟɫɧɹɯɪɢɫɭɸɬɫɹɤɚɪɬɢɧɵɛɵɬɚɦɨɪɹɤɨɜɝɨɬɨɜɵɯɤɫɪɚɠɟɧɢɹɦɢɡɚɫɬɨɥɶɹɦɚ
ɬɚɤɠɟɨɠɢɞɚɧɢɟɞɟɜɭɲɤɨɣɜɨɡɥɸɛɥɟɧɧɨɝɨɧɚɫɭɲɟȼɢɬɨɝɟȽɟɧɢɣɩɪɢɡɵɜɚɟɬ
ɜɫɟɯɛɵɬɶɫɢɥɶɧɟɟɢɛɥɚɝɨɪɨɞɧɟɟɞɭɯɨɦɩɨɤɚɡɚɬɶɥɸɛɨɜɶɤɪɨɞɧɨɣȻɪɢɬɚɧɢɢ
ɌɚɤɠɟɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɨɱɬɨɪɭɤɨɜɨɞɢɜɲɢɣɬɟɚɬɪɨɦȾɷɜɢɞȽɚɪɪɢɤ 'DYLG*DUULFN
± ɜɦɟɫɬɟɫɆɚɥɥɟɬɨɦɞɨɛɚɜɢɥɤɦɚɫɤɟɪɟɱɟɜɨɣɚɧɬɢɮɪɚɧɰɭɡɫɤɢɣ
ɩɪɨɥɨɝɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɢɫɩɨɥɧɹɥɫɹɩɨɡɞɧɟɟɧɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɨɨɬɩɶɟɫɵ©Ȼɪɢɬɚɧɢɹªɫɬɚ
ɜɢɥɚɫɶɤɚɠɞɵɣɫɟɡɨɧɞɨɝɨɞɚɨɞɧɚɤɨɩɨɡɠɟɨɤɚɡɚɥɚɫɶɧɟɜɨɫɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧ
ɧɨɣɨɫɬɚɜɲɢɫɶɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɟɦ©ɧɚɫɥɭɱɚɣª
©ȻɪɢɬɚɧɢɸªȺɪɧɚɦɵɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɦɜɫɨɨɬɧɟɫɟɧɢɢɫɨɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɦɢɤɨɦ
ɩɨɡɢɰɢɨɧɧɨɞɪɚɦɚɬɭɪɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɢɷɬɚɩɚɦɢɫɬɚɪɢɧɧɨɣɦɚɫɤɢɚɥɥɟɝɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɣ
ɩɪɨɥɨɝ²ɚɧɬɢɦɚɫɤɚɩɪɨɮɟɫɫɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɯɚɤɬɟɪɨɜ ©ɫɰɟɧɵɛɟɫɩɨɪɹɞɤɚɢɛɟɡ
ɧɪɚɜɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɫɬɢɜɧɟɞɨɫɬɨɣɧɵɯɬɚɧɰɚɯª ²ɫɦɟɧɚɞɟɤɨɪɚɰɢɣ²ɦɚɫɤɚɩɪɟɞ
ɫɬɚɜɢɬɟɥɟɣɡɧɚɬɢ ©ɫɰɟɧɵɩɨɪɹɞɤɚɢɞɨɛɪɨɞɟɬɟɥɢɜɛɥɚɝɨɪɨɞɧɵɯɮɢɝɭɪɧɵɯ
ɬɚɧɰɚɯª ²ɨɛɳɢɟɭɜɟɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ UHYHOV ɛɥɚɝɨɪɨɞɧɵɯɡɪɢɬɟɥɟɣɢɚɤɬɟɪɨɜ²
ɷɩɢɥɨɝ ɧɟɨɛɹɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɨ >±@Ʉɏɨɮɮɦɚɧɧɨɬɦɟɱɚɟɬɬɚɤɠɟɱɬɨ
ɷɬɚɦɨɞɟɥɶɜɨɩɥɨɳɟɧɚɜɦɚɫɤɟɤɚɤɪɚɡɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɢɞɥɹɤɨɪɨɥɟɜɫɤɢɯɨɫɨɛɩɨɷɬɨ
ɦɭɜɦɚɫɤɟɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɢɭɱɚɫɬɢɟɡɪɢɬɟɥɟɣɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɭɟɬ>@
ȼɩɚɪɬɢɬɭɪɟɫɨɞɟɪɠɢɬɫɹɨɞɢɧɧɚɞɰɚɬɶɧɨɦɟɪɨɜɩɨɦɢɦɨɭɜɟɪɬɸɪɵȾɪɚ
ɦɚɬɭɪɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɩɥɚɧ©Ȼɪɢɬɚɧɢɢªɢɦɟɟɬɧɟɫɤɨɥɶɤɨɫɨɜɩɚɞɟɧɢɣɫɬɢɩɢɱɧɵɦɢ
ɱɟɪɬɚɦɢɩɚɫɬɨɪɚɥɶɧɨɣɦɚɫɤɢɉɪɟɠɞɟɜɫɟɝɨɷɬɨɧɚɥɢɱɢɟɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɟɣ©ɜɵ
ɫɨɤɢɯª ȻɪɢɬɚɧɢɹȽɟɧɢɣɇɟɩɬɭɧɌɪɢɬɨɧɆɚɪɫ ɢ©ɧɢɡɤɢɯª ɇɷɧȻɨɰɦɚɧ

ȼɪɚɛɨɬɟɗɍɨɥɤɥɢɧɝɚɞɚɠɟɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɬɫɹɬɟɪɦɢɧ©ɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɨɩɟɪɚªɩɨɞɪɚɡɭɦɟɜɚɸɳɢɣ
ɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɟɜɨɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɢɪɚɡɝɨɜɨɪɧɨɝɨɧɚɱɚɥ>@
©ɗɥɢɡɚªɢ©ȻɪɢɬɚɧɢɹªɌɨɦɚɫɚȺɜɝɭɫɬɢɧɚȺɪɧɚ 
Ɇɨɪɹɤ ɧɨɦɟɪɚɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɦɨɠɧɨɬɪɚɤɬɨɜɚɬɶɤɚɤɮɭɧɤɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɟɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɢɟ
ɦɚɫɤɟɢɚɧɬɢɦɚɫɤɟɆɢɮɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɚɥɥɟɝɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪ©ɜɵɫɨɤɢɯªɩɟɪ
ɫɨɧɚɠɟɣɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɟɬɩɪɨɜɟɫɬɢɩɚɪɚɥɥɟɥɢɫɧɚɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟɦɩɪɨɥɨɝɚɦɚɫɤɢɈɞɧɚ
ɤɨɬɪɟɛɭɟɦɵɟɦɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɟɬɚɧɰɵɡɞɟɫɶɤɚɤɢɜ©Ʉɨɦɭɫɟªɥɢɛɨɨɬɫɭɬ
ɫɬɜɨɜɚɥɢɥɢɛɨɫɬɚɜɢɥɢɫɶɫɦɭɡɵɤɨɣɧɟɡɚɤɪɟɩɥɟɧɧɨɣɜɩɚɪɬɢɬɭɪɟȼɨɜɫɹɤɨɦ
ɫɥɭɱɚɟ©Ȼɪɢɬɚɧɢɹªɤɚɤɬɢɩɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɹɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟɛɥɢɡɤɚɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɦɚɫɤɟɩɨ
ɫɤɨɥɶɤɭɧɨɪɦɚɬɢɜɧɵɟɞɥɹɨɩɟɪɵɪɚɡɜɢɬɨɫɬɶɫɸɠɟɬɚɦɨɬɢɜɚɰɢɹɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɨɜɢ
ɩɨɫɬɭɩɤɨɜɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɟɣɜɷɬɨɦɫɨɱɢɧɟɧɢɢɩɨɱɬɢɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɭɸɬ
ɍɱɢɬɵɜɚɹɱɬɨ©ɗɥɢɡɚªɢ©Ȼɪɢɬɚɧɢɹªɫɨɡɞɚɜɚɥɢɫɶɩɪɚɤɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɜɨɞɧɨ
ɜɪɟɦɹɨɛɚɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɵɧɚɚɥɥɟɝɨɪɢɹɯɚɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɢɞɭ
ɛɥɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ȻɪɢɬɚɧɢɹȽɟɧɢɣȺɧɝɥɢɢɇɟɩɬɭɧ ɬɨɦɨɠɧɨɛɵɥɨɛɵɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɨ
ɠɢɬɶɱɬɨɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɫɨɡɞɚɜɚɥ©Ȼɪɢɬɚɧɢɸªɤɚɤɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɟɧɢɟ©ɗɥɢɡɵªɥɢɛɨ
ɤɚɤɜɫɬɚɜɧɭɸɦɚɫɤɭɞɥɹɧɟɟɠɟɈɞɧɚɤɨɩɶɟɫɵɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɪɚɡ
ɥɢɱɚɸɬɫɹɩɨɦɚɫɲɬɚɛɚɦɢɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɸ©ɗɥɢɡɚªɧɚɩɢɫɚɧɚɜɬɪɟɯɚɤɬɚɯ©Ȼɪɢɬɚ
ɧɢɹª²ɜɞɜɭɯɄɬɨɦɭɠɟ©Ȼɪɢɬɚɧɢɹªɡɧɚɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɦɟɧɶɲɟɢɩɨɱɬɢɢɞɟɚɥɶ
ɧɨɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɟɬɫɬɪɭɤɬɭɪɟɦɚɫɤɢɜɬɨɜɪɟɦɹɤɚɤɜɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɰɢɢ©ɗɥɢɡɵªɦɵ
ɧɟɧɚɣɞɟɦɬɨɱɧɨɝɨɨɬɪɚɠɟɧɢɹɮɭɧɤɰɢɣɦɚɫɤɢɢɚɧɬɢɦɚɫɤɢ²ɜɨɩɟɪɟɨɬɫɭɬ
ɫɬɜɭɸɬɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɢɧɢɡɤɨɝɨɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɠɞɟɧɢɹɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɦɨɝɥɢɛɵɭɱɚɫɬɜɨɜɚɬɶɜ
©ɫɰɟɧɚɯɛɟɫɩɨɪɹɞɤɚª
ȿɫɬɶɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɨɟɫɯɨɞɫɬɜɨɩɪɟɞɩɨɫɵɥɨɤɤɫɨɡɞɚɧɢɸɨɛɨɢɯɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɣ
©ɗɥɢɡɚªɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɟɟɜɫɟɝɨɩɢɫɚɥɚɫɶɤɚɤɨɬɤɥɢɤɧɚɜɨɟɧɧɵɟɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɹɦɟɠɞɭ
Ⱥɧɝɥɢɟɣɢɂɫɩɚɧɢɟɣ±ɝɨɞɨɜɚ©Ȼɪɢɬɚɧɢɹª²ɜɩɪɟɞɞɜɟɪɢɢɋɟɦɢ
ɥɟɬɧɟɣɜɨɣɧɵ±ɝɨɞɨɜɈɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ©ɗɥɢɡɵªɦɨɠɧɨɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɨɠɢɬɶ
ɱɬɨɜɨɩɟɪɟɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɟɬɧɚɩɨɦɢɧɚɧɢɟɨɬɨɦɤɚɤȻɪɢɬɚɧɢɹɫɬɚɥɚɝɥɚɜɧɨɣɦɨɪ
ɫɤɨɣɞɟɪɠɚɜɨɣɢɩɪɨɜɨɞɢɬɫɹɩɚɪɚɥɥɟɥɶɫɪɚɡɝɪɨɦɨɦɢɫɩɚɧɫɤɨɣȼɟɥɢɤɨɣȺɪ
ɦɚɞɵɜȽɪɚɜɟɥɢɧɫɤɨɦɫɪɚɠɟɧɢɢɝɨɞɚɩɪɢɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɢȿɥɢɡɚɜɟɬɵ,ɑɬɨ
ɤɚɫɚɟɬɫɹ©ȻɪɢɬɚɧɢɢªɨɧɚɫɬɚɥɚɩɟɪɜɵɦɫɨɱɢɧɟɧɢɟɦɌɨɦɚɫɚȺɪɧɚɫɨɡɞɚɧɧɵɦ
ɧɚɬɟɦɭɋɟɦɢɥɟɬɧɟɣɜɨɣɧɵ
ɍɱɢɬɵɜɚɹɬɨɱɬɨ©ɗɥɢɡɚªɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɨɟɜɪɟɦɹɩɨɫɥɟɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɢɧɚɯɨɞɢɥɚɫɶ
ɜɨɩɚɥɟȺɪɧɫɤɨɪɟɟɜɫɟɝɨɩɢɫɚɥɦɚɫɤɭ©Ȼɪɢɬɚɧɢɹªɧɚɫɯɨɠɭɸɬɟɦɭɞɥɹɨɬ
ɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɹɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɹɢɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨ©ɪɟɚɛɢɥɢɬɚɰɢɢªɄɬɨɦɭɠɟɡɚɞɚɱɢɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜ
ɤɢ©Ȼɪɢɬɚɧɢɢªɹɜɧɨɛɵɥɢɛɨɥɟɟɪɚɡɜɥɟɤɚɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɢɧɟɠɟɥɢɫɟɪɶɟɡɧɵɦɢ²
ɟɟɩɪɟɦɶɟɪɚɩɪɨɢɡɨɲɥɚɜɬɨɬɠɟɜɟɱɟɪɢɧɚɬɨɣɠɟɫɰɟɧɟɩɨɫɥɟɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹ
ɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɢȺɚɪɨɧɚɏɢɥɥɚ©Ɂɚɪɚª ɩɨɦɨɬɢɜɚɦ©Ɂɚɢɪɵªȼɨɥɶɬɟɪɚ ɢɷɬɨɨɛɵɝɪɚ
ɧɨɜɩɪɨɥɨɝɟ©ȼɄɨɪɨɥɟɜɫɤɨɦɌɟɚɬɪɟȾɪɭɪɢɥɟɣɧɛɭɞɟɬɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɚɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɹ
³ɋɚɪɚ´əɪɚɞɱɬɨɷɬɨɋɚɪɚ²ɬɨɝɞɚɧɚɲɚɋɚɥɥɢɦɨɠɟɬɭɜɢɞɟɬɶɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɸɟɟ
ɢɦɟɧɢɮɚɥɶɲɢɜɤɢɚɱɬɨɤɚɫɚɟɬɫɹɦɟɧɹɹɛɭɞɭɫɩɚɬɶɬɚɤɠɟɤɪɟɩɤɨɤɚɤɟɫɥɢɛɵ
ɹɛɵɥɜɦɨɪɟɄɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɢɛɭɞɟɬɞɨɛɚɜɥɟɧɚɧɨɜɚɹɦɚɫɤɚª>@
ɉɪɨɜɨɞɹɩɚɪɚɥɥɟɥɢɦɟɠɞɭɨɛɳɢɦɢɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɚɦɢ©ɗɥɢɡɵªɢ©Ȼɪɢɬɚɧɢɢª
ɦɨɠɧɨɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɢɬɶɱɬɨɢɯɮɭɧɤɰɢɢɜɪɚɡɧɵɯɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɯɧɟɢɞɟɧɬɢɱɧɵ
ɌɚɤȻɪɢɬɚɧɢɹɜ©ɗɥɢɡɟªɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɧɟɫɨɦɧɟɧɧɨɝɥɚɜɧɨɣɮɢɝɭɪɨɣɢɩɨɥɭɱɚɟɬ
 Ⱥɋɉɪɢɜɚɥɨɜɚ

ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɨɟɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨɫɨɥɶɧɵɯɧɨɦɟɪɨɜ²ɚɪɢɣȽɟɧɢɣȺɧɝɥɢɢɩɨɹɜɥɹ
ɟɬɫɹɧɚɫɰɟɧɟɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨɱɚɫɬɨ²ɚɪɢɢɚɇɟɩɬɭɧɭɨɬɜɨɞɢɬɫɹɪɨɥɶɜɬɨɪɨ
ɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɚɹɧɨɜɫɟɠɟɹɪɤɚɹɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭɟɦɭɨɬɞɚɧɵɪɚɡɧɨɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɧɵɟɚɪɢɢ
ȼɦɚɫɤɟ©ȻɪɢɬɚɧɢɹªɧɚɩɪɨɬɢɜɪɨɥɶȻɪɢɬɚɧɢɢɫɜɟɞɟɧɚɤɦɢɧɢɦɭɦɭɢɞɚɠɟɟɟ
ɚɪɢɹɩɪɟɞɩɨɥɚɝɚɟɦɚɹɜɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨɜɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɟɛɵɥɚɨɬɞɚɧɚȽɟɧɢɸɦɟɫɬɨɝɥɚɜ
ɧɨɝɨɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɚɡɚɧɢɦɚɟɬȽɟɧɢɣɩɨɥɭɱɢɜɲɢɣɚɪɢɣɚɇɟɩɬɭɧɤɚɤɢɨɫɬɚɥɶ
ɧɵɟɜɬɨɪɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɵɟɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɢɩɨɥɭɱɚɟɬɬɨɥɶɤɨɨɞɢɧɜɵɯɨɞɧɨɣɧɨɦɟɪ
ɋɪɚɜɧɢɜɚɹɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɟɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢɚɪɢɣɨɞɧɨɝɨɢɬɨɝɨɠɟɩɟɪɫɨɧɚ
ɠɚɦɨɠɧɨɜɵɹɜɢɬɶɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɭɸɨɛɳɧɨɫɬɶɤɨɬɨɪɭɸɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɧɟɨɫɨɡɧɚɧɧɨ
ɢɥɢɫɤɨɪɟɟɜɫɟɝɨɧɚɦɟɪɟɧɧɨɫɨɡɞɚɥɇɚɢɛɨɥɟɟɭɞɨɛɧɵɦɢɞɥɹɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɹɹɜ
ɥɹɸɬɫɹɩɚɪɬɢɢȽɟɧɢɹ ©Ȼɪɢɬɚɧɢɹª ɢȽɟɧɢɹȺɧɝɥɢɢ ©ɗɥɢɡɚª ɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭɢɯ
ɫɯɨɠɟɫɬɶɜɟɫɶɦɚɡɚɦɟɬɧɚɈɛɟɩɚɪɬɢɢɩɢɫɚɥɢɫɶɞɥɹɠɟɧɫɤɨɝɨɝɨɥɨɫɚɧɟɫɦɨ
ɬɪɹɧɚɬɨɱɬɨɜ©ɗɥɢɡɟªɩɨɡɞɧɟɟɪɨɥɶȽɟɧɢɹȺɧɝɥɢɢɞɨɫɬɚɥɚɫɶɩɟɜɰɭɦɭɠ
ɱɢɧɟȼɨɛɨɢɯɫɨɱɢɧɟɧɢɹɯɷɬɨɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɨɪɚɡɜɟɪɧɭɬɚɹɩɚɪɬɢɹɜɤɥɸɱɚɸɳɚɹ
ɩɪɢɦɟɪɧɨɪɚɜɧɨɟɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨɚɪɢɣ²ɜ©ɗɥɢɡɟªɢɜ©ȻɪɢɬɚɧɢɢªȺɪɢɢ
ɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɚɜɨɛɨɢɯɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɯɧɚɩɢɫɚɧɵɜɧɟɲɢɪɨɤɨɦɤɪɭɝɟɦɚɠɨɪ
ɧɵɯɬɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɟɣ)GXU*GXUɢ'GXUɜ©Ȼɪɢɬɚɧɢɢªɢ&GXU%GXU*GXU
ɢ'GXUɜ©ɗɥɢɡɟª ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɹɹɚɪɢɹɭɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɚɜɦɚɫɤɟɢɜɨɩɟɪɟɜɬɨɧɚɥɶ
ɧɨɫɬɢ'GXU 
ɉɪɢɫɪɚɜɧɟɧɢɢɚɪɢɣɢɡɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɣɩɨɩɚɪɧɨ ɩɟɪɜɭɸɫɩɟɪɜɨɣɜɬɨ
ɪɭɸɫɨɜɬɨɪɨɣɢɬɞ ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɨɛɳɧɨɫɬɶɢɢɯɯɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɚɢɫɦɵɫ
ɥɨɜɨɝɨɩɨɫɵɥɚɉɟɪɜɵɟɚɪɢɢ²ɜɢɪɬɭɨɡɧɵɟɢɝɟɪɨɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɜɨɛɟɢɯȽɟɧɢɣ
²ɞɭɯɩɨɤɪɨɜɢɬɟɥɶɫɬɪɚɧɵ²ɨɛɪɚɳɚɟɬɫɹɤɫɜɨɟɣɩɨɞɨɩɟɱɧɨɣȻɪɢɬɚɧɢɢɫ
ɜɞɨɯɧɨɜɥɹɸɳɢɦɩɪɢɡɵɜɨɦɩɨɦɧɢɬɶɨɛɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɫɜɨɢɯɫɥɚɜɧɵɯɩɨɛɟɞ ©ɗɥɢ
ɡɚª ɩɪɨɛɭɞɢɬɶɫɹɢɨɬɛɪɨɫɢɬɶɭɧɵɧɢɟ ©Ȼɪɢɬɚɧɢɹª ȼɨɜɬɨɪɵɯɚɪɢɹɯɨɬɦɟ
ɱɚɟɬɫɹɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɨɟɭɫɩɨɤɨɟɧɢɟɬɟɦɩɚɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɟɦɹɝɤɢɦɭɜɟɳɟɜɚɧɢɹɦ
ɜɵɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɧɢɣȽɟɧɢɹȼɬɪɟɬɶɢɯɚɪɢɹɯɹɪɤɨɩɪɨɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɬɚɧɰɟɜɚɥɶɧɨɟɧɚɱɚ
ɥɨɧɚɪɹɞɭɫɜɢɪɬɭɨɡɧɨɫɬɶɸɚɜɢɯɬɟɤɫɬɚɯɩɪɨɫɥɚɜɥɹɸɬɫɹɝɟɪɨɢɜɨɢɧɵɝɨ
ɬɨɜɵɟɨɬɞɚɬɶɫɜɨɢɠɢɡɧɢɡɚɪɨɞɢɧɭɉɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭɤɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨɚɪɢɣɪɚɡɧɢɬɫɹɬɨ
ɫɯɨɞɫɬɜɨɦɨɛɥɚɞɚɸɬɡɚɤɥɸɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɚɪɢɢ²ɛɵɫɬɪɵɟɦɚɪɲɟɜɵɟɚɤɬɢɜɧɵɟ
ɢɜɨɢɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟɢɯɨɛɴɟɞɢɧɹɟɬɝɟɪɨɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɬɨɧɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶ'GXUɍɱɢɬɵɜɚɹ
ɛɥɢɡɨɫɬɶɜɨɩɥɨɳɚɟɦɵɯɚɮɮɟɤɬɨɜɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɚɪɢɢȽɟɧɢɹɧɚɞɟɥɹɸɬɫɹɜɨɛɨ
ɢɯɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɯɨɛɳɢɦɢɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɦɢɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɚɦɢ
ȼɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɢɩɚɪɬɢɣȽɟɧɢɟɜɜɰɟɥɨɦɨɬɦɟɬɢɦɱɬɨɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɧɟɤɨ
ɬɨɪɨɟɭɩɪɨɳɟɧɢɟɩɚɪɬɢɢɜ©Ȼɪɢɬɚɧɢɢª²ɭɦɟɧɶɲɟɧɢɟɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɬɢ
ɛɨɥɟɟɫɩɨɤɨɣɧɚɹɢɪɨɜɧɚɹɪɢɬɦɢɤɚɬɹɝɨɬɟɧɢɟɤɩɟɫɟɧɧɨɣɢɧɬɨɧɚɰɢɨɧɧɨɫɬɢ
ɱɬɨɜɟɪɨɹɬɧɨɨɛɭɫɥɨɜɥɟɧɨɫɚɦɢɦɠɚɧɪɨɦɦɚɫɤɢɢɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɣɤɚɦɟɪɧɨ
ɫɬɶɸɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɹ>@
ɇɚɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɟɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɬɜɨɪɱɟɫɬɜɚɌɨɦɚɫɚȺɪɧɚɹɫɧɨ
ɩɪɨɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɬɨɱɬɨɠɚɧɪɨɜɚɹɧɟɫɬɚɛɢɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɢɬɟɧɞɟɧɰɢɹɤɫɛɥɢɠɟɧɢɸ
ɪɨɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯɠɚɧɪɨɜɛɵɥɢɬɢɩɢɱɧɵɦɢɞɥɹɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɝɨɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɬɟɚɬɪɚ
©ɗɥɢɡɚªɢ©ȻɪɢɬɚɧɢɹªɌɨɦɚɫɚȺɜɝɭɫɬɢɧɚȺɪɧɚ 
ɩɟɧɧɨɭɫɬɭɩɚɥɢɦɟɫɬɨɤɨɧɬɢɧɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɦɢɢɫɱɟɡɚɥɢɩɟɪɟɫɬɚɜɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶɫɹ
ɛɵɥɨɣɜɨɫɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɧɨɫɬɶɸ>@Ɍɚɤɚɹɫɭɞɶɛɚɩɨɫɬɢɝɥɚɢɠɚɧɪɦɚɫɤɢɨɛ
ɪɚɡɰɵɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɤɪɚɣɧɟɪɟɞɤɨɦɨɠɧɨɜɫɬɪɟɬɢɬɶɜɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɦɬɟɚɬɪɟȺɧɝɥɢɢ
ɛɨɥɟɟɩɨɡɞɧɟɝɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɢɋɨɦɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɱɬɨɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɧɟɜɢɞɟɥɪɚɡɥɢɱɢɣ
ɦɟɠɞɭɠɚɧɪɚɦɢɞɚɜɚɹɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɸɨɛɨɡɧɚɱɟɧɢɟ©ɦɚɫɤɚªɢɥɢ©ɨɩɟɪɚªɫɤɨ
ɪɟɟɫɚɦɠɚɧɪɦɚɫɤɢɧɚɯɨɞɢɥɫɹɜɩɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɧɨɦɫɨɩɟɪɨɣɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɢɱɬɨɦɨɠ
ɧɨɧɚɛɥɸɞɚɬɶɢɜɞɪɭɝɢɯɫɨɱɢɧɟɧɢɹɯɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɚ>@
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 ȻɨɱɚɪɨɜɘɋȻɚɥɥɚɞɧɚɹɨɩɟɪɚ>ɗɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɵɣɪɟɫɭɪɫ@ȻɨɥɶɲɚɹɊɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɚɹɗɧ
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ɨɛɪɚɳɟɧɢɹ 
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ɩɟɫɟɧɧɨɝɨɠɚɧɪɚɘɠɧɨɪɨɫɫɢɣɫɤɢɣɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɣɚɥɶɦɚɧɚɯʋɋ±
 ȾɭɥɚɬȺɥɟɟɜȼɊȾɠɨɧɋɬɷɧɥɢɢɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɚɹɦɭɡɵɤɚɫɟɪɟɞɢɧɵ;9,,,ɜɟɤɚ ɤɥɟ
ɬɢɸɫɨɞɧɹɪɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ ȼɟɫɬɧɢɤɋɉɛȽɍɋɟɪȼɵɩɋ±
 ɄɥɢɦɱɭɤȺɋ©ȺɥɶɮɪɟɞªɌɨɦɚɫɚȺɪɧɚɦɚɫɤɚɨɩɟɪɚɢɥɢɨɪɚɬɨɪɢɹ"ɂɫɬɨɪɢɱɟ
ɫɤɢɟɮɢɥɨɫɨɮɫɤɢɟɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɢɸɪɢɞɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɧɚɭɤɢɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɨɥɨɝɢɹɢɢɫɤɭɫ
ɫɬɜɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɟȼɨɩɪɨɫɵɬɟɨɪɢɢɢɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɢʋ  ɋ±
 ɄɨɧɫɨɧȽɊȽɟɧɞɟɥɶɢɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɚɹɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɚɹɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɚɉɪɨɛɥɟɦɵɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɣ
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 ɉɟɪɟɜɚɥɨɜɚȺȼɌɪɚɞɢɰɢɢɠɚɧɪɚɦɚɫɤɢɜɚɧɝɥɢɣɫɤɨɦɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨ±ɞɪɚɦɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɦ
ɬɟɚɬɪɟɜɬɨɪɨɣɩɨɥɨɜɢɧɵ;9,,ɜɟɤɚ ɧɚɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɟɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɣɩɨɩɶɟɫɚɦɍɢɥɶɹ
ɦɚɒɟɤɫɩɢɪɚ ɞɢɫ«ɤɚɧɞɢɫɤ±ɇɨɜɨɫɢɛɢɪɫɤ
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QDVLN#PDLOUX
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ਃਈਉ਎ਏਉਓਅ਒ਉਅฬัสูสฮืุฯฬฺุูฯำ฻ิุำุูฯฺฯඑඏංංංฬฯิส

ਃਈਉ਎ਏਉਓਅ਒ਉਅංඇඍඁൾൾං඀ඁඍൾൾඇඍඁർൾඇඍඎඋඒൾඎඋඈඉൾൺඇඈඉൾඋൺ

ȺɧɧɨɬɚɰɢɹɋɬɚɬɶɹɩɨɫɜɹɳɟɧɚɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɦɩɪɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɹɦFKLQRLVHULHɢɥɢ
©ɤɢɬɚɣɫɤɨɝɨɫɬɢɥɹªɜɨɡɧɢɤɲɟɝɨɜɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɦɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɜɤɨɧɰɟ;9,,ɜȺɜ
ɬɨɪɨɩɢɪɚɟɬɫɹɧɚɫɢɫɬɟɦɧɵɣɩɨɞɯɨɞɢɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɧɨɟɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɟɨɩɟɪFKLQRLVHULH
ɚɬɚɤɠɟɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɫɪɚɜɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɢɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɚɧɚɥɢɬɢɱɟ
ɫɤɢɣɦɟɬɨɞɵ
ȼɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɢɟɧɚɱɚɜɲɟɣɫɹɷɤɫɩɚɧɫɢɢȿɜɪɨɩɵɧɚȼɨɫɬɨɤɢɪɚɫɲɢɪɟɧɢɹɬɨɪɝɨɜ
ɥɢɫɄɢɬɚɟɦɫɤɨɧɰɚ;9,,ɜɜɦɨɞɭɜɯɨɞɹɬɮɚɪɮɨɪɲɺɥɤ©ɤɢɬɚɣɫɤɢɟªɛɟɫɟɞ
ɤɢɩɚɜɢɥɶɨɧɵɢɤɚɛɢɧɟɬɵɢɬɞɇɨɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɟɨɛɪɚɡɰɵɦɭɡɵɤɢɉɨɞɧɟɛɟɫ
ɧɨɣɜɬɨɜɪɟɦɹɟɳɺɧɟɛɵɥɢɡɧɚɤɨɦɵɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɰɚɦɉɨɷɬɨɦɭɄɢɬɚɣɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹɜ
ɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɦɬɟɚɬɪɟɫɢɦɜɨɥɨɦɷɤɡɨɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɧɟɞɨɫɬɢɠɢɦɨɣɤɪɚɫɨɬɵ ©ɤɚɬɚɣ
ɫɤɚɹªɩɪɢɧɰɟɫɫɚȺɧɠɟɥɢɤɚɜɨɩɟɪɚɯɧɚɫɸɠɟɬɨɊɨɥɚɧɞɟ ɢɩɨɜɨɞɨɦɞɥɹɫɨɡ
ɞɚɧɢɹɞɟɤɨɪɚɬɢɜɧɵɯɩɪɢɞɜɨɪɧɵɯɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɟɣ ɉɺɪɫɟɥɥȽɥɸɤɉɚɢɡɢɟɥɥɨ ɇɨ
ɩɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɨɧɚɫɸɠɟɬɧɨɦɭɪɨɜɧɟɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɟɬɩɨɩɵɬɤɚɞɢɚɥɨɝɚɫɢɧɨɣɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɨɣ
ɦɨɪɚɥɶɸɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɦɢɨɛɨɛɳɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɦɭɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜɟ ©Ɍɟɣɰɨɧªȼɢɜɚɥɶɞɢ
©Ʉɢɬɚɣɫɤɢɣɝɟɪɨɣªɏɚɫɫɟ ɚɦɭɡɵɤɚFKLQRLVHULHɨɛɪɟɬɚɟɬɤɥɚɫɫɢɰɢɫɬɫɤɢɟɱɟɪɬɵ
ɋɬɚɬɶɹɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɨɛɨɣɩɟɪɜɵɣɨɩɵɬɫɩɟɰɢɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɢɡɭɱɟɧɢɹɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶ
ɧɨɝɨFKLQRLVHULH;9,,,ɜɱɟɦɨɛɭɫɥɨɜɥɟɧɚɟɺɧɚɭɱɧɚɹɧɨɜɢɡɧɚȼɰɟɧɬɪɟɜɧɢɦɚ
ɧɢɹ²ɦɚɥɨɢɡɭɱɟɧɧɵɟɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɤɪɭɩɧɵɯɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɨɜȺɜɬɨɪɩɪɢɯɨɞɢɬ
ɤɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɟɦɭɜɵɜɨɞɭɟɫɥɢɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɚɢɞɟɤɨɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɩɪɢɤɥɚɞɧɨɟɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɨ
FKLQRLVHULHɨɩɢɪɚɥɢɫɶɧɚɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɳɢɟɹɜɥɟɧɢɹɤɢɬɚɣɫɤɨɝɨɢɫ
ɤɭɫɫɬɜɚɬɨɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɣɬɟɚɬɪ;9,,,ɜɨɩɢɪɚɹɫɶɧɚɟɝɨɜɧɟɲɧɢɟɩɪɢɦɟɬɵ
ɫɨɡɞɚɜɚɥɫɜɨɟɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɣ©ɦɢɮɨɄɢɬɚɟªɇɚɟɝɨɨɫɧɨɜɟɩɪɨɢɫɯɨɞɢɥɨɨɫɨɡɧɚɧɢɟ
ɫɟɛɹɱɟɪɟɡ©ɢɧɨɟªɨɫɦɵɫɥɟɧɢɟɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɯɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɯɢɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯɩɪɨɛɥɟɦ
ɄɥɸɱɟɜɵɟɫɥɨɜɚFKLQRLVHULHɤɢɬɚɣɫɤɢɣɫɬɢɥɶɨɪɢɟɧɬɚɥɢɡɦɨɩɟɪɚ;9,,,
ɜɟɤɚɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɣɬɟɚɬɪȼɢɜɚɥɶɞɢȽɥɸɤɏɚɫɫɟ
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ɪɟɞɵɫɬɨɪɢɹɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɵɯɤɨɧɬɚɤɬɨɜȿɜɪɨɩɵɢɄɢɬɚɹɧɚɱɚɥɚɫɶɛɨɥɟɟ
ɞɜɭɯɬɵɫɹɱɥɟɬɧɚɡɚɞɤɨɝɞɚɜɨ,,ɜɞɨɧɷɛɵɥɩɪɨɥɨɠɟɧȼɟɥɢɤɢɣɲɟɥ
ɤɨɜɵɣɩɭɬɶɢɡɋɢɚɧɹɤɫɬɪɚɧɚɦɋɪɟɞɢɡɟɦɧɨɦɨɪɶɹȺɜ;,,,ɜɆɚɪɤɨ
ɉɨɥɨɞɚɥɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɰɚɦɩɟɪɜɵɟɯɨɬɹɢɦɟɫɬɚɦɢɜɟɫɶɦɚɮɚɧɬɚɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɫɜɟɞɟ
ɧɢɹɨɛɷɬɨɣɫɬɪɚɧɟȼ;9,ɜɜɄɢɬɚɣɩɪɢɛɵɥɢɩɨɪɬɭɝɚɥɶɫɤɢɟɤɭɩɰɵɢɦɢɫ
ɫɢɨɧɟɪɵɢɤɤɨɧɰɭ;9,,ɜɧɚɱɚɥɚɫɶɨɠɢɜɥɟɧɧɚɹɬɨɪɝɨɜɥɹȿɜɪɨɩɚɭɡɧɚɥɚ
ɤɢɬɚɣɫɤɢɣɮɚɪɮɨɪɲɟɥɤɫɬɚɬɭɷɬɤɢɲɢɪɦɵɜɟɟɪɚɡɨɧɬɢɤɢȼɨɡɧɢɤɥɚɦɨɞɚ
ɧɚɩɫɟɜɞɨɤɢɬɚɣɫɤɢɣɫɬɢɥɶɜɤɨɬɨɪɨɦɨɮɨɪɦɥɹɥɢɫɶɞɜɨɪɰɵɩɚɜɢɥɶɨɧɵɤɚ
ɛɢɧɟɬɵɛɟɫɟɞɤɢɌɚɤɜɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɦɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟɧɚɱɢɧɚɹɫɤɨɧɰɚ;9,,ɜɟɤɚ
ɫɥɨɠɢɥɨɫɶɲɢɧɭɚɡɪɢ ɮɪFKLQRLVHULH²©ɤɢɬɚɣɳɢɧɚª ²ɨɞɧɨɢɡɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟ
ɩɨɩɭɥɹɪɧɵɯɧɚɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɣɨɪɢɟɧɬɚɥɢɡɦɚɈɫɧɨɜɧɵɦɢɟɝɨɩɪɢɦɟɬɚɦɢɫɬɚɥɨɢɫ
ɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɟɦɨɬɢɜɨɜɢɫɬɢɥɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɩɪɢɟɦɨɜɤɢɬɚɣɫɤɨɝɨɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚɒɢ
ɧɭɚɡɪɢɹɜɢɥɨɫɶɯɭɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣɪɟɚɤɰɢɟɣɧɚɧɚɱɚɜɲɭɸɫɹɷɤɫɩɚɧɫɢɸȿɜɪɨɩɵ
ɧɚȼɨɫɬɨɤɢɩɨɫɥɨɜɚɦɏɏɨɧɨɪɚɫɬɚɥɨ©ɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɢɟɦɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɝɨɜɡɝɥɹɞɚ
ɧɚɄɢɬɚɣª>@ɉɨɦɧɟɧɢɸɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɟɣɫɢɦɦɟɬɪɢɱɧɨɟɹɜɥɟɧɢɟ ɯɭɞɨ
ɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɚɹɪɟɚɤɰɢɹɧɚȿɜɪɨɩɭ ɜɨɡɧɢɤɥɨɜɷɬɨɜɪɟɦɹɢɜɤɢɬɚɣɫɤɨɦɢɫɤɭɫ
ɫɬɜɟ>@
ȼɧɚɭɱɧɨɣɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɟɩɨɧɹɬɢɟɲɢɧɭɚɡɪɢɞɨɫɢɯɩɨɪɮɢɝɭɪɢɪɨɜɚɥɨɩɪɟ
ɠɞɟɜɫɟɝɨɜɫɜɹɡɢɫɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɦɢɞɟɤɨɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɩɪɢɤɥɚɞɧɨɝɨɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚ
ɤɨɧɰɚ;9,,±;9,,,ɜɜɢɬɨɥɶɤɨɧɚɱɢɧɚɟɬɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶɫɹɦɭɡɵɤɨɜɟɞɚɦɢ>@
Ɋɚɫɫɦɨɬɪɢɦɩɪɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɹɲɢɧɭɚɡɪɢɜɨɩɟɪɧɨɦɬɜɨɪɱɟɫɬɜɟɤɪɭɩɧɟɣɲɢɯɤɨɦ
ɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɨɜ
ɉɨɩɵɬɤɢɨɛɪɚɳɟɧɢɹɤɄɢɬɚɸɜɨɩɟɪɟɬɚɤɠɟɧɚɱɢɧɚɸɬɫɹɜɤɨɧɰɟ;9,,ɜ
>@ɂɫɪɚɡɭɨɛɪɚɡɵɲɢɧɭɚɡɪɢɧɚɞɟɥɹɸɬɫɹɫɜɟɪɯɫɦɵɫɥɚɦɢɄɢɬɚɣ²ɷɬɨɧɟ
ɱɬɨɧɟɦɵɫɥɢɦɨɟɢɧɟɞɨɫɬɢɠɢɦɨɟɷɬɨɚɧɬɢȿɜɪɨɩɚɢɚɧɬɢɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɶɉɟɪɜɵɦ
ɩɨɜɢɞɢɦɨɦɭɫɬɚɥɡɞɟɫɶɀȻɅɸɥɥɢȼɟɝɨɨɩɟɪɟ©ɊɨɥɚɧɞªɩɨɩɨɷɦɟɅȺɪɢɨ
&KLQRLVHULHɜɡɚɩɚɞɧɨɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɣɨɩɟɪɟ;9,,,ɜɟɤɚ 
ɫɬɨ  ɝɥɚɜɧɚɹɝɟɪɨɢɧɹ²©ɤɚɬɚɣɫɤɚɹªɩɪɢɧɰɟɫɫɚȺɧɠɟɥɢɤɚ²ɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬ
ɫɹɫɢɦɜɨɥɨɦɧɟɞɨɫɬɭɩɧɨɣɤɪɚɫɨɬɵɢɝɢɩɧɨɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɦɨɪɨɤɚɊɨɥɚɧɞɨɬɥɸɛɜɢ
ɤɧɟɣɬɟɪɹɟɬɪɚɡɭɦɢɬɨɥɶɤɨɜɦɟɲɚɬɟɥɶɫɬɜɨɮɟɢɅɨɠɢɫɬɢɥɶɢɚɧɬɢɱɧɵɯɝɟɪɨ
ɟɜ ɨɛɪɚɬɢɦɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚɷɬɨɫɢɦɜɨɥɢɱɟɫɤɨɟɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɟȼɨɫɬɨɤɚɢɁɚɩɚ
ɞɚ ɢɫɰɟɥɹɟɬɟɝɨɨɬɛɟɡɭɦɢɹ
ȼ©ɄɨɪɨɥɟɜɟɮɟɣªȽɉɺɪɫɟɥɥɚ  ɧɚɫɸɠɟɬ©ɋɧɚɜɥɟɬɧɸɸɧɨɱɶªɩɟ
ɪɟɪɚɛɨɬɚɧɧɵɣȾȾɪɚɣɞɟɧɨɦɜɩɟɪɜɵɟɩɨɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɫɰɟɧɚɜɞɭɯɟɲɢɧɭɚɡɪɢɤɨ
ɬɨɪɚɹɨɬɫɭɬɫɬɜɭɟɬɜɲɟɤɫɩɢɪɨɜɫɤɨɣɤɨɦɟɞɢɢȼɨɫɰɞɈɛɟɪɨɧɫɨɟɞɢɧɢɜ
ɜɥɸɛɥɟɧɧɵɟɩɚɪɵɞɟɦɨɧɫɬɪɢɪɭɟɬɧɚɫɬɨɹɳɢɟɜɨɥɲɟɛɫɬɜɚɢɡɬɶɦɵɜɞɪɭɝɩɨɹɜ
ɥɹɟɬɫɹ©ɹɫɧɚɹɩɚɧɨɪɚɦɚɤɢɬɚɣɫɤɨɝɨɫɚɞɚɱɶɹɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɚɞɟɪɟɜɶɹɪɚɫɬɟɧɢɹ
ɩɥɨɞɵɩɬɢɰɵɢɡɜɟɪɢɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɨɨɬɥɢɱɧɵɨɬɬɨɝɨɱɬɨɢɦɟɟɬɫɹɜɧɚɲɟɣɱɚ
ɫɬɢɫɜɟɬɚªɊɟɦɚɪɤɚɩɨɞɱɟɪɤɢɜɚɟɬɱɬɨɩɟɪɟɞɧɚɦɢɢɧɨɛɵɬɢɟɢɧɨɟɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧ
ɫɬɜɨ©ɇɟɩɪɟɫɵɳɚɹɫɶɧɢɤɨɝɞɚɆɵɧɚɲɭɪɚɞɨɫɬɶɩɪɨɞɥɟɜɚɟɦɂɨɞɧɨɛɥɚɠɟɧ
ɫɬɜɨɫɦɟɧɹɟɬɞɪɭɝɨɟª²ɩɨɸɬɄɢɬɚɟɰɢɄɢɬɚɹɧɤɚɂɯɦɢɪɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹɪɚɟɦ
ɜɨɥɲɟɛɧɨɣɫɬɪɚɧɨɣɜɫɟɨɛɳɟɝɨɫɱɚɫɬɶɹɉɪɢɦɟɬɵɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɢɞɨɫɬɨɜɟɪɧɨɫɬɢ
ɟɦɭɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɩɨɤɚɡɚɧɵ²ɢɧɟɭɞɢɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɱɬɨɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɣɹɡɵɤɷɬɨɣɜɨɥɲɟɛ
ɧɨɣɫɬɪɚɧɵɨɫɬɚɟɬɫɹɜɫɟɰɟɥɨɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɢɦɚɜɮɢɧɚɥɟɤɢɬɚɣɰɵɬɚɧɰɭɸɬɱɚɤɨ
ɧɭɌɚɤɮɨɪɦɢɪɭɟɬɫɹɨɫɧɨɜɚɨɩɟɪɧɨɝɨɲɢɧɭɚɡɪɢ;9,,,ɜɟɤɚɄɢɬɚɣ²ɜɧɟɲɧɟ
ɩɪɟɤɪɚɫɧɵɣɞɚɥɟɤɢɣɦɢɪɝɨɜɨɪɹɳɢɣɩɪɢɷɬɨɦɧɚɩɨɧɹɬɧɨɦɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɰɚɦɹɡɵɤɟ
ȼ;9,,,ɜɩɨɞɜɥɢɹɧɢɟɦɩɭɬɟɲɟɫɬɜɢɣɢɨɬɤɪɵɬɢɣɄɭɤɚȻɭɝɟɧɜɢɥɹȺɞɚɧ
ɫɨɧɚ©ɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɢɥɨɫɶɱɬɨȼɨɫɬɨɤɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɟɬɢɞɚɥɟɤɨɡɚɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɦɢɢɫɥɚɦɫɤɢɯ
ɡɟɦɟɥɶª>@Ʉɢɬɚɣɩɪɨɧɢɤɚɟɬɜɦɧɨɝɨɱɢɫɥɟɧɧɵɟɨɩɟɪɵɢɛɚɥɟɬɵɢɨɫɬɚ
ɟɬɫɹɤɚɤɢɪɚɧɶɲɟ©ɫɬɪɚɧɨɣɱɭɞɟɫªȼɞɨɩɟɪɵɛɚɥɟɬɚɊɚɦɨ©ɉɚɥɚɞɢɧɵª
©/HV3DODGLQVª ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɧɨɣɧɚɩɨɜɟɫɬɢɀɅɚɮɨɧɬɟɧɚɩɨɨɞɧɨɦɭɢɡɮɪɚɝɦɟɧ
ɬɨɜ©ɇɟɢɫɬɨɜɨɝɨɊɨɥɚɧɞɚªȺɪɢɨɫɬɨ>@ɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɟɬɪɚɡɜɟɪɧɭɬɵɣɷɩɢɡɨɞɜ
ɞɭɯɟɲɢɧɭɚɡɪɢɧɚɩɨɦɢɧɚɸɳɢɣɉɟɪɫɟɥɥɚȼɰɚɪɫɬɜɟɮɟɢɆɚɧɬɨɩɨɫɪɟɞɢɫɚɞɚ
Ⱥɧɫɟɥɶɦɜɢɞɢɬɞɜɨɪɟɰɜɤɢɬɚɣɫɤɨɦɫɬɢɥɟ©ɑɬɨɡɚȻɨɝɜɛɥɟɫɬɹɳɟɦɫɟɦɨɛɢɬɚ
ɟɬɠɢɥɢɳɟ"ɑɶɢɷɬɨɱɭɞɟɫɚ"ª²ɜɨɫɤɥɢɰɚɟɬɝɟɪɨɣ
ȼɨɦɧɨɝɢɯɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɯɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɬɟɚɬɪɚ;9,,,ɜɟɤɚɄɢɬɚɣɩɪɢɨɛ
ɪɟɬɚɟɬɢɧɨɜɵɟɫɦɵɫɥɨɜɵɟɢɯɭɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɟɨɛɟɪɬɨɧɵɍɫɥɨɜɧɨɤɢɬɚɣɫɤɨɟɧɟ
ɪɟɞɤɨɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɨɬɜɟɬɨɦɧɚɡɚɩɪɨɫɩɨɱɚɫɬɢɜɧɟɲɧɟɣɩɵɲɧɨɫɬɢɆɨɞɚɧɚɩɪɨ
ɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɞɟɤɨɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɩɪɢɤɥɚɞɧɨɝɨɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚɜɞɭɯɟɲɢɧɭɚɡɪɢɧɚɜɨɞɧɢɜɲɢɟ
ɜɫɟɚɪɢɫɬɨɤɪɚɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɝɨɫɬɢɧɵɟɩɪɨɧɢɤɚɟɬɢɧɚɨɩɟɪɧɭɸɫɰɟɧɭȼɨɩɟɪɟɄȼ
Ƚɥɸɤɚ©Ʉɢɬɚɹɧɤɢª ©/H&LQHVLª ɬɪɢɫɤɭɱɚɸɳɢɟɝɟɪɨɢɧɢɫɢɞɹɬɡɚɱɚɣɧɵɦɫɬɨ
ɥɢɤɨɦɭɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɧɵɦɢɡɵɫɤɚɧɧɵɦɮɚɪɮɨɪɨɦȺɄɚɧɝɩɪɢɜɨɞɢɬɨɬɡɵɜɤɨɦɩɨ
ɡɢɬɨɪɚɄȾɢɬɬɟɪɫɞɨɪɮɚɧɚɩɪɟɦɶɟɪɭɨɩɟɪɵȽɥɸɤɚȼɩɟɪɜɭɸɨɱɟɪɟɞɶɨɧɨɛ
ɪɚɳɚɟɬɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɧɚ©ɦɨɞɧɵɟªɞɟɤɨɪɚɰɢɢɥɚɤɩɨɡɨɥɨɬɭɤɢɬɚɣɫɤɢɟɮɨɧɚɪɢɤɢ
ɫɬɟɤɥɹɧɧɵɟɩɪɢɡɦɵɦɟɪɰɚɸɳɢɟɤɚɤɛɪɢɥɥɢɚɧɬɵ>@

Ʉɚɬɚɣ &DWKD\&DWDL ²ɨɞɧɨɢɡɧɚɡɜɚɧɢɣɄɢɬɚɹɜɡɚɩɚɞɧɨɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɢɯɹɡɵɤɚɯɩɨɫɥɟɩɭɬɟɲɟɫɬɜɢɣ
Ɇɚɪɤɨɉɨɥɨ

ɁɞɟɫɶɢɞɚɥɟɟɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɵȺɒɚɪɚɩɨɜɚ
 ɘɉɆɟɞɜɟɞɟɜɚ

ɇɨɧɟɬɨɥɶɤɨɤɪɚɫɨɱɧɚɹɷɤɡɨɬɢɱɧɨɫɬɶɩɫɟɜɞɨɤɢɬɚɣɫɤɨɣɠɢɡɧɢɩɪɢɜɥɟɤɚɟɬ
ɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɰɟɜȼ;9,,,ɜɜȿɜɪɨɩɟɩɨɹɜɥɹɟɬɫɹɜɫɟɛɨɥɶɲɟɞɨɫɬɨɜɟɪɧɵɯɫɜɟɞɟɧɢɣ
ɨɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɟɉɨɞɧɟɛɟɫɧɨɣȼɝɨɞɭɜɇɟɚɩɨɥɟɨɬɤɪɵɜɚɟɬɫɹɧɚɭɱɧɨɭɱɟɛɧɨɟ
ɡɚɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ©ɄɢɬɚɣɫɤɚɹɤɨɥɥɟɝɢɹªɚɜɝɜɨɎɪɚɧɰɢɢɩɭɛɥɢɤɭɟɬɫɹɦɨɧɨ
ɝɪɚɮɢɹɀȻȾɸɚɥɶɞɚ©ɈɩɢɫɚɧɢɟɄɢɬɚɣɫɤɨɣɢɦɩɟɪɢɢª>@ɉɨɡɧɚɧɢɟ
ɱɭɠɨɣɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵɢɨɫɦɵɫɥɟɧɢɟɟɟɧɨɪɦɩɨɦɨɝɚɟɬɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɰɚɦɨɫɨɡɧɚɬɶɫɨɛ
ɫɬɜɟɧɧɭɸɷɬɢɤɭɢɦɨɪɚɥɶɗɬɨɩɨɥɭɱɚɟɬɨɬɪɚɠɟɧɢɟɢɜɨɩɟɪɟ
ȼɚɤɬɟɨɩɟɪɵȼɢɜɚɥɶɞɢ©Ɍɟɣɰɨɧª 7HX]]RQH ɜɞɨɜɫɬɜɭɸɳɚɹɤɢɬɚɣɫɤɚɹ
ɢɦɩɟɪɚɬɪɢɰɚɁɢɞɢɚɧɚɯɨɱɟɬɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɢɬɶɦɟɫɬɧɵɣɨɛɵɱɚɣɜɫɬɭɩɚɬɶɛɪɚɤɫɧɟ
ɫɤɨɥɶɤɢɦɢɠɟɧɳɢɧɚɦɢɧɨɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɬɜɵɣɬɢɨɞɧɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɡɚɞɜɭɯɦɭɠɱɢɧ
ɩɪɟɬɟɧɞɭɸɳɢɯɧɚɬɪɨɧɋɢɜɟɧɢɨɢɑɢɧɨɌɚɤɨɟɧɚɦɟɪɟɧɧɨɟɞɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɟɞɨ
ɚɛɫɭɪɞɚɢɧɵɯɱɭɠɞɵɯɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɣɤɚɤɛɵɩɪɨɜɟɪɹɟɬɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɰɟɜɧɚɬɜɟɪɞɨɫɬɶ
ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯɭɛɟɠɞɟɧɢɣȼ©ɄɢɬɚɹɧɤɚɯªȽɥɸɤɚɫɪɚɜɧɢɜɚɸɬɫɹɨɛɵɱɚɢɁɚɩɚɞɚ
ɢȼɨɫɬɨɤɚɅɢɫɚɧɝɚɯɨɱɟɬɩɪɨɝɧɚɬɶɫɜɨɟɝɨɛɪɚɬɚɋɢɥɚɧɝɨɢɡɞɚɦɫɤɢɯɩɨɤɨɟɜ
ɨɞɧɚɤɨɬɨɬɜɟɪɧɭɥɫɹɢɡȿɜɪɨɩɵɢɭɬɜɟɪɠɞɚɟɬɱɬɨɡɚɩɪɟɬɧɚɨɛɳɟɧɢɟɦɟɠɞɭ
ɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɩɨɥɨɠɧɵɦɢɩɨɥɚɦɢ²ɷɬɨ©ɤɢɬɚɣɫɤɢɣɚɛɫɭɪɞªɧɚɞɤɨɬɨɪɵɦ©ɜɫɹȿɜ
ɪɨɩɚɫɦɟɟɬɫɹªɊɚɡɥɢɱɢɟɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɨɫɦɵɫɥɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɭȽɥɸɤɚɜɤɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɤɥɸɱɟ
ɋɢɥɚɧɝɨɜɢɞɟɜɲɢɣɡɚɩɚɞɧɵɣɦɢɪɪɚɫɫɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɤɢɬɚɹɧɤɚɦɨɛ©ɷɤɡɨɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɠɢɡɧɢªɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɰɟɜȼɨɡɧɢɤɚɟɬɷɮɮɟɤɬɞɜɨɣɧɨɝɨɡɟɪɤɚɥɚȿɜɪɨɩɚɢɡɨɛɪɚɠɚɟɬ
ɧɚɫɰɟɧɟɄɢɬɚɣɤɨɬɨɪɵɣɜɫɜɨɸɨɱɟɪɟɞɶɢɡɨɛɪɚɠɚɟɬȿɜɪɨɩɭ
Ɋɨɠɞɚɸɳɢɣɫɹɤɥɚɫɫɢɰɢɡɦɩɪɢɧɟɫɜɨɩɟɪɧɨɟɲɢɧɭɚɡɪɢɢɧɨɜɵɟɫɦɵɫɥɵ
ȼɩɨɢɫɤɚɯɢɞɟɚɥɨɜɱɟɥɨɜɟɱɟɫɤɨɝɨɩɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɢɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨɭɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜɚ
ɜɡɨɪɵɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɰɟɜɭɫɬɪɟɦɢɥɢɫɶɤɞɚɥɟɤɢɦɫɬɪɚɧɚɦɢ;9,,,ɜɟɤɜɩɟɪɜɵɟɨɬ
ɤɪɵɥɜɟɤɨɜɭɸɦɭɞɪɨɫɬɶɉɨɞɧɟɛɟɫɧɨɣɂɜɱɚɫɬɧɨɫɬɢɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɚɄɢɬɚɹɹɜɢɥɚ
ɩɪɢɦɟɪɛɟɡɝɪɚɧɢɱɧɵɯɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɟɣɭɬɜɟɪɠɞɟɧɢɹɦɨɧɚɪɯɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɢɞɟɢɜɨɛ
ɪɚɡɚɯɦɢɮɨɥɨɝɢɢɢɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚɉɨɞɜɥɢɹɧɢɟɦɦɢɫɫɢɨɧɟɪɨɜɢɟɡɭɢɬɨɜɤɭɥɶɬɭɪ
ɧɚɹɷɥɢɬɚɁɚɩɚɞɚɩɪɢɭɱɚɫɬɢɢɆɨɧɬɟɫɤɶɟȾɢɞɪɨȼɨɥɶɬɟɪɚɫɨɡɞɚɥɚɭɬɨɩɢɱɟ
ɫɤɭɸɤɚɪɬɢɧɭɢɞɟɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɄɢɬɚɹɈɧɚ©ɭɦɨɡɪɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɩɪɨɬɢɜɨɩɨɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ
Ɂɚɩɚɞɭɤɚɤɦɢɪɭɭɬɪɚɱɟɧɧɨɣɦɭɞɪɨɫɬɢª>@ɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɰɵɤɚɤɛɵɫɬɪɟɦɹɬɫɹ
ɩɨɥɭɱɢɬɶɭɪɨɤɭɄɢɬɚɹ
ȼ©Ɍɟɣɰɨɧɟªȼɢɜɚɥɶɞɢɜɩɟɪɜɵɟɤɜɚɡɢɤɢɬɚɣɫɤɢɣɫɸɠɟɬɞɚɟɬɫɹɧɟɜɫɤɚ
ɡɨɱɧɨɦɢɥɢɤɨɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɚɜɫɟɪɶɟɡɧɨɦɤɥɸɱɟɗɤɡɨɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹɨɛɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚɩɪɨ
ɢɫɯɨɞɹɳɟɝɨɧɟɨɛɦɚɧɵɜɚɟɬɡɪɢɬɟɥɟɣɜɨɩɟɪɟȼɢɜɚɥɶɞɢɢɧɨɫɤɚɡɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɢɞɟɬ
ɪɟɱɶɨɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɯɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɚɯ²ɡɚɤɨɧɧɨɫɬɢɩɪɟɫɬɨɥɨɧɚɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɹɢɫɜɹɬɨ
ɫɬɢɡɚɤɨɧɧɨɣɜɥɚɫɬɢɇɟɫɥɭɱɚɣɧɨɷɬɚɨɩɟɪɚɢɫɩɨɥɧɹɥɚɫɶɩɨɡɚɤɚɡɭ©ɫɜɟɪɯɭª
ɤɛɪɚɤɨɫɨɱɟɬɚɧɢɸɩɪɢɧɰɚɎɢɥɢɩɩɚȽɟɫɫɟɧȾɚɪɦɲɬɚɞɬɫɤɨɝɨɄɢɬɚɣɜɵɫɬɭ
ɩɚɟɬɡɞɟɫɶɤɚɤɨɛɪɚɡɟɰɩɨɥɢɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɫɬɚɛɢɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɢɷɮɮɟɤɬɢɜɧɨɣɜɧɭɬɪɟɧ
ɧɟɣɩɨɥɢɬɢɤɢ

ȼɝɛɵɥɫɞɟɥɚɧɩɟɪɜɵɣɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɢɣɩɟɪɟɜɨɞɜɚɠɧɟɣɲɟɣɱɚɫɬɢɤɨɧɮɭɰɢɚɧɫɤɨɝɨɉɹɬɢɤ
ɧɢɠɢɹ²©Ʉɧɢɝɢɩɟɪɟɦɟɧª©ɂɰɡɢɧª 

ɇɚɩɨɦɧɢɦɱɬɨɫɝɢɧɚɩɪɨɬɹɠɟɧɢɢɜɫɟɝɨ;9,,,ɜɟɤɚɜɄɢɬɚɟɩɪɚɜɢɥɚɨɞɧɚɢɬɚɠɟɞɢɧɚ
&KLQRLVHULHɜɡɚɩɚɞɧɨɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɣɨɩɟɪɟ;9,,,ɜɟɤɚ 
ɉɨɞɜɥɢɹɧɢɟɦɤɥɚɫɫɢɰɢɫɬɫɤɢɯɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɨɤɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɣɬɟɚɬɪ;9,,,ɜɟɤɚ
ɨɛɪɚɳɚɟɬɫɹɤɨɛɪɚɡɚɦɢɞɟɚɥɶɧɵɯɥɢɱɧɨɫɬɟɣɤɨɬɨɪɵɟɦɨɝɥɢɛɵɫɬɚɬɶɩɪɢɦɟ
ɪɨɦɞɥɹɩɨɞɪɚɠɚɧɢɹȼɩɨɢɫɤɚɯɬɚɤɢɯɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɟɣɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɟɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɰɟɜɩɪɢ
ɤɨɜɵɜɚɸɬɫɸɠɟɬɵɢɡɠɢɡɧɢɞɚɥɟɤɢɯɧɚɪɨɞɨɜȼɰɟɧɬɪɟɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɹɜ©Ɍɟɣɰɨɧɟª
ȼɢɜɚɥɶɞɢɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɫɹɮɢɝɭɪɚɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɢɦɩɟɪɚɬɨɪɚɅɢɒɢɦɢɧɹɢɥɢɌɚɣɐɡɭ
ɧɚ Ɍɟɭɰɰɨɧɟ²ɢɬɚɥɶɹɧɫɤɢɣɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɟɝɨɢɦɟɧɢ ȼɝɥɚɡɚɯɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɰɟɜɨɧ
ɛɵɥɨɞɧɢɦɢɡɫɚɦɵɯɦɭɞɪɵɯɜɟɪɯɨɜɧɵɯɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɟɣɄɢɬɚɹɩɨɫɤɨɥɶɤɭɫɨɫɬɚ
ɜɢɥɤɨɞɟɤɫɡɚɤɨɧɨɜɭɤɪɟɩɢɥɜɥɚɫɬɶɢɡɚɛɨɬɢɥɫɹɨɛɥɚɝɨɫɨɫɬɨɹɧɢɢɢɨɛɪɚɡɨ
ɜɚɧɢɢɧɚɪɨɞɚɂɯɨɬɹɫɨɛɵɬɢɹɨɩɟɪɵȼɢɜɚɥɶɞɢɧɚɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨȺȾɡɟɧɨɢɦɟɸɬ
ɦɚɥɨɟɨɬɧɨɲɟɧɢɟɤɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɡɧɚɦɟɧɢɬɵɣɢɦɩɟɪɚɬɨɪɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɟɬɜɧɟɣɤɚɤ
ɫɩɪɚɜɟɞɥɢɜɵɣɢɛɥɚɝɨɪɨɞɧɵɣɩɪɚɜɢɬɟɥɶ²ɫɢɦɜɨɥɜɥɚɫɬɢɤɚɤɨɣɨɧɚɞɨɥɠɧɚ
ɛɵɬɶɎɢɧɚɥɨɩɟɪɵɩɨɤɥɚɫɫɢɰɢɫɬɫɤɢɫɜɟɬɟɥɌɟɣɰɨɧɧɟɫɦɨɬɪɹɧɚɢɧɬɪɢɝɢ
ɦɚɱɟɯɢɁɢɞɢɚɧɵɢɤɨɜɚɪɧɵɯɩɪɢɞɜɨɪɧɵɯɜɨɡɜɪɚɳɚɟɬɫɟɛɟɡɚɤɨɧɧɭɸɜɥɚɫɬɶ
ɢɦɭɞɪɨɩɪɨɳɚɟɬɡɥɨɭɦɵɲɥɟɧɧɢɤɨɜ
Ʉɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɧɵɦɜɵɪɚɠɟɧɢɟɦɤɥɚɫɫɢɰɢɫɬɫɤɢɯɢɞɟɣɜɷɤɡɨɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣ
ɪɚɦɤɟɲɢɧɭɚɡɪɢɫɬɚɥɨɩɨɩɭɥɹɪɧɟɣɲɟɟɨɩɟɪɧɨɟɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨɉɆɟɬɚɫɬɚɡɢɨ©Ʉɢ
ɬɚɣɫɤɢɣɝɟɪɨɣª /¶HURHFLQHVH ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɧɨɟɜɨɩɟɪɚɯ;9,,,ɜɟɤɚɨɤɨɥɨ
ɪɚɡ>@ɜɬɨɦɱɢɫɥɟɬɚɤɢɦɢɤɪɭɩɧɵɦɢɚɜɬɨɪɚɦɢɤɚɤȽɚɥɭɩɩɢɏɚɫɫɟ
ɑɢɦɚɪɨɡɚɌɚɤɠɟɤɚɤɢɜ©Ɍɟɣɰɨɧɟªȼɢɜɚɥɶɞɢɡɞɟɫɶɩɨɞɧɢɦɚɸɬɫɹɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɵ
ɫɜɹɬɨɫɬɢɡɚɤɨɧɧɨɣɜɥɚɫɬɢɀɟɥɚɹɫɩɚɫɬɢɧɚɫɥɟɞɧɢɤɚɩɪɟɫɬɨɥɚɆɢɧɬɟɨɪɟɝɟɧɬ
ɤɢɬɚɣɫɤɨɣɢɦɩɟɪɢɢɅɟɚɧɝɨɠɟɪɬɜɭɟɬɫɜɨɢɦɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɦɚɥɟɧɶɤɢɦɫɵɧɨɦ
ȼɥɢɛɪɟɬɬɨ©Ʉɢɬɚɣɫɤɨɝɨɝɟɪɨɹªɨɬɪɚɡɢɥɢɫɶɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɟɧɢɹɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɰɟɜ;9,,,
ɜɧɟɬɨɥɶɤɨɨɜɥɚɫɬɢɧɨɢɨɜɟɪɧɨɫɬɢɝɟɪɨɢɡɦɟɢɫɚɦɨɩɨɠɟɪɬɜɨɜɚɧɢɢɁɞɟɫɶ
ɜɨɡɧɢɤɚɟɬɢɩɟɪɜɨɟɨɛɪɚɳɟɧɢɟɤɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɦɫɨɛɵɬɢɹɦɢɫɬɨɪɢɢɄɢɬɚɹ
ɉɨɞɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɢɦɢɢɦɟɧɚɦɢɜɵɫɬɭɩɚɸɬɪɟɚɥɶɧɵɟɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɢɨɩɢɫɚɧɧɵɟ
ɞɪɟɜɧɟɤɢɬɚɣɫɤɢɦɢɫɬɨɪɢɤɨɦɋɵɦɚɐɹɧɟɦɜ9,ɜɞɨɧɷɧɚɫɥɟɞɧɢɤɩɪɟɫɬɨɥɚ
ɜɰɚɪɫɬɜɟɐɡɢɧɶ±ɑɠɚɨɍ²ɛɵɥɫɩɚɫɟɧɫɚɧɨɜɧɢɤɨɦɑɷɧɂɧɨɦɰɟɧɨɣɠɢɡɧɢ
ɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɝɨɫɵɧɚ>@ɗɬɨɬɫɸɠɟɬɛɵɥɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɜ©ɋɢɪɨɬɟɢɡɪɨɞɚɑɠɚɨª
ɐɡɢɐɡɸɧɶɫɹɧɹ²ɩɟɪɜɨɦɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɢɤɢɬɚɣɫɤɨɣɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɵɩɟɪɟɜɟɞɟɧ
ɧɨɦɧɚɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɢɣɹɡɵɤ  >@ɇɚɟɝɨɨɫɧɨɜɟɧɚɩɢɫɚɧ©Ʉɢɬɚɣɫɤɢɣ
ɫɢɪɨɬɚªȼɨɥɶɬɟɪɚɢ©ɄɢɬɚɣɫɤɢɣɝɟɪɨɣªɆɟɬɚɫɬɚɡɢɨɌɚɤɢɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɦɫɤɚɡɨɱ
ɧɚɹɞɚɥɟɤɚɹɫɬɪɚɧɚɩɨɫɬɟɩɟɧɧɨɧɚɱɢɧɚɟɬɨɛɪɟɬɚɬɶɪɟɚɥɶɧɵɟɱɟɪɬɵ
Ʉɚɤɜɢɞɢɦ©ɞɨɫɬɨɜɟɪɧɨɫɬɶªɢɡɨɛɪɚɠɟɧɢɹɄɢɬɚɹɜɨɩɟɪɟ;9,,,ɜɛɵɥɚ
ɫɜɹɡɚɧɚɩɪɟɠɞɟɜɫɟɝɨɫɜɧɟɲɧɢɦɚɧɬɭɪɚɠɟɦɜɫɬɢɥɟɲɢɧɭɚɡɪɢɨɬɱɚɫɬɢɫ
ɫɸɠɟɬɚɦɢɨɬɞɟɥɶɧɵɯɩɪɨɢɡɜɟɞɟɧɢɣɂɦɟɧɧɨɷɬɢɹɜɥɟɧɢɹɤɢɬɚɣɫɤɨɣɤɭɥɶɬɭ
ɪɵ ɞɟɤɨɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɩɪɢɤɥɚɞɧɨɟɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɨɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɚɢɢɫɬɨɪɢɹ ɛɵɥɢɛɨɥɶɲɟ
ɜɫɟɝɨɡɧɚɤɨɦɵɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɰɚɦȼɬɨɠɟɜɪɟɦɹɤɢɬɚɣɫɤɚɹɦɭɡɵɤɚɤɧɚɱɚɥɭ;9,,ɜ
ɜɫɟɟɳɟɨɫɬɚɜɚɥɚɫɶɞɥɹȿɜɪɨɩɵWHUUDLQFRJQLWDɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɹɨɧɟɣɫɜɨɞɢɥɚɫɶɤ
ɞɜɭɦɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɚɦɡɚɩɢɫɤɚɦɢɟɡɭɢɬɨɜɆɊɢɱɱɢɢɀȻȾɸɝɚɥɶɞɚ>@Ɉɛɚ
ɚɜɬɨɪɚɧɟɛɵɥɢɡɧɚɬɨɤɚɦɢɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɚɚɨɤɢɬɚɣɫɤɨɣɦɭɡɵɤɟɨɬ
ɫɬɢɹ²ɐɢɧɚɰɟɧɬɪɚɥɢɡɨɜɚɧɧɚɹɜɥɚɫɬɶɜɫɟɛɨɥɶɲɟɭɤɪɟɩɥɹɥɚɫɶ
 ɘɉɆɟɞɜɟɞɟɜɚ

ɡɵɜɚɥɢɫɶɩɪɟɧɟɛɪɟɠɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɌɚɤɀȻȾɸɝɚɥɶɞɨɩɢɫɵɜɚɟɬɟɟɤɚɤ©ɧɚɫɬɨɥɶ
ɤɨɧɟɫɨɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɭɸɱɬɨɨɧɚɜɪɹɞɥɢɡɚɫɥɭɠɢɜɚɟɬɢɦɹª>@
ȼɪɟɡɭɥɶɬɚɬɟɦɭɡɵɤɚ;9,,,ɜɟɤɚɜɨɬɥɢɱɢɟɨɬɞɪɭɝɢɯɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɨɛɪɚɳɚ
ɹɫɶɤɤɢɬɚɣɫɤɨɣɬɟɦɟɫɨɜɫɟɦɧɟɨɩɢɪɚɟɬɫɹɜɤɚɱɟɫɬɜɟɦɨɞɟɥɢɧɚɪɟɚɥɶɧɵɟɨɛ
ɪɚɡɰɵɢɡɉɨɞɧɟɛɟɫɧɨɣɇɚɨɛɨɪɨɬɨɩɟɪɵ;9,,,ɜɟɤɚɞɟɦɨɧɫɬɪɢɪɭɸɬɩɨɥɧɨɟ
ɧɟɡɧɚɧɢɟɚɜɬɨɪɚɦɢɪɟɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɩɨɥɨɠɟɧɢɹɞɟɥɜɤɢɬɚɣɫɤɨɦɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɦɢɫ
ɤɭɫɫɬɜɟȼ©ɄɢɬɚɹɧɤɚɯªȽɥɸɤɚɜɟɪɧɭɜɲɢɣɫɹɢɡȿɜɪɨɩɵɋɢɥɚɧɝɨɩɪɟɞɥɚɝɚɟɬ
ɞɟɜɭɲɤɚɦɞɥɹɪɚɡɜɥɟɱɟɧɢɹɧɟɛɵɜɚɥɨɟɩɨɫɬɚɜɢɬɶɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɣɫɩɟɤɬɚɤɥɶ
Ɉɧɩɪɟɩɨɞɧɨɫɢɬɷɬɨɤɚɤɧɟɱɬɨɧɟɡɧɚɤɨɦɨɟɞɥɹɤɢɬɚɹɧɨɤɭɬɜɟɪɠɞɚɹɱɬɨ©ɷɬɨ
ɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɨɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɨɬɨɥɶɤɨɜɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɢɯɫɬɪɚɧɚɯªɈɱɟɜɢɞɧɨɱɬɨ
ȽɥɸɤɢɆɟɬɚɫɬɚɡɢɨɧɟɡɧɚɸɬɨɧɚɥɢɱɢɢɜɄɢɬɚɟɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɣɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɬɟ
ɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɨɣɬɪɚɞɢɰɢɢɯɨɬɹɤɢɬɚɣɫɤɚɹɨɩɟɪɚɤɭɧɶɰɸɣɧɚɱɢɧɚɟɬɫɜɨɟɮɨɪɦɢɪɨ
ɜɚɧɢɟɟɳɟɜ;,9ɜ>@ɍȽɥɸɤɚɢɆɟɬɚɫɬɚɡɢɨɩɪɢɨɛɳɟɧɢɟɤɢɬɚɹɧɨɤɤ
ɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɦɭɬɟɚɬɪɭɨɡɧɚɱɚɟɬɨɫɜɨɟɧɢɟɢɦɢɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɢɯɠɚɧɪɨɜɩɟɪɫɨɧɚ
ɠɚɦɢɩɨɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶɧɨɢɫɩɨɥɧɹɸɬɫɹɬɪɚɝɟɞɢɹ ɨɩɟɪɚVHULD ɩɚɫɬɨɪɚɥɶɤɨɦɟ
ɞɢɹ ɨɩɟɪɚEX൵D ɢɛɚɥɟɬɉɪɢɱɭɞɥɢɜɚɹɢɝɪɚɬɟɚɬɪɚɥɶɧɵɦɢɫɬɢɥɹɦɢɜɟɞɟɬɫɹ
ɜɨɩɟɪɟɢɫɤɥɸɱɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɧɚɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɦɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɟ
Ɇɭɡɵɤɚɤɜɚɡɢɤɢɬɚɣɫɤɢɯɫɰɟɧɰɟɥɢɤɨɦɛɚɡɢɪɭɟɬɫɹɧɚɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɣɬɪɚɞɢ
ɰɢɢȼɮɢɧɚɥɚɯɧɟɪɟɞɤɨɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɸɬɫɹɬɚɧɰɟɜɚɥɶɧɵɟɠɚɧɪɵɜɟɫɶɦɚɞɚɥɟɤɢɟ
ɧɟɬɨɥɶɤɨɨɬɄɢɬɚɹɧɨɢɨɬɫɮɟɪɵɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɣɷɤɡɨɬɢɤɢȿɫɥɢɜ©Ʉɨɪɨɥɟɜɟ
ɮɟɣªɉɟɪɫɟɥɥɚɤɢɬɚɣɰɵɬɚɧɰɟɜɚɥɢɱɚɤɨɧɭɬɨ©ɄɢɬɚɹɧɤɚɯªȽɥɸɤɚɡɜɭɱɢɬɩɨ
ɥɨɧɟɡ²ɬɚɧɟɰɞɥɹɁɚɩɚɞɧɨɣȿɜɪɨɩɵɯɨɬɹɢɧɟɪɨɞɧɨɣɧɨɜɨɜɫɟɧɟɤɢɬɚɣɫɤɢɣ
ɢɞɚɠɟɧɟɨɪɢɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɵɣ
ȼɨɤɚɥɶɧɵɟɧɨɦɟɪɚɬɚɤɠɟɞɟɦɨɧɫɬɪɢɪɭɸɬɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɢɣɫɬɢɥɶȼ©Ɍɟɣ
ɰɨɧɟªȼɢɜɚɥɶɞɢɚɪɢɢɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɠɟɣɬɟɫɧɨɫɜɹɡɚɧɵɫɨɩɟɪɧɨɣɫɢɫɬɟɦɨɣɚɮ
ɮɟɤɬɨɜ ɚɪɢɹɋɢɜɟɧɢɨɢɡɫɰɞ²ɦɟɫɬɶɚɪɢɨɡɨɌɟɣɰɨɧɚɢɡɫɰɟɧɵɞ
²ɫɤɨɪɛɶɢɬɞ ȼɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɯɫɥɭɱɚɹɯ©ɤɢɬɚɣɫɤɨɟªɜɦɭɡɵɤɟɩɪɢɨɛɪɟɬɚɟɬ
ɱɟɪɬɵɫɬɢɥɢɫɬɢɤɢɪɨɤɨɤɨɈɳɭɬɢɦɵɨɧɢɢɜɩɚɫɬɨɪɚɥɶɧɵɯɷɩɢɡɨɞɚɯ©Ʉɢɬɚ
ɹɧɨɤªȽɥɸɤɚ ɚɪɢɢɋɢɥɚɧɝɨɢɋɢɜɟɧɵ ɢɜɦɭɡɵɤɟɨɩɟɪɵɏɚɫɫɟ©Ʉɢɬɚɣɫɤɢɣ
ɝɟɪɨɣªɍɜɟɪɬɸɪɚɤɧɟɣɫɢɡɹɳɧɵɦɢɬɪɟɥɹɦɢɨɛɢɥɢɟɦɭɤɪɚɲɟɧɢɣɫɬɚɤɤɚ
ɬɨɜɨɫɯɨɞɹɳɢɦɢɡɚɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɹɦɢ²ɬɢɩɢɱɧɵɣɨɛɪɚɡɟɰ©ɝɚɥɚɧɬɧɨɝɨɫɬɢɥɹªɇɨ
ɟɫɥɢɜɞɟɤɨɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɩɪɢɤɥɚɞɧɨɦɢɫɤɭɫɫɬɜɟ;9,,,ɜɲɢɧɭɚɡɪɢɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɸɬ
ɤɚɤɨɞɧɨɢɡɩɪɨɹɜɥɟɧɢɣɫɬɢɥɹɪɨɤɨɤɨɬɨɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɚɹ©ɤɢɬɚɣɳɢɧɚªɜɨɜɫɟɧɟ
ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢɜɚɟɬɫɹɪɨɤɚɣɥɶɧɨɣɫɬɢɥɢɫɬɢɤɨɣɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɢɜɚɹɫɜɹɡɢɤɚɤɫɛɚɪɨɤɤɨ
ɭɉɟɪɫɟɥɥɚɊɚɦɨȼɢɜɚɥɶɞɢ ɬɚɤɢɫɪɨɠɞɚɸɳɢɦɫɹɤɥɚɫɫɢɰɢɡɦɨɦȼ©Ʉɢ
ɬɚɣɫɤɨɦɝɟɪɨɟªɏɚɫɫɟɬɪɚɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɣɫɸɠɟɬɬɪɚɤɬɨɜɚɧɜɦɭɡɵɤɟɫɜɟɬɥɨɢɨɩɬɢ
ɦɢɫɬɢɱɧɨȽɟɪɨɣɠɟɪɬɜɭɹɫɜɨɢɦɫɵɧɨɦɞɥɹɫɩɚɫɟɧɢɹɧɚɫɥɟɞɧɢɤɚɩɪɟɫɬɨɥɚ
ɩɨɫɬɭɩɚɟɬ©ɤɚɤɞɨɥɠɧɨªɈɬɫɸɞɚɜɦɭɡɵɤɟɤɥɚɫɫɢɰɢɫɬɫɤɚɹɹɫɧɨɫɬɶɢɥɨɝɢ
ɱɟɫɤɚɹɪɚɫɱɥɟɧɟɧɧɨɫɬɶȺɜ©ɄɢɬɚɹɧɤɚɯªȽɥɸɤɚɭɜɟɪɬɸɪɚɫɟɟɝɚɦɦɨɨɛɪɚɡ
ɧɵɦɢɩɚɫɫɚɠɚɦɢɢɢɡɹɳɧɵɦɢɫɤɪɢɩɢɱɧɵɦɢɜɡɥɟɬɚɦɢɜɵɡɵɜɚɟɬɚɫɫɨɰɢɚɰɢɢ
ɫɛɭɞɭɳɢɦɦɨɰɚɪɬɨɜɫɤɢɦɫɢɦɮɨɧɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɫɬɢɥɟɦ
&KLQRLVHULHɜɡɚɩɚɞɧɨɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɨɣɨɩɟɪɟ;9,,,ɜɟɤɚ 
ȿɞɢɧɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣɧɸɚɧɫɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɳɢɣɧɚɫɨɛɫɬɜɟɧɧɨɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɵɟɩɪɢ
ɡɧɚɤɢɲɢɧɭɚɡɪɢɜɛɨɥɶɲɢɧɫɬɜɟɨɩɟɪ²ɷɬɨ©ɷɤɡɨɬɢɱɟɫɤɚɹªɨɪɤɟɫɬɪɨɜɤɚɇɚ
ɩɟɪɜɵɣɩɥɚɧɜɧɟɣɜɵɯɨɞɹɬɭɞɚɪɧɵɟɢɧɫɬɪɭɦɟɧɬɵɌɚɤɜɮɢɧɚɥɶɧɨɦɯɨɪɟɨɩɟ
ɪɵɏɚɫɫɟɫɨɥɢɪɭɸɬɛɭɛɟɧɢɛɚɪɚɛɚɧɜɭɜɟɪɬɸɪɟ²ɬɪɟɭɝɨɥɶɧɢɤɢɬɪɟɳɨɬɤɢ
ȼɨɬɡɵɜɟɧɚɩɟɪɜɨɟɢɫɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟ©ɄɢɬɚɹɧɨɤªȽɥɸɤɚɄȾɢɬɬɟɪɫɞɨɪɮɨɬɦɟɱɚɟɬ
ɡɜɭɱɚɧɢɟɤɨɥɨɤɨɥɶɱɢɤɨɜɬɪɟɭɝɨɥɶɧɢɤɨɜɦɚɥɟɧɶɤɢɯɪɭɱɧɵɯɛɚɪɚɛɚɧɱɢɤɨɜɢɡ
ɞɚɜɚɜɲɢɯɩɪɢɱɭɞɥɢɜɵɣɡɜɨɧ>@ɂɧɬɟɪɟɫɧɨɱɬɨɧɚɰɢɨɧɚɥɶɧɵɣɤɨɥɨɪɢɬɜ
ɞɚɧɧɨɦɫɥɭɱɚɟɨɤɚɡɵɜɚɟɬɫɹɧɚɫɬɨɥɶɤɨɨɛɨɛɳɟɧɧɨɷɤɡɨɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɦɱɬɨɚɫɫɨɰɢɢ
ɪɭɟɬɫɹɫɨɫɬɢɥɟɦDOODWXUFDɎɢɧɚɥ©ɄɢɬɚɹɧɨɤªȽɥɸɤɚɧɚɩɨɦɢɧɚɟɬ©Ɍɭɪɟɰɤɨɟ
ɪɨɧɞɨªɆɨɰɚɪɬɚɬɨɠɟɨɫɬɢɧɚɬɨɫɝɪɭɡɧɵɦɢɛɚɫɚɦɢɢɞɨɥɶɧɚɹɩɪɚɡɞɧɢɱɧɚɹ
ɦɚɪɲɟɜɨɫɬɶɄɚɤɭɤɚɡɵɜɚɸɬɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɢɢɡɜɫɟɯɫɮɟɪɷɤɡɨɬɢɱɟɫɤɨɣɨɪɢ
ɟɧɬɚɥɶɧɨɣɦɭɡɵɤɢɬɭɪɟɰɤɚɹɛɵɥɚɧɚɢɛɨɥɟɟɢɡɜɟɫɬɧɚɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɰɚɦɅȼɄɢ
ɪɢɥɥɢɧɚɩɢɲɟɬ©ɏɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɚɥɸɛɵɯ³ɜɚɪɜɚɪɨɜ´ɩɪɢɩɨɦɨɳɢ³ɹɧɵɱɚɪ
ɫɤɨɣɦɭɡɵɤɢ´ɫɬɚɥɚɜɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɦɬɟɚɬɪɟ;9,,,ɜɟɤɚɩɨɱɬɢɧɨɪɦɨɣª>@
Ɍɟɦɫɚɦɵɦɬɭɪɟɰɤɢɟɨɪɤɟɫɬɪɵɩɚɪɚɞɨɤɫɚɥɶɧɵɦɨɛɪɚɡɨɦɜɧɟɫɥɢɫɜɨɣɜɤɥɚɞ
ɜɮɨɪɦɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɲɢɧɭɚɡɪɢȼɬɨɠɟɜɪɟɦɹɤɢɬɚɣɫɤɢɟɨɛɪɚɡɵɢ
ɫɸɠɟɬɵɫɬɚɥɢɞɥɹɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɫɤɢɯɤɨɦɩɨɡɢɬɨɪɨɜɫɬɢɦɭɥɨɦɤɪɚɫɲɢɪɟɧɢɸɦɭɡɵ
ɤɚɥɶɧɨɫɬɢɥɢɫɬɢɱɟɫɤɢɯɫɪɟɞɫɬɜɇɚɫɬɨɹɳɟɟɠɟɨɫɜɨɟɧɢɟɦɭɡɵɤɢɄɢɬɚɹɫɨ
ɡɞɚɧɢɟ©ɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɝɨɒɟɥɤɨɜɨɝɨɩɭɬɢªɫɬɚɥɨɞɥɹɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɰɟɜɞɟɥɨɦɞɚɥɟ
ɤɨɝɨɛɭɞɭɳɟɝɨ>@
Ʉɚɤɜɢɞɢɦɜɨɬɥɢɱɢɟɨɬɚɪɯɢɬɟɤɬɭɪɵɢɞɟɤɨɪɚɬɢɜɧɨɩɪɢɤɥɚɞɧɨɝɨɢɫɤɭɫ
ɫɬɜɚɲɢɧɭɚɡɪɢɨɩɢɪɚɜɲɢɯɫɹɧɚɞɟɣɫɬɜɢɬɟɥɶɧɨɫɭɳɟɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɟɧɚɫɥɟɞɢɟɉɨɞ
ɧɟɛɟɫɧɨɣɨɩɟɪɚɫɨɡɞɚɜɚɥɚɫɜɨɟɨɛɪɚɡɧɵɣ©ɦɢɮɨɄɢɬɚɟªɂɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɹɜɧɟɲɧɢɣ
ɭɫɥɨɜɧɨɤɢɬɚɣɫɤɢɣɚɧɬɭɪɚɠɢɥɢɲɶɢɡɪɟɞɤɚɩɪɢɤɚɫɚɹɫɶɤɪɟɚɥɶɧɵɦɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟ
ɫɤɢɦɮɢɝɭɪɚɦɢɫɸɠɟɬɚɦɨɩɟɪɚɫɨɜɫɟɦɧɟɫɬɪɟɦɢɥɚɫɶɤɞɨɫɬɨɜɟɪɧɨɫɬɢɜɦɭ
ɡɵɤɟɄɧɟɣɜɩɨɥɧɨɣɦɟɪɟɩɪɢɦɟɧɢɦɵɫɥɨɜɚɦɉɭɲɤɢɧɚ©ɟɜɪɨɩɟɟɰɢɜɭɩɨ
ɟɧɢɢɜɨɫɬɨɱɧɨɣɪɨɫɤɨɲɢɫɨɯɪɚɧɹɟɬɜɤɭɫɢɜɡɨɪɟɜɪɨɩɟɣɰɚª
Ɉɩɟɪɧɨɟɲɢɧɭɚɡɪɢɫɥɭɠɢɥɨɨɫɦɵɫɥɟɧɢɸɮɢɥɨɫɨɮɫɤɢɯɢɫɨɰɢɚɥɶɧɵɯ
ɩɪɨɛɥɟɦɁɚɩɚɞɚɢɩɨɦɨɝɚɥɨɪɟɲɟɧɢɸɯɭɞɨɠɟɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯɡɚɞɚɱɚɤɬɭɚɥɶɧɵɯɞɥɹ
;9,,,ɫɬɨɥɟɬɢɹ
Ʌา฼ฯฺส฼฽ฺส
 ȻɭɞɚɟɜɚɌȻɂɫɬɨɤɢɩɟɤɢɧɫɤɨɣɨɩɟɪɵɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɚɹɞɪɚɦɚɤɭɧɶɰɸɣɈɛɳɟɫɬɜɨɢ
ɝɨɫɭɞɚɪɫɬɜɨɜɄɢɬɚɟɌʋɋ±
ȽɭɞɢɦɨɜɚɋȺɄɢɬɚɣɫɤɢɟɦɨɬɢɜɵɪɨɤɨɤɨȼɟɫɬɧɢɤɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɨɥɨɝɢɢʋɋ
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 ɄɢɪɢɥɥɢɧɚɅȼɌɭɪɟɰɤɚɹɬɟɦɚɬɢɤɚɜɬɜɨɪɱɟɫɬɜɟɆɨɰɚɪɬɚɇɚɭɱɧɵɣɜɟɫɬɧɢɤɆɨ
ɫɤɨɜɫɤɨɣɤɨɧɫɟɪɜɚɬɨɪɢɢʋɋ±
 ɇɟɝɥɢɧɫɤɚɹɆȺɒɢɧɭɚɡɪɢɤɚɤɮɚɤɬɨɪɦɟɠɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɧɨɝɨɞɢɚɥɨɝɚɌɪɭɞɵɂɧɫɬɢ
ɬɭɬɚɜɨɫɬɨɤɨɜɟɞɟɧɢɹɊȺɇʋɋ±
 ɋɚɢɞɗȼɈɪɢɟɧɬɚɥɢɡɦɁɚɩɚɞɧɵɟɤɨɧɰɟɩɰɢɢȼɨɫɬɨɤɚɋɉɛɊɭɫɫɤɢɣɆLɪɴ
 ɋɵɦɚɐɹɧɶɂɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɡɚɩɢɫɤɢ ɒɢɰɡɢ ɑɠɚɨɲɢɰɡɹ²ɧɚɫɥɟɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɣ
ɞɨɦɤɧɹɠɟɫɬɜɚɑɠɚɨ>ɗɥɟɤɬɪɨɧɧɵɣɪɟɫɭɪɫ@ȼɨɫɬɨɱɧɚɹɥɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɚɋɪɟɞɧɟɜɟ
ɤɨɜɵɟɢɫɬɨɪɢɱɟɫɤɢɟɢɫɬɨɱɧɢɤɢȼɨɫɬɨɤɚɢɁɚɩɚɞɚ85/KWWSZZZYRVWOLWLQIR
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əɛɢɧɈɛɡɨɪɤɢɬɚɣɫɤɨɣɦɭɡɵɤɢɜȿɜɪɨɩɟ;9,,,ɜɄɢɬɚɣɫɤɨɟɦɭɡɵɤɨɡɧɚɧɢɟ
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ࡈ俘ᆷ Ϝц㓚ѝഭ丣Ҁ᮷ॆ൘⌅ഭⲴՐ᫝⹄ウª  䶂ᒤ᮷ᆖᇦᒤㅜ
ᵏ亥Ʌɸɋɢɧɶɸɂɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɧɢɟɪɚɫɩɪɨɫɬɪɚɧɟɧɢɹɤɢɬɚɣɫɤɨɣɦɭɡɵɤɚɥɶɧɨɣ
ɤɭɥɶɬɭɪɵɜɨɎɪɚɧɰɢɢɜ;9,,,ɜɟɤɟɆɨɥɨɞɨɣɢɫɫɥɟɞɨɜɚɬɟɥɶʋɋ±
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Ⱥɧɧɨɬɚɰɢɹȼɰɟɧɬɪɟɜɧɢɦɚɧɢɹɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɫɹɧɟɡɚɜɟɪɲɟɧɧɵɣɡɢɧɝɲɩɢɥɶȼɨɥɶɮ
ɝɚɧɝɚȺɦɚɞɟɹɆɨɰɚɪɬɚ©Ɂɚɢɞɚª.9 E ɪɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɟɦɵɣɜɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɟ
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Ɉɛɫɭɠɞɚɹɨɛɲɢɪɧɵɣɫɩɟɤɬɪɦɚɬɟɪɢɚɥɨɜɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɧɵɯɜɫɨɛɪɚɧɢɹɯɪɚɡɥɢɱ
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ɜɨɜɡɚɢɦɨɫɜɹɡɢɫɤɨɧɬɟɤɫɬɨɦɢɯɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɧɚɩɪɢɦɟɪɱɚɫɬɧɨɣɤɨɥɥɟɤɰɢɟɣɜɤɨɬɨɪɨɣɮɪɚɝ
ɦɟɧɬɵɛɵɥɢɨɛɧɚɪɭɠɟɧɵɩɟɱɚɬɧɵɦɢɡɞɚɧɢɟɦɨɛɥɨɠɤɨɣɤɨɬɨɪɨɝɨɨɧɢɫɥɭɠɢɥɢ ɫɦ